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Sample records for gold based solder

  1. Development of gold based solder candidates for flip chip assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Flip chip technology is now rapidly replacing the traditional wire bonding interconnection technology in the first level packaging applications due to the miniaturization drive in the microelectronics industry. Flip chip assembly currently involves the use of high lead containing solders...

  2. Effects of soldering methods on tensile strength of a gold-palladium metal ceramic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadhanfari, Husain A; Khajah, Hasan M; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeongil

    2014-10-01

    The tensile strength obtained by conventional postceramic application soldering and laser postceramic welding may require more energy than microwave postceramic soldering, which could provide similar tensile strength values. The purpose of the study was to compare the tensile strength obtained by microwave postceramic soldering, conventional postceramic soldering, and laser postceramic welding. A gold-palladium metal ceramic alloy and gold-based solder were used in this study. Twenty-seven wax specimens were cast in gold-palladium noble metal and divided into 4 groups: laser welding with a specific postfiller noble metal, microwave soldering with a postceramic solder, conventional soldering with the same postceramic solder used in the microwave soldering group, and a nonsectioned control group. All the specimens were heat treated to simulate a normal porcelain sintering sequence. An Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to measure the tensile strength for the 4 groups. The means were analyzed statistically with 1-way ANOVA. The surface and fracture sites of the specimens were subjectively evaluated for fracture type and porosities by using a scanning electron microscope. The mean (standard deviation) ultimate tensile strength values were as follows: nonsectioned control 818 ±30 MPa, microwave 516 ±34 MPa, conventional 454 ±37 MPa, and laser weld 191 ±39 MPa. A 1-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in ultimate tensile strength among the groups (F3,23=334.5; Ptensile strength for gold and palladium noble metals than either conventional soldering or laser welding. Conventional soldering resulted in a higher tensile strength than laser welding. Under the experimental conditions described, either microwave or conventional postceramic soldering would appear to satisfy clinical requirements related to tensile strength. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of rework on adhesion of Pb-In soldered gold thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehman, R.W.; Becka, G.A.; Losure, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    The feasibility of repeatedly reworking Pb-In soldered joints on gold thick films was evaluated. Nailhead adhesion tests on soldered thick films typically resulted in failure within the bulk solder (50 In-50 Pb). Average strengths increased with each rework, and the failure mode changed. An increase in metalization lift-off occurred with successive reworks. An investigation was initiated to determine why these changes occurred. Based on this work, the thick film adhesion to the substrate appeared to be lowered by indium reduction of cadmium oxide and by formation of a weak, brittle intermetallic compound, Au 9 In 4 . It was concluded that two solder reworks could be conducted without significant amounts of metallization lift-off during nailhead testing

  4. Solderability study of RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yifei; Duckworth, Robert C.; Ha, Tam T.; Gouge, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Study examines the implication of solder and flux selection in YBCO splice joints. Focus is on commercially available RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors. Solderability varied with solder and flux for three different stabilizations tested. Resistivity of stabilizer was dominant factor in splice joint resistance. Solder materials affected splice joint resistance when solderability was poor. The solderability of commercially available YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) coated conductors that were made from Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS)-based templates was studied. The coated conductors, also known as second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires (in the geometry of flat tapes about 4 mm wide), were laminated with copper, brass, or stainless steel strips as stabilizers. To understand the factors that influence their solderability, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the wire surfaces. The solderability of three solders, 52In48Sn, 67Bi33In, and 100In (wt.%), was evaluated using a standard test (IPC/ECA J-STD-002) and with two different commercial fluxes. It was found that the solderability varied with the solder and flux but the three different wires showed similar solderability for a fixed combination of solder and flux. Solder joints of the 2G wires were fabricated using the tools and the procedures recommended by the HTS wire manufacturer. The solder joints were made in a lap-joint geometry and with the superconducting sides of the two wires face-to-face. The electrical resistances of the solder joints were measured at 77 K, and the results were analyzed to qualify the soldering materials and evaluate the soldering process. It was concluded that although the selection of soldering materials affected the resistance of a solder joint, the resistivity of the stabilizer was the dominant factor.

  5. Dissolution ad uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, B.; Bergman, M.; Soeremark, R.

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium ( 115 Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of 115 Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver. (author)

  6. Nanoscale Soldering of Positioned Carbon Nanotubes using Highly Conductive Electron Beam Induced Gold Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Mølhave, Kristian; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ method for controlled positioning of carbon nanotubes followed by highly conductive contacting of the nanotubes, using electron beam assisted deposition of gold. The positioning and soldering process takes place inside an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E...... in a carbon matrix. Nanoscale soldering of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) onto microelectrodes was achieved by deposition of a conducting gold line across a contact point between nanotube and electrode. The solderings were found to be mechanically stronger than the carbon nanotubes. We have positioned...... MWNTs to bridge the gap between two electrodes, and formed soldering bonds between the tube and each of the electrodes. All nanotube bridges showed ohmic resistances in the range 10-30 kΩ. We observed no increase in resistance after exposing the MWNT bridge to air for days....

  7. In-vitro Investigations of Skin Closure using Diode Laser and Protein Solder Containing Gold Nanoshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Nourbakhsh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laser tissue soldering is a new technique for repair of various tissues including the skin, liver, articular cartilage and nerves and is a promising alternative to suture. To overcome the problems of thermal damage to surrounding tissues and low laser penetration depth, some exogenous chromophores such as gold nanoshells, a new class of nanoparticles consisting of a dielectric core surrounded by a thin metal shell, are used. The aims of this study were to use two different concentrations of gold nanoshells as the exogenous material for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effects of laser soldering parameters on the properties of the repaired skin. Material and Methods: Two mixtures of albumin solder and different concentrations of gold nanoshells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2×20 mm2 was made on the surface and after placing 50 μl of the solder mixture on the incision, an 810 nm diode laser was used to irradiate it at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength, σt, due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns, and scan velocity (Vs were investigated. Results: The results showed that the tensile strength of the repaired skin increased with increasing irradiance for both gold nanoshell concentrations. In addition, at constant laser irradiance (I, the tensile strength of the repaired incision increased with increasing Ns and decreasing Vs. In our case, this corresponded to st = 1610 g/cm2 at I ~ 60 Wcm-2, T ~ 65ºC, Ns = 10 and Vs = 0.2 mms-1. Discussion and Conclusion: Gold nanoshells can be used as an indocyanine green dye (ICG alterative for laser tissue soldering.  Although by increasing the laser power density, the tensile strength of the repaired skin increases, an optimum power density must be considered due to the resulting increase in tissue temperature.

  8. Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium alloys widely distributed in industry: VN3, VN4, VN5A, VN5AE, VN5AEP etc., 0.6-1.2 mm thick are investigated. It is found out that the usage of zirconium-vanadium, titanium-tantalum solders for welding niobium base alloys permits to obtain soldered joints with satisfactory mechanical properties at elevated temperatures

  9. Dissolution and uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, B; Bergman, M; Soeremark, R [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium (/sup 115/Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of /sup 115/Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver.

  10. In-vitro investigations of skin closure using diode laser and protein solder containing gold nano shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, M. S.; Etrati Khosroshahi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Laser tissue soldering is a new technique for repair of various tissues including the skin, liver, articular cartilage and nerves and is a promising alternative to suture. To overcome the problems of thermal damage to surrounding tissues and low laser penetration depth, some exogenous chromophores such as gold nano shells, a new class of nanoparticles consisting of a dielectric core surrounded by a thin metal shell, are used. The aims of this study were to use two different concentrations of gold nano shells as the exogenous material for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effects of laser soldering parameters on the properties of the repaired skin. Material and Methods: Two mixtures of albumin solder and different concentrations of gold nano shells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2*20 mm 2 was made on the surface and after placing 50 μ1 of the solder mixture on the incision, an 810 nm diode laser was used to irradiate it at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength, σt, due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns), and scan velocity (Vs) were investigated. Results: The results showed that the tensile strength of the repaired skin increased with increasing irradiance for both gold nano shell concentrations. In addition, at constant laser irradiance (I), the tensile strength of the repaired incision increased with increasing Ns and decreasing Vs. In our case, this corresponded to σt = 1610 g/cm 2 at I ∼ 60 W cm-2, T ∼ 65 d egree C , Ns = 10 and Vs = 0.2 mms-1. Discussion and Conclusion: Gold nano shells can be used as an indocyanine green dye alterative for laser tissue soldering. Although by increasing the laser power density, the tensile strength of the repaired skin increases, an optimum power density must be considered due to the resulting increase in tissue temperature.

  11. Drinking Water Contamination Due To Lead-based Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, N.; Bartelt, E.; Cuff, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of lead in drinking water creates many health hazards. Exposure to lead-contaminated water can affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys, causing such problems as mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. One way in which lead can contaminate our water supply is through the use of lead solder to join pipes. Lead solder was widely used in the past because of its ease of application as well as its low cost. Lead contamination in residential areas has previously been found to be a particularly serious problem in first-draw samples, of water that has sat stagnant in pipes overnight. To investigate the time-dependence of drinking water lead contamination, we analyzed samples taken hourly of water exposed to lead solder. While our preliminary data was insufficient to show more than a rough correlation between time of exposure and lead concentration over short periods (1-3 hours), we were able to confirm that overnight exposure of water to lead-based solder results in the presence high levels of lead. We also investigated other, external factors that previous research has indicated contribute to increased concentrations of lead. Our analysis of samples of lead-exposed water at various pH and temperatures suggests that these factors can be equally significant in terms of their contribution to elevated lead concentration levels. In particular, water that is slightly corrosive appears to severely impact the solubility of lead. As this type of water is common in much of the Northeast United States, the presence of lead-based solder in residential areas there is especially problematic. Although lead-based solder has been banned since the 1980s, it remains a serious concern, and a practical solution still requires further research.

  12. Effects of Metallic Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Tin-Based Solders for Microelectronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Arafat, M. M.; Tay, S. L.; Leong, Y. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tin (Sn)-based solders have established themselves as the main alternative to the traditional lead (Pb)-based solders in many applications. However, the reliability of the Sn-based solders continues to be a concern. In order to make Sn-based solders microstructurally more stable and hence more reliable, researchers are showing great interest in investigating the effects of the incorporation of different nanoparticles into them. This paper gives an overview of the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the characteristics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Sn-based solder joints on copper substrates during reflow and thermal aging. Nanocomposite solders were prepared by mechanically blending nanoparticles of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti) with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder pastes. The composite solders were then reflowed and their wetting characteristics and interfacial microstructural evolution were investigated. Through the paste mixing route, Ni, Co, Zn and Mo nanoparticles alter the morphology and thickness of the IMCs in beneficial ways for the performance of solder joints. The thickness of Cu3Sn IMC is decreased with the addition of Ni, Co and Zn nanoparticles. The thickness of total IMC layer is decreased with the addition of Zn and Mo nanoparticles in the solder. The metallic nanoparticles can be divided into two groups. Ni, Co, and Zn nanoparticles undergo reactive dissolution during solder reflow, causing in situ alloying and therefore offering an alternative route of alloy additions to solders. Mo nanoparticles remain intact during reflow and impart their influence as discrete particles. Mechanisms of interactions between different types of metallic nanoparticles and solder are discussed.

  13. Research on Defects Inspection of Solder Balls Based on Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve tiny defect detection for solder balls in high-density flip-chip, this paper proposed feasibility study on the effect of detectability as well as classification based on eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT. Specifically, numerical analysis of 3D finite element inductive heat model is generated to investigate disturbance on the temperature field for different kind of defects such as cracks, voids, etc. The temperature variation between defective and non-defective solder balls is monitored for defects identification and classification. Finally, experimental study is carried on the diameter 1mm tiny solder balls by using ECPT and verify the efficacy of the technique.

  14. The Effect of Gap Angle on Tensile Strength of Preceramic Base Metal Solder Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Hashemi Ardakani, Zahra; Hashemi Ardakani, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    Soldering is a process commonly used in fabricating dental prosthesis. Since most soldered prosthesis fail at the solder joints; the joint strength is of utmost importance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap angle on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. A total number of 40 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated according to ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test. Samples were cut at the midpoint of the bar, and were placed at the considered angles by employing an explicitly designed device. They were divided into 4 groups regarding the gap angle; Group C (control group) with parallel gap on steady distance of 0.2mm, Group 1: 10°, Group 2: 20°, and Group3: 30° gap angles. When soldered, the specimens were all tested for tensile strength using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min with a preload of 10N. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare tensile strength among the groups (ptensile strength values obtained from the study groups were respectively 307.84, 391.50, 365.18, and 368.86 MPa. The tensile strength was not statistically different among the four groups in general (p≤ 0.490). Making the gap angular at the solder joints and the subsequent unsteady increase of the gap distance would not change the tensile strength of the joint.

  15. Effect of gap distance on tensile strength of preceramic base metal solder joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Motamedi, Milad

    2011-01-01

    In order to fabricate prostheses with high accuracy and durability, soldering techniques have been introduced to clinical dentistry. However, these prostheses always fail at their solder joints. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap distance on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. Based on ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test, 40 specimens were fabricated from a Ni-Cr alloy and cut at the midpoint of 3-mm diameter bar and placed at desired positions by a specially designed device. The specimens were divided into four groups of 10 samples according to the desired solder gap distance: Group1: 0.1mm; Group2: 0.25mm; Group3: 0.5mm; and Group4: 0.75mm. After soldering, specimens were tested for tensile strength by a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5mm/min with a preload of 10N. The mean tensile strength values of the groups were 162, 307.8, 206.1 and 336.7 MPa, respectively. The group with 0.75-mm gap had the highest and the group with 0.1-mm gap had the lowest tensile strength. Bonferroni test showed that Group1 and Group4 had statistically different values (P=0.023), but the differences between other groups were not sig-nificant at a significance level of 0.05. There was no direct relationship between increasing soldering gap distance and tensile strength of the solder joints.

  16. Soldering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vianco, Paul T

    1999-01-01

    Contains information related to soldering processes, and solder joint performance and reliability. Covers soldering fundamentals, technology, materials, substrate materials, fluxes, pastes, assembly processes, inspection, and environment. Covers today's advanced joining applications and emphasizes new materials, including higher strength alloys; predictive performance; computer modeling; advanced inspection techniques; new processing concepts, including laser heating; and the resurgence in ultrasonic soldering.

  17. Au-Ge based Candidate Alloys for High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure and microhard......Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure...... was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The distribution of phases played a relatively more crucial role in determining the ductility of the bulk solder alloy. In the present work it was found that among the low melting point metals, the addition of Sb to the Au-Ge eutectic would...

  18. Complications with computer-aided designed/computer-assisted manufactured titanium and soldered gold bars for mandibular implant-overdentures: short-term observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulis, Joannis; Wälchli, Julia; Kobel, Simone; Gholami, Hadi; Mericske-Stern, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Implant-overdentures supported by rigid bars provide stability in the edentulous atrophic mandible. However, fractures of solder joints and matrices, and loosening of screws and matrices were observed with soldered gold bars (G-bars). Computer-aided designed/computer-assisted manufactured (CAD/CAM) titanium bars (Ti-bars) may reduce technical complications due to enhanced material quality. To compare prosthetic-technical maintenance service of mandibular implant-overdentures supported by CAD/CAM Ti-bar and soldered G-bar. Edentulous patients were consecutively admitted for implant-prosthodontic treatment with a maxillary complete denture and a mandibular implant-overdenture connected to a rigid G-bar or Ti-bar. Maintenance service and problems with the implant-retention device complex and the prosthesis were recorded during minimally 3-4 years. Annual peri-implant crestal bone level changes (ΔBIC) were radiographically assessed. Data of 213 edentulous patients (mean age 68 ± 10 years), who had received a total of 477 tapered implants, were available. Ti-bar and G-bar comprised 101 and 112 patients with 231 and 246 implants, respectively. Ti-bar mostly exhibited distal bar extensions (96%) compared to 34% of G-bar (p overdentures supported by soldered gold bars or milled CAD/CAM Ti-bars are a successful treatment modality but require regular maintenance service. These short-term observations support the hypothesis that CAD/CAM Ti-bars reduce technical complications. Fracture location indicated that the titanium thickness around the screw-access hole should be increased. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A flip chip process based on electroplated solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, J.; Salmi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Compared to wire bonding and TAB, flip chip technology using solder joints offers the highest pin count and packaging density and superior electrical performance. The chips are mounted upside down on the substrate, which can be made of silicon, ceramic, glass or - in some cases - even PCB. The extra processing steps required for chips are the deposition of a suitable thin film metal layer(s) on the standard Al pad and the formation of bumps. Also, the development of new fine line substrate technologies is required to utilize the full potential of the technology. In our bumping process, bump deposition is done by electroplating, which was chosen for its simplicity and economy. Sputter deposited molybdenum and copper are used as thin film layers between the aluminum pads and the solder bumps. A reason for this choice is that the metals can be selectively etched after bumping using the bumps as a mask, thus circumventing the need for a separate mask for etching the thin film metals. The bumps are electroplated from a binary Pb-Sn bath using a thick liquid photoresist. An extensively modified commercial flip chip bonder is used for alignment and bonding. Heat assisted tack bonding is used to attach the chips to the substrate, and final reflow joining is done without flux in a vacuum furnace.

  20. Soldering of Nanotubes onto Microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Mølhave, Kristian; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2003-01-01

    Suspended bridges of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes were fabricated inside a scanning electron microscope by soldering the nanotube onto microelectrodes with highly conducting gold-carbon material. By the decomposition of organometallic vapor with the electron beam, metal-containing sold...... bonds were consistently found to be mechanically stronger than the carbon nanotubes.......Suspended bridges of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes were fabricated inside a scanning electron microscope by soldering the nanotube onto microelectrodes with highly conducting gold-carbon material. By the decomposition of organometallic vapor with the electron beam, metal-containing solder...... bonds were formed at the intersection of the nanotube and the electrodes. Current-voltage curves indicated metallic conduction of the nanotubes, with resistances in the range of 9-29 kOmega. Bridges made entirely of the soldering material exhibited resistances on the order of 100 Omega, and the solder...

  1. Microstructural discovery of Al addition on Sn–0.5Cu-based Pb-free solder design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Changsoo; Hong, Sung Jea; Kim, Keun-Soo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2015-01-01

    It is important to develop Pb-free solder alloys suitable for automotive use instead of traditional Sn–Pb solder due to environmental regulations (e.g., Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)). Al addition has been spotlighted to enhance solder properties. In this study, we investigated the microstructural change of Sn–0.5Cu wt.% based Pb-free solder alloys with Al addition (0.01–0.05 wt.%). The small amount of Al addition caused a remarkable microstructural change. The Al was favored to form Cu–Al intermetallic compounds inside the solder matrix. We identified the Cu–Al intermetallic compound as Cu_3_3Al_1_7, which has a rhombohedral structure, using EPMA and TEM analyses. This resulted in refined Cu_6Sn_5 networks in the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloy. In addition, we conducted thermal analysis to confirm its stability at a high temperature of approximately 230 °C, which is the necessary temperature range for automotive applications. The solidification results were substantiated thermodynamically using the Scheil solidification model. We can provide criteria for the minimum aluminum content to modify the microstructure of Pb-free solder alloys. - Graphical abstract: The minor Al additions refined eutectic Cu_6Sn_5 IMC networks on the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloys. The microstructure was dramatically changed with the minor Al addition. - Highlights: • We observed dramatic microstructure-change with Al additions. • We defined Cu_3_3Al_1_7 IMC with Al additions using TEM analysis. • We investigated grain refinement with Al additions using EBSD. • We discussed the refinement based on Scheil solidification model.

  2. Microstructural discovery of Al addition on Sn–0.5Cu-based Pb-free solder design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Changsoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Jea [MK Electron Co., Ltd., Yongin Cheoin-gu 316-2 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keun-Soo, E-mail: keunsookim@hoseo.edu [Department of Display Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyuck Mo, E-mail: hmlee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-25

    It is important to develop Pb-free solder alloys suitable for automotive use instead of traditional Sn–Pb solder due to environmental regulations (e.g., Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)). Al addition has been spotlighted to enhance solder properties. In this study, we investigated the microstructural change of Sn–0.5Cu wt.% based Pb-free solder alloys with Al addition (0.01–0.05 wt.%). The small amount of Al addition caused a remarkable microstructural change. The Al was favored to form Cu–Al intermetallic compounds inside the solder matrix. We identified the Cu–Al intermetallic compound as Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 17}, which has a rhombohedral structure, using EPMA and TEM analyses. This resulted in refined Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} networks in the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloy. In addition, we conducted thermal analysis to confirm its stability at a high temperature of approximately 230 °C, which is the necessary temperature range for automotive applications. The solidification results were substantiated thermodynamically using the Scheil solidification model. We can provide criteria for the minimum aluminum content to modify the microstructure of Pb-free solder alloys. - Graphical abstract: The minor Al additions refined eutectic Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC networks on the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloys. The microstructure was dramatically changed with the minor Al addition. - Highlights: • We observed dramatic microstructure-change with Al additions. • We defined Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 17} IMC with Al additions using TEM analysis. • We investigated grain refinement with Al additions using EBSD. • We discussed the refinement based on Scheil solidification model.

  3. Interfacial reaction of Sn-based solder joint in the package system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huandi

    In this thesis, I report a study on the effect of the solder size on intermetallic layer formation by comparing the morphology change and growth rate of two different size solder joint aged at a same temperature for different aging time. The layer thickness and microstructure were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Photoshop was used to measure the thickness of intermetallic compound. Two different size of solder joints with composition of Sn-Ag-Cu (305) were used.

  4. High power vertical stacked and horizontal arrayed diode laser bar development based on insulation micro-channel cooling (IMCC) and hard solder bonding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boxue; Jia, Yangtao; Zhang, Haoyu; Jia, Shiyin; Liu, Jindou; Wang, Weifeng; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    An insulation micro-channel cooling (IMCC) has been developed for packaging high power bar-based vertical stack and horizontal array diode lasers, which eliminates many issues caused in its congener packaged by commercial copper formed micro-channel cooler(MCC), such as coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between cooler and diode laser bar, high coolant quality requirement (DI water) and channel corrosion and electro-corrosion induced by DI water if the DI-water quality is not well maintained The IMCC cooler separates water flow route and electrical route, which allows tap-water as coolant without electro-corrosion and therefore prolongs cooler lifetime dramatically and escalated the reliability of these diode lasers. The thickness of ceramic and copper in an IMCC cooler is well designed to minimize the CTE mismatch between laser bar and cooler, consequently, a very low "SMILE" of the laser bar can be achieved for small fast axis divergence after collimation. In additional, gold-tin hard solder bonding technology was also developed to minimize the risk of solder electromigration at high current density and thermal fatigue under hard-pulse operation mode. Testing results of IMCC packaged diode lasers are presented in this report.

  5. Solder joint technology materials, properties, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, King-Ning

    2007-01-01

    Solder joints are ubiquitous in electronic consumer products. The European Union has a directive to ban the use of Pb-based solders in these products on July 1st, 2006. There is an urgent need for an increase in the research and development of Pb-free solders in electronic manufacturing. For example, spontaneous Sn whisker growth and electromigration induced failure in solder joints are serious issues. These reliability issues are quite complicated due to the combined effect of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal forces on solder joints. To improve solder joint reliability, the science of solder joint behavior under various driving forces must be understood. In this book, the advanced materials reliability issues related to copper-tin reaction and electromigration in solder joints are emphasized and methods to prevent these reliability problems are discussed.

  6. Development of Bi-base high-temperature Pb-free solders with second-phase dispersion: Thermodynamic calculation, microstructure, and interfacial reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Yoshikazu; Ohnuma, Ikuo; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Yamada, Yasushi; Yagi, Yuji; Nishibe, Yuji; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2006-11-01

    Bismuth and its alloys are candidates for Pb-free high-temperature solders that can be substituted for conventional Pb-rich Pb-Sn solders (melting point (mp) = 573 583 K). However, inferior properties such as brittleness and weak bonding strength should be improved for practical use. To that end, BiCu-X (X=Sb, Sn, and Zn) Pb-free high-temperature solders are proposed. Miscibility gaps in liquid BiCu-X alloys were surveyed using the thermodynamic database ADAMIS (alloy database for micro-solders), and compositions of the BiCu-X solders were designed on the basis of calculation. In-situ composite solders that consist of a Bi-base matrix with fine intermetallic compound (IMC) particles were produced by gas-atomizing and melt-spinning methods. The interfacial reaction between in-situ composite solders and Cu or Ni substrates was investigated. The IMCs at the interface formed a thin, uniform layer, which is an appropriate morphology for a reliable solder joint.

  7. Spontaneous soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percacci, R.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that the soldering form of general relativity be treated as a dynamical variable. This gives rise to the possibility of treating the linear connection on (n-dimensional) spacetime and an internal O(k)-Yang-Mills field as different components of the same O(N) gauge field (N= n+k). The distinction between gravitational and Yang-Mills interactions is due to a kind of Higgs mechanism driven by the vacuum expectation value of the soldering form. (orig.)

  8. Interfacial Microstructure and Shear Strength of Brazed Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy Cylinder and Cylindrical Hole by Au Based Solder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaihua Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Au-Ge-Ni solder was chosen for brazing of the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy cylinder and a part with a cylindrical hole (sleeve below 550 °C. The Au based solder was first sintered on the surface of the cylinder and then brazed to the inner surface of the sleeve. The effects of the heating process, the temperature and the holding time at the temperature on the microstructure of the sintered layer on the surface of the cylinder, the brazed interfacial microstructure, and the brazed shear strength between the cylinder and the sleeve were investigated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and tensile shear tests. By approach of side solder melt feeding and brazing under proper parameters, the voids and micro cracks due to a lack of enough solder melt feeding are greatly lessened and the brazed shear strength of 100 MPa is ensured even with large clearances around 0.01 mm.

  9. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  10. Effect of temperature and flux concentration on soldering of base metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Lin, C T; Wang, M H; Tseng, H; Huang, H M; Dong, D R; Pan, L C; Shih, Y H

    2000-12-01

    The present study used the acoustic emission (AE) technique to evaluate interactions among soldering temperature, flux treatment, and the resultant ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine fracture surfaces of the solder joints. Specimens were cast from removable partial denture alloy and then placed in a jig with a gap distance of 1.0 mm. A high-frequency soldering machine with an optical pyrometer was used for soldering at 1150 degrees C and 1200 degrees C, respectively. The flux concentrations were 67% and 75%. The soldered specimens were subjected to tensile test at a crosshead speed of 0.05 mm/min. During testing, acoustic emissions in the frequency range of 100--1200 kHz were collected, filtered, recorded, and processed by a sensing device. The results were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey LSD test. UTS at different temperatures showed no significant difference according to either mechanical or acoustic results. But in the 1200 degrees C group, the UTSs and AE counts showed significant differences (Pacoustic signals within the elastic deformation zone, while the 67% flux subgroup produced similar signals within the plastic deformation zone, either beyond the 0.2% yield point or before fracture.

  11. Biosensors based on gold nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Vidotti,Marcio; Carvalhal,Rafaela F.; Mendes,Renata K.; Ferreira,Danielle C. M.; Kubota,Lauro T.

    2011-01-01

    The present review discusses the latest advances in biosensor technology achieved by the assembly of biomolecules associated with gold nanoparticles in analytical devices. This review is divided in sections according to the biomolecule employed in the biosensor development: (i) immunocompounds; (ii) DNA/RNA and functional DNA/RNA; and (iii) enzymes and Heme proteins. In order to facilitate the comprehension each section was subdivided according to the transduction mode. Gold nanoparticles bas...

  12. SMT soldering handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strauss, Rudolf

    1998-01-01

    ... 3.2.1 Constituents, melting behaviour and mechanical properties 3.2.2 Composition of solders for use in electronics 3.2.3 Lead-free solders 3.2.4 Solder impurities The soldered joint 3.3.1 Solde...

  13. Corrosion Behaviour of Sn-based Lead-Free Solders in Acidic Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordarina, J.; Mohd, H. Z.; Ahmad, A. M.; Muhammad, F. M. N.

    2018-03-01

    The corrosion properties of Sn-9(5Al-Zn), Sn-Cu and SAC305 were studied via potentiodynamic polarization method in an acidic solution of 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Sn-9(5Al-Zn) produced different polarization profile compared with Sn-Cu and SAC305. The morphological analysis showed that small, deep grooves shaped of corrosion product formed on top of Sn-9(5Al-Zn) solder while two distinctive structures of closely packed and loosely packed corrosion product formed on top of Sn-Cu and SAC305 solder alloys. Phase analysis revealed the formations of various corrosion products such as SnO and SnO2 mainly dominant on surface of solder alloys after potentiodynamic polarization in 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl).

  14. Laser soldering of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn-Bi lead-free solder pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junichi; Nakahara, Sumio; Hisada, Shigeyoshi; Fujita, Takeyoshi

    2004-10-01

    It has reported that a waste of an electronics substrate including lead and its compound such as 63Sn-37Pb has polluted the environment with acid rain. For that environment problem the development of lead-free solder alloys has been promoted in order to find out the substitute for Sn-Pb solders in the United States, Europe, and Japan. In a present electronics industry, typical alloys have narrowed down to Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn lead-free solder. In this study, solderability of Pb-free solder that are Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn-Bi alloy was studied on soldering using YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser and diode laser. Experiments were peformed in order to determine the range of soldering parameters for obtaining an appropriate wettability based on a visual inspection. Joining strength of surface mounting chip components soldered on PCB (printed circuit board) was tested on application thickness of solder paste (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm). In addition, joining strength characteristics of eutectic Sn-Pb alloy and under different power density were examined. As a result, solderability of Sn-Ag-Cu (Pb-free) solder paste are equivalent to that of coventional Sn-Pb solder paste, and are superior to that of Sn-Zn-Bi solder paste in the laser soldering method.

  15. Development of Au-Ge based candidate alloys as an alternative to high-lead content solders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The changes in microstructure and microhardness associated with the addition of low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au......-Ge-In and Au-Ge-Sn combinations was determined to be the classic solid solution strengthening. The Au-Ge-Sb combination was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The aging temperature had a significant influence on the microhardness in the case of the Au-Ge-Sn candidate alloy...

  16. Size effects in tin-based lead-free solder joints: Kinetics of bond formation and mechanical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Ousama Mohamed Omer

    Continuous miniaturization of microelectronic interconnects demands smaller joints with comparable microstructural and structural sizes. As the size of joints become smaller, the volume of intermetallics (IMCs) becomes comparable with the joint size. As a result, the kinetics of bond formation changes and the types and thicknesses of IMC phases that form within the constrained region of the bond varies. This dissertation focuses on investigating combination effects of process parameters and size on kinetics of bond formation, resulting microstructure and the mechanical properties of joints that are formed under structurally constrained conditions. An experiment is designed where several process parameters such as time of bonding, temperature, and pressure, and bond thickness as structural chracteristic, are varied at multiple levels. The experiment is then implemented on the process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is then utilized to determine the bond thickness, IMC phases and their thicknesses, and morphology of the bonds. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is used to determine the grain size in different regions, including the bulk solder, and different IMC phases. Physics-based analytical models have been developed for growth kinetics of IMC compounds and are verified using the experimental results. Nanoindentation is used to determine the mechanical behavior of IMC phases in joints in different scales. Four-point bending notched multilayer specimen and four-point bending technique were used to determine fracture toughness of the bonds containing IMCs. Analytical modeling of peeling and shear stresses and fracture toughness in tri-layer four-point bend specimen containing intermetallic layer was developed and was verified and validated using finite element simulation and experimental results. The experiment is used in conjunction with the model to calculate and verify the fracture toughness of Cu6Sn5 IMC materials. As expected two different IMC phases

  17. Features of soldering of molybdenum a lols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.; Rybkin, B.V.; Cherkasov, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Soldering features of complex-alloy molybdenum alloys were investigated in comparison with alloys based on solid solutions. Soldering features of heterogeneous molybdenum base alloys were investigated using samples of 0.5-1.O mm sheets with the strain of about 95% made of ingots which had been smelted in arc vacuum furnaces. The soldering of samples was carried out in 5x1O -5 mm Hg vacuum using different sources of heating: radiation, electron-ray and contact. It was shown that heat-resisting soldered joints of heterogeneous molybdenum alloys could be produced using zirconium and niobium base solders containing the most effective hardeners of the parent material (titanum, vanadium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten). To preserve high mechanical properties of heterogeneous alloys it was expedient to use for welding local heating sources which permitted to decrease considerably temperature- time conditions of the process

  18. Interface between Sn-Sb-Cu solder and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebo, P., E-mail: Pavel.Sebo@savba.sk [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3 (Slovakia); Svec, P. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia); Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, J. Bottu 25, 917 24 Trnava (Slovakia); Janickovic, D.; Illekova, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia); Plevachuk, Yu. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} New lead-free solder materials based on Sn-Sb-Cu were designed and prepared. {yields} Melting and solidification temperatures of the solders have been determined. {yields} Cu-substrate/solder interaction has been analyzed and quantified. {yields} Phases formed at the solder-substrate interface have been identified. {yields} Composition and soldering atmospheres were correlated with joint strength. - Abstract: Influence of antimony and copper in Sn-Sb-Cu solder on the melting and solidification temperatures and on the microstructure of the interface between the solder and copper substrate after wetting the substrate at 623 K for 1800 s were studied. Microstructure of the interface between the solder and copper substrates in Cu-solder-Cu joints prepared at the same temperature for 1800 s was observed and shear strength of the joints was measured. Influence of the atmosphere - air with the flux and deoxidising N{sub 2} + 10H{sub 2} gas - was taken into account. Thermal stability and microstructure were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Melting and solidification temperatures of the solders were determined. An interfacial transition zone was formed by diffusion reaction between solid copper and liquid solder. At the interface Cu{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phases arise. Cu{sub 3}Sn is adjacent to the Cu substrate and its thickness decreases with increasing the amount of copper in solder. Scallop Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase is formed also inside the solder drop. The solid solution Sn(Sb) and SbSn phase compose the interior of the solder drop. Shear strength of the joints measured by push-off method decreases with increasing Sb concentration. Copper in the solder shows even bigger negative effect on the strength.

  19. Scalable Manufacturing of Solderable and Stretchable Physiologic Sensing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Soung; Lu, Jesse; Shih, Benjamin; Gharibans, Armen; Zou, Zhanan; Matsuno, Kristen; Aguilera, Roman; Han, Yoonjae; Meek, Ann; Xiao, Jianliang; Tolley, Michael T; Coleman, Todd P

    2017-10-01

    Methods for microfabrication of solderable and stretchable sensing systems (S4s) and a scaled production of adhesive-integrated active S4s for health monitoring are presented. S4s' excellent solderability is achieved by the sputter-deposited nickel-vanadium and gold pad metal layers and copper interconnection. The donor substrate, which is modified with "PI islands" to become selectively adhesive for the S4s, allows the heterogeneous devices to be integrated with large-area adhesives for packaging. The feasibility for S4-based health monitoring is demonstrated by developing an S4 integrated with a strain gauge and an onboard optical indication circuit. Owing to S4s' compatibility with the standard printed circuit board assembly processes, a variety of commercially available surface mount chip components, such as the wafer level chip scale packages, chip resistors, and light-emitting diodes, can be reflow-soldered onto S4s without modifications, demonstrating the versatile and modular nature of S4s. Tegaderm-integrated S4 respiration sensors are tested for robustness for cyclic deformation, maximum stretchability, durability, and biocompatibility for multiday wear time. The results of the tests and demonstration of the respiration sensing indicate that the adhesive-integrated S4s can provide end users a way for unobtrusive health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A FPGA implementation of solder paste deposit on printed circuit boards errors detector based in a bright and contrast algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca-Pennacchia, A.; Sánchez-Martínez, M. Á.

    2007-01-01

    Solder paste deposit on printed circuit boards (PCB) is a critical stage. It is known that about 60% of functionality defects in this type of boards are due to poor solder paste printing. These defects can be diminished by means of automatic optical inspection of this printing. Actually, this process is implemented by image processing software with its inherent high computational time cost. In this paper we propose to implement a high parallel degree image comparison algorithm suitable to be ...

  1. Reliability of lead-free solder joints with different PCB surface finishes under thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yanghua [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail: xia_yanghua@hotmail.com; Xie Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2008-04-24

    The reliability of lead-free electronic assemblies under thermal cycling was investigated. Thin small outline package (TSOP) devices with FeNi leads were reflow soldered on FR4 PCB (printed circuit board) with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (wt%) solder. The effects of different PCB finishes (organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG)) were studied. The results show that OSP finish reveals better performance than its ENIG counterparts. The crack originates at the fringe of heel fillet in both cases. The propagation of crack in the ENIG case is along the device/solder interface, while in the case of OSP, the crack extends parallel to the solder/PCB interface. When the OSP finishes are employed, many Cu6Sn5 precipitates form inside the bulk solder and have a strengthening effect on the solder joint, resulting in better reliability performance as compared to those with ENIG finishes.

  2. Incorporation of Interfacial Intermetallic Morphology in Fracture Mechanism Map for Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Kumar, P.; Dutta, I.; Sidhu, R.; Renavikar, M.; Mahajan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A fracture mechanism map (FMM) is a powerful tool which correlates the fracture behavior of a material to its microstructural characteristics in an explicit and convenient way. In the FMM for solder joints, an effective thickness of the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer ( t eff) and the solder yield strength ( σ ys,eff) are used as abscissa and ordinate axes, respectively, as these two predominantly affect the fracture behavior of solder joints. Earlier, a definition of t eff, based on the uniform thickness of IMC ( t u) and the average height of the IMC scallops ( t s), was proposed and shown to aptly explain the fracture behavior of solder joints on Cu. This paper presents a more general definition of t eff that is more widely applicable to a range of metallizations, including Cu and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). Using this new definition of t eff, mode I FMM for SAC387/Cu joints has been updated and its validity was confirmed. A preliminary FMM for SAC387/Cu joints with ENIG metallization is also presented.

  3. Features of Pd-Ni-Fe solder system for vacuum brazing of low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzievskij, V.N.; Kurochko, R.S.; Lotsmanov, S.N.; Rymar', V.I.

    1975-01-01

    The brazing solder of the Pd-Ni-Fe alloyed with copper and lithium, in order to decrease the melting point and provide for a better spreading, when soldered in vacuum ensures a uniform strength of soldered joints with the base metal of low-alloyed steels of 34KHNIM-type. The properties of low-alloyed steel joints brazed with the Pd-Ni-Fe-system solder little depend on the changes in the soldering parameters. The soldered joint keeps a homogeneous structure after all the stages of heat treatment (annealing, quenching and tempering)

  4. Influence of Difference Solders Volume on Intermetallic Growth of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu/ENEPIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliza Azlina O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, portable electronic packaging products such as smart phones, tablets, notebooks and other gadgets have been developed with reduced size of component packaging, light weight, high speed and with enhanced performance. Thus, flip chip technology with smaller solder sphere sizes that would produce fine solder joint interconnections have become essential in order to fulfill these miniaturization requirements. This study investigates the interfacial reactions and intermetallics formation during reflow soldering and isothermal aging between Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405 and electroless nickel/immersion palladium/immersion gold (EN(PEPIG. Solder diameters of 300 μm and 700 μm were used to compare the effect of solder volume on the solder joint microstructure. The solid state isothermal aging was performed at 125°C starting from 250 hours until 2000 hours. The results revealed that only (Cu,Ni6Sn5 IMC was found at the interface during reflow soldering while both (Cu,Ni6Sn5 and (Ni,Cu3Sn4 IMC have been observed after aging process. Smaller solder sizes produced thinner IMC than larger solder joints investigated after reflow soldering, whereas the larger solders produced thinner IMC than the smaller solders after isothermal aging. Aging duration of solder joints has been found to be increase the IMC’s thickness and changed the IMC morphologies to spherical-shaped, compacted and larger grain size.

  5. Evaluation on the characteristics of tin-silver-bismuth solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z.; Shi, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2002-02-01

    Tin-silver-bismuth solder is characterized by its lower melting point, good wetting behavior, and good mechanical property for which it is expected to be a new lead-free solder to replace tin-lead solder. In this article, Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi solder was investigated concerning its physical, spreading, and mechanical properties under specific conditions. Cooling curves and DSC results showed that it was close to eutectic composition (m.p. 210° 212 °C). Coefficiency of thermal expansion (CTE) of this solder, between that of PCBs and copper substrates, was beneficial to alleviate the thermal mismatch of the substrates. It was also a good electrical and thermal conductor. Using a rosin-based, mildly activated (RMA) flux, a spreading test indicated that SnAgBi solder paste had good solderability. Meanwhile, the solder had high tensile strength and fracture energy. Its fracture mechanism was a mixture of ductile and brittle fracture morphology. The metallographic and EDAX analyses indicated that it was composed of a tin-based solid solution and some intermetallic compound (IMC) that could strengthen the substrate. However, these large needle-like IMCs would cut the substrate and this resulted in the decreasing of the toughness of the solder.

  6. Thermomechanical fatigue life prediction for several solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shengmin

    Since solder connections operate at high homologous temperature, solders are high temperature materials. This feature makes their mechanical behavior and fatigue phenomena unique. Based on experimental findings, a physical damage mechanism is introduced for solders. The mechanism views the damage process as a series of independent local damage events characterized by the failure of individual grains, while the structural damage is the eventual percolation result of such local events. Fine's dislocation energy density concept and Mura's microcrack initiation theory are adopted to derive the fatigue formula for an individual grain. A physical damage metric is introduced to describe the material with damage. A unified creep and plasticity constitutive model is adopted to simulate the mechanical behavior of solders. The model is cast into a continuum damage mechanics framework to simulate material with damage. The model gives good agreement with the experimental results of 96.5Pb-3.5Sn and 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solders under uniaxial strain-controlled cyclic loading. The model is convenient for implementation into commercial computational packages. Also presented is a fatigue theory with its failure criterion for solders based on physical damage mechanism. By introducing grain orientation into the fatigue formula, an m-N curve (m is Schmid factor) at constant loading condition is suggested for fatigue of grains with different orientations. A solder structure is defined as fatigued when the damage metric reaches a critical threshold, since at this threshold the failed grains may form a cluster and percolate through the structure according to percolation theory. Fatigue data of 96.5Pb-3.5Sn solder bulk specimens under various uniaxial tension tests were analyzed. Results show that the theory gives consistent predictions under broad conditions, while inelastic strain theory does not. The theory is anisotropic with no size limitation to its application, which could be suitable for

  7. Effect of solder bump size on interfacial reactions during soldering between Pb-free solder and Cu and Ni/ Pd/ Au surface finishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NorAkmal, F.; Ourdjini, A.; Azmah Hanim, M.A.; Siti Aisha, I.; Chin, Y.T.

    2007-01-01

    Flip chip technology provides the ultimate in high I/ O-density and count with superior electrical performance for interconnecting electronic components. Therefore, the study of the intermetallic compounds was conducted to investigate the effect of solder bumps sizes on several surface finishes which are copper and Electroless Nickel/ Electroless Palladium/ Immersion Gold (ENEPIG) which is widely used in electronics packaging as surface finish for flip-chip application nowadays. In this research, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis was conducted to analyze the morphology and composition of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interface between the solder and UBM. The IMCs between the SAC lead-free solder with Cu surface finish after reflow were mainly (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 and Cu 6 Sn 5 . While the main IMCs formed between lead-free solder on ENEPIG surface finish are (Ni, Cu) 3 Sn 4 and Ni 3 Sn 4 . The results from FESEM with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) have revealed that isothermal aging at 150 degree Celsius has caused the thickening and coarsening of IMCs as well as changing them into more spherical shape. The thickness of the intermetallic compounds in both finishes investigated was found to be higher in solders with smaller bump size. From the experimental results, it also appears that the growth rate of IMCs is higher when soldering on copper compared to ENEPIG finish. Besides that, the results also showed that the thickness of intermetallic compounds was found to be proportional to isothermal aging duration. (author)

  8. Mechanical properties of Bi-In-Zn/ Cu solder joint system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervina Efzan Mohd Noor; Mohammed Noori Ridha; Ahmad Badri Ismail; Nurulakmal Mohd Sharif; Kuan Yew Cheong; Tadashi Ariga; Zuhailawati Hussain

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, the pollution of environment from lead (Pb) and Pb-containing compounds in microelectronic devices attracts more and more attentions in academia and industry; the lead-free solder alloys begin to replace the lead-based solders in packaging process of some devices and components. In this works, microstructure and mechanical properties of different reflow temperature (80, 100, 120 and 140 degree Celsius) for solder joints on shear strength of Bi-In-Zn lead free solder with low melting temperature of 60 degree Celsius on Cu solder joint has been investigated. This paper will compared the mechanical properties of the Bi-In-Zn lead-free solder alloys with current lead-free solder, Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy. The fracture surface analyses have been observed by Optical Microscope and were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and proved it by X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  9. A Corrosion Investigation of Solder Candidates for High-Temperature Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Ambat, Rajan

    2009-01-01

    The step soldering approach is being employed in the Multi-Chip module (MCM) technology. High lead containing alloys is one of the solders currently being used in this approach. Au-Sn and Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as alternative solders for this application. In this work...

  10. Evaluation of process influences on surface chemistry of epoxy acrylate based solder mask via XPS, ToF-SIMS and contact angle measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.hofmeister@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 30 02 40, 70442 Stuttgart (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM, Wiener Str. 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Maaß, Sebastian [Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 30 02 40, 70442 Stuttgart (Germany); Fladung, Thorsten; Mayer, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM, Wiener Str. 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy acrylate based solder mask formulations were conditioned by different printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing and PCB assembly process stages. Depending on these different influences the chemistry of the solder mask surface was investigated regarding adhesion to possible adhesion partners. The combination of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and the contact angle method, for surface energy determination, provided a detailed understanding of the surface near region up to the topmost monolayer, which forms the contact zone in which adhesion takes place. The combination of ToF-SIMS and XPS provided molecular information of surface components comprising quantitative information. The influences of all process steps, like UV, chemical and thermal treatment, on the chemical surface composition and appearance were identified. Based on the results a chemical surface model could be created regarding the different adhesion mechanisms. It has been shown that an enrichment of siloxanes at the surface is generated by different mechanisms that were distinguished based on ToF-SIMS. Even though an oxidation process in the surface near region (10 nm) was indicated by XPS, no increase of the surface polar groups and thus no polarity increase could be observed within the first monolayer. A surface model derived from the analysis results shows generation and occupation of free sites at the surface through all stages of the process. An occupation of free sites by siloxanes from additives in the solder mask formulation results in a siloxane dominated topmost monolayer. - Highlights: • A surface model describing the process influences is proposed. • Detailed siloxane reaction analysis was possible with ToF-SIMS. • Photo-chemical, chemical and thermal surface modification occur during PCB manufacturing.

  11. Laser-activated protein solder for peripheral nerve repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Rodney I.; Lauto, Antonio; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

    1995-05-01

    A 100 micrometers core optical fiber-coupled 75 mW diode laser operating at a wavelength of 800 nm has been used in conjunction with a protein solder to stripe weld severed rat tibial nerves, reducing the long operating time required for microsurgical nerve repair. Welding is produced by selective laser denaturation of the albumin based solder which contains the dye indocyanine green. Operating time for laser soldering was 10 +/- 5 min. (n equals 20) compared to 23 +/- 9 min. (n equals 10) for microsuturing. The laser solder technique resulted in patent welds with a tensile strength of 15 +/- 5 g, while microsutured nerves had a tensile strength of 40 +/- 10 g. Histopathology of the laser soldered nerves, conducted immediately after surgery, displayed solder adhesion to the outer membrane with minimal damage to the inner axons of the nerves. An in vivo study is under way comparing laser solder repaired tibial nerves to conventional microsuture repair. At the time of submission 15 laser soldered nerves and 7 sutured nerves were characterized at 3 months and showed successful regeneration with compound muscle action potentials of 27 +/- 8 mV and 29 +/- 8 mW respectively. A faster, less damaging and long lasting laser based anastomotic technique is presented.

  12. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-08-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated. (author)

  13. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli

    2008-01-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated

  14. Integration of environmentally compatible soldering technologies for waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosking, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a concentrated effort throughout the international microelectronics industry to phase out chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) materials and alleviate the serious problem of ozone depletion created by the release of CFCS. The development of more environmentally compatible manufacturing technologies is the cornerstone of this effort. Alternative materials and processes for cleaning and soldering have received special attention. Electronic. soldering typically utilizes rosin-based fluxes to promote solder wettability. Flux residues must be removed from the soldered parts when high product reliability is essential. Halogenated or CFC solvents have been the principle chemicals used to clean the residues. With the accelerated push to eliminate CFCs in the US by 1995, CFC-free solvents, aqueous-based cleaning, water soluble or ''no clean'' fluxes, and fluxless soldering technologies are being developed and quickly integrated into manufacturing practice. Sandia's Center for Solder Science and Technology has been ch g a variety of fluxless and alternative soldering technologies for DOE's waste minimization program. The work has focused on controlled atmosphere, laser, and ultrasonic fluxless soldering, protective metallic and organic coatings, and fluxes which have water soluble or low solids-based chemistries. With the increasing concern that Pb will also be banned from electronic soldering, Sandia has been characterizing the wetting, aging, and mechanical properties of Pb-fire solder alloys. The progress of these integrated studies will be discussed. Their impact on environmentally compatible manufacturing will be emphasized. Since there is no universal solution to the various environmental, safety, and health issues which currently face industry, the proposed technologies offer several complementary materials and processing options from which one can choose

  15. Effect of silver and indium addition on mechanical properties and indentation creep behavior of rapidly solidified Bi–Sn based lead-free solder alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, Rizk Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties and indentation creep of the melt-spun process Bi–42 wt%Sn, Bi–40 wt%Sn–2 wt%In, Bi–40 wt%Sn–2 wt%Ag and Bi–38 wt%Sn–2 wt%In–2 wt%Ag were studied by dynamic resonance technique and Vickers indentation testing at room temperature and compared to that of the traditional Sn–37 wt%Pb eutectic alloy. The results show that the structure of Bi–42 wt%Sn alloy is characterized by the presence of rhombohedral Bi and body centered tetragonal β-Sn. The two ternary alloys exhibit additional constituent phases of intermetallic compounds SnIn 19 for Bi–40 wt%Sn–2 wt%In and ε-Ag 3 Sn for Bi–40 wt%Sn–2 wt%Ag alloys. Attention has been paid to the role of intermetallic compounds on mechanical and creep behavior. The In and Ag containing solder alloy exhibited a good combination of higher creep resistance, good mechanical properties and lower melting temperature as compared with Pb–Sn eutectic solder alloy. This was attributed to the strengthening effect of Bi as a strong solid solution element in the Sn matrix and formation of intermetallic compounds β-SnBi, ε-Ag 3 Sn and InSn 19 which act as both strengthening agent and grain refiner in the matrix of the material. Addition of In and Ag decreased the melting temperature of Bi–Sn lead-free solder from 143 °C to 133 °C which was possible mainly due to the existence of InSn 19 and Ag 3 Sn intermetallic compounds. Elastic constants, internal friction and thermal properties of Bi–Sn based alloys have been studied and analyzed.

  16. Visual detection of defects in solder joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaignan, V. B.; Bourbakis, Nikolaos G.; Moghaddamzadeh, Ali; Yfantis, Evangelos A.

    1995-03-01

    The automatic, real-time visual acquisition and inspection of VLSI boards requires the use of machine vision and artificial intelligence methodologies in a new `frame' for the achievement of better results regarding efficiency, products quality and automated service. In this paper the visual detection and classification of different types of defects on solder joints in PC boards is presented by combining several image processing methods, such as smoothing, segmentation, edge detection, contour extraction and shape analysis. The results of this paper are based on simulated solder defects and a real one.

  17. Modified gold electrodes based on thiocytosine/guanine-gold nanoparticles for uric and ascorbic acid determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulcu, Adriana; Grosan, Camelia; Muresan, Liana Maria; Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes the preparation of new modified surfaces for electrodes based on guanine/thiocytosine and gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles were analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and it was found that they have diameters between 30 and 40 nm. The layers were characterized by specular reflectance infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-RAS) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thickness of layers was found to be approximately 30 nm for TC layers and 300 nm for GU layers. Every layer was characterized as electrochemical sensor (by cyclic voltammetry) both for uric acid and ascorbic acid determinations, separately and in their mixture. The modified sensors have good calibration functions with good sensitivity (between 1.145 and 1.406 mA cm −2 /decade), reproducibility ( t hiocytosine (Au T C) and gold g uanine (Au G U) layers

  18. Oxidation and reduction kinetics of eutectic SnPb, InSn, and AuSn: a knowledge base for fluxless solder bonding applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhmann, Jochen Friedrich; Preuss, A.; Adolphi, B.

    1998-01-01

    : (1) SnPb; (2) InSn; (3) AuSn. The studies of the oxidation kinetics show that the growth of the native oxide, which covers the solder surfaces from the start of all soldering operations is self-limiting. The rate of oxidation on the molten, metallic solder surfaces is significantly reduced...... and reduction kinetics, are applied to flip-chip (FC) bonding experiments in vacuum with and without the injection of H2. Wetting in vacuum is excellent but the self-alignment during flip-chip soldering is restricted. The desired, perfectly self-aligned FC-bonds have been only achieved, using evaporated...

  19. High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives: Possibilities and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-temperature solders have been widely used as joining materials to provide stable interconnections that resist a severe thermal environment and also to facilitate the drive for miniaturization. High-lead containing solders have been commonly used as high-temperature solders. The development...... of high-temperature lead-free solders has become an important issue for both the electronics and automobile industries because of the health and environmental concerns associated with lead usage. Unfortunately, limited choices are available as high-temperature lead-free solders. This work outlines...... the criteria for the evaluation of a new high-temperature lead-free solder material. A list of potential ternary high-temperature lead-free solder alternatives based on the Au-Sn and Au-Ge systems is proposed. Furthermore, a comprehensive comparison of the high-temperature stability of microstructures...

  20. Influence of solder joint length to the mechanical aspect during the thermal stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. S.; Khor, C. Y.; Rahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Abd; Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Rosli, M. U.; Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan; Zakaria, M. S.; Nawi, M. A. M.; Aziz, M. S. Abdul; Ani, F. Che

    2017-09-01

    Solder joint is an important interconnector in surface mount technology (SMT) assembly process. The real time stress, strain and displacement of the solder joint is difficult to observe and assess the experiment. To tackle these problems, simulation analysis was employed to study the von Mises stress, strain and displacement in the thermal stress analysis by using Finite element based software. In this study, a model of leadless electronic package was considered. The thermal stress analysis was performed to investigate the effect of the solder length to those mechanical aspects. The simulation results revealed that solder length gives significant effect to the maximum von Mises stress to the solder joint. Besides, changes in solder length also influence the displacement of the solder joint in the thermal environment. The increment of the solder length significantly reduces the von Mises stress and strain on the solder joint. Thus, the understanding of the physical parameter for solder joint is important for engineer prior to designing the solder joint of the electronic component.

  1. Utilization of Pb-free solders in MEMS packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    2003-01-01

    Soldering of components within a package plays an important role in providing electrical interconnection, mechanical integrity and thermal dissipation. MEMS packages present challenges that are more complex than microelectronic packages because they are far more sensitive to shock and vibration and also require precision alignment. Soldering is used at two major levels within a MEMS package: at the die attach level and at the component attach level. Emerging environmental regulations worldwide, notably in Europe and Japan, have targeted the elimination of Pb usage in electronic assemblies, due to the inherent toxicity of Pb. This has provided the driving force for development and deployment of Pb-free solder alloys. A relatively large number of Pb-free solder alloys have been proposed by various researchers and companies. Some of these alloys have also been patented. After several years of research, the solder alloy system that has emerged is based on Sn as a major component. The electronics industry has identified different compositions for different specific uses, such as wave soldering, surface mount reflow, etc. The factors that affect choice of an appropriate Pb-free solder can be divided into two major categories, those related to manufacturing, and those related to long term reliability and performance.

  2. Assessment of potential solder candidates for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    pressure to eliminate lead containing materials despite the fact that materials for high Pb containing alloys are currently not affected by any legislations. A tentative assessment was carried out to determine the potential solder candidates for high temperature applications based on the solidification...... criterion, phases predicted in the bulk solder and the thermodynamic stability of chlorides. These promising solder candidates were precisely produced using the hot stage microscope and its respective anodic and cathodic polarization curves were investigated using a micro-electrochemical set up...

  3. Effect of soldering techniques and gap distance on tensile strength of soldered Ni-Cr alloy joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Jong-Hyuk

    2010-12-01

    The present study was intended to evaluate the effect of soldering techniques with infrared ray and gas torch under different gap distances (0.3 mm and 0.5 mm) on the tensile strength and surface porosity formation in Ni-Cr base metal alloy. Thirty five dumbbell shaped Ni-Cr alloy specimens were prepared and assigned to 5 groups according to the soldering method and the gap distance. For the soldering methods, gas torch (G group) and infrared ray (IR group) were compared and each group was subdivided by corresponding gap distance (0.3 mm: G3 and IR3, 0.5 mm: G5, IR5). Specimens of the experimental groups were sectioned in the middle with a diamond disk and embedded in solder blocks according to the predetermined distance. As a control group, 7 specimens were prepared without sectioning or soldering. After the soldering procedure, a tensile strength test was performed using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed 1 mm/min. The proportions of porosity on the fractured surface were calculated on the images acquired through the scanning electronic microscope. Every specimen of G3, G5, IR3 and IR5 was fractured on the solder joint area. However, there was no significant difference between the test groups (P > .05). There was a negative correlation between porosity formation and tensile strength in all the specimens in the test groups (P tensile strength of joints and porosity formations between the gas-oxygen torch soldering and infrared ray soldering technique or between the gap distance of 0.3 mm and 0.5 mm.

  4. Colorimetric gold nanoparticles-based aptasensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezavn Yazdian-Robati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of different agents including chemical and biological plays important role in forensic, biomedical and environmentalfield.In recent decades, nanotechnology and nano materials had a high impact on development of sensors. Using  nanomaterials in construction of biosensors can effectively improve the Sensitivity and other features of biosensors. Different type of nanostructures including nanotubes, nanodiamonds, thin films ,nanorods, nanoparticles(NP, nanofibers andvarious clusters have been explored and applied in construction of biosensors. Among nanomaterials mentioned above, gold nanoparticle (GNPas a new class of unique fluorescence quenchers, is receiving significant attention in developing of optical biosensors because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. In this mini review, we discussed the use of GNPs in construction of colorimetric aptasensorsas a class of optical sensors for detection of antibiotics, toxins and infection diseases.

  5. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-12-01

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the Beta-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of Beta-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  6. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-05-15

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the {beta}-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of {beta}-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  7. Phage based green chemistry for gold ion reduction and gold retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Magdiel I; Xie, Jianping; Leong, David T

    2014-01-22

    The gold mining industry has taken its toll on the environment, triggering the development of more environmentally benign processes to alleviate the waste load release. Here, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophages (phages) for biosorption and bioreduction of gold ions from aqueous solution, which potentially can be applied to remediate gold ions from gold mining waste effluent. Phage has shown a remarkably efficient sorption of gold ions with a maximum gold adsorption capacity of 571 mg gold/g dry weight phage. The product of this phage mediated process is gold nanocrystals with the size of 30-630 nm. Biosorption and bioreduction processes are mediated by the ionic and covalent interaction between gold ions and the reducing groups on the phage protein coat. The strategy offers a simple, ecofriendly and feasible option to recover of gold ions to form readily recoverable products of gold nanoparticles within 24 h.

  8. Zepto-molar electrochemical detection of Brucella genome based on gold nanoribbons covered by gold nanoblooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Amid; Sattarahmady, Naghmeh; Heli, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Gold nanoribbons covered by gold nanoblooms were sonoelectrodeposited on a polycrystalline gold surface at -1800 mV (vs. AgCl) with the assistance of ultrasound and co-occurrence of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The nanostructure, as a transducer, was utilized to immobilize a Brucella-specific probe and fabrication of a genosensor, and the process of immobilization and hybridization was detected by electrochemical methods, using methylene blue as a redox marker. The proposed method for detection of the complementary sequence, sequences with base-mismatched (one-, two- and three-base mismatches), and the sequence of non-complementary sequence was assayed. The fabricated genosensor was evaluated for the assay of the bacteria in the cultured and human samples without polymerase chain reactions (PCR). The genosensor could detect the complementary sequence with a calibration sensitivity of 0.40 μA dm3 mol-1, a linear concentration range of 10 zmol dm-3 to 10 pmol dm-3, and a detection limit of 1.71 zmol dm-3.

  9. Synthesis, Structure, Stability and Redispersion of Gold-based Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruvalam, Ram Chandra

    Nanoscale gold has been shown to possess an intriguing combination of unexpected optical, photochemical and catalytic properties. The ability to control the size, shape, morphology, composition and dispersion of gold-based nanostructures is key to optimizing their performance for nanotechnology applications. The advanced electron microscopy studies described in this thesis analyze three important aspects of gold and gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles: namely, (i) the ability to synthesize gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape in an aqueous medium; (ii) the colloidal preparation of designer gold-palladium alloys for selective oxidation catalysis; and (iii) the ability to disperse gold as finely and homogeneously as possible on a metal oxide or carbon support. The ability to exploit the nanoscale properties of gold for various engineering applications often depends on our ability to control size and shape of the nanoscale entity by careful manipulation of the synthesis parameters. We have explored an aqueous based synthesis route, using oleylamine as both a reductant and surfactant, for preparing gold nanostructures. By systematically varying synthesis parameters such as oleylamine concentration, reaction temperature, and aging time it is possible to identify processing regimens that generate Au nanostructures having either pseudo-spherical, faceted polyhedral, nanostar or wire shaped morphologies. Furthermore, by quenching the reaction partway through it is possible to create a class of metastable Au-containing structures such as nanocubes, nanoboxes and nanowires. Possible formation mechanisms for these gold based nano-objects are discussed. There is a growing interest in using supported bimetallic AuPd alloy nanoparticles for selective oxidation reactions. In this study, a systematic series of size controlled AuPd bimetallic particles have been prepared by colloidal synthesis methods. Particles having random alloy structures, as well as `designer

  10. Gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensor for mercury detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2011-01-01

    The contamination of natural resources by human activity can have severe socio-economical impacts. Conventional methods of environmental analysis can be significantly improved by the development of portable microscale technologies for remote/field sensing. A gold nanoparticle-based lab...

  11. Tensile strength of two soldered alloys (Minalux and Verabond2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Rezaee S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently. Minalux alloy, a base metal free from Be, has been presented on the market while no special soldering has been recommended for it. On the other hand, based on the manufacturer's claim, this alloy is similar to Verabond2. The aim of this study was to investigate the tensile strength of Minalux and Verabond2, soldered by Verasolder. Twelve standard dambble shape samples, with the length of 18 mm and the diameter of 3mm, were prepared from each alloy. Six samples of each alloy were divided into two pieces with carboradom disk. Soldering gap distance was 0.3mm, measured by a special jig and they were soldered by Verasolder alloy. Six other samples, of both Iranian and foreign unsoldered alloys were considered as control group. Then samples were examined under tensile force and their tensile strength was recorded. Two- way variance analysis showed that the tensile strength of Minalux alloy and Verabond2 were not statistically significant (Verasoler 686, Minalux 723, but after soldering, such difference became significant (Minalux 308, Verabond2 432. Verabond2 showed higher tensile strength after soldering.

  12. Corrosive microenvironments at lead solder surfaces arising from galvanic corrosion with copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Caroline K; Stone, Kendall R; Dudi, Abhijeet; Edwards, Marc A

    2010-09-15

    As stagnant water contacts copper pipe and lead solder (simulated soldered joints), a corrosion cell is formed between the metals in solder (Pb, Sn) and the copper. If the resulting galvanic current exceeds about 2 μA/cm(2), a highly corrosive microenvironment can form at the solder surface, with pH chloride concentrations at least 11 times higher than bulk water levels. Waters with relatively high chloride tend to sustain high galvanic currents, preventing passivation of the solder surface, and contributing to lead contamination of potable water supplies. The total mass of lead corroded was consistent with predictions based on the galvanic current, and lead leaching to water was correlated with galvanic current. If the concentration of sulfate in the water increased relative to chloride, galvanic currents and associated lead contamination could be greatly reduced, and solder surfaces were readily passivated.

  13. Why can a gold salt react as a base?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anania, Mariarosa; Jašíková, Lucie; Jašík, Juraj; Roithová, Jana

    2017-09-26

    This study shows that gold salts [(L)AuX] (L = PMe 3 , PPh 3 , JohnPhos, IPr; X = SbF 6 , PF 6 , BF 4 , TfO, Tf 2 N) act as bases in aqueous solutions and can transform acetone to digold acetonyl complexes [(L) 2 Au 2 (CH 2 COCH 3 )] + without any additional base present in solution. The key step is the formation of digold hydroxide complexes [(L) 2 Au 2 (OH)] + . The kinetics of the formation of the digold complexes and their mutual transformation is studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and the delayed reactant labelling method. We show that the formation of digold hydroxide is the essential first step towards the formation of the digold acetonyl complex, the reaction is favoured by more polar solvents, and the effect of counter ions is negligible. DFT calculations suggest that digold hydroxide and digold acetonyl complexes can exist in solution only due to the stabilization by the interaction with two gold atoms. The reaction between the digold hydroxide and acetone proceeds towards the dimer {[(L)Au(OH)]·[(L)Au(CH 3 COCH 3 )] + }. The monomeric units interact at the gold atoms in the perpendicular arrangement typical of the gold clusters bound by the aurophilic interaction. The hydrogen is transferred within the dimer and the reaction continues towards the digold acetonyl complex and water.

  14. On the problem of soldering refractory metals with silver-containing solders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, E.F.; Andryushchenko, V.I.; Chepelenko, V.N.; Batov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The processes of wetting, spreading and interphase interactions of copper-silver liquid alloys alloyed with Ni and Si, with niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, 12Kh18N10T steel and nickel are studied. It has been determined that Ni or Si additions into the copper-silver solder improve the wetting and adhesion. When soldering with the alloy containing Ni additions, the strength of a soldered Joint grows with the increase of soldering duration while soldering with the alloy containing Si additions, the strength decreases. That is why Ni-containing solders are preferable for soldering thick-walled structures, and Si-containing solders - for thin-walled structures [ru

  15. A new method for soldering particle-reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jinbin; Mu, Yunchao [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Luo, Xiangwei [Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Niu, Jitai, E-mail: niujitai@163.com [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soldering of 55% SiCp/Al composite and Kovar is first achieved in the world. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nickel plating is required on the surface of the composites before soldering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low welding temperature is set to avoid overheating of the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical and metallurgical bonding of composites and Kovar is carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High tension strength of 225 MPa in soldering seam has been obtained. - Abstract: Soldering of aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-SiC) to other structural materials, or even to themselves, has proved unsuccessful mainly due to the poor wetting of these composites by conventional soldering alloys. This paper reports a new approach, which improves the wetting properties of these composites by molting solder alloys to promote stronger bonds. The new approach relies on nickel-plating of the composite's faying surface prior to application of a solder alloy. Based on this approach, an aluminum metal matrix composite containing 55 vol.% SiC particles is successfully soldered to a Fe-Ni-Co alloy (commercially known as Kovar 4J29). The solder material is a zinc-based alloy (Zn-Cd-Ag-Cu) with a melting point of about 400 Degree-Sign C. Microscopic examinations of the aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs)-Kovar interfaces show that the nickel-plating, prior to soldering, could noticeably enhance the reaction between the molten solder and composites. The fractography of the shear-tested samples revealed that fracture occurs within the composite (i.e. cohesive failure), indicating a good adhesion between the solder alloy and the Al-SiC composite.

  16. A new method for soldering particle-reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jinbin; Mu, Yunchao; Luo, Xiangwei; Niu, Jitai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soldering of 55% SiCp/Al composite and Kovar is first achieved in the world. ► The nickel plating is required on the surface of the composites before soldering. ► Low welding temperature is set to avoid overheating of the matrix. ► Chemical and metallurgical bonding of composites and Kovar is carried out. ► High tension strength of 225 MPa in soldering seam has been obtained. - Abstract: Soldering of aluminum metal matrix composites (Al–SiC) to other structural materials, or even to themselves, has proved unsuccessful mainly due to the poor wetting of these composites by conventional soldering alloys. This paper reports a new approach, which improves the wetting properties of these composites by molting solder alloys to promote stronger bonds. The new approach relies on nickel-plating of the composite's faying surface prior to application of a solder alloy. Based on this approach, an aluminum metal matrix composite containing 55 vol.% SiC particles is successfully soldered to a Fe–Ni–Co alloy (commercially known as Kovar 4J29). The solder material is a zinc-based alloy (Zn–Cd–Ag–Cu) with a melting point of about 400 °C. Microscopic examinations of the aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs)–Kovar interfaces show that the nickel-plating, prior to soldering, could noticeably enhance the reaction between the molten solder and composites. The fractography of the shear-tested samples revealed that fracture occurs within the composite (i.e. cohesive failure), indicating a good adhesion between the solder alloy and the Al–SiC composite.

  17. Soldering-induced Cu diffusion and intermetallic compound formation between Ni/Cu under bump metallization and SnPb flip-chip solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng; Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2004-04-01

    Nickel-based under bump metallization (UBM) has been widely used as a diffusion barrier to prevent the rapid reaction between the Cu conductor and Sn-based solders. In this study, joints with and without solder after heat treatments were employed to evaluate the diffusion behavior of Cu in the 63Sn-37Pb/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structure. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated from the concentration profiles of Cu in solder joints. During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1015-1016 atoms/cm2s. However, in the assembly without solder, no Cu was detected on the surface of Ni even after ten cycles of reflow. The diffusion behavior of Cu during heat treatments was studied, and the soldering-process-induced Cu diffusion through Ni metallization was characterized. In addition, the effect of Cu content in the solder near the solder/intermetallic compound (IMC) interface on interfacial reactions between the solder and the Ni/Cu UBM was also discussed. It is evident that the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC might form as the concentration of Cu in the Sn-Cu-Ni alloy exceeds 0.6 wt.%.

  18. Lead-free solder technology transfer from ASE Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    1999-10-19

    To safeguard the environmental friendliness of photovoltaics, the PV industry follows a proactive, long-term environmental strategy involving a life-of-cycle approach to prevent environmental damage by its processes and products from cradle to grave. Part of this strategy is to examine substituting lead-based solder on PV modules with other solder alloys. Lead is a toxic metal that, if ingested, can damage the brain, nervous system, liver and kidneys. Lead from solder in electronic products has been found to leach out from municipal waste landfills and municipal incinerator ash was found to be high in lead also because of disposed consumer electronics and batteries. Consequently, there is a movement in Europe and Japan to ban lead altogether from use in electronic products and to restrict the movement across geographical boundaries of waste containing lead. Photovoltaic modules may contain small amounts of regulated materials, which vary from one technology to another. Environmental regulations impact the cost and complexity of dealing with end-of-life PV modules. If they were classified as hazardous according to Federal or State criteria, then special requirements for material handling, disposal, record-keeping and reporting would escalate the cost of decommissioning the modules. Fthenakis showed that several of today's x-Si modules failed the US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for potential leaching of Pb in landfills and also California's standard on Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) for Pb. Consequently, such modules may be classified as hazardous waste. He highlighted potential legislation in Europe and Japan which could ban or restrict the use of lead and the efforts of the printed-circuit industries in developing Pb-free solder technologies in response to such expected legislation. Japanese firms already have introduced electronic products with Pb-free solder, and one PV manufacturer in the US, ASE Americas has used a

  19. Damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints subjected to thermomechanical cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, H., E-mail: xiaohui2013@yahoo.com.cn; Li, X.Y.; Hu, Y.; Guo, F.; Shi, Y.W.

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •A creep–fatigue damage model based on CDM was proposed. •Designed system includes load frame, strain measure device and damage test device. •Damage evolution of solder joints was a function of accumulated inelastic strain. •Damage of solder joints is an interaction between creep and low-cycle fatigue. -- Abstract: Thermomechanical fatigue damage is a progressive process of material degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints under thermomechanical cycling. A damage model was proposed based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM). Based upon an analysis of displacements for flip-chip solder joints subjected to thermal cycling, a special bimetallic loading frame with single-solder joint samples was designed to simulate the service conditions of actual joints in electronic packages. The assembly, which allowed for strain measurements of an individual solder joint during temperature cycling, was used to investigate the impact of stress–strain cycling on the damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints. The characteristic parameters of the damage model were determined through thermomechanical cycling and strain measurement tests. The damage variable D = 1 − R{sub 0}/R was selected, and values for it were obtained using a four-probe method for the single-solder joint samples every dozen cycles during thermomechanical cycling tests to verify the model. The results showed that the predicted damage was in good agreement with the experimental results. The damage evolution law proposed here is a function of inelastic strain, and the results showed that the damage rate of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints increased as the range of the applied strain increased. In addition, the microstructure evolution of the solder joints was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, which provided the microscopic explanation for the damage evolution law of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints.

  20. Damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints subjected to thermomechanical cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, H.; Li, X.Y.; Hu, Y.; Guo, F.; Shi, Y.W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A creep–fatigue damage model based on CDM was proposed. •Designed system includes load frame, strain measure device and damage test device. •Damage evolution of solder joints was a function of accumulated inelastic strain. •Damage of solder joints is an interaction between creep and low-cycle fatigue. -- Abstract: Thermomechanical fatigue damage is a progressive process of material degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints under thermomechanical cycling. A damage model was proposed based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM). Based upon an analysis of displacements for flip-chip solder joints subjected to thermal cycling, a special bimetallic loading frame with single-solder joint samples was designed to simulate the service conditions of actual joints in electronic packages. The assembly, which allowed for strain measurements of an individual solder joint during temperature cycling, was used to investigate the impact of stress–strain cycling on the damage behavior of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints. The characteristic parameters of the damage model were determined through thermomechanical cycling and strain measurement tests. The damage variable D = 1 − R 0 /R was selected, and values for it were obtained using a four-probe method for the single-solder joint samples every dozen cycles during thermomechanical cycling tests to verify the model. The results showed that the predicted damage was in good agreement with the experimental results. The damage evolution law proposed here is a function of inelastic strain, and the results showed that the damage rate of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints increased as the range of the applied strain increased. In addition, the microstructure evolution of the solder joints was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, which provided the microscopic explanation for the damage evolution law of SnAgCu/Cu solder joints

  1. Enhanced performance of VOx-based bolometer using patterned gold black absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Evan M.; Panjwani, Deep; Ginn, James; Warren, Andrew; Long, Christopher; Figuieredo, Pedro; Smith, Christian; Perlstein, Joshua; Walter, Nick; Hirschmugl, Carol; Peale, Robert E.; Shelton, David J.

    2015-06-01

    Patterned highly absorbing gold black film has been selectively deposited on the active surfaces of a vanadium-oxide-based infrared bolometer array. Patterning by metal lift-off relies on protection of the fragile gold black with an evaporated oxide, which preserves gold black's near unity absorption. This patterned gold black also survives the dry-etch removal of the sacrificial polyimide used to fabricate the air-bridge bolometers. Infrared responsivity is substantially improved by the gold black coating without significantly increasing noise. The increase in the time constant caused by the additional mass of gold black is a modest 14%.

  2. Electroplating of gold using a sulfite-based electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, E.; Jacobs, B.; Falcone, S.; Geluk, E.J.; Karouta, F.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Besten, den J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Electroplating of gold is often used in optoelectronic and microelectronic devices for air-bridges, heat-sinks or gold-bumps for flip-chip techniques. The gold-cyanide electrolytes, which are commonly used in gold-electroplating, are toxic and attack resist patterns causing cracks during the plating

  3. An Effective Amperometric Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yingchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sensitive amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoelectrode array (NEA was investigated. The gold nanoelectrode array was fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition on general electrodes, which shows an ordered well-defined 3D structure of nanowires. The sensitivity of the gold NEA to hydrogen peroxide is 37 times higher than that of the conventional electrode. The linear range of the platinum NEA toward H2O2is from 1 × 10−6to 1 × 10−2 M, covering four orders of magnitudes with detection limit of 1 × 10−7 M and a single noise ratio (S/N of four. The enzyme electrode exhibits an excellent response performance to glucose with linear range from 1 × 10−5to 1 × 10−2 M and a fast response time within 8 s. The Michaelis–Menten constantkm and the maximum current densityi maxof the enzyme electrode were 4.97 mM and 84.60 μA cm−2, respectively. This special nanoelectrode may find potential application in other biosensors based on amperometric signals.

  4. Instantaneous fluxless bonding of Au with Pb-Sn solder in ambient atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.K.; Zhang, Sam; Wong, C.C.; Tan, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A fluxless bonding technique has been developed as a method of flip-chip bonding for microelectronic packaging. The fluxless bonding technique can be achieved instantaneously in an ambient environment between metallic stud bumps and predefined molten solder. This paper describes the mechanics of the bonding action and verifies the effectiveness of this bonding method through wetting balance tests and scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. This technique has been demonstrated by using a gold stud bump to break the tin oxide layer over molten solder. This allows for a fast, solid liquid interdiffusion between gold (Au) and the fresh molten eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solder for joint formation during solidification. This bonding method has been successfully tested with 130-μm-pitch flip-chip bond pads on a joint-in-via flex substrate architecture

  5. Colorimetric detection of cholesterol based on enzyme modified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Narsingh R.; Saxena, Preeti S.; Srivastava, Anchal

    2018-02-01

    We develop a simple colorimetric method for determination of free cholesterol in aqueous solution based on functionalized gold nanoparticles with cholesterol oxidase. Functionalized gold nanoparticles interact with free cholesterol to produce H2O2 in proportion to the level of cholesterol visually is being detected. The quenching in optical properties and agglomeration of functionalized gold nanoparticles play a key role in cholesterol sensing due to the electron accepting property of H2O2. While the lower ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 0.2 mg/dL) can be effectively detected using fluorescence study, the absorption study attests evident visual color change which becomes effective for detection of higher ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 19 mg/dL). The shades of red gradually change to blue/purple as the level of cholesterol detected (as evident at 100 mg/dL) using unaided eye without the use of expensive instruments. The potential of the proposed method to be applied in the field is shown by the proposed cholesterol measuring color wheel.

  6. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Seema; Tripathi, Vinay; Singh, Harpal; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G.

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL -1 with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  7. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, Seema, E-mail: seemanara@mnnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Mechanics (Biotechnology), Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tripathi, Vinay [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, Harpal [Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Shrivastav, Tulsidas G. [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2010-12-03

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL{sup -1} with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  8. Electron transport in gold colloidal nanoparticle-based strain gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Grisolia, Jérémie; Sangeetha, Neralagatta M.; Decorde, Nicolas; Farcau, Cosmin; Viallet, Benoit; Chen, Ke; Viau, Guillaume; Ressier, Laurence

    2013-03-01

    A systematic approach for understanding the electron transport mechanisms in resistive strain gauges based on assemblies of gold colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) protected by organic ligands is described. The strain gauges were fabricated from parallel micrometer wide wires made of 14 nm gold (Au) colloidal NPs on polyethylene terephthalate substrates, elaborated by convective self-assembly. Electron transport in such devices occurs by inter-particle electron tunneling through the tunnel barrier imposed by the organic ligands protecting the NPs. This tunnel barrier was varied by changing the nature of organic ligands coating the nanoparticles: citrate (CIT), phosphines (BSPP, TDSP) and thiols (MPA, MUDA). Electro-mechanical tests indicate that only the gold NPs protected by phosphine and thiol ligands yield high gauge sensitivity. Temperature-dependent resistance measurements are explained using the ‘regular island array model’ that extracts transport parameters, i.e., the tunneling decay constant β and the Coulomb charging energy EC. This reveals that the Au@CIT nanoparticle assemblies exhibit a behavior characteristic of a strong-coupling regime, whereas those of Au@BSPP, Au@TDSP, Au@MPA and Au@MUDA nanoparticles manifest a weak-coupling regime. A comparison of the parameters extracted from the two methods indicates that the most sensitive gauges in the weak-coupling regime feature the highest β. Moreover, the EC values of these 14 nm NPs cannot be neglected in determining the β values.

  9. Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Bi-X Lead-Free Solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sn-Bi base lead-free solders are proposed as one of the most popular alloys due to the low melting temperature (eutectic point: 139°C and low cost. However, they are not widely used because of the lower wettability, fatigue resistance, and elongation compared to traditional Sn-Pb solders. So the alloying is considered as an effective way to improve the properties of Sn-Bi solders with the addition of elements (Al, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, In, Sb, and rare earth and nanoparticles. In this paper, the development of Sn-Bi lead-free solders bearing elements and nanoparticles was reviewed. The variation of wettability, melting characteristic, electromigration, mechanical properties, microstructures, intermetallic compounds reaction, and creep behaviors was analyzed systematically, which can provide a reference for investigation of Sn-Bi base solders.

  10. Study on interfacial reaction between lead-free solders and alternative surface finishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Rabiatul Aisha; Ourdjini, A.; Saliza Osman

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the interfacial reactions occurring during reflow soldering between Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder and two surface finishes: electroless nickel/ immersion gold (ENIG) and immersion silver (IAg). The study focuses on interfacial reactions evolution and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds (IMC) formed during soldering and isothermal ageing at 150 degree Celsius for up to 2000 hours. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure IMC thickness and examine the morphology of IMC respectively, whereas the IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results showed that the IMC formed on ENIG finish is thinner compared to that formed on IAg finish. For IAg surface finish, Cu 6 Sn 5 IMCs with scallop morphology are formed at the solder/ surface finish interface after reflow while a second IMC, Cu 3 Sn was formed between the copper and Cu 6 Sn 5 IMC after the isothermal ageing treatment. For ENIG surface finish both (Cu,Ni) 6 Sn 5 and (Ni,Cu) 3 Sn 4 are formed after soldering. Isothermal aging of the solder joints formed on ENIG finish was found to have a significant effect on the morphology of the intermetallics by transforming to more spherical and denser morphology in addition to increase i their thickness with increased ageing time. (author)

  11. Study of silicon chip soldering in high-power transistor housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily S. Anosov

    2017-09-01

    We experimentally assessed the effect of outer housing layer materials and back side chip metallization. For lead-silver soldering of silicon chips, the best housing is that with a nickel outer layer rather than with a gold-plated one, because the resultant thermal resistance is lower and the absence of gold makes the technology cheaper. We obtained a 0.6 K/W thermal resistance for a 24 mm2 chip area.

  12. Effect of Strain Rate on Joint Strength and Failure Mode of Lead-Free Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Lei, Yongping; Fu, Hanguang; Guo, Fu

    2018-03-01

    In surface mount technology, the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint has a shorter impact lifetime than a traditional lead-tin solder joint. In order to improve the impact property of SnAgCu lead-free solder joints and identify the effect of silver content on tensile strength and impact property, impact experiments were conducted at various strain rates on three selected SnAgCu based solder joints. It was found that joint failure mainly occurred in the solder material with large plastic deformation under low strain rate, while joint failure occurred at the brittle intermetallic compound layer without any plastic deformation at a high strain rate. Joint strength increased with the silver content in SnAgCu alloys in static tensile tests, while the impact property of the solder joint decreased with increasing silver content. When the strain rate was low, plastic deformation occurred with failure and the tensile strength of the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint was higher than that of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu; when the strain rate was high, joint failure mainly occurred at the brittle interface layer and the Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu solder joint had a better impact resistance with a thinner intermetallic compound layer.

  13. Handbook of machine soldering SMT and TH

    CERN Document Server

    Woodgate, Ralph W

    1996-01-01

    A shop-floor guide to the machine soldering of electronics Sound electrical connections are the operational backbone of every piece of electronic equipment-and the key to success in electronics manufacturing. The Handbook of Machine Soldering is dedicated to excellence in the machine soldering of electrical connections. Self-contained, comprehensive, and down-to-earth, it cuts through jargon, peels away outdated notions, and presents all the information needed to select, install, and operate machine soldering equipment. This fully updated and revised volume covers all of the new technologies and processes that have emerged in recent years, most notably the use of surface mount technology (SMT). Supplemented with 200 illustrations, this thoroughly accessible text Describes reflow and wave soldering in detail, including reflow soldering of SMT boards and the use of nitrogen blankets * Explains the setup, operation, and maintenance of a variety of soldering machines * Discusses theory, selection, and control met...

  14. Gold-Based Medicine: A Paradigm Shift in Anti-Cancer Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Chien Ing; Ooi, Kah Kooi; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2018-06-11

    A new era of metal-based drugs started in the 1960s, heralded by the discovery of potent platinum-based complexes, commencing with cisplatin [(H₃N)₂PtCl₂], which are effective anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. While clinical applications of gold-based drugs largely relate to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, attention has turned to the investigation of the efficacy of gold(I) and gold(III) compounds for anti-cancer applications. This review article provides an account of the latest research conducted during the last decade or so on the development of gold compounds and their potential activities against several cancers as well as a summary of possible mechanisms of action/biological targets. The promising activities and increasing knowledge of gold-based drug metabolism ensures that continued efforts will be made to develop gold-based anti-cancer agents.

  15. Durable PROX catalyst based on gold nanoparticles and hydrophobic silica

    KAUST Repository

    Laveille, Paco; Guillois, Kevin; Tuel, Alain; Petit, Corine; Basset, Jean-Marie; Caps, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    3 nm gold nanoparticles (Au NP) obtained by direct chemical reduction of AuPPh3Cl in the presence of methyl-terminated silica exhibit superior durability for low temperature CO oxidation in the presence of hydrogen (PROX). The activity of hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 indeed appears much more stable with time-on-stream than those of the OH-terminated, hydrophilic Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3 catalysts, with similar Au NP size. This enhanced stability is attributed to the peculiar catalyst surface of Au/SiO2-R972. Not only may the support hydrophobicity concentrate and facilitate reactant adsorption and product desorption over Au NP, but methyl-terminated SiO2-R972 likely also inhibits carbonatation of the Au/support interface. Hence, at a temperature at which H2/H2O “cleaning” of the carbonate-contaminated Au/Al2O3 and Au/TiO2 surface is inefficient (< 100°C), passivated Au/SiO2-R972 displays much more stable PROX activity. Besides, the virtual absence of surface hydroxyl groups, which provide sites for water formation in H2/O2 atmospheres, can also account for the improved PROX selectivity (>85%) observed over Au/SiO2-R972. This new example, of CO oxidation activity of gold nanoparticles dispersed over a hydrophobic, “inert” support, clearly emphasizes the role of hydrogen as a promoter for the gold-catalyzed oxidation of CO at low temperature. Unlike support-mediated oxygen activation, hydrogen-only mediated oxygen activation takes full advantage of the hydrophobic surface, which is much more resistant against CO2 and thus remains free of poisonous carbonate species, as compared with hydroxyl-terminated catalysts. Hence, although the absence of surface hydroxyl groups prevents the hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 catalyst to reach the state-of-the-art activities initially displayed by Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3, it brings long-term stability with time-on-stream and superior selectivity, which opens up promising perspectives in the development of viable PROX catalysts based on gold.

  16. Durable PROX catalyst based on gold nanoparticles and hydrophobic silica

    KAUST Repository

    Laveille, Paco

    2016-01-20

    3 nm gold nanoparticles (Au NP) obtained by direct chemical reduction of AuPPh3Cl in the presence of methyl-terminated silica exhibit superior durability for low temperature CO oxidation in the presence of hydrogen (PROX). The activity of hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 indeed appears much more stable with time-on-stream than those of the OH-terminated, hydrophilic Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3 catalysts, with similar Au NP size. This enhanced stability is attributed to the peculiar catalyst surface of Au/SiO2-R972. Not only may the support hydrophobicity concentrate and facilitate reactant adsorption and product desorption over Au NP, but methyl-terminated SiO2-R972 likely also inhibits carbonatation of the Au/support interface. Hence, at a temperature at which H2/H2O “cleaning” of the carbonate-contaminated Au/Al2O3 and Au/TiO2 surface is inefficient (< 100°C), passivated Au/SiO2-R972 displays much more stable PROX activity. Besides, the virtual absence of surface hydroxyl groups, which provide sites for water formation in H2/O2 atmospheres, can also account for the improved PROX selectivity (>85%) observed over Au/SiO2-R972. This new example, of CO oxidation activity of gold nanoparticles dispersed over a hydrophobic, “inert” support, clearly emphasizes the role of hydrogen as a promoter for the gold-catalyzed oxidation of CO at low temperature. Unlike support-mediated oxygen activation, hydrogen-only mediated oxygen activation takes full advantage of the hydrophobic surface, which is much more resistant against CO2 and thus remains free of poisonous carbonate species, as compared with hydroxyl-terminated catalysts. Hence, although the absence of surface hydroxyl groups prevents the hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 catalyst to reach the state-of-the-art activities initially displayed by Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3, it brings long-term stability with time-on-stream and superior selectivity, which opens up promising perspectives in the development of viable PROX catalysts based on gold.

  17. Physical properties of lead free solders in liquid and solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhiaoui, Souad

    2007-04-17

    The European legislation prohibits the use of lead containing solders in Europe. However, lead free solders have a higher melting point (typical 20%) and their mechanical characteristics are worse. Additional problems are aging and adhesion of the solder on the electronic circuits. Thus, research activities must focus on the optimization of the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu based lead free solders chosen by the industry. Two main objectives are treated in this work. In the center of the first one is the study of curious hysteresis effects of metallic cadmium-antimony alloys after thermal cycles by measuring electronic transport phenomena (thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity). The second objective, within the framework of ''cotutelle'' between the universities of Metz and of Chemnitz and supported by COST531, is to study more specifically lead free solders. A welding must well conduct electricity and well conduct and dissipate heat. In Metz, we determined the electrical conductivity, the thermoelectric power and the thermal conductivity of various lead free solders (Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, Sn-Ag, Sn-Sb) as well in the liquid as well in the solid state. The results have been compared to classical lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders. In Chemnitz we measured the surface tension, the interfacial tension and the density of lead free solders. We also measured the viscosity of these solders without and with additives, in particular nickel. These properties were related to the industrial problems of wettability and spreadability. Lastly, we solidified alloys under various conditions. We observed undercooling. We developed a technique of mixture of nanocrystalline powder with lead free solders ''to sow'' the liquid bath in order to obtain ''different'' solids which were examined using optical and electron microscopy. (orig.)

  18. Nanospot soldering polystyrene nanoparticles with an optical fiber probe laser irradiating a metallic AFM probe based on the near-field enhancement effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianlei; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Yang; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Wenjun; Hou, Chaojian

    2015-02-04

    With the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology for the bottom-up nanofabrication of nanostructures formed from polystyrene nanoparticles, joining technology is an essential step in the manufacturing and assembly of nanodevices and nanostructures in order to provide mechanical integration and connection. To study the nanospot welding of polystyrene nanoparticles, we propose a new nanospot-soldering method using the near-field enhancement effect of a metallic atomic force microscope (AFM) probe tip that is irradiated by an optical fiber probe laser. On the basis of our theoretical analysis of the near-field enhancement effect, we set up an experimental system for nanospot soldering; this approach is carried out by using an optical fiber probe laser to irradiate the AFM probe tip to sinter the nanoparticles, providing a promising technical approach for the application of nanosoldering in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  19. Thermomechanical behavior of tin-rich (lead-free) solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Rajen Singh

    In order to adequately characterize the behavior of ball-grid-array (BGA) Pb-free solder spheres in electronic devices, the microstructure and thermomechanical behavior need to be studied. Microstructure characterization of pure Sn, Sn-0.7Cu, Sn-3.5Ag, and Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu alloys was conducted using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, image analysis, and a novel serial sectioning 3D reconstruction process. Microstructure-based finite-element method (FEM) modeling of deformation in Sn-3.5Ag alloy was conducted, and it will be shown that this technique is more accurate when compared to traditional unit cell models for simulating and understanding material behavior. The effect of cooling rate on microstructure and creep behavior of bulk Sn-rich solders was studied. The creep behavior was evaluated at 25, 95, and 120°C. Faster cooling rates were found to increase the creep strength of the solders due to refinement of the solder microstructure. The creep behavior of Sn-rich single solder spheres reflowed on Cu substrates was studied at 25, 60, 95, and 130°C. Testing was conducted using a microforce testing system, with lap-shear geometry samples. The solder joints displayed two distinct creep behaviors: (a) precipitation-strengthening (Sn-3.5Ag and Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu) and (b) power law creep accommodated by grain boundary sliding (GBS) (Sn and Sn-0.7Cu). The relationship between microstructural features (i.e. intermetallic particle size and spacing), stress exponents, threshold stress, and activation energies are discussed. The relationship between small-length scale creep behavior and bulk behavior is also addressed. To better understand the damage evolution in Sn-rich solder joints during thermal fatigue, the local damage will be correlated to the cyclic hysteresis behavior and crystal orientations present in the Sn phase of solder joints. FEM modeling will also be utilized to better understand the macroscopic and local

  20. An evaluation of the lap-shear test for Sn-rich solder/Cu couples: Experiments and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, N.; Shen, Y.-L.; Deng, X.; Ege, E. S.

    2004-12-01

    The lap-shear technique is commonly used to evaluate the shear, creep, and thermal fatigue behavior of solder joints. We have conducted a parametric experimental and modeling study, on the effect of testing and geometrical parameters on solder/copper joint response in lap-shear. It was shown that the farfield applied strain is quite different from the actual solder strain (measured optically). Subtraction of the deformation of the Cu substrate provides a reasonable approximation of the solder strain in the elastic regime, but not in the plastic regime. Solder joint thickness has a profound effect on joint response. The solder response moves progressively closer to “true” shear response with increasing joint thickness. Numerical modeling using finite-element analyses were performed to rationalize the experimental findings. The same lap-shear configuration was used in the simulation. The input response for solder was based on the experimental tensile test result on bulk specimens. The calculated shear response, using both the commonly adopted far-field measure and the actual shear strain in solder, was found to be consistent with the trends observed in the lap-shear experiments. The geometric features were further explored to provide physical insight into the problem. Deformation of the substrate was found to greatly influence the shear behavior of the solder.

  1. Cytosine-assisted synthesis of gold nanochains and gold nanoflowers for the construction of a microperoxidase-11 based amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qian-Li; Zhou, Dan-Ling; Wang, Ai-Jun; Qin, Su-Fang; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Li, Yong-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A simple method was developed for synthesis of network-like gold nanochains and gold nanoflowers in the presence of cytosine by reduction of tetrachloroauric acid with sodium borohydride and ascorbic acid, respectively. The resulting gold nanocrystals were coated with microperoxidase-11 via electrostatic interactions. Electrodes modified with protein-coated gold nanochains or nanoflowers display well-defined and quasi reversible redox peaks and enhanced high electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 that is due to direct electron transfer to the protein. The effects were exploited for the amperometric detection of H 2 O 2 with a linear response from 0.5 μM to 0.13 mM (for the gold nanochains) and from 1.0 μM to 0.11 mM (for the gold nanoflowers), respectively. The sensor shows lower detection limit and faster response time than sensors based on the use of spherical gold nanoparticles. (author)

  2. Spectroscopic investigation of oxidized solder surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jenn-Ming; Chang-Chien, Yu-Chien; Huang, Bo-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ting; Shie, Chi-Rung; Hsu, Chuang-Yao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → UV-visible spectroscopy is successfully used to evaluate the degree of discoloring of solders. → The surface oxides of solders can also be identified by UV-visible absorption spectra. → The discoloration of solder surface can be correlated with optical characterization of oxides. → A strategy against discoloring by alloying was also suggested. - Abstract: For further understanding of the discoloration of solder surfaces due to oxidation during the assembly and operation of electronic devices, UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses were applied to evaluate the degree of discoloring and identify the surface oxides. The decrease in reflectance of the oxidized solder surface is related to SnO whose absorption band is located within the visible region. A trace of P can effectively depress the discoloration of solders under both solid and semi-solid states through the suppression of SnO.

  3. Soldering of Mg Joints Using Zn-Al Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Berent, Katarzyna; Skuza, Wojciech; Janik, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium has applications in the automotive and aerospace industries that can significantly contribute to greater fuel economy and environmental conservation. The Mg alloys used in the automotive industry could reduce mass by up to 70 pct, providing energy savings. However, alongside the advantages there are limitations and technological barriers to use Mg alloys. One of the advantages concerns phenomena occurring at the interface when joining materials investigated in this study, in regard to the effect of temperature and soldering time for pure Mg joints. Eutectic Zn-Al and Zn-Al alloys with 0.05 (wt pct) Li and 0.2 (wt pct) Na were used in the soldering process. The process was performed for 3, 5, and 8 minutes of contact, at temperatures of 425 °C, 450 °C, 475 °C, and 500 °C. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned, and their interfacial microstructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of time, temperature, and the addition of Li and Na on the kinetics of the dissolving Mg substrate. The addition of Li and Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused to improve mechanical properties. Higher temperatures led to reduced joint strength, which is caused by increased interfacial reaction.

  4. Design of lead-free candidate alloys for high-temperature soldering based on the Au–Sn system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hald, John

    2010-01-01

    of the Au–Sn binary system were explored in this work. Furthermore, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and microhardness of these promising Au–Sn based ternary alloys were investigated. For this purpose, the candidate alloys were aged at a lower temperature, 150°C for up to 1week...

  5. Pseudo-template synthesis of gold nanoparticles based on polyhydrosilanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacarescu, Liviu; Simionescu, Mihaela; Sacarescu, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Highly stable colloidal gold nanoparticles are obtained in a pseudo-template system using a specific polyhydrosilane copolymeric structure. This process takes place in situ by microwaves activation of the polymer solution in a non-polar solvent followed by stirring with solid HAuCl 4 in natural light. The experimental procedure is very simple and the resulted colloidal gold solution is indefinitely stable. The specific surface plasmon resonance absorption band of the gold nanoparticles is strongly red shifted and is strictly related to their size. AFM correlated with DLS analysis showed flattened round shaped colloidal polymer-gold nanoparticles with large diameters. SEM-EDX combined analysis reveals that the polysilane-gold nanoparticles show a natural tendency to auto-assemble in close packed structures which form large areas over the polymer film surface.

  6. Lead free solder mechanics and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, John Hock Lye

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free solders are used extensively as interconnection materials in electronic assemblies and play a critical role in the global semiconductor packaging and electronics manufacturing industry. Electronic products such as smart phones, notebooks and high performance computers rely on lead-free solder joints to connect IC chip components to printed circuit boards. Lead Free Solder: Mechanics and Reliability provides in-depth design knowledge on lead-free solder elastic-plastic-creep and strain-rate dependent deformation behavior and its application in failure assessment of solder joint reliability. It includes coverage of advanced mechanics of materials theory and experiments, mechanical properties of solder and solder joint specimens, constitutive models for solder deformation behavior; numerical modeling and simulation of solder joint failure subject to thermal cycling, mechanical bending fatigue, vibration fatigue and board-level drop impact tests. This book also: Discusses the mechanical prope...

  7. Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domkin, Konstantin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    of the die lifetime based on a quantitative analysis of die soldering in the framework of the numerical simulations of the die-casting process. Full 3D simulations of the process, including the filling. solidification, and the die cooling, are carried out using the casting simulation software MAGMAsoft....... The resulting transient temperature fields on the die surface and in the casting are then post-processed to estimate the die soldering. The present work deals only with the metallurgical/chemical kind of soldering which occurs at high temperatures and involves formation and growth of intermetallic layers...

  8. Eddy current quality control of soldered current-carrying busbar splices of superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Kogan, L; Savary, F; Principe, R; Datskov, V; Rozenfel'd, E; Khudjakov, B

    2015-01-01

    The eddy current technique associated with a U-shaped transducer is studied for the quality control of soldered joints between superconducting busbars ('splices'). Two other quality control techniques, based on X-rays and direct measurement of the electrical resistance, are also studied for comparison. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these three methods in relation to the quality control of soldered superconducting busbar cables enclosed in copper shells is used for benchmarking. The results of inspections with the U-shaped eddy current transducer carried out on several sample joints presenting different types of soldering defects show the potential of this type of nondestructive (ND) quality control technique.

  9. Gold-Catalyzed Cyclizations of Alkynol-Based Compounds: Synthesis of Natural Products and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almendros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed dramatic growth in the number of reactions catalyzed by gold complexes because of their powerful soft Lewis acid nature. In particular, the gold-catalyzed activation of propargylic compounds has progressively emerged in recent years. Some of these gold-catalyzed reactions in alkynes have been optimized and show significant utility in organic synthesis. Thus, apart from significant methodology work, in the meantime gold-catalyzed cyclizations in alkynol derivatives have become an efficient tool in total synthesis. However, there is a lack of specific review articles covering the joined importance of both gold salts and alkynol-based compounds for the synthesis of natural products and derivatives. The aim of this Review is to survey the chemistry of alkynol derivatives under gold-catalyzed cyclization conditions and its utility in total synthesis, concentrating on the advances that have been made in the last decade, and in particular in the last quinquennium.

  10. Thermomechanical fatigue of Sn-37 wt.% Pb model solder joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.W.; Plumbridge, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue of Sn-37 wt.% Pb model solder joints has been investigated under thermomechanical and thermal cycling. Based upon an analysis of displacements during thermomechancial cycling, a model solder joint has been designed to simulate actual joints in electronic packages. The strain-stress relationship, characterised by hysteresis loops, was determined during cycling from 30 to 125 deg. C, and the stress-range monitored throughout. The number of cycles to failure, as defined by the fall in stress range, was correlated to strain range and strain energy. The strain hardening exponent, k, varied with the definition of failure and, when a stress-range drop of 50% was used, it was 0.46. Cracks were produced during pure thermal cycling without external strains applied. These arose due to the local strains caused by thermal expansion mismatches between the solder and Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallic layer, between the phases of solder, and due to the anisotropy of the materials. The fatigue life under thermomechanical cycling was significantly inferior to that obtained in isothermal mechanical cycling. A factor contributing to this inferiority is the internal damage produced during temperature cycling

  11. Soldering Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder with Minor Aluminum Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Mei Leong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the trends towards miniaturization in lead free electronic products, researchers are putting immense efforts to improve the properties and reliabilities of Sn based solders. Recently, much interest has been shown on low silver (Ag content solder SAC105 (Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu because of economic reasons and improvement of impact resistance as compared to SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu. The present work investigates the effect of minor aluminum (Al addition (0.1–0.5 wt.% to SAC105 on the interfacial structure between solder and copper substrate during reflow. The addition of minor Al promoted formation of small, equiaxed Cu-Al particle, which are identified as Cu3Al2. Cu3Al2 resided at the near surface/edges of the solder and exhibited higher hardness and modulus. Results show that the minor addition of Al does not alter the morphology of the interfacial intermetallic compounds, but they substantially suppress the growth of the interfacial Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC after reflow. During isothermal aging, minor alloying Al has reduced the thickness of interfacial Cu6Sn5 IMC but has no significant effect on the thickness of Cu3Sn. It is suggested that of atoms of Al exert their influence by hindering the flow of reacting species at the interface.

  12. Soldering Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder with Minor Aluminum Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yee Mei; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the trends towards miniaturization in lead free electronic products, researchers are putting immense efforts to improve the properties and reliabilities of Sn based solders. Recently, much interest has been shown on low silver (Ag) content solder SAC105 (Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu) because of economic reasons and improvement of impact resistance as compared to SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu. The present work investigates the effect of minor aluminum (Al) addition (0.1–0.5 wt.%) to SAC105 on the interfacial structure between solder and copper substrate during reflow. The addition of minor Al promoted formation of small, equiaxed Cu-Al particle, which are identified as Cu3Al2. Cu3Al2 resided at the near surface/edges of the solder and exhibited higher hardness and modulus. Results show that the minor addition of Al does not alter the morphology of the interfacial intermetallic compounds, but they substantially suppress the growth of the interfacial Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC) after reflow. During isothermal aging, minor alloying Al has reduced the thickness of interfacial Cu6Sn5 IMC but has no significant effect on the thickness of Cu3Sn. It is suggested that of atoms of Al exert their influence by hindering the flow of reacting species at the interface. PMID:28773645

  13. In-situ study of electromigration-induced grain rotation in Pb-free solder joint by synchrotron microdiffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tu, King-Ning

    2008-01-01

    The rotation of Sn grains in Pb-free flip chip solder joints hasn't been reported in literature so far although it has been observed in Sn strips. In this letter, we report the detailed study of the grain orientation evolution induced by electromigration by synchrotron based white beam X-ray microdiffraction. It is found that the grains in solder joint rotate more slowly than in Sn strip even under higher current density. On the other hand, based on our estimation, the reorientation of the grains in solder joints also results in the reduction of electric resistivity, similar to the case of Sn strip. We will also discuss the reason why the electric resistance decreases much more in strips than in the Sn-based solders, and the different driving force for the grain growth in solder joint and in thin film interconnect lines

  14. In-situ study of electromigration-induced grain rotation in Pb-free solder joint by synchrotron microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tu, King-Ning

    2008-10-31

    The rotation of Sn grains in Pb-free flip chip solder joints hasn't been reported in literature so far although it has been observed in Sn strips. In this letter, we report the detailed study of the grain orientation evolution induced by electromigration by synchrotron based white beam X-ray microdiffraction. It is found that the grains in solder joint rotate more slowly than in Sn strip even under higher current density. On the other hand, based on our estimation, the reorientation of the grains in solder joints also results in the reduction of electric resistivity, similar to the case of Sn strip. We will also discuss the reason why the electric resistance decreases much more in strips than in the Sn-based solders, and the different driving force for the grain growth in solder joint and in thin film interconnect lines.

  15. Al and Si Alloying Effect on Solder Joint Reliability in Sn-0.5Cu for Automotive Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Won Sik; Oh, Chulmin; Kim, Mi-Song; Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Hui Joong; Hong, Sung Jae; Moon, Jeong Tak

    2016-12-01

    To suppress the bonding strength degradation of solder joints in automotive electronics, we proposed a mid-temperature quaternary Pb-free Sn-0.5Cu solder alloy with minor Pd, Al, Si and Ge alloying elements. We manufactured powders and solder pastes of Sn-0.5Cu-(0.01,0.03)Al-0.005Si-(0.006-0.007)Ge alloys ( T m = 230°C), and vehicle electronic control units used for a flame-retardant-4 printed circuit board with an organic solderability preservative finish were assembled by a reflow soldering process. To investigate the degradation properties of solder joints used in engine compartments, thermal cycling tests were conducted from -40°C to 125°C (10 min dwell) for 1500 cycles. We also measured the shear strength of the solder joints in various components and observed the microstructural evolution of the solder joints. Based on these results, intermetallic compound (IMC) growth at the solder joints was suppressed by minor Pd, Al and Si additions to the Sn-0.5Cu alloy. After 1500 thermal cycles, IMC layers thicknesses for 100 parts per million (ppm) and 300 ppm Al alloy additions were 6.7 μm and 10 μm, compared to the as-reflowed bonding thicknesses of 6 μm and 7 μm, respectively. Furthermore, shear strength degradation rates for 100 ppm and 300 ppm Al(Si) alloy additions were at least 19.5%-26.2%. The cause of the improvement in thermal cycling reliability was analyzed using the (Al,Cu)-Sn, Si-Sn and Al-Sn phases dispersed around the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic at the solder matrix and bonding interfaces. From these results, we propose the possibility of a mid-temperature Sn-0.5Cu(Pd)-Al(Si)-Ge Pb-free solder for automotive engine compartment electronics.

  16. Thermal decomposition of solder flux activators under simulated wave soldering conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    /methodology/approach: Changes in the chemical structure of the activators were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique and were correlated to the exposure temperatures within the range of wave soldering process. The amount of residue left on the surface was estimated using standardized acid-base...... titration method as a function of temperature, time of exposure and the substrate material used. Findings: The study shows that there is a possibility of anhydride-like species formation during the thermal treatment of fluxes containing weak organic acids (WOAs) as activators (succinic and DL...

  17. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girit, Caglar O [Berkeley, CA; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, CA

    2011-10-11

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  18. Safer Soldering Guidelines and Instructional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Tomlinson, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Soldering is a useful and necessary process for many classroom, makerspace, Fab Lab, technology and engineering lab, and science lab activities. As described in this article, soldering can pose many safety risks without proper engineering controls, standard operating procedures, and direct instructor supervision. There are many safety hazards…

  19. Effect of rare earth Ce on the fatigue life of SnAgCu solder joints in WLCSP device using FEM and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Ji-guang; Guo, Yong-huan; He, Cheng-wen

    2014-01-01

    With the addition of 0.03 wt% rare earth Ce, in our previous works, the properties of SnAgCu solder were enhanced obviously. Based on the Garofalo–Arrhenius creep constitutive model, finite element method was used to simulate the stress–strain response during thermal cycle loading, and combined with the fatigue life prediction models, the fatigue life of SnAgCu/SnAgCuCe solder joints was calculated respectively, which can demonstrate the effect of the rare earth Ce on the fatigue life of SnAgCu solder joints. The results indicated that the maximum stress–strain can be found on the top surface of the corner solder joint, and the warpage of the PCB substrate occurred during thermal cycle loading. The trends obtained from modeling results have a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature for WLCSP devices. In addition, the stress–strain of SnAgCuCe solder joints is lower than that of SnAgCu solder joints. The thermal fatigue lives of solder joints calculated based on the creep model and creep strain energy density model show that the fatigue life of SnAgCuCe solder joints is higher than the SnAgCu solder joints. The fatigue life of SnAgCuCe solder joints can be enhanced significantly with the addition of Ce, is 30.2% higher than that of SnAgCu solder joints, which can be attributed to the CeSn 3 particles formed resisting the motion of dislocation; moreover, the refinement of microstructure and the IMC sizes also contribute to the enhancement of fatigue life, which elucidates that SnAgCuCe solder can be utilized in electronic industry with high reliability replacing the SnAgCu solder

  20. Gold leaching by organic base polythionates: new non-toxic and secure technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Vladislav; Shekhvatova, Galina; Vainshtein, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The article present a review on own experimental and some published data which are related with the gold leaching. It is well-known that the most common and usual process of the leaching with cyanide can be dangerous, needs a great water consumption, and additional costs for remediation of the poisoned and toxic sites. The experimental data described production of poythionates which are not toxic but perspective for the prosperous gold leaching. The paper dedicated to the safe gold leaching with thiosulfates and organic salts of polythionic acids (organic base polythionates). The method of production of these polythionates based on the Smolyaninov reaction is described in stages and in details for the first time. Possible application of the polythionates application in the gold leaching is discussed and its advantages are compared with the gold leaching by cyanation.

  1. Integration of capillary electrophoresis with gold nanoparticle-based colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wu, Zhenglong; Qin, Weidong

    2017-12-01

    A method integrating capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gold nanoparticle aggregation-based colorimetry (AuNP-ABC) was described. By using a dual-sheath interface, the running buffer was isolated from the colorimetric reaction solution so that CE and AuNP-ABC would not interfere with each other. The proof-of-concept was validated by assay of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers that were fortified in human urine samples. The factors influencing the CE-AuNP-ABC performances were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the dendrimers were separated within 8 min, with detection limits of 0.5, 1.2 and 2.6 μg mL -1 for PAMAM G1.0, G2.0 and G3.0, respectively. The sensitivity of CE-AuNP-ABC was comparable to or even better than those of liquid chromatography-fluorimetry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results suggested that the proposed strategy can be applied to facile and quick determination of analytes of similar properties in complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric and visual creatinine assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yi; Zhang, Xianhui; Yu, Haili

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a selective and sensitive method for determination of creatinine using citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a colorimetric probe. It is based on a direct cross-linking reaction that occurs between creatinine and AuNPs that causes aggregation of AuNPs and results in a color change from wine red to blue. The absorption peak is shifted from 520 to 670 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the shift in the absorption peak is related the logarithm of the creatinine concentration in the 0.1 to 20 mM range, and the instrumental detection limit (LOD) is 80 μM. This LOD is about one order of magnitude better than that that of the Jaffé method (720 μM). The assay displays good selectivity over interfering substances including various inorganic ions, organic small compounds, proteins, and biothiols. It was successfully employed to the determination of creatinine in spiked human urine. (author)

  3. Effects of voids on thermal-mechanical reliability of lead-free solder joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benabou Lahouari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of electronic packages has become a major issue, particularly in systems used in electrical or hybrid cars where severe operating conditions must be met. Many studies have shown that solder interconnects are critical elements since many failure mechanisms originate from their typical response under thermal cycles. In this study, effects of voids in solder interconnects on the electronic assembly lifetime are estimated based on finite element simulations.

  4. Laser welding of vas deferens in rodents: initial experience with fluid solders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, R I; Wang, D; Maitz, P; Lanzetta, M; Owen, E R

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of sutureless laser welding for vasovasostomy. In 14 rodents, the left vas deferens underwent vasovasostomy using an albumin-based solder applied to the adventitia of the vas deferens. The solder contained the dye, indocyanine green, to allow selective absorption and denaturation by a fiber-coupled 800-nm diode laser. The right vas deferens served as a control, receiving conventional layered microsurgical repair. We used a removable 4/0 nylon stent and microclamps to appose the vas deferens during repair, with no need for stay sutures. The mean time to perform laser solder repair (23.5 min) and conventional repair (23.3 min) were not significantly different (P=0.91). However, examination after 8 weeks showed that granuloma formation (G) and patency (P) rates for the conventional suture technique (G, 14%; P, 93%) were significantly better than observed for the laser solder technique (G, 57%; P, 50%).

  5. Sensitive DNA impedance biosensor for detection of cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, based on gold nanoparticles/gold modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Taei, M.; Rahmani, H.R.; Khayamian, T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Chronic lymphocytic leukemia causes an increase in the number of white blood cells. → We introduced a highly sensitive biosensor for the detection of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. → A suitable 25-mer ssDNA probe was immobilized on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. → We used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a suitable tool for the detection. → Detection of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in blood sample was checked using the sensor. - Abstract: A simple and sensitive DNA impedance sensor was prepared for the detection of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The DNA electrochemical biosensor is worked based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) detection of the sequence-specific DNA related to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The ssDNA probe was immobilized on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. Compared to the bare gold electrode, the gold nanoparticles-modified electrode could improve the density of the probe DNA attachment and hence the sensitivity of the DNA sensor greatly. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed in a solution containing 1.0 mmol L -1 K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]/K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] and 50 mmol L -1 phosphate buffer saline pH 6.87 plus 50 mmol L -1 KCl. In the CV studied, the potential was cycled from 0.0 to +0.65 V with a scan rate of 50 mV s -1 . Using EIS, the difference of the electron transfer resistance (ΔR et ) was linear with the logarithm of the complementary oligonucleotides sequence concentrations in the range of 7.0 x 10 -12 -2.0 x 10 -7 mol L -1 , with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10 -12 mol L -1 . In addition, the DNA sensor showed a good reproducibility and stability during repeated regeneration and hybridization cycles.

  6. Comparative Study of ENIG and ENEPIG as Surface Finishes for a Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong-Won; Noh, Bo-In; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2011-09-01

    Interfacial reactions and joint reliability of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder with two different surface finishes, electroless nickel-immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel-electroless palladium-immersion gold (ENEPIG), were evaluated during a reflow process. We first compared the interfacial reactions of the two solder joints and also successfully revealed a connection between the interfacial reaction behavior and mechanical reliability. The Sn-Ag-Cu/ENIG joint exhibited a higher intermetallic compound (IMC) growth rate and a higher consumption rate of the Ni(P) layer than the Sn-Ag-Cu/ENEPIG joint. The presence of the Pd layer in the ENEPIG suppressed the growth of the interfacial IMC layer and the consumption of the Ni(P) layer, resulting in the superior interfacial stability of the solder joint. The shear test results show that the ENIG joint fractured along the interface, exhibiting indications of brittle failure possibly due to the brittle IMC layer. In contrast, the failure of the ENEPIG joint only went through the bulk solder, supporting the idea that the interface is mechanically reliable. The results from this study confirm that the Sn-Ag-Cu/ENEPIG solder joint is mechanically robust and, thus, the combination is a viable option for a Pb-free package system.

  7. Photothermal effects of laser tissue soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, K.M.; Sorg, B.S.; Welch, A.J.; Dawes, J.M.; Owen, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Low-strength anastomoses and thermal damage of tissue are major concerns in laser tissue welding techniques where laser energy is used to induce thermal changes in the molecular structure of the tissues being joined, hence allowing them to bond together. Laser tissue soldering, on the other hand, is a bonding technique in which a protein solder is applied to the tissue surfaces to be joined, and laser energy is used to bond the solder to the tissue surfaces. The addition of protein solders to augment tissue repair procedures significantly reduces the problems of low strength and thermal damage associated with laser tissue welding techniques. Investigations were conducted to determine optimal solder and laser parameters for tissue repair in terms of tensile strength, temperature rise and damage and the microscopic nature of the bonds formed. An in vitro study was performed using an 808 nm diode laser in conjunction with indocyanine green (ICG)-doped albumin protein solders to repair bovine aorta specimens. Liquid and solid protein solders prepared from 25% and 60% bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively, were compared. The efficacy of temperature feedback control in enhancing the soldering process was also investigated. Increasing the BSA concentration from 25% to 60% greatly increased the tensile strength of the repairs. A reduction in dye concentration from 2.5mgml -1 to 0.25mgml -1 was also found to result in an increase in tensile strength. Increasing the laser irradiance and thus surface temperature resulted in an increased severity of histological injury. Thermal denaturation of tissue collagen and necrosis of the intimal layer smooth muscle cells increased laterally and in depth with higher temperatures. The strongest repairs were produced with an irradiance of 6.4Wcm -2 using a solid protein solder composed of 60% BSA and 0.25mgml -1 ICG. Using this combination of laser and solder parameters, surface temperatures were observed to reach 85±5 deg. C with a

  8. Albumin solder covalently bound to a polymer membrane: New approach to improve binding strength in laser tissue soldering in-vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebl, B; Ascher, L; Luetzow, K; Kratz, K; Gruber, C; Mrowietz, C; Nehring, M E; Lendlein, A; Franke, R-P; Jung, F

    2018-01-01

    Laser tissue soldering (LTS) based on indocyanine green (ICG)-mediated heat-denaturation of proteins might be a promising alternative technique for micro-suturing, but up to now the problem of too weak shear strength of the solder welds in comparison to sutures is not solved. Earlier reports gave promising results showing that solder supported by carrier materials can enhance the cohesive strength of the liquid solder. In these studies, the solder was applied to the carriers by dip coating. Higher reliability of the connection between the solder and the carrier material is expected when the solder is bound covalently to the carrier material. In the present study a poly(ether imide) (PEI) membrane served as carrier material and ICG-supplemented albumin as solder substrate. The latter was covalently coupled to the carrier membrane under physiological conditions to prevent structural protein changes. As laser source a diode continuous-wave laser emitting at 808 nm with intensities between 250 mW and 1500 mW was utilized. The albumin functionalized carrier membrane was placed onto the tunica media of explanted pig thoracic aortae forming an overlapping area of approximately 0.5×0.5 cm2. All tests were performed in a dry state to prevent laser light absorption by water. Infrared spectroscopy, spectro-photometrical determination of the secondary and primary amine groups after acid orange II staining, contact angle measurements, and atomic force microscopy proved the successful functionalization of the PEI membrane with albumin. A laser power of 450 mW LTS could generate a membrane-blood vessel connection which was characterized by a shear strength of 0.08±0.002 MPa, corresponding to 15% of the tensile strength of the native blood vessel. Theoretically, an overlapping zone of 4.1 mm around the entire circumference of the blood vessel could have provided shear strength of the PEI membrane-blood vessel compound identical to the tensile strength of the native

  9. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  10. The constitutive response of three solder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G.; Cao Fang; Perez-Bergquist, Sara J.; Lopez, Mike F.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Gray, George T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The full constitutive response of three solder materials. ► Test temperatures from −196 °C to 60 °C and strain rates from 10 −3 to >10 3 s −1 . ► Substitutes for leaded solders from a mechanical/microstructural properties view. - Abstract: As increasing worldwide demand for portable consumer electronics drives development of smaller, faster, more powerful electronic devices, components in these devices must become smaller, more precise, and more robust. Often, failure of these devices comes as a result of failure of the package (i.e. when a mobile phone is dropped) and specifically comes as a result of failure of solder interconnects. As a result, stronger more reliable solder materials are needed. In this paper, the constitutive responses of three solder materials (Sn63Pb37, Sn62Pb36Ag2, and Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5) are analyzed as a function of temperature (−196 °C to 60 °C) and strain rate (10 −3 to >10 3 s −1 ). The lead-free Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 possessed the highest yield stress of the three solders at all tested strain rates and temperatures, and all solder microstructures which displayed a mechanical response that was sensitive to temperature exhibited grain coarsening with increasing plastic strain, even at room temperature.

  11. The constitutive response of three solder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G., E-mail: alexpb@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cao Fang [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering Company, Annadale, NJ 08801 (United States); Perez-Bergquist, Sara J.; Lopez, Mike F.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Gray, George T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The full constitutive response of three solder materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test temperatures from -196 Degree-Sign C to 60 Degree-Sign C and strain rates from 10{sup -3} to >10{sup 3} s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substitutes for leaded solders from a mechanical/microstructural properties view. - Abstract: As increasing worldwide demand for portable consumer electronics drives development of smaller, faster, more powerful electronic devices, components in these devices must become smaller, more precise, and more robust. Often, failure of these devices comes as a result of failure of the package (i.e. when a mobile phone is dropped) and specifically comes as a result of failure of solder interconnects. As a result, stronger more reliable solder materials are needed. In this paper, the constitutive responses of three solder materials (Sn63Pb37, Sn62Pb36Ag2, and Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5) are analyzed as a function of temperature (-196 Degree-Sign C to 60 Degree-Sign C) and strain rate (10{sup -3} to >10{sup 3} s{sup -1}). The lead-free Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 possessed the highest yield stress of the three solders at all tested strain rates and temperatures, and all solder microstructures which displayed a mechanical response that was sensitive to temperature exhibited grain coarsening with increasing plastic strain, even at room temperature.

  12. Optimal parameters for laser tissue soldering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chan, Eric K.; Welch, Ashley J.; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

    1998-07-01

    Variations in laser irradiance, exposure time, solder composition, chromophore type and concentration have led to inconsistencies in published results of laser-solder repair of tissue. To determine optimal parameters for laser tissue soldering, an in vitro study was performed using an 808-nm diode laser in conjunction with an indocyanine green (ICG)- doped albumin protein solder to weld bovine aorta specimens. Liquid and solid protein solders prepared from 25% and 60% bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively, were compared. The effects of laser irradiance and exposure time on tensile strength of the weld and temperature rise as well as the effect of hydration on bond stability were investigated. Optimum irradiance and exposure times were identified for each solder type. Increasing the BSA concentration from 25% to 60% greatly increased the tensile strength of the weld. A reduction in dye concentration from 2.5 mg/ml to 0.25 mg/ml was also found to result in an increase in tensile strength. The strongest welds were produced with an irradiance of 6.4 W/cm2 for 50 s using a solid protein solder composed of 60% BSA and 0.25 mg/ml ICG. Steady-state solder surface temperatures were observed to reach 85 plus or minus 5 degrees Celsius with a temperature gradient across the solid protein solder strips of between 15 and 20 degrees Celsius. Finally, tensile strength was observed to decrease significantly (20 to 25%) after the first hour of hydration in phosphate-buffered saline. No appreciable change was observed in the strength of the tissue bonds with further hydration.

  13. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  14. A Probabilistic Approach to Predict Thermal Fatigue Life for Ball Grid Array Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Helin; Wang, Kuisheng

    2011-11-01

    Numerous studies of the reliability of solder joints have been performed. Most life prediction models are limited to a deterministic approach. However, manufacturing induces uncertainty in the geometry parameters of solder joints, and the environmental temperature varies widely due to end-user diversity, creating uncertainties in the reliability of solder joints. In this study, a methodology for accounting for variation in the lifetime prediction for lead-free solder joints of ball grid array packages (PBGA) is demonstrated. The key aspects of the solder joint parameters and the cyclic temperature range related to reliability are involved. Probabilistic solutions of the inelastic strain range and thermal fatigue life based on the Engelmaier model are developed to determine the probability of solder joint failure. The results indicate that the standard deviation increases significantly when more random variations are involved. Using the probabilistic method, the influence of each variable on the thermal fatigue life is quantified. This information can be used to optimize product design and process validation acceptance criteria. The probabilistic approach creates the opportunity to identify the root causes of failed samples from product fatigue tests and field returns. The method can be applied to better understand how variation affects parameters of interest in an electronic package design with area array interconnections.

  15. A Novel Technique for the Connection of Ceramic and Titanium Implant Components Using Glass Solder Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Mick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Both titanium and ceramic materials provide specific advantages in dental implant technology. However, some problems, like hypersensitivity reactions, corrosion and mechanical failure, have been reported. Therefore, the combining of both materials to take advantage of their pros, while eliminating their respective cons, would be desirable. Hence, we introduced a new technique to bond titanium and ceramic materials by means of a silica-based glass ceramic solder. Cylindrical compound samples (Ø10 mm × 56 mm made of alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ, as well as titanium grade 5, were bonded by glass solder on their end faces. As a control, a two-component adhesive glue was utilized. The samples were investigated without further treatment, after 30 and 90 days of storage in distilled water at room temperature, and after aging. All samples were subjected to quasi-static four-point-bending tests. We found that the glass solder bonding provided significantly higher bending strength than adhesive glue bonding. In contrast to the glued samples, the bending strength of the soldered samples remained unaltered by the storage and aging treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analyses confirmed the presence of a stable solder-ceramic interface. Therefore, the glass solder technique represents a promising method for optimizing dental and orthopedic implant bondings.

  16. Thermomechanical Behavior of Monolithic SN-AG-CU Solder and Copper Fiber Reinforced Solders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reuse, Rolando

    2005-01-01

    .... The thermomechanical cycling in the solder causes numerous reliability challenges, mostly because of the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the silicon chip and the substrate...

  17. Optimal energy for cell radiosensitivity enhancement by gold nanoparticles using synchrotron-based monoenergetic photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wan Nordiana; Corde, Stéphanie; Yagi, Naoto; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Annabell, Nathan; Geso, Moshi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been shown to enhance radiation doses delivered to biological targets due to the high absorption coefficient of gold atoms, stemming from their high atomic number (Z) and physical density. These properties significantly increase the likelihood of photoelectric effects and Compton scattering interactions. Gold nanoparticles are a novel radiosensitizing agent that can potentially be used to increase the effectiveness of current radiation therapy techniques and improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, the optimum radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles is strongly dependent on photon energy, which theoretically is predicted to occur in the kilovoltage range of energy. In this research, synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays in the 30-100 keV range were used to investigate the energy dependence of radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles and also to determine the photon energy that produces optimum effects. This investigation was conducted using cells in culture to measure dose enhancement. Bovine aortic endothelial cells with and without gold nanoparticles were irradiated with X-rays at energies of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 81, and 100 keV. Trypan blue exclusion assays were performed after irradiation to determine cell viability. Cell radiosensitivity enhancement was indicated by the dose enhancement factor which was found to be maximum at 40 keV with a value of 3.47. The dose enhancement factor obtained at other energy levels followed the same direction as the theoretical calculations based on the ratio of the mass energy absorption coefficients of gold and water. This experimental evidence shows that the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles varies with photon energy as predicted from theoretical calculations. However, prediction based on theoretical assumptions is sometimes difficult due to the complexity of biological systems, so further study at the cellular level is required to fully characterize the effects

  18. Paper-based tuberculosis diagnostic devices with colorimetric gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Shen, Shu-Wei; Chen, Chien-Fu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2013-01-01

    A colorimetric sensing strategy employing gold nanoparticles and a paper assay platform has been developed for tuberculosis diagnosis. Unmodified gold nanoparticles and single-stranded detection oligonucleotides are used to achieve rapid diagnosis without complicated and time-consuming thiolated or other surface-modified probe preparation processes. To eliminate the use of sophisticated equipment for data analysis, the color variance for multiple detection results was simultaneously collected and concentrated on cellulose paper with the data readout transmitted for cloud computing via a smartphone. The results show that the 2.6 nM tuberculosis mycobacterium target sequences extracted from patients can easily be detected, and the turnaround time after the human DNA is extracted from clinical samples was approximately 1 h. (paper)

  19. External-beam PIXE spectrometry for the study of Punic jewellery (SW Spain): The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontalba Salamanca, M.A.; Gomez-Tubio, B.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Respaldiza, M.A.; Luisa de la Bandera, M.; Ovejero Zappino, G.; Bouzas, A.; Gomez-Moron, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the study of a set of Punic gold items (400 B.C.), from the Museum of Cadiz (Spain). An external beam set-up has been employed for the absolutely non-destructive analysis of the objects. PIXE spectrometry has been performed in order to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. Compositional differences have been found and soldering procedures have been identified. By comparison with the rings and other coetaneous jewellery, the presence of palladium in the bulk alloy of the earrings can be pointed out. The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold is discussed based on geological and archaeological considerations

  20. External-beam PIXE spectrometry for the study of Punic jewellery (SW Spain): The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ontalba Salamanca, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n., 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: ontalba@unex.es; Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Luisa de la Bandera, M. [Departamento de Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Ovejero Zappino, G. [Cobre Las Cruces SA, Gerena, Sevilla (Spain); Bouzas, A. [Instituto Andaluz de Patrimonio Historico, Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Moron, A. [Instituto Andaluz de Patrimonio Historico, Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    This paper presents the study of a set of Punic gold items (400 B.C.), from the Museum of Cadiz (Spain). An external beam set-up has been employed for the absolutely non-destructive analysis of the objects. PIXE spectrometry has been performed in order to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. Compositional differences have been found and soldering procedures have been identified. By comparison with the rings and other coetaneous jewellery, the presence of palladium in the bulk alloy of the earrings can be pointed out. The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold is discussed based on geological and archaeological considerations.

  1. Towards the elaboration of new gold-based optical theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulain, Pierre-Emmanuel; Decréau, Richard; Racoeur, Cindy; Goncalves, Victor; Dubrez, Laurence; Bettaieb, Ali; Le Gendre, Pierre; Denat, Franck; Paul, Catherine; Goze, Christine; Bodio, Ewen

    2015-03-21

    Four new red BODIPY-gold(I) theranostic compounds were synthesized. Some of them were vectorized by tethering a biovector (glucose or bombesin derivatives) to the metallic center. Their photophysical properties were studied. Additionally, their cytotoxicity was examined on different cancer cell lines and on a normal cell line, they were tracked in vitro by fluorescence detection, and their uptake was evaluated by ICP-MS measurements.

  2. A Reagentless Amperometric Formaldehyde-Selective Chemosensor Based on Platinized Gold Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Demkiv, Olha; Smutok, Oleh; Gonchar, Mykhailo; Nisnevitch, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of a new amperometric chemosensor for accurate formaldehyde analysis based on platinized gold electrodes is described. The platinization process was performed electrochemically on the surface of 4 mm gold planar electrodes by both electrolysis and cyclic voltamperometry. The produced electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral analysis. Using a low working potential (0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) enabled an essential increase in th...

  3. Finite Element-Assisted Assessment of the Thermo-cyclic Characteristics of Leads Soldered with SnAgCu(+Bi,In) Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Adrian; Nakanishi, Kohei; Matsuda, Tomoki; Sano, Tomokazu; Minagawa, Madoka; Okamoto, Masahide; Hirose, Akio

    2017-07-01

    Solder joints between leads and printed circuit boards in thin small outline packages were produced with conventional Sn1.0Ag0.7Cu (SAC107) and Sn3.0Ag0.7Cu (SAC305) solders as well as various solder alloys with gradually increasing amounts of Bi (up to 3.0 wt.%) and In (up to 1.0 wt.%) within the SAC107 base solder. The reliability of soldered leads in temperature cycle (TC) tests improved most with solder alloys containing both Bi (1.6 wt.%) and In (0.5 wt.%). Microindentation and electron probe microanalysis mappings revealed that the effect originates from a combination of solution and precipitation strengthening of the initial SAC alloy. The distribution of inelastic strain accumulation (ISA), as a measure for degradation, was determined in the solder joints by finite element calculations. It was shown that defects in the solder proximal to the lead (60-75 μm), which was underpinned by similar cracking characteristics along the lead-solder interface. The ISA was confirmed to be lower in SAC+Bi/In alloys owing to their enhanced elasto-plastic properties. Moreover, the addition of a thin Cu coating on the leads could improve the joint reliability, as suggested by the calculation of the ISA and the acceleration factor.

  4. Nanoconstruction by welding individual metallic nanowires together using nanoscale solder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y; Inkson, B J; Cullis, A G

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new bottom-up nanowelding technique enabling building blocks to be assembled and welded together into complex 3D nanostructures using nanovolumes of metal solder. The building blocks of gold nanowires, (Co 72 Pt 28 /Pt) n multilayer nanowires, and nanosolder Sn 99 Au 1 alloy nanowires were successfully fabricated by a template technique. Individual metallic nanowires were picked up and assembled together. Conductive nanocircuits were then welded together using similar or dissimilar nanosolder material. At the weld sites, nanoscale volumes of a chosen metal are deposited using nanosolder of a sacrificial nanowire, which ensures that the nanoobjects to be bonded retain their structural integrity. The whole nanowelding process is clean, controllable and reliable, and ensures both mechanically strong and electrically conductive contacts.

  5. Mechanical Deformation Behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu Solders with Minor Addition of 0.05 wt.% Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, A. E.; El-Taher, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a comparative evaluation of the microstructural and mechanical deformation behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solders with the minor addition of 0.05 wt.% Ni. Test results showed that, by adding 0.05Ni element into SAC solders, generated mainly small rod-shaped (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) inside the β-Sn phase. Moreover, increasing the Ag content and adding Ni could result in the change of the shape and size of the IMC precipitate. Hence, a significant improvement is observed in the mechanical properties of SAC solders with increasing Ag content and Ni addition. On the other hand, the tensile results of Ni-doped SAC solders showed that both the yield stress and ultimate tensile strengths decrease with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. This behavior was attributed to the competing effects of work hardening and dynamic recovery processes. The Sn-2.0Ag-0.5Cu-0.05Ni solder displayed the highest mechanical properties due to the formation of hard (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMCs. Based on the obtained stress exponents and activation energies, it is suggested that the dominant deformation mechanism in SAC (205)-, SAC (0505)- and SAC (0505)-0.05Ni solders is pipe diffusion, and lattice self-diffusion in SAC (205)-0.05Ni solder. In view of these results, the Sn-2.0Ag-0.5Cu-0.05Ni alloy is a more reliable solder alloy with improved properties compared with other solder alloys tested in the present work.

  6. Optimal energy for cell radiosensitivity enhancement by gold nanoparticles using synchrotron-based monoenergetic photon beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman WN

    2014-05-01

    .47. The dose enhancement factor obtained at other energy levels followed the same direction as the theoretical calculations based on the ratio of the mass energy absorption coefficients of gold and water. This experimental evidence shows that the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles varies with photon energy as predicted from theoretical calculations. However, prediction based on theoretical assumptions is sometimes difficult due to the complexity of biological systems, so further study at the cellular level is required to fully characterize the effects of gold nanoparticles with ionizing radiation.Keywords: gold nanoparticles, radiotherapy, monoenergetic synchrotron radiation, radiosensitizers, in vitro

  7. Cyclodextrin-Based [1]Rotaxanes on Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of mechanically interlocked molecules (e.g., rotaxanes and catenanes into nanoscale materials or devices is an important step towards their real applications. In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous solution was prepared. The self-included β-CD derivative was then functionalized onto a gold nanoparticle (AuNP surface via a ligand-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, leading to the formation of AuNP-[1]rotaxane hybrids. Corresponding non-self-included β-CD derivative functionalized AuNPs were also developed in a DMF/H2O mixture solution for control experiments. These hybrids were fully characterized by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The competitive binding behavior of the hybrids with an adamantane dimer was investigated.

  8. Gold and silver nanoparticles based superquenching of fluorescence: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debanjana; Chattopadhyay, Nitin, E-mail: nitin.chattopadhyay@yahoo.com

    2015-04-15

    The short review highlights the recent advances on the gold and silver nanoparticles induced efficient quenching of fluorescence from various fluorophores looking at their promising use as optical rulers and chemo-/bio- sensors. The fluorescence quenching often leads to the increase in the Stern–Volmer constant (K{sub SV}~10{sup 7}–10{sup 10} mol{sup −1} dm{sup 3}) several orders of magnitude higher than the values observed for the normal photochemical quenching processes (~10{sup 2} mol{sup −1} dm{sup 3}). This amplified quenching has been termed as “super-quenching” or “hyper-quenching”. Energy transfer (ET) is established from the donor to the metal nanoparticles rationalizing these fast quenching processes. Considering the distance dependence of the ET process, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) are ascribed to take place. These sensitive distance dependent phenomena serve as the spectroscopic ruler to measure the intra- or intermolecular distances between the interacting partners. In this account focus has been laid on the size dependent energy transfer and super- and hyper- quenching of the fluorescence of the donor moieties by the nanometals and their probable applications in sensing. Rationalization has been made for the nanoparticle induced huge enhancement in the quenching efficiency. The impact of this review lies in the possible application of these amplified quenching processes in designing high sensitive chemical and biological sensors. - Highlights: • Super efficient quenching of fluorescence of probes by gold and silver nanoparticles is highlighted. • The amplified fluorescence quenching of dyes and polymers is rationalized. • Energy transfer is assigned to be responsible for the efficient quenching process. • Amplified quenching has its potential use in designing sensitive chemical/biological sensors.

  9. Gold and silver nanoparticles based superquenching of fluorescence: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Debanjana; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The short review highlights the recent advances on the gold and silver nanoparticles induced efficient quenching of fluorescence from various fluorophores looking at their promising use as optical rulers and chemo-/bio- sensors. The fluorescence quenching often leads to the increase in the Stern–Volmer constant (K SV ~10 7 –10 10 mol −1 dm 3 ) several orders of magnitude higher than the values observed for the normal photochemical quenching processes (~10 2 mol −1 dm 3 ). This amplified quenching has been termed as “super-quenching” or “hyper-quenching”. Energy transfer (ET) is established from the donor to the metal nanoparticles rationalizing these fast quenching processes. Considering the distance dependence of the ET process, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) are ascribed to take place. These sensitive distance dependent phenomena serve as the spectroscopic ruler to measure the intra- or intermolecular distances between the interacting partners. In this account focus has been laid on the size dependent energy transfer and super- and hyper- quenching of the fluorescence of the donor moieties by the nanometals and their probable applications in sensing. Rationalization has been made for the nanoparticle induced huge enhancement in the quenching efficiency. The impact of this review lies in the possible application of these amplified quenching processes in designing high sensitive chemical and biological sensors. - Highlights: • Super efficient quenching of fluorescence of probes by gold and silver nanoparticles is highlighted. • The amplified fluorescence quenching of dyes and polymers is rationalized. • Energy transfer is assigned to be responsible for the efficient quenching process. • Amplified quenching has its potential use in designing sensitive chemical/biological sensors

  10. Gold-based optical biosensor for single-mismatched DNA detection using salt-induced hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Zongrui; Ma, Xingyi; Cao, Cuong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a gold nanoparticle (Au-NP)-based detection method for sensitive and specific DNA-based diagnostic applications is described. A sandwich format consisting of Au-NPs/DNA/PMP (Streptavidin-coated MagnetSphere Para-Magnetic Particles) was fabricated. PMPs captured and separated target...

  11. Effect of Preconditioning and Soldering on Failures of Chip Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Soldering of molded case tantalum capacitors can result in damage to Ta205 dielectric and first turn-on failures due to thermo-mechanical stresses caused by CTE mismatch between materials used in the capacitors. It is also known that presence of moisture might cause damage to plastic cases due to the pop-corning effect. However, there are only scarce literature data on the effect of moisture content on the probability of post-soldering electrical failures. In this work, that is based on a case history, different groups of similar types of CWR tantalum capacitors from two lots were prepared for soldering by bake, moisture saturation, and longterm storage at room conditions. Results of the testing showed that both factors: initial quality of the lot, and preconditioning affect the probability of failures. Baking before soldering was shown to be effective to prevent failures even in lots susceptible to pop-corning damage. Mechanism of failures is discussed and recommendations for pre-soldering bake are suggested based on analysis of moisture characteristics of materials used in the capacitors' design.

  12. Fundamentals of lead-free solder interconnect technology from microstructures to reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Kim, Choong-Un; Ma, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    This unique book provides an up-to-date overview of the fundamental concepts behind lead-free solder and interconnection technology. Readers will find a description of the rapidly increasing presence of electronic systems in all aspects of modern life as well as the increasing need for predictable reliability in electronic systems. The physical and mechanical properties of lead-free solders are examined in detail, and building on fundamental science, the mechanisms responsible for damage and failure evolution, which affect reliability of lead-free solder joints are identified based on microstructure evolution.  The continuing miniaturization of electronic systems will increase the demand on the performance of solder joints, which will require new alloy and processing strategies as well as interconnection design strategies. This book provides a foundation on which improved performance and new design approaches can be based.  In summary, this book:  Provides an up-to-date overview on lead-free soldering tech...

  13. High temperature soldering of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, L.T.; Kravetskij, G.A.; Dergunova, V.S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect is studied of the brazing temperature on the strength of the brazed joint of graphite materials. In one case, iron and nickel are used as solder, and in another, molybdenum. The contact heating of the iron and nickel with the graphite has been studied in the temperature range of 1400-2400 ged C, and molybdenum, 2200-2600 deg C. The quality of the joints has been judged by the tensile strength at temperatures of 2500-2800 deg C and by the microstructure. An investigation into the kinetics of carbon dissolution in molten iron has shown that the failure of the graphite in contact with the iron melt is due to the incorporation of iron atoms in the interbase planes. The strength of a joint formed with the participation of the vapour-gas phase is 2.5 times higher than that of a joint obtained by graphite recrystallization through the carbon-containing metal melt. The critical temperatures are determined of graphite brazing with nickel, iron, and molybdenum interlayers, which sharply increase the strength of the brazed joint as a result of the formation of a vapour-gas phase and deposition of fine-crystal carbon

  14. Microstructure evolution and thermomechanical fatigue of solder materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matin, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The microelectronics industry is confronted with the new challenge to produce joints with lead-free solder materials replacing classical tin-lead solders in devices used in many fields (e.g. consumer electronics, road transport, aviation, space-crafts, telecommunication). In service, solder

  15. Efforts to Develop a 300°C Solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC

    2015-01-25

    This paper covers the efforts made to find a 300°C electrical solder solution for geothermal well monitoring and logging tools by Perma Works LLC. This paper covers: why a high temperature solder is needed, what makes for a good solder, testing flux, testing conductive epoxy and testing intermetallic bonds. Future areas of research are suggested.

  16. Gold nanoparticle-based optical microfluidic sensors for analysis of environmental pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Senkbeil, Silja; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional methods of environmental analysis can be significantly improved by the development of portable microscale technologies for direct in-field sensing at remote locations. This report demonstrates the vast potential of gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensors for the rapid, in......-field, detection of two important classes of environmental contaminants – heavy metals and pesticides. Using gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensors linked to a simple digital camera as the detector, detection limits as low as 0.6 μg L−1 and 16 μg L−1 could be obtained for the heavy metal mercury...... and the dithiocarbamate pesticide ziram, respectively. These results demonstrate that the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticle probes combine synergistically with the inherent qualities of microfluidic platforms to offer simple, portable and sensitive sensors for environmental contaminants....

  17. Relativistic effects on acidities and basicities of Brønsted acids and bases containing gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Ilmar A; Burk, Peeter; Kasemets, Kalev; Koppel, Ivar

    2013-11-07

    It is usually believed that relativistic effects as described by the Dirac-Schrödinger equation (relative to the classical or time-independent Schrödinger equation) are of little importance in chemistry. A closer look, however, reveals that some important and widely known properties (e.g., gold is yellow, mercury is liquid at room temperature) stem from relativistic effects. So far the influence of relativistic effects on the acid-base properties has been mostly ignored. Here we show that at least for compounds of gold such omission is completely erroneous and would lead to too high basicity and too low acidity values with errors in the range of 25-55 kcal mol(-1) (or 20 to 44 powers of ten in pK(a) units) in the gas-phase. These findings have important implications for the design of new superstrong acids and bases, and for the understanding of gold-catalysed reactions.

  18. A novel method for direct solder bump pull testing using lead-free solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory Alan

    This thesis focuses on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a new method for testing the adhesion strength of lead-free solders, named the Isotraction Bump Pull method (IBP). In order to develop a direct solder joint-strength testing method that did not require customization for different solder types, bump sizes, specific equipment, or trial-and-error, a combination of two widely used and accepted standards was created. First, solder bumps were made from three types of lead free solder were generated on untreated copper PCB substrates using an in-house fabricated solder bump-on-demand generator, Following this, the newly developed method made use of a polymer epoxy to encapsulate the solder bumps that could then be tested under tension using a high precision universal vertical load machine. The tests produced repeatable and predictable results for each of the three alloys tested that were in agreement with the relative behavior of the same alloys using other testing methods in the literature. The median peak stress at failure for the three solders tested were 2020.52 psi, 940.57 psi, and 2781.0 psi, and were within one standard deviation of the of all data collected for each solder. The assumptions in this work that brittle fracture occurred through the Intermetallic Compound layer (IMC) were validated with the use of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and high magnification of the fractured surface of both newly exposed sides of the test specimens. Following this, an examination of the process to apply the results from the tensile tests into standard material science equations for the fracture of the systems was performed..

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Accuracy of a Cast Fixed Partial Denture Compared to Soldered Fixed Partial Denture Made of Two Different Base Metal Alloys and Casting Techniques: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jei, J Brintha; Mohan, Jayashree

    2014-03-01

    The periodontal health of abutment teeth and the durability of fixed partial denture depends on the marginal adaptation of the prosthesis. Any discrepancy in the marginal area leads to dissolution of luting agent and plaque accumulation. This study was done with the aim of evaluating the accuracy of marginal fit of four unit crown and bridge made up of Ni-Cr and Cr-Co alloys under induction and centrifugal casting. They were compared to cast fixed partial denture (FPD) and soldered FPD. For the purpose of this study a metal model was fabricated. A total of 40 samples (4-unit crown and bridge) were prepared in which 20 Cr-Co samples and 20 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated. Within these 20 samples of each group 10 samples were prepared by induction casting technique and other 10 samples with centrifugal casting technique. The cast FPD samples obtained were seated on the model and the samples were then measured with travelling microscope having precision of 0.001 cm. Sectioning of samples was done between the two pontics and measurements were made, then the soldering was made with torch soldering unit. The marginal discrepancy of soldered samples was measured and all findings were statistically analysed. The results revealed minimal marginal discrepancy with Cr-Co samples when compared to Ni-Cr samples done under induction casting technique. When compared to cast FPD samples, the soldered group showed reduced marginal discrepancy.

  20. Physics of Failure as a Basis for Solder Elements Reliability Assessment in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    description of the reliability. A physics of failure approach is applied. A SnAg solder component used in power electronics is used as an example. Crack propagation in the SnAg solder is modeled and a model to assess the accumulated plastic strain is proposed based on a physics of failure approach. Based...... on the proposed model it is described how to find the accumulated linear damage and reliability levels for a given temperature loading profile. Using structural reliability methods the reliability levels of the electrical components are assessed by introducing scale factors for stresses....

  1. Gold nanoparticle-based fluorescent sensor for the analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senkbeil, Silja; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides play a key role in the high yields achieved in modern agricultural food production. Besides their positive effect on increasing productivity they are intentionally toxic, often towards non-target organisms and contaminated food products can have a serious impact on human...... and environmental health. This paper demonstrates the potential of a gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensor for in field detection of dithiocarbamate pesticides at remote locations. Combining the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticles with on chip mixing and detection, using a simple digital...

  2. A Hodge dual for soldered bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Tiago Gribl; Pereira, J G

    2009-01-01

    In order to account for all possible contractions allowed by the presence of the solder form, a generalized Hodge dual is defined for the case of soldered bundles. Although for curvature the generalized dual coincides with the usual one, for torsion it gives a completely new dual definition. Starting from the standard form of a gauge Lagrangian for the translation group, the generalized Hodge dual yields precisely the Lagrangian of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, and consequently also the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian of general relativity

  3. Sensitive flotation-spectrophotometric determination of gold, based on the gold(I)-iodide-methylene blue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczenko, Z; Jankowski, K

    1985-04-01

    The gold(I)-iodide-Methylene Blue (MB) system is suitable for flotation separation and spectrophotometric determination of gold. Under the optimum conditions [(MB(+))(AuI(2)(-))].3[(MB(+))(I(3)(-))] is formed, and floated with cyclohexane. The product is dissolved in methanol and its absorbance measured. The molar absorptivity is 3.4 x 10(5)1.mole(-1).cm(-1) at 655 nm. The proposed method is more than three times as sensitive as the Rhodamine B method. Pt, Pd, Ag and Hg interfere seriously, and Ir, Rh, Bi and Cd to a smaller extent. Preliminary separation of gold by precipitation with tellurium as a collector is recommended. The method has been applied to determination of gold traces (about 1 x 10(-4)%) in a copper sample.

  4. Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols over Gold Catalysts: Role of Acid and Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; DeLa Riva, Andrew T.; Helveg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are deposited on potassium titanate nanowires and used as heterogeneous catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol in methanol to methyl benzoate at ambient conditions. The presence of a catalytic amount of base promotes the reaction and the formation of free benzoic...

  5. Commentary: Photothermal effects of laser tissue soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menovsky, T.; Beek, J.F.; Gemert, M.J.C. van

    1999-01-01

    freezing and thawing induces extracellular and intracellular damage. The study is methodologically sound, and the findings in agreement with those of previous studies, i.e. increasing the concentration of the solder results in a greater tensile strength of the bonded tissue and the higher the tissue temperature the greater the thermal damage. As proteins are believed to be the primary component of the welding process, topical applied proteins, used as solders, may provide the necessary amount of protein for welding and result in a greater tensile strength (Poppas et al 1992). A surprising finding is that no colour changes were observed at the irradiances producing optimal tensile strength (corresponding to a temperature of 85 deg. C), as it is above the denaturisation temperature of proteins and logically would be expected to result in some colour changes. Availability and cost are the biggest obstacles to the widespread use of lasers in tissue welding. Most lasers are not equipped with a stable milliwatt mode and/or a micromanipulator. Sutures, on the contrary, are cheap, reliable and always readily available. From a technical point of view, elements of the laser welding technique are unfamiliar to most surgeons. Therefore, acquisition of technical skills and handling of the laser is essential in a laboratory set-up before proceeding to the clinic. For repair of tissues in humans, placement of sutures seems to be mandatory to facilitate manipulation of the tissue during laser irradiation and to lower the risk of post-operative dehiscence. To use the laser only to avoid the placement of extra sutures (and thus proceeding to standard suture repair) seems, at present, unjustified as many studies have failed to show significant results in favour of laser welding. The end point in tissue welding is, at the moment, based on visual changes of the tissue and the surgeon must 'see and feel' whether the welding is complete. It is important that many investigations continue in the

  6. SINGLE IMAGE CAMERA CALIBRATION IN CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR SOLDER JOINT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heinemann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Printed Circuit Boards (PCB play an important role in the manufacturing of electronic devices. To ensure a correct function of the PCBs a certain amount of solder paste is needed during the placement of components. The aim of the current research is to develop an real-time, closed-loop solution for the analysis of the printing process where solder is printed onto PCBs. Close range photogrammetry allows for determination of the solder volume and a subsequent correction if necessary. Photogrammetry is an image based method for three dimensional reconstruction from two dimensional image data of an object. A precise camera calibration is indispensable for an accurate reconstruction. In our certain application it is not possible to use calibration methods with two dimensional calibration targets. Therefore a special calibration target was developed and manufactured, which allows for single image camera calibration.

  7. Laser assisted soldering: microdroplet accumulation with a microjet device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, E K; Lu, Q; Bell, B; Motamedi, M; Frederickson, C; Brown, D T; Kovach, I S; Welch, A J

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of a microjet to dispense protein solder for laser assisted soldering. Successive micro solder droplets were deposited on rat dermis and bovine intima specimens. Fixed laser exposure was synchronized with the jetting of each droplet. After photocoagulation, each specimen was cut into two halves at the center of solder coagulum. One half was fixed immediately, while the other half was soaked in phosphate-buffered saline for a designated hydration period before fixation (1 hour, 1, 2, and 7 days). After each hydration period, all tissue specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stable solder coagulum was created by successive photocoagulation of microdroplets even after the soldered tissue exposed to 1 week of hydration. This preliminary study suggested that tissue soldering with successive microdroplets is feasible even with fixed laser parameters without active feedback control.

  8. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation between the Chinese domestic and international gold markets based on DCCA and DMCA methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangxi; Han, Yan; Chen, Yuemeng; Yang, Chunxia

    2014-05-01

    Based on the daily price data of Shanghai and London gold spot markets, we applied detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) and detrended moving average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) methods to quantify power-law cross-correlation between domestic and international gold markets. Results show that the cross-correlations between the Chinese domestic and international gold spot markets are multifractal. Furthermore, forward DMCA and backward DMCA seems to outperform DCCA and centered DMCA for short-range gold series, which confirms the comparison results of short-range artificial data in L. Y. He and S. P. Chen [Physica A 390 (2011) 3806-3814]. Finally, we analyzed the local multifractal characteristics of the cross-correlation between Chinese domestic and international gold markets. We show that multifractal characteristics of the cross-correlation between the Chinese domestic and international gold markets are time-varying and that multifractal characteristics were strengthened by the financial crisis in 2007-2008.

  9. Effect of trace elements on the interface reactions between two lead-free solders and copper or nickel substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Sn-Pb solder alloys are being replaced, because of environmental and health concerns about lead toxicity. Among some alternative alloy systems, the Sn-Zn and Sn-Cu base alloy systems have been studied and reveal promising properties. The reliability of a solder joint is affected by the solder/substrate interaction and the nature of the layers formed at the interface. The solder/substrate reactions, for Sn-Zn and Sn-Cu base solder alloys, were evaluated in what concerns the morphology and chemical composition of the interface layers. The effect of the addition of P, at low levels, on the chemical composition of the layers present at the interface was studied. The phases formed at the interface between the Cu or Ni substrate and a molten lead-free solder at 250ºC, were studied for different stage times and alloy compositions. The melting temperatures, of the studied alloys, were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Identification of equilibrium phases formed at the interface layer, and the evaluation of their chemical composition were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDS. Different interface characteristics were obtained, namely for the alloys containing Zn. The obtained IML layer thickness was compared, for both types of alloy systems.

  10. Induction of cell death in a glioblastoma line by hyperthermic therapy based on gold nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Cabada T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tamara Fernandez Cabada1,2,*, Cristina Sanchez Lopez de Pablo1,3,*, Alberto Martinez Serrano2, Francisco del Pozo Guerrero1,3, Jose Javier Serrano Olmedo1,3,*, Milagros Ramos Gomez1–3,* 1Centre for Biomedical Technology, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 2Centre for Molecular Biology, "Severo Ochoa" Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 3Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-bbn, Zaragoza, Spain.*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Metallic nanorods are promising agents for a wide range of biomedical applications. In this study, we developed an optical hyperthermia method capable of inducing in vitro death of glioblastoma cells.Methods: The procedure used was based on irradiation of gold nanorods with a continuous wave laser. This kind of nanoparticle converts absorbed light into localized heat within a short period of time due to the surface plasmon resonance effect. The effectiveness of the method was determined by measuring changes in cell viability after laser irradiation of glioblastoma cells in the presence of gold nanorods.Results: Laser irradiation in the presence of gold nanorods induced a significant decrease in cell viability, while no decrease in cell viability was observed with laser irradiation or incubation with gold nanorods alone. The mechanism of cell death mediated by gold nanorods during photothermal ablation was analyzed, indicating that treatment compromised the integrity of the cell membrane instead of initiating the process of programmed cell death.Conclusion: The use of gold nanorods in hyperthermal therapies is very effective in eliminating glioblastoma cells, and therefore represents an important area of research for therapeutic development.Keywords: laser irradiation, photothermal therapy, surface plasmon resonance, cancer

  11. A review of typical thermal fatigue failure models for solder joints of electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Ruifeng; Wang, Yongdong

    2017-09-01

    For electronic components, cyclic plastic strain makes it easier to accumulate fatigue damage than elastic strain. When the solder joints undertake thermal expansion or cold contraction, different thermal strain of the electronic component and its corresponding substrate is caused by the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the electronic component and its corresponding substrate, leading to the phenomenon of stress concentration. So repeatedly, cracks began to sprout and gradually extend [1]. In this paper, the typical thermal fatigue failure models of solder joints of electronic components are classified and the methods of obtaining the parameters in the model are summarized based on domestic and foreign literature research.

  12. Reliability of Wind Turbine Components-Solder Elements Fatigue Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    on the temperature mean and temperature range. Constant terms and model errors are estimated. The proposed methods are useful to predict damage values for solder joint in power electrical components. Based on the proposed methods it is described how to find the damage level for a given temperature loading profile....... The proposed methods are discussed for application in reliability assessment of Wind Turbine’s electrical components considering physical, model and measurement uncertainties. For further research it is proposed to evaluate damage criteria for electrical components due to the operational temperature...

  13. A novel reflectance-based aptasensor using gold nanoparticles for the detection of oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ho Bin; Kwon, Young Seop; Lee, Ji-eun; Cullen, David; Noh, Hongseok Moses; Gu, Man Bock

    2015-10-07

    We present a novel reflectance-based colorimetric aptasensor using gold nanoparticles for the detection of oxytetracycline for the first time. It was found that the reflectance-based measurement at two wavelengths (650 and 520 nm) can generate more stable and sensitive signals than absorbance-based sensors to determine the aggregation of AuNPs, even at high AuNP concentrations. One of the most common antibacterial agents, oxytetracycline (OTC), was detected at concentrations as low as 1 nM in both buffer solution and tap water, which was 25-fold more sensitive, compared to the previous absorbance-based colorimetric aptasensors. This reflectance-based colorimetric aptasensor using gold nanoparticles is considered to be a better platform for portable sensing of small molecules using aptamers.

  14. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING LASER-ULTRASOUND TO MONITOR THE QUALITY SOLDERED CONNECTIONS CHAMBERS OF LIQUID ROCKET ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Astredinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacturing process to the design of modern liquid rocket engines are presented important requirements, such as minimum weight, maximum stiffness and strength of nodes, maximum service life in operation, high reliability and quality of soldered and welded seams. Due to the high quality requirements soldered connections and the specific design of the nozzle, it became necessary in the development and testing of a new non-conventional non-destructive testing method – laser-ultrasound diagnosis. In accordance with regulatory guidelines, quality control soldered connections is allowed to use an acoustic kind of control methods of the reflected light, transmitted light, resonant, free vibration and acoustic emission. Attempts to use traditional methods of non-destructive testing did not lead to positive results. This is due primarily to the size of typical solder joint defects, as well as the structural features of the rocket engine, the data structure is not controllable. In connection with this, a new method that provides quality control soldered connections cameras LRE based on the thermo generation of ultrasound. Methods of ultrasonic flaw detection of photoacoustic effect, in most cases, have a number of advantages over methods that use standard (traditional piezo transducers. In the course of studies have found that the sensitivity of the laser-ultrasonic method and flaw detector UDL-2M can detect lack of adhesion in the solder joints on the upper edges of the nozzle in the sub-header area of the site.

  15. Comparison of implant-abutment interface misfits after casting and soldering procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Flávio Domingues das; Elias, Gisele Araújo; da Silva-Neto, João Paulo; de Medeiros Dantas, Lucas Costa; da Mota, Adérito Soares; Neto, Alfredo Júlio Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare vertical and horizontal adjustments of castable abutments after conducting casting and soldering procedures. Twelve external hexagonal implants (3.75 × 10 mm) and their UCLA abutments were divided according their manufacturer and abutment type: PUN (plastic UCLA, Neodent), PUC (plastic UCLA, Conexão), PU3i (plastic UCLA, Biomet 3i), and PUTN (plastic UCLA with Tilite milled base, Neodent). Three infrastructures of a fixed partial implant-supported bridge with 3 elements were produced for each group. The measurements of vertical (VM) and horizontal (HM) misfits were obtained via scanning electron microscopy after completion of casting and soldering. The corresponding values were determined to be biomechanically acceptable to the system, and the results were rated as a percentage. Statistical analysis establishes differences between groups by chi-square after procedures, and McNeman's test was applied to analyze the influence of soldering over casting (α ≤ .05). For the values of VM and HM, respectively, when the casting process was complete, it was observed that 83.25% and 100% (PUTN), 33.3% and 27.75% (PUN), 33.3% and 88.8% (PUC), 33.3% and 94.35% (PU3i) represented acceptable values. After completing the requisite soldering, acceptable values were 50% and 94.35% (PUTN), 16.6% and 77.7% (PUN), 38.55% and 77.7% (PUC), and 27.75% and 94.35% (PU3i). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the premachined abutments presented more acceptable VM values. The HM values were within acceptable limits before and after the soldering procedure for most groups. Further, the soldering procedure resulted in an increase of VM in all groups.

  16. An Approach for Impression Creep of Lead Free Microelectronic Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Onofrio A.

    2002-06-01

    Currently, the microelectronics industry is transitioning from lead-containing to lead-free solders in response to legislation in the EU and Japan. Before an alternative alloy can be designated as a replacement for current Pb-Sn extensive testing must be accomplished. One major characteristic of the alloy that must be considered is creep. Traditionally, creep testing requires numerous samples and a long tin, which thwarts the generation of comprehensive creep databases for difficult to prepare samples such as microelectronic solder joints. However, a relatively new technique, impression creep enables us to rapidly generate creep data. This test uses a cylindrical punch with a flat end to make an impression on the surface of a specimen under constant load. The steady state velocity of the indenter is found to have the same stress and temperature dependence as the conventional unidirectional creep test using bulk specimens. This thesis examines impression creep tests of eutectic Sn-Ag. A testing program and apparatus was developed constructed based on a servo hydraulic test frame. The apparatus is capable of a load resolution of 0.01N with a stability of plus/minus 0.1N, and a displacement resolution of 0.05 microns with a stability of plus/minus 0.1 microns. Samples of eutectic Sn-Ag solder were reflowed to develop the microstructure used in microelectronic packaging. Creep tests were conducted at various stresses and temperatures and showed that coarse microstructures creep more rapidly than the microstructures in the tested regime.

  17. Transected sciatic nerve repair by diode laser protein soldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Mortezai, Omid; Pedram, MirSepehr; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Joharchi, Khojasteh; Mansoori, Korosh; Ebrahimi, Roja; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh

    2017-08-01

    Despite advances in microsurgical techniques, repair of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) is still a major challenge in regenerative medicine. The standard treatment for PNI includes suturing and anasthomosis of the transected nerve. The objective of this study was to compare neurorraphy (nerve repair) using standard suturingto diode laser protein soldering on the functional recovery of transected sciatic nerves. Thirty adult male Fischer-344 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 1. The control group, no repair, 2. the standard of care suture group, and 3. The laser/protein solder group. For all three groups, the sciatic nerve was transected and the repair was done immediately. For the suture repair group, 10.0 prolene suture was used and for the laser/protein solder group a diode laser (500mW output power) in combination with bovine serum albumen and indocyanine green dye was used. Behavioral assessment by sciatic functional index was done on all rats biweekly. At 12weeks post-surgery, EMG recordings were done on all the rats and the rats were euthanized for histological evaluation of the sciatic nerves. The one-way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. The average time required to perform the surgery was significantly shorter for the laser-assisted nerve repair group compared to the suture group. The EMG evaluation revealed no difference between the two groups. Based on the sciatic function index the laser group was significantly better than the suture group after 12weeks (pneurorraphy using standard suturing methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Colloidal Gold-Based Immunochromatographic Assay for Rapid Detection of Goose Parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Goose parvovirus (GPV remains as a worldwide problem in goose industry. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a new diagnostic approach that is easier and faster than conventional tests. A rapid immunochromatographic assay based on antibody colloidal gold nanoparticles specific to GPV was developed for the detection of GPV in goose allantoic fluid and supernatant of tissue homogenate. The monoclonal antibodies (Mab was produced by immunizing the BALB/c mice with purified GPV suspension, and the polyclonal antibody (pAb was produced by immunizing the rabbits with recombinant VP3 protein. The colloidal gold was prepared by the reduction of gold salt with sodium citrate coupled with Mab against GPV. The optimal concentrations of the coating antibody and capture antibody were determined to be 1.6 mg/ml and 9 μg/ml. With visual observation, the lower limit was found to be around 1.2 μg/ml. Common diseases of goose were tested to evaluate the specificity of the immune colloidal gold (ICG strip, and no cross-reaction was observed. The clinical detection was examined by carrying out the ICG strip test with 92 samples and comparing the results of these tests with those obtained via agar diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. Therefore, the ICG strip test was a sufficiently sensitive and accurate detection method for a rapid screening of GPV.

  19. Advances in Base-Free Oxidation of Bio-Based Compounds on Supported Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wojcieszak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of bio-based molecules in general, and of carbohydrates and furanics in particular, is a highly attractive process. The catalytic conversion of renewable compounds is of high importance. Acids and other chemical intermediates issued from oxidation processes have many applications related, especially, to food and detergents, as well as to pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and the chemical industry. Until now, the oxidation of sugars, furfural, or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural has been mainly conducted through biochemical processes or with strong inorganic oxidants. The use of these processes very often presents many disadvantages, especially regarding products separation and selectivity control. Generally, the oxidation is performed in batch conditions using an appropriate catalyst and a basic aqueous solution (pH 7–9, while bubbling oxygen or air through the slurry. However, there is a renewed interest in working in base-free conditions to avoid the production of salts. Actually, this gives direct access to different acids or diacids without laborious product purification steps. This review focuses on processes applying gold-based catalysts, and on the catalytic properties of these systems in the base-free oxidation of important compounds: C5–C6 sugars, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. A better understanding of the chemical and physical properties of the catalysts and of the operating conditions applied in the oxidation reactions is essential. For this reason, in this review we put emphasis on these most impacting factors.

  20. Fabrication and Characterisation of Membrane-Based Gold Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a versatile, membrane based electrochemical sensor with thin film electrodes fabricated through Ebeam evaporation directly on porous materials (membranes). Here, the fabrication of the electrodes is described along with possible methods for integration in fluidic systems...

  1. Some Applications of X-Ray Based Elemental Analysis Methods for Romanian Gold Minerals Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, D.; Constantinescu, B.; Pauna, C.; Neacsu, A.; Popescu, G.

    2009-01-01

    The elemental composition of gold, gold minerals and gold associated minerals releases important information's both from scientific (geologic) and economic point of view. In the present work, we focused on samples from Rosia Montana and Musariu ore deposits, from so called T ransylvanian gold of the golden q uadrilateral , Metaliferi Mountains. Our investigation started using optical microscopy. On the sample from Rosia Montana native gold band could be macroscopically seen. Gold occurs also like native gold in carbonate minerals, or associated with galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and quartz. The sample from Musariu shows native gold distributed at the border of sphalerite, native gold enclosed and along the margins of sphalerite and native gold between quartz grains. Three X-ray (the emission of characteristic lines spectra for each element present in the sample) based elemental analysis methods were also used: X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), micro Synchrotron Radiation induced X-Ray Fluorescence (micro-SR-XRF) and micro Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (micro-PIXE). Our XRF methods are based on Xray tube spectrometers: a portable one - X-MET 3000TX and a stationary one - Spectro MIDEX. The two Rosia Montana and Musariu gold samples were studied using the micro-PIXE technique at the AN2000 accelerator of Laboratory Nazionale di Legnaro (LNL), INFN, Italy - maps and point spectra. The experiment was carried out with a 2 MeV proton microbeam (9 μm 2 beam area), maximum beam current 400 pA. The characteristic X-rays were measured with a Canberra HPGe detector (with 180 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV). Complementary experiments on the samples due the improved condition offered by the high energy X-rays, namely -Sb, Sn, Te detection, were performed at BESSY Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Berlin - point spectra. During the experiment, point spectra were acquired at 35 keV, excitation energy, using a spatially resolved synchrotron-radiation XRF setup detected to analyses. The XRF

  2. Plasmonic Switches and Sensors Based on PANI-Coated Gold Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nina

    shift. Based on this principle, I have fabricated (gold nanosphere core)/(oxidized PANI shell) plasmonic sensors. The sensors have great potential for sensing chemical and biological molecules with reducibility. By using ascorbic acid (AA) as a target analyte, the plasmonic sensor presents high sensing capability. The limit of detection is 0.5 muM, and the linear response range is from 0.5 muM to 10 muM. The limit of detection for my plasmonic sensor is lower than the lowest limit for AA sensors based on liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, and electrochemical method. The sensing performance of my plasmonic sensors is expected to be further improved by optimizing the amount of (gold nanosphere core)/(oxidized PANI shell) structures, or employing other gold nanostructures with higher refractive index sensitivities. I believe that the colloidal (metal core)/(PANI shell) nanostructures pave the way for the fabrication of high-performance, low-cost plasmonic switches as well as for the preparation of advanced, programmable chromic materials for a wide variety of applications, such as smart windows, military anti-counterfeiting and camouflage, environmental sensors and indicators. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  3. Fabrication of highly sensitive gold nanourchins based electrochemical sensor for nanomolar determination of primaquine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapliyal, Neeta Bachheti, E-mail: thapliyaln@ukzn.ac.za; Chiwunze, Tirivashe Elton; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar, E-mail: karpoormath@ukzn.ac.za; Cherukupalli, Srinivasulu

    2017-05-01

    A gold nanourchins modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNu/GCE) was developed for the determination of antimalarial drug, primaquine (PQ). The surface of AuNu/GCE was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). EIS results indicated that the electron transfer process at AuNu/GCE was faster as compared to the bare electrode. The SEM and TEM image confirmed the presence and uniform dispersion of gold nanourchins on the GCE surface. Upon investigating the electrochemical behavior of PQ at AuNu/GCE, the developed sensor was found to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of PQ. Under optimal experimental conditions, the sensor showed fast and sensitive current response to PQ over a linear concentration range of 0.01–1 μM and 0.001–1 μM with a detection limit of 3.5 nM and 0.9 nM using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), respectively. The AuNu/GCE showed good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. Further, the developed sensor was successfully applied to determine the drug in human urine samples and pharmaceutical formulations demonstrating its analytical applicability in clinical analysis as well as quality control. The proposed method thus provides a promising alternative in routine sensing of PQ as well as promotes the application of gold nanourchins in electrochemical sensors. - Graphical abstract: A gold nanourchins modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated and used as an electrochemical sensing platform for the determination of primaquine. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Gold nanourchins based electrochemical sensor for determination of primaquine • A detection limit of 0.9 nM was obtained using square wave voltammetry. • Proposed method was applied to quantify the drug in tablet and human urine samples. • Fast, simple and low-cost method for trace analysis of

  4. Fabrication of highly sensitive gold nanourchins based electrochemical sensor for nanomolar determination of primaquine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thapliyal, Neeta Bachheti; Chiwunze, Tirivashe Elton; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Cherukupalli, Srinivasulu

    2017-01-01

    A gold nanourchins modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNu/GCE) was developed for the determination of antimalarial drug, primaquine (PQ). The surface of AuNu/GCE was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). EIS results indicated that the electron transfer process at AuNu/GCE was faster as compared to the bare electrode. The SEM and TEM image confirmed the presence and uniform dispersion of gold nanourchins on the GCE surface. Upon investigating the electrochemical behavior of PQ at AuNu/GCE, the developed sensor was found to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of PQ. Under optimal experimental conditions, the sensor showed fast and sensitive current response to PQ over a linear concentration range of 0.01–1 μM and 0.001–1 μM with a detection limit of 3.5 nM and 0.9 nM using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), respectively. The AuNu/GCE showed good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. Further, the developed sensor was successfully applied to determine the drug in human urine samples and pharmaceutical formulations demonstrating its analytical applicability in clinical analysis as well as quality control. The proposed method thus provides a promising alternative in routine sensing of PQ as well as promotes the application of gold nanourchins in electrochemical sensors. - Graphical abstract: A gold nanourchins modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated and used as an electrochemical sensing platform for the determination of primaquine. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Gold nanourchins based electrochemical sensor for determination of primaquine • A detection limit of 0.9 nM was obtained using square wave voltammetry. • Proposed method was applied to quantify the drug in tablet and human urine samples. • Fast, simple and low-cost method for trace analysis of

  5. Electrospun fibre colorimetric probe based on gold nanoparticles for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... pump operated at a flow rate of 0.300 mℓ/h and a high-voltage power supply with a ..... Y (2012) A simple colorimetric sensor based on anti-aggregation of ... inside polystyrene domains dispersed in an epoxy matrix. Eur.

  6. New mechanistic insight in the gold-based propene epoxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvulescu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Propene oxide is a very important intermediate for the synthesis of commercial products, including adhesives, paints, and cosmetics. The gas-phase epoxidation of propene over Au/Ti-based catalysts is an intriguing scientific topic, not only because of the industrial importance of the production of

  7. Complexes of DNA bases and Watson-Crick base pairs with small neutral gold clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryachko, E S; Remacle, F

    2005-12-08

    The nature of the DNA-gold interaction determines and differentiates the affinity of the nucleobases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) to gold. Our preliminary computational study [Kryachko, E. S.; Remacle, F. Nano Lett. 2005, 5, 735] demonstrates that two major bonding factors govern this interaction: the anchoring, either of the Au-N or Au-O type, and the nonconventional N-H...Au hydrogen bonding. In this paper, we offer insight into the nature of nucleobase-gold interactions and provide a detailed characterization of their different facets, i.e., geometrical, energetic, and spectroscopic aspects; the gold cluster size and gold coordination effects; proton affinity; and deprotonation energy. We then investigate how the Watson-Crick DNA pairing patterns are modulated by the nucleobase-gold interaction. We do so in terms of the proton affinities and deprotonation energies of those proton acceptors and proton donors which are involved in the interbase hydrogen bondings. A variety of properties of the most stable Watson-Crick [A x T]-Au3 and [G x C]-Au3 hybridized complexes are described and compared with the isolated Watson-Crick A x T and G x C ones. It is shown that enlarging the gold cluster size to Au6 results in a rather short gold-gold bond in the Watson-Crick interbase region of the [G x C]-Au6 complex that bridges the G x C pair and thus leads to a significant strengthening of G x C pairing.

  8. A new method for non-labeling attomolar detection of diseases based on an individual gold nanorod immunosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuoc Long, Truong; Cao, Cuong; Park, Sungho

    2011-01-01

    Herein, we present the use of a single gold nanorod sensor for detection of diseases on an antibodyfunctionalized surface, based on antibody–antigen interaction and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) lmax shifts of the resonant Rayleigh light scattering spectra. By replacing...... can be equally compared to the assays based on DNA biobarcodes. This study shows that a gold nanorod has been used as a single nanobiosensor to detect antigens for the first time; and the detection method based on the resonant Rayleigh scattering spectrum of individual gold nanorods enables a simple...

  9. Processing and Characterization of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Particle Reinforced Sn-In Solders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Kohn C

    2006-01-01

    .... In previous work, it was proposed that reinforcement of solder by NiTi shape memory alloy particles to form smart composite solder reduces the inelastic strain of the solder and hence, may enhance...

  10. Gold Nanoparticles-Based Barcode Analysis for Detection of Norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jeung Hee; Lee, Kwon-Jai; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology-based bio-barcode amplification analysis offers an innovative approach for detecting neurotransmitters. We evaluated the efficacy of this method for detecting norepinephrine in normal and oxidative-stress damaged dopaminergic cells. Our approach use a combination of DNA barcodes and bead-based immunoassays for detecting neurotransmitters with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and provides polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-like sensitivity. This method relies on magnetic Dynabeads containing antibodies and nanoparticles that are loaded both with DNA barcords and with antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the Dynabead-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from the solution and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes are then identified by SERS and PCR analysis. The concentration of norepinephrine in dopaminergic cells can be readily detected using the bio-barcode assay, which is a rapid, high-throughput screening tool for detecting neurotransmitters.

  11. Mechanism of Solder Joint Cracks in Anisotropic Conductive Films Bonding and Solutions: Delaying Hot-Bar Lift-Up Time and Adding Silica Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuye Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Micron sizes solder metallurgical joints have been applied in a thin film application of anisotropic conductive film and benefited three general advantages, such as lower joint resistance, higher power handling capability, and reliability, when compared with pressure based contact of metal conductor balls. Recently, flex-on-board interconnection has become more and more popular for mobile electronic applications. However, crack formation of the solder joint crack was occurred at low temperature curable acrylic polymer resins after bonding processes. In this study, the mechanism of SnBi58 solder joint crack at low temperature curable acrylic adhesive was investigated. In addition, SnBi58 solder joint cracks can be significantly removed by increasing the storage modulus of adhesives instead of coefficient of thermal expansion. The first approach of reducing the amount of polymer rebound can be achieved by using an ultrasonic bonding method to maintain a bonding pressure on the SnBi58 solder joints cooling to room temperature. The second approach is to increase storage modulus of adhesives by adding silica filler into acrylic polymer resins to prevent the solder joint from cracking. Finally, excellent acrylic based SnBi58 solder joints reliability were obtained after 1000 cycles thermal cycling test.

  12. Water-Based Assembly and Purification of Plasmon-Coupled Gold Nanoparticle Dimers and Trimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bidault

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple one-pot water-based scheme to produce gold nanoparticle groupings with short interparticle spacings. This approach combines a cross-linking molecule and a hydrophilic passivation layer to control the level of induced aggregation. Suspensions of dimers and trimers are readily obtained using a single electrophoretic purification step. The final interparticle spacings allow efficient coupling of the particle plasmon modes as verified in extinction spectroscopy.

  13. The use of gold nanoparticle aggregation for DNA computing and logic-based biomolecular detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In-Hee; Yang, Kyung-Ae; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Park, Ji-Yoon; Chai, Young Gyu; Lee, Jae-Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The use of DNA molecules as a physical computational material has attracted much interest, especially in the area of DNA computing. DNAs are also useful for logical control and analysis of biological systems if efficient visualization methods are available. Here we present a quick and simple visualization technique that displays the results of the DNA computing process based on a colorimetric change induced by gold nanoparticle aggregation, and we apply it to the logic-based detection of biomolecules. Our results demonstrate its effectiveness in both DNA-based logical computation and logic-based biomolecular detection

  14. Gold nanostar-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Pinyi; Zhang, Di; Li, Shuo; Wang, Xinghua; Song, Daqian

    2016-01-01

    A new high-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on biofunctional gold nanostars (AuNSs) and carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide (cGO) sheets was described. Compared with spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anisotropic structure of AuNSs, which concentrates the electric charge density on its sharp tips, could enhance the local electromagnetic field and the electronic coupling effect significantly. cGO was obtained by a diazonium reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with 4-aminobenzoic acid. Compared with GO, cGO could immobilize more antibodies due to the abundant carboxylic groups on its surface. Testing results show that there are fairly large improvements in the analytical performance of the SPR biosensor using cGO/AuNSs-antigen conjugate, and the detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 0.0375 μg mL"−"1, which is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor. - Highlights: • A sensitive and versatile SPR biosensor was constructed for detection of pig IgG. • Biofunctional gold nanostars were used to amplify the response signals. • The strategy employed carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide as biosensing substrate. • The detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor.

  15. Gold nanostar-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Pinyi; Zhang, Di; Li, Shuo; Wang, Xinghua; Song, Daqian, E-mail: songdq@jlu.edu.cn

    2016-03-24

    A new high-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on biofunctional gold nanostars (AuNSs) and carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide (cGO) sheets was described. Compared with spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anisotropic structure of AuNSs, which concentrates the electric charge density on its sharp tips, could enhance the local electromagnetic field and the electronic coupling effect significantly. cGO was obtained by a diazonium reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with 4-aminobenzoic acid. Compared with GO, cGO could immobilize more antibodies due to the abundant carboxylic groups on its surface. Testing results show that there are fairly large improvements in the analytical performance of the SPR biosensor using cGO/AuNSs-antigen conjugate, and the detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 0.0375 μg mL{sup −1}, which is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor. - Highlights: • A sensitive and versatile SPR biosensor was constructed for detection of pig IgG. • Biofunctional gold nanostars were used to amplify the response signals. • The strategy employed carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide as biosensing substrate. • The detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor.

  16. Effect of Solder Flux Residues on Corrosion of Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Stentoft; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Flux from ‘No Clean’ solder processes can cause reliability problems in the field due to aggressive residues, which may be electrical conducting or corrosive in humid environments. The solder temperature during a wave solder process is of great importance to the amount of residues left on a PCBA...... testing and use in the field, consequences and recommendations are given. Failures, caused by harsh[1] customer environments, are not covered in this paper....

  17. Development of Pb-Free Nanocomposite Solder Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh K. Basak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to conventional Pb-containing solder material, Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC based alloys are at the forefront despite limitations associated with relatively poor strength and coarsening of grains/intermetallic compounds (IMCs during aging/reflow. Accordingly, this study examines the improvement of properties of SAC alloys by incorporating nanoparticles in it. Two different types of nanoparticles were added in monolithic SAC alloy: (1 Al2O3 or (2 Fe and their effect on microstructure and thermal properties were investigated. Addition of Fe nanoparticles leads to the formation of FeSn2 IMCs alongside Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 from monolithic SAC alloy. Addition of Al2O3 nano-particles do not contribute to phase formation, however, remains dispersed along primary β-Sn grain boundaries and act as a grain refiner. As the addition of either Fe or Al2O3 nano-particles do not make any significant effect on thermal behavior, these reinforced nanocomposites are foreseen to provide better mechanical characteristics with respect to conventional monolithic SAC solder alloys.

  18. Engineering Gold Nanorod-Based Plasmonic Nanocrystals for Optical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals have a unique ability to support localized surface plasmon resonances and exhibit rich and intriguing optical properties. Engineering plasmonic nanocrystals can maximize their potentials for specific applications. In this dissertation, we developed three unprecedented Au nanorod-based plasmonic nanocrystals through rational design of the crystal shape and/or composition, and successfully demonstrated their applications in light condensation, photothermal conversion, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The “Au nanorod-Au nanosphere dimer” nanocrystal was synthesized via the ligand-induced asymmetric growth of a Au nanosphere on a Au nanorod. This dimeric nanostructure features an extraordinary broadband optical absorption in the range of 400‒1400nm, and it proved to be an ideal black-body material for light condensation and an efficient solar-light harvester for photothermal conversion. The “Au nanorod (core) @ AuAg alloy (shell)” nanocrystal was built through the epitaxial growth of homogeneously alloyed AuAg shells on Au nanorods by precisely controlled synthesis. The resulting core-shell structured, bimetallic nanorods integrate the merits of the AuAg alloy with the advantages of anisotropic nanorods, exhibiting strong, stable and tunable surface plasmon resonances that are essential for SERS applications in a corrosive environment. The “high-index faceted Au nanorod (core) @ AuPd alloy (shell)” nanocrystal was produced via site-specific epitaxial growth of AuPd alloyed horns at the ends of Au nanorods. The AuPd alloyed horns are bound with high-index side facets, while the Au nanorod concentrates an intensive electric field at each end. This unique configuration unites highly active catalytic sites with strong SERS sites into a single entity and was demonstrated to be ideal for in situ monitoring of Pd-catalyzed reactions by SERS. The synthetic strategies developed here are promising towards the fabrication of

  19. The Shear Strength and Fracture Behavior of Sn-Ag- xSb Solder Joints with Au/Ni-P/Cu UBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Teng; Hu, Shuen-Yuan; Hong, Ting-Fu; Chen, Yin-Fa

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of Sb addition on the shear strength and fracture behavior of Sn-Ag-based solders with Au/Ni-P/Cu underbump metallization (UBM) substrates. Sn-3Ag- xSb ternary alloy solder joints were prepared by adding 0 wt.% to 10 wt.% Sb to a Sn-3.5Ag alloy and joining them with Au/Ni-P/Cu UBM substrates. The solder joints were isothermally stored at 150°C for up to 625 h to study their microstructure and interfacial reaction with the UBM. Single-lap shear tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties, thermal resistance, and failure behavior. The results show that UBM effectively suppressed intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and growth during isothermal storage. The Sb addition helped to refine the Ag3Sn compounds, further improving the shear strength and thermal resistance of the solders. The fracture behavior evolved from solder mode toward the mixed mode and finally to the IMC mode with increasing added Sb and isothermal storage time. However, SnSb compounds were found in the solder with 10 wt.% Sb; they may cause mechanical degradation of the solder after long-term isothermal storage.

  20. Second harmonic study of acid-base equilibrium at gold nanoparticle/aqueous interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqiang; Mandal, Sarthak; Bronsther, Corin; Gao, Zhenghan; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2017-09-01

    Interfacial acid-base equilibrium of the capping molecules is a key factor to stabilize gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in solution. In this study we used Second Harmonic (SH) generation to measure interfacial potential and obtained a surface pKa value of 3.3 ± 0.1 for the carboxyl group in mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) molecule at an AuNP/aqueous interface. This pKa value is smaller than its bulk counterpart and indicates that the charged carboxylate group is favored at the AuNP surface. The SH findings are consistent with the effects of the noble metal (gold) surface on a charge in solution, as predicted by the method of images.

  1. Ultrasensitive SERS detection of mercury based on the assembled gold nanochains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liguang; Yin, Honghong; Ma, Wei; Kuang, Hua; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-05-15

    Mercuric ions (Hg(2+)) mediate the transformation of single-stranded DNA to form double helical DNA by T-Hg(2+)-T interaction between base pairs. With this strategy, DNA modified gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were assembled into chains which were displayed remarkable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal. Under optimized conditions, the length of gold nanochains was directly proportional to the mercuric ions concentrations over 0.001-0.5 ng mL(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) in drinking water was as low as 0.45 pg mL(-1). With ultrasensitivity and excellent selectivity, this feasible and simple method is potentially as a promising tool for monitoring of mercury ions in food safety and environmental applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optotransfection of mammalian cells based on a femtosecond laser and facilitated by gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zili; Chan, Kam T; Wang, Jianfang; Kong, Siu K; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    The optotransfection of cells based on a femtosecond laser has attracted much attention owing to its high transfection efficiency and high cell viability since its first report by Konig. However, the low throughput in the original method also limits its use in practical applications. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been reported to function as local receivers of light to relax the requirement of accurate optical alignment for the optotransfection of single cells. However, the visible light used in such work is not suitable for penetrating deep tissues in certain applications. In this study, we employed gold nanorods (GNRs) and an infrared femtosecond laser at the wavelength of 980 nm to realize optotransfection of cells with GFP. It was found that the surface coating of GNRs exhibited a significant effect on the process of cell permeabilization. (paper)

  3. Size measurement of gold and silver nanostructures based on their extinction spectrum: limitations and extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Ashkarran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  This paper reports on physical principles and the relations between extinction cross section and geometrical properties of silver and gold nanostructures. We introduce some simple relations for determining geometrical properties of silver and gold nanospheres based on the situation of their plasmonic peak. We also applied, investigated and compared the accuracy of these relations using other published works in order to make clear the effects of shape, size distribution and refractive index of particles’ embedding medium. Finally, we extended the equations to non-spherical particles and investigated their accuracy. We found that modified forms of the equations may lead to more exact results for non-spherical metal particles, but for better results, modified equations should depend on shape and size distribution of particles. It seems that these equations are not applicable to particles with corners sharper than cubes' corners i.e. nanostructures with spatial angles less than π/2 sr.

  4. Self-assembled lipoprotein based gold nanoparticles for detection and photothermal disaggregation of β-amyloid aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Martins, P. A. T.; Alsaiari, Shahad K.; Julfakyan, Khachatur; Nie, Z.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a reconstituted lipoprotein-based nanoparticle platform comprising a curcumin fluorescent motif and an NIR responsive gold core. This multifunctional nanosystem is successfully used for aggregation-dependent fluorescence detection and photothermal disassembly of insoluble amyloid aggregates.

  5. Self-assembled lipoprotein based gold nanoparticles for detection and photothermal disaggregation of β-amyloid aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Martins, P. A. T.

    2017-01-10

    We present a reconstituted lipoprotein-based nanoparticle platform comprising a curcumin fluorescent motif and an NIR responsive gold core. This multifunctional nanosystem is successfully used for aggregation-dependent fluorescence detection and photothermal disassembly of insoluble amyloid aggregates.

  6. Schiff Base modified on CPE electrode and PCB gold electrode for selective determination of silver ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leepheng, Piyawan; Suramitr, Songwut; Phromyothin, Darinee

    2017-09-01

    The schiff base was synthesized by 2,5-thiophenedicarboxaldehyde and 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3,5-diamine with condensation method. There was modified on carbon paste electrode (CPE) and Printed circuit board (PCB) gold electrode for determination silver ion. The schiff base modified electrodes was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical study was reported by cyclic voltammetry method and impedance spectroscopy using modified electrode as working electrode, platinum wire and Ag/AgCl as counter electrode and reference electrode, respectively. The modified electrodes have suitable detection for Ag+. The determination of silver ions using the modified electrodes depended linearly on Ag+ concentration in the range 1×10-10 M to 1×10-7 M, with cyclic voltammetry sensitivity were 2.51×108 μAM-1 and 1.88×108 μAM-1 for PCB gold electrode and CPE electrode, respectively, limits of detection were 5.33×10-9 M and 1.99×10-8 M for PCB gold electrode and CPE electrode, respectively. The modified electrodes have high accuracy, inexpensive and can applied to detection Ag+ in real samples.

  7. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection for deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization based on gold nanoparticles carrying multiple probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Zhang Chengxiao; Li Yan; Qi Honglan

    2006-01-01

    A novel sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) method for the detection deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization based on gold nanoparticles carrying multiple probes was developed. Ruthenium bis(2,2'-bipyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS) was used as a ECL label and gold nanoparticle as a carrier. Probe single strand DNA (ss-DNA) was self-assembled at the 3'-terminal with a thiol group to the surface of gold nanoparticle and covalently labeled at the 5'-terminal of a phosphate group with Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS and the resulting conjugate (Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS)-ss-DNA-Au, was taken as a ECL probe. When target analyte ss-DNA was immobilized on a gold electrode by self-assembled monolayer technique and then hybridized with the ECL probe to form a double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA), a strong ECL response was electrochemically generated. The ECL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of the complementary sequence (target ss-DNA) in the range from 1.0 x 10 -11 to 1.0 x 10 -8 mol L -1 , and the linear regression equation was S = 57301 + 4579.6 lg C (unit of C is mol L -1 ). A detection limit of 5.0 x 10 -12 mol L -1 for target ss-DNA was achieved. The ECL signal generated from many reporters of ECL probe prepared is greatly amplified, compared to the convention scheme which is based on one reporter per hybridization event

  8. Subwavelength Gold Grating as Polarizers Integrated with InP-Based InGaAs Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Tao; Shao, Xiumei; Li, Xue; Huang, Xiaqi; Shao, Jinhai; Chen, Yifang; Gong, Haimei

    2015-07-08

    There are currently growing needs for polarimetric imaging in infrared wavelengths for broad applications in bioscience, communications and agriculture, etc. Subwavelength metallic gratings are capable of separating transverse magnetic (TM) mode from transverse electric (TE) mode to form polarized light, offering a reliable approach for the detection in polarization way. This work aims to design and fabricate subwavelength gold gratings as polarizers for InP-based InGaAs sensors in 1.0-1.6 μm. The polarization capability of gold gratings on InP substrate with pitches in the range of 200-1200 nm (fixed duty cycle of 0.5) has been systematically studied by both theoretical modeling with a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulator and spectral measurements. Gratings with 200 nm lines/space in 100-nm-thick gold have been fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL). It was found that subwavelength gold gratings directly integrated on InP cannot be applied as good polarizers, because of the existence of SPP modes in the detection wavelengths. An effective solution has been found by sandwiching the Au/InP bilayer using a 200 nm SiO2 layer, leading to significant improvement in both TM transmission and extinction ratio. At 1.35 μm, the improvement factors are 8 and 10, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded that the Au/SiO2/InP trilayer should be a promising candidate of near-infrared polarizers for the InP-based InGaAs sensors.

  9. Targeting aquaporin function: potent inhibition of aquaglyceroporin-3 by a gold-based compound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Martins

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are membrane channels that conduct water and small solutes such as glycerol and are involved in many physiological functions. Aquaporin-based modulator drugs are predicted to be of broad potential utility in the treatment of several diseases. Until today few AQP inhibitors have been described as suitable candidates for clinical development. Here we report on the potent inhibition of AQP3 channels by gold(III complexes screened on human red blood cells (hRBC and AQP3-transfected PC12 cells by a stopped-flow method. Among the various metal compounds tested, Auphen is the most active on AQP3 (IC(50 = 0.8±0.08 µM in hRBC. Interestingly, the compound poorly affects the water permeability of AQP1. The mechanism of gold inhibition is related to the ability of Au(III to interact with sulphydryls groups of proteins such as the thiolates of cysteine residues. Additional DFT and modeling studies on possible gold compound/AQP adducts provide a tentative description of the system at a molecular level. The mapping of the periplasmic surface of an homology model of human AQP3 evidenced the thiol group of Cys40 as a likely candidate for binding to gold(III complexes. Moreover, the investigation of non-covalent binding of Au complexes by docking approaches revealed their preferential binding to AQP3 with respect to AQP1. The high selectivity and low concentration dependent inhibitory effect of Auphen (in the nanomolar range together with its high water solubility makes the compound a suitable drug lead for future in vivo studies. These results may present novel metal-based scaffolds for AQP drug development.

  10. Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

  11. Microstructural and mechanical properties analysis of extruded Sn–0.7Cu solder alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul-Aziz Bogno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and performance of lead-free solder alloys such as fluidity and wettability are defined by the alloy composition and solidification microstructure. Rapid solidification of metallic alloys is known to result in refined microstructures with reduced microsegregation and improved mechanical properties of the final products as compared to normal castings. The rapidly solidified Sn-based solders by melt spinning were shown to be suitable for soldering with low temperature and short soldering duration. In the present study, rapidly solidified Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets generated by impulse atomization (IA were achieved as well as directional solidification under transient conditions at lower cooling rate. This paper reports on a comparative study of the rapidly solidified and the directionally solidified samples. Different but complementary characterization techniques were used to fully analyze the solidification microstructures of the samples obtained under the two cooling regimes. These include X-ray diffractometry (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In order to compare the tensile strength and elongation to fracture of the directionally solidified ingot and strip castings with the atomized droplet, compaction and extrusion of the latter were carried out. It was shown that more balanced and superior tensile mechanical properties are available for the hot extruded samples from compacted as-atomized Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets. Further, elongation-to-fracture was 2–3× higher than that obtained for the directionally solidified samples.

  12. Design and Experiment of a Solder Paste Jetting System Driven by a Piezoelectric Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoudong Gu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for the insufficiency and instability of solder paste dispensing and printing that are used in the SMT (Surface Mount Technology production process, a noncontact solder paste jetting system driven by a piezoelectric stack based on the principle of the nozzle-needle-system is introduced in this paper, in which a miniscule gap exists between the nozzle and needle during the jetting process. Here, the critical jet ejection velocity is discussed through theoretical analysis. The relations between ejection velocity and needle structure, needle velocity, and nozzle diameter were obtained by FLUENT software. Then, the prototype of the solder paste jetting system was fabricated, and the performance was verified by experiments. The effects of the gap between nozzle and needle, the driving voltage, and the nozzle diameter on the jetting performance and droplet diameter were obtained. Solder paste droplets 0.85 mm in diameter were produced when the gap between the nozzle and needle was adjusted to 10 μm, the driving voltage to 80 V, the nozzle diameter to 0.1 mm, and the variation of the droplet diameter was within ±3%.

  13. An ultrasensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on electrocatalytic synergy of graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhiguo; Yang Shuping; Li Zaijun; Sun Xiulan; Wang Guangli; Fang Yinjun; Liu Junkang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We first reported an ultrasensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor in this work, which was fabricated by coating graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dots, gold nanoparticles and horseradish peroxidase in sequence on the surface of gold electrode. Since a promising their electrocatalytic synergy towards hydrogen peroxide was achieved, the biosensor displayed very high sensitivity, low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3.2 x 10 -11 M) and good long-term stability (20 weeks). Highlights: · We for the first time integrated novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNPs. · Three nanomaterials show remarkable synergistic electrocatalysis towards hydrogen peroxide. · The biosensor provides the best sensitivity in all biosensors based on graphene for detection of glucose up to now. - Abstract: We first reported an ultrasensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor in this work. The biosensor was fabricated by coating graphene-gold nanocomposite (G-AuNP), CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dots (CdTe-CdS), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in sequence on the surface of gold electrode (GE). Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate electrochemical performances of the biosensor. Since promising electrocatalytic synergy of G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNPs towards hydrogen peroxide was achieved, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity, low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3.2 x 10 -11 M), wide calibration range (from 1 x 10 -10 M to 1.2 x 10 -8 M) and good long-term stability (20 weeks). Moreover, the effects of omitting G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNP were also examined. It was found that sensitivity of the biosensor is more 11-fold better if G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNPs are used. This could be ascribed to improvement of the conductivity between graphene nanosheets in the G-AuNP due to introduction of the AuNPs, ultrafast charge transfer from CdTe-CdS to the graphene sheets and AuNP due to

  14. Plasmonic Optical Fiber Sensor Based on Double Step Growth of Gold Nano-Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. M. M. de Almeida

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the fabrication and characterization of optical fiber sensors for refractive index measurement based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR with gold nano-islands obtained by single and by repeated thermal dewetting of gold thin films. Thin films of gold deposited on silica (SiO2 substrates and produced by different experimental conditions were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope/Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS and optical means, allowing identifying and characterizing the formation of nano-islands. The wavelength shift sensitivity to the surrounding refractive index of sensors produced by single and by repeated dewetting is compared. While for the single step dewetting, a wavelength shift sensitivity of ~60 nm/RIU was calculated, for the repeated dewetting, a value of ~186 nm/RIU was obtained, an increase of more than three times. It is expected that through changing the fabrication parameters and using other fiber sensor geometries, higher sensitivities may be achieved, allowing, in addition, for the possibility of tuning the plasmonic frequency.

  15. Plasmonic Optical Fiber Sensor Based on Double Step Growth of Gold Nano-Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Helena

    2018-01-01

    It is presented the fabrication and characterization of optical fiber sensors for refractive index measurement based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) with gold nano-islands obtained by single and by repeated thermal dewetting of gold thin films. Thin films of gold deposited on silica (SiO2) substrates and produced by different experimental conditions were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope/Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and optical means, allowing identifying and characterizing the formation of nano-islands. The wavelength shift sensitivity to the surrounding refractive index of sensors produced by single and by repeated dewetting is compared. While for the single step dewetting, a wavelength shift sensitivity of ~60 nm/RIU was calculated, for the repeated dewetting, a value of ~186 nm/RIU was obtained, an increase of more than three times. It is expected that through changing the fabrication parameters and using other fiber sensor geometries, higher sensitivities may be achieved, allowing, in addition, for the possibility of tuning the plasmonic frequency. PMID:29677108

  16. Plasmonic Optical Fiber Sensor Based on Double Step Growth of Gold Nano-Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, José M M M; Vasconcelos, Helena; Jorge, Pedro A S; Coelho, Luis

    2018-04-20

    It is presented the fabrication and characterization of optical fiber sensors for refractive index measurement based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) with gold nano-islands obtained by single and by repeated thermal dewetting of gold thin films. Thin films of gold deposited on silica (SiO₂) substrates and produced by different experimental conditions were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope/Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and optical means, allowing identifying and characterizing the formation of nano-islands. The wavelength shift sensitivity to the surrounding refractive index of sensors produced by single and by repeated dewetting is compared. While for the single step dewetting, a wavelength shift sensitivity of ~60 nm/RIU was calculated, for the repeated dewetting, a value of ~186 nm/RIU was obtained, an increase of more than three times. It is expected that through changing the fabrication parameters and using other fiber sensor geometries, higher sensitivities may be achieved, allowing, in addition, for the possibility of tuning the plasmonic frequency.

  17. The study of the price of gold futures based on heterogeneous investors' overconfidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jiang; Pupu Luan; Chunpeng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to research and analyze the price of gold futures based on heterogeneous investors' overconfidence.Design/methodology/approach-This paper divides the traders of gold futures market into two kinds:the speculators and arbitrageurs,and then constructs a market equilibrium model of futures pricing to analyze the behaviors of the two kinds of traders with overconfidence.After getting the decision-making function,the market equilibrium futures price is attained on the condition of market clearing.Then,this paper analyzes how the overconfidence impacts on futures price,volatility of the price of gold futures and the effects on individual utility.Findings-Under different market conditions,the overconfidence psychological impacts of heterogeneous investor on the price and volatility of futures are different,sometimes completely opposite.Originality/value-In the past literature,the relationships between overconfidence and the price or volatility are positive;however,the study shows that sometimes it is positive,and sometimes it is negative

  18. Gold Museum

    OpenAIRE

    Efraín Sánchez Cabra

    2003-01-01

    On 22 december 1939, the Banco de la República, the Central Bank of Colombia, purchased a 23.5 centimetres high pre-Columbian gold arte fact weighing 777·7 grams that was to become the Gold M useum's foundation stone. Described as a Quimbaya poporo, it is a masterpiece of pre-Hispanic goldwork, an object of beauty whose brightly burnished body and neck, crowned with four sphere-like or naments, rest on an exquisite cast metal tiligree base and which seems to ftoat in a space of its own. The b...

  19. Comprehensive recovery of gold and base-metal sulfide minerals from a low-grade refractory ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-juan; Liu, Shuang; Song, Yong-sheng; Wen, Jian-kang; Zhou, Gui-ying; Chen, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The comprehensive recovery of small amounts of valuable minerals such as gold and base-metal sulfide minerals from a low-grade refractory ore was investigated. The following treatment strategy was applied to a sample of this ore: gold flotation-gold concentrate leaching-lead and zinc flotation from the gold concentrate leaching residue. Closed-circuit trials of gold flotation yielded a gold concentrate that assayed at 40.23 g·t-1 Au with a recovery of 86.25%. The gold concentrate leaching rate was 98.76%. Two variants of lead-zinc flotation from the residue—preferential flotation of lead and zinc and bulk flotation of lead and zinc—were tested using the middling processing method. Foam from the reflotation was returned to the lead rougher flotation or lead-zinc bulk flotation, whereas middlings from reflotation were discarded. Sulfur concentrate was a byproduct. The combined strategy of flotation, leaching, and flotation is recommended for the treatment of this kind of ore.

  20. Soldering of copper-clad niobium--titanium superconductor composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, A.J.; Woodhouse, J.J.; Easton, D.S.

    1977-04-01

    When superconductivity is applied to various electrical devices, the joining of the superconducting material and the performance of the joints are generally crucial to the successful operation of the system. Although many techniques are being considered for joining composite superconductors, soldering is the most common. We determined the wetting and flow behavior of various solder and flux combinations on a copper-clad Nb-Ti composite, developed equipment and techniques for soldering and inspection of lap joints, and determined the shear strength of joints at temperatures down to -269 0 C (4 0 K). We studied 15 solders and 17 commercial and experimental fluxes in the wettability and flow tests. A resistance unit was built for soldering test specimens. A series of samples soldered with 80 Pb-20 Sn, 83 Pb-15 Sn-2 Sb, 97.5 Pb-1.5 Ag-1 Sn, 80 In-15 Pb-5 Ag, or 25 In-37.5 Pb-37.5 Sn (wt percent) was inspected by three nondestructive techniques. Through-transmission ultrasound gave the best correlation with nonbond areas revealed in peel tests. Single-lap shear specimens soldered with 97.5 Pb-1.5 Ag-1 Sn had the highest strength (10.44 ksi, 72 MPa) and total elongation (0.074 in., 1.88 mm) at -269 0 C (4 0 K) of four solders tested

  1. Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzellotto, C; Favero, G; Antonelli, M L; Tortolini, C; Cannistraro, S; Coppari, E; Mazzei, F

    2014-05-15

    In this work a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features, has been developed and characterized. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit attractive electrocatalytic behavior stimulating in the last years, several sensing applications; on the other hand, fullerene and its derivatives are a very promising family of electroactive compounds although they have not yet been fully employed in biosensing. The methodology proposed in this work was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in AuNPs, fullerenols and Trametes versicolor Laccase (TvL) assembled layer by layer onto a gold (Au) electrode surface. The influence of different modification step procedures on the electroanalytical performance of biosensors has been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the modification of surface and to investigate the bioelectrocatalytic biosensor response. This biosensor showed fast amperometric response to gallic acid, which is usually considered a standard for polyphenols analysis of wines, with a linear range 0.03-0.30 mmol L(-1) (r(2)=0.9998), with a LOD of 0.006 mmol L(-1) or expressed as polyphenol index 5.0-50 mg L(-1) and LOD 1.1 mg L(-1). A tentative application of the developed nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor was performed evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CO2 temperature-controlled laser soldering of pig trachea incisions in vitro using flexible albumin bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharvit, Dan; Vasilyev, Tamar; Vasserman, Irena; Simhon, David; Kariv, Naam; DeRowe, Ari; Katzir, Abraham

    2005-04-01

    Resection of a segment of the trachea is a procedure applied for the removal of cervical tumors invading the trachea, or for the treatment of severe tracheal stenosis. The current method of anastomosis is based on multiple sutures. The main drawbacks of this method are: 1) A long procedure time, 2) An air leakage, and 3) An inflammatory response to the sutures. In this study we evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of the use of temperature controlled CO2 laser soldering of incisions in pig tracheas in vitro. A transverse incision was made in a separated pig trachea. A flexible albumin band was prepared and was laser soldered with albumin solder to the outer surface of the trachea, covering the incision. The soldered trachea ends were sealed and the burst pressure was measured. In a series of in vitro experiments, the mean burst pressure was found to be 230 mm Hg. These preliminary results demonstrated that laser soldering using a flexible albumin band may be a useful method for sealing an incision in the trachea.

  3. Electrical Resistance of Nb$_{3}$Sn/Cu Splices Produced by Electromagnetic Pulse Technology and Soft Soldering

    CERN Document Server

    Schoerling, D; Scheuerlein, C; Atieh, S; Schaefer, R

    2011-01-01

    The electrical interconnection of Nb$_{3}$Sn/Cu strands is a key issue for the construction of Nb$_{3}$Sn based damping ring wigglers and insertion devices for third generation light sources. We compare the electrical resistance of Nb$_{3}$Sn/Cu splices manufactured by solid state welding using Electromagnetic Pulse Technology (EMPT) with that of splices produced by soft soldering with two different solders. The resistance of splices produced by soft soldering depends strongly on the resistivity of the solder alloy at the operating temperature. By solid state welding splice resistances below 10 nOhm can be achieved with 1 cm strand overlap length only, which is about 4 times lower than the resistance of Sn96Ag4 soldered splices with the same overlap length. The comparison of experimental results with Finite Element simulations shows that the electrical resistance of EMPT welded splices is determined by the resistance of the stabilizing copper between the superconducting filaments and confirms that welding of ...

  4. Development of Sn-Ag-Cu-X Solders for Electronic Assembly by Micro-Alloying with Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesenberg, Adam J.; Anderson, Iver E.; Harringa, Joel L.

    2012-07-01

    Of Pb-free solder choices, an array of solder alloys based on the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) ternary eutectic ( T eut = 217°C) composition have emerged with potential for broad use, including ball grid array (BGA) joints that cool slowly. This work investigated minor substitutional additions of Al (0.05Al), but the suppression effect faded for >0.20Al. Undercooling suppression did not correlate specifically with blade suppression since it became significant at 0.10Al and increased continuously with greater Al to 0.25Al. Surprisingly, an intermediate range of Al content (0.10 wt.% to 0.20 wt.% Al) promoted formation of significant populations of 2- μm to 5- μm faceted Cu-Al particles, identified as Cu33Al17, that clustered at the top of the solder joint matrix and exhibited extraordinary hardness. Clustering of Cu33Al17 was attributed to its buoyancy, from a lower density than Sn liquid, and its early position in the nucleation sequence within the solder matrix, permitting unrestricted migration to the top interface. Joint microstructures and implications for the full nucleation sequence for these SAC + Al solder joints are discussed, along with possible benefits from the clustered particles for improved thermal cycling resistance.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of chrysanthemum extracts and tea beverages by gold nanoparticles-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanjun; Liu, Haifang; Yuan, Zhiliang; Wei, Dongwei; Ye, Yongzhong

    2012-04-01

    A gold nanoparticles-based (GNPs-based) assay was developed for evaluating antioxidant activity of chrysanthemum extracts and tea beverages. Briefly, a GNPs growth system consisted of designated concentrations of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, sodium citrate, and phosphate buffer was designed, followed by the addition of 1 mL different level of test samples. After a 10-min reaction at 45°C, GNPs was formed in the reduction of metallic ions to zero valence gold by chrysanthemum extracts or tea beverages. And the resultant solution exhibited a characteristic surface plasmon resonance band of GNPs centered at about 545 nm, responsible for its vivid light pink or wine red color. The optical properties of GNPs formed correlate well with antioxidant activity of test samples. As a result, the antioxidant functional evaluation of chrysanthemum extracts and beverages could be performed by this GNPs-based assay with a spectrophotometer or in visual analysis to a certain extent. Our present method based on the sample-mediated generation and growth of GNPs is rapid, convenient, inexpensive, and also demonstrates a new possibility for the application of nanotechnology in food science. Moreover, this present work provides some useful information for in-depth research of involving chrysanthemum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Sub-Microanalysis Approach in Chemical Characterisation of Gold Nanorods Formed by a Novel Polymer-Immobilised Gold Seeds Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kazemian Abyaneh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs have been fabricated by a novel polymer-immobilised seed mediated method using ultraviolet (UV photoreduced gold-polymethylmethacrylate (Au–PMMA nanocomposites as a seed platform and characterised at sub-micron scale regime with synchrotron-based techniques; near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF mapping. In this report, it is shown that investigating polymer nanocomposites using combination of XRF mapping and NEXAFS spectromicroscopy can help to see the growth phenomenon from different perspective than conventional characterisation techniques. XRF maps are used to explore distribution of the constituent elements and showing how polymer matrix making stripe patterns along with regions where GNRs are formed. NEXAFS carbon (C K-edge spectra have been taken at three different stages of synthesis: (1 on Au–PMMA nanocomposites before UV irradiation, (2 after gold nanoparticles formation, and (3 after GNRs formation. It reveals how polymer matrix has been degraded during GNRs formation and avoiding chemically or physically damage to polymer matrix is crucial to control the formation of GNRs.

  7. Non-aqueous nanoporous gold based supercapacitors with high specific energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Ying; Chen, Luyang; Hirata, Akihiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report that the supercapacitor performance of polypyrrole (PPy) in non-aqueous electrolytes can be dramatically improved by highly conductive nanoporous gold which acts as both the support of active PPy and the current collector of supercapacitors. The excellent electronic conductivity, rich porous structure and large surface area of the nanoporous electrodes give rise to a high specific capacitance and low internal resistance in non-aqueous electrolytes. Combining with a wide working potential window of ~ 2 V, the non-aqueous PPy-based supercapacitors show an extraordinary energy density and power density.

  8. The effect of micro alloying on the microstructure evolution of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werden, Jesse

    The microelectronics industry is required to obtain alternative Pb-free soldering materials due to legal, environmental, and technological factors. As a joining material, solder provides an electrical and mechanical support in electronic assemblies and therefore, the properties of the solder are crucial to the durability and reliability of the solder joint and the function of the electronic device. One major concern with new Pb-free alternatives is that the microstructure is prone to microstructural coarsening over time which leads to inconsistent properties over the device's lifetime. Power aging the solder is a common method of stabilizing the microstructure for Pb-based alloys, however, it is unclear if this will be an appropriate solution to the microstructural coarsening of Pb-free solders. The goal of this work is to develop a better understanding of the coarsening process in new solder alloys and to suggest methods of stabilizing the solder microstructure. Microalloying is one potential solution to the microstructural coarsening problem. This experiment consists of a microstructural coarsening study of SAC305 in which each sample has been alloyed with one of three different solutes, directionally solidified at 100microm/s, and then aged at three different temperatures over a total period of 20 days. There are several important conclusions from this experiment. First, the coarsening kinetics of the intermetallics in the ternary eutectic follow the Ostwald ripening model where r3 in proprotional to t for each alloying constituent. Second, the activation energy for coarsening was found to be 68.1+/-10.3 kJ/mol for the SAC305 samples, Zn had the most significant increase in the activation energy increasing it to 88.8+/-34.9 kJ/mol for the SAC+Zn samples, Mn also increased the activation energy to 83.2+/-20.8 kJ/mol for the SAC+Mn samples, and Sb decreased the activation energy to 48.0+/-3.59 kJ/mol for the SAC+Sb samples. Finally, it was found that the

  9. Gold-nanoparticle-based catalysts for the oxidative esterification of 1,4-butanediol into dimethyl succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gemma L; Miedziak, Peter J; He, Qian; Knight, David W; Edwards, Jennifer K; Taylor, Stuart H; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2013-10-01

    The oxidation of 1,4-butanediol and butyrolactone have been investigated by using supported gold, palladium and gold-palladium nanoparticles. The products of such reactions are valuable chemical intermediates and, for example, can present a viable pathway for the sustainable production of polymers. If both gold and palladium were present, a significant synergistic effect on the selective formation of dimethyl succinate was observed. The support played a significant role in the reaction, with magnesium hydroxide leading to the highest yield of dimethyl succinate. Based on structural characterisation of the fresh and used catalysts, it was determined that small gold-palladium nanoalloys supported on a basic Mg(OH)2 support provided the best catalysts for this reaction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Microstructurally Adaptive Constitutive Relations and Reliability Assessment Protocols for Lead Free Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-05

    under bump metallurgy and solder joint geometry on Sn grain morphology in Pb free solder joints were examined. SnAgCu solder joints were examined for...free solder interconnects”, Sci. Technol. Weld . Join. 13, 732 (2008). [3.25] Terashima, S., Takahama, K., Nozaki, M., and Tanaka, M. Recrystallization

  11. Characterization of lead-free solders for electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongtao

    The characterization of lead-free solders, especially after isothermal aging, is very important in order to accurately predict the reliability of solder joints. However, due to lack of experimental testing standards and the high homologous temperature of solder alloys (Th > 0.5T m even at room temperature), there are very large discrepancies in both the tensile and creep properties provided in current databases for both lead-free and Sn-Pb solder alloys. In this research, mechanical measurements of isothermal aging effects and the resulting changes in the materials behavior of lead-free solders were performed. A novel specimen preparation procedure was developed where the solder uniaxial test specimens are formed in high precision rectangular cross-section glass tubes using a vacuum suction process. Using specimens fabricated with the developed procedure, isothermal aging effects and viscoplastic material behavior evolution have been characterized for 95.5Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405) and 96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) lead-free solders, which are commonly used as the solder ball alloy in lead-free BGAs and other components. Analogous tests were performed with 63Sn-37Pb eutectic solder samples for comparison purposes. Up to 40% reduction in tensile strength was observed for water quenched specimens after two months of aging at room temperature. Creep deformation also increased dramatically with increasing aging durations. Microstructural changes during room temperature aging were also observed and recorded for the solder alloys and correlated with the observed mechanical behavior changes. Aging effects at elevated temperatures for up to 6 months were also investigated. Thermal aging caused significant tensile strength loss and deterioration of creep deformation. The thermal aging results also showed that after an initial tensile strength drop, the Sn-Pb eutectic solder reached a relatively stable stage after 200 hours of aging. However, for SAC alloy, both the tensile and

  12. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

      Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...... of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...

  13. A novel gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer-based plasmonic chip for rapid and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Phuoc Long, Truong; Wolff, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based biosensors are emerging technologies for rapid detection of pathogens. However, it is very challenging to develop chip-based AuNP-biosensors for whole cells. This paper describes a novel AuNPs-DNA aptamer-based plasmonic assay which allows DNA aptamers...

  14. Sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong G

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guangxian Zhong,1,2,* Ruilong Lan,3,* Wenxin Zhang,1,4 Feihuan Fu,5 Yiming Sun,1,4 Huaping Peng,1,4 Tianbin Chen,3 Yishan Cai,6 Ailin Liu,1,4 Jianhua Lin,2 Xinhua Lin1,4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, 2Department of Orthopaedics, 3The Centralab, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 4Nano Medical Technology Research Institute, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 5Department of Endocrinology, The County Hospital of Anxi, Anxi, 6Fujian International Travel Healthcare Center, Fujian Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP based on a three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode using a facile, rapid, “green” square-wave oxidation-reduction cycle technique. The resulting three-dimensional gold nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. A “sandwich-type” detection strategy using an electrochemical immunosensor was employed. Under optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between the current response signal and the AFP concentrations was observed in the range of 10–50 ng/mL with a detection limit of 3 pg/mL. This new immunosensor showed a fast amperometric response and high sensitivity and selectivity. It was successfully used to determine AFP in a human serum sample with a relative standard deviation of <5% (n=5. The proposed immunosensor represents a significant step toward practical application in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of prognosis. Keywords: electrochemical immunosensors, three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode, square-wave oxidation-reduction cycle, alpha-fetoprotein 

  15. Detection of mercury(II) ions using colorimetric gold nanoparticles on paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Hua; Chen, Wei-Yu; Yen, Yu-Chun; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Chen, Chien-Fu

    2014-07-15

    An on-field colorimetric sensing strategy employing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a paper-based analytical platform was investigated for mercury ion (Hg(2+)) detection at water sources. By utilizing thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination chemistry, label-free detection oligonucleotide sequences were attached to unmodified gold nanoparticles to provide rapid mercury ion sensing without complicated and time-consuming thiolated or other costly labeled probe preparation processes. Not only is this strategy's sensing mechanism specific toward Hg(2+), rather than other metal ions, but also the conformational change in the detection oligonucleotide sequences introduces different degrees of AuNP aggregation that causes the color of AuNPs to exhibit a mixture variance. To eliminate the use of sophisticated equipment and minimize the power requirement for data analysis and transmission, the color variance of multiple detection results were transferred and concentrated on cellulose-based paper analytical devices, and the data were subsequently transmitted for the readout and storage of results using cloud computing via a smartphone. As a result, a detection limit of 50 nM for Hg(2+) spiked pond and river water could be achieved. Furthermore, multiple tests could be performed simultaneously with a 40 min turnaround time. These results suggest that the proposed platform possesses the capability for sensitive and high-throughput on-site mercury pollution monitoring in resource-constrained settings.

  16. Simulations of Interdigitated Electrode Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles for Impedance-Based Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott MacKay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a point-of-care biosensor design. The uniqueness of our design is in its capability for detecting a wide variety of target biomolecules and the simplicity of nanoparticle enhanced electrical detection. The electrical properties of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs and the mechanism for gold nanoparticle-enhanced impedance-based biosensor systems based on these electrodes are simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Understanding these properties and how they can be affected is vital in designing effective biosensor devices. Simulations were used to show electrical screening develop over time for IDEs in a salt solution, as well as the electric field between individual digits of electrodes. Using these simulations, it was observed that gold nanoparticles bound closely to IDEs can lower the electric field magnitude between the digits of the electrode. The simulations are also shown to be a useful design tool in optimizing sensor function. Various different conditions, such as electrode dimensions and background ion concentrations, are shown to have a significant impact on the simulations.

  17. Graphene- gold based nanocomposites applications in cancer diseases; Efficient detection and therapeutic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Lina A; AlSaadi, Mohammed A; Kadir, Farkaad A; Hashim, Najihah M; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili M; Yehye, Wageeh A

    2017-10-20

    Early detection and efficient treatment of cancer disease remains a drastic challenge in 21st century. Throughout the bulk of funds, studies, and current therapeutics, cancer seems to aggressively advance with drug resistance strains and recurrence rates. Nevertheless, nanotechnologies have indeed given hope to be the next generation for oncology applications. According to US National cancer institute, it is anticipated to revolutionize the perspectives of cancer diagnosis and therapy. With such success, nano-hybrid strategy creates a marvelous preference. Herein, graphene-gold based composites are being increasingly studied in the field of oncology, for their outstanding performance as robust vehicle of therapeutic agents, built-in optical diagnostic features, and functionality as theranostic system. Additional modes of treatments are also applicable including photothermal, photodynamic, as well as combined therapy. This review aims to demonstrate the various cancer-related applications of graphene-gold based hybrids in terms of detection and therapy, highlighting the major attributes that led to designate such system as a promising ally in the war against cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A nanostructured composite based on polyaniline and gold nanoparticles: synthesis and gas sensing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venditti, Iole; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Russo, Maria Vittoria; Bearzotti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured composite materials based on polyaniline (PANI) and gold nanoparticles have been prepared by means of an osmosis based method. Several morphologies have been obtained for the pristine nanoPANI and for nanoPANI–Au composite, ranging from amorphous to sponge-like and spherical shapes. On the basis of this morphological investigation, different materials with high surface area have been selected and tested as chemical interactive materials for room temperature gas and vapor sensing. The resistive sensor devices have been exposed to different vapor organic compounds (VOCs) of interest in the fields of environmental monitoring and biomedical applications, such as toluene, acetic acid, ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, water, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The effect of doping with H 2 SO 4 has been studied for both nanoPANI and nanoPANI–Au samples. In particular, nanoPANI–Au showed sensitivity to ammonia (up to 10 ppm) higher than that to other VOCs or interfering analytes. The facile preparation method and the improved properties achieved for the polyaniline–gold composite materials are significant in the nanomaterials field and have promise for applications in ammonia vapor monitoring. (paper)

  19. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on DNA-Hb modified gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafi, A.K.M.; Fan Yin; Shin, Hoon-Kyu; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2006-01-01

    A hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) biosensor based on DNA-hemoglobin (Hb) modified electrode is described in this paper. The sensor was designed by DNA and hemoglobin dropletting onto gold electrode surface layer by layer. The sensor based on the direct electron transfer of iron of hemoglobin showed a well electrocatalytic response to the reduction of the H 2 O 2 . This sensor offered an excellent electrochemical response for H 2 O 2 concentration below micromole level with high sensitivity and selectivity and short response time. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance such as, pH, potential were optimized and assessed. The levels of the RSD's ( 2 O 2 was observed from 10 to 120 μM with the detection limit of 0.4 μM (based on the S/N = 3)

  20. Colorimetric detection of trace copper ions based on catalytic leaching of silver-coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tingting; Chen, Lingxin; Chen, Zhaopeng; Wang, Yunqing; Chen, Ling; Li, Jinhua

    2011-11-01

    A colorimetric, label-free, and nonaggregation-based silver coated gold nanoparticles (Ag/Au NPs) probe has been developed for detection of trace Cu(2+) in aqueous solution, based on the fact that Cu(2+) can accelerate the leaching rate of Ag/Au NPs by thiosulfate (S(2)O(3)(2-)). The leaching of Ag/Au NPs would lead to dramatic decrease in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption as the size of Ag/Au NPs decreased. This colorimetric strategy based on size-dependence of nanoparticles during their leaching process provided a highly sensitive (1.0 nM) and selective detection toward Cu(2+), with a wide linear detection range (5-800 nM) over nearly 3 orders of magnitude. The cost-effective probe allows rapid and sensitive detection of trace Cu(2+) ions in water samples, indicating its potential applicability for the determination of copper in real samples.

  1. Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu-De [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000 (China); Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Hao; Liu, Meng; Luo, Ai-Ping, E-mail: luoaiping@scnu.edu.cn; Xu, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: xuwch@scnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2014-10-20

    We reported on the femtosecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using microfiber-based gold nanorods (GNRs) as saturable absorber (SA). By virtue of the geometric characteristic of microfiber-based GNRs, the optical damage threshold of GNRs-SA could be greatly enhanced. The microfiber-based GNRs-SA shows a modulation depth of 4.9% and a nonsaturable loss of 21.1%. With the proposed GNRs-SA, the fiber laser emitted a mode-locked pulse train with duration of ∼887 fs. The obtained results demonstrated that the GNRs deposited microfiber could indeed serve as a high-performance SA towards the practical applications in the field of ultrafast photonics.

  2. Soldering formalism in noncommutative field theory: a brief note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, I develop the soldering formalism in a new domain--the noncommutative planar field theories. The soldering mechanism fuses two distinct theories showing opposite or complimentary properties of some symmetry, taking into account the interference effects. The above mentioned symmetry is hidden in the composite (or soldered) theory. In the present work it is shown that a pair of noncommutative Maxwell-Chern-Simons theories, having opposite signs in their respective topological terms, can be consistently soldered to yield the Proca model (Maxwell theory with a mass term) with corrections that are at least quadratic in the noncommutativity parameter. We further argue that this model can be thought of as the noncommutative generalization of the Proca theory of ordinary spacetime. It is well known that abelian noncommutative gauge theory bears a close structural similarity with non-abelian gauge theory. This fact is manifested in a non-trivial way if the present Letter is compared with existing literature, where soldering of non-abelian models are discussed. Thus the present work further establishes the robustness of the soldering programme. The subtle role played by gauge invariance (or the lack of it), in the above soldering process, is revealed in an interesting way

  3. Fatigue and thermal fatigue of Pb-Sn solder joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frear, D.; Grivas, D.; McCormack, M.; Tribula, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental investigation of the fatigue and thermal fatigue characteristics, with an emphasis on the microstructural development during fatigue, of Sn-Pb solder joints. Fatigue tests were performed in simple shear on both 60Sn-40Pb and 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Isothermal fatigue tests show increasing fatigue life of 60Sn-40Pb solder joints with decreasing strain and temperature. In contrast, such behavior was not observed in the isothermal fatigue of 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Thermal fatigue results on 60Sn-40Pb solder cycled between -55 0 C and 125 0 C show that a coarsened region develops in the center of the joint. Both Pb-rich and Sn-rich phases coarsen, and cracks form within these coarsened regions. The failure mode 60Sn-40Pb solder joints in thermal and isothermal fatigue is similar: cracks form intergranularly through the Sn-rich phase or along Sn/Pb interphase boundaries. Extensive cracking is found throughout the 5Sn-95Pb joint for both thermal and isothermal fatigue. In thermal fatigue the 5Sn-95Pb solder joints failed after fewer cycles than 60Sn-40Pb

  4. Glucose biosensors based on a gold nanodendrite modified screen-printed electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hsi-Chien; Tsai, Chung-Che; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatic glucose biosensor based on a three-dimensional gold nanodendrite (GND) modified screen-printed electrode was developed. The GNDs were electrochemically synthesized on the working electrode component of a commercially available screen-printed electrode using a solution acquired by dissolving bulk gold in aqua regia as the precursor. The 3D GND electrode greatly enhanced the effective sensing area of the biosensor, which improved the sensitivity of glucose detection. Actual glucose detections demonstrated that the fabricated devices could perform at a sensitivity of 46.76 μA mM −1 cm −2 with a linear detection range from 28 μM–8.4 mM and detection limit of 7 μM. A fast response time (∼3 s) was also observed. Moreover, only a 20 μl glucose oxidase is required for detection owing to the incorporation of the commercially available screen-printed electrode. (paper)

  5. Gold Redox Catalysis through Base-Initiated Diazonium Decomposition toward Alkene, Alkyne, and Allene Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Boliang; Peng, Haihui; Motika, Stephen E; Shi, Xiaodong

    2017-08-16

    The discovery of photoassisted diazonium activation toward gold(I) oxidation greatly extended the scope of gold redox catalysis by avoiding the use of a strong oxidant. Some practical issues that limit the application of this new type of chemistry are the relative low efficiency (long reaction time and low conversion) and the strict reaction condition control that is necessary (degassing and inert reaction environment). Herein, an alternative photofree condition has been developed through Lewis base induced diazonium activation. With this method, an unreactive Au I catalyst was used in combination with Na 2 CO 3 and diazonium salts to produce a Au III intermediate. The efficient activation of various substrates, including alkyne, alkene and allene was achieved, followed by rapid Au III reductive elimination, which yielded the C-C coupling products with good to excellent yields. Relative to the previously reported photoactivation method, our approach offered greater efficiency and versatility through faster reaction rates and broader reaction scope. Challenging substrates such as electron rich/neutral allenes, which could not be activated under the photoinitiation conditions (<5 % yield), could be activated to subsequently yield the desired coupling products in good to excellent yield. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A terahertz-vibration to terahertz-radiation converter based on gold nanoobjects: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldosanov, Kamil; Postnikov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    The need for practical and adaptable terahertz sources is apparent in the areas of application such as early cancer diagnostics, nondestructive inspection of pharmaceutical tablets, visualization of concealed objects. We outline the operation principle and suggest the design of a simple appliance for generating terahertz radiation by a system of nanoobjects - gold nanobars (GNBs) or nanorings (GNRs) - irradiated by microwaves. Our estimations confirm a feasibility of the idea that GNBs and GNRs irradiated by microwaves could become terahertz emitters with photon energies within the full width at half maximum of the longitudinal acoustic phononic DOS of gold (ca. 16-19 meV, i.e., 3.9-4.6 THz). A scheme of the terahertz radiation source is suggested based on the domestic microwave oven irradiating a substrate with multiple deposited GNBs or GNRs. The size of a nanoobject for optimal conversion is estimated to be approx. 3 nm (thickness) by approx. 100 nm (length of GNB, or along the GNR). This detailed prediction is open to experimental verification. An impact is expected onto further studies of interplay between atomic vibrations and electromagnetic waves in nanoobjects.

  7. A terahertz-vibration to terahertz-radiation converter based on gold nanoobjects: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Moldosanov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The need for practical and adaptable terahertz sources is apparent in the areas of application such as early cancer diagnostics, nondestructive inspection of pharmaceutical tablets, visualization of concealed objects. We outline the operation principle and suggest the design of a simple appliance for generating terahertz radiation by a system of nanoobjects – gold nanobars (GNBs or nanorings (GNRs – irradiated by microwaves.Results: Our estimations confirm a feasibility of the idea that GNBs and GNRs irradiated by microwaves could become terahertz emitters with photon energies within the full width at half maximum of the longitudinal acoustic phononic DOS of gold (ca. 16–19 meV, i.e., 3.9–4.6 THz. A scheme of the terahertz radiation source is suggested based on the domestic microwave oven irradiating a substrate with multiple deposited GNBs or GNRs.Conclusion: The size of a nanoobject for optimal conversion is estimated to be approx. 3 nm (thickness by approx. 100 nm (length of GNB, or along the GNR. This detailed prediction is open to experimental verification. An impact is expected onto further studies of interplay between atomic vibrations and electromagnetic waves in nanoobjects.

  8. 1-butanethiol vapor sensing based on gold nanoparticle immobilized on glass slide by digital color analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoufi, Nader; Adeleh, Sara

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that gold nanoparticles (GNPs) immobilized on silanized glass act as an optical sensor that is able to quantify 1-butanethiol vapor. GNPs optical properties in the visible region are dominated by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The high affinity between 1-butanethiol and GNPs through Au-s bond leads to change in plasmon feature of GNPs that immobilized on silanized glass and causes absorption decrease at 542 nm in SPR spectrum of GNPs. It can be used as an optical sensor for quantitative detection. In this research, the glass slide surface activated by aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Spherical GNPs immobilized on silanized glass by silanization agent. The sensor is based on the spectrophotometry and digital color analysis (DCA) through RGB. We monitored R value and linear range 50-700 µM (R 2  =  0.97) with 2.05% relative standard deviation and 26.5 µM value was achieved, for the limit of detection. This method represents advantages of metal gold nanoparticles and solid substrate stability in one package, being inexpensive and low time consuming is another advantage of our method that can be conducted in petrochemical, pharmaceutical industries, and for detection of rotten food in food industries.

  9. A Reagentless Amperometric Formaldehyde-Selective Chemosensor Based on Platinized Gold Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, Olha; Smutok, Oleh; Gonchar, Mykhailo; Nisnevitch, Marina

    2017-05-06

    Fabrication and characterization of a new amperometric chemosensor for accurate formaldehyde analysis based on platinized gold electrodes is described. The platinization process was performed electrochemically on the surface of 4 mm gold planar electrodes by both electrolysis and cyclic voltamperometry. The produced electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral analysis. Using a low working potential (0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) enabled an essential increase in the chemosensor's selectivity for the target analyte. The sensitivity of the best chemosensor prototype to formaldehyde is uniquely high (28180 A·M -1 ·m -2 ) with a detection limit of 0.05 mM. The chemosensor remained stable over a one-year storage period. The formaldehye-selective chemosensor was tested on samples of commercial preparations. A high correlation was demonstrated between the results obtained by the proposed chemosensor, chemical and enzymatic methods ( R = 0.998). The developed formaldehyde-selective amperometric chemosensor is very promising for use in industry and research, as well as for environmental control.

  10. Catalysis-reduction strategy for sensing inorganic and organic mercury based on gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaokun; Zhang, Youlin; Chang, Yulei; Xue, Bin; Kong, Xianggui; Chen, Wei

    2017-06-15

    In view of the high biotoxicity and trace concentration of mercury (Hg) in environmental water, developing simple, ultra-sensitive and highly selective method capable of simultaneous determination of various Hg species has attracted wide attention. Here, we present a novel catalysis-reduction strategy for sensing inorganic and organic mercury in aqueous solution through the cooperative effect of AuNP-catalyzed properties and the formation of gold amalgam. For the first time, a new AuNP-catalyzed-organic reaction has been discovered and directly used for sensing Hg 2+ , Hg 2 2+ and CH 3 Hg + according to the change of the amount of the catalytic product induced by the deposition of Hg atoms on the surface of AuNPs. The detection limit of Hg species is 5.0pM (1 ppt), which is 3 orders of magnitude lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limit value of Hg for drinking water (2 ppb). The high selectivity can be exceptionally achieved by the specific formation of gold amalgam. Moreover, the application for detecting tap water samples further demonstrates that this AuNP-based assay can be an excellent method used for sensing mercury at very low content in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on graphene-gold nanocomposite and calcined layered double hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chen; Guo, Yemin; Sun, Xia; Zheng, Yuhe; Wang, Xiangyou

    2014-05-10

    In this study, a novel acetylcholinesterase-based biosensor was fabricated. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with the aid of Cu-Mg-Al calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH). CLDH can provide a bigger effective surface area for AChE loading, which could improve the precision and stability of AChE biosensor. However, the poor electroconductibility of CLDHs could lead to the low sensitivity of AChE biosensor. In order to effectively compensate the disadvantages of CLDHs, graphene-gold nanocomposites were used for improving the electron transfer rate. Thus, the graphene-gold nanocomposite (GN-AuNPs) was firstly modified onto the GCE, and then the prepared CLDH-AChE composite was immobilized onto the modified GCE to construct a sensitive AChE biosensor for pesticides detection. Relevant parameters were studied in detail and optimized, including the pH of the acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) solution, the amount of AChE immobilized on the biosensor and the inhibition time governing the analytical performance of the biosensor. The biosensor detected chlorpyrifos at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 150μg/L. The detection limit for chlorpyrifos was 0.05μg/L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticle/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, Anju, E-mail: atoor@berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); So, Hongyun, E-mail: hyso@berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pisano, Albert P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ligand-modified gold NP/SU-8 nanocomposites were synthesized and demonstrated. • Particle agglomeration and dispersion were characterized with different NPs concentration. • Nanocomposites showed higher average dielectric permittivity compared to SU-8 only. • Relatively lower dielectric loss (average 0.09 at 1 kHz) was achieved with 10 % w/w NPs. - Abstract: This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable polymer nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of the dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on the particle concentration, and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  13. A sensitive gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric aptasensor for Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinglei; Wu, Shijia; Duan, Nuo; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Yu; Chen, Jie; Ding, Zhansheng; Wang, Zhouping

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric aptasensor for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using tyramine signal amplification (TSA) technology has been developed. First, the biotinylated aptamer specific for S. aureus was immobilized on the surface of the wells of the microtiter plate via biotin-avidin binding. Then, the target bacteria (S. aureus), biotinylated-aptamer-streptavidin-HRP conjugates, biotinylated tyramine, hydrogen peroxide and avidin-catalase were successively introduced into the wells of the microtiter plate. After that, the existing catalase consumed the hydrogen peroxide. Finally, the freshly prepared gold (III) chloride trihydrate was added, the color of the reaction production would be changed and the absorbance at 550 nm could be measured with a plate reader. Under optimized conditions, there was a linear relationship between the absorbance at 550 nm and the concentration of S. aureus over the range from 10 to 10(6) cfu mL(-1) (with an R² of 0.9947). The limit of the developed method was determined to be 9 cfu mL(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Wetland-based passive treatment systems for gold ore processing effluents containing residual cyanide, metals and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Ordóñez, A; Loredo, J; Younger, P L

    2013-10-01

    Gold extraction operations generate a variety of wastes requiring responsible disposal in compliance with current environmental regulations. During recent decades, increased emphasis has been placed on effluent control and treatment, in order to avoid the threat to the environment posed by toxic constituents. In many modern gold mining and ore processing operations, cyanide species are of most immediate concern. Given that natural degradation processes are known to reduce the toxicity of cyanide over time, trials have been made at laboratory and field scales into the feasibility of using wetland-based passive systems as low-cost and environmentally friendly methods for long-term treatment of leachates from closed gold mine tailing disposal facilities. Laboratory experiments on discrete aerobic and anaerobic treatment units supported the development of design parameters for the construction of a field-scale passive system at a gold mine site in northern Spain. An in situ pilot-scale wetland treatment system was designed, constructed and monitored over a nine-month period. Overall, the results suggest that compost-based constructed wetlands are capable of detoxifying cyanidation effluents, removing about 21.6% of dissolved cyanide and 98% of Cu, as well as nitrite and nitrate. Wetland-based passive systems can therefore be considered as a viable technology for removal of residual concentrations of cyanide from leachates emanating from closed gold mine tailing disposal facilities.

  15. Manipulation and soldering of carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwase, Yuta; Ikeda, Takayuki; Oya, Takahide; Ogino, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Manipulation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and soldering of CNTs using Fe oxide nanoparticles are described. We succeeded to separate a CNT bundle into two CNTs or CNT bundles, to move the separated CNT to a desirable position, and to bind it to another bundle. For the accurate manipulation, load of the AFM cantilever and frequency of the scan were carefully selected. We soldered two CNTs using an Fe oxide nanoparticle prepared from a ferritin molecule. The adhesion forces between the soldered CNTs were examined by an AFM and it was found that the CNTs were bound, though the binding force was not strong

  16. Massive spalling of Cu-Zn and Cu-Al intermetallic compounds at the interface between solders and Cu substrate during liquid state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotadia, H. R.; Panneerselvam, A.; Mokhtari, O.; Green, M. A.; Mannan, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    The interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) formation between Cu substrate and Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu-X (wt.%) solder alloys has been studied, where X consists of 0-5% Zn or 0-2% Al. The study has focused on the effect of solder volume as well as the Zn or Al concentration. With low solder volume, when the Zn and Al concentrations in the solder are also low, the initial Cu-Zn and Al-Cu IMC layers, which form at the solder/substrate interface, are not stable and spall off, displaced by a Cu6Sn5 IMC layer. As the total Zn or Al content in the system increases by increasing solder volume, stable CuZn or Al2Cu IMCs form on the substrate and are not displaced. Increasing concentration of Zn has a similar effect of stabilizing the Cu-Zn IMC layer and also of forming a stable Cu5Zn8 layer, but increasing Al concentration alone does not prevent spalling of Al2Cu. These results are explained using a combination of thermodynamic- and kinetics-based arguments.

  17. Microscopic Gold Particle-Based Fiducial Markers for Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Park, Soah; Kim, Jin Sung; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Shin, Jungwook; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sung Yong; Pyo, Hong Ryeol; Kim, Dae Yong M.D.; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the feasibility of using fiducial markers composed of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers as a means to overcome current problems with conventional macroscopic gold fiducial markers, such as dose reduction and artifact generation, in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We examined two types of gold particle fiducial marker interactions: that with diagnostic X-rays and with a therapeutic proton beam. That is, we qualitatively and quantitatively compared the radiographic visibility of conventional gold and gold particle fiducial markers and the CT artifacts and dose reduction associated with their use. Results: The gold particle fiducials could be easily distinguished from high-density structures, such as the pelvic bone, in diagnostic X-rays but were nearly transparent to a proton beam. The proton dose distribution was distorted <5% by the gold particle fiducials with a 4.9% normalized gold density; this was the case even in the worst configuration (i.e., parallel alignment with a single-direction proton beam). In addition, CT artifacts were dramatically reduced for the gold particle mixture. Conclusion: Mixtures of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers have excellent potential as fiducial markers for proton therapy for prostate cancer. These include good radiographic visibility, low distortion of the depth-dose distribution, and few CT artifacts.

  18. Schiff Base Ligand Coated Gold Nanoparticles for the Chemical Sensing of Fe(III Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Azeez Jimoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New Schiff base-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs of type AuNP@L (where L: thiolated Schiff base ligand have been synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. The AuNPs and AuNP@L were imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and were confirmed to be well-dispersed, uniformly distributed, spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8–10 nm. Their potential applications for chemosensing were investigated in UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The AuNP@L exhibited selectivity for Fe3+ in an ethanol/water mixture (ratio 9 : 1 v/v. The absorption and emission spectral studies revealed a 1 : 1 binding mode for Fe3+, with binding constants of 8.5×105 and 2.9×105 M−1, respectively.

  19. Numerical prediction of mechanical properties of Pb-Sn solder alloys containing antimony, bismuth and or silver ternary trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadag, Shiva P.; Patra, Susant

    2000-12-01

    Solder joint interconnects are mechanical means of structural support for bridging the various electronic components and providing electrical contacts and a thermal path for heat dissipation. The functionality of the electronic device often relies on the structural integrity of the solder. The dimensional stability of solder joints is numerically predicted based on their mechanical properties. Algorithms to model the kinetics of dissolution and subsequent growth of intermetallic from the complete knowledge of a single history of time-temperature-reflow profile, by considering equivalent isothermal time intervals, have been developed. The information for dissolution is derived during the heating cycle of reflow and for the growth process from cooling curve of reflow profile. A simple and quick analysis tool to derive tensile stress-strain maps as a function of the reflow temperature of solder and strain rate has been developed by numerical program. The tensile properties are used in modeling thermal strain, thermal fatigue and to predict the overall fatigue life of solder joints. The numerical analysis of the tensile properties as affected by their composition and rate of testing, has been compiled in this paper. A numerical model using constitutive equation has been developed to evaluate the interfacial fatigue crack growth rate. The model can assess the effect of cooling rate, which depends on the level of strain energy release rate. Increasing cooling rate from normalizing to water-quenching, enhanced the fatigue resistance to interfacial crack growth by up to 50% at low strain energy release rate. The increased cooling rates enhanced the fatigue crack growth resistance by surface roughening at the interface of solder joint. This paper highlights salient features of process modeling. Interfacial intermetallic microstructure is affected by cooling rate and thereby affects the mechanical properties.

  20. Task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms for diffusion-weighted MRI without using a gold standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Kupinski, Matthew A; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J; Stephen, Renu M; Stopeck, Alison T

    2012-01-01

    In many studies, the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lesions in visceral organs in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance images requires an accurate lesion-segmentation algorithm. To evaluate these lesion-segmentation algorithms, region-overlap measures are used currently. However, the end task from the DW images is accurate ADC estimation, and the region-overlap measures do not evaluate the segmentation algorithms on this task. Moreover, these measures rely on the existence of gold-standard segmentation of the lesion, which is typically unavailable. In this paper, we study the problem of task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms in DW imaging in the absence of a gold standard. We first show that using manual segmentations instead of gold-standard segmentations for this task-based evaluation is unreliable. We then propose a method to compare the segmentation algorithms that does not require gold-standard or manual segmentation results. The no-gold-standard method estimates the bias and the variance of the error between the true ADC values and the ADC values estimated using the automated segmentation algorithm. The method can be used to rank the segmentation algorithms on the basis of both the ensemble mean square error and precision. We also propose consistency checks for this evaluation technique. (paper)

  1. Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol on a Strontium-Based Gold Material: Remarkable Intrinsic Basicity and Reusable Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Patrícia R. Castro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of stable and active gold catalysts has arisen as a significant strategy for oxidation of alcohols. Nano-size PVA-stabilized gold nanoparticles immobilized on Sr(OH2 by colloidal deposition presented high catalytic activity for benzyl alcohol oxidation. In 2.5 h, 2 bar of O2 and without extra-base addition, the calcined support reached 54.6% (100 °C and 67.4% (140 °C of conversion, presenting the remarkable and unexplored intrinsic basicity that strontium-based materials retain. With sub-stoichiometric K2CO3 adding, under the same catalytic conditions, the catalyst conducted the reaction with similar activity, but with excellent reusability in the process, without any gold leaching. We investigated the influence that the support synthesis method and the solvent used for the NPs stabilization have on the oxidation activity. The produced materials were fully characterized by XPS, Rietveld refinement, and TEM.

  2. UV-Visible Spectroscopy-Based Quantification of Unlabeled DNA Bound to Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, Brandi L; Hutchison, James E

    2016-12-20

    DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles have been increasingly applied as sensitive and selective analytical probes and biosensors. The DNA ligands bound to a nanoparticle dictate its reactivity, making it essential to know the type and number of DNA strands bound to the nanoparticle surface. Existing methods used to determine the number of DNA strands per gold nanoparticle (AuNP) require that the sequences be fluorophore-labeled, which may affect the DNA surface coverage and reactivity of the nanoparticle and/or require specialized equipment and other fluorophore-containing reagents. We report a UV-visible-based method to conveniently and inexpensively determine the number of DNA strands attached to AuNPs of different core sizes. When this method is used in tandem with a fluorescence dye assay, it is possible to determine the ratio of two unlabeled sequences of different lengths bound to AuNPs. Two sizes of citrate-stabilized AuNPs (5 and 12 nm) were functionalized with mixtures of short (5 base) and long (32 base) disulfide-terminated DNA sequences, and the ratios of sequences bound to the AuNPs were determined using the new method. The long DNA sequence was present as a lower proportion of the ligand shell than in the ligand exchange mixture, suggesting it had a lower propensity to bind the AuNPs than the short DNA sequence. The ratio of DNA sequences bound to the AuNPs was not the same for the large and small AuNPs, which suggests that the radius of curvature had a significant influence on the assembly of DNA strands onto the AuNPs.

  3. Gold leaching by organic base polythionates: new non-toxic and secure technology

    OpenAIRE

    Smolyaninov, Vladislav; Shekhvatova, Galina; Vainshtein, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The article present a review on own experimental and some published data which are related with the gold leaching. It is well-known that the most common and usual process of the leaching with cyanide can be dangerous, needs a great water consumption, and additional costs for remediation of the poisoned and toxic sites. The experimental data described production of poythionates which are not toxic but perspective for the prosperous gold leaching. The paper dedicated to the safe gold leaching w...

  4. Crystal plasticity finite element analysis of deformation behaviour in SAC305 solder joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Payam

    Due to the awareness of the potential health hazards associated with the toxicity of lead (Pb), actions have been taken to eliminate or reduce the use of Pb in consumer products. Among those, tin (Sn) solders have been used for the assembly of electronic systems. Anisotropy is of significant importance in all structural metals, but this characteristic is unusually strong in Sn, making Sn based solder joints one of the best examples of the influence of anisotropy. The effect of anisotropy arising from the crystal structure of tin and large grain microstructure on the microstructure and the evolution of constitutive responses of microscale SAC305 solder joints is investigated. Insights into the effects of key microstructural features and dominant plastic deformation mechanisms influencing the measured relative activity of slip systems in SAC305 are obtained from a combination of optical microscopy, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), slip plane trace analysis and crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling. Package level SAC305 specimens were subjected to shear deformation in sequential steps and characterized using optical microscopy and OIM to identify the activity of slip systems. X-ray micro Laue diffraction and high energy monochromatic X-ray beam were employed to characterize the joint scale tensile samples to provide necessary information to be able to compare and validate the CPFE model. A CPFE model was developed that can account for relative ease of activating slip systems in SAC305 solder based upon the statistical estimation based on correlation between the critical resolved shear stress and the probability of activating various slip systems. The results from simulations show that the CPFE model developed using the statistical analysis of activity of slip system not only can satisfy the requirements associated with kinematic of plastic deformation in crystal coordinate systems (activity of slip systems) and global coordinate system (shape changes

  5. Silk fibroin/gold nanocrystals: a new example of biopolymer-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinville, S.; Garnier, A.; Courty, A.

    2017-05-01

    The dispersion of nanoparticles in ordered polymer nanostructures can provide control over particle location and orientation, and pave the way for tailored nanomaterials that have enhanced mechanical, electrical, or optical properties. Here we used silk fibroin, a natural biopolymer, to embed gold nanocrystals (NCs), so as to obtain well-ordered structures such as nanowires and self-assembled triangular nanocomposites. Monodisperse gold NCs synthesized in organic media are mixed to silk fibroin and the obtained nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties study of gold NCs and silk-gold nanocomposites shows that the Surface Plasmon band is blue shifted compared to gold NCs. The size and shape of NCs gold superlattices can be well controlled by the presence of silk fibroin giving nanowires and also self-assembled triangular nanocomposites as characterized by TEM, FE-SEM and AFM. The strong interaction between gold NCs and silk fibroin is also revealed by the conformation change of silk protein in presence of gold NCs, as shown by FTIR analysis. The formation of such ordered nanocomposites (gold NCs/silk fibroin) will provide new nanoplasmonic devices.

  6. Interfacial Reaction of Sn-Ag-Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloy on Cu: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Mei Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the function and importance of Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys in electronics industry and the interfacial reaction of Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joint at various solder forms and solder reflow conditions. The Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys are examined in bulk and in thin film. It then examines the effect of soldering conditions to the formation of intermetallic compounds such as Cu substrate selection, structural phases, morphology evolution, the growth kinetics, temperature and time is also discussed. Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder alloys are the most promising candidate for the replacement of Sn-Pb solders in modern microelectronic technology. Sn-Ag-Cu solders could possibly be considered and adapted in miniaturization technologies. Therefore, this paper should be of great interest to a large selection of electronics interconnect materials, reliability, processes, and assembly community.

  7. Development of a soft-soldering system for aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, W. L.; Lee, A. Y.; Neumeier, L. A.

    1983-03-01

    The method employs application of a thin nickel copper alloy coating to the substrate, which enables the tin lead solders to wet readily and spread over the areas to be joined. The aluminum substrate is mechanically or chemically cleaned to facilitate bonding to a minute layer of zinc that is subsequently applied, with an electroless zincate solution. The nickel copper alloy (30 to 70 pct Ni) coating is then applied electrolytically over the zinc, using immersion cell or brush coating techniques. Development of acetate electrolytes has permitted deposition of the proper alloys coatings. The coated areas can then be readily joined with conventional tin lead solders and fluxs. The joints so formed are ductile, strong, and relatively corrosion resistant, and exhibit strengths equivalent to those formed on copper and brass when the same solders and fluxes are used. The method has also been employed to soft solder magnesium alloys.

  8. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticles/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju; So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on particle concentration and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  9. Single molecular switch based on thiol tethered iron(II)clathrochelate on gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Subramanian [Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Voloshin, Yan Z. [Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Radecka, Hanna [Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Radecki, Jerzy [Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: radecki@pan.olsztyn.pl

    2009-09-30

    Molecular electronics has been associated with high density nano-electronic devices. Developments of molecular electronic devices were based on reversible switching of molecules between the two conductive states. In this paper, self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol (DDT) and thiol tethered iron(II)clathrochelate (IC) have been prepared on gold film. The electrochemical and electronic properties of IC molecules inserted into the dodecanethiol monolayer (IC-DDT SAM) were investigated using voltammetric, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and cross-wire tunneling measurements. The voltage triggered switching behaviour of IC molecules on mixed SAM was demonstrated. Deposition of polyaniline on the redox sites of IC-DDT SAM using electrochemical polymerization of aniline was performed in order to confirm that this monolayer acts as nano-patterned semiconducting electrode surface.

  10. Gold-standard evaluation of a folksonomy-based ontology learning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuana, E.

    2018-03-01

    Folksonomy, as one result of collaborative tagging process, has been acknowledged for its potential in improving categorization and searching of web resources. However, folksonomy contains ambiguities such as synonymy and polysemy as well as different abstractions or generality problem. To maximize its potential, some methods for associating tags of folksonomy with semantics and structural relationships have been proposed such as using ontology learning method. This paper evaluates our previous work in ontology learning according to gold-standard evaluation approach in comparison to a notable state-of-the-art work and several baselines. The results show that our method is comparable to the state-of the art work which further validate our approach as has been previously validated using task-based evaluation approach.

  11. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticles/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju

    2017-04-15

    This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on particle concentration and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  12. A colorimetric method for the determination of xanthine based on the aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Wendan; Zhao, Huawen; Wu, Liping; Zhao, Xianying

    2015-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive method for the determination of traces of xanthine based on the aggregation of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). It is found that, under optimal conditions of pH, the imide group of xanthine is adsorbed on the surface of the AuNPs, thereby displacing citrate ions. This leads to an aggregation of the AuNPs via hydrogen-bond interactions. As a result, the color of the solution changes from red to blue which can be seen with bare eyes and also can be measured by spectrophotometry. The ratio of the absorbances at 630 nm and 520 nm is linearly related to the concentration of xanthine in the 125 nM to 6.0 μM range (r = 0.9988), and the detection limit (3σ/slope) is 23 nM. The method is simple, feasible and fast. (author)

  13. Detection of Carbendazim Residues with a Colorimetric Sensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Jiang, H.; Shen, C.; Hou, Ch.; Huo, D.; Wu, H.; Yang, M.

    2017-07-01

    Carbendazim is among the most popular benzimidazole bactericides that are widely used to boost food production, and its residue poses a great threat to human health and the environment. In this paper, we presented a colorimetric sensor based on gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) for the detection of carbendazim residues. The Au-NPs were stabilized by citric acid synthesized by chloroauric acid and sodium citrate with a diameter of about 13 nm. Upon reaction with carbendazim, the sensor gave a clear color change that could be distinguished with the naked eye. Thus we elaborated a new method for rapid determination of this benzimidazole bactericide. After optimization of the detection conditions, the sensor showed a very good linear relationship with the carbendazim concentrations varying from 10 to 600 ppb with a detection limit down to 3.4 ppb (S/N = 3). These preliminary results demonstrate that the presented sensor is promising for fast carbendazim analysis.

  14. Strength of joints brazed with two-phase solders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shnyakin, N.S.; Parfenova, L.V.; Ekatova, A.S.; Prilepskaya, I.V.

    1976-01-01

    Dependence of the structure and strength of soldered joints upon a gap size in case of 1Kh18N10T stainless steel soldering with a double-phase solder of Ni-Zn-Cu system is described. Butt and lap joints have been subjected to soldering with gas-flame and induction heating. The optimum conditions of the solder crystallization are determined with wedge-gap samples. The studies show that the character of distribution of a fusible β-phase in metal depends upon a gap size. With gaps up to 0.1 mm the β-phase enriched with a fusible component (zinc) runs as a continuous thin interlayer in the middle of the seam. As a result of zinc evaporation from the β-phase this interlayer becomes internally oxidized. After the sample is broken an oxidized fracture gives one the impression of a poor fusion in the middle part of the joint. The ultimate strength of butt joints is 15-20 kgf/sq.mm. A value of thermal expansion of 1Kh18N10T steel samples, 1-5 mm thick, has been experimentally determined for butt soldering. The elongation of two halves of the sample is measured by an indicator and proved to be 0.89 mm for a 50x50x2 mm sample at a soldering temperature of 1.100 deg C. The paper presents methods for the calculation of an optimal gap value for butt soldering with a local gas-flame and induction heating

  15. Determination of Patulin Using Amperometric Tyrosinase Biosensors Based on Electrodes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Varlamova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New amperometric biosensors based on platinum screen printed electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, and immobilized enzyme – tyrosinase have been developed for determination of patulin in the concentrations of 1·10–6 – 8·10–12 mol/L with an error of no more than 0.063. The best conditions for obtaining gold nanoparticles have been chosen. The conditions for immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles on the surface of the planar electrode have been revealed. The conditions for functioning of the proposed biosensors have been identified. The results have been used to control the content of patulin in food products within and lower than the maximum allowable levels.

  16. Investigation of the effect of support thermal treatment on gold-based catalysts' activity towards propene total oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamallem, M.; Cousin, R.; Thomas, R.; Siffert, St.; Aissi, F.; Aboukais, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the effect of support thermal treatment on the activity of gold-based catalysts for the total oxidation of propene. Ce 0.3 Ti 0.7 O 2 supports were prepared using sol-gel method. These compounds are calcined at 400, 500 and 600 C. Physico-chemical properties of synthesized materials were characterized by means of XRD, DR/UV-vis and H 2 -TPR. Then gold was deposited on these supports by the deposition precipitation method. Thus the catalytic activity of these solids in the propene oxidation was evaluated. On the basis of the catalytic results, a better activity is obtained when gold is deposited on Ce 0.3 Ti 0.7 O 2 support previously calcined at 400 C under air. (authors)

  17. Characteristics of solder joints under fatigue loads using piezomechanical actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Dong-Jin; Spearing, S. Mark

    2003-07-01

    Crack initiation and growth characteristics of solder joints under fatigue loads are investigated using piezomechanical actuation. Cracks in solder joints, which can cause failure in microelectronics components, are induced via piezoelectricity in piezo-ceramic bonded joints. Lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic plates and eutectic Sn-Pb solder bonded in a double-lap shear configuration are used in the investigation. Electric field across each piezo-ceramic plate is applied such that shear stresses/strains are induced in the solder joints. The experiments show that cracks initiate in the solder joints around defects such as voids and grow in length until they coalesce with other cracks from adjacent voids. These observations are compared with the similar thermal cycling tests from the literature to show feasibility and validity of the current method in investigating the fatigue characteristics of solder joints. In some specimens, cracks in the piezo-ceramic plates are observed, and failure in the specimens generally occurred due to piezo-ceramic plate fracture. The issues encountered in implementing this methodology such as low actuation and high processing temperatures are further discussed.

  18. Laser Soldering of Rat Skin Using a Controlled Feedback System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Nourbakhsh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laser tissue soldering using albumin and indocyanine green dye (ICG is an effective technique utilized in various surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to perform laser soldering of rat skin under a feedback control system and compare the results with those obtained using standard sutures. Material and Methods: Skin incisions were made over eight rats’ dorsa, which were subsequently closed using different wound closure interventions in two groups: (a using a temperature controlled infrared detector or (b by suture. Tensile strengths were measured at 2, 5, 7 and 10 days post-incision. Histological examination was performed at the time of sacrifice. Results: Tensile strength results showed that during the initial days following the incisions, the tensile strengths of the sutured samples were greater than the laser samples. However, 10 days after the incisions, the tensile strengths of the laser soldered incisions were higher than the sutured cuts. Histopathological examination showed a preferred wound healing response in the soldered skin compared with the control samples. The healing indices of the laser soldered repairs (426 were significantly better than the control samples (340.5. Conclusion: Tissue feedback control of temperature and optical changes in laser soldering of skin leads to a higher tensile strength and better histological results and hence this method may be considered as an alternative to standard suturing.

  19. Gold nanoclusters as switch-off fluorescent probe for detection of uric acid based on the inner filter effect of hydrogen peroxide-mediated enlargement of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Li, Hongchang; Guo, Bin; Wei, Lijuan; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Youyu

    2017-05-15

    Herein we report a novel switch-off fluorescent probe for highly selective determination of uric acid (UA) based on the inner filter effect (IFE), by using poly-(vinylpyrrolidone)-protected gold nanoparticles (PVP-AuNPs) and chondroitin sulfate-stabilized gold nanoclusters (CS-AuNCs) as the IFE absorber/fluorophore pair. In this IFE-based fluorometric assay, the newly designed CS-AuNCs were explored as an original fluorophore and the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) -driven formed PVP-AuNPs can be a powerful absorber to influence the excitation of the fluorophore, due to the complementary overlap between the absorption band of PVP-AuNPs and the emission band of CS-AuNCs. Under the optimized conditions, the extent of the signal quenching depends linearly on the H 2 O 2 concentration in the range of 1-100μM (R 2 =0.995) with a detection limit down to 0.3μM. Based on the H 2 O 2 -dependent fluorescence IFE principle, we further developed a new assay strategy to enable selective sensing of UA by using a specific uricase-catalyzed UA oxidation as the in situ H 2 O 2 generator. The proposed uricase-linked IFE-based assay exhibited excellent analytical performance for measuring UA over the concentration ranging from 5 to 100μM (R 2 =0.991), and can be successfully applied to detection of UA as low as 1.7μM (3σ) in diluted human serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Colorimetric detection of Cr (VI) based on the leaching of gold nanoparticles using a paper-based sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Feng; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Hou, Chang-Jun; Li, Jun-Jie; Fa, Huan-Bao; Luo, Hui-Bo; Yang, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Herein, we have developed a simple, sensitive and paper-based colorimetric sensor for the selective detection of Chromium (Ⅵ) ions (Cr (VI)). Silanization-titanium dioxide modified filter paper (STCP) was used to trap bovine serum albumin capped gold nanoparticles (BSA-Au NPs), leading to the fabrication of BSA-Au NPs decorated membrane (BSA-Au NPs/STCP). The BSA-Au NPs/STCP operated on the principle that BSA-Au NPs anchored on the STCP were gradually etched by Cr (VI) as the leaching process of gold in the presence of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and hence induced a visible color change. Under optimum conditions, the paper-based colorimetric sensor showed clear color change after reaction with Cr (VI) as well as with favorable selectivity to a variety of possible interfering counterparts. The amount-dependent colorimetric response was linearly correlated with the Cr (VI) concentrations ranging from 0.5µM to 50.0µM with a detection limit down to 280nM. Moreover, the developed cost-effective colorimetric sensor has been successfully applied to real environmental samples which demonstrated the potential for field applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus by functional gold nanoparticle-based affinity surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong-Zheng; Wang, Sin-Ge; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2015-02-17

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the common pathogenic bacteria responsible for bacterial infectious diseases and food poisoning. This study presents an analytical method based on the affinity nanoprobe-based mass spectrometry that enables detection of S. aureus in aqueous samples. A peptide aptamer DVFLGDVFLGDEC (DD) that can recognize S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was used as the reducing agent and protective group to generate DD-immobilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs@DD) from one-pot reactions. The thiol group from cysteine in the peptide aptamer, i.e., DD, can interact with gold ions to generate DD-immobilized AuNPs in an alkaline solution. The generated AuNPs@DD has an absorption maximum at ∼518 nm. The average particle size is 7.6 ± 1.2 nm. Furthermore, the generated AuNPs@DD can selectively bind with S. aureus and MRSA. The conjugates of the target bacteria with AuNPs were directly analyzed by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). The gold ions generated from the AuNPs@DD anchored on the target bacteria were monitored. Gold ions (m/z 197 and 394) were only generated from the conjugates of the target bacterium-AuNP@DD in the SALDI process. Thus, the gold ions could be used as the indicators for the presence of the target bacteria. The detection limit of S. aureus using this method is in the order of a few tens of cells. The low detection limit is due to the ease of generation of gold cluster ion derived from AuNPs under irradiation with a 355 nm laser beam. Apple juice mixed with S. aureus was used as the sample to demonstrate the suitability of the method for real-world application. Because of its low detection limit, this approach can potentially be used to screen the presence of S. aureus in complex samples.

  2. Recent Advances in Cancer Therapy Based on Dual Mode Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellas Spyratou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many tumor-targeted strategies have been used worldwide to limit the side effects and improve the effectiveness of therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT, etc. Biophotonic therapy modalities comprise very promising alternative techniques for cancer treatment with minimal invasiveness and side-effects. These modalities use light e.g., laser irradiation in an extracorporeal or intravenous mode to activate photosensitizer agents with selectivity in the target tissue. Photothermal therapy (PTT is a minimally invasive technique for cancer treatment which uses laser-activated photoabsorbers to convert photon energy into heat sufficient to induce cells destruction via apoptosis, necroptosis and/or necrosis. During the last decade, PTT has attracted an increased interest since the therapy can be combined with customized functionalized nanoparticles (NPs. Recent advances in nanotechnology have given rise to generation of various types of NPs, like gold NPs (AuNPs, designed to act both as radiosensitizers and photothermal sensitizing agents due to their unique optical and electrical properties i.e., functioning in dual mode. Functionalized AuNPS can be employed in combination with non-ionizing and ionizing radiation to significantly improve the efficacy of cancer treatment while at the same time sparing normal tissues. Here, we first provide an overview of the use of NPs for cancer therapy. Then we review many recent advances on the use of gold NPs in PTT, RT and PTT/RT based on different types of AuNPs, irradiation conditions and protocols. We refer to the interaction mechanisms of AuNPs with cancer cells via the effects of non-ionizing and ionizing radiations and we provide recent existing experimental data as a baseline for the design of optimized protocols in PTT, RT and PTT/RT combined treatment.

  3. Gold nanorod-incorporated gelatin-based conductive hydrogels for engineering cardiac tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaei, Ali; Saini, Harpinder; Christenson, Wayne; Sullivan, Ryan Tanner; Ros, Robert; Nikkhah, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    The development of advanced biomaterials is a crucial step to enhance the efficacy of tissue engineering strategies for treatment of myocardial infarction. Specific characteristics of biomaterials including electrical conductivity, mechanical robustness and structural integrity need to be further enhanced to promote the functionalities of cardiac cells. In this work, we fabricated UV-crosslinkable gold nanorod (GNR)-incorporated gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hybrid hydrogels with enhanced material and biological properties for cardiac tissue engineering. Embedded GNRs promoted electrical conductivity and mechanical stiffness of the hydrogel matrix. Cardiomyocytes seeded on GelMA-GNR hybrid hydrogels exhibited excellent cell retention, viability, and metabolic activity. The increased cell adhesion resulted in abundance of locally organized F-actin fibers, leading to the formation of an integrated tissue layer on the GNR-embedded hydrogels. Immunostained images of integrin β-1 confirmed improved cell-matrix interaction on the hybrid hydrogels. Notably, homogeneous distribution of cardiac specific markers (sarcomeric α-actinin and connexin 43), were observed on GelMA-GNR hydrogels as a function of GNRs concentration. Furthermore, the GelMA-GNR hybrids supported synchronous tissue-level beating of cardiomyocytes. Similar observations were also noted by, calcium transient assay that demonstrated the rhythmic contraction of the cardiomyocytes on GelMA-GNR hydrogels as compared to pure GelMA. Thus, the findings of this study clearly demonstrated that functional cardiac patches with superior electrical and mechanical properties can be developed using nanoengineered GelMA-GNR hybrid hydrogels. In this work, we developed gold nanorod (GNR) incorporated gelatin-based hydrogels with suitable electrical conductivity and mechanical stiffness for engineering functional cardiac tissue constructs (e.g. cardiac patches). The synthesized conductive hybrid hydrogels properly

  4. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  5. Evaluation on Dorsey Method in Surface Tension Measurement of Solder Liquids Containing Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingke; Xie, Feiming; Fan, Jinsheng; Liu, Dayong; Huang, Jihua; Chen, Shuhai

    2018-06-01

    With the purpose of developing a feasible approach for measuring the surface tension of solders containing surfactants, the surface tension of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-xP solder alloys, with various drop sizes as well as different phosphorus (P) content, was evaluated using the Dorsey method based on the sessile drop test. The results show that the accuracy of the surface tension calculations depends on both of sessile drop size and the liquid metal composition. With a proper drop size, in the range of 4.5 mm to 5.3 mm in equivalent spherical diameters, the deviation of the surface tension calculation can be limited to 1.43 mN·m-1 and 6.30 mN·m-1 for SnAgCu and SnAgCu-P, respectively. The surface tension of SnAgCu-xP solder alloys decreases quickly to a minimum value when the P content reaches 0.5 wt% and subsequently increases slowly with the P content further increasing. The formation of a P-enriched surface layer and Sn4P3 intermetallic phases is regarded to be responsible for the decreasing and subsequent increasing of surface tension, respectively.

  6. Gold nanoparticle-based probes for the colorimetric detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganareal, Thenor Aristotile Charles S; Balbin, Michelle M; Monserate, Juvy J; Salazar, Joel R; Mingala, Claro N

    2018-02-12

    Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is considered to be the most stable metal nanoparticle having the ability to be functionalized with biomolecules. Recently, AuNP-based DNA detection methods captured the interest of researchers worldwide. Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, a chronic gastroenteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), was found to have negative effect in the livestock industry. In this study, AuNP-based probes were evaluated for the specific and sensitive detection of MAP DNA. AuNP-based probe was produced by functionalization of AuNPs with thiol-modified oligonucleotide and was confirmed by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize AuNPs. DNA detection was done by hybridization of 10 μL of DNA with 5 μL of probe at 63 °C for 10 min and addition of 3 μL salt solution. The method was specific to MAP with detection limit of 103 ng. UV-Vis and SEM showed dispersion and aggregation of the AuNPs for the positive and negative results, respectively, with no observed particle growth. This study therefore reports an AuNP-based probes which can be used for the specific and sensitive detection of MAP DNA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation of high-quality self-assembled monolayers of conjugated dithiols on gold: base matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenier, Hennie; Huisman, Everardus H; van Hal, Paul A; de Leeuw, Dago M; Chiechi, Ryan C; Hummelen, Jan C

    2011-04-06

    This Article reports a systematic study on the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of conjugated molecules for molecular electronic (ME) devices. We monitored the deprotection reaction of acetyl protected dithiols of oligophenylene ethynylenes (OPEs) in solution using two different bases and studied the quality of the resulting SAMs on gold. We found that the optimal conditions to reproducibly form dense, high-quality monolayers are 9-15% triethylamine (Et(3)N) in THF. The deprotection base tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (Bu(4)NOH) leads to less dense SAMs and the incorporation of Bu(4)N into the monolayer. Furthermore, our results show the importance of the equilibrium concentrations of (di)thiolate in solution on the quality of the SAM. To demonstrate the relevance of these results for molecular electronics applications, large-area molecular junctions were fabricated using no base, Et(3)N, and Bu(4)NOH. The magnitude of the current-densities in these devices is highly dependent on the base. A value of β=0.15 Å(-1) for the exponential decay of the current-density of OPEs of varying length formed using Et(3)N was obtained. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Characterizing the Soldering Alloy Type In–Ag–Ti and the Study of Direct Soldering of SiC Ceramics and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koleňák

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to characterize the soldering alloy In–Ag–Ti type, and to study the direct soldering of SiC ceramics and copper. The In10Ag4Ti solder has a broad melting interval, which mainly depends on its silver content. The liquid point of the solder is 256.5 °C. The solder microstructure is composed of a matrix with solid solution (In, in which the phases of titanium (Ti3In4 and silver (AgIn2 are mainly segregated. The tensile strength of the solder is approximately 13 MPa. The strength of the solder increased with the addition of Ag and Ti. The solder bonds with SiC ceramics, owing to the interaction between active In metal and silicon infiltrated in the ceramics. XRD analysis has proven the interaction of titanium with ceramic material during the formation of the new minority phases of titanium silicide—SiTi and titanium carbide—C5Ti8. In and Ag also affect bond formation with the copper substrate. Two new phases were also observed in the bond interphase—(CuAg6In5 and (AgCuIn2. The average shear strength of a combined joint of SiC–Cu, fabricated with In10Ag4Ti solder, was 14.5 MPa. The In–Ag–Ti solder type studied possesses excellent solderability with several metallic and ceramic materials.

  9. Conductometric gas sensors based on metal oxides modified with gold nanoparticles: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotcenkov, Ghenadii; Cho, Beong K.; Brinzari, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This review (with 170 refs.) discusses approaches towards surface functionalizaton of metal oxides by gold nanoparticles, and the application of the resulting nanomaterials in resistive gas sensors. The articles is subdivided into sections on (a) methods for modification of metal oxides with gold nanoparticles; (b) the response of gold nanoparticle-modified metal oxide sensors to gaseous species, (c) a discussion of the limitations of such sensors, and (d) a discussion on future tasks and trends along with an outlook. It is shown that, in order to achieve significant improvements in sensor parameters, it is necessary to warrant a good control the size and density of gold nanoparticles on the surface of metal oxide crystallites, the state of gold in the cluster, and the properties of the metal oxide support. Current challenges include an improved reproducibility of sensor preparation, better long-term stabilities, and a better resistance to sintering and poisoning of gold clusters during operation. Additional research focused on better understanding the role of gold clusters and nanoparticles in gas-sensing effects is also required. (author)

  10. Facile Fabrication of a Gold Nanocluster-Based Membrane for the Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a simple and rapid method to synthesize red luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs with high quantum yield (QY, ~16%, excellent photostability and biocompatibility. Next, we fabricated a solid membrane by loading the as-prepared AuNCs in an agar matrix. Different from nanomaterials dispersed in solution, the AuNCs-based solid membrane has distinct advantages including convenience of transportation, while still maintaining strong red luminescence, and relatively long duration storage without aggregation. Taking hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a typical example, we then employed the AuNCs as a luminescent probe and investigated their sensing performance, either in solution phase or on a solid substrate. The detection of H2O2 could be achieved in wide concentration ranges over 805 nM–1.61 mM and 161 μM–19.32 mM in solution and on a solid membrane, respectively, with limits of detection (LOD of 80 nM and 20 μM. Moreover, the AuNCs-based membrane could also be used for visual detection of H2O2 in the range of 0–3.22 mM. In view of the convenient synthesis route and attractive luminescent properties, the AuNCs-based membrane presented in this work is quite promising for applications such as optical sensing, fluorescent imaging, and photovoltaics.

  11. Optical reading of contaminants in aqueous media based on gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianjun; Zhu, Bowen; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-09-10

    With increasing trends of global population growth, urbanization, pollution over-exploitation, and climate change, the safe water supply has become a global issue and is threatening our society in terms of sustainable development. Therefore, there is a growing need for a water-monitoring platform with the capability of rapidness, specificity, low-cost, and robustness. This review summarizes the recent developments in the design and application of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based optical assays to detect contaminants in aqueous media with a high performance. First, a brief discussion on the correlation between the optical reading strategy and the optical properties of AuNPs is presented. Then, we summarize the principle behind AuNP-based optical assays to detect different contaminants, such as toxic metal ion, anion, and pesticides, according to different optical reading strategies: colorimetry, scattering, and fluorescence. Finally, the comparison of these assays and the outlook of AuNP-based optical detection are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Polyaniline nanowires-gold nanoparticles hybrid network based chemiresistive hydrogen sulfide sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, Mahendra D.; Bangar, Mangesh A.; Deshusses, Marc A.; Myung, Nosang V.; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2009-02-01

    We report a sensitive, selective, and fast responding room temperature chemiresistive sensor for hydrogen sulfide detection and quantification using polyaniline nanowires-gold nanoparticles hybrid network. The sensor was fabricated by facile electrochemical technique. Initially, polyaniline nanowires with a diameter of 250-320 nm bridging the gap between a pair of microfabricated gold electrodes were synthesized using templateless electrochemical polymerization using a two step galvanostatic technique. Polyaniline nanowires were then electrochemically functionalized with gold nanoparticles using cyclic voltammetry technique. These chemiresistive sensors show an excellent limit of detection (0.1 ppb), wide dynamic range (0.1-100 ppb), and very good selectivity and reproducibility.

  13. A label-free colorimetric sensor for Pb2+ detection based on the acceleration of gold leaching by graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinhao; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Cuiling; Zhao, Longyun; Peng, Weidong; Xian, Yuezhong

    2015-03-14

    In this work, we developed a novel, label-free, colorimetric sensor for Pb(2+) detection based on the acceleration of gold leaching by graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be dissolved in a thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)) aqueous environment in the presence of oxygen; however, the leaching rate is very slow due to the high activation energy (27.99 kJ mol(-1)). In order to enhance the reaction rate, some accelerators should be added. In comparison with the traditional accelerators (metal ions or middle ligands), we found that GO could efficiently accelerate the gold leaching reaction. Kinetic data demonstrate that the dissolution rate of gold in the Pb(2+)-S2O3(2-)-GO system is 5 times faster than that without GO at room temperature. In addition, the effects of surface modification and the nanoparticle size on the etching of AuNPs were investigated. Based on the GO-accelerated concentration-dependent colour changes of AuNPs, a colorimetric sensor for Pb(2+) detection was developed with a linear range from 0.1 to 20 μM and the limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated to be 0.05 μM. This colorimetric assay is simple, low-cost, label-free, and has numerous potential applications in the field of environmental chemistry.

  14. Rapid detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) using a gold nanoparticle-based hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes fatal disease in common and koi carp Cyprinus carpio L. CyHV-3 detection is usually based on virus propagation or amplification of the viral DNA using the PCR or LAMP techniques. However, due to the limited susceptibility of cells used for propagation, it is not always possible to successfully isolate CyHV-3 even from tissue samples that have high virus titres. All previously described detection methods including PCR-based assays are time consuming, laborious and require specialized equipment. To overcome these limitations, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been explored for direct and sensitive detection of DNA. In this study, a label-free colorimetric nanodiagnostic method for direct detection of unamplified CyHV-3 DNA using gold nanoparticles is introduced. Under appropriate conditions, DNA probes hybridize with their complementary target sequences in the sample DNA, which results in aggregation of the gold nanoparticles and a concomitant colour change from red to blue, whereas test samples with non complementary DNA sequences remain red. In this study, gold nanoparticles were used to develop and evaluate a specific and sensitive hybridization assay for direct and rapid detection of the highly infectious pathogen termed Cyprinid herpesvirus-3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Li; Dong Shaojun

    2008-01-01

    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 x 10 -7 M, 3.5 x 10 -7 M, 4.1 x 10 -7 M, and 7.7 x 10 -7 M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields

  16. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang Li; Dong Shaojun [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)], E-mail: dongsj@ciac.jl.cn

    2008-03-05

    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 x 10{sup -7} M, 3.5 x 10{sup -7} M, 4.1 x 10{sup -7} M, and 7.7 x 10{sup -7} M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields.

  17. Correlation Between Pin Misalignment and Crack Length in THT Solder Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnar A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, correlations were searched for between pin misalignments relative to PCB bores and crack propagation after cyclic thermal shock tests in THT solder joints produced from lead-free solder alloys. In total, 7 compositions were examined including SAC solders with varying Ag, Cu and Ni contents. The crack propagation was initiated by cyclic thermal shock tests with 40°C / +125°C temperature profiles. Pin misalignments relative to the bores were characterized with three attributes obtained from one section of the examined solder joints. Cracks typically originated at the solder/pin or solder/bore interfaces and propagated within the solder. It was shown that pin misalignments did not have an effect on crack propagation, thus, the solder joints’ lifetime.

  18. GOLD predictivity mapping in French Guiana using an expert-guided data-driven approach based on a regional-scale GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassard, Daniel; Billa, Mario; Lambert, Alain; Picot, Jean-Claude; Husson, Yves

    2008-05-01

    The realistic estimation of gold mining in French Guiana requires including the numerous illegal gold washing activities in predictivity mapping. The combination of a classical approach, based on the algebraic method of Knox-Robinson and Groves, with innovative processing grid-type geochemical and radiometric data, as well as cluster analysis technique provides a better understanding of the structure of studied mineralized areas.

  19. A high-throughput colorimetric assay for glucose detection based on glucose oxidase-catalyzed enlargement of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanmei; Zhang, Yuyan; Rong, Pengfei; Yang, Jie; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dingbin

    2015-09-01

    We developed a simple high-throughput colorimetric assay to detect glucose based on the glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalysed enlargement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Compared with the currently available glucose kit method, the AuNP-based assay provides higher clinical sensitivity at lower cost, indicating its great potential to be a powerful tool for clinical screening of glucose.We developed a simple high-throughput colorimetric assay to detect glucose based on the glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalysed enlargement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Compared with the currently available glucose kit method, the AuNP-based assay provides higher clinical sensitivity at lower cost, indicating its great potential to be a powerful tool for clinical screening of glucose. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03758a

  20. Sex determination based on amelogenin DNA by modified electrode with gold nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Rajabzadeh, Nooshin; Benvidi, Ali; Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-12-15

    We have developed a simple and renewable electrochemical biosensor based on carbon paste electrode (CPE) for the detection of DNA synthesis and hybridization. CPE was modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which are helpful for immobilization of thiolated bioreceptors. AuNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolated single-stranded DNA (SH-ssDNA) of the amelogenin gene was formed on CPE. The immobilization of the probe and its hybridization with the target DNA was optimized using different experimental conditions. The modified electrode was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochemical response of ssDNA hybridization and DNA synthesis was measured using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with methylene blue (MB) as an electroactive indicator. The new biosensor can distinguish between complementary and non-complementary strands of amelogenin ssDNA. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood and was detected based on changes in the MB reduction signal. These results demonstrated that the new biosensor could be used for sex determination. The proposed biosensor in this study could be used for detection and discrimination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of amelogenin DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Photocured thiol-ene based optical fluorescence sensor for determination of gold(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çubuk, Soner, E-mail: sonercubuk@marmara.edu.tr; Kahraman, Memet Vezir; Yetimoğlu, Ece Kök; Kenan, Sibel

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Photopolymerized fluorescence sensor for Au(III) analysis has been developed. •Preparation of polymeric sensor is simple and quick. •Fluorescence sensor used for analysis of Au(III) in real samples. -- Abstract: This study describes the preparation and the characterization of a new thiol-ene based polymeric fluorescence sensor by photo initiated polymerization of trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate), 2-hydroxyethylacrylate, and 2,4,6-triallyloxy-1,3,5-triazine which are used as monomers and also a photo initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone) for its usage as optical sensor for gold ions. The thiol-ene based polymeric membrane sensor was characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The response characteristics of the sensors including dynamic range, pH effect, response time, and the effect of foreign ions were investigated. Fluorescence spectra showed that the excitation/emission maxima of the membrane were at 379/425 nm, respectively.

  2. 3D label-free prostate specific antigen (PSA) immunosensor based on graphene-gold composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Sun Kyung; Chang, Hankwon; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2015-01-15

    Highly sensitive and label-free detection of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) electrochemical immunosensor capable of sensitive and label-free detection of PSA is reported. This unique immunosensor is equipped with a highly conductive graphene (GR)-based gold (Au) composite modified electrode. The GR-based Au composite is prepared using aerosol spray pyrolysis and the morphology of the composite is the shape of a crumpled GR ball decorated with Au nanoparticles. Unlike the previous research, this novel 3D immunosensor functions very well over a broad linear range of 0-10 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.59 ng/mL; furthermore, it exhibits a significantly increased electron transfer and high sensitivity toward PSA. The highest rate of current change with respect to the PSA concentration is 5 μA/(ng/mL). Satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility, and stability of the 3D immunosensor are also exhibited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical Aptasensor for Myoglobin-Specific Recognition Based on Porphyrin Functionalized Graphene-Conjugated Gold Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojuan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel electrochemical aptasensor was developed for sensitive and selective detection of myoglobin based on meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl porphyrin-functionalized graphene-conjugated gold nanoparticles (TCPP–Gr/AuNPs. Due to its good electric conductivity, large specific surface area, and excellent mechanical properties, TCPP–Gr/AuNPs can act as an enhanced material for the electrochemical detection of myoglobin. Meanwhile, it provides an effective matrix for immobilizing myoglobin-binding aptamer (MbBA. The electrochemical aptasensor has a sensitive response to myoglobin in a linear range from 2.0 × 10−11 M to 7.7 × 10−7 M with a detection limit of 6.7 × 10−12 M (S/N = 3. Furthermore, the method has the merits of high sensitivity, low price, and high specificity. Our work will supply new horizons for the diagnostic applications of graphene-based materials in biomedicine and biosensors.

  4. An ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay of chloramphenicol based on gold nanoparticles and magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-05-01

    A competitive, direct, chemiluminescent immunoassay based on a magnetic beads (MBs) separation and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) labelling technique to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) has been developed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled anti-CAP monoclonal antibody conjugated with AuNPs and antigen-immobilized MBs were prepared. After optimization parameters of immunocomplex MBs, the IC50 values of chemiluminescence magnetic nanoparticles immunoassay (CL-MBs-nano-immunoassay) were 0.017 µg L(-1) for extract method I and 0.17 µg L(-1) for extract method II. The immunoassay with two extract methods was applied to detect CAP in milk. Comparison of these two extract methods showed that extract method I was advantageous in better sensitivity, in which the sensitivity was 10 times compared to that of extract method II, while extract method II was superior in simple operation, suitable for high throughout screen. The recoveries were 86.7-98.0% (extract method I) and 80.0-103.0% (extract method II), and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were all recovery with both extract methods and high correlation with traditional ELISA kit in milk system confirmed that the immunomagnetic assay based on AuNPs exhibited promising potential in rapid field screening for trace CAP analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. GOLD: Integration of model-based control systems with artificial intelligence and workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Clearwater, S.

    1987-08-01

    Our experience with model-based accelerator control started at SPEAR. Since that time nearly all accelerator beamlines have been controlled using model-based application programs, for example, PEP and SLC at SLAC. In order to take advantage of state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, the design and implementation of the accelerator control programs have undergone radical changes with time. Consequently, SPEAR, PEP and SLC all use different control programs. Since many of these application programs are embedded deep into the control system, they had to be rewritten each time. Each time this rewriting has occurred a great deal of time and effort has been spent on training physicists and programmers to do the job. Now, we have developed an integrated system called GOLD (Genetic Orbit and Lattice Debugger) for debugging and correcting trajectory errors in accelerator lattices. The system consists of a lattice modeling program (COMFORT), a beam simulator (PLUS), a graphical workstation environment (micro-VAX) and an expert system (ABLE). This paper will describe some of the features and applications of our integrated system with emphasis on the automation offered by expert systems. 5 refs

  6. GOLD: Integration of model-based control systems with artificial intelligence and workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Clearwater, S.

    1987-08-01

    Our experience with model based accelerator control started at SPEAR. Since that time nearly all accelerator beam lines have been controlled using model-based application programs, for example, PEP and SLC at SLAC. In order to take advantage of state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, the design and implementation of the accelerator control programs have undergone radical change with time. Consequently, SPEAR, PEP, and SLC all use different control programs. Since many of these application programs are imbedded deep into the control system, they had to be rewritten each time. Each time this rewriting has occurred a great deal of time and effort has been spent on training physicists and programmers to do the job. Now, we have developed these application programs for a fourth time. This time, however, the programs we are developing are generic so that we will not have to do it again. We have developed an integrated system called GOLD (Generic Orbit and Lattice Debugger) for debugging and correcting trajectory errors in accelerator lattices. The system consists of a lattice modeling program (COMFORT), a beam simulator (PLUS), a graphical workstation environment (micro-VAX) and an expert system (ABLE). This paper will describe some of the features and applications of our integrated system with emphasis on the automation offered by expert systems. 5 refs

  7. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morasso, Carlo, E-mail: cmorasso@dongnocchi.it; Picciolini, Silvia; Schiumarini, Domitilla [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy); Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP) (Italy); Zanchetta, Giuliano [Universitá degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Traslazionale (Italy); Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy); Prosperi, Davide [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, NanoBioLab, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze (Italy); Gramatica, Furio [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the “seed-growth” solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au{sup 3+} reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50–60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag{sup +} ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated.

  8. Photocured thiol-ene based optical fluorescence sensor for determination of gold(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çubuk, Soner; Kahraman, Memet Vezir; Yetimoğlu, Ece Kök; Kenan, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Photopolymerized fluorescence sensor for Au(III) analysis has been developed. •Preparation of polymeric sensor is simple and quick. •Fluorescence sensor used for analysis of Au(III) in real samples. -- Abstract: This study describes the preparation and the characterization of a new thiol-ene based polymeric fluorescence sensor by photo initiated polymerization of trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate), 2-hydroxyethylacrylate, and 2,4,6-triallyloxy-1,3,5-triazine which are used as monomers and also a photo initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone) for its usage as optical sensor for gold ions. The thiol-ene based polymeric membrane sensor was characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The response characteristics of the sensors including dynamic range, pH effect, response time, and the effect of foreign ions were investigated. Fluorescence spectra showed that the excitation/emission maxima of the membrane were at 379/425 nm, respectively

  9. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morasso, Carlo; Picciolini, Silvia; Schiumarini, Domitilla; Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Prosperi, Davide; Gramatica, Furio

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the “seed-growth” solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au 3+ reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50–60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag + ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated

  10. Facile preparation of luminescent and intelligent gold nanodots based on supramolecular self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yunfeng; Li Sujuan; Zhou Yahui; Zhai Qingpan; Hu Mengyue; Cai Fensha; Du Jimin; Liang Jiamiao; Zhu Xinyuan

    2012-01-01

    A new strategy for preparing luminescent and intelligent gold nanodots based on supramolecular self-assembly is described in this paper. The supramolecular self-assembly was initiated through electrostatic interactions and ion pairing between palmitic acid and hyperbranched poly(ethylenimine). The resulting structures not only have the dynamic reversible properties of supramolecules but also possess torispherical and highly branched architectures. Thus they can be regarded as a new kind of ideal nanoreactor for preparing intelligent Au nanodots. By preparing Au nanodots within this kind of supramolecular self-assembly, the environmental sensitivity of intelligent polymers and the optical, electrical properties of Au nanodots can be combined, endowing the Au nanodots with intelligence. In this paper, a supramolecular self-assembly process based on dendritic poly(ethylenimine) and palmitic acid was designed and then applied to prepare fluorescent and size-controlled Au nanodots. The pH response of Au nanodots embodied by phase transfer from oil phase to water phase was also investigated. (paper)

  11. Gold nanocluster-based vaccines for dual-delivery of antigens and immunostimulatory oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Ju, Enguo; Ren, Hui; Ren, Jinsong

    2015-07-01

    We here report a facile one-pot synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) via the peptide biomineralization method, which can elicit specific immunological responses. The as-prepared peptide-protected AuNCs (peptide-AuNCs) display strong red fluorescence, and more importantly, as compared to the peptide alone, the immune stimulatory ability of the resulting peptide-AuNCs can not only be retained, but can also be efficaciously enhanced. Moreover, through a dual-delivery of antigen peptides and cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), the as-prepared peptide-AuNC-CpG conjugates can also act as smart self-vaccines to assist in the generation of high immunostimulatory activity, and be applied as a probe for intracellular imaging. Both in vitro and in vivo studies provide strong evidence that the AuNC-based vaccines may be utilized as safe and efficient immunostimulatory agents that are able to prevent and/or treat a variety of ailments.We here report a facile one-pot synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) via the peptide biomineralization method, which can elicit specific immunological responses. The as-prepared peptide-protected AuNCs (peptide-AuNCs) display strong red fluorescence, and more importantly, as compared to the peptide alone, the immune stimulatory ability of the resulting peptide-AuNCs can not only be retained, but can also be efficaciously enhanced. Moreover, through a dual-delivery of antigen peptides and cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), the as-prepared peptide-AuNC-CpG conjugates can also act as smart self-vaccines to assist in the generation of high immunostimulatory activity, and be applied as a probe for intracellular imaging. Both in vitro and in vivo studies provide strong evidence that the AuNC-based vaccines may be utilized as safe and efficient immunostimulatory agents that are able to prevent and/or treat a variety of ailments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  12. A plasmonic nanosensor for lipase activity based on enzyme-controlled gold nanoparticles growth in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Wei; Huo, Fengwei; Tian, Danbi

    2015-03-01

    A plasmonic nanosensor for lipase activity was developed based on one-pot nanoparticle growth. Tween 80 was selected not only as the substrate for lipase recognition but also as the reducing and stabilizing agent for the sensor fabrication. The different molecular groups in Tween 80 could have different roles in the fabrication procedure; the H2O2 produced by the autoxidation of the ethylene oxide subunits in Tween 80 could reduce the AuCl4- ions to Au atoms, meanwhile, the lipase could hydrolyze its carboxyl ester bond, which could, in turn, control the rate of nucleation of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and tailor the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the AuNP transducers. The color changes, which depend on the absence or presence of the lipase, could be used to sense the lipase activity. A linear response ranging from 0.025 to 4 mg mL-1 and a detection limit of the lipase as low as 3.47 μg mL-1 were achieved. This strategy circumvents the problems encountered by general enzyme assays that require sophisticated instruments and complicated assembling steps. The methodology can benefit the assays of heterogeneous-catalyzed enzymes.A plasmonic nanosensor for lipase activity was developed based on one-pot nanoparticle growth. Tween 80 was selected not only as the substrate for lipase recognition but also as the reducing and stabilizing agent for the sensor fabrication. The different molecular groups in Tween 80 could have different roles in the fabrication procedure; the H2O2 produced by the autoxidation of the ethylene oxide subunits in Tween 80 could reduce the AuCl4- ions to Au atoms, meanwhile, the lipase could hydrolyze its carboxyl ester bond, which could, in turn, control the rate of nucleation of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and tailor the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the AuNP transducers. The color changes, which depend on the absence or presence of the lipase, could be used to sense the lipase activity. A linear response

  13. Synthesis and bioconjugation of gold nanoparticles as potential molecular probes for light-based imaging techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayavarapu, Raja Gopal; Petersen, Wilma; Ungureanu, Constantin; Post, Janine N.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Manohar, Srirang

    2007-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized gold nanoparticles (spheres and rods) with optical extinction bands within the "optical imaging window." The intense plasmon resonant driven absorption and scattering peaks of these nanoparticles make them suitable as contrast agents for optical imaging

  14. Seed Mediated Growth of Gold Nanoparticles Based on Liquid Arc Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    We report studies on the growth of gold nanoparticles by a seed-mediated approach in solution. The synthetic method is adapted from one we published earlier (Ashkarran et al. Appl. Phys. A 2009, 96, 423). The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, optical imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical absorption spectroscopy of the prepared samples at 15 A arc current in HAuCl 4 solution shows a surface plasmon resonance around 520 nm. It is found that sodium citrate acts as a stabilizer and surface capping agent of the colloidal nanoparticles. The intensity of the plasmonic peak of the prepared gold nanoparticles for 1 minute arc duration gradually increases due to seed mediation for up to 6 hours. The formation time of gold nanoparticles at higher seed concentrations is less than that at lower seed concentrations. (plasma technology)

  15. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  16. Impedimetric Urea Biosensor Based on Modified Gold Electrode with Urease Immobilized on Glutathione Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Houcine BARHOUMI; Abderrazak MAAREF; Nicole JAFFREZIC-RENAULT

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a glutathione (GSH) modified gold microelectrode was used for the covalent immobilization of urease biomolecules via the glutaraldehyde-coupling agent. The self- assembled monolayers (SAMs) onto the gold surface was investigated by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS). Before urease grafting, a significant interaction was noticed between urea and the glutathione layer by forming hydrogen bonds. The H-NMR analysis was carried out to highlight the po...

  17. Coreactant-free and Label-free Eletrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for Copeptin Based on Luminescent Immuno-Gold Nanoassemblys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhili; Shu, Jiangnan; Jiang, Qiaoshi; Cui, Hua

    2018-04-25

    In this work, the eletrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of Cu 2+ /cysteine complexes and N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) functionalized gold nanoparticles combined with chitosan (Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs-CS) were studied by cyclic voltammetry and a double-step potential, which exhibited excellent ECL properties without any coreactant. It was found that the ECL intensity of Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs-CS could increase at least one order of magnitude compared with that of Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs. Furthermore, a coreactant-free and label-free ECL immunosensor has been established for the determination of early acute myocardial infarction biomarker copeptin based on luminescent immuno-gold nanoassemblys consisting of Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs-CS and immuno-gold nanoparticles prepared by connecting copeptin antibody with trisodium citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles. In the presence of copeptin, an obvious decrease in ECL intensity was observed due to the formation of antibody-antigen immunocomplex, which could be used for the determination of copeptin in the range of 2.0×10 -14 -1.0×10 -11 mol/L with a detection limit of 5.18×10 -15 mol/L. The detection limit of the ECL immunosensor is at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of sandwich immunoassays based on labeling technology. And the ECL immunosensor does not need any coreactant, and avoids complicated labeling and purification procedure. It is ultrasensitive, simple, specific and low-cost. This work reveals that the proposed luminescent immuno-gold nanoassemblys are ideal nanointerfaces for the construction of immunosensors. The proposed strategy may be used for the determination of other antigens if corresponding antibodies are available.

  18. 30 CFR 77.1112 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1112 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards. (a) When welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame near combustible...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1106 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... Protection § 75.1106 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground. [Statutory Provisions] All welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame in all underground areas of a coal mine shall, whenever...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering with...

  1. Derived heuristics-based consistent optimization of material flow in a gold processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Christie; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2018-01-01

    Material flow in a chemical processing plant often follows complicated control laws and involves plant capacity constraints. Importantly, the process involves discrete scenarios which when modelled in a programming format involves if-then-else statements. Therefore, a formulation of an optimization problem of such processes becomes complicated with nonlinear and non-differentiable objective and constraint functions. In handling such problems using classical point-based approaches, users often have to resort to modifications and indirect ways of representing the problem to suit the restrictions associated with classical methods. In a particular gold processing plant optimization problem, these facts are demonstrated by showing results from MATLAB®'s well-known fmincon routine. Thereafter, a customized evolutionary optimization procedure which is capable of handling all complexities offered by the problem is developed. Although the evolutionary approach produced results with comparatively less variance over multiple runs, the performance has been enhanced by introducing derived heuristics associated with the problem. In this article, the development and usage of derived heuristics in a practical problem are presented and their importance in a quick convergence of the overall algorithm is demonstrated.

  2. Polysaccharide-Based Materials Associated with or Coordinated to Gold Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Medical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Débora P; da Cruz, Joziel A; Bonafé, Elton G; Pereira, Antonio G B; Fajardo, André R; Venter, Sandro A S; Monteiro, Johny P; Muniz, Edvani C; Martins, Alessandro F

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have enormous potential for application in imaging, diagnosis, and therapies in the medical field. AuNPs are renowned for their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, large surface area, and biocompatibility with body fluids. Further, AuNPs have featured prominently in new methodologies for cancer treatments, like photothermal and imaging therapies. Although AuNPs present enormous potential for application in the medical field, their instability under physiological conditions prevents further uses. However, this limitation may be overcome by associating AuNPs with biopolymers. To the best of our knowledge, a revision paper rationalizing the structure/property relationship and applications of AuNPspolysaccharide composites in the medical field has not been published yet. This manuscript discusses the most relevant aspects and state-of-art concepts surrounding the synthesis of AuNPs based on green chemistry and their association with polysaccharides that can efficiently function both as stabilizing and reducing agents of Au nanoparticles. Even more, polysaccharide devices may inhibit non-specific interactions between AuNPs and biological macromolecules, suppressing unsuitable "protein corona" formations on AuNP surfaces, thereby increasing the potential of AuNP composites of being employing as drug delivery matrices and wound-healing devices as well as in photothermal/ imaging purposes for cancer treatments and biosensors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Enhanced Plasmonic Biosensors of Hybrid Gold Nanoparticle-Graphene Oxide-Based Label-Free Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Chen, Chi-Chu; Yang, Cheng-Du; Kao, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Wei-Ren

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we propose a modified gold nanoparticle-graphene oxide sheet (AuNP-GO) nanocomposite to detect two different interactions between proteins and hybrid nanocomposites for use in biomedical applications. GO sheets have high bioaffinity, which facilitates the attachment of biomolecules to carboxyl groups and has led to its use in the development of sensing mechanisms. When GO sheets are decorated with AuNPs, they introduce localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the resonance energy transfer of spectral changes. Our results suggest a promising future for AuNP-GO-based label-free immunoassays to detect disease biomarkers and rapidly diagnose infectious diseases. The results showed the detection of antiBSA in 10 ng/ml of hCG non-specific interfering protein with dynamic responses ranging from 1.45 nM to 145 fM, and a LOD of 145 fM. Considering the wide range of potential applications of GO sheets as a host material for a variety of nanoparticles, the approach developed here may be beneficial for the future integration of nanoparticles with GO nanosheets for blood sensing. The excellent anti-interference characteristics allow for the use of the biosensor in clinical analysis and point-of-care testing (POCT) diagnostics of rapid immunoassay products, and it may also be a potential tool for the measurement of biomarkers in human serum.

  4. Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on Polythionine/Gold Nanoparticles for the Determination of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H.O. Owino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 electrochemical immunosensor was developed by the immobilisation of aflatoxin B1-bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA conjugate on a polythionine (PTH/gold nanoparticles (AuNP-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The surface of the AFB1-BSA conjugate was covered with horseradish peroxidase (HRP, in order to prevent non-specific binding of the immunosensors with ions in the test solution. The AFB1 immunosensor exhibited a quasi-reversible electrochemistry as indicated by a cyclic voltammetric (CV peak separation (ΔEp value of 62 mV. The experimental procedure for the detection of AFB1 involved the setting up of a competition between free AFB1 and the immobilised AFB1-BSA conjugate for the binding sites of free anti-aflatoxin B1 (anti-AFB1 antibody. The immunosensor’s differential pulse voltammetry (DPV responses (peak currents decreased as the concentration of free AFB1 increased within a dynamic linear range (DLR of 0.6 - 2.4 ng/mL AFB1 and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.07 ng/mL AFB1. This immunosensing procedure eliminates the need for enzyme-labeled secondary antibodies normally used in conventional ELISA–based immunosensors.

  5. Iron Oxide and Gold Based Magneto-Plasmonic Nanostructures for Medical Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thuy Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide and gold-based magneto-plasmonic nanostructures exhibit remarkable optical and superparamagnetic properties originating from their two different components. As a consequence, they have improved and broadened the application potential of nanomaterials in medicine. They can be used as multifunctional nanoprobes for magneto-plasmonic heating as well as for magnetic and optical imaging. They can also be used for magnetically assisted optical biosensing, to detect extreme traces of targeted bioanalytes. This review introduces the previous work on magneto-plasmonic hetero-nanostructures including: (i their synthesis from simple “one-step” to complex “multi-step” routes, including seed-mediated and non-seed-mediated methods; and (ii the characterization of their multifunctional features, with a special emphasis on the relationships between their synthesis conditions, their structures and their properties. It also focuses on the most important progress made with regard to their use in nanomedicine, keeping in mind the same aim, the correlation between their morphology—namely spherical and non-spherical, core-satellite and core-shell, and the desired applications.

  6. A novel amperometric sensor for peracetic acid based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Mu-Yi, E-mail: huamy@mail.cgu.edu.t [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hsiao-Chien [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Rung-Ywan [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yu-Chen [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-30

    We have developed a peracetic acid (PAA) sensor based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold (PBI/Au) electrode. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that PAA oxidized 69.4% of the imine in PBI to form PBI N-oxide, increasing the electrochemical reduction current during cyclic voltammetry. The chemical oxidation of the PBI/Au electrode by PAA, followed by its electrochemical reduction, allowed PAA to be detected directly and consecutively by assessing its reduction current. The PAA sensor had a broad linear detection range (3.1 {mu}M-1.5 mM) and a rapid response time (3.9 s) at an applied potential of -0.3 V. Potentially interfering substances, such as hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and oxygen, had no effect on the ability of the probe to detect PAA, indicating high selectivity of the probe. Furthermore, the detection range, response time, and sensitivity of the sensor could all be improved by modification of the smooth planar electrode surface to a porous three-dimensional configuration. When compared to the analytical characteristics of other PAA sensors operating under optimal conditions, the three-dimensional PBI/Au electrode offers a rapid detection time, a usable linear range, and a relatively low detection limit.

  7. A novel amperometric sensor for peracetic acid based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Mu-Yi; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Lin, Yu-Chen

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a peracetic acid (PAA) sensor based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold (PBI/Au) electrode. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that PAA oxidized 69.4% of the imine in PBI to form PBI N-oxide, increasing the electrochemical reduction current during cyclic voltammetry. The chemical oxidation of the PBI/Au electrode by PAA, followed by its electrochemical reduction, allowed PAA to be detected directly and consecutively by assessing its reduction current. The PAA sensor had a broad linear detection range (3.1 μM-1.5 mM) and a rapid response time (3.9 s) at an applied potential of -0.3 V. Potentially interfering substances, such as hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and oxygen, had no effect on the ability of the probe to detect PAA, indicating high selectivity of the probe. Furthermore, the detection range, response time, and sensitivity of the sensor could all be improved by modification of the smooth planar electrode surface to a porous three-dimensional configuration. When compared to the analytical characteristics of other PAA sensors operating under optimal conditions, the three-dimensional PBI/Au electrode offers a rapid detection time, a usable linear range, and a relatively low detection limit.

  8. A Sandwich HIV p24 Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Direct Gold Electroplating-Modified Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is a severe communicable immune deficiency disease caused by the human immune deficiency virus (HIV. The analysis laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection is a crucial aspect of controlling AIDS. The p24 antigen, the HIV-1 capsid protein, is of considerable diagnostic interest because it is detectable several days earlier than host-generated HIV antibodies following HIV exposure. We present herein a new sandwich HIV p24 immunosensor based on directly electroplating an electrode surface with gold nanoparticles using chronoamperometry, which greatly increased the conductivity and reversibility of the electrode. Under optimum conditions, the electrochemical signal showed a linear relationship with the concentration of p24, ranging from 0.01 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL (R > 0.99, and the detection limit was 0.008 ng/mL. Compared with ELISA, this method increased the sensitivity by more than two orders of magnitude (the sensitivity of ELISA for p24 is about 1 ng/mL. This immunosensor may be broadly applied to clinical samples, being distinguished by its ease of use, mild reaction conditions, guaranteed reproducibility, and good anti-interference ability.

  9. A sandwich HIV p24 amperometric immunosensor based on a direct gold electroplating-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Jia, Liyong; Li, Bo; Situ, Bo; Liu, Qinlan; Wang, Qian; Gan, Ning

    2012-05-18

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe communicable immune deficiency disease caused by the human immune deficiency virus (HIV). The analysis laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection is a crucial aspect of controlling AIDS. The p24 antigen, the HIV-1 capsid protein, is of considerable diagnostic interest because it is detectable several days earlier than host-generated HIV antibodies following HIV exposure. We present herein a new sandwich HIV p24 immunosensor based on directly electroplating an electrode surface with gold nanoparticles using chronoamperometry, which greatly increased the conductivity and reversibility of the electrode. Under optimum conditions, the electrochemical signal showed a linear relationship with the concentration of p24, ranging from 0.01 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL (R > 0.99), and the detection limit was 0.008 ng/mL. Compared with ELISA, this method increased the sensitivity by more than two orders of magnitude (the sensitivity of ELISA for p24 is about 1 ng/mL). This immunosensor may be broadly applied to clinical samples, being distinguished by its ease of use, mild reaction conditions, guaranteed reproducibility, and good anti-interference ability.

  10. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  11. A sensitive acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on gold nanorods modified electrode for detection of organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qiaolin; Han, Lei; Hou, Chuantao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Aihua

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on gold nanorods (AuNRs), was developed for the detection of organophosphate pesticide. Compared with Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, AuNRs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties, which can electrocatalytically oxidize thiocholine, the hydrolysate of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) by AChE at +0.55V (vs. SCE). The AChE/AuNRs/GCE biosensor was fabricated on basis of the inhibition of AChE activity by organophosphate pesticide. The biosensor could detect paraoxon in the linear range from 1nM to 5μM and dimethoate in the linear range from 5nM to 1μM, respectively. The detection limits of paraoxon and dimethoate were 0.7nM and 3.9nM, which were lower than the reported AChE biosensor. The proposed biosensor could restore to over 95% of its original current, which demonstrated the good reactivation. Moreover, the biosensor can be applicable to real water sample measurement. Thus, the biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and good stability, providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dielectrophoretic trapping of DNA-coated gold nanoparticles on silicon based vertical nanogap devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Sebastian; Sperling, Ralph A; Fenk, Bernhard; Parak, Wolfgang J; Tornow, Marc

    2011-06-07

    We report on the successful dielectrophoretic trapping and electrical characterization of DNA-coated gold nanoparticles on vertical nanogap devices (VNDs). The nanogap devices with an electrode distance of 13 nm were fabricated from Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material using a combination of anisotropic reactive ion etching (RIE), selective wet chemical etching and metal thin-film deposition. Au nanoparticles (diameter 40 nm) coated with a monolayer of dithiolated 8 base pairs double stranded DNA were dielectrophoretically trapped into the nanogap from electrolyte buffer solution at MHz frequencies as verified by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) analysis. First electrical transport measurements through the formed DNA-Au-DNA junctions partially revealed an approximately linear current-voltage characteristic with resistance in the range of 2-4 GΩ when measured in solution. Our findings point to the importance of strong covalent bonding to the electrodes in order to observe DNA conductance, both in solution and in the dry state. We propose our setup for novel applications in biosensing, addressing the direct interaction of biomolecular species with DNA in aqueous electrolyte media.

  13. Ultrasensitive colorimetric detection of heparin based on self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiuli; Chen, Lingxin; Li, Jinhua

    2012-08-21

    A novel colorimetric method was developed for ultrasensitive detection of heparin based on self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO). Polycationic protamine was used as a medium for inducing the self-assembly of citrate-capped AuNPs on GO through electrostatic interaction, resulting in a shift in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of AuNPs and exhibiting a blue color. Addition of polyanionic heparin disturbed the self-assemble of AuNPs due to its strong affinity to protamine. With the increase of heparin concentration, the amounts of self-assembly AuNPs decreased and the color changed from blue to red in solution. Therefore, a "blue-to-red" colorimetric sensing strategy based on self-assembly of AuNPs could be established for heparin detection. Compared with the commonly reported aggregation-based methods ("red-to-blue"), the color change from blue to red was more eye-sensitive, especially in low concentration of target. Moreover, stronger interaction between protamine and heparin led to distinguish heparin from its analogues as well as various potentially coexistent physiological species. The strategy was simply achieved by the self-assembly nature of AuNPs and the application of two types of polyionic media, showing it to be label-free, simple, rapid and visual. This method could selectively detect heparin with a detection limit of 3.0 ng mL(-1) in standard aqueous solution and good linearity was obtained over the range 0.06-0.36 μg mL(-1) (R = 0.9936). It was successfully applied to determination of heparin in fetal bovine serum samples as low as 1.7 ng mL(-1) with a linear range of 0-0.8 μg mL(-1).

  14. Influence of Co and W powders on viscosity of composite solders during soldering of specially shaped diamond-abrasive tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, E. G.; Aref’eva, S. A.; Svistun, L. I.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of Co and W powders on the structure and the viscosity of composite solders Sn-Cu-Co-W used for the manufacture of the specially shaped diamond tools has been studied. The solders were obtained by mixing the metallic powders with an organic binder. The mixtures with and without diamonds were applied to steel rollers and shaped substrates. The sintering was carried out in a vacuum at 820 ° C with time-exposure of 40 minutes. The influence of Co and W powders on the viscosity solders was evaluated on the basis of the study of structures and according to the results of sintering specially shaped diamond tools. It was found that to provide the necessary viscosity and to obtain the uniform diamond-containing layers on the complex shaped surfaces, Sn-Cu-Co-W solder should contain 27–35 vol % of solid phase. This is achieved with a total solder content of 24–32 wt % of cobalt powder and 7 wt % of tungsten powder.

  15. An Overview of Surface Finishes and Their Role in Printed Circuit Board Solderability and Solder Joint Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.

    1998-10-15

    A overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best option in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pal ftishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas that is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessmy to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that included thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders were discussed.

  16. Novel glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles and glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Ying, S.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, S.

    2011-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor is presented as that based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNs) and glucose oxidase. The sensor exhibits a better differential pulse voltammetric response towards glucose than the one based on conventional gold nanoparticles of the same size. This is attributed to the good biological conductivity and biocompatibility of HGNs. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor displays a linear range from 2.0 x 10 -6 to 4.6 x 10 -5 M of glucose, with a detection limit of 1.6 x 10 -6 M (S/N = 3). Good reproducibility, stability and no interference make this biosensor applicable to the determination of glucose in samples such as sports drinks. (author)

  17. Automation of experimental research of waveguide paths induction soldering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynchenko, V. S.; Petrenko, V. E.; Kukartsev, V. V.; Tynchenko, V. V.; Antamoshkin, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents an automated system of experimental studies of the waveguide paths induction soldering process. The system is a part of additional software for a complex of automated control of the technological process of induction soldering of thin-walled waveguide paths from aluminum alloys, expanding its capabilities. The structure of the software product, the general appearance of the controls and the potential application possibilities are presented. The utility of the developed application by approbation in a series of field experiments was considered and justified. The application of the experimental research system makes it possible to improve the process under consideration, providing the possibility of fine-tuning the control regulators, as well as keeping the statistics of the soldering process in a convenient form for analysis.

  18. Optimization of the soldering process by the DMAIC methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Zasadzień

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chapter presents the use of the DMAIC method for the analysis and improvement of the process of soldering pins in a plug connecting a bundle of wires to the board of a controller; a part of the steering system of a car. The main problem in the soldering process, that is an unsatisfactory share of bad soldered connections between the board and the plug and the instability of that number, was identified by means of a five-phase improvement process. Key points and main causes of the defect were pointed out, and process improvement measures were suggested. Due to the analysis conducted and the correct implementation of improvement measures the share of defective connections has been decreased twofold.

  19. Alloying behavior of iron, gold and silver in AlCoCrCuNi-based equimolar high-entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, U.S.; Hung, U.D.; Yeh, J.W.; Chen, S.K.; Huang, Y.S.; Yang, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    High-entropy alloys are newly developed alloys that are composed, by definition, of at least five principal elements with concentrations in the range of 5-35 at.%. Therefore, the alloying behavior of any given principal element is significantly affected by all the other principal elements present. In order to elucidate this further, the influence of iron, silver and gold addition on the microstructure and hardness of AlCoCrCuNi-based equimolar alloys has been examined. The as-cast AlCoCrCuNi base alloy is found to have a dendritic structure, of which only solid solution FCC and BCC phases can be observed. The BCC dendrite has a chemical composition close to that of the nominal alloy, with a deficiency in copper however, which is found to segregate and form a FCC Cu-rich interdendrite. The microstructure of the iron containing alloys is similar to that of the base alloy. It is found that both of these aforementioned alloys have hardnesses of about 420 HV, which is equated to their similar microstructures. The as-cast ingot forms two layers of distinct composition with the addition of silver. These layers, which are gold and silver in color, are determined to have a hypoeutectic Ag-Cu composition and a multielement mixture of the other principal elements, respectively. This indicates the chemical incompatibility of silver with the other principal elements. The hardnesses of the gold (104 HV) and silver layers (451 HV) are the lowest and highest of the alloy systems studied. This is attributed to the hypoeutectic Ag-Cu composition of the former and the reduced copper content of the latter. Only multielement mixtures, i.e. without copper segregation, form in the gold containing alloy. Thus, it may be said that gold acts as a 'mixing agent' between copper and the other elements. Although several of the atom pairs in the gold containing alloy have positive enthalpies, thermodynamic considerations show that the high entropy contribution is sufficient to counterbalance

  20. Milliprobe and microprobe analysis of gold items of ancient jewellery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.; Hackens, T.

    It has long been accepted that the presence of cadmium implies a condemnation of the authenticity of an ancient gold object, or at least, of the part of the object where the cadmium is detected. An analysis in Paris of a recently excavated object from Roman times has shown cadmium. Meanwhile, systematic observations were made at L.A.R.N. on objects dating from Hellenistic to Byzantine times with different given origins (objects from a museum and from private collections). By using PIXE with a 3 MeV proton milliprobe (700 μm beam diameter) in a non vacuum geometry, relative amounts of copper, silver, cadmium and gold at the surface of more than 30 gold objects expected to be ancient have been determined. Traces or significant concentrations of cadmium have been detected at several points on or in the neighbourhood of solders on many objects which seem to be from Roman to early Byzantine times. Cadmium concentrations range between 2 to 100 parts per thousand. This range of variations and the relative concentrations of Au, Ag, Cu and Cd at the surface of the objects studied are often different from the figures obtained during analyses of modern soldering alloys. Experiments with the L.A.R.N. proton microprobe (5 μm x 10 μm area) allow a still better topographical resolution and more significative comparison of the relative amounts of the elements of interest in modern soldering alloys and supposedly old solders. The usefulness of the microprobe is demonstrated. (author)

  1. DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticle-based fluorescence polarization for the sensitive detection of silver ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongke; Wang, Shuangli; Yan, Changling; Bai, Guangyue; Liu, Yufang

    2018-04-05

    Despite their practical applications, Ag + ions are environmental pollutants and affect human health. So the effective detection methods of Ag + ions are imperative. Herein, we developed a simple, sensitive, selective, and cost-effective fluorescence polarization sensor for Ag + detection in aqueous solution using thiol-DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In this sensing strategy, Ag + ions can specifically interact with a cytosine-cytosine (CC) mismatch in DNA duplexes and form stable metal-mediated cytosine-Ag + -cytosine (C-Ag + -C) base pairs. The formation of the C-Ag + -C complex results in evident changes in the molecular volume and fluorescence polarization signal. To achieve our aims, we prepared two complementary DNA strands containing C-base mismatches (probe A: 5'-SH-A 10 -TACCACTCCTCAC-3' and probe B: 5'-TCCTCACCAGTCCTA-FAM-3'). The stable hybridization between probe A and probe B occurs with the formation of the C-Ag + -C complex in the presence of Ag + ions, leading to obvious fluorescence quenching in comparison to the system without AuNP enhancement. The assay can be used to identify nanomolar levels of Ag + within 6 min at room temperature, and has extremely high specificity for Ag + , even in the presence of higher concentrations of interfering metal ions. Furthermore, the sensor was successfully applied to the detection of Ag + ions in environmental water samples and showed excellent selectivity and high sensitivity, implying its promising application in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Sensing of Cu²⁺ Based on Fenton Reaction and Unmodified Gold Nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yun-peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Li-pei; Shi, Han-chang

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution has received great attentions in recent years. The traditional methods for heavy metal detection rely on the expensive laboratory instruments and need time-consuming preparation steps; therefore, it is urgent to develop quick and highly sensitive new technologies for heavy metal detection. The colorimetric method based on the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) features with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost, therefore, enabling it widely concerned and used in the environmental monitoring, food safety and chemical and biological sensing fields. This work developed a simple, rapid and highly sensitive strategy based on the Fenton reaction and unmodified AuNPs for the detection of Cu²⁺ in water samples. The hydroxyl radical ( · OH) generated by the Fenton reaction between the Cu²⁺ and sodium ascorbate (SA) oxidized the single stranded DNA (ssDNA) attached on the AuNPs surface into variable sequence fragments. The cleavage of ssDNA induced the aggregation of AuNPs in a certain salt solution, therefore, resulting in the changes on the absorbance of solution. The assay conditions were optimized to be pH value of 7.9, 11 mg · L⁻¹ ssDNA, 8 mmol · L⁻¹ SA and 70 mmol · L⁻¹ NaCl. Results showed that the absorbance ratio values at the wavelengths of 700 and 525 nm (A₇₀₀/A₅₂₅) were linearly correlated with the Cu²⁺ concentrations. The linear detection range was 0.1-10.0 µmol · L⁻¹ with a detection limit of 24 nmol · L⁻¹ (3σ). Spiked recoveries ranged from 87%-120% in three sorts of water, including drinking water, tap water and lake water, which confirmed that the potentials of the proposed assay for Cu²⁺ detection in reality.

  3. Colorimetric assay for lead ions based on the leaching of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-You; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Shiang, Yen-Chun; Hung, Yu-Lun; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2009-11-15

    A colorimetric, label-free, and nonaggregation-based gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) probe has been developed for the detection of Pb(2+) in aqueous solution, based on the fact that Pb(2+) ions accelerate the leaching rate of Au NPs by thiosulfate (S(2)O(3)(2-)) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). Au NPs reacted with S(2)O(3)(2-) ions in solution to form Au(S(2)O(3))(2)(3-) complexes on the Au NP surfaces, leading to slight decreases in their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF MS) data reveals the formation of Pb-Au alloys on the surfaces of the Au NPs in the presence of Pb(2+) ions and 2-ME. The formation of Pb-Au alloys accelerated the Au NPs rapidly dissolved into solution, leading to dramatic decreases in the SPR absorption. The 2-ME/S(2)O(3)(2-)-Au NP probe is highly sensitive (LOD = 0.5 nM) and selective (by at least 1000-fold over other metal ions) toward Pb(2+) ions, with a linear detection range (2.5 nM-10 muM) over nearly 4 orders of magnitude. The cost-effective probe allows rapid and simple determination of the concentrations of Pb(2+) ions in environmental samples (Montana soil and river), with results showing its great practicality for the detection of lead in real samples.

  4. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan

    2017-08-10

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  5. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Xiujun; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Junli; Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Chaoyi; Bai, Feiming; Zhang, Xixiang; Peng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  6. Damage Model for Reliability Assessment of Solder Joints in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    environmental factors. Reliability assessment for such type of products conventionally is performed by classical reliability techniques based on test data. Usually conventional reliability approaches are time and resource consuming activities. Thus in this paper we choose a physics of failure approach to define...... damage model by Miner’s rule. Our attention is focused on crack propagation in solder joints of electrical components due to the temperature loadings. Based on the proposed method it is described how to find the damage level for a given temperature loading profile. The proposed method is discussed...

  7. Colorimetric As (V) detection based on S-layer functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Mathias; Matys, Sabine; Raff, Johannes; Pompe, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we present simple and rapid colorimetric and UV/VIS spectroscopic methods for detecting anionic arsenic (V) complexes in aqueous media. The methods exploit the aggregation of S-layer-functionalized spherical gold nanoparticles of sizes between 20 and 50 nm in the presence of arsenic species. The gold nanoparticles were functionalized with oligomers of the S-layer protein of Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12. The aggregation of the nanoparticles results in a color change from burgundy-red for widely dispersed nanoparticles to blue for aggregated nanoparticles. A detailed signal analysis was achieved by measuring the shift of the particle plasmon resonance signal with UV/VIS spectroscopy. To further improve signal sensitivity, the influence of larger nanoparticles was tested. In the case of 50 nm gold nanoparticles, a concentration of the anionic arsenic (V) complex lower than 24 ppb was detectable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of colloids based on gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E. C. da; Silva, M. G. A. da; Meneghetti, S. M. P.; Machado, G.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Hickmann, J. M.; Meneghetti, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    New colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles (AuNP), using castor oil as a nontoxic organic dispersant agent, were prepared via three different methods. In all three cases, tetrachloroauric(III) acid was employed as the gold source. The colloids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuNP produced by the three methods were quasispherical in shape, however with different average sizes. The individual characteristics of the nanoparticles presented in each colloidal system were also confirmed by observation of absorption maxima at different wavelengths of visible light. Each method of synthesis leads to colloids with different grades of stability with respect to particle agglomeration.

  9. A method for studies on interactions between a gold-based drug and plasma proteins based on capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tam T T N; Østergaard, Jesper; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection was developed for studies on the interaction of gold-containing drugs and plasma proteins using auranofin as example. A detection limit of 18 ng/mL of auranofin corresp...

  10. Aqueous zymography screening of matrix metalloproteinase activity and inhibition based on colorimetric gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Chen; Huang, Wei-Ting; Chiang, Pin-Hsuan; Tang, Meng-Che; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2012-02-15

    An optical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based method was fabricated for the rapid detection of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and screening potential MMP inhibitors without sophisticated instruments. The diagnosis platform was composed of AuNPs, particular MMP substrates and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH). The functionalized AuNPs were subjected to specific MMP digestion, and the MMP found the substrate on AuNPs, such that the AuNPs lost shelter and MCH increased the attraction force between AuNPs. Consequently, AuNPs aggregation and a color change from red to purple with increasing MMP concentration were observed. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the formed AuNPs allowed for the quantitative detection of MMP activity. A sensitive linear correlation existed between the absorbance and the activity of the MMPs, which ranged from 10 ng/mL to 700 ng/mL in NTTC buffer and plasma samples. The proposed colorimetric method could be accomplished in a homogeneous solution with one-step operation in 30 min and has been successfully applied to the determination of particular MMP activity in plasma samples, in which the results are consistent with substrate zymography. This technology may become a simple platform for parallel screening a number of inhibitors and offer an alternative method to studying the efficiency of inhibitors for suppressing MMP activity. The absorbance ratio at 625 nm and 525 nm (A(625)/A(525)) confirmed the efficiency of the inhibitors as observed in substrate zymography. The IC(50) of ONO-4817 and galardin for MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-7 determined by the proposed colorimetric method was similar to the results of substrate zymography. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanoporous gold-based microbial biosensor for direct determination of sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuang; Ma, Hanyue; Sun, Huihui; Gao, Rui; Liu, Honglei; Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping; Xun, Luying

    2017-12-15

    Environmental pollution caused by sulfide compounds has become a major problem for public health. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore a sensitive, selective, and simple sulfide detection method for environmental monitoring and protection. Here, a novel microbial biosensor was developed using recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (E. coli BL21) expressing sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) for sulfide detection. As an important enzyme involved in the initial step of sulfide metabolism, SQR oxidizes sulfides to polysulfides and transfers electrons to the electron transport chain. Nanoporous gold (NPG) with its unique properties was selected for recombinant E. coli BL21 cells immobilization, and then glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by the resulting E. coli/NPG biocomposites to construct an E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode. Due to the catalytic oxidation properties of NPG for sulfide, the electrochemical reaction of the E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode is attributed to the co-catalysis of SQR and NPG. For sulfide detection, the E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode showed a good linear response ranging from 50μM to 5mM, with a high sensitivity of 18.35μAmM -1 cm -2 and a low detection limit of 2.55μM. The anti-interference ability of the E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode is better than that of enzyme-based inhibitive biosensors. Further, the E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode was successfully applied to the detection of sulfide in wastewater. These unique properties potentially make the E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode an excellent choice for reliable sulfide detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An albumin-based gold nanocomposites as potential dual mode CT/MRI contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjing; Chen, Lina; Wang, Zhiming; Huang, Yuankui; Jia, Nengqin

    2018-02-01

    In pursuit of the biological detection applications, recent years have witnessed the prosperity of novel multi-modal nanoprobes. In this study, biocompatible bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) containing Gd (III) as the contrast agent for both X-ray CT and T1-weighted MR imaging is reported. Firstly, the Au NPs with BSA coating (Au@BSA) was prepared through a moderate one-pot reduction route in the presence of hydrazine hydrate as reducer. Sequentially, the BSA coating enables modification of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as well as targeting reagent hyaluronic acid (HA), and further chelation of Gd (III) ions led to the formation of biomimetic nanoagent HA-targeted Gd-Au NPs (HA-targeted Au@BSA-Gd-DTPA). Several techniques were used to thoroughly characterize the formed HA-targeted Gd-Au NPs. As expected, the as-prepared nanoagent with mean diameter of 13.82 nm exhibits not only good colloid stablility and water dispersibility, but also satisfying low cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility in the tested concentration range. Additionally, for the CT phantoms, the obtained nanocomplex shows an improved contrast in CT scanning than that of Au@BSA as well as small molecule iodine-based CT contrast agents such as iopromide. Meanwhile, for the T1-weighted MRI images, there is a linear increase of contrast with concentration of Gd for the two cases of HA-targeted Gd-Au NPs and Magnevist. Strikingly, the nanoagent we explored displays a relatively higher r1 relaxivity than that of commercial MR contrast agents. Therefore, this newly constructed nanoagent could be used as contrast agents for synergistically enhanced X-ray CT and MR phantoms, holding promising potential for future biomedical applications.

  13. Gold nanoparticle-based thermal history indicator for monitoring low-temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi-Cheng; Lu, Lin; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    We describe a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based thermal history indicator (THI) for monitoring low-temperature storage. The THI was prepared from tetrachloroaurate using gelatin as a reducing reagent. Gelatin also acts as a stabilizer to control the growth of the AuNPs. The size and shape of the AuNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy and are initially found to be spherical with an average particle size of ∼19 nm. Initially, the color of the THIs is slightly pink, but after a 90-day storage in the freezer, as both the size and shape of the AuNPs change, the color of the THIs turns to red. After 90 days the absorbance peaks of THIs held at room temperature are red-shifted from 538 to 572 nm and possessed larger amplitude compared to those stored in the freezer. The color change is a function of both storage time and temperature. The observed increase in size is mainly due to storage temperature while the change in shape is mainly due to storage time. The THIs experiencing higher temperature treatments exhibit a more intense color change which is attributed to a localized surface plasmon resonance effect. Thus, the observed visual color changes can provide information regarding the thermal history the material has experienced. Accordingly, when used in conjunction with time-temperature sensitive products, the THI may serve as a proactive system for monitoring and controlling product quality and/or safety. For example, the THI is useful in safeguarding high-value biological products such as enzymes, antibodies, plasma, stem cells and other perishables that have to be stored at low temperatures. (author)

  14. Creep deformation behavior in eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints using a novel mapping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, J.P.; Guo, F.; McDougall, J.; Bieler, T.R.; Subramanian, K.N.; Park, J.K.

    1999-11-01

    Creep deformation behavior was measured for 60--100 {micro}m thick solder joints. The solder joints investigated consisted of: (1) non-composite solder joints made with eutectic Sn-Ag solder, and (2) composite solder joints with eutectic Sn-Ag solder containing 20 vol.%, 5 {micro}m diameter in-situ Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic reinforcements. All creep testing in this study was carried out at room temperature. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of creep deformation was characterized on the solder joints. Creep deformation was analyzed using a novel mapping technique where a geometrical-regular line pattern was etched over the entire solder joint using excimer laser ablation. During creep, the laser-ablation (LA) pattern becomes distorted due to deformation in the solder joint. By imaging the distortion of laser-ablation patterns using the SEM, actual deformation mapping for the entire solder joint is revealed. The technique involves sequential optical/digital imaging of the deformation versus time history during creep. By tracing and recording the deformation of the LA patterns on the solder over intervals of time, local creep data are obtained in many locations in the joint. This analysis enables global and localized creep shear strains and strain rate to be determined.

  15. Preliminary focus on the mechanical and antibacterial activity of a PMMA-based bone cement loaded with gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Russo

    2017-09-01

    As reported in the literature, the stress distribution may be altered in bones after the implantation of a total joint prosthesis. Some scientific works have also correlated uncemented TKA to a progressive decrease of bone density below the tibial component. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are commonly employed in conjunction with systemic antibiotics to treat infections. Furthermore, nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity have been widely analysed. Accordingly, the current research was focused on a preliminary analysis of the mechanical and antibacterial activity of a PMMA-based bone cement loaded with gold nanoparticles. The obtained results demonstrated that nanocomposite cements with a specific concentration of gold nanoparticles improved the punching performance and antibacterial activity. However, critical aspects were found in the optimization of the nanocomposite bone cement.

  16. Effect of natural extracts pH on morphological characteristics of hybrid materials based on gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenic, L.; Vulcu, A.; Chiorean, I.; Crisan, M.; Berghian-Grosan, C.; Dreve, S.; David, L.; Tudoran, L. B.; Kacso, I.; Bratu, I.; Neamtu, C.; Voica, C.

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper we have investigated the pH influence on the morphology of some new hybrid materials based on gold nanoparticles and natural extracts from fruits of Romanian native plants of Adoxaceae family (Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.). It is well known that the natural plants extracts are beneficial for humans thanks to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. The biological activity of these berries is mainly due to their high content of anthocyanins and other polyphenols. The nanoparticles facilitate the penetration of substances in skin, enhancing their antimitotic, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties. We have chosen the optimal method to get these materials in which gold nanoparticles of 10-80 nm were obtained. We characterized them by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy, by TEM and DSC. Creams prepared with the hybrid materials have been tested on psoriatic lesions and the medical results emphasized a remarkable improvement in this diseases.

  17. Biosensors Based on Urease Adsorbed on Nickel, Platinum, and Gold Conductometric Transducers Modified with Silicalite and Nanozeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Ivan S.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurç, Burcu Akata; Melnyk, Volodymir G.; Semenycheva, Lyudmila M.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Soldatkin, Alexei P.

    This work describes urease-based conductometric biosensors that were created using nontypical method of urease immobilization via adsorption on micro- and nanoporous particles: silicalite and nanocrystalline zeolites Beta (BEA) and L. Conductometric transducers with nickel, gold, and platinum interdigitated electrodes were used. Active regions of the nickel transducers were modified with microparticles using two procedures—spin coating and drop coating. Gold and platinum transducers were modified with silicalite using drop coating since it was more effective. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate effectiveness of these procedures. The procedure of spin coating produced more uniform layers of particles (and biosensors had good reproducibility of preparation), but it was more complicated, drop coating was easier and led to formation of a bulk of particles; thus, biosensors had bigger sensitivity but worse reproducibility of preparation. Urease was immobilized onto transducers modified with particles by physical adsorption. Analytical characteristics of the obtained biosensors for determination of urea (calibration curves, sensitivity, limit of detection, linear concentration range, noise of responses, reproducibility of signal during a day, and operational stability during 3 days) were compared. Biosensors with all three particles deposited by spin coating showed similar characteristics; however, silicalite was a bit more effective. Biosensors based on nickel transducers modified by drop coating had better characteristics in comparison with modification by spin coating (except reproducibility of preparation). Transducers with gold electrodes showed best characteristics while creating biosensors, platinum electrodes were slightly inferior to them, and nickel electrodes were the worst.

  18. Soldering and brazing safety guide: A handbook on space practice for those involved in soldering and brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual provides those involved in welding and brazing with effective safety procedures for use in performance of their jobs. Hazards exist in four types of general soldering and brazing processes: (1) cleaning; (2) application of flux; (3) application of heat and filler metal; and (4) residue cleaning. Most hazards during those operations can be avoided by using care, proper ventilation, protective clothing and equipment. Specific process hazards for various methods of brazing and soldering are treated. Methods to check ventilation are presented as well as a check of personal hygiene and good maintenance practices are stressed. Several emergency first aid treatments are described.

  19. The Effect of Multilayer Gold Nanoparticles on the Electrochemical Response of Ammonium Ion Biosensor Based on Alanine Dehydrogenase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ling Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of multilayer of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs attached on gold electrode surface via thiol chemistry to fabricate an ammonium (NH4+ ion biosensor based on alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH was investigated. The approach of the study was based on construction of biosensor by direct deposition of AuNPs and 1,8-octanedithiol (C8-DT onto the gold electrode surface. For the immobilisation of enzyme, 2-mercaptoethanol (2BME was first covalently attached to AlaDH via esther bonding and then followed by chemically attached the 2BME-modified AlaDH (2BME-AlaDH moiety onto the AuNPs electrode via the exposed thiol group of 2BME. The resulting biosensor response was examined by means of amperometry for the quantification of NH4+ ion. In the absence of enzyme attachment, the use of three layers of AuNPs was found to improve the electrochemistry of the gold electrode when compared with no AuNPs was coated. However, when more than three layers of AuNPs were coated, the electrode response deteriorated due to excessive deposition of C8-DT. When AlaDH was incoporated into the AuNPs modified electrode, a linear response to NH4+ ion over the concentration range of 0.1–0.5 mM with a detection limit of 0.01 mM was obtained. In the absence of AuNPs, the NH4+ ion biosensor did not exhibit any good linear response range although the current response was observed to be higher. This work demonstrated that the incorporation of AuNPs could lead to the detection of higher NH4+ ion concentration without the need of dilution for high NH4+ ion concentration samples with a rapid response time of <1 min.

  20. One-pot synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines using supported gold and base as catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegnæs, Søren; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines via intermediate formation of methyl esters is highly efficient and selective when using a catalytic system comprised of supported gold nanoparticles and added base in methanol.......Synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines via intermediate formation of methyl esters is highly efficient and selective when using a catalytic system comprised of supported gold nanoparticles and added base in methanol....

  1. Gold nanoparticles-based catalysis for detection of S-nitrosothiols in blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongying; Han, Xu; Li, Zhiwei; Tian, Qiu; Miao, Xiaoxiang; Du, Libo; Liu, Yang

    2011-09-30

    Accumulating evidence suggests that S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) play key roles in human health and disease. To clarify their physiological functions and roles in diseases, it is necessary to promote some new techniques for quantifying RSNOs in blood and other biological fluids. Here, a new method using gold nanoparticle catalysts has been introduced for quantitative evaluation of RSNOs in blood serum. The assay involves degrading RSNOs using gold nanoparticles and detecting nitric oxide (NO) released with NO-selective electrodes. The approach displays very high sensitivity for RSNOs with a low detection limit in the picomolar concentration range (5.08 × 10(-11) mol L(-1), S/N=3) and is free from interference of some endogenous substances such as NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) co-existing in blood serum. A linear function of concentration in the range of (5.0-1000.0) × 10(-9) mol L(-1) has been observed with a correlation coefficient of 0.9976. The level of RSNOs in blood serum was successfully determined using the described method above. In addition, a dose-dependent effect of gold nanoparticles on the sensitivity for RSNOs detection is revealed, and thereby the approach is potentially useful to evaluate RSNOs levels in various biological fluids via varying gold nanoparticles concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Sensors Activated by External Radio Frequency Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Vedova, Paolo; Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    A novel molecular beacon (a nanomachine) is constructed that can be actuated by a radio frequency (RF) field. The nanomachine consists of the following elements arranged in molecular beacon configuration: a gold nanoparticle that acts both as quencher for fluorescence and a localized heat source;...

  3. Synthesis and bioconjugation of gold nanoparticles as potential molecular probes for light-based imaging techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayavarapu, R.G.; Petersen, Wilhelmina; Ungureanu, C.; Post, Janine Nicole; van Leeuwen, Ton; Manohar, Srirang

    2007-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized gold nanoparticles (spheres and rods) with optical extinction bands within the “optical imaging window.” The intense plasmon resonant driven absorption and scattering peaks of these nanoparticles make them suitable as contrast agents for optical imaging

  4. Recording the dynamic endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles by AFM-based force tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bohua; Tian, Yongmei; Pan, Yangang; Shan, Yuping; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2015-05-07

    We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly.

  5. Fenugreek hydrogel–agarose composite entrapped gold nanoparticles for acetylcholinesterase based biosensor for carbamates detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestwal, Rakesh Mohan; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang, E-mail: bhchiang@ntu.edu.tw

    2015-07-30

    A biosensor was fabricated to detect pesticides in food samples. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized in a novel fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles. Transparent thin films with superior mechanical strength and stability were obtained with 2% fenugreek hydrogel and 2% agarose. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on the membrane resulted in high enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and a significantly prolonged shelf life of the enzyme (half-life, 55 days). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, gold nanoparticles (10–20 nm in diameter) were uniformly dispersed in the fenugreek hydrogel–agarose–acetylcholinesterase membrane. This immobilized enzyme-gold nanoparticle dip-strip system detected various carbamates, including carbofuran, oxamyl, methomyl, and carbaryl, with limits of detection of 2, 21, 113, and 236 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor exhibited good testing capabilities when used to detect carbamates added to various fruit and vegetable samples. - Highlights: • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) dip-strip biosensor fabricated to detect carbamates. • AChE entrapped in fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). • High enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and shelf life (half-life, 55 days). • Detection limits of carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl: 2, 21 and 113 nM. • The biosensor had good testing capabilities to detect carbamates in food samples.

  6. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  7. Study on Gold and base metal occurrence in Uluwai Prospect, Western Latimojong Mountain, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Adi; Jaya, Asri; Imai, Akira

    2018-02-01

    Uluwai Prospect is located in the northern part of South Arm of Sulawesi along the eastern part of the Kalosi Fold Belt and Latimojong Mountain. The area is generally characterized by moderate to rugged topography area with elevation in the range of 700 to 1400 m above sea level in the mountainous complex called Latimojong Mountain Complex. The mineralization is characterized by a relatively simple sulphide ore mineral assemblage consists of pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Samples were collected in areas showing abundant sulphide minerals where younger faults cut the bedding and foliation of country rocks. A number of silicified zones have been observed, as well as float material containing disseminated pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite with hematite, goethite and limonite. Some alteration types have been observed including sericitization, albitization, carbonatization and silisification. The samples collected indicated that the mineralisation is contained within metasedimentary (sandstone to mudstone) and greenschist. Geochemical analyses from 16 samples including 5 stream sediment samples indicated that the most promising mineralization occur in the prospect area are copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). This is also supported by the abundance of chalcopyrite and sphalerite in some highly altered samples. Assaying of the collected samples revealed most of samples contain relatively low gold (Au) concentration. However, two samples contain 0.007 and 0.01 ppm of Au. In the mineralized area, Zn concentrations are up to 134 ppm, Cu up to 120 ppm and Pb up to 18 ppm and As up to 70 ppm. There is no clear relationship that exists between Au and the base metals except that one of the samples with highest Au values tend to have high Zn and As. This unclear pattern also shown by Cu, Pb and Zn. Base metal concentration in stream sediment samples show a relatively stable pattern than in rock samples. Arsenic tends to be elevated in base metal rich samples. Sb and Mo are

  8. Improved Switching Characteristics of Fast Power MOSFETs Applying Solder Bump Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Dieckerhoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a reduced package stray inductance on the switching performance of fast power MOSFETs is discussed applying advanced 3D packaging technologies. Starting from an overview over new packaging approaches, a solder bump technology using a flexible PI substrate is exemplarily chosen for the evaluation. Measurement techniques to determine the stray inductance are discussed and compared with a numerical solution based on the PEEC method. Experimental results show the improvement of the voltage utilization while there is only a slight impact on total switching losses.

  9. Microstructural effects on constitutive and fatigue fracture behavior of TinSilverCopper solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jonathon P.

    As microelectronic package construction becomes more diverse and complex, the need for accurate, geometry-independent material constitutive and failure models increases. Evaluations of packages based on accelerated environmental tests (such as accelerated thermal cycling or power cycling) only provide package-dependent reliability information. In addition, extrapolations of such test data to life predictions under field conditions are often empirical. Besides geometry, accelerated environmental test data must account for microstructural factors such as alloy composition or isothermal aging condition, resulting in expensive experimental variation. In this work, displacement-controlled, creep, and fatigue lap shear tests are conducted on specially designed SnAgCu test specimens with microstructures representative to those found in commercial microelectronic packages. The data are used to develop constitutive and fatigue fracture material models capable of describing deformation and fracture behavior for the relevant temperature and strain rate ranges. Furthermore, insight is provided into the microstructural variation of solder joints and the subsequent effect on material behavior. These models are appropriate for application to packages of any geometrical construction. The first focus of the thesis is on Pb-mixed SnAgCu solder alloys. During the transition from Pb-containing solders to Pb-free solders, joints composed of a mixture of SnPb and SnAgCu often result from either mixed assemblies or rework. Three alloys of 1, 5 and 20 weight percent Pb were selected so as to represent reasonable ranges of Pb contamination expected from different 63Sn37Pb components mixed with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu. Displacement-controlled (constant strain rate) and creep tests were performed at temperatures of 25°C, 75°C, and 125°C using a double lap shear test setup that ensures a nearly homogeneous state of plastic strain at the joint interface. Rate-dependent constitutive models for Pb

  10. Horizon shells and BMS-like soldering transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); O’Loughlin, Martin [University of Nova Gorica,Vipavska 13, 5000 Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2016-03-07

    We revisit the theory of null shells in general relativity, with a particular emphasis on null shells placed at horizons of black holes. We study in detail the considerable freedom that is available in the case that one solders two metrics together across null hypersurfaces (such as Killing horizons) for which the induced metric is invariant under translations along the null generators. In this case the group of soldering transformations turns out to be infinite dimensional, and these solderings create non-trivial horizon shells containing both massless matter and impulsive gravitational wave components. We also rephrase this result in the language of Carrollian symmetry groups. To illustrate this phenomenon we discuss in detail the example of shells on the horizon of the Schwarzschild black hole (with equal interior and exterior mass), uncovering a rich classical structure at the horizon and deriving an explicit expression for the general horizon shell energy-momentum tensor. In the special case of BMS-like soldering supertranslations we find a conserved shell-energy that is strikingly similar to the standard expression for asymptotic BMS supertranslation charges, suggesting a direct relation between the physical properties of these horizon shells and the recently proposed BMS supertranslation hair of a black hole.

  11. Soluble Lead and Bismuth Chalcogenidometallates: Versatile Solders for Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Department; Son, Jae Sung [Department; School; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S. [Department; Filatov, Alexander S. [Department; Hazarika, Abhijit [Department; Wang, Yuanyuan [Department; Hudson, Margaret H. [Department; Sun, Cheng-Jun [Advanced; Chattopadhyay, Soma [Physical; Talapin, Dmitri V. [Department; Center

    2017-07-27

    Here we report the syntheses of largely unexplored lead and bismuth chalcogenidometallates in the solution phase. Using N2H4 as the solvent, new compounds such as K6Pb3Te6·7N2H4 were obtained. These soluble molecular compounds underwent cation exchange processes using resin chemistry, replacing Na+ or K+ by decomposable N2H5+ or tetraethylammonium cations. They also transformed into stoichiometric lead and bismuth chalcogenide nanomaterials with the addition of metal salts. Such a versatile chemistry led to a variety of composition-matched solders to join lead and bismuth chalcogenides and tune their charge transport properties at the grain boundaries. Solution-processed thin films composed of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 microparticles soldered by (N2H5)6Bi0.5Sb1.5Te6 exhibited thermoelectric power factors (~28 μW/cm K2) comparable to those in vacuum-deposited Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 films. The soldering effect can also be integrated with attractive fabrication techniques for thermoelectric modules, such as screen printing, suggesting the potential of these solders in the rational design of printable and moldable thermoelectrics.

  12. Effects of PCB thickness on adjustable fountain wave soldering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hybrid circuit assembly, component lead tinning, and wire tinning. .... The mesh model was built and optimized with 599920 hybrid nodes as shown in figure 9. ... conducted to track the fluid motions of the two phases (i.e., molten solder and air).

  13. Proteus Mirabilis Bacteria Biosensor Development Based on Modified Gold Electrode with 4-Carboxyphenyl Diazonium Salts for Heavy Metals Toxicity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra BRAHAM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we describe a new biosensor for heavy metals detection, based on the immobilization of bacteria, Proteus mirabilis on gold electrode modified with aryl electrografting film. To enhance the stability of the biosystem, additional materials were used such as functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs, cationic (PAH, anionic (PSS polyelectrolytes, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Before the immobilization step, the activity of Proteus mirabilis bacteria in the presence of heavy metals ions was attempted using the ion ammonium selective electrodes (ISEs. The modication of the gold electrodes with the electrochemical reduction of 4- carboxyphenyl diazonium salts to form stable layers for sensing applications was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements. The adhesion of the bacteria cell on gold electrode was evaluated using contact angle measurements. The immobilized bacteria-metal interaction was evaluated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. A notable effect of metal on the bacteria activity is observed in the concentration range from 10-3 to 1 µM and from 1µM to 1nM for Co2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Hg2+, respectively.

  14. Enzyme immunosensor based on gold nanoparticles electroposition and Streptavidin-biotin system for detection of S. pullorum and S. gallinarum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chunmei; Dou, Wenchao; Zhao, Guangying

    2014-01-01

    A novel electrochemical enzyme immunosensor based on the electrodeposited gold nanoparticles and the multistage amplification of streptavidin-biotin affinity system for detection of Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum (S. pullorum and S. gallinarum) was investigated in this study. The electrochemical characteristics of the stepwise modified electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), whereas the determinations of the targets of S. pullorum and S. gallinarum were carried out by CV. As shown in the results of this study, the electron transfer was promoted by the electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles, thus the communication of electrons was enhanced and the conductivity of the electrode was strengthened too. Moreover, the number of the conjugated bio-molecules was elevated greatly by the electrodeposited gold nanoparticles and the streptavidin-biotin, which contributed to the integration of the following modifications and amplification of the current response signal. Under the optimized working conditions, the sensor showed a good performance with a linear response range from 10 2 CFU/ml to10 9 CFU/ml, the detection limit for S. pullorum and S. gallinarum determination was 1.95 × 10 2 CFU/ml (S/N = 3). The proposed enzyme immunosensor with high sensitivity, good specificity, acceptable accuracy and reproducibility, and low detection limit characteristics could be a promising analytical tool in detection of S. pullorum and S. gallinarum in practical samples and a model for the development of immunosensor of other bacterium of interests

  15. Amperometric inhibition biosensors based on horseradish peroxidase and gold sononanoparticles immobilized onto different electrodes for cyanide measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aisha; Cubillana-Aguilera, Laura; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Ignacio; de Cisneros, José Luis Hidalgo-Hidalgo; Palacios-Santander, José María; Amine, Aziz

    2015-02-01

    New biosensors based on inhibition for the detection of cyanide and the comparison of the analytical performances of nine enzyme biosensor designs by using three different electrodes: Sonogel-Carbon, glassy carbon and gold electrodes were discussed. Three different horseradish peroxidase immobilization procedures with and without gold sononanoparticles were studied. The amperometric measurements were performed at an applied potential of -0.15V vs. Ag/AgCl in 50mM sodium acetate buffer solution pH=5.0. The apparent kinetic parameters (Kmapp, Vmaxapp) of immobilized HRP were calculated in the absence of inhibitor (cyanide) by using caffeic acid, hydroquinone, and catechol as substrates. The presence of gold sononanoparticles enhanced the electron transfer reaction and improved the analytical performance of the biosensors. The HRP kinetic interactions reveal non-competitive binding of cyanide with an apparent inhibition constant (Ki) of 2.7μM and I50 of 1.3μM. The determination of cyanide can be achieved in a dynamic range of 0.1-58.6μM with a detection limit of 0.03μM which is lower than those reported by previous studies. Hence this biosensing methodology can be used as a new promising approach for detecting cyanide. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A high figure of merit localized surface plasmon sensor based on a gold nanograting on the top of a gold planar film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zu-Yin; Wang Li-Na; Hu Hai-Feng; Li Kang-Wen; Ma Xun-Peng; Song Guo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity and figure of merit (FOM) of a localized surface plasmon (LSP) sensor with gold nanograting on the top of planar metallic film. The sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon sensor is 317 nm/RIU, and the FOM is predicted to be above 8, which is very high for a localized surface plasmon sensor. By employing the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method, we analyze the distribution of the magnetic field and find that the sensing property of our proposed system is attributed to the interactions between the localized surface plasmon around the gold nanostrips and the surface plasmon polarition on the surface of the gold planar metallic film. These findings are important for developing high FOM localized surface plasmon sensors. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  17. Hybrid structures based on gold nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots for biosensor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Margarita Kurochkina,1 Elena Konshina,1 Aleksandr Oseev,2 Soeren Hirsch3 1Centre of Information Optical Technologies, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 2Institute of Micro and Sensor Systems, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 3Department of Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Brandenburg, Brandenburg an der Havel, Germany Background: The luminescence amplification of semiconductor quantum dots (QD in the presence of self-assembled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs is one of way for creating biosensors with highly efficient transduction. Aims: The objective of this study was to fabricate the hybrid structures based on semiconductor CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays and to use them as biosensors of protein. Methods: In this paper, the hybrid structures based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays were fabricated using spin coating processes. Au NP arrays deposited on a glass wafer were investigated by optical microscopy and absorption spectroscopy depending on numbers of spin coating layers and their baking temperature. Bovine serum albumin (BSA was used as the target protein analyte in a phosphate buffer. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to study the luminescent properties of Au NP/QD hybrid structures and to test BSA. Results: The dimensions of Au NP aggregates increased and the space between them decreased with increasing processing temperature. At the same time, a blue shift of the plasmon resonance peak in the absorption spectra of Au NP arrays was observed. The deposition of CdSe/ZnS QDs with a core diameter of 5 nm on the surface of the Au NP arrays caused an increase in absorption and a red shift of the plasmon peak in the spectra. The exciton–plasmon enhancement of the QDs’ photoluminescence intensity has been obtained at room temperature for hybrid structures with Au NPs array pretreated at temperatures of 100°C and 150°C. It has been found that an increase in the weight content of BSA

  18. Small contribution of gold mines to the ongoing tuberculosis epidemic in South Africa: a modeling-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stewart T; Chihota, Violet N; Fielding, Katherine L; Grant, Alison D; Houben, Rein M; White, Richard G; Churchyard, Gavin J; Eckhoff, Philip A; Wagner, Bradley G

    2018-04-12

    Gold mines represent a potential hotspot for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission and may be exacerbating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa. However, the presence of multiple factors complicates estimation of the mining contribution to the TB burden in South Africa. We developed two models of TB in South Africa, a static risk model and an individual-based model that accounts for longer-term trends. Both models account for four populations - mine workers, peri-mining residents, labor-sending residents, and other residents of South Africa - including the size and prevalence of latent TB infection, active TB, and HIV of each population and mixing between populations. We calibrated to mine- and country-level data and used the static model to estimate force of infection (FOI) and new infections attributable to local residents in each community compared to other residents. Using the individual-based model, we simulated a counterfactual scenario to estimate the fraction of overall TB incidence in South Africa attributable to recent transmission in mines. We estimated that the majority of FOI in each community is attributable to local residents: 93.9% (95% confidence interval 92.4-95.1%), 91.5% (91.4-91.5%), and 94.7% (94.7-94.7%) in gold mining, peri-mining, and labor-sending communities, respectively. Assuming a higher rate of Mtb transmission in mines, 4.1% (2.6-5.8%), 5.0% (4.5-5.5%), and 9.0% (8.8-9.1%) of new infections in South Africa are attributable to gold mine workers, peri-mining residents, and labor-sending residents, respectively. Therefore, mine workers with TB disease, who constitute ~ 2.5% of the prevalent TB cases in South Africa, contribute 1.62 (1.04-2.30) times as many new infections as TB cases in South Africa on average. By modeling TB on a longer time scale, we estimate 63.0% (58.5-67.7%) of incident TB disease in gold mining communities to be attributable to recent transmission, of which 92.5% (92.1-92.9%) is attributable to

  19. Membrane-based assay for iodide ions based on anti-leaching of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Wei; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Li, Yu-Jia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2014-02-26

    We report a label-free colorimetric strategy for the highly selective and sensitive detection of iodide (I(-)) ions in human urine sample, seawater and edible salt. A poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-stabilized Au nanoparticle (34.2-nm) was prepared to detect I(-) ions using silver (Ag(+)) and cyanide (CN(-)) ions as leaching agents in a glycine-NaOH (pH 9.0) solution. For the visual detection of the I(-) ions by naked eye, and for long time stability of the probe, Au nanoparticles (NPs) decorated mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM) was prepared (Au NPs/MCEM). The Au NPs-based probe (CN(-)/Ag(+)-Au NPs/MCEM) operates on the principle that Ag(+) ions form a monolyar silver atoms/ions by aurophilic/argentophilic interactions on the Au NPs and it accelerates the leaching rate of Au atoms in presence of CN(-) ions. However, when I(-) is introduced into this system, it inhibits the leaching of Au atoms because of the strong interactions between Ag/Au ions and I(-) ions. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface properties of the Au NPs in the presence of Ag(+) and I(-). Under optimal solution conditions, the CN(-)/Ag(+)-Au NPs/MCEM probe enabled the detection of I(-) by the naked eye at nanomolar concentrations with high selectivity (at least 1000-fold over other anions). In addition, this cost-effective probe allowed the determination of I(-) ions in complex samples, such as urine, seawater, and edible salt samples.

  20. Development of safety assessment model based on TRU-2 report using GoldSim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebina, Takanori; Inagaki, Manabu; Kato, Tomoko

    2011-03-01

    The safety assessment model at 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for TRU Waste Disposal in Japan'(TRU-2 report) was designed using the numerical code TIGER, that allows the physical and chemical properties within the system to vary with time. In the future, at the examination to optimize nuclear fuel cycle for geological disposal, it is expected that the analysis that has many cases like sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis are in demand. The numerical code TIGER is a calculation code that analyze engineered barrier system and geological barrier system, and its numerical model is verified with nuclide migration code for engineered barrier system MESHNOTE, and nuclide migration code for geosphere MATRICS. At the analysis using TIGER, the migration (i.e. Engineered barrier system, Host rock and Fault) have to be analysed independently at each region, consequently the huge number of complicated parameter setting have been required. On the other hand, by using numerical code GoldSim, all regions are analyzed synchronously and parameters can be defined at same model. So it makes quality control of parameters easier. Furthermore, analysis time by GoldSim is shorter than TIGER and GoldSim can calculate many number of Monte Carlo simulations among multiple computers. In future, Safety Analyses of TRU waste package disposal will be carried out according as study of an optimization of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefor, safety assessment model for TRU waste disposal using GoldSim was designed, and calculation results were verified by comparing with the result of TRU-2 report. (author)

  1. Oligopeptide-heavy metal interaction monitoring by hybrid gold nanoparticle based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Jane; Spadavecchia, Jolanda; Iodice, Mario; de Stefano, Luca

    2015-01-07

    Phytochelatins are small peptides that can be found in several organisms, which use these oligopeptides to handle heavy metal elements. Here, we report a method for monitoring interactions between lead(ii) ions in aqueous solutions and phytochelatin 6 oligopeptide bioconjugated onto pegylated gold nanorods (PEG-AuNrs). This study is the first step towards a high sensitive label free optical biosensor to quantify heavy metal pollution in water.

  2. An electrochemical sensor based on carboxymethylated dextran modified gold surface for ochratoxin A analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heurich, Meike; Kadir, Mohamad Kamal Abdul; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2011-01-01

    A disposable electrochemical immunosensor method was developed for ochratoxin A analysis to be applied for wine samples by using a screen-printed gold working electrode with carbon counter and silver/silver chloride pseudo-reference electrode. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format was constructed by immobilising ochratoxin A conjugate using passive adsorption or covalent immobilisation via amine coupling to a carboxymethylated dextran (CMD)...

  3. Solder wetting behavior enhancement via laser-textured surface microcosmic topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Peng, Jianke [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, Li, E-mail: fuli@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Wang, Xincheng [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Xie, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The wetting angle of lead free solder on Cu was reduced by surface microstructure. • The wetting form of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on Cu was “non-composite surface”. • The experimental results had a sound fit with the theoretical calculation. - Abstract: In order to reduce or even replace the use of Sn-Pb solder in electronics industry, the laser-textured surface microstructures were used to enhance the wetting behavior of lead free solder during soldering. According to wetting theory and Sn-Ag-Cu lead free solder performance, we calculated and designed four microcosmic structures with the similar shape and different sizes to control the wetting behavior of lead free solder. The micro-structured surfaces with different dimensions were processed on copper plates by fiber femtosecond laser, and the effect of microstructures on wetting behavior was verified experimentally. The results showed that the wetting angle of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on the copper plate with microstructures decreased effectively compared with that on the smooth copper plate. The wetting angles had a sound fit with the theoretical values calculated by wetting model. The novel method provided a feasible route for adjusting the wetting behavior of solders and optimizing solders system.

  4. Impedimetric Urea Biosensor Based on Modified Gold Electrode with Urease Immobilized on Glutathione Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine BARHOUMI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a glutathione (GSH modified gold microelectrode was used for the covalent immobilization of urease biomolecules via the glutaraldehyde-coupling agent. The self- assembled monolayers (SAMs onto the gold surface was investigated by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS. Before urease grafting, a significant interaction was noticed between urea and the glutathione layer by forming hydrogen bonds. The H-NMR analysis was carried out to highlight the possibility of having a covalent link between urea and the GSH deposited layer. In addition, contact angle measurements were carried out to determine the hydrophobic/hydrophilic feature of the modified gold surface electrode. After urease immobilization a stable and high sensitive impedimetric urea biosensors was obtained with a sensitivity of 8.73´10- 8 W-1mM-1 for the low concentrations range and a sensitivity of 7.03´10-9 W-1mM-1 for the high concentrations range.

  5. A GoldSim Based Biosphere Assessment Model for a HLW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Hwang, Yong-Soo; Kang, Chul-Hyung

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the performance of a repository, the dose exposure to a human being due to nuclide releases from a repository should be evaluated and the results compared to the dose limit presented by the regulatory bodies. To evaluate a dose rate to an individual due to a long-term release of nuclides from a HLW repository, biosphere assessment models and their implemented codes such as ACBIO1 and ACBIO2 have been developed with the aid of AMBER during the last few years. BIOMASS methodology has been adopted for a HLW repository currently being considered in Korea, which has a similar concept to the Swedish KBS-3 HLW repository. Recently, not just only for verifying the purpose for biosphere assessment models but also for varying the possible alternatives to assess the consequences in a biosphere due to a HLW repository, another version of the assessment modesl has been newly developed in the frame of development programs for a total system performance assessment modeling tool by utilizing GoldSim. Through a current study, GoldSim approach for a biosphere modeling is introduced. Unlike AMBER by which a compartment scheme can be rather simply constructed with an appropriate transition rate between compartments, GoldSim was designed to facilitate the object-oriented modules by which specific models can be addressed in an additional manner, like solving jig saw puzzles

  6. Electronic Tongue Based on Nanostructured Hybrid Films of Gold Nanoparticles and Phthalocyanines for Milk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza A. Mercante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gold nanoparticles combined with other organic and inorganic materials for designing nanostructured films has demonstrated their versatility for various applications, including optoelectronic devices and chemical sensors. In this study, we reported the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles stabilized with poly(allylamine hydrochloride (Au@PAH NPs, as well as the capability of this material to form multilayer Layer-by-Layer (LbL nanostructured films with metal tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (MTsPc. Film growth was monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Once LbL films have been applied as active layers in chemical sensors, Au@PAH/MTsPc and PAH/MTsPc LbL films were used in an electronic tongue system for milk analysis regarding fat content. The capacitance data were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, revealing the role played by the gold nanoparticles on the LbL films electrical properties, enabling this kind of system to be used for analyzing complex matrices such as milk without any prior pretreatment.

  7. One step gold (bio)functionalisation based on CS{sub 2}-amine reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ines [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Cascalheira, Antonio C. [Lumisense, Lda, Campus Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. ICAT, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Viana, Ana S., E-mail: anaviana@fc.ul.p [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-12-01

    Dithiocarbamates have been regarded as alternative anchor groups to thiols on gold surfaces, and claimed to be formed in situ through the reaction between secondary amines and carbon disulphide. In this paper, we further exploit this methodology for a convenient one step biomolecule immobilisation onto gold surfaces. First, the reactivity between CS{sub 2} and electroactive compounds containing amines, primary (dopamine), secondary (epinephrine), and an amino acid (tryptophan) has been investigated by electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammetric characterisation of the modified electrodes confirmed the immobilisation of all the target compounds, allowing the estimation of their surface concentration. The best result was obtained with epinephrine, a secondary amine, for which a typical quasi-reversible behaviour of surface confined electroactive species could be clearly depicted. Electrochemical reductive desorption studies enabled to infer on the extent of the reaction and on the relative stability of the generated monolayers. Bio-functionalisation studies have been accomplished through the reaction of CS{sub 2} with glucose oxidase in aqueous medium, and the catalytic activity of the immobilised enzyme was evaluated towards glucose, by electrochemical methods in the presence of a redox mediator. Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used respectively, to characterize the gold electrodes and Glucose Oxidase coverage and distribution on the modified surfaces.

  8. Thermal fatigue life evaluation of SnAgCu solder joints in a multi-chip power module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, C.; Malgioglio, G. L.; Petrone, G.; Cammarata, G.

    2017-05-01

    For power devices, the reliability of thermal fatigue induced by thermal cycling has been prioritized as an important concern. The main target of this work is to apply a numerical procedure to assess the fatigue life for lead-free solder joints, that represent, in general, the weakest part of the electronic modules. Starting from a real multi-chip power module, FE-based models were built-up by considering different conditions in model implementation in order to simulate, from one hand, the worst working condition for the module and, from another one, the module standing into a climatic test room performing thermal cycles. Simulations were carried-out both in steady and transient conditions in order to estimate the module thermal maps, the stress-strain distributions, the effective plastic strain distributions and finally to assess the number of cycles to failure of the constitutive solder layers.

  9. Thermal fatigue life evaluation of SnAgCu solder joints in a multi-chip power module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbagallo, C; Petrone, G; Cammarata, G; Malgioglio, G L

    2017-01-01

    For power devices, the reliability of thermal fatigue induced by thermal cycling has been prioritized as an important concern. The main target of this work is to apply a numerical procedure to assess the fatigue life for lead-free solder joints, that represent, in general, the weakest part of the electronic modules. Starting from a real multi-chip power module, FE-based models were built-up by considering different conditions in model implementation in order to simulate, from one hand, the worst working condition for the module and, from another one, the module standing into a climatic test room performing thermal cycles. Simulations were carried-out both in steady and transient conditions in order to estimate the module thermal maps, the stress-strain distributions, the effective plastic strain distributions and finally to assess the number of cycles to failure of the constitutive solder layers. (paper)

  10. PALEO-CHANNELS OF SINGKAWANG WATERS WEST KALIMANTAN AND ITS RELATION TO THE OCCURRENCES OF SUB-SEABOTTOM GOLD PLACERS BASED ON STRATA BOX SEISMIC RECORD ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Strata box seismic records were used to analyze sub-seabottom paleochannels in Singkawang Waters, West Kalimantan. Based on the analyses, it can be identified the distribution and patterns of paleochannels. Paleo channel at northern part of study area interpreted as a continuation of Recent coastal rivers; and at the southern part, the pattern radiates surround the cone-shaped morphology of islands, especially Kabung and Lemukutan Islands. Paleochannels of the study area belong to northwest Sunda Shelf systems that terminated to the South China Sea. A study on sequence stratigraphy was carried out to better understanding sedimentary sequences in the paleochannels. This study is also capable of identifying placer deposits within the channels. Based on criterias of gold placer occurrence such as existence of primary gold sources, intense chemical and physical weathering to liberate gold grains from their source rocks of Sintang Intrusive. Gravity transportation that involved water media, stable bed rock and surface conditions, caused offshore area of Singkawang fulfill requirements for gold placer accumulations. Chemical and physical whethering proccesses from Oligocene to Recent, approximately 36 million, might be found accumulation of gold placer on the seafloor. Based on grain size analyses, the study area consisted of sand 43.4%, silt 54.3% and clay 2.3%. Petrographic examination of the sample shows gold grains about 0.2%.

  11. Substituição das soldas estanho-chumbo na manufatura: efeitos na saúde do trabalhador e no desempenho ambiental Substitution of tin-lead solders in manufacturing: impacts on workers' health and on the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Maria Villas Bôas de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As soldas à base de estanho-chumbo (63Sn/37Pb são largamente utilizadas no Brasil e no mundo. Este estudo aplica a avaliação em emergia em um fabricante de soldas brandas à base de estanho e chumbo e outros metais. O cálculo da emergia por unidade de três tipos de solda mostra que mais recursos são utilizados para produzir uma tonelada de soldas livres de chumbo do que para produzir soldas à base de estanho e chumbo. O indicador DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years foi utilizado para comparar as emissões na atmosfera dos três tipos de produção de soldas e os resultados apontam para a adoção das soldas à base de chumbo, quando se considera todo o ciclo de vida do produto. A diferença entre os resultados obtidos por avaliações locais e globais é discutida.Tin-lead solders (Sn63-Pb37 have been widely used in Brazil and worldwide. This study evaluates the emergy in a company that manufactures soft solders based on tin, lead, and other metals. The calculation of emergy per unit of three types of solder showed that more resources are used to produce one ton of lead-free solders than those used to produce tin-lead solders. The DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years indicator was used to assess the emissions to air of three types of solder. The results favor the use of tin-lead solders when the whole product life-cycle is evaluated. The difference between the results obtained by local and global assessments is discussed.

  12. Comparison of different photoresist buffer layers in SPR sensors based on D-shaped POF and gold film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Pesavento, Maria; De Maria, Letizia; Galatus, Ramona; Mattiello, Francesco; Zeni, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    A comparative analysis of two optical fiber sensing platforms is presented. The sensors are based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) with a photoresist buffer layer between the exposed POF core and the thin gold film. We show how the sensor's performances change when the photoresist layer changes. The photoresist layers proposed in this analysis are SU-8 3005 and S1813. The experimental results are congruent with the numerical studies and it is instrumental for chemical and bio-chemical applications. Usually, the photoresist layer is required in order to increase the performance of the SPR-POF sensor.

  13. Gold Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Barro; Sanjay P. Misra

    2013-01-01

    From 1836 to 2011, the average real rate of price change for gold in the United States is 1.1% per year and the standard deviation is 13.1%, implying a one-standard-deviation confidence band for the mean of (0.1%, 2.1%). The covariances of gold's real rate of price change with consumption and GDP growth rates are small and statistically insignificantly different from zero. These negligible covariances suggest that gold's expected real rate of return--which includes an unobserved dividend yiel...

  14. A cascade amplification strategy based on rolling circle amplification and hydroxylamine amplified gold nanoparticles enables chemiluminescence detection of adenosine triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Tonghuan; Yang, Taoyi; Jin, Nan; Zhao, Yanjun; Fan, Aiping

    2014-08-07

    A highly sensitive and selective chemiluminescent (CL) biosensor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was developed by taking advantage of the ATP-dependent enzymatic reaction (ATP-DER), the powerful signal amplification capability of rolling circle amplification (RCA), and hydroxylamine-amplified gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The strategy relies on the ability of ATP, a cofactor of T4 DNA ligase, to trigger the ligation-RCA reaction. In the presence of ATP, the T4 DNA ligase catalyzes the ligation reaction between the two ends of the padlock probe, producing a closed circular DNA template that initiates the RCA reaction with phi29 DNA polymerase and dNTP. Therein, many complementary copies of the circular template can be generated. The ATP-DER is eventually converted into a detectable CL signal after a series of processes, including gold probe hybridization, hydroxylamine amplification, and oxidative gold metal dissolution coupled with a simple and sensitive luminol CL reaction. The CL signal is directly proportional to the ATP level. The results showed that the detection limit of the assay is 100 pM of ATP, which compares favorably with those of other ATP detection techniques. In addition, by taking advantage of ATP-DER, the proposed CL sensing system exhibits extraordinary specificity towards ATP and could distinguish the target molecule ATP from its analogues. The proposed method provides a new and versatile platform for the design of novel DNA ligation reaction-based CL sensing systems for other cofactors. This novel ATP-DER based CL sensing system may find wide applications in clinical diagnosis as well as in environmental and biomedical fields.

  15. A novel polymer inclusion membrane based method for continuous clean-up of thiocyanate from gold mine tailings water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngsoo; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2018-01-05

    Thiocyanate is present in gold mine tailings waters in concentrations up to 1000mgL -1 and this has a serious environmental impact by not allowing water reuse in the flotation of gold ore. This significantly increases the consumption of fresh water and the amount of wastewater discharged in tailings dams. At the same time thiocyanate in tailings waters often leads to groundwater contamination. A novel continuous membrane-based method for the complete clean-up of thiocyanate in concentrations as high as 1000mgL -1 from its aqueous solutions has been developed. It employs a flat sheet polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) of composition 70wt% PVC, 20wt% Aliquat 336 and 10wt% 1-tetradecanol which separates counter-current streams of a feed thiocyanate solution and a 1M NaNO 3 receiving solution. The PIM-based system has been operated continuously for 45days with 99% separation efficiency. The volume of the receiving solution has been drastically reduced by recirculating it and continuously removing thiocyanate by precipitating it with in-situ generated Cu(I). The newly developed PIM-based thiocyanate clean-up method is environmentally friendly in terms of reagent use and inexpensive with respect to both equipment and running costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The metallurgical approach on the solder voids behaviour in surface mount devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohabattul Zaman Bukhari

    1996-01-01

    Solder voids are believed to cause poor heat dissiption in the Surface Mount devices and reduce the reliability of the devices at higher operating services. There are a lot of factors involved in creating voids such as gas/flux entrapment, wettability, outgasseous, air bubbles in the solder paste, inconsistency of solder coverage and improper metal scheme selection. This study was done to observe the behaviour of the solder voids in term of flux entrapmentt and wettability. It is believed that flux entrapment and wettability are verify this hypothesis. Two types of metal scheme were chosen which are Nickel (Ni) plated and Tin (Sn) plated heatsink. X-ray techniques such as Radiographic Inspection Analysis and EDAX were used to detect the minute solder voids. The solder voids observed on the heatsinks and Copper shims after the reflow process are believed to be a non contact voids that resulted from some portion of the surface not wetting properly

  17. Surface modified gold nanoparticles for SERS based detection of vulnerable plaque formations (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Dugandžić, Vera; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is closely related to the majority of these diseases, as a process of thickening and stiffening of the arterial walls through accumulation of lipids, which is a consequence of aging and life style. Atherosclerosis affects all people in some extent, but not all arterial plaques will necessarily lead to the complications, such as thrombosis, stroke and heart attack. One of the greatest challenges in the risk assessment of atherosclerotic depositions is the detection and recognition of plaques which are unstable and prone to rupture. These vulnerable plaques usually consist of a lipid core that attracts macrophages, a type of white blood cells that are responsible for the degradation of lipids. It has been hypothesized that the amount of macrophages relates to the overall plaque stability. As phagocytes, macrophages also act as recipients for nanoscale particles or structures. Administered gold nanoparticles are usually rabidly taken up by macrophages residing within arterial walls and can therefore be indirectly detected. A very sensitive strategy for probing gold nanoparticles is by utilizing surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). By modifying the surface of these particles with SERS active labels it is possible to generate highly specific signals that exhibit sensitivity comparable to fluorescence. SERS labeled gold nanoparticles have been synthesized and the uptake dynamics and efficiency on macrophages in cell cultures was investigated using Raman microscopic imaging. The results clearly show that nanoparticles are taken up by macrophages and support the potential of SERS spectroscopy for the detection of vulnerable plaques. Acknowledgements: Financial support from the Carl Zeiss Foundation is highly acknowledged. The project "Jenaer Biochip Initiative 2.0" (03IPT513Y) within the framework "InnoProfile Transfer - Unternehmen Region" is supported by the Federal Ministry of

  18. Nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for ascorbic acid based on hollow gold/ruthenium nanoshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Ara; Kang, Minkyung; Cha, Areum; Jang, Hye Su [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jun Ho [Department of Chemistry, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Nam-Suk [National Center for Nanomaterials Technology (NCNT), Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Hwa [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngmi, E-mail: youngmilee@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chongmok, E-mail: cmlee@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized hollow gold/ruthenium (hAu–Ru) nanoshells for ascorbic acid sensing. • The hAu–Ru nanoshells showed sensitivity of 426 μA mM⁻¹ cm⁻² for ascorbic acid. • Good selectivity against glucose, uric acid, dopamine, 4-acetamidophenol, and NADH. • The linear dynamic range appeared from zero to 2.0 mM (R = 0.9995). • Response time (1.6 s) and low detection limit (2.2 μM) were obtained at pH 7.40. Abstract: We report a new nonenzymatic amperometric detection of ascorbic acid (AA) using a glassy carbon (GC) disk electrode modified with hollow gold/ruthenium (hAu–Ru) nanoshells, which exhibited decent sensing characteristics. The hAu–Ru nanoshells were prepared by the incorporation of Ru on hollow gold (hAu) nanoshells from Co nanoparticle templates, which enabled AA selectivity against glucose without aid of enzyme or membrane. The structure and electrocatalytic activities of the hAu–Ru catalysts were characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The hAu–Ru loaded on GC electrode (hAu–Ru/GC) showed sensitivity of 426 μA mM⁻¹ cm⁻² (normalized to the GC disk area) for the linear dynamic range of <5 μM to 2 mM AA at physiological pH. The response time and detection limit were 1.6 s and 2.2 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the hAu–Ru/GC electrode displayed remarkable selectivity for ascorbic acid over all potential biological interferents, including glucose, uric acid (UA), dopamine (DA), 4-acetamidophenol (AP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which could be especially good for biological sensing.

  19. Nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for ascorbic acid based on hollow gold/ruthenium nanoshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Ara; Kang, Minkyung; Cha, Areum; Jang, Hye Su; Shim, Jun Ho; Lee, Nam-Suk; Kim, Myung Hwa; Lee, Youngmi; Lee, Chongmok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized hollow gold/ruthenium (hAu–Ru) nanoshells for ascorbic acid sensing. • The hAu–Ru nanoshells showed sensitivity of 426 μA mM −1 cm −2 for ascorbic acid. • Good selectivity against glucose, uric acid, dopamine, 4-acetamidophenol, and NADH. • The linear dynamic range appeared from zero to 2.0 mM (R = 0.9995). • Response time (1.6 s) and low detection limit (2.2 μM) were obtained at pH 7.40. - Abstract: We report a new nonenzymatic amperometric detection of ascorbic acid (AA) using a glassy carbon (GC) disk electrode modified with hollow gold/ruthenium (hAu–Ru) nanoshells, which exhibited decent sensing characteristics. The hAu–Ru nanoshells were prepared by the incorporation of Ru on hollow gold (hAu) nanoshells from Co nanoparticle templates, which enabled AA selectivity against glucose without aid of enzyme or membrane. The structure and electrocatalytic activities of the hAu–Ru catalysts were characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The hAu–Ru loaded on GC electrode (hAu–Ru/GC) showed sensitivity of 426 μA mM −1 cm −2 (normalized to the GC disk area) for the linear dynamic range of <5 μM to 2 mM AA at physiological pH. The response time and detection limit were 1.6 s and 2.2 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the hAu–Ru/GC electrode displayed remarkable selectivity for ascorbic acid over all potential biological interferents, including glucose, uric acid (UA), dopamine (DA), 4-acetamidophenol (AP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which could be especially good for biological sensing

  20. Gold nanoparticle-based immuno-PCR for detection of tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stegurová, Lucie; Dráberová, Eduarda; Bartoš, A.; Dráber, Pavel; Řípová, D.; Dráber, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 406, april (2014), s. 137-142 ISSN 0022-1759 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520701; GA TA ČR TA01010436; GA ČR GAP302/12/1673; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA MPO FR-TI3/067 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Gold nanoparticles * Tau protein * ELISA * PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.820, year: 2014

  1. Gold monetization and gold discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Flood; Peter M. Garber

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a study of the price level and relative price effects of a policy to monetize gold and fix its price at a given future time and at the then prevailing nominal price. Price movements are analyzed both during the transition to the gold standard and during the post-monetization period. The paper also explores the adjustments to fiat money which are necessary to ensure that this type of gold monetization is non-inflationary. Finally, some conditions which produce a run on the governm...

  2. The nanocoherer: an electrically and mechanically resettable resistive switching device based on gold clusters assembled on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnai, Chloé; Mirigliano, Matteo; Brown, Simon A.; Milani, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    We report the realization of a resettable resistive switching device based on a nanostructured film fabricated by supersonic cluster beam deposition of gold clusters on plain paper substrates. Through the application of suitable voltage ramps, we obtain, in the same device, either a complex pattern of resistive switchings, or reproducible and stable switchings between low resistance and high resistance states, with an amplitude up to five orders of magnitude. Our device retains a state of internal resistance following the history of the applied voltage similar to that reported for memristors. The two different switching regimes in the same device are both stable, the transition between them is reversible, and it can be controlled by applying voltage ramps or by mechanical deformation of the substrate. The device behavior can be related to the formation, growth and breaking of junctions between the loosely aggregated gold clusters forming the nanostructured films. The fact that our cluster-assembled device is mechanically resettable suggests that it can be considered as the analog of the coherer: a switching device based on metallic powders used for the first radio communication system.

  3. Particle size and kind of mica in synthesis of nontoxic bronze and gold pearlescent pigments based on nanoencapsulated hematite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hosseini-Zori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-encapsulated iron oxide in Zirconium oxide-coated mica pigments are thermally stable,innocuous to human health, non-combustible, and they do not conduct electricity. They could beapplied in several industries such as thermoplastics, cosmetics, food packaging, children toys, paints,automobiles coating, security purposes, and banknotes. Nowadays, they are highly desirable inceramic decoration. In the present study, intensively dark gold to bronze colored mica clay pigments,which were based on mica flakes covered with a layer of nano-iron oxide-Zirconium oxide particles,were prepared by homogeneous precipitation of iron nitrate and Zirconium chloride ammonia in thepresence of mica flakes in two kinds of ore clay-based phlogopite and muscovite minerals. The finalcolor was obtained by thermal annealing of precipitates at a temperature of 800◦C. The pigments werecharacterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Particle size analysis, Scanning electron microscopy,Transmission electron microscopy, X-Ray fluorescence, and Simultaneous thermal analysis. Resultsindicate that nano-encapsulated iron oxide in zirconia particles have been formed on mica flakes andkinds of clay-mica can be related to obtained shade from dark gold to bronze pearl. Higher particlesize of mica flakes about phlogopite type of mica introduced pearl effects with higher L* changes indifferent angles. Muscovite performed higher hue and better pearl effect than phlogopite.

  4. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Ai Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Liu Yinping [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. > This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. > This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 {mu}M and with a detection limit of 0.5 {mu}M. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  5. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun; Ai Shiyun; Liu Yinping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. → This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. → This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 μM and with a detection limit of 0.5 μM. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  6. Effect of size and geometry of gold nanostructures in performance of laser-based hyperthermia: a multiscale- multiphysics modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadinia, Hossein; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem; Sasanpour, Pezhman; Razaghi, Mohammad Reza; Nezhad, Mohammadreza Hormozi

    2016-01-01

    The importance of hyperthermia as a promising method in disruption and removal of cancerous cells is well understood. One of the effective options of concentration of heat within a specific tissue is using laser and exploiting absorption properties of metallic nanostructures. In this report, the geometrical effect of gold nanostructures in the performance of laser based hyperthermia has been analyzed. The analysis is based on the consideration of absorption properties of gold nanostructures, interaction of laser light with a specific tissue containing nanostructures and the effect of generated heat on elevation of temperature inside the tissue. The analysis is performed using Mie theory (for extraction of absorption/scattering properties of nanostructures), Monte Carlo (MC) (interaction of light inside the tissue) and solving the heat equation (considering the elevation of temperature inside the tissue). We have compared the effect of a laser beam on the maximum temperature inside the tissue and the results indicate that focusing the beam size of the laser to half width will culminate in a 50% elevation of maximum temperature in the tissue, while the average temperature raise inside the tissue will not be altered. (paper)

  7. Laser tissue welding mediated with a protein solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ward, IV; Heredia, Nicholas J.; Celliers, Peter M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Eder, David C.; Glinsky, Michael E.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Soltz, Barbara A.

    1996-05-01

    A study of laser tissue welding mediated with an indocyanine green dye-enhanced protein solder was performed. Freshly obtained sections of porcine artery were used for the experiments. Sample arterial wall thickness ranged from two to three millimeters. Incisions approximately four millimeters in length were treated using an 805 nanometer continuous- wave diode laser coupled to a one millimeter diameter fiber. Controlled parameters included the power delivered by the laser, the duration of the welding process, and the concentration of dye in the solder. A two-color infrared detection system was constructed to monitor the surface temperatures achieved at the weld site. Burst pressure measurements were made to quantify the strengths of the welds immediately following completion of the welding procedure.

  8. Label-free amino acid detection based on nanocomposites of graphene oxide hybridized with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Xu, Gang; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-03-15

    Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles (GO/GNPs) were synthesized for label-free detections of amino acids. Interactions between the composites and amino acids were investigated by both naked-eye observation and optical absorption spectroscopy. The GO/GNPs composites displayed apparent color changes and absorption spectra changes in presences of amino acids including glutamate, aspartate, and cysteine. The interaction mechanisms of the composites and amino acids were discussed and explored with sulfhydryl groups and non-α-carboxylic groups on the amino acids. Sensing properties of the composites were tested, while pure gold particles were used as the control. The results suggested that the GO/GNPs composites had better linearity and stability in dose-dependent responses to the amino acids than those of the particles, especially in detections for acidic amino acids. Therefore, the nanocomposites platform can provide a convenient and efficient approach for label-free optical detections of important molecules such as amino acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Voltammetric enzyme sensor for urea using mercaptohydroquinone-modified gold electrode as the base transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, F; Yabuki, S; Sato, Y

    1997-01-01

    A voltammetric urea-sensing electrode was prepared by combining a lipid-attached urease layer with a 2,5-dihydroxythiophenol-modified gold electrode. A self-assembled monolayer of dihydroxythiophenol was prepared on the gold surface by soaking the electrode into an ethanolic solution containing the modifier. A layer of the lipid-attached enzyme and that of acetyl cellulose overcoat were successively made on the dihydroxythiophenol-modified electrode by applying a dip-coating procedure. The addition of urea in a test solution (10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0) brought about an increase of pH near the urease layer. The pH shift accompanied a negative shift of the anodic peak, which corresponded to the electro-oxidation of dihydroxyphenol moiety to form quinone, on the linear sweep voltammograms for the urease/dihydroxythiophenol electrode. The concentration of urea (0.2-5 mM) could be determined by measuring the electrode current at -0.05 V versus Ag/AgCl from the voltammogram. The electrode was applied to the determination of urea in human urine; the measurement of electrode current at such a low potential provided the urea determination without any electrochemical interference from L-ascorbic acid and uric acid.

  10. Naked eye detection of infertility based on sperm protamine-induced aggregation of heparin gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya, Raj; Saji, Alex

    2018-05-01

    The development of an easy to use, one-pot, environmentally friendly, non-invasive and label-free colorimetric probe for the determination of semen protamines, the biochemical marker of male fertility, using heparin gold nanoparticles (HAuNPs) is presented. The affinity of HAuNPs for protamines was due to the electrostatic interactions between polycationic protamine and polyanionic heparin. The binding of HAuNPs to protamine was characterized by variation in the plasmon absorption spectra followed by a visibly observable colour change of the solution from red to blue. We observed a red shift in the plasmon peak and the method exhibited linearity in the range of 10-70 ng/mL with a detection limit of 5 ng/mL, which is much lower than that reported for colorimetric sensors of protamine. The colour change and the variation in the absorbance of HAuNPs were highly specific for protamines in the presence of different interfering compounds and the method was successfully applied for determining protamine in real samples of semen and serum. Rather than a quantitative estimation, it seems that the method provides a quick screening between a large array of positive and negative samples and, moreover, it maintains the privacy of the user. The method appears to be simple and would be very useful in third-world countries where high-tech diagnostic aids are inaccessible to the majority of the population. Graphical Abstract Heparin gold nanoparticles aided visual detection of infertility.

  11. Remote sensing and GIS-based prediction and assessment of copper-gold resources in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shasha; Wang, Gongwen; Du, Wenhui; Huang, Luxiong

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative integration of geological information is a frontier and hotspot of prospecting decision research in the world. The forming process of large scale Cu-Au deposits is influenced by complicated geological events and restricted by various geological factors (stratum, structure and alteration). In this paper, using Thailand's copper-gold deposit district as a case study, geological anomaly theory is used along with the typical copper and gold metallogenic model, ETM+ remote sensing images, geological maps and mineral geology database in study area are combined with GIS technique. These techniques create ore-forming information such as geological information (strata, line-ring faults, intrusion), remote sensing information (hydroxyl alteration, iron alteration, linear-ring structure) and the Cu-Au prospect targets. These targets were identified using weights of evidence model. The research results show that the remote sensing and geological data can be combined to quickly predict and assess for exploration of mineral resources in a regional metallogenic belt

  12. Design and mechanistic study of a novel gold nanocluster-based drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinzhen; Pan, Yiting; Chen, Tiankai; Du, Yuanxin; Ge, Honghua; Zhang, Buchang; Xie, Jianping; Yu, Haizhu; Zhu, Manzhou

    2018-05-22

    Chemically-triggered drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been extensively studied as they do not require specialized equipment to deliver the drug and can deeply penetrate human tissue. However, their syntheses are complicated and they tend to be cytotoxic, which restricts their clinical utility. In this work, the self-regulated drug loading and release capabilities of peptide-protected gold nanoclusters (Pep-Au NCs) are investigated using vancomycin (Van) as the model drug. Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) coated with a custom-designed pentapeptide are synthesized as drug delivery nanocarriers and loaded with Van - a spontaneous process reliant on the specific binding between Van and the custom-designed peptide. The Van-loaded Au NCs show comparable antimicrobial activity with Van on its own, and the number of Van released by the Pep-Au NCs is found to be proportional to the amount of bacteria present. The controlled nature of the Van release is very encouraging, and predominantly due to the stronger binding affinity of Van with bacteria than that with Au NCs. In addition, these fluorescent Au NCs could also be used to construct temperature sensors, which enable the in vitro and in vivo bioimaging.

  13. Exploring luminescence-based temperature sensing using protein-passivated gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Essner, Jeremy B.; Baker, Gary A.

    2014-07-01

    We explore the analytical performance and limitations of optically monitoring aqueous-phase temperature using protein-protected gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Although not reported elsewhere, we find that these bio-passivated AuNCs show pronounced hysteresis upon thermal cycling. This unwanted behaviour can be eliminated by several strategies, including sol-gel coating and thermal denaturation of the biomolecular template, introducing protein-templated AuNC probes as viable nanothermometers.We explore the analytical performance and limitations of optically monitoring aqueous-phase temperature using protein-protected gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Although not reported elsewhere, we find that these bio-passivated AuNCs show pronounced hysteresis upon thermal cycling. This unwanted behaviour can be eliminated by several strategies, including sol-gel coating and thermal denaturation of the biomolecular template, introducing protein-templated AuNC probes as viable nanothermometers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplemental figures and experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02069c

  14. Electromigration in 3D-IC scale Cu/Sn/Cu solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Cheng-En, E-mail: ceho1975@hotmail.com; Lee, Pei-Tzu; Chen, Chih-Nan; Yang, Cheng-Hsien

    2016-08-15

    The electromigration effect on the three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-IC) scale solder joints with a Cu/Sn(25–50 μm)/Cu configuration was investigated using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE–SEM) combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis system. Electron current stressing for a few days caused the pronounced accumulation of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} in specific Sn grain boundaries (GBs). The EBSD analysis indicated that both the β-Sn crystallographic orientation and GB orientation play dominant roles in this accumulation. The dependencies of the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} accumulation on the two above factors (i.e., Sn grain orientation and GB orientation) can be well rationalized via a proposed mathematic model based on the Huntington and Grone's electromigration theory with the Cu anisotropic diffusion data in a β-Sn lattice. - Highlights: • Anisotropic Cu electromigration in the 3D-IC scale microelectronic solder joints. • Pronounced accumulation of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic in specific Sn grain boundaries. • A linear dependence of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} accumulation over the current stressing time. • β-Sn and grain boundary orientations are the dominant factors in Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} accumulation.

  15. Mapping Hydrothermal Alteration Zones at a Sediment-Hosted Gold Deposit - Goldstrike Mining District, Utah, Using Ground-Based Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnik, D.; Khan, S.; Crockett, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the origin, genesis, as well as depositional and structural mechanisms of gold mineralization as well as detailed mapping of gold-bearing mineral phases at centimeter scale can be useful for exploration. This work was conducted in the Goldstrike mining district near St. George, UT, a structurally complex region which contains Carlin-style disseminated gold deposits in permeable sedimentary layers near high-angle fault zones. These fault zones are likely a conduit for gold-bearing hydrothermal fluids, are silicified, and are frequently gold-bearing. Alteration patterns are complex, difficult to distinguish visually, composed of several phases, and vary significantly over centimeter to meter scale distances. This makes identifying and quantifying the extent of the target zones costly, time consuming, and discontinuous with traditional geochemical methods. A ground-based hyperspectral scanning system with sensors collecting data in the Visible Near Infrared (VNIR) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are utilized for close-range outcrop scanning. Scans were taken of vertical exposures of both gold-bearing and barren silicified rocks (jasperoids), with the intent to produce images which delineate and quantify the extent of each phase of alteration, in combination with discrete geochemical data. This ongoing study produces mineralogical maps of surface minerals at centimeter scale, with the intent of mapping original and alteration minerals. This efficient method of outcrop characterization increases our understanding of fluid flow and alteration of economic deposits.

  16. Quality Analysis of Welded and Soldered Joints of Cu-Nb Microcomposite Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj VIŠNIAKOV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality analysis of welded and soldered joints of Cu-Nb microcomposite wires has been performed. Quality and mechanical characteristics of joints as ultimate tensile stress limit and elongation at break were measured with an universal testing machine and controlled visually using an optical microscope. Two wires joints were soldered with silver and copper solders and put into steel and copper sleeve respectively. Another two wires joints were soldered with silver solder and welded without any reinforcement. Joints soldered with the silver solder and steel sleeve have demonstrated the best mechanical characteristics: ultimate tensile stress limit of 650 MPa and elongation at break of 0.85 %. Joints soldered with the copper sleeve have no advantages comparing with the soldered butt joint. Ultimate tensile stress limit and elongation at break were in 300 MPa - 350 MPa and in 0.35 % - 0.45 % ranges respectively. Two welded joints had ultimate tensile stress limit of 470 MPa and elongation at break of 0.71 %. In all joints the microstructure of Nb filaments was destroyed and mechanical properties have been specified by mechanical strength of copper and sleeve materials only.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.242

  17. Reliability of soldered joints for automotive electronic devices; Denso buhin ni okeru handa setsugo no shinraisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, T; Mukaibo, N; Ando, K; Moriyama, M [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Concerning the tin and lead eutectic solder, we have evaluated the reliability of three factors of intermetallic compound layer, creep and vibration which cause solder degradation. First, the stress factor was extracted from investigating the mechanism of degradation, and the best acceleration test method was fixed. Next, the acceleration test was executed to find the stress dependency and the tendency of solder degradation was modeled numerically. While the environmental stress frequency was obtained and they were put together by using a minor method, which enabled us to predict the life span of solder on the market with precision. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  18. The effect of graphene on the intermetallic and joint strength of Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayappan, R.; Salleh, A.; Andas, J.

    2017-09-01

    Solder has been widely used in electronic industry as interconnection for electronic packaging. European Union and Japan have restricted the use of Sn-Pb solder as it contains lead which can harmful to human health and environment. Due to this, many researches have been done in order to find a suitable replacement for the lead solder. Although many lead-free solders are available, the Sn-3.5Ag solder with the addition of graphene seem to be a suitable candidate. In this study, a 0.07 wt% graphene nanosheet was added into the Sn-3.5Ag solder and this composite solder was prepared under powder metallurgy method. The solder was reacted with copper substrate at 250 °C for one minute. For joint strength analysis, two copper strips were soldered together. The solder joint was aged at temperature 100 °C for 500 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the interfacial reaction and Instron machine was used to determine the joint strength. Cu6Sn5 intermetallic layer was formed at the interface between the Cu substrate and the solders. Composite solder showed the retardation of the intermetallic growth compared to the plain solder. The thickness value of the intermetallic was used to calculate the growth rate the IMC. The graphene nanosheets added solder has lower growth rate which is 3.86 × 10-15 cm2/s compared to the plain solder 7.15 × 10-15 cm2/s. Shear strength analysis show that the composite solder has higher joint compared to the plain solder.

  19. Laser beam soldering of micro-optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R.

    2003-05-01

    MOTIVATION Ongoing miniaturisation and higher requirements within optical assemblies and the processing of temperature sensitive components demands for innovative selective joining techniques. So far adhesive bonding has primarily been used to assemble and adjust hybrid micro optical systems. However, the properties of the organic polymers used for the adhesives limit the application of these systems. In fields of telecommunication and lithography, an enhancement of existing joining techniques is necessary to improve properties like humidity resistance, laserstability, UV-stability, thermal cycle reliability and life time reliability. Against this background laser beam soldering of optical components is a reasonable joining technology alternative. Properties like: - time and area restricted energy input - energy input can be controlled by the process temperature - direct and indirect heating of the components is possible - no mechanical contact between joining tool and components give good conditions to meet the requirements on a joining technology for sensitive optical components. Additionally to the laser soldering head, for the assembly of optical components it is necessary to include positioning units to adjust the position of the components with high accuracy before joining. Furthermore, suitable measurement methods to characterize the soldered assemblies (for instance in terms of position tolerances) need to be developed.

  20. Hybridization chain reaction-based colorimetric aptasensor of adenosine 5'-triphosphate on unmodified gold nanoparticles and two label-free hairpin probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhuangqiang; Qiu, Zhenli; Lu, Minghua; Shu, Jian; Tang, Dianping

    2017-03-15

    This work designs a new label-free aptasensor for the colorimetric determination of small molecules (adenosine 5'-triphosphate, ATP) by using visible gold nanoparticles as the signal-generation tags, based on target-triggered hybridization chain reaction (HCR) between two hairpin DNA probes. The assay is carried out referring to the change in the color/absorbance by salt-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles after the interaction with hairpins, gold nanoparticles and ATP. To construct such an assay system, two hairpin DNA probes with a short single-stranded DNA at the sticky end are utilized for interaction with gold nanoparticles. In the absence of target ATP, the hairpin DNA probes can prevent gold nanoparticles from the salt-induced aggregation through the interaction of the single-stranded DNA at the sticky end with gold nanoparticles. Upon target ATP introduction, the aptamer-based hairpin probe is opened to expose a new sticky end for the strand-displacement reaction with another complementary hairpin, thus resulting in the decreasing single-stranded DNA because of the consumption of hairpins. In this case, gold nanoparticles are uncovered owing to the formation of double-stranded DNA, which causes their aggregation upon addition of the salt, thereby leading to the change in the red-to-blue color. Under the optimal conditions, the HCR-based colorimetric assay presents good visible color or absorbance responses for the determination of target ATP at a concentration as low as 1.0nM. Importantly, the methodology can be further extended to quantitatively or qualitatively monitor other small molecules or biotoxins by changing the sequence of the corresponding aptamer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The application of aberration-corrected electron microscopy to the characterization of gold-based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzing, Andrew A.

    Electron microscopy has long been used to study the morphology of heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in electron optics now allow for the correction of the inherent spherical aberration (Cs) produced by the objective lens in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM, resulting in a significantly improved spatial resolution as well as the ability to use a much larger probe-current than was previously possible. In this thesis, the combination of high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging and microanalysis by x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) in an aberration-corrected STEM has been applied for the first time to the characterization of gold-based heterogeneous catalysts. Multi-variate statistical analysis (MSA) has been employed in order to further improve the STEM-XEDS spectrum image data acquired with this technique. In addition, supplemental analysis using electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) in an aberration-corrected instrument has also been attempted. These techniques have proven extremely valuable in providing complimentary information to more traditional catalyst characterization techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction in four specific problems relating to catalysis. Firstly, the atomic-scale resolution of Cs-corrected HAADF imaging has been utilized to study Au/FeOx catalysts in order to determine the size and structure of the Au clusters present on the support surface. It was discovered that, while both inactive and active catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation contained large Au particles (> 5 nm) and individual Au atoms, the active catalyst also contained sub-nm clusters comprised of only a few Au atoms. Secondly, novel CeO2 support materials for Au and Au-Pd catalysts were synthesized by precipitation with supercritical CO2. These supports were found to produce significantly more active catalysts than those based on CeO2

  2. Electrochemical sensors based on gold nanoparticles modified with rhodamine B hydrazide to sensitively detect Cu(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Donglai; Hu, Bin; Kang, Mengmeng [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No. 136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Minghua [Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No.136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); He, Linghao [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No. 136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Zhihong, E-mail: mainzhh@163.com [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No. 136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No.136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Fang, Shaoming, E-mail: mingfang@zzuli.edu.cn [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No. 136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No.136, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles modified with rhodamine B hydrazide (AuNPs-RBH) was developed. • The sensor was applied in the highly sensitive and selective detection of Cu{sup 2+} in water. • The electrochemical sensor displays excellent regeneration, stability, and practicability for Cu{sup 2+} detection. • EIS was used to determine Cu{sup 2+} ions in an aqueous solution with the developed AuNPs-RBH-based electrochemical sensor. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modified with rhodamine B hydrazide (RBH) (AuNPs-RBH) was developed and applied in the highly sensitive and selective detection of Cu{sup 2+} in water. RBH molecules were bounded onto the surface of AuNPs via the strong interaction between the amino groups and Au NPs. The chemical structure variations were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluoresence spectroscopy. Additionally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine Cu{sup 2+} ions in an aqueous solution with the developed AuNPs-RBH-based electrochemical sensor. Results show that the fabricated sensor exhibits good electrochemical performance because of the presence of Au NPs and high affinity with the Cu{sup 2+} resulting from the strong coordination chemistry between Cu{sup 2+} and RBH. The as-developed sensor towards detecting Cu{sup 2+} has a detection limitation of 12.5 fM within the concentration range of 0.1 pM–1 nM by using the electrochemical impedance technique. It also displays excellent selectivity, regeneration, stability, and practicability for Cu{sup 2+} detection. Therefore, the new strategy of the RBH-based electrochemical sensor exhibits great potential application in environment treatment and protection.

  3. A sensitive label–free amperometric immunosensor for alpha-fetoprotein based on gold nanorods with different aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Xu, Lin; Li, Qingling; Song, Jian; Xu, Sai; Xing, Ruiqing; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate label–free amperometric immunosensor for α–fetoprotein (AFP) detection is developed based on gold nanorods (GNRs) with different aspect ratio and compared with gold particles (GNPs). The positively charged GNRs and GNPs due to the surface immobilized cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) can adsorb the negatively charged AFP antibody (Ab) directly. The presence of the GNRs not only enhanced the immobilized amount of biomolecules, but also improved the electrochemical properties of the immunosensor. With the aid of GNRs, the electrochemical signal was greatly enhanced in comparison with GNPs. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor could detect AFP in a linear range from 0.1 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.04 ng/mL (signal–to–noise ratio = 3), and it also possessed good reproducibility and storage stability. Moreover, the detection of AFP in five human serum samples also showed satisfactory accuracy. The proposed methodology was potentially attractive for clinical immunoassay. PMID:25909588

  4. Synthesis and characterization of gold nanotube/nanowire–polyurethane composite based on castor oil and polyethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganji, Yasaman; Kasra, Mehran; Salahshour Kordestani, Soheila; Bagheri Hariri, Mohiedin

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanotubes/nanowires (GNT/NW) were synthesized by using the template-assisted electrodeposition technique and mixed with castor oil–polyethylene glycol based polyurethane (PU) to fabricate porous composite scaffolds for biomedical application. 100 and 50 ppm of GNT/NW were used to synthesize composites. The composite scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Cell attachment on polyurethane–GNT/NW composites was investigated using fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Addition of 50 or 100 ppm GNT/NW had significant effects on thermal, mechanical, and cell attachment of polyurethane. Higher crosslink density and better cell attachment and proliferation were observed in polyurethane containing 50 ppm GNT/NW. The results revealed that GNT/NW formed hydrogen bonding with the polyurethane matrix and improved the thermomechanical properties of nanocomposites. Compared with pure PU, better cellular attachment on polyurethane–GNT/NW composites was observed resulting from the improved surface properties of composites. - Highlights: • Polyurethane–gold nanotubes/nanowires (GNT/NWs) composites were synthesized. • Tan δ, E′ and E″ were increased upon addition of 50 ppm of GNT/NW. • Better cell attachment was observed in composites containing 50 ppm of GNT/NW. • GNT/NWs can make a bridge between the pores of the porous polymeric scaffolds. • GNT/NWs increased the crosslink density of the polymeric matrix

  5. A novel C-shaped, gold nanoparticle coated, embedded polymer waveguide for localized surface plasmon resonance based detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Amit; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2010-12-21

    In this study, a novel embedded optical waveguide based sensor which utilizes localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles coated on a C-shaped polymer waveguide is being reported. The sensor, as designed, can be used as an analysis chip for detection of minor variations in the refractive index of its microenvironment, which makes it suitable for wide scale use as an affinity biosensor. The C-shaped waveguide coupled with microfluidic channel was fabricated by single step patterning of SU8 on an oxidized silicon wafer. The absorbance due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of SU8 waveguide bound gold nano particle (GNP) was found to be linear with refractive index changes between 1.33 and 1.37. A GNP coated C-bent waveguide of 200 μ width with a bend radius of 1 mm gave rise to a sensitivity of ~5 ΔA/RIU at 530 nm as compared to the ~2.5 ΔA/RIU (refractive index units) of the same dimension bare C-bend SU8 waveguide. The resolution of the sensor probe was ~2 × 10(-4) RIU.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of gold nanotube/nanowire–polyurethane composite based on castor oil and polyethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganji, Yasaman, E-mail: y.ganji@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kasra, Mehran, E-mail: mkasra@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salahshour Kordestani, Soheila, E-mail: s.kordestani@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri Hariri, Mohiedin, E-mail: mohibagheri@gmail.com [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Gold nanotubes/nanowires (GNT/NW) were synthesized by using the template-assisted electrodeposition technique and mixed with castor oil–polyethylene glycol based polyurethane (PU) to fabricate porous composite scaffolds for biomedical application. 100 and 50 ppm of GNT/NW were used to synthesize composites. The composite scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Cell attachment on polyurethane–GNT/NW composites was investigated using fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Addition of 50 or 100 ppm GNT/NW had significant effects on thermal, mechanical, and cell attachment of polyurethane. Higher crosslink density and better cell attachment and proliferation were observed in polyurethane containing 50 ppm GNT/NW. The results revealed that GNT/NW formed hydrogen bonding with the polyurethane matrix and improved the thermomechanical properties of nanocomposites. Compared with pure PU, better cellular attachment on polyurethane–GNT/NW composites was observed resulting from the improved surface properties of composites. - Highlights: • Polyurethane–gold nanotubes/nanowires (GNT/NWs) composites were synthesized. • Tan δ, E′ and E″ were increased upon addition of 50 ppm of GNT/NW. • Better cell attachment was observed in composites containing 50 ppm of GNT/NW. • GNT/NWs can make a bridge between the pores of the porous polymeric scaffolds. • GNT/NWs increased the crosslink density of the polymeric matrix.

  7. Electrochemical Behavior of Sn-9Zn- xTi Lead-Free Solders in Neutral 0.5M NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghong; Chen, Chuantong; Jiu, Jinting; Nagao, Shijo; Nogi, Masaya; Koga, Hirotaka; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Gong; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2018-05-01

    Electrochemical techniques were employed to study the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Sn-9Zn- xTi ( x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 wt.%) lead-free solders in neutral 0.5M NaCl solution, aiming to figure out the effect of Ti content on the corrosion properties of Sn-9Zn, providing information for the composition design of Sn-Zn-based lead-free solders from the perspective of corrosion. EIS results reveal that Ti addition was involved in the corrosion product layer and changed electrochemical interface behavior from charge transfer control process to diffusion control process. The trace amount of Ti addition (0.05 wt.%) can refine the microstructure and improve the corrosion resistance of Sn-9Zn solder, evidenced by much lower corrosion current density ( i corr) and much higher total resistance ( R t). Excess Ti addition (over 0.1 wt.%) led to the formation of Ti-containing IMCs, which were confirmed as Sn3Ti2 and Sn5Ti6, deteriorating the corrosion resistance of Sn-9Zn- xTi solders. The main corrosion products were confirmed as Sn3O(OH)2Cl2 mixed with small amount of chlorine/oxide Sn compounds.

  8. Thermal Cycling Life Prediction of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joint Using Type-I Censored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Mi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because solder joint interconnections are the weaknesses of microelectronic packaging, their reliability has great influence on the reliability of the entire packaging structure. Based on an accelerated life test the reliability assessment and life prediction of lead-free solder joints using Weibull distribution are investigated. The type-I interval censored lifetime data were collected from a thermal cycling test, which was implemented on microelectronic packaging with lead-free ball grid array (BGA and fine-pitch ball grid array (FBGA interconnection structures. The number of cycles to failure of lead-free solder joints is predicted by using a modified Engelmaier fatigue life model and a type-I censored data processing method. Then, the Pan model is employed to calculate the acceleration factor of this test. A comparison of life predictions between the proposed method and the ones calculated directly by Matlab and Minitab is conducted to demonstrate the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed method. At last, failure analysis and microstructure evolution of lead-free solders are carried out to provide useful guidance for the regular maintenance, replacement of substructure, and subsequent processing of electronic products.

  9. Molecular imprinting polymer electrosensor based on gold nanoparticles for theophylline recognition and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, X.; Liu, T.; Zhou, H.; Li, C.; Fang, B.

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for theophylline (ThPh) was prepared by electropolymerizing o-phenylenediamine on a glassy carbon electrode in the presence of ThPh via cyclic voltammetry, followed by deposition of gold nanoparticles using a potentiostatic method. The effects of pH, ratio between template molecule and monomer, number of cycles for electropolymerization, and of the solution for extraction were optimized. The current of the electro-active model system hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexacyanoferrate(IV) decreased linearly with successive addition of ThPh in the concentration range between 4. 0 x 10 -7 ∼ 1. 5 x 10 -5 mol.L -1 and 2. 4 x 10 -4 ∼ 3. 4 x 10 -3 mol.L -1 , with a detection limit of 1. 0 x 10 -7 mol.L -1 . The sensor has an excellent recognition capability for ThPh compared to structurally related molecules, can be regenerated and is stable. (author)

  10. Colorimetric sensing of iodide based on triazole-acetamide functionalized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I-Lin; Sung, Yi-Ming; Wu, Shu-Pao; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2014-01-01

    We have modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with triazole acetamide to obtain a material for the sensitive and selective colorimetric determination of iodide. The functionalized AuNPs were prepared by a reductive single chemical step using a Cu(I)-catalyzed click reaction. The presence of iodide ions induces the aggregation of these AuNPs and results in a color change from wine-red to purple. The iodide-induced aggregation can be detected visually with bare eyes, but also by photometry. The detection limit is as low as 15 nM. The method displays excellent selectivity for iodide over other anions due to the selective interaction with the amido groups of the triazole. The method was applied to the determination of iodide in spiked lake waters. (author)

  11. A Nanostructured Sensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles and Nafion for Determination of Uric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stozhko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the mechanism of uric acid (UA electrooxidation occurring on the surface of gold nanoparticles. It has been shown that the electrode process is purely electrochemical, uncomplicated with catalytic stages. The nanoeffects observed as the reduction of overvoltage and increased current of UA oxidation have been described. These nanoeffects are determined by the size of particles and do not depend on the method of particle preparation (citrate and “green” synthesis. The findings of these studies have been used to select a modifier for carbon screen-printed electrode (CSPE. It has been stated that CSPE modified with gold nanoparticles (5 nm and 2.5% Nafion (Nf may serve as non-enzymatic sensor for UA determination. The combination of the properties of nanoparticles and Nafion as a molecular sieve at the selected pH 5 phosphate buffer solution has significantly improved the resolution of the sensor compared to unmodified CSPE. A nanostructured sensor has demonstrated good selectivity in determining UA in the presence of ascorbic acid. The detection limit of UA is 0.25 μM. A linear calibration curve has been obtained over a range of 0.5–600 μM. The 2.5%Nf/Au(5nm/CSPE has been successfully applied to determining UA in blood serum and milk samples. The accuracy and reliability of the obtained results have been confirmed by a good correlation with the enzymatic spectrophotometric analysis (R2 = 0.9938 and the “added−found” technique (recovery close to 100%.

  12. High sensitive detection of copper II ions using D-penicillamine-coated gold nanorods based on localized surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoochan; Jo, Seongjae; Park, Joohyung; Park, Jinsung; Yang, Jaemoon

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a nanoplasmonic biosensor based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect that enables a sensitive and selective recognition of copper II ions. First, we fabricated the nanoplasmonics as LSPR substrates using gold nanorods (GNR) and the nano-adsorption method. The LSPR sensitivity of the nanoplasmonics was evaluated using various solvents with different refractive indexes. Subsequently, D-penicillamine (DPA)—a chelating agent of copper II ions—was conjugated to the surface of the GNR. The limit of detection (LOD) for the DPA-conjugated nanoplasmonics was 100 pM. Furthermore, selectivity tests were conducted using various divalent cations, and sensitivity tests were conducted on the nanoplasmonics under blood-like environments. Finally, the developed nanoplasmonic biosensor based on GNR shows great potential for the effective recognition of copper II ions, even in human blood conditions.

  13. Rational Design in Catalysis: A Mechanistic Study of β-Hydride Eliminations in Gold(I) and Gold(III) Complexes Based on Features of the Reaction Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiñeira Reis, Marta; López, Carlos Silva; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter; Faza, Olalla Nieto

    2016-09-06

    β-Hydride eliminations for ethylgold(III) dichloride complexes are identified as reactions with an unusually long prechemical stage corresponding to the conformational preparation of the reaction complex and spanning six phases. The prechemical process is characterized by a geared rotation of the L-Au-L group (L = Cl) driving methyl group rotation and causing a repositioning of the ligands. This requires more than 28 kcal/mol of the total barrier of 34.0 kcal/mol, according to the unified reaction valley approach, which also determines that the energy requirements of the actual chemical process leading to the β-elimination product are only about 5.5 kcal/mol. A detailed mechanistic analysis was used as a basis for a rational design of substrates (via substituents on the ethyl group) and/or ligands, which can significantly reduce the reaction barrier. This strategy takes advantage of either a higher trans activity of the ligands or a tuned electronic demand of the ethyl group. The β-hydride elimination of gold(I) was found to suffer from strong Coulomb and exchange repulsion when a positively charged hydrogen atom enforces a coordination position in a d(10)-configured gold atom, thus triggering an unassisted σ-π Au(I)-C conversion.

  14. Web 2.0-based crowdsourcing for high-quality gold standard development in clinical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haijun; Lingren, Todd; Deleger, Louise; Li, Qi; Kaiser, Megan; Stoutenborough, Laura; Solti, Imre

    2013-04-02

    A high-quality gold standard is vital for supervised, machine learning-based, clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. In clinical NLP projects, expert annotators traditionally create the gold standard. However, traditional annotation is expensive and time-consuming. To reduce the cost of annotation, general NLP projects have turned to crowdsourcing based on Web 2.0 technology, which involves submitting smaller subtasks to a coordinated marketplace of workers on the Internet. Many studies have been conducted in the area of crowdsourcing, but only a few have focused on tasks in the general NLP field and only a handful in the biomedical domain, usually based upon very small pilot sample sizes. In addition, the quality of the crowdsourced biomedical NLP corpora were never exceptional when compared to traditionally-developed gold standards. The previously reported results on medical named entity annotation task showed a 0.68 F-measure based agreement between crowdsourced and traditionally-developed corpora. Building upon previous work from the general crowdsourcing research, this study investigated the usability of crowdsourcing in the clinical NLP domain with special emphasis on achieving high agreement between crowdsourced and traditionally-developed corpora. To build the gold standard for evaluating the crowdsourcing workers' performance, 1042 clinical trial announcements (CTAs) from the ClinicalTrials.gov website were randomly selected and double annotated for medication names, medication types, and linked attributes. For the experiments, we used CrowdFlower, an Amazon Mechanical Turk-based crowdsourcing platform. We calculated sensitivity, precision, and F-measure to evaluate the quality of the crowd's work and tested the statistical significance (Pcrowdsourced and traditionally-developed annotations. The agreement between the crowd's annotations and the traditionally-generated corpora was high for: (1) annotations (0.87, F-measure for medication names

  15. Effect of nano Ni additions on the structure and properties of Sn-9Zn and Sn-Zn-3Bi solders in Au/Ni/Cu ball grid array packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gain, Asit Kumar [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chan, Y.C. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: eeycchan@cityu.edu.hk; Yung, Winco K.C. [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-05-25

    The effect of nano Ni additions in Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders on their interfacial microstructures and shear loads with Au/Ni/Cu pad metallization in ball grid array (BGA) applications were investigated. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based lead-free solders, there were no significant changes in the interfacial microstructure. But, in the solder region a very fine Zn-rich phase was observed. Also on the fracture surfaces a fine Zn-Ni compound was found. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based solders, the shear loads were increased due to a refinement of the microstructure and in addition, ductile fracture surfaces were clearly observed. The shear loads of the plain Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders after one reflow cycle were about 1798 g and 2059 g, respectively. After the addition of nano Ni powder, their loads were about 2172 g and 2212 g, respectively, after one reflow cycle and their shear loads after eight reflow cycles were about 2099 g and 2081 g, respectively.

  16. Effect of nano Ni additions on the structure and properties of Sn-9Zn and Sn-Zn-3Bi solders in Au/Ni/Cu ball grid array packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gain, Asit Kumar; Chan, Y.C.; Yung, Winco K.C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nano Ni additions in Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders on their interfacial microstructures and shear loads with Au/Ni/Cu pad metallization in ball grid array (BGA) applications were investigated. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based lead-free solders, there were no significant changes in the interfacial microstructure. But, in the solder region a very fine Zn-rich phase was observed. Also on the fracture surfaces a fine Zn-Ni compound was found. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based solders, the shear loads were increased due to a refinement of the microstructure and in addition, ductile fracture surfaces were clearly observed. The shear loads of the plain Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders after one reflow cycle were about 1798 g and 2059 g, respectively. After the addition of nano Ni powder, their loads were about 2172 g and 2212 g, respectively, after one reflow cycle and their shear loads after eight reflow cycles were about 2099 g and 2081 g, respectively.

  17. Prostate position relative to pelvic bony anatomy based on intraprostatic gold markers and electronic portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallenkamp, John M.; Herman, Michael G.; Kruse, Jon J.; Pisansky, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the relative positions and motions of the prostate, pelvic bony anatomy, and intraprostatic gold fiducial markers during daily electronic portal localization of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate cancer patients were treated supine with definitive external radiotherapy according to an on-line target localization protocol using three or four intraprostatic gold fiducial markers and an electronic portal imaging device. Daily pretherapy and through-treatment electronic portal images (EPIs) were obtained for each of four treatment fields. The patients' pelvic bony anatomy, intraprostatic gold markers, and a best visual match to the target (i.e., prostate) were identified on simulation digitally reconstructed radiographs and during daily treatment setup and delivery. These data provided quantitative inter- and intrafractional analysis of prostate motion, its position relative to the bony anatomy, and the individual intraprostatic fiducial markers. Treatment planning margins, with and without on-line localization, were subsequently compared. Results: A total of 22,266 data points were obtained from daily pretherapy and through-treatment EPIs. The pretherapy three-dimensional (3D) average displacement of the fiducial markers, as a surrogate for the prostate, was 5.6 mm, which improved to 2.8 mm after use of the localization protocol. The bony anatomy 3D average displacement was 4.4 mm both before and after localization to the prostate (p = 0.46). Along the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and right-left (RL) axes, the average prostate displacement improved from 2.5, 3.7, and 1.9 mm, respectively, before localization to 1.4, 1.6, and 1.1 mm after (all p < 0.001). The pretherapy to through-treatment position of the bony landmarks worsened from 1.7 to 2.5 mm (p < 0.001) in the SI axis, remained statistically unchanged at 2.8 mm (p = 0.39) in the AP axis, and improved from 2.0 to 1.2 mm in the RL axis (p < 0.001). There

  18. A new indicator mineral methodology based on a generic Bi-Pb-Te-S mineral inclusion signature in detrital gold from porphyry and low/intermediate sulfidation epithermal environments in Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R. J.; Allan, M. M.; Mortensen, J. K.; Wrighton, T. M.; Grimshaw, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Porphyry-epithermal and orogenic gold are two of the most important styles of gold-bearing mineralization within orogenic belts. Populations of detrital gold resulting from bulk erosion of such regions may exhibit a compositional continuum wherein Ag, Cu, and Hg in the gold alloy may vary across the full range exhibited by natural gold. This paper describes a new methodology whereby orogenic and porphyry-epithermal gold may be distinguished according to the mineralogy of microscopic inclusions observed within detrital gold particles. A total of 1459 gold grains from hypogene, eluvial, and placer environments around calc-alkaline porphyry deposits in Yukon (Nucleus-Revenue, Casino, Sonora Gulch, and Cyprus-Klaza) have been characterized in terms of their alloy compositions (Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg) and their inclusion mineralogy. Despite differences in the evolution of the different magmatic hydrothermal systems, the gold exhibits a clear Bi-Pb-Te-S mineralogy in the inclusion suite, a signature which is either extremely weak or (most commonly) absent in both Yukon orogenic gold and gold from orogenic settings worldwide. Generic systematic compositional changes in ore mineralogy previously identified across the porphyry-epithermal transition have been identified in the corresponding inclusion suites observed in samples from Yukon. However, the Bi-Te association repeatedly observed in gold from the porphyry mineralization persists into the epithermal environment. Ranges of P-T-X conditions are replicated in the geological environments which define generic styles of mineralization. These parameters influence both gold alloy composition and ore mineralogy, of which inclusion suites are a manifestation. Consequently, we propose that this methodology approach can underpin a widely applicable indicator methodology based on detrital gold.

  19. WE-G-303-01: Physical Bases for Gold Nanoparticle Applications in Radiation Oncology and X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in applying nanotechnology to cancer detection, treatment, and treatment monitoring. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the fabrication of nanoparticles from various materials with different shapes and sizes. Nanoparticles can be accumulated preferentially within tumors by either “passive targeting” through a phenomenon typically known as “enhanced permeability and retention” or “active targeting” in which nanoparticles are conjugated with antibodies or peptides directed against tumor and/or stromal markers. The tumor specificity of nanoparticles in conjunction with their unique physicochemical properties offers many novel strategies for cancer treatment and detection. For example, notable approaches in the radiation oncology setting include the use of gold nanoparticles for radiation response modulation of tumor or normal tissue and thermal ablation or hyperthermia treatment of tumors. Some of these approaches are currently being tested either on humans or on animals and, very likely, will become the clinical reality in the near future. Various computational and experimental techniques have also been applied to address unique research issues associated with nanoparticles and may become the standard tools for future investigations and clinical translations. Therefore, both clinicians and researchers may need to be properly educated about the basic principles as well as the promise of nanoparticle-based applications with regard to the future of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. This symposium will familiarize the audience with the potential applications of nanoparticles in oncologic imaging and therapy using specific illustrative examples. The audience will be properly oriented by these illustrative examples to the multiple avenues for collaborative research amongst interdisciplinary teams of physicists, clinicians, engineers, chemists, and biologists in industry and academia. Learning

  20. WE-G-303-01: Physical Bases for Gold Nanoparticle Applications in Radiation Oncology and X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in applying nanotechnology to cancer detection, treatment, and treatment monitoring. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the fabrication of nanoparticles from various materials with different shapes and sizes. Nanoparticles can be accumulated preferentially within tumors by either “passive targeting” through a phenomenon typically known as “enhanced permeability and retention” or “active targeting” in which nanoparticles are conjugated with antibodies or peptides directed against tumor and/or stromal markers. The tumor specificity of nanoparticles in conjunction with their unique physicochemical properties offers many novel strategies for cancer treatment and detection. For example, notable approaches in the radiation oncology setting include the use of gold nanoparticles for radiation response modulation of tumor or normal tissue and thermal ablation or hyperthermia treatment of tumors. Some of these approaches are currently being tested either on humans or on animals and, very likely, will become the clinical reality in the near future. Various computational and experimental techniques have also been applied to address unique research issues associated with nanoparticles and may become the standard tools for future investigations and clinical translations. Therefore, both clinicians and researchers may need to be properly educated about the basic principles as well as the promise of nanoparticle-based applications with regard to the future of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. This symposium will familiarize the audience with the potential applications of nanoparticles in oncologic imaging and therapy using specific illustrative examples. The audience will be properly oriented by these illustrative examples to the multiple avenues for collaborative research amongst interdisciplinary teams of physicists, clinicians, engineers, chemists, and biologists in industry and academia. Learning

  1. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting, or...

  2. Tissue soldering with biodegradable polymer films: in-vitro investigation of hydration effects on weld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Brian S.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous work demonstrated increased breaking strengths of tissue repaired with liquid albumin solder reinforced with a biodegradable polymer film compared to unreinforced control specimens. It was hypothesized that the breaking strength increase was due to reinforcement of the liquid solder cohesive strength. Immersion in a moist environment can decrease the adhesion of solder to tissue and negate any strength benefits gained from reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to determine if hydrated specimens repaired with reinforced solder would still be stronger than unreinforced controls. A 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder with 0.5 mg/mL Indocyanine Green dye was used to repair an incision in bovine aorta. The solder was coagulated with 806-nm diode laser light. A poly(DL-lactic- co-glycolic acid) film was used to reinforce the solder (the controls had no reinforcement). The repaired tissues were immersed in phosphate buffered saline for time periods of 1 and 2 days. The breaking strengths of all of the hydrated specimens decreased compared to the acute breaking strengths. However, the reinforced specimens still had larger breaking strengths than the unreinforced controls. These results indicate that reinforcement of a liquid albumin solder may have the potential to improve the breaking strength in a clinical setting.

  3. Current Problems and Possible Solutions in High-Temperature Lead-Free Soldering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Aleš; Andersson, D.; Hoo, N.; Pearce, J.; Watson, A.; Dinsdale, A.; Mucklejohn, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2012), s. 629-637 ISSN 1059-9495 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : lead-free soldering, * materials for high-temperature LF * new technologies for HT lead-free soldering Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2012

  4. Development of technique for laser welding of biological tissues using laser welding device and nanocomposite solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, A; Ichcitidze, L; Podgaetsky, V; Ryabkin, D; Pyankov, E; Saveliev, M; Selishchev, S

    2015-08-01

    The laser device for welding of biological tissues has been developed involving quality control and temperature stabilization of weld seam. Laser nanocomposite solder applied onto a wound to be weld has been used. Physicochemical properties of the nanocomposite solder have been elucidated. The nature of the tissue-organizing nanoscaffold has been analyzed at the site of biotissue welding.

  5. Failure Mechanisms of SAC/Fe-Ni Solder Joints During Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Yin; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Li, Cai-Fu

    2017-08-01

    Thermal cycling tests have been conducted on Sn-Ag-Cu/Fe- xNi ( x = 73 wt.% or 45 wt.%) and Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joints according to the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council industrial standard to study their interfacial reliability under thermal stress. The interfacial intermetallic compounds formed for solder joints on Cu, Fe-73Ni, and Fe-45Ni were 4.5 μm, 1.7 μm, and 1.4 μm thick, respectively, after 3000 cycles, demonstrating excellent diffusion barrier effect of Fe-Ni under bump metallization (UBM). Also, two deformation modes, viz. solder extrusion and fatigue crack formation, were observed by scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional x-ray microscopy. Solder extrusion dominated for solder joints on Cu, while fatigue cracks dominated for solder joints on Fe-45Ni and both modes were detected for those on Fe-73Ni. Solder joints on Fe-Ni presented inferior reliability during thermal cycling compared with those on Cu, with characteristic lifetime of 3441 h, 3190 h, and 1247 h for Cu, Fe-73Ni, and Fe-45Ni UBM, respectively. This degradation of the interfacial reliability for solder joints on Fe-Ni is attributed to the mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at interconnection level. The CTE mismatch at microstructure level was also analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction for clearer identification of recrystallization-related deformation mechanisms.

  6. Corrosion Reliability of Lead-free Solder Systems Used in Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Feng; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Medgyes, Balint

    2017-01-01

    humidity/temperature cycling tests on soldered surface insulation resistance (SIR) comb pattern. Complimentary microstructural and phase analysis of solder alloys has been carried out using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods...

  7. Reliability and microstructure of lead-free solder joints in industrial electronics after accelerated thermal aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaltro, F.; Biglari, M.H.; Kodentsov, A.; Yakovleva, O.; Brom, E.

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of lead-free (LF) solder joints in surface-mounted device components (SMD) has been investigated after thermo-cycle testing. Kirkendall voids have been observed at the interface component/solder together with the formation of fractures. The evolution, the morphology and the elemental

  8. Investigation of moisture uptake into printed circuit board laminate and solder mask materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Borgaonkar, Shruti

    2017-01-01

    with different solder mask materials and exposed to saturated water vapour and liquid water. The solder masks are characterised for their microstructure and constituent phases using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The observations are correlated with themoisture absorption characteristic...

  9. The Effects of Antimony Addition on the Microstructural, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkhaphaitoon, Phairote; Plookphol, Thawatchai

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects produced by the addition of antimony (Sb) to Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu-based solder alloys. Our focus was the alloys' microstructural, mechanical, and thermal properties. We evaluated the effects by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and a universal testing machine (UTM). The results showed that a part of the Sb was dissolved in the Sn matrix phase, and the remaining one participated in the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) of Ag3(Sn,Sb) and Cu6(Sn,Sb)5. In the alloy containing the highest wt pct Sb, the added component resulted in the formation of SnSb compound and small particle pinning of Ag3(Sn,Sb) along the grain boundary of the IMCs. Our tests of the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder alloys' mechanical properties showed that the effects produced by the addition of Sb varied as a function of the wt pct Sb content. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increased from 29.21 to a maximum value of 40.44 MPa, but the pct elongation (pct EL) decreased from 48.0 to a minimum 25.43 pct. Principally, the alloys containing Sb had higher UTS and lower pct EL than Sb-free solder alloys due to the strengthening effects of solid solution and second-phase dispersion. Thermal analysis showed that the alloys containing Sb had a slightly higher melting point and that the addition amount ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 wt pct Sb did not significantly change the solidus and liquidus temperatures compared with the Sb-free solder alloys. Thus, the optimal concentration of Sb in the alloys was 3.0 wt pct because the microstructure and the ultimate tensile strength of the SAC305 solder alloys were improved.

  10. Chitosan-functionalized gold nanoparticles for colorimetric detection of mercury ions based on chelation-induced aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhengbo; Zhang, Chenmeng; Tan, Yuan; Zhou, Tianhui; Ma, He; Wan, Chongqing; Lin, Yuqing; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a colorimetric assay for mercury (II) ions. It is based on citosan-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that act as a signaling probe. Hg (II) induces the aggregation of the chitosan-AuNPs through a chelation reaction that occurs between chitosan and Hg (II). This results in a strong decrease of the absorbance of the modified AuNPs and a color change from red to blue. This sensing system displays excellent selectivity over other metal ions and a detection limit as low as 1.35 μM which is lower than the allowed level of Hg (II) in drinking water (30 μM) as defined by World Health Organization. The method is inexpensive, facile, sensitive, and does not require the addition of other reagents in order to improving sensitivity. (author)

  11. DNA damage due to perfluorooctane sulfonate based on nano-gold embedded in nano-porous poly-pyrrole film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Liping, E-mail: lipinglu@bjut.edu.cn; Xu, Laihui; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2013-11-01

    DNA damage induced from perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was further developed on a nano-porous bionic interface. The interface was formed by assembling DNA on nano-gold particles which were embedded in a nano-porous overoxidized polypyrrole film (OPPy). Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscope and electrochemical investigations indicate that OPPy can be treated to form nano-pore structures. DNA damage due to PFOS was proved using electrochemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and was investigated by detecting differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) response of methylene blue (MB) which was used as electro-active indicator in the system. The current of MB attenuates obviously after incubation of DNA in PFOS. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrates that PFOS weakens DNA charge transport. The tentative binding ratio of PFOS: DNA base pair was obtained by analyzing XPS data of this system.

  12. Detection of Cu2+ in Water Based on Histidine-Gold Labeled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrochemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilong Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the strong interaction between histidine and copper ions and the signal enhancement effect of gold-labeling carbon nanotubes, an electrochemical sensor is established and used to measure copper ions in river water. In this study the results show that the concentrations of copper ion have well linear relationship with the peak current in the range of 10−11–10−7 mol/L, and the limit of detection is 10−12 mol/L. When using this method to detect copper ions in the Xiangjiang River, the test results are consistent with the atomic absorption method. This study shows that the sensor is convenient to be used in daily monitoring of copper ions in river water.

  13. A gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric test to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for improvement of personalized therapy of psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Alessandra; Valentini, Paola; Tarantino, Paolo; Congedo, Maurizio; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid and low-cost test, based on gold nanoparticles, for the naked-eye colorimetric detection of a signature of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relevant for the personalized medicine of psoriasis patients. We validated the colorimetric assay on real-world DNA samples from a cohort of 30 psoriasis patients and we compared the results, in double-blind, with those obtained with two state-of-the-art instrumental techniques, namely reverse dot blotting and direct sequencing, finding 100% agreement. We demonstrated high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the colorimetric test that can be easily adapted for the genotypization of different SNPs, important for the pharmacogenomics of various diseases, and in other fields, such as food traceability and population structure analysis.

  14. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  15. A high-throughput homogeneous immunoassay based on Förster resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Chengquan; Pan, Xiaohu; Liu, Songqin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A Förster resonance energy transfer system by using polyclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as donor and monoclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as acceptor for sensitive detection of tumor marker was proposed. Highlights: ► A homogeneous immunosensing strategy based on FRET for detection of tumor marker was proposed. ► Close of QDs and AuNPs allow the occurrence of quenching the photoluminescence of nano-bio-probes. ► Signal quenching was monitored by a self-developed image analyzer. ► The fluorometric assay format is attractive for widespread carcinoma screening and even field use. -- Abstract: A novel homogeneous immunoassay based on Förster resonance energy transfer for sensitive detection of tumor, e.g., marker with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), was proposed. The assay was consisted of polyclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as donor and monoclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as acceptor. In presence of CEA, the bio-affinity between antigen and antibody made the QDs and AuNPs close enough, thus the photoluminescence (PL) quenching of CdTe QDs occurred. The PL properties could be transformed into the fluorometric variation, corresponding to the target antigen concentration, and could be easily monitored and analyzed with the home-made image analysis software. The fluorometric results indicated a linear detection range of 1–110 ng mL −1 for CEA, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng mL −1 . The proposed assay configuration was attractive for carcinoma screening or single sample in point-of-care testing, and even field use. In spite of the limit of available model analyte, this approach could be easily extended to detection of a wide range of biomarkers

  16. Paper-Based Microfluidic Device with a Gold Nanosensor to Detect Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosfera A. Chowdury

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD with a gold nanosensor functionalized with α-lipoic acid and thioguanine (Au–TA–TG to detect whether the arsenic level of groundwater from hand tubewells in Bangladesh is above or below the World Health Organization (WHO guideline level of 10 μg/L. We analyzed the naturally occurring metals present in Bangladesh groundwater and assessed the interference with the gold nanosensor. A method was developed to prevent interference from alkaline metals found in Bangladesh groundwater (Ca, Mg, K and Na by increasing the pH level on the μPADs to 12.1. Most of the heavy metals present in the groundwater (Ni, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Fe II did not interfere with the μPAD arsenic tests; however, Fe III was found to interfere, which was also prevented by increasing the pH level on the μPADs to 12.1. The μPAD arsenic tests were tested with 24 groundwater samples collected from hand tubewells in three different districts in Bangladesh: Shirajganj, Manikganj, and Munshiganj, and the predictions for whether the arsenic levels were above or below the WHO guideline level agreed with the results obtained from laboratory testing. The μPAD arsenic test is the first paper-based test validated using Bangladesh groundwater samples and capable of detecting whether the arsenic level in groundwater is above or below the WHO guideline level of 10 μg/L, which is a step towards enabling the villagers who collect and consume the groundwater to test their own sources and make decisions about where to obtain the safest water.

  17. Electrochemical aptasensor for detecting Der p2 allergen using polycarbonate-based double-generation gold nanoparticle chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Shen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel aptamer-based impedimetric biosensor for detecting the group 2 allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p2 was developed. First, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membrane was prepared. A modified AAO barrier-layer surface with an array of nanohemispheres of 400 nm in diameter was used as a template for the nanoelectroforming of a nickel mold. After electroforming, the AAO template was etched and a nickel nanomold with a concave nanostructure array was produced. The formed nanostructured nickel nanomold was then used in the replica molding of a nanostructured polycarbonate (PC substrate via hot embossing. Finally, a gold thin film was sputtered onto the PC substrate to form a double-generation gold nanoparticle electrode (array of nanohemispheres with smaller nanoparticles orderly distributed on each nanohemisphere. After immobilizing specifically designed aptamers on the fabricated electrode, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of Der p2. The sensitivity of the proposed scheme for the detection of the dust mite antigen Der p2 was 2.088 Ω / (ng/mL × cm2 with a dynamic detection range of 27.5–400 ng/mL and detection limit of 16.47 ng/mL.The aptamer-based impedimetric biosensor proposed in this study possesses many advantages such as high sensitivity, low cost, and high consistency over currently used sensors. The proposed sensor was found to be useful for the rapid detection of rare molecules present in an analyte. Keywords: Aptamers, Der p2 dust mite allergen detection, Nanostructured biosensors, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  18. A high-throughput homogeneous immunoassay based on Förster resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Jing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhengjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Chengquan [Changzhou College of Information Technology, Changzhou 213164 (China); Pan, Xiaohu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Liu, Songqin, E-mail: liusq@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2013-02-06

    Graphical abstract: A Förster resonance energy transfer system by using polyclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as donor and monoclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as acceptor for sensitive detection of tumor marker was proposed. Highlights: ► A homogeneous immunosensing strategy based on FRET for detection of tumor marker was proposed. ► Close of QDs and AuNPs allow the occurrence of quenching the photoluminescence of nano-bio-probes. ► Signal quenching was monitored by a self-developed image analyzer. ► The fluorometric assay format is attractive for widespread carcinoma screening and even field use. -- Abstract: A novel homogeneous immunoassay based on Förster resonance energy transfer for sensitive detection of tumor, e.g., marker with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), was proposed. The assay was consisted of polyclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as donor and monoclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as acceptor. In presence of CEA, the bio-affinity between antigen and antibody made the QDs and AuNPs close enough, thus the photoluminescence (PL) quenching of CdTe QDs occurred. The PL properties could be transformed into the fluorometric variation, corresponding to the target antigen concentration, and could be easily monitored and analyzed with the home-made image analysis software. The fluorometric results indicated a linear detection range of 1–110 ng mL{sup −1} for CEA, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng mL{sup −1}. The proposed assay configuration was attractive for carcinoma screening or single sample in point-of-care testing, and even field use. In spite of the limit of available model analyte, this approach could be easily extended to detection of a wide range of biomarkers.

  19. A Nanotechnology-based Strategy to Increase the Efficiency of Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy: Folate-conjugated Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beik, Jaber; Khademi, Sara; Attaran, Neda; Sarkar, Saeed; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Ghaznavi, Habib; Ghadiri, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), owing to their elegant physicochemical properties, have recently been introduced as promising theranostic nanoparticles. Folic acid is a necessary vitamin for cell proliferation. Accordingly, the surface functionalization of AuNP with folic acid may offer a great potential for the development of a strategy to increase the efficiency of cancer diagnosis and therapy based on the new nanotechnology. In this study, we have reviewed the recent progress made in the design and the biomedical application of various folate-conjugated gold nanoparticles (FAuNPs). We performed a structured search in bibliographic databases and made a comprehensive list of relevant papers. The main subjects considered in this review included (1) methods for the preparation of F-AuNPs, (2) applications of F-AuNPs in computed tomography (CT), and (3) the use of F-AuNPs in targeted cancer therapy. As many as 96 papers were selected for the review. Accordingly, we explained the noncovalent and the covalent methods of fabricating the various types of F-AuNPs. Particular applications of F-AuNP in cancer diagnosis using the CT scan modality were described. In addition, the applications of F-AuNPs in targeted radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia were elucidated in depth. In the hyperthermia section, we presented certain extra explanations on F-AuNP-based laser, radiofrequency, and ultrasoundbased hyperthermia methods. This review identifies the important roles of F-AuNPs in current cancer studies that are being undertaken worldwide. The findings of this review confirm that F-AuNP is a new theranostic agent, which has a great potential for simultaneous cancer therapy and diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized at gold nanoparticles decorated graphene-carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Tung; Huang, Tsung-Tao; Lin, Chun-Mao; Hwa, Kuo-Yuan; Chen, Ting-Yo; Chen, Bo-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Biopolymer pectin stabilized gold nanoparticles were prepared at graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (GR-MWNTs/AuNPs) and employed for the determination of glucose. The formation of GR-MWNTs/AuNPs was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy methods. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was successfully immobilized on GR-MWNTs/AuNPs film and direct electron transfer of GOx was investigated. GOx exhibits highly enhanced redox peaks with formal potential of -0.40 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The amount of electroactive GOx and electron transfer rate constant were found to be 10.5 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2) and 3.36 s(-1), respectively, which were significantly larger than the previous reports. The fabricated amperometric glucose biosensor sensitively detects glucose and showed two linear ranges: (1) 10 μM - 2 mM with LOD of 4.1 μM, (2) 2 mM - 5.2 mM with LOD of 0.95 mM. The comparison of the biosensor performance with reported sensors reveals the significant improvement in overall sensor performance. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited appreciable stability, repeatability, reproducibility and practicality. The other advantages of the fabricated biosensor are simple and green fabrication approach, roughed and stable electrode surface, fast in sensing and highly reproducible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gold nanoparticles for the bare-eye based and spectrophotometric detection of proteins, polynucleotides and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepoitevin, Mathilde; Lemouel, Marie; Bechelany, Mikhael; Janot, Jean-Marc; Balme, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    We have explored the potential of using gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) in optical and bare-eye discrimination of (a) proteins (such as bovine serum albumin and lysozyme), (b) homo-polynucleotides (such as poly-adenylic acid, poly-cytidylic acid, poly-uridylic acid and poly-inosinic acid), and (c) long chain DNA (from salmon, herring and thym). Such biomacromolecules can be detected and discriminated due to their ability to prevent the formation of blue aggregates from red (non-aggregated) citrate capped Au-NPs on addition of NaCl. The effect of these biomacromolecules on the aggregation was investigated by colorimetry and UV–vis spectrometry. The results show that the two proteins can be differentiated by colorimetry, and also salmon ssDNA and dsDNA. The Au-NPs can also discriminate the dsDNAs of salmon and herring. We conclude that the use of Au-NPs represent a viable candidate to future methods of DNA analysis on the basis of visual testing, particularly in the area of food analysis. (author)

  2. Suggested design of gold-nanoobjects-based terahertz radiation source for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, Andrei; Moldosanov, Kamil

    2018-04-18

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) may serve as "devices" to emit electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz (THz) range, whereby the energy is delivered by radio frequency or microwave photons which won't by themselves induce transitions between sparse confinement-shaped electron levels of a GNP, but may borrow the energy from longitudinal acoustic phonons to overcome the confinement gap. Upon excitation, the Fermi electron cannot relax otherwise than via emitting a THz photon, the other relaxation channels being blocked by force of shape and size considerations. Within this general scope that has been already outlined earlier, the present work specifically discusses two-phonon processes, namely (i) a combined absorption-emission of two phonons from the top of the longitudinal acoustic branch, and (ii) an absorption of two such phonons with nearly identical wavevectors. The case (i) may serve as a source of "soft" THz radiation (at ≃0.54 THz), the case (ii) the "hard" THz radia- tion at 8.7 THz. Numerical estimates are done for crystalline particles in the shape of rhombicuboctahedra, of 5 - 7 nm "diameter". A technical realisation of this idea is briefly discussed, assuming the deposition of GNPs onto / within the substrate of Teflon, the material sustaining high temperatures and transparent in the THz range. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Assay for Determining Fe3+ Based on Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated with Glycol Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungmin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and simple colorimetric assay for the detection of Fe3+ ions was developed using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs conjugated with glycol chitosan (GC. The Fe3+ ion coordinates with the oxygen atoms of GC in a hexadentate manner (O-Fe3+-O, decreasing the interparticle distance and inducing aggregation. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that the bound Fe3+ was coordinated to the oxygen atoms of the ethylene glycol in GC, which resulted in a significant color change from light red to dark midnight blue due to aggregation. Using this GC-AuNP probe, the quantitative determination of Fe3+ in biological, environmental, and pharmaceutical samples could be achieved by the naked eye and spectrophotometric methods. Sensitive response and pronounced color change of the GC-AuNPs in the presence of Fe3+ were optimized at pH 6, 70°C, and 300 mM NaCl concentration. The absorption intensity ratio (A700/A510 linearly correlated to the Fe3+ concentration in the linear range of 0–180 μM. The limits of detection were 11.3, 29.2, and 46.0 nM for tap water, pond water, and iron supplement tablets, respectively. Owing to its facile and sensitive nature, this assay method for Fe3+ ions can be applied to the analysis of drinking water and pharmaceutical samples.

  4. Spectrophotometric Determination of 4-Hydroxy-2-mercapto-6-methylpyrimidine Based on Aggregation of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Reza Hormozi-Nezhad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the development of a highly sensitive colorimetric method for the detection of 4-hydroxy-2-mercapto-6-methylpyrimidine (MTU which acts as an anti-thyroid drug utilizing citrate capped gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs. This thiol-containing molecule exhibits intriguing affinity with Au-NPs. The reactivity involves the displacement of the citrate shell by the thiolate shell followed by intermolecular electrostatic interactions or hydrogen-bonding between the thiolate shells. The interparticle interactions depend on ionic strength, pH and Au-NPs concentration of the solution. The interparticle interactions lead to a small change in the plasmon band around 521 nm and the formation of a new red shifted band. The calibration curve is derived from the ratio of the absorption intensity changes at 650 nm to the changes at 520 nm. It was linear in the concentration range of 5.0 × 10-7-2.75 × 10-6 M. The detection limit (3σ for MTU was found to be 1.9 × 10-7 M.

  5. DNA-Catalytically Active Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates-Based Colorimetric Multidimensional Sensor Array for Protein Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangcong; Chen, Zhengbo; Tan, Lulu; Lou, Tianhong; Zhao, Yan

    2017-01-03

    A series of single-strand oligonucleotides functionalized catalytically active gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) as nonspecific receptors have been designed to build a protein sensing array. We take advantage of the correlation between the catalytic activity and the exposed surface area of AuNPs, i.e., DNA-proteins interactions mask the surface area of AuNPs, leading to poor catalytic performance of AuNPs. As the number of DNA-bound proteins increases, the surfaces of AuNPs become more masked; thus, the time of 4- nitrophenol/NaBH 4 reaction for color change (yellow → colorless) of the solution increases. Taking advantage of three nonspecific SH-labeled DNA sequences (A15, C15, and T15) as array sensing elements and the color-change time (CCT) of the solution as signal readout, colorimetric response patterns can be obtained on the array and identified via linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Eleven proteins have been completely distinguished with 100% accuracy with the naked eye at the 30 nM level. Remarkably, two similar proteins (bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin), two different proteins (bovine serum albumin and concanavalin) at the same concentration, and the mixtures of the two proteins with different molar ratios have been discriminated with 100%. The practicability of this sensor array is further validated by high accuracy (100%) identification of 11 proteins in human serum samples.

  6. A label-free colorimetric progesterone aptasensor based on the aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Gaoshang; Xu, Lurong; Zhan, Shenshan; Ni, Xuan; Zhou, Xiaotong; Wang, Lumei; Zhang, Dongwei; Xia, Bing; Wu, Shijian

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe an aptasensor for the detection of the gonadal hormone progesterone (P4) in aqueous solution. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were coated with a P4-specific aptamer, and such particles do not aggregate in presence of NaCl due to the presence of the aptamer coating. If, however, progesterone is added, it will bind to the aptamer and release it from the surface. The uncoated AuNPs, on addition of NaCl, will aggregate and a color change from red (520 nm) to blue (650 nm) can be visually detected or photometrically quantified. The ratio of the absorbances at 650 and 520 nm is linearly related to the P4 concentration in the range from 2.6 to 800 nM. The complete detection range extends from 2.6 to 1400 nM, and the detection limit is 2.6 nM. Water containing various potential interferents, as well as tap water and urine, were spiked with P4 and the recoveries of P4 are in the range of 89.7–117.5%, 84.4–115.0% and 94.7–118.8%, respectively. This assay has a large potential with respect to the visual and instrumental determination of P4 in aquatic environment and urine. (author)

  7. A Novel Diagnostic Method to Detect Duck Tembusu Virus: A Colloidal Gold-Based Immunochromatographic Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanliu Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in large economic losses to the duck-rearing industry in China since 2010. Therefore, an effective diagnostic approach to monitor the spread of DTMUV is necessary. Here, a novel diagnostic immunochromatographic strip (ICS assay was developed to detect DTMUV. The assay was carried out using colloidal gold coated with purified monoclonal antibody A12D3 against envelope E protein. Purified polyclonal C12D1 antibodies from BALB/c mice against the envelope E protein were used as the capture antibody. Goat anti-mouse IgG was used to detect DTMUV, which was also assembled on the ICS. Results showed that the ICS could specifically detect DTMUV within 10 min. It also could be stored 25 and 4°C for 4 and 6 months, respectively. The sensitivity of the ICS indicated that the dilution multiples of positive allantoic fluid of DTMUV (LD50: 104.33/0.2 ml was up to 200. Its specificity and sensibility showed no significant change under the above storage situations. Fifty clinical samples were simultaneously detected by ICS and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction with a 93.9% coincidence rate between them. It proved that the ICS in the present study was highly specific, sensitive, repeatable, and more convenient to rapidly detect DTMUV in clinical samples.

  8. Imaging C. elegans with thiolated tryptophan-based NIR fluorescent gold nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barman, Apurba Kr. [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Chaturbedi, Amaresh; Subramaniam, K. [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering (India); Verma, Sandeep, E-mail: sverma@iitk.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2013-11-15

    Multidentate, thiolated, tryptophan-containing peptide conjugates were synthesized for the preparation of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Precursor Au{sub 11}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 8}Cl{sub 3} was prepared by the reduction of HAuCl{sub 4}, followed by the use of tryptophan-containing peptide conjugates in ligand displacement reactions, to afford near-infrared fluorescent AuNCs. The emission maxima for these newly synthesized AuNCs were ∼715 nm. AuNCs were characterized with the help of UV–Vis, FTIR, fluorescence and MALDI analysis. FTIR spectra showed that the ligands bind to Au atoms through Au–S bonds, while MALDI mass spectra revealed that the clusters consisted of 20–23 Au atoms. Introduction of hydrophilic –COOH groups engendered water solubility to these AuNCs, enabling bioimaging applications. We demonstrate fluorescence imaging of the nematode C. elegans and confirm distribution of these AuNCs in nematode gut with the help of green fluorescent protein co-localization experiments.

  9. Fluorometric sensing of endotoxin based on aggregation of CTAB capped gold nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Ida Evangeline [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability Unit, University of South Africa, Florida Park 1709 Johannesburg (South Africa); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of different sizes were used to carry out comparative fluorometric detection study on endotoxin. At excitation wavelength, 308 nm the GNPs exhibited strong emission intensity at wavelength 421 nm with varying intensities at 215.122, 234.965 and 262.551 for 15 nm (GNPs-I), 30 nm (GNPs-II) and 40 nm (GNPs-III), respectively. The different sizes of GNPs were interacted with endotoxin to study the effect of GNPs size on endotoxin detection. The electrostatic interaction between GNPs (GNPs-I, II, and III) and endotoxin led to the enhancement of the fluorescence intensities. The sensitivity of endotoxin detection was improved significantly by decreasing the size of the GNPs to 15 nm (GNPs-I). The endotoxin detection limit using GNPs-I was theoretically calculated to be 0.56×10{sup −9} M using the formula 3SD/slope, and it was able to detect lower levels of endotoxin when compared to GNPs-II or GNPs-III. The GNPs-I showed excellent selectivity for endotoxin detection with the optimized pH and volumetric ratio. Most importantly the optimized size was successfully used to detect endotoxin in real samples (milk samples and fruit juices) with a recovery rate of 98–105%.

  10. Fabrication of Octahedral Gold Nanoparticle embedded Polymer Pattern based on Electron Irradiation and Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Nam; Lee, Hyeok Moo; Cho, Sung Oh [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as gold (Au), silver, and copper have been a hot research issue due to their unique optical, electronic, and catalytic properties. On account of the size- and shape- dependent properties of the noble metal NPs, most researches are concentrated on tailoring sizes and shapes of the noble metal NPs. In particular, noble metal NPs with Platonic shapes such as tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron have significant impact on a variety of applications including surface-enhancement spectroscopy, biochemical sensing, and nanodevice fabrication because sharp corners of the metals lead to high local electric-field enhancement. In addition, patterning or controlled assembly of noble metal NPs is indispensible for biological sensors, micro-/nano-electronic devices, photonic and photovoltaic devices, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates. Although Platonic noble metal NPs with well defined sizes have been intensively studied, patterning of Platonic noble metal NPs has been rarely demonstrated. Here, we present a strategy to fabricate patterned Au nano-octahedra embedded polymer films by selectively irradiating an electron beam onto HAuCl{sub 4}-loadaed poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer (BCP) precursor films followed by thermal treatment. The BCP plays a important role for the patterning of the precursor film due to a cross-linking behavior under electron irradiation

  11. Gold nanoparticle-based low limit of detection Love wave biosensor for carcinoembryonic antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Su, Yan; Fan, Chunhai; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R

    2017-09-15

    In this work, a Love wave biosensing platform is described for detecting cancer-related biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). An ST 90°-X quartz Love wave device with a layer of SiO 2 waveguide was combined with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to amplify the mass loading effect of the acoustic wave sensor to achieve a limit of detection of 37pg/mL. The strategy involves modifying the Au NPs with anti-CEA antibody conjugates to form nanoprobes in a sandwich immunoassay. The unamplified detection limit of the Love wave biosensor is 9.4ng/mL. This 2-3 order of magnitude reduction in the limit of detection brings the SAW platform into the range useful for clinical diagnosis. Measurement electronics and microfluidics are easily constructed for acoustic wave biosensors, such as the Love wave device described here, allowing for robust platforms for point of care applications for cancer biomarkers in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Protein A/Deposited Gold Nanocrystals Modified Electrode for Carbofuran Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV, respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA’s oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  13. Construction of 6-thioguanine and 6-mercaptopurine carriers based on βcyclodextrins and gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpe, R; Noyong, Michael; Simon, Ulrich; Aguayo, D; Huerta, J; Kogan, Marcelo J; Yutronic, N

    2017-12-01

    As a novel strategy to overcome some of the therapeutic disadvantages of 6-thioguanine (TG) and 6-mercaptopurine (MP), we propose the inclusion of these drugs in βcyclodextrin (βCD) to form the complexes βCD-TG and βCD-MP, followed by subsequent interaction with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), generating the ternary systems: βCD-TG-AuNPs and βCD-MP-AuNPs. This modification increased their solubility and improved their stability, betting by a site-specific transport due to their nanometric dimensions, among other advantages. The formation of the complexes was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and one and two-dimensional NMR. A theoretical study using DFT and molecular modelling was conducted to obtain the more stable tautomeric species of TG and MP in solution and confirm the proposed inclusion geometries. The deposition of AuNPs onto βCD-TG and βCD-MP via sputtering was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. Subsequently, the ternary systems were characterized by TEM, FE-SEM and EDX to directly observe the deposited AuNPs and evaluate their sizes, size dispersion, and composition. Finally, the in vitro permeability of the ternary systems was studied using parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A fluorescence detection of D-penicillamine based on Cu(2+)-induced fluorescence quenching system of protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Bang Lin; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2015-01-25

    In this contribution, a luminescent gold nanoclusters which were synthesized by bovine serum albumin as novel fluorescent probes were successfully utilized for the determination of D-penicillamine for the first time. Cupric ion was employed to quench the strong fluorescence of the gold nanoclusters, whereas the addition of D-penicillamine caused obvious restoration of fluorescence intensity of the Cu(2+)-gold nanoclusters system. Under optimum conditions, the increment in fluorescence intensity of Cu(2+)-gold nanoclusters system caused by D-penicillamine was linearly proportional to the concentration of D-penicillamine in the range of 2.0×10(-5)-2.39×10(-4) M. The detection limit for D-penicillamine was 5.4×10(-6) M. With the off-on fluorescence signal at 650 nm approaching the near-infrared region, the present sensor for D-penicillamine detection had high sensitivity and low spectral interference. Furthermore, the novel gold nanoclusters-based fluorescent sensor has been applied to the determination of D-penicillamine in real biological samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of an automatic MR-based gold fiducial marker localisation method for MR-only prostate radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, Matteo; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.; Zijlstra, Frank; Sikkes, Gonda G.; de Boer, Hans C. J.; Meijer, Gert J.; Kerkmeijer, Linda G. W.; Viergever, Max A.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Seevinck, Peter R.

    2017-10-01

    An MR-only radiotherapy planning (RTP) workflow would reduce the cost, radiation exposure and uncertainties introduced by CT-MRI registrations. In the case of prostate treatment, one of the remaining challenges currently holding back the implementation of an RTP workflow is the MR-based localisation of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers (FMs), which is crucial for accurate patient positioning. Currently, MR-based FM localisation is clinically performed manually. This is sub-optimal, as manual interaction increases the workload. Attempts to perform automatic FM detection often rely on being able to detect signal voids induced by the FMs in magnitude images. However, signal voids may not always be sufficiently specific, hampering accurate and robust automatic FM localisation. Here, we present an approach that aims at automatic MR-based FM localisation. This method is based on template matching using a library of simulated complex-valued templates, and exploiting the behaviour of the complex MR signal in the vicinity of the FM. Clinical evaluation was performed on seventeen prostate cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy treatment. Automatic MR-based FM localisation was compared to manual MR-based and semi-automatic CT-based localisation (the current gold standard) in terms of detection rate and the spatial accuracy and precision of localisation. The proposed method correctly detected all three FMs in 15/17 patients. The spatial accuracy (mean) and precision (STD) were 0.9 mm and 0.5 mm respectively, which is below the voxel size of 1.1 × 1.1 × 1.2 mm3 and comparable to MR-based manual localisation. FM localisation failed (3/51 FMs) in the presence of bleeding or calcifications in the direct vicinity of the FM. The method was found to be spatially accurate and precise, which is essential for clinical use. To overcome any missed detection, we envision the use of the proposed method along with verification by an observer. This will result in a

  16. Evaluation of an automatic MR-based gold fiducial marker localisation method for MR-only prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, Matteo; van den Berg, Cornelis A T; Zijlstra, Frank; Sikkes, Gonda G; de Boer, Hans C J; Meijer, Gert J; Kerkmeijer, Linda G W; Viergever, Max A; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Seevinck, Peter R

    2017-10-03

    An MR-only radiotherapy planning (RTP) workflow would reduce the cost, radiation exposure and uncertainties introduced by CT-MRI registrations. In the case of prostate treatment, one of the remaining challenges currently holding back the implementation of an RTP workflow is the MR-based localisation of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers (FMs), which is crucial for accurate patient positioning. Currently, MR-based FM localisation is clinically performed manually. This is sub-optimal, as manual interaction increases the workload. Attempts to perform automatic FM detection often rely on being able to detect signal voids induced by the FMs in magnitude images. However, signal voids may not always be sufficiently specific, hampering accurate and robust automatic FM localisation. Here, we present an approach that aims at automatic MR-based FM localisation. This method is based on template matching using a library of simulated complex-valued templates, and exploiting the behaviour of the complex MR signal in the vicinity of the FM. Clinical evaluation was performed on seventeen prostate cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy treatment. Automatic MR-based FM localisation was compared to manual MR-based and semi-automatic CT-based localisation (the current gold standard) in terms of detection rate and the spatial accuracy and precision of localisation. The proposed method correctly detected all three FMs in 15/17 patients. The spatial accuracy (mean) and precision (STD) were 0.9 mm and 0.5 mm respectively, which is below the voxel size of [Formula: see text] mm 3 and comparable to MR-based manual localisation. FM localisation failed (3/51 FMs) in the presence of bleeding or calcifications in the direct vicinity of the FM. The method was found to be spatially accurate and precise, which is essential for clinical use. To overcome any missed detection, we envision the use of the proposed method along with verification by an observer. This will result in a

  17. Use of gold and silver standards based on phenol-formalde-hyde resin in assay-activation analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.I.; Drynkin, V.I.; Lejpunskaya, D.I.; Nedostup, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    Using standards on phenol-formaldehyde resin base for assaying-activation analysis of geological specimens for gold and silver has bee the advantage of uniformly distributing Au and Ag in spesimens and possible preparing tablets of practically any form or size. The validity and accuracy of these standards have been studied for the cases of short irradiation. Conventional point standards were used as reference standards. The experiments carried out have shown that tablet resol standards are suitable for a mass assaying-activation analysis for gold and silver at practically any concentrations

  18. Effect of phosphorus element on the comprehensive properties of Sn-Cu lead-free solder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangdong; Shi Yaowu; Hao Hu; Xia Zhidong; Lei Yongping; Guo Fu

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of phosphorus on the creep fatigue properties of Sn-Cu eutectic lead-free solder was carried out. The experimental results show that the melting temperature was almost not changed with adding small amount of P element. However, the addition of trace P element led to the decrease in the property of creep fatigue. The fractography analysis by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that ductile fracture was the dominant failure behavior in the process of creep fatigue test of Sn0.7Cu and Sn0.7Cu0.005P specimens. It should be pointed out that there is significant difference in the fractographs between the joints of Sn0.7Cu solder and Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder. In the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu solder joint, the microstructure is prolonged along testing direction, and the dimples were more than the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint. In addition, the voids could be found on the Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint, and trace P addition may increase the rate of forming void of Sn0.7Cu solder joint. The voids can potentially lead to crack initiation or propagation sites in the solder joint. As a result, the creep fatigue of solder joint containing P such as Sn0.7Cu0.005P offers worse property compared to Sn0.7Cu solder joint.

  19. Effect of phosphorus element on the comprehensive properties of Sn-Cu lead-free solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guangdong, E-mail: liguangdong@emails.bjut.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124 (China); Shi Yaowu; Hao Hu; Xia Zhidong; Lei Yongping; Guo Fu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2010-02-18

    In the present work, the effect of phosphorus on the creep fatigue properties of Sn-Cu eutectic lead-free solder was carried out. The experimental results show that the melting temperature was almost not changed with adding small amount of P element. However, the addition of trace P element led to the decrease in the property of creep fatigue. The fractography analysis by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that ductile fracture was the dominant failure behavior in the process of creep fatigue test of Sn0.7Cu and Sn0.7Cu0.005P specimens. It should be pointed out that there is significant difference in the fractographs between the joints of Sn0.7Cu solder and Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder. In the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu solder joint, the microstructure is prolonged along testing direction, and the dimples were more than the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint. In addition, the voids could be found on the Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint, and trace P addition may increase the rate of forming void of Sn0.7Cu solder joint. The voids can potentially lead to crack initiation or propagation sites in the solder joint. As a result, the creep fatigue of solder joint containing P such as Sn0.7Cu0.005P offers worse property compared to Sn0.7Cu solder joint.

  20. Discriminating between absorption and scattering coefficients in optical characterisation measurements on gold nanoparticle based photoacoustic contrast agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ungureanu, C.; Manohar, Srirang; van Leeuwen, Ton; Amelink, A.; Sterenborg, Henricus J.C.M.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmon resonant nanoparticles such as gold nanoshells and gold nanorods can be tuned to possess sharp interaction peaks in the near-infrared wavelength regions. These have great importance as contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging and as photothermal agents for therapeutic applications due to

  1. Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticle-conducting polymer nanocomposite based bioelectrode for CRP detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sujeet K; Sharma, Vikash; Kumar, Devendra; Rajesh

    2014-10-01

    An electrochemical impedance immunosensing method for the detection and quantification of C-reactive protein (αCRP) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is demonstrated. The protein antibody, Ab-αCRP, has been covalently immobilized on a platform comprising of electrochemically deposited 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped gold nanoparticles Au(MPA)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite film of controlled thickness onto an indium tin oxide-coated glass plate. The free carboxyl groups present on the nanocomposite film have been used to site-specifically immobilize the Ab-αCRP biomolecules through a stable acyl amino ester intermediate generated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The nanocomposite film was characterized by atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques. The bioelectrode was electrochemically analyzed using modified Randles circuit in terms of constant phase element (CPE), electron transfer resistance (R et), and Warburg impedance (Z w). The value of n, a CPE exponent used as a gauge of heterogeneity, for the Au-PPy nanocomposite film was found to be 0.56 which is indicative of a rather rough morphology and porous structure. A linear relationship between the increased ∆R et values and the logarithmic value of protein antigen, Ag-αCRP, concentrations was found in the range of 10 ng to 10 μg mL(-1) with a R et sensitivity of 46.27 Ω cm(2)/decade of [Ag-αCRP] in PBS (pH 7.4).

  2. Gold Nanoparticle-based Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Fe(III) Ion Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, Nguyen Hoang; Joo, Sang-Woo; Cho, Kwang Hwi

    2015-01-01

    We performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 4-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 (4AB15C5) in conjugation with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MCB) with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) while considering the aqueous media. After specific binding of the ferric ion onto the 4MCB.4AB15C5 compound, the Raman frequencies and intensities were estimated by DFT calculations with the PCM. It was predicted that the Raman intensities became significantly increased upon binding of the ferric ion. 4MCB.4AB15C5 could be assembled on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via the cleavage of the thiol bond. Colorimetric and UV.Vis absorption spectroscopy indicated that AuNPs became significantly aggregated in the presence of 1.10 mM of the ferric ion. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4MCB.4AB15C5 was used to identify the dissimilar spectral behaviors that yield a difference in intensity in the presence of the ferric ion. These changes were not observed in the other biological ions Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , NH 4+ , and Co 2+ . This study indicated that 4AB15C5 could be used to detect ferric ions in aqueous AuNP solutions by a combined method of colorimetric, UV.Vis absorption, and Raman spectroscopy. AuNPs.[4MCB. 4AB15C5] can thus be utilized as a selective turn-on sensor to Fe3 + in aqueous solutions above 1 mM.

  3. Gold nanocatalyst-based immunosensing strategy accompanying catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol for sensitive monitoring of chloramphenicol residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Xiaohua; Tang, Dianyong; Xia, Biyun; Lu, Minghua; Tang, Dianping

    2014-06-09

    A new competitive-type immunosensing system based on gold nanoparticles toward catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) was developed for sensitive monitoring of antibiotic residue (chloramphenicol, CAP, used in this case) by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry. Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) with 16 nm in diameter was initially synthesized and functionalized with CAP-bovine serum albumin (CAP-BSA) conjugate, which were used as the competitor on monoclonal anti-CAP antibody-coated polystyrene microtiter plate (MTP). In the presence of target CAP, the labeled CAP-BSA on the AuNP competed with target CAP for the immobilized antibody on the MTP. The conjugated amount of CAP-BSA-AuNP on the MTP decreased with the increase of target CAP in the sample. Upon addition of 4-NP and NaBH4 into the MTP, the carried AuNP could catalytically reduce 4-NP to 4-aminophenol (4-AP), and the as-produced 4-AP could be monitored by using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Experimental results indicated that the absorbance at 403 nm increased with the increment of target CAP concentration in the sample, and exhibited a dynamic range from 0.1 to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.03 ng mL(-1) at the 3s(blank) level. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were lower than 5.5% and 8.0%, respectively. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for CAP spiked honey and milk samples, respectively. The recovery was 92-112%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sensing colorimetric approaches based on gold and silver nanoparticles aggregation: Chemical creativity behind the assay. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Diana; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Edificio Polivalente, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona km 33,600, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Escarpa, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.escarpa@uah.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Edificio Polivalente, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona km 33,600, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Visual detection based gold and silver nanoparticles aggregation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized and non-functionalized nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High selectivity and sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No complex instrumentation is required/chemical creativity for analyte detection. - Abstract: Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is one of the most remarkable features of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Due to these inherent optical properties, colloidal solutions of Au and Ag NPs have high extinction coefficients and different colour in the visible region of the spectrum when they are well-spaced in comparison with when they are aggregated. Therefore, a well-designed chemical interaction between the analyte and NPs surroundings leads to a change of colour (red to blue for Au NPs and yellow to brown for Ag NPs from well-spaced to aggregated ones, respectively) allowing the visual detection of the target analyte. These approaches have exhibited an excellent analytical performance with high sensitivities due to the strong LSPR and excellent selectivity strategically driven by the interaction analyte-NPs surroundings involving mainly electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions as well as donor-acceptor chemical reactions, among others. In addition, this kind of colorimetric assays has received considerable attention in the analytical field because of their simplicity and low cost since they do not require any expensive or complex instrumentation. As a consequence of this, detection of molecules with a high significance in the bio-medical, clinical, food safety and environmental fields including DNA, proteins and a wide spectrum of organic molecules as well as inorganic ions have been impressively reported in the most relevant literature using these assays. This timely review offers a rational vision of the main achievements yielded in the relevant

  5. Sensing colorimetric approaches based on gold and silver nanoparticles aggregation: Chemical creativity behind the assay. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, Diana; González, María Cristina; Escarpa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Visual detection based gold and silver nanoparticles aggregation. ► Functionalized and non-functionalized nanoparticles. ► High selectivity and sensitivity. ► No complex instrumentation is required/chemical creativity for analyte detection. - Abstract: Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is one of the most remarkable features of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Due to these inherent optical properties, colloidal solutions of Au and Ag NPs have high extinction coefficients and different colour in the visible region of the spectrum when they are well-spaced in comparison with when they are aggregated. Therefore, a well-designed chemical interaction between the analyte and NPs surroundings leads to a change of colour (red to blue for Au NPs and yellow to brown for Ag NPs from well-spaced to aggregated ones, respectively) allowing the visual detection of the target analyte. These approaches have exhibited an excellent analytical performance with high sensitivities due to the strong LSPR and excellent selectivity strategically driven by the interaction analyte-NPs surroundings involving mainly electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions as well as donor–acceptor chemical reactions, among others. In addition, this kind of colorimetric assays has received considerable attention in the analytical field because of their simplicity and low cost since they do not require any expensive or complex instrumentation. As a consequence of this, detection of molecules with a high significance in the bio-medical, clinical, food safety and environmental fields including DNA, proteins and a wide spectrum of organic molecules as well as inorganic ions have been impressively reported in the most relevant literature using these assays. This timely review offers a rational vision of the main achievements yielded in the relevant literature according to this exciting and creative analytical field.

  6. Colloidal gold-McAb probe-based rapid immunoassay strip for simultaneous detection of fumonisins in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jingjing; Sun, Yaning; Li, Qingmei; Wang, Fangyu; Teng, Man; Yang, Yanyan; Deng, Ruiguang; Hu, Xiaofei

    2017-05-01

    Fumonisins are a kind of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. A rapid immunochromatographic test strip has been developed for simultaneous detection of fumonisin B 1 , B 2 and B 3 (FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 ) in maize based on colloidal gold-labelled monoclonal antibody (McAb) against FB 1 probe. The anti-FB 1 McAb (2E11-H3) was produced through immunisation and cell fusion, and identified as high affinity, specificity and sensitivity. The cross-reaction ratios with fumonisin B 2 and B 3 were accordingly 385% and 72.4%, while none with other analogues. The colloid gold-labelled anti-FB 1 McAb probe was successfully prepared and used for establishing the immunochromatographic strip. The test strip showed high sensitivity and specificity, the IC 50 for FB 1 was 58.08 ng mL -1 , LOD was 11.24 ng mL -1 , calculated from standard curve. Moreover, the test strip exhibited high cross-reactivity with FB 2 and FB 3 , and could be applied to the simultaneous detection of FBs (FB 1 :FB 2 :FB 3 = 12:4:1) in maize sample with high accuracy and precision. The average recoveries of FBs in maize ranged from 90.42% to 95.29%, and CVs were 1.25-3.77%. The results of the test strip for FBs samples showed good correlation with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The immunochromatographic test strip could be employed in the rapid simultaneous detection of FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 in maize samples on-site. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Development of multiple cross displacement amplification label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow biosensor for detection of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yi Wang,1 Hui Li,1,2 Yan Wang,1 Hua Li,1 Lijuan Luo,1 Jianguo Xu,1 Changyun Ye1 1State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing, 2Department of Microbiology, GuiZhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes, one of most problematic foodborne pathogens, is responsible for listeriosis in both humans and animals and mainly transmitted through the food chain. In this report, we propose a simple, rapid, and nearly instrument-free molecular technique using multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow biosensor (LFB for specific, sensitive, and visual detection of L. monocytogenes. The MCDA-LFB method was carried out at a constant temperature (61°C for only 20 min during the reaction stage, and then the amplification mixtures were directly detected by using LFB, eliminating the use of an electrophoresis instrument, special reagents, or amplicon analysis equipment. The whole procedure, from sample processing to result indicating, was finished within 1 h. The analytical specificity of MCDA-LFB method was successfully determined by distinguishing the target bacterium from other pathogens. The analytical sensitivity of the MCDA-LFB assay was 10 fg of genomic templates per reaction in pure culture, which was in complete accordance with MCDA by gel electrophoresis, real-time turbidity, and colorimetric indicator. The assay was also successfully applied to detecting L. monocytogenes in pork samples. Therefore, the rapidity, simplicity, and nearly equipment-free platform of the MCDA-LFB technique make it possible for food control, clinical diagnosis, and more. The proof-of-concept assay can be reconfigured to detect

  8. Bioassisted Phytomining of Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluckov, Biljana S.

    2015-05-01

    Bioassisted phytomining implies targeted use of microorganisms and plants for the selective recovery of the metal. Metals from undissolved compounds are dissolved by applying specially chosen microorganisms and therefore become available to the hyperaccumulating plants. In the article, the selective extraction method of base metals and the precious metal gold by using microorganisms and plants is discussed.

  9. Gold nanoparticles production using reactor and cyclotron based methods in assessment of {sup 196,198}Au production yields by {sup 197}Au neutron absorption for therapeutic purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorshidi, Abdollah, E-mail: abkhorshidi@yahoo.com

    2016-11-01

    Medical nano-gold radioisotopes is produced regularly using high-flux nuclear reactors, and an accelerator-driven neutron activator can turn out higher yield of {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 196,198}Au reactions. Here, nano-gold production via radiative/neutron capture was investigated using irradiated Tehran Research Reactor flux and also simulated proton beam of Karaj cyclotron in Iran. {sup 197}Au nano-solution, including 20 nm shaped spherical gold and water, was irradiated under Tehran reactor flux at 2.5E + 13 n/cm{sup 2}/s for {sup 196,198}Au activity and production yield estimations. Meanwhile, the yield was examined using 30 MeV proton beam of Karaj cyclotron via simulated new neutron activator containing beryllium target, bismuth moderator around the target, and also PbF{sub 2} reflector enclosed the moderator region. Transmutation in {sup 197}Au nano-solution samples were explored at 15 and 25 cm distances from the target. The neutron flux behavior inside the water and bismuth moderators was investigated for nano-gold particles transmutation. The transport of fast neutrons inside bismuth material as heavy nuclei with a lesser lethargy can be contributed in enhanced nano-gold transmutation with long duration time than the water moderator in reactor-based method. Cyclotron-driven production of βeta-emitting radioisotopes for brachytherapy applications can complete the nano-gold production technology as a safer approach as compared to the reactor-based method. - Graphical abstract: This figure describes gold nanoparticles production via cyclotron based method. The aim of investigating is to estimate activity and saturation yield of {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au and {sup 197}Au(n,2n){sup 196}Au reactions using Karaj cyclotron available in Iran. The feasibility of a cyclotron-driven production of βeta-emitting radioisotopes was investigated for therapeutic applications via a new neutron activator design. - Highlights: • Nano-gold radioisotope production

  10. Pressure brazing of ceramics to metals with copper solder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, M.A.; Metelkin, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect on the quality of joints brazed with copper of different non metallized aluminooxide dielectrics with metals and alloys of a series of technological parameters (temperature, pressure, holding, and medium) in the course of pressure brazing is investigated. It is shown that in case of brazing with kovar and nickel the character of dependences is identical, however in all cases the joints with nickel are more durable. For the ceramics - molybdenum system characterized by weak interaction with copper solder kinetic dependences have no maximum and only under holding of more than 20 min the constant strength of 150-190 MPa is attained

  11. Multivalent system for therapy of non-Hod king lymphomas based on Anti-CD20 conjugated to gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda O, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent publications has been reported that gold nanoparticles have an effect in reducing the expression of the oncogene Bcl -2 and have a high biocompatibility , this is the importance for using gold nanoparticles for this work. The antibody CD20 is an antibody that specifically binds to that over expressed CD20 antigen on the cell membrane of B lymphoma cell non- Hodgkin (cell line Raji) behold the importance of combining this bio molecule to gold nanoparticles since they have a high specificity with CD20 positive cells , also to carry out the antigen- antibody immunological reactions triggered mediating cell lysis, possibly by cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Therefore, this system must have characteristics of both components to eliminate B cell non- Hodgkin lymphoma.In this work it was studied a multivalent system composed of gold nanoparticles and anti-CD20 antibody, the term multi valency refers to the number of biomolecules attached to the surface of the gold nanoparticle. The synthesis and characterization of the gold nanoparticles and the multivalent system was performed and the effect of the multivalent system on the expression of oncogene Bcl-2 (group of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway) was evaluated. Characterization of raw materials and the multivalent system was performed using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, this to verify structural changes in raw materials and thus confirm the formation of CD20 binding to the surface of the nanoparticle gold by the bond between gold and sulfur in the cysteines of CD20. Taking advantage that the metal nanoparticles have the optical property of surface plasmon resonance, the absorption of gold nanoparticles was measured on the UV-Vis as it is affected by the surface molecules bind to it, showing a bathochromic displacement effected. The hydrodynamic diameter of the gold nanoparticles was measured to verify that the antibody is bound to the surface; this evidence was complemented by micrographs

  12. Efficient Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dots and Gold Nanoparticles Based on Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal for DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lv, Jie; Jia, Zhenhong

    2017-05-10

    A novel assembled biosensor was prepared for detecting 16S rRNA, a small-size persistent specific for Actinobacteria. The mechanism of the porous silicon (PS) photonic crystal biosensor is based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through DNA hybridization, where QDs act as an emission donor and AuNPs serve as a fluorescence quencher. Results showed that the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of PS photonic crystal was drastically increased when the QDs-conjugated probe DNA was adhered to the PS layer by surface modification using a standard cross-link chemistry method. The PL intensity of QDs was decreased when the addition of AuNPs-conjugated complementary 16S rRNA was dropped onto QDs-conjugated PS. Based on the analysis of different target DNA concentration, it was found that the decrease of the PL intensity showed a good linear relationship with complementary DNA concentration in a range from 0.25 to 10 μM, and the detection limit was 328.7 nM. Such an optical FRET biosensor functions on PS-based photonic crystal for DNA detection that differs from the traditional FRET, which is used only in liquid. This method will benefit the development of a new optical FRET label-free biosensor on Si substrate and has great potential in biochips based on integrated optical devices.

  13. Study on Mitigation Method of Solder Corrosion for Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of 62Sn36Pb2Ag solder connections poses serious difficulties for outdoor-exposed photovoltaic (PV modules, as connection degradation contributes to the increase in series resistance (RS of PV modules. In this study, we investigated a corrosion mitigation method based on the corrosion mechanism. The effect of added sacrificial metal on the reliability of PV modules was evaluated using the oxidation-reduction (redox reaction under damp heat (DH conditions. Experimental results after exposure to DH show that the main reason for the decrease in power was a drop in the module’s fill factor. This drop was attributed to the increase of RS. The drop in output power of the PV module without added sacrificial metal is greater than that of the sample with sacrificial metal. Electroluminescence and current-voltage mapping analysis also show that the PV module with sacrificial metal experienced less degradation than the sample without sacrificial metal.

  14. Thermal Analysis of the Sn-Ag-Cu-In Solder Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopousek, J.; Palcut, Marián; Hodúlová, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The tin-based alloy Sn-1.5Ag-0.7Cu-9.5In (composition in wt.%) is a potential candidate for lead-free soldering at temperatures close to 200°C due to the significant amount of indium. Samples of Sn-1.5Ag-0.7Cu-9.5In were prepared by controlled melting of the pure elements, followed by quenching...... to room temperature. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction. The solidified melt consisted of four different phases. Solidification behavior was monitored by heat-flux differential scanning calorimetry...

  15. Multi-scale modeling of elasto-plastic response of SnAgCu lead-free solder alloys at different ageing conditions: Effect of microstructure evolution, particle size effects and interfacial failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, Milad; Cugnoni, Joel, E-mail: joel.cugnoni@epfl.ch; Botsis, John

    2016-04-20

    In microelectronics applications, SnAgCu lead-free solder joints play the important role of ensuring both the mechanical and electrical integrity of the components. In such applications, the SnAgCu joints are subjected to elevated homologous temperatures for an extended period of time causing significant microstructural changes and leading to reliability issues. In this study, the link between the change in microstructures and deformation behavior of SnAgCu solder during ageing is explained by developing a hybrid multi-scale microstructure-based modeling approach. Herein, the SnAgCu solder alloy is seen as a three phase metal matrix composite in which Ag{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} hard intermetallics play the role of reinforcements and Sn the role of a ductile matrix. The hardening of the Sn matrix due to fine intermetallics in the eutectic mixture is modeled by incorporating the mean field effects of geometrically necessary dislocations. Subsequently, a two level homogenization procedure based on micromechanical finite element (FE) models is used to capture the interactions between the different phases. For this purpose, tomographic images of microstructures obtained by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and synchrotron X-Ray in different ageing conditions are directly used to generate statistically representative volume elements (RVE) using 3D FE models. The constitutive behavior of the solder is determined by sequentially performing two scales of numerical homogenization at the eutectic level and then at the dendrite level. For simplification, the anisotropy of Sn as well as the potential recovery processes have been neglected in the modeling. The observed decrease in the yield strength of solder due to ageing is well captured by the adopted modeling strategy and allows explaining the different ageing mechanisms. Finally, the effects of potential debonding at the intermetallic particle-matrix interface as well as particle fracture on the overall strength of solder are

  16. Binding Interactions of Keratin-Based Hair Fiber Extract to Gold, Keratin, and BMP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche C de Guzman

    Full Text Available Hair-derived keratin biomaterials composed mostly of reduced keratin proteins (kerateines have demonstrated their utility as carriers of biologics and drugs for tissue engineering. Electrostatic forces between negatively-charged keratins and biologic macromolecules allow for effective drug retention; attraction to positively-charged growth factors like bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 has been used as a strategy for osteoinduction. In this study, the intermolecular surface and bulk interaction properties of kerateines were investigated. Thiol-rich kerateines were chemisorbed onto gold substrates to form an irreversible 2-nm rigid layer for surface plasmon resonance analysis. Kerateine-to-kerateine cohesion was observed in pH-neutral water with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD of 1.8 × 10(-4 M, indicating that non-coulombic attractive forces (i.e. hydrophobic and van der Waals were at work. The association of BMP-2 to kerateine was found to be greater (KD = 1.1 × 10(-7 M, within the range of specific binding. Addition of salts (phosphate-buffered saline; PBS shortened the Debye length or the electrostatic field influence which weakened the kerateine-BMP-2 binding (KD = 3.2 × 10(-5 M. BMP-2 in bulk kerateine gels provided a limited release in PBS (~ 10% dissociation in 4 weeks, suggesting that electrostatic intermolecular attraction was significant to retain BMP-2 within the keratin matrix. Complete dissociation between kerateine and BMP-2 occurred when the PBS pH was lowered (to 4.5, below the keratin isoelectric point of 5.3. This phenomenon can be attributed to the protonation of keratin at a lower pH, leading to positive-positive repulsion. Therefore, the dynamics of kerateine-BMP-2 binding is highly dependent on pH and salt concentration, as well as on BMP-2 solubility at different pH and molarity. The study findings may contribute to our understanding of the release kinetics of drugs from keratin biomaterials and allow for the

  17. Determination of gold in gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keedy, C.R.; Parson, L.; Shen, J.

    1989-01-01

    The gold content of placer gold flakes and gold bearing ores was determined by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis, respectively. It was discovered that significant errors result in the instrumental method for gold flakes as small as 10 mg due to sample self-absorption of neutrons during irradiation. Reliable results were obtained for both ore samples and gold flakes by dissolving the samples in aqua regia prior to irradiation. (author) 7 refs.; 3 tabs

  18. Photo-induced transformation process at gold clusters-semiconductor interface: Implications for the complexity of gold clusters-based photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2016-03-01

    The recent thrust in utilizing atomically precise organic ligands protected gold clusters (Au clusters) as photosensitizer coupl