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Sample records for goiania radiological emergency

  1. Consequences of radiological emergencies at Goiania and Mayapuri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ranjit; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Singh, Rajvir

    2012-01-01

    Radiological accidents due to orphan sources can lead to emergencies in the public domain, as reported worldwide. Inadequate regulatory control, lack of accountability and improper disposal of radioactive materials in scrap have resulted in radiological emergencies. Apart from few fatalities, they lead to environmental contamination, economic loss and social and psychological impact on the society. The 137 Cs and 60 Co sources of strength TBq to PBq activity level may pose high radiation exposure risk if shielding integrity is affected in any accident. There had been few radiological accidents reported world over which resulted in radiation injuries, environmental contamination and out of proportion panic in the society. The response actions for both these radiological emergencies included search, recovery of sources, decontamination and waste removal for reducing the radiation/contamination levels at the affected site. In both cases, encapsulated sources were damaged by the persons unknowingly. Response operations were carried out for longer period at Goiania compared to Mayapuri because of large scale contamination. 60 Co source being metallic in nature, even after the breaking of sources at Mayapuri the spread of contamination was confined to a small area. In Goiania, the granules of Cesium Chloride were distributed to many people because of its glowing nature in dark which caused spread of contamination to a large area and the accident was detected early as more persons reported with radiation injuries. The detection of Mayapuri accident was delayed as affected personnel reported to the hospital after three weeks of exposure to radiation. The lack of expertise in identifying radiation injuries by medical professionals contributed to further delay in reporting and detection of this emergency. The fatalities in both accidents resulted from acute radiation exposures and delay in getting medical support. The experience gained at radiological emergencies of Goiania

  2. Radiological accident of Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Elias; Gimenez, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The accident of Goiania that took place in September, 1987, was the consequence of the dismantlement of the teletherapy equipment containing a Cs 137 source. The activity of the source was of about 5,2.10 13 Bq(1.400 Ci) and was made up by 1.10 -1 Kg of ClCs. This is one of the worst accidents, involving medical or industrial source, which happened up to the moment. The accident and the criteria adopted to face the emergency are described. The characteristics of the irradiation and superficial and internal contamination of the persons affected caused any dosimetric evaluation to be particularly difficult. The emergency control managed by capable persons was carried out with the expected difficulties in some areas within the Goiania city. About 90 % of the material could be recovered, in the removal works, in order to be treated as radioactive waste. Conclusions that should be taken into account in Argentina are reached. The authors of the article took part in the emergency by helping the brazilian Authorities within the Mutual Assistance Agreement between Argentina and Braxil. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. Preliminary report about Goiania radiological accident, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de.

    1988-05-01

    The events that originate the Goiania radiological accident involving the rupture of Cesium 137 source, the source characteristics, the medical aspects related to the triage of victims, the medical attendance, and the special measurements of decontamination in the Goiania General Hospital (HGG), are described. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Lessons of the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Xavier, A.M.; Heilbron, P.F.L.

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of the lessons teamed from the radiological accident of Goiania, actions are described which a nuclear regulatory body should undertake while responding to an accident of this nature. (author)

  5. Report about the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrimer, H.P.; Gomes, C.A.; Recio, J.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work reports the activities developed by the technical groups who worked during the radiological accident in Goiania, held on September 1997. Several aspects of the accident are described. The final solution for the disposal of the radioactive wastes generated during the accident is presented, according to the Brazilian waste management policy. (author)

  6. Ten years after the radiological accident of Goiania, a reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouailhetas, Y.; Xavier, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    This work contains a reflection on the impact of the radiological protection measures taken in the city of Goiania in the aftermath of the accident involving caesium-137, along with a discussion on the biological foundation of these actions. (author)

  7. Report on the radiological accident in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The report describes the radiological accident occured in Goiania, Brazil, in september 1987. The following aspects concerning the accident are presented in specific chapters: 1- evaluation of the accident and the first aids, 2- attendance to the victims of Goiania radiological accident, 3- decontamination, 4- radioactive wastes arising from the accident, 5- working personnel and technical cooperation, 6- equipments and 7- radiation protection: limits and recommendations [pt

  8. The radiological accident in Goiania. Environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, E.R.R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1987 a radioactive source containing CsCl powder was removed from a teletherapy machine in Goiania, Brazil. Subsequently it was ruptured in a residential garden, causing the dissemination of the 137 Cs powder over about 1 km 2 in an urbanized area of the city. The radioactive material was passed on to several people with consequent contamination of their families, houses, and surrounding environments. Mechanisms of resuspension/deposition spread the material over roofs, trees and home gardens. Environmental surveys were performed by helicopter and by car; contaminated places were mapped following monitoring with hand held instruments and an extensive environmental sample monitoring programme was undertaken. Dose assessments were performed: the criteria established by the authorities for decontamination were a dose of 5 mSv in the first year and an average lifetime dose of 1 mSv per year. The first-year dose criterion was found to be the most restrictive. Significant contamination was found at 85 houses: 41 of these had to be evacuated. Houses were first decontaminated indoors, by washing, scraping and/or removing contaminated items and furniture, and then outdoors by tearing out walls, roofs and pavements. Layers of soil were removed from contaminated gardens. Follow-up monitoring of the environment showed that several years after the accident, the residual activity had not migrated and no further spread through resuspension or deposition had occurred. A weathering half-life of 13 years was observed for gamma dose rates. Lessons learned included the need to improve several aspects of emergency response preparedness such as general management and interface between institutions, medical and paramedical support teams, dealing with the media and adequate prospective models for dose assessment. (author)

  9. Goiania radiological accident: five years talking with the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview five years after the Goiania radiological accident. It reviews from a number of important aspects the psychological impact and conflicting opinions, the public hearings and debates and, particularly describes the victims that still have difficulties to understand the accident and its consequences. (B.C.A.). 05 refs

  10. Public monitoring during the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    During the radiological accident with Cs 137 occurred at Goiania, Brazil, many people were contaminated. To identify the people with possible contamination a large place in the center of the city was selected for screening people with a possibility of contamination. This paper describes the work involved monitoring about 112.800 persons in a period of three month. (author)

  11. Report about the radiological accident in Goiania; Documentario do acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrimer, H.P.; Gomes, C.A.; Recio, J.C.A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Rejeitos Radioativos

    1997-12-31

    This work reports the activities developed by the technical groups who worked during the radiological accident in Goiania, held on September 1997. Several aspects of the accident are described. The final solution for the disposal of the radioactive wastes generated during the accident is presented, according to the Brazilian waste management policy. (author) 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.; hebe at cnen.gov.br

  12. How the radiological accident of Goiania was initially determined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    Mainly the initial actions adopted to minimise the consequences of radiological accident involving the public are very important for bringing the situation to the normality. In this work the author presents a short history about the radiological accident with a 137 Cs source occurred in the city of Goiania, Brazil in 1987 as well as the actions adopted by him during the first hours after the detection of the accident. (author)

  13. Radiological survey of Goiania by a mobile monitoring unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.C.F.

    1989-01-01

    After the initial response to the radiological accident in Goiania, a radiological survey throughout the city was performed using a mobile unit. This unit was equipped with two Geiger Muller detectors outsise the vehicle and one 4' x 4' NaI(Tl) detector connected to a dual recorder. All three detectors were placed 1 m above the ground. The survey system covers a wide range of exposure rate, since environmental levels up to 10 R h -1 . Eighty percent of the Goiania urban area was covered by this survey and except for some specific locations the contamination was restricted to the main foci surroundings ocurring in a non homogenous pattern. The highest value observed in the city after the main foci decontamination was of 0.7 mR h -1 in the 57 th street - where the source was opened. Results of the main foci and some other locations are apresented in the paper. The system designed to perform the survey in the city played a fundamental role during the decontamination process (author) [pt

  14. Medical aspects of 137Cs decorporation: The Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, R.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Oliveira, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    In September 1987, the Goiania radiological accident involving a source of 137 Cs culminated in about 140 victims who presented internal and/or external contamination and/or external exposure to radiation and/or radiation burns. Internal contamination was verified through analysis of urine and fecal samples. Internal contamination was also evaluated by measurements performed at the whole-body counter installed in Goiania in November 1987. To enhance the decorporation of 137Cs, patients were treated with the following: (1) Prussian Blue, oral administration, in 46 patients; (2) diuretics, oral administration, in 17 patients; (3) induced perspiration, increasing 137 Cs elimination. These procedures were done under rigorous clinical evaluation and considering the data from assay of excreta and data obtained from the whole-body counter. The doses of Prussian Blue exceeded about 6.5 times the dose previously indicated in the literature. It was the first time diuretics were used in humans to treat 137 Cs internal contamination. The results of these procedures are discussed

  15. The radiological accident in Goiania, Brazil an overwiew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoca, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 radiological accident which occurred in Goiania, Brazil, the largest of its kind, consisted of an accidental dispersion of 1370 Ci contained in the radiotherapy source by the rupture of its shield and capsule. The dissemination of the 19 g of the radioactive material, in the form of cesium chloride, way by a) displacement and personal contact of the people involved, b) commercialization of the raw materials collected in the junkyard and c) wind and rainwater transport. Such dispersion occurred in the period between the capsule rupture on September 17th and 29th when CNEN was informed of the accident. With the CNEN intervention ground and aero radiometric surveys were carried out and population monitored. Seven main radioactive points were identified in the city districts around this junkyard, some of them with exposure levels of up to 100 R/h at one meter. More than 118,000 people were monitored out of which 244 presented internal or external contamination. Medical care was provided to 129 people, but only fifty were hospitalized. Thirteen developed severe bone-marrow depression, among them four died. The drainage system was monitored as well as an environmental monitoring network has been established at the urban area around the main contaminations focus. Up to now, the results have shown the urban area as the most affected one. Soil and leaves samples presented specific activities of up to 10 5 Bq/kg within 50 m apart the main focus. Decontamination work resulted in more than 2,000 drums of 200 l/each, several metal containers and boxes. The wastes were removed to a temporary repository 20 km away from Goiania

  16. Dosimetric and medical aspects of the radiological accident in Goiania in 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    In September 1987, in Goiania, a city of one million inhabitants and capital of the Brazilian State of Goias, a rotating assembly of the shielding head of a teletherapy unit was removed and the capsule containing 50.9 TBq (1375 Ci) of {sup 137}Cs was dismantled. This serious radiological accident resulted in four fatalities, injuries to many people, and the widespread contamination of the central part of Goiania. This TECDOC describes the dosimetric and medical aspects of the Goiania accident, including the experience of some of the scientists and physicians who were involved in the management, monitoring and treatment of the victims. Many scientific papers have been published on the subject in different journals. This publication compiles up to data conclusions on the 10 year follow-up of the Goiania accident victims, and summarizes the experience that was acquired Refs, figs, tabs

  17. Dosimetric and medical aspects of the radiological accident in Goiania in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    In September 1987, in Goiania, a city of one million inhabitants and capital of the Brazilian State of Goias, a rotating assembly of the shielding head of a teletherapy unit was removed and the capsule containing 50.9 TBq (1375 Ci) of 137 Cs was dismantled. This serious radiological accident resulted in four fatalities, injuries to many people, and the widespread contamination of the central part of Goiania. This TECDOC describes the dosimetric and medical aspects of the Goiania accident, including the experience of some of the scientists and physicians who were involved in the management, monitoring and treatment of the victims. Many scientific papers have been published on the subject in different journals. This publication compiles up to data conclusions on the 10 year follow-up of the Goiania accident victims, and summarizes the experience that was acquired

  18. The radiological accident in Goiania 10 years later: an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouailhetas, Yannick; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a reflection on the impact on the population of the actions taken in the city of Goiania, following the 137-Cs accident and the biological fundamental on which this actions should be based upon. (author)

  19. Radiological protection aspects regarding to assistance of the cesium-137 radiation accident victims in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, John Graham; Oliveira Filho, Denizart Silveira de; Rabelo, Paulo Ney Pamplona

    1997-01-01

    The radiological protection measures taken in the general hospital of Goiania (HGG/INAMPS) and in the FEBEM institution, due to the accident involving Cesium-137 are described, as well as the work of the IRD personnel in the areas of: radiological protection of the medical and auxiliary staff, contamination control of the ward, radiological monitoring of the patients, waste management, personnel and area decontamination and patient transportation. (author)

  20. Aspects of radiation protection to attend the victims of radiological accident with cesium 137 in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.G.; Oliveira Filho, D.S. de; Rabello, P.N.P.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological protection measures taken in the general hospital of Goiania (HGG/INAMPS) and in the FEBEM institution, due do the accident involving cesium 137 are described, as well the work of the NUCLEI personnel in the areas of: radiological protection of the medical and auxiliary staff, contamination control of the ward, radiological monitoring of the patients, waste management, personnel and area decontamination and patient transportation. (author) [pt

  1. Nursering assistance to the radiological accident patients in Goiania-an experience report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graciotti, M.E.

    1989-06-01

    In september, 1987, a caesium-137 source was disrupted and caused a serious radiological acident. The victims were hospitalized in the General Hospital in city of Goiania, Goias state, Brazil. This is a report of a personal experience, during the two months of nursering care. (author) [pt

  2. Radiation protection in necropsy of the victims of the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryins, Nadia S.F.; Silva, Lucia Helena C.; Rosa, Roosevelt

    1997-01-01

    Four of some victims of the radiological accident in Goiania, died in October and the necropsies were carried out at Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Due to external and internal contamination presented by these victims, specific radiation protection procedures were adopted to support the medical team. The procedures established and applied by the Radiation Protection Staff during the arrangement of necropsy's room and for personal control since the necropsy's work until confining the bodies and the transportation back to Goiania are reported

  3. The psychological impact of the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.B. de.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes the psychological impact of an accident caused by the violation of a capsule containing Cesium 137 in the city of Goiania, Goias, Brazil, in September of 1987. Its object is to confirm the importance of having mental health teams working, not only with accident victims, but also side by side with the rescue teams in the event of radiation accidents. (author) [pt

  4. Radiation protection in necropsy of the victims of the radiological accident in Goiania; Atuacao da radioprotecao nas necropsias dos radioacidentados de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryins, Nadia S.F.; Silva, Lucia Helena C.; Rosa, Roosevelt [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Four of some victims of the radiological accident in Goiania, died in October and the necropsies were carried out at Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Due to external and internal contamination presented by these victims, specific radiation protection procedures were adopted to support the medical team. The procedures established and applied by the Radiation Protection Staff during the arrangement of necropsy`s room and for personal control since the necropsy`s work until confining the bodies and the transportation back to Goiania are reported 6 refs., 1 tab.

  5. The radiological accident of Goiania and its consequences for the development of law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, N.M.F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The radiological accident of Goiania and its repercussions caused intense debate in Brazilian society, which extended to the legislative sphere. One of the principal outcomes of this debate was the inclusion in the new Brazilian Constitutional Charter of legal provisions covering the control of nuclear energy and of radiation sources. Internationally, the 1986 Vienna Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency were invoked following the accident and proved to be effective in facilitating international co-operation and solidarity to deal with the aftermath of the accident. A number of international treaties on assistance in the event of nuclear accidents, the management of radioactive waste and the management of spent fuel are currently in force. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste, adopted in 1997, is the most recent treaty promoting the sustainability of nuclear activities. Looking ahead, an international legal framework is needed to build upon and improve the principles of a culture of radiation safety. (author)

  6. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  7. The radiological accident of Goiania and its legislative implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Ieda Rubens

    2001-01-01

    Starting from a reflective view of the historical relationships existing between mankind and nature, this work seeks to pinpoint the today crises and ecological awareness in order to better understand the sparse use of various forms of assault relating to the environment, emphasising the caesium 137 accident as an object of this research. The destructive crisis of capitalism and its ethics, has the ecological crisis as only one of its aspects, however, the caesium 137 accident in Goiania was never left to be treated without pertaining to that crisis. In this way, tackling the issue of the caesium 137 and its unfolding disclosures became impossible not to mention the dimensions of cultural, philosophy, politics, economics and legal issues of the accident. Therefore, within the scope of this research, the Caesium 137 accident was treated as to avoid a fragmented analysis. It was also been transformed into a interdisciplinary work, as it shows the configuration of many concepts, but not legal matters in itself, because the Law itself, as a science, does not have an object through excellency. (author)

  8. The influence of Goiania radiological accident on Brazilian public opinion concerning new nuclear electric plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldonian, Nelson Leon; Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    1997-01-01

    The Brazilian society is against applications of nuclear energy, mainly respecting to construction of new nuclear power plants, believing that they are harmful to population's welfare and the environment. By this reason, Brazilian nuclear sector would promote a more intensive program of public discussion, not limited to technical and scientific community. Intending to contribute to a better judgment by society about the differences between diverse employment of nuclear energy, arguments concerned to its benefits are presented, pointing out that adverse accounts to nuclear electricity based on Goiania radiological accident, are not justified

  9. Evaluation to a long term remediation actions after Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Rio, Monica A. Pires do; Coutinho, Celia M.C.; Acar, Maria E.D.; Romeiro, Carlos H.

    2000-01-01

    Ten years after the Goiania radiological accident, the results obtained by the IRD Environmental Monitoring Program are compared to the values adopted for establishing the intervention levels at the time of the accident occurrence (1987), and to the values of the parameters obtained by European countries, after the Chernobyl accident. Significant differences were observed in parameter values, particularly, those related to a long term prediction of the contamination behaviour in an urban area. This paper shows the importance of the survey for the environmental behaviour of pollutants in tropical climate conditions. (author)

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorders: Aftereffects of the Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira de Carvalho, A.

    2000-01-01

    In September of 1987, a 137 Cs medical source was violated in the city of Goiania, Brazil and, as a result, four people died, 249 were internally and/or externally contaminated and 20 people were hospitalised at the Goiania General Hospital. The most serious cases were transferred to the Marcello Dias Naval Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. The objective of this paper is to describe the emotional and social impacts caused by this accident on the hospitalised victims. As these people belonged to a low social-economic level and did not understand the meaning of radioactivity, panic only started to be felt with the first deaths. The origin of their stress was, primarily, the radiation syndrome, but mostly the rejection suffered by them in the Goiania General Hospital, caused by fear of radioactivity; the difficulty in understanding the safety regulations; the always covered staffs; and the isolation due to immune-suppression. They feared having a limb amputated, were worried about their families, ambivalent about death: wishing and afraid of it. They felt guilty about the accident but at the same time they were seeking compensation from the State. Aggressive, due to the long confinement, they rioted inside the hospital. The need for psychological support was felt by the staff but few psychologists volunteered because of fear. Human beings present a number of psychological disorders after the trauma suffered in a catastrophe. These have a pattern, called post-traumatic stress disorders, which was noticed in this accident. It is a lesson learned in Goiania that psychological support is of vital importance to help the patient fight the consequences of the suffering. Psychologists should be trained to work without fear, during emergencies of this kind. (author)

  11. The radiological accident in Goiania 10 years later: an evaluation; 10 anos do acidente radiologico de Goiania: uma reflexao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouailhetas, Yannick; Xavier, Ana Maria [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Licenciamento e Controle. Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear

    1997-12-31

    This article presents a reflection on the impact on the population of the actions taken in the city of Goiania, following the 137-Cs accident and the biological fundamental on which this actions should be based upon. (author) 16 refs.; yannick at cnen.gov.br; axavier at cnen.gov.br

  12. Biological effects of ionizing radiations. Radiological accident from Goiania, GO, Brazil; Efeitos biologicos das radiacoes ionizantes. Acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Emico, E-mail: emico.okuno@if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF-USP), SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    This article presents the fundaments of radiation physics, the natural and artificial sources, biological effects, radiation protection. We also examine the sequence of events that resulted in Goiania accident with a source of caesium-137 from abandoned radiotherapy equipment and its terrible consequences. (author)

  13. Report of the activities carried out by the Psychological Support Group in the Goiania radiological accident in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The report analyzes the characteristics and attitudes of the population directly involved in the Goiania radiological accident. The inhabitants of the affected area were interviewed in their residence. Factual information about the accidents were given and specific psychological support were received whenever necessary

  14. Evaluation to a long term remediation actions after Goiania radiological accident; Avaliacao a longo prazo das acoes de remediacao apos o acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Rio, Monica A. Pires do; Coutinho, Celia M.C.; Acar, Maria E.D.; Romeiro, Carlos H. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Ten years after the Goiania radiological accident, the results obtained by the IRD Environmental Monitoring Program are compared to the values adopted for establishing the intervention levels at the time of the accident occurrence (1987), and to the values of the parameters obtained by European countries, after the Chernobyl accident. Significant differences were observed in parameter values, particularly, those related to a long term prediction of the contamination behaviour in an urban area. This paper shows the importance of the survey for the environmental behaviour of pollutants in tropical climate conditions. (author)

  15. Radiological protection aspects regarding to assistance of the cesium-137 radiation accident victims in Goiania; Aspectos de protecao radiologica no atendimento as vitimas do acidente radiologico com cesio-137 em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John Graham; Oliveira Filho, Denizart Silveira de; Rabelo, Paulo Ney Pamplona [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The radiological protection measures taken in the general hospital of Goiania (HGG/INAMPS) and in the FEBEM institution, due to the accident involving Cesium-137 are described, as well as the work of the IRD personnel in the areas of: radiological protection of the medical and auxiliary staff, contamination control of the ward, radiological monitoring of the patients, waste management, personnel and area decontamination and patient transportation. (author) 4 refs., 11 figs.; e-mail: marcos at omega.lncc.br

  16. The radiological accident of Goiania and its legislative implications; O acidente radiologico de Goiania e suas implicacoes legistativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ieda Rubens

    2001-07-01

    Starting from a reflective view of the historical relationships existing between mankind and nature, this work seeks to pinpoint the today crises and ecological awareness in order to better understand the sparse use of various forms of assault relating to the environment, emphasising the caesium 137 accident as an object of this research. The destructive crisis of capitalism and its ethics, has the ecological crisis as only one of its aspects, however, the caesium 137 accident in Goiania was never left to be treated without pertaining to that crisis. In this way, tackling the issue of the caesium 137 and its unfolding disclosures became impossible not to mention the dimensions of cultural, philosophy, politics, economics and legal issues of the accident. Therefore, within the scope of this research, the Caesium 137 accident was treated as to avoid a fragmented analysis. It was also been transformed into a interdisciplinary work, as it shows the configuration of many concepts, but not legal matters in itself, because the Law itself, as a science, does not have an object through excellency. (author)

  17. Medical follow up of ten patients victims of the radiological accident occurred in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil 1988/1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curado, M.P.; Morais, M.S.A.; Silva, J.F.; Assis, P.R.; Oliveira, A.R.; Santos, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    The author makes an update of the medical aspects of ten victims of the radiological accident occurred in Goiania in September 1987. These patients received specialized treatment during the critical phase at Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Actually these patients are under medical follow-up at Leide das Neves Ferreira Foundation since march 1988. The clinical, haematological and laboratorial results are presented and discussed. The importance of a close medical follow-up direct victims of a radiological accident is stressed. (author)

  18. The radiological accident of Goiania and the acceptance by the public of new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldonian, N.L.; Mattos, L.A.T.

    1998-01-01

    Misunderstandings on the peaceful uses and the safety of nuclear energy have been a leading cause of apprehension in Brazilian public opinion. A lack of knowledge of the characteristics and destination of radioactive wastes and negative media coverage of the use of nuclear energy have aggravated this situation. Believing that applications of nuclear energy are harmful to the population's welfare and the environment, Brazilian public opinion is opposed to the utilization of nuclear energy, and in particular to the construction of new nuclear power plants. For this reason, the Brazilian nuclear sector should promote a more intensive programme of public discussion, directed not solely at the technical and scientific communities, but also at the Brazilian public at large. Such a campaign would contribute towards a better understanding by Brazilian society of the different uses of nuclear energy and would present arguments in support of the benefits of this form of energy. Moreover, a campaign of this kind would show that negative associations about the use of electricity derived from nuclear power, which are based on the Goiania radiological accident, are not justified. (author)

  19. Report of the psychological support given to victims of the Goiania radiological accident in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Lenice Cruvinel; Pereira, Maria Emilia Pontes

    1988-02-01

    The psychological support given to the victims of the Goiania accident are described. The assistance lasted two months on the average and was given while the victims were in the hospital and later on in the recuperation center

  20. Psychological evaluation of the patients contaminated in the Goiania radiological accident in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The psychological evaluation of 68 patients contaminated in the Goiania accident as well as of the personnel (about 27) working at the organizations responsible for the assistance given to the victims of the accident is presented

  1. Subsidies to cytogenetic dosimetry technique generated from analysis of results of Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana Teixeira

    1993-06-01

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, which occurred in September of 1987, peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. During the emergency period, the doses were assessed to help immediate medical treatment. After this initial estimation, doses were reassessed using in vitro calibration curves produced after the accident, more suitable for the conditions prevailing in Goiania. Dose estimates for 24 subjects exceeded 0,5 Gy. Among those, 15 individuals exceeded 1,0 Gy and 5 exceeded 3,0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 6,0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. During the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 14 of the exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two- term exponential function. Up to 470 days after the exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow, almost constant. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (> 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was

  2. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  3. Cytogenetic follow-up of patients exposed, 7.5 years after radiological accident in Goiania, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.

    1996-01-01

    Ten persons exposed to 137 Cs during the radiological accident in Goiania (Brazil) were reexamined for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentric chromosomes, centric rings and acentric fragments) 7.5 years the first examination. It was found that the frequencies fell to about 5% of the initial values, for those individuals who had been exposed to moderate to high doses. For the subjects exposed to low doses, of the order of 0.2 Gy or less., the observed frequencies of chromosomal aberrations fell much more slowly. (author)

  4. Biological effects of ionizing radiations. Radiological accident from Goiania, GO, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Emico

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the fundaments of radiation physics, the natural and artificial sources, biological effects, radiation protection. We also examine the sequence of events that resulted in Goiania accident with a source of caesium-137 from abandoned radiotherapy equipment and its terrible consequences. (author)

  5. Medical follow up of ten patients victims of the radiological accident occurred in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil 1988/1992; Acompanhamento clinico de dez pacientes vitimas do acidente radiologico de Goiania - 1988/1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curado, M.P.; Morais, M.S.A.; Silva, J.F.; Assis, P.R.; Oliveira, A.R.; Santos, E.A

    1992-12-31

    The author makes an update of the medical aspects of ten victims of the radiological accident occurred in Goiania in September 1987. These patients received specialized treatment during the critical phase at Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Actually these patients are under medical follow-up at Leide das Neves Ferreira Foundation since march 1988. The clinical, haematological and laboratorial results are presented and discussed. The importance of a close medical follow-up direct victims of a radiological accident is stressed. (author) 13 refs., 5 tabs., 2 graphs.

  6. Radiology in emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.; Barsan, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a discussion of radiologic modalities currently being used in emergency situations. Radiographs, echocardiographs, radionuclide scans and CT scans are systematically analyzed and evaluated to provide a step-by-step diagnostic process for emergency physicians to follow when a radiologist is not present

  7. Study of 137 Cs contamination in Rochedo Reservoir, Meia Ponte river (Goias State) from the radiologic accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, Marcia Emilia M.

    1997-01-01

    Through 137 Cs concentration profiles in sediments from Rochedo Reservoir, it was possible to estimate the amount of this radionuclide (94 GBq) which has reached the Meia Ponte River system, as a consequence of the Goiania radiological accident in 1987. Based on in-situ measurements as well as on laboratory studies, the influence of N H 4 + concentration on the K d value was also investigated. The results have shown that for high N H 4 + concentrations there is a clear correlation between both parameters. It was also observed the influence on the aging effect on the 137 Cs release from the sediment, as well as of the illite content in it. (author)

  8. Management of Radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentijo, J. C.; Gil, E.; San Nicolas, J.; Lazuen, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Spain has a system of planning and response to emergency situations that is structured and coordinated by the General Directorship of civil Defense of the Ministry of the Interior and in which all levels of the Public Administration. state, autonomous and municipal-and owners of potentially hazardous activities participate. Activities involving a nuclear or radiological risk have specific emergency plans whose general principles are based on the general emergency system and whose technical bases are consistent with international practices and recommendations. The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear actively participates in the design, implementation and activation of these plans, and for this purpose has an organization superimposed on its ordinary working organization that is activated in the event of an accident, as well as an Emergency Room specifically designed to deal with nuclear and radiological emergencies. (Author)

  9. The influence of Goiania radiological accident on Brazilian public opinion concerning new nuclear electric plants; A influencia do acidente radiologico de Goiania na aceitacao publica de novas usinas nucleoeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldonian, Nelson Leon; Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Energia e Ambiente

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian society is against applications of nuclear energy, mainly respecting to construction of new nuclear power plants, believing that they are harmful to population`s welfare and the environment. By this reason, Brazilian nuclear sector would promote a more intensive program of public discussion, not limited to technical and scientific community. Intending to contribute to a better judgment by society about the differences between diverse employment of nuclear energy, arguments concerned to its benefits are presented, pointing out that adverse accounts to nuclear electricity based on Goiania radiological accident, are not justified 10 refs., 5 tabs.; e-mail: meldonia at net.ipen.br

  10. Cytogenetic follow-up of patients exposed, 7.5 years after radiological accident in Goiania, Brazil; Sete anos e meio de acompanhamento citogenetico de pacientes expostos no acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana T. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Ten persons exposed to {sup 137} Cs during the radiological accident in Goiania (Brazil) were reexamined for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentric chromosomes, centric rings and acentric fragments) 7.5 years the first examination. It was found that the frequencies fell to about 5% of the initial values, for those individuals who had been exposed to moderate to high doses. For the subjects exposed to low doses, of the order of 0.2 Gy or less., the observed frequencies of chromosomal aberrations fell much more slowly. (author)

  11. Report of the radiological protection procedures adapted in the Goiania General Hospital for assistance to the victims of the radiological accident with Cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A caesium-137 capsule, illegal removed from a desactivated health center of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, was disrupted causing a serious radiological accident. The dimensions of the accident were worsened due to some facts such as: the caesium-137 was in the chloride from, which is a very soluble compound the accident was notify to the competent authorities only several days after the capsule was removal and during this period of time some people handled the souce directly, without knowing its potential danger. This paper descibes the measures adopted in the Goiania General Hospital to restrict the exposure of workers and members of the public and to minimize the consequences of unavoidable exposures in such a way to assure that the annual dose limits were not exceeded. An efficiency evaluation of the methods adopted for the decontamination of the victims was made and its described in the report. (author) [pt

  12. Characterization of radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    Several severe radiological emergencies were reviewed to determine the likely range of conditions which must be coped with by a mobile teleoperator designed for emergencies. The events reviewed included accidents at TMI (1978), SL-1 (1961), Y-12 (1958), Bethesda (1982), Chalk River (1952 and 1958), Lucens (1969). The important conditions were: radiation fields over 10,000 R/h, severe contamination, possible critical excursion, possible inert atmosphere, temperatures from 50 0 C to -20 0 C, 100% relative humidity, 60-cm-high obstacles, stairs, airlocks, darkness, and lack of electric power

  13. Goiania, ten years later. Proceedings of an international conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Following the radiological accident that happened in Goiania, Brazil, in late 1987, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) was able to turn to the international community for assistance under the terms of the 1986 IAEA sponsored Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; this marked the first time the convention was invoked. Additionally, to prevent the loss of useful information, CNEN and the IAEA designated a panel of international experts to investigate the causes and consequences of the accident and draw up a comprehensive report, `The Radiological Accident in Goiania`, which the IAEA published in 1988. Under its nuclear safety programme, it is the IAEA`s intention to follow up serious radiological accidents with review and analysis, to document the causes and circumstances and to disseminate conclusions, lessons to be learned and recommendations from which all States may benefit. A decade after the Goiania accident, the CNEN convened the international conference `Goiania, Ten Years Later` in co-operation with the IAEA. The purpose of this conference was to share with the local population and the international community the knowledge gained during this tragic event and in the following years. The conference attracted some 400 participants from 17 countries (Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Estonia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Peru, Russian Federation, Spain, Uruguay, United States of America and Venezuela). The present IAEA proceedings contain some 50 papers selected for publication by the editorial committee of the conference Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Goiania, ten years later. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Following the radiological accident that happened in Goiania, Brazil, in late 1987, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) was able to turn to the international community for assistance under the terms of the 1986 IAEA sponsored Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; this marked the first time the convention was invoked. Additionally, to prevent the loss of useful information, CNEN and the IAEA designated a panel of international experts to investigate the causes and consequences of the accident and draw up a comprehensive report, 'The Radiological Accident in Goiania', which the IAEA published in 1988. Under its nuclear safety programme, it is the IAEA's intention to follow up serious radiological accidents with review and analysis, to document the causes and circumstances and to disseminate conclusions, lessons to be learned and recommendations from which all States may benefit. A decade after the Goiania accident, the CNEN convened the international conference 'Goiania, Ten Years Later' in co-operation with the IAEA. The purpose of this conference was to share with the local population and the international community the knowledge gained during this tragic event and in the following years. The conference attracted some 400 participants from 17 countries (Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Estonia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Peru, Russian Federation, Spain, Uruguay, United States of America and Venezuela). The present IAEA proceedings contain some 50 papers selected for publication by the editorial committee of the conference

  15. Whole body monitoring - Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Lourenco, M.C.; Bertelli Neto, L.; Lucena, E.A. de; Becker, P.H.B.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the radiological Cs accident in Goiania, Goias in September 1987, it became necessary to evaluate internal contamination levels of: - Individual from the general public that for any reason had direct or indirect involvement with the radioactive source (group 1). - Occupationally involved persons (group 2). For each of these groups, procedures of whole body monitoring were developped. In order to attend group 1 individuals, the IRD/CNEN installed a whole body unit in the INAMPS General Hospital of Goiania in 11.08.87, which was later transferred to 121,57 street, Central Sector in Goiania in 2.06.88. In this unit 547 people were monitored, 356 from group 1 and 241 from group 2, until 04.13.88. In the IRD whole body counter installation, 194 individuals were counted, 185 from group 2 and 9 from group 1. The frequency of monitoring of each individual was established according to the Cs activity present in the body or to the job to be assigned. In this paper we will present some burden activity curves for Cs 137 as a function of the time elapsed from the first measurement. There people from group 1 were measured in both counters, the IRD and the Goiania ones. The values obtained in both installations are compatible with the body activity x time curve. (author) [pt

  16. Dermatological consequences of the Cs-137 radiological accident in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Lia Candida Miranda de

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of dermatosis in individuals that had been exposed to cesium 137 during the radioactive accident in Goiania, in 1987 and detect pre-cancerous dermatosis or those predictive of low immunity. The groups were evaluated according to the intensity of radiation they had been exposed to and then compared to a control group of people not exposed to radiation. The population exposed to the cesium 137 was comprised of 109 people, who were divided into Groups I and II, according to the CNEN norms. In group I, 54 people with ≤ 20 rads exposure and/or radio lesion were included; in group II, 55 people with > 20 rads exposure were included, along with the children of group I individuals. This was a historic cohort study, that is, a retrospective study that lasted 9 years, extending from September of 1987 to August, 1996. The presence of the oncoprotein p-53 was studied in the radio lesions of 10 patients. There is no evidence of an increase in the incidence of dermatosis in the exposed groups, excepts for pyoderma in patients with radio lesions. The most frequent dermatosis were: pyoderma, pityriasis versicolor, scabies, dermatophytosis and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The results obtained were not statistically significant for the evaluation of dermatosis predictive of low immunity or precancerous lesions. The oncoprotein p-53 in individuals with radio lesion showed a 80% positivity rate and risk factor estimated in 8 times, for the test. It has proved to be useful because it represents one more option in terms of propaedeutic evaluation and suggests that one should pay close and continuous attention in order to better control the evolution of these individuals. (author)

  17. Educational course in emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkova, K.; Stoeva, M.; Cvetkova, S.; Hilendarov, A.; Petrova, A.; Stefanov, P.; Simova, E.; Georgieva, V.; Sirakov, N.

    2012-01-01

    Emergency radiology is the part of radiology primarily focused on acute diagnosing conditions in ER patients. This advanced area of radiology improves the quality of care and treatment of patients and of the emergency medicine as a whole. The educational course in Emergency (ER) Radiology is available for medical students in their 8th and 9th semester. The main objective of the ER course is to obtain knowledge about the indications, possibilities and diagnostic value of the contemporary imaging methods in ER cases. Therapeutic methods under imaging control are also covered by the course. The curriculum of the course consists of 6 lectures and 12 practical classes. (authors)

  18. Plan for radiological emergencies situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada Figueroa, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective for the Emergencies plan it is to reestablish the stock that they should be executed by the regulatory Entity in Guatemala during a real potential radiological emergency situation in the national territory

  19. Dermatological consequences of the Cs-137 radiological accident in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil; Repercussoes dermatologicas no acidente radioativo com o Cesio 137 em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lia Candida Miranda de

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of dermatosis in individuals that had been exposed to cesium{sup 137} during the radioactive accident in Goiania, in 1987 and detect pre-cancerous dermatosis or those predictive of low immunity. The groups were evaluated according to the intensity of radiation they had been exposed to and then compared to a control group of people not exposed to radiation. The population exposed to the cesium{sup 137} was comprised of 109 people, who were divided into Groups I and II, according to the CNEN norms. In group I, 54 people with {<=} 20 rads exposure and/or radio lesion were included; in group II, 55 people with > 20 rads exposure were included, along with the children of group I individuals. This was a historic cohort study, that is, a retrospective study that lasted 9 years, extending from September of 1987 to August, 1996. The presence of the oncoprotein p-53 was studied in the radio lesions of 10 patients. There is no evidence of an increase in the incidence of dermatosis in the exposed groups, excepts for pyoderma in patients with radio lesions. The most frequent dermatosis were: pyoderma, pityriasis versicolor, scabies, dermatophytosis and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The results obtained were not statistically significant for the evaluation of dermatosis predictive of low immunity or precancerous lesions. The oncoprotein p-53 in individuals with radio lesion showed a 80% positivity rate and risk factor estimated in 8 times, for the test. It has proved to be useful because it represents one more option in terms of propaedeutic evaluation and suggests that one should pay close and continuous attention in order to better control the evolution of these individuals. (author)

  20. Radiological emergencies - planning and preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    This information and training film in three parts deals with the technical background for emergency planning, emergency planning concepts and emergency preparedness. It describes the technical characteristics of radiological emergencies on which important emergency planning concepts are based and the purpose of those concepts. The film also demonstrates how emergency organizations must work together to ensure adequate preparedness. The programme reflects the standards, guidance and recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  1. Report of the activities carried out by the Psychological Support Group in the Goiania radiological accident in Brazil; Relatorio de atividades desenvolvidas pelo Nucleo de Apoio Psicologico da Rua 57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The report analyzes the characteristics and attitudes of the population directly involved in the Goiania radiological accident. The inhabitants of the affected area were interviewed in their residence. Factual information about the accidents were given and specific psychological support were received whenever necessary 11 tabs.

  2. The communication of radiological risk to populations exposed to a radiological accident: considerations concerning the accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curado, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to describe the reactions of a population subjected to the effects of a radiological accident and receiving information about radiation effects for the first time. The behaviour of the victims during various phases of the accident is discussed. (author)

  3. Radiological emergency preparedness (REP) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    This talk focuses on the accomplishments of Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program. Major topics include the following: strengthening the partnership between FEMA, the States, and the Industry; the Standard Exercise Report Format (SERF); Multi-year performance partnership agreement (MYPPA); new REP Program guidance; comprehensive exercise program; federal radiological emergency response plan (FRERP); international interest; REP user fee; implementation EPA PAGs and Dose Limits; Contamination monitoring standard for portal monitors; guidance documents and training

  4. Reminiscences of Goiania - 10 years later - the psychological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ana Bandeira de

    1997-01-01

    The author, at that time working at the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission's Human Resources Management Department as psychologist, remembers her experience during the follow-up of the radiological accident which happened in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987, when a 137 Cs capsule was stolen from an abandoned radiotherapy clinic. She emphasizes the emotional impact suffered by the victims, the population, the health team and the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission's staff of emergency responders during the city clean-up and victim's aid and gives some proposals for psychological preparedness to attend radiological emergencies and nuclear accidents. (author)

  5. Reminiscences of Goiania ten years later: the psychological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A B [Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-01

    The author recalls her experiences during the follow-up of the radiological accident in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987, when a {sup 137}Cs capsule was removed from an abandoned radiotherapy clinic. At the time of the accident she was employed by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission`s (CNEN) Department of Human Resources Management as a psychologist. She describes the emotional impact suffered by the victims, the population, the medical care team and the staff of emergency responders of CNEN as they decontaminated the city and cared for the victims. The author puts forward proposals for psychological preparedness for radiological emergencies and nuclear accidents. (author)

  6. Reminiscences of Goiania ten years later: the psychological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    The author recalls her experiences during the follow-up of the radiological accident in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987, when a 137 Cs capsule was removed from an abandoned radiotherapy clinic. At the time of the accident she was employed by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission's (CNEN) Department of Human Resources Management as a psychologist. She describes the emotional impact suffered by the victims, the population, the medical care team and the staff of emergency responders of CNEN as they decontaminated the city and cared for the victims. The author puts forward proposals for psychological preparedness for radiological emergencies and nuclear accidents. (author)

  7. The radiological accident of Goiania and the acceptance by the public of new nuclear power plants; El accidente radiologico de Goiania y la aceptacion publica de nuevas centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldonian, N L; Mattos, L A.T. [Grupo de Energia e Ambiente, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-12-01

    Misunderstandings on the peaceful uses and the safety of nuclear energy have been a leading cause of apprehension in Brazilian public opinion. A lack of knowledge of the characteristics and destination of radioactive wastes and negative media coverage of the use of nuclear energy have aggravated this situation. Believing that applications of nuclear energy are harmful to the population`s welfare and the environment, Brazilian public opinion is opposed to the utilization of nuclear energy, and in particular to the construction of new nuclear power plants. For this reason, the Brazilian nuclear sector should promote a more intensive programme of public discussion, directed not solely at the technical and scientific communities, but also at the Brazilian public at large. Such a campaign would contribute towards a better understanding by Brazilian society of the different uses of nuclear energy and would present arguments in support of the benefits of this form of energy. Moreover, a campaign of this kind would show that negative associations about the use of electricity derived from nuclear power, which are based on the Goiania radiological accident, are not justified. (author) 10 refs, 5 tabs

  8. Lessons from Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari Alves, R.

    2000-01-01

    The lessons learned from the radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 derived from the observations from the Regulatory Agency which was in charge of the decontamination tasks may be consolidated into four classes: Preventive Actions, characterised as those that aim to minimise the probability of occurrence of a radiological accident; Minimisation of time between the moment of the accident occurrence and the beginning of intervention, in case a radiological accident does occur, despite all preventive measures; Intervention, which is correlated to the type of installation, its geographical location, the social classes involved and their contamination vectors; and Follow up, for which well established rules to allow continuing monitoring of the victims and rebuilding of homes are necessary. The greatest lesson of all was the need for integration of the professionals involved, from all organizations. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the nuclear and radiological emergency response system in Brazil; Visao critica do sistema de atendimento a emergencia radiologica e nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Julio J.S.; Azevedo, Eduardo M.; Knoefel, Tom M.J. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has made outstanding efforts to improve its nuclear and radiological accident response system since the tragic accident in Goiania, Brazil. Most of these efforts are related to nuclear emergency although radiological accidents are also considered. Several topics are discussed involving those related to planning and preparedness. Some deficiencies that need to be corrected or improved are pointed out 8 refs.

  10. Report of the psychological support given to victims of the Goiania radiological accident in Brazil; Relatorio das atividades desenvolvidas pela Psicologia no Hospital Geral de Goiania (HGC) e CRF (FEBEM) com as vitimas diretas do Cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Lenice Cruvinel; Pereira, Maria Emilia Pontes

    1988-02-01

    The psychological support given to the victims of the Goiania accident are described. The assistance lasted two months on the average and was given while the victims were in the hospital and later on in the recuperation center 1 tab.

  11. Subsidies to cytogenetic dosimetry technique generated from analysis of results of Goiania radiological accident; Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana Teixeira

    1993-06-15

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, which occurred in September of 1987, peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. During the emergency period, the doses were assessed to help immediate medical treatment. After this initial estimation, doses were reassessed using in vitro calibration curves produced after the accident, more suitable for the conditions prevailing in Goiania. Dose estimates for 24 subjects exceeded 0,5 Gy. Among those, 15 individuals exceeded 1,0 Gy and 5 exceeded 3,0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 6,0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. During the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 14 of the exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two- term exponential function. Up to 470 days after the exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow, almost constant. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (> 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was

  12. Radiological emergencies the first response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This national training course about radiological emergencies first answer include: Targets and preparation for emergency response in case of a nuclear or radiological accident. Operations center, action guide for fire fighting, medical coverage, forensic test, first aid, basic instrumentation for radiation, safety equipment, monitoring radiation, gamma rays, personnel exposed protection , radiation exposure rate, injury and illness for radiation, cancer risk, contamination, decontamination and treatment, markers, personnel dosimetry, training, medical and equipment transportation, shielded and tools. Psychological, physical (health and illness), economical (agriculture and industry) and environment impacts. Terrorist attacks, security belts. Support and international agreements (IAEA)

  13. Cesium-137 accident lessons in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This document relates the experience obtained by several professionals which had an important role in the cesium-137 accident occurred in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil in September, 1987. It's divided into chapters, according to the action area - medical, nursing, social assistance, odontological and psychological. At first, some notions of radioprotection are explained, followed by the accident history and by the doctors and nurses action during the emergency phase and the medical, odontological, social and psychological assistance to the victims. The social assistance report shows some statistical data about the economic, occupational and social conditions of the accident victims. It is shown some information about the health institutions and the sanitary care in the ionizing radiation and about the occupational radiological protection in Goiania

  14. Cesium-137 accident lessons in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil; Licoes do acidente com cesio-137 em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-11-01

    This document relates the experience obtained by several professionals which had an important role in the cesium-137 accident occurred in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil in September, 1987. It`s divided into chapters, according to the action area - medical, nursing, social assistance, odontological and psychological. At first, some notions of radioprotection are explained, followed by the accident history and by the doctors and nurses action during the emergency phase and the medical, odontological, social and psychological assistance to the victims. The social assistance report shows some statistical data about the economic, occupational and social conditions of the accident victims. It is shown some information about the health institutions and the sanitary care in the ionizing radiation and about the occupational radiological protection in Goiania. 38 refs., 8 tabs.

  15. Analysis of the external doses received by workers involved in the mitigation of the Goiania radiological accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2017-07-01

    In 1987, after identification that a stolen head of a Cs-137 radiotherapy irradiator was violated, it starts, in Goiania, the screening of the involved persons, the decontamination and the collection of the radiative waste. The contaminated areas were isolated and the professionals who worked within these areas received individual film monitors and TLD rings, provided by the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD), to evaluate their external dose. The aim of this paper is to present a statistical analysis of the external occupational doses received by this intervention staff. The used data were extracted from the Goiania accident database, maintained by IRD. A total of 1091 workers were monitored, some for only a few days and others for almost one year. All the total external occupational doses, received during these works, including the management of the radiative waste, were lower than the individual annual dose limit of 50 mSv for practices. Only one dose exceeded the value of 20 mSv. Their estimated mean effective doses were about 1.0 mSv, which is the annual dose limit for public exposure. About 80% of the doses were lower than this value. (author)

  16. Radiological criteria in nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, D.; Diaz de la Cruz, F.

    1985-01-01

    It is pretended to enlighten the way to adopt the recommendations, from supranational organizations or the practices followed in other countries, to the peculiarities existing in Spain for the specific case of Nuclear Emergency Response Planning. The adaptation has been focalized in the criteria given by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council and has taken into account the radiological protection levels, which have been considered adequate for Spanish population in case of nuclear accidents. (author)

  17. Handling of overexposed persons in radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this standard procedure of the criteria in case of radiological emergencies is to describe the standard procedures used to define an radiological accident in terms of the doses received, and to describe the medical procedures for diagnoses and treatment of health hazards caused by external and internal irradiation in radiological emergencies

  18. External plans for radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, G.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1989, the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico shares in the task of Food and Water Control corresponding to the FT-86 task force of External Plans for Radiological Emergency (PERE), in charge of the Veracruz Health Services. In the PERE preparation stage previous actions are necessary developed for the preparation and updating of this plan and the task organization with the purpose to maintaining standing and operable in any time and circumstance, the capability to response in the face of an emergency. This stage englobes activities which must be realized before to carry out the Plan as they are the specialized training of personnel which participates and the execution of exercises and simulacrums. Until 1998, training and exercises for this task had been realized under diverse possible sceneries but in conditions that simulated the presence of radioactive material. For this reason, it should be emphasized the training realized during the days 6th, 7th, 8th July, 1999, in the emergency planning zone of the Plan, which to carry out using radioactive material. The National Institute of Nuclear Research had in charge of the training. This work describes all the activities for the realization of this training. (Author)

  19. Reminiscences of Goiania - 10 years later - the psychological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ana Bandeira de

    1997-12-31

    The author, at that time working at the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission`s Human Resources Management Department as psychologist, remembers her experience during the follow-up of the radiological accident which happened in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987, when a {sup 137} Cs capsule was stolen from an abandoned radiotherapy clinic. She emphasizes the emotional impact suffered by the victims, the population, the health team and the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission`s staff of emergency responders during the city clean-up and victim`s aid and gives some proposals for psychological preparedness to attend radiological emergencies and nuclear accidents. (author) 8 refs.; e-mail: anita at openlink.com.br

  20. Medical rescue for nuclear or radiologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaohua; Nie Suifeng

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear or radiologic emergencies are defined as incidents that are caused by radioactive substance or by other sources of radiation and can pose a serious hazard to public health. In case of nuclear or radiologic emergencies, radioactive rays will damage the human body and bring about psychological and mental stress, resulting in a series of social psychological effects. The key to medical rescue for nuclear or radiologic emergencies is to take effective measures which can minimize the body harm resulting from nuclear or radiologic emergencies and maintain social stability. This article reviews the personnel protection, on-the-spot salvage, treatments of various harm, and prevention of public psychological effect following nuclear or radiologic emergencies. (authors)

  1. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, M. A. W.; Ali, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency. (authors)

  2. Radiation protection during the medical assistance to the victims of the accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.H.C.; Fajardo, P.W.; Rosa, R.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the casualities of the radiological accident occured in Goiania (Brazil), consequence of the violation of a Cs-137 source were assisted at Marcillo Dias Naval Hospital. The risks associated to the contact with the patients were radioactive contamination and external exposure. To deal with this problem, a Radiation Protection Group was formed and a Radiation Protection Program was developed and implemented in order to assure that risks would be maintained as low as reasonably achievable. The objective of this paper is to present the acquired experience on the radiation protection support in case of emergency medical assistance in radiological accidents. (author). 1 ref.; 2 tabs

  3. Study of {sup 137} Cs contamination in Rochedo Reservoir, Meia Ponte river (Goias State) from the radiologic accident in Goiania; Estudo da contaminacao por {sup 137} Cs na Represa do Rochedo, Rio Meia Ponte (GO), proveniente do acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, Marcia Emilia M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica; Godoy, Jose Marcos O. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Through {sup 137} Cs concentration profiles in sediments from Rochedo Reservoir, it was possible to estimate the amount of this radionuclide (94 GBq) which has reached the Meia Ponte River system, as a consequence of the Goiania radiological accident in 1987. Based on in-situ measurements as well as on laboratory studies, the influence of N H{sub 4}{sup +} concentration on the K{sub d} value was also investigated. The results have shown that for high N H{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations there is a clear correlation between both parameters. It was also observed the influence on the aging effect on the {sup 137} Cs release from the sediment, as well as of the illite content in it. (author) 9 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Whole-body monitoring: Goiania case, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Lourenco, M.C.; Dantas, B.M.; Lucena, E.A. de; Becker, P.H.B.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the radiological Cs accident in Goiania, Goias in September 1987, it became necessary to evaluate internal contamination levels of: individuals from the general public that for any reason had direct or indirect involvement with the radioactive source (group 1); occupationally involved persons (group 2). For each of these groups, procedures of whole body monitoring were developped. In order to attend group 1 individuals, the IRD/CNEN installed a whole body unit in the INAMPS General Hospital of Goiania in 11.08.87, which was later transferred to 121, 57 street, Central Sector in Goiania in 2.06.88. In this unit 547 people were monitored, 356 from group 1 and 241 from group 2, until 04.13.88. In the IRD whole body counter installation, 194 individuals were counted, 185 from group 2 and 9 from group 1. The frequency of monitoring of each individual was stablished according to the Cs activity present in the body or to the job that will be done. Some body burden activity curves for Cs 137 as a function of the time elapsed from the first measurement, are presented. There people from group 1 were measured in both counters, the IRD and the Goiania ones. The values obtained in both installations are compatible with the body activity X time curve. (author) [pt

  5. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  6. Monitoring techniques for the impact assessment during nuclear and radiological emergencies: current status and the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    Preparedness and response capability for Nuclear and Radiological emergencies, existing world over, are mainly based on the requirement of responding to radiation emergency caused by nuclear or radiological accidents. Cosmos satellite accident, plutonium contamination at Polaris, nuclear accidents like Kystium, Windscale, TMI and Chernobyl, radiological accidents at Goiania etc have demonstrated the requirement of improved radiation monitoring techniques. For quick decision making, state of the art monitoring methodology which can support quantitative and qualitative impact assessment is essential. Evaluation of radiological mapping of the area suspected to be contaminated needs ground based as well as aerial based monitoring systems to predict the level of radioactive contamination on ground. This will help in delineating the area and deciding the required countermeasures, based on the quantity and type of radionuclides responsible for it. The response can be successful with the effective use of i) Early Warning System ii) Mobile Monitoring System and iii) Aerial Gamma Spectrometric System. Selection of the monitoring methodology and survey parameters and assessment of situation using available resources etc. are to be optimized depending on the accident scenario. Recently, many countries and agencies like IAEA have expressed the requirement for responding to other types of nuclear/radiological emergencies i.e, man made radiation emergency situations aimed at harming public at large that can also lead to environmental contamination and significant exposure to public. Reports of lost / misplaced / stolen radioactive sources from many countries are alarming as safety and security of these radioactive sources are under challenge. The monitoring methodology has to take into account of the increase in such demands and more periodic monitoring in suspected locations is to be carried out. Detection of orphan sources possible amidst large heap of metallic scraps may pose

  7. Emergencies in radiology: a survey of radiologist and radiology trainees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Simon; Naidoo, Parmanand

    2014-01-01

    Emergencies in radiology are infrequent but potentially lethal. Australian and New Zealand radiologists are advised to undergo resuscitation training at least every three years; however, little is known about their experience and confidence in managing common emergencies relevant to their clinical practice. This paper describes the current experience and confidence of radiologists and radiology trainees in Australia and New Zealand in the management of common medical emergencies. A cross-sectional online survey of trainees and fellows of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiology collected data on training and learning preferences relating to resuscitation and life-support skills, access to emergency medical care, and knowledge, confidence and ability in managing a variety of medical emergencies. There were 602 responses to the survey (response rate 23.4%). The majority of respondents were interested in learning more about the management of contrast reactions, cardiac arrest, ischaemic chest pain and basic life support. Self-rated knowledge, confidence and ability were higher in respondents who had completed life-support training within the previous three years. In this group, however, more than 40% rated their ability at managing contrast reactions as poor or fair, while more than 60% rated their ability as poor or fair for management of cardiac arrest, basic life support, advanced life support and dosing of adrenaline. Preferred resuscitation training modalities included simulation, small-group tutorials and workshops. Self-reported level of skill and expertise in the management of potential emergencies in radiology is suboptimal among a large number of respondents. Consideration should be given to addressing this by improving access to specific training.

  8. Emergency radiology curriculum at Medical University - Plovdiv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkova, K.; Hilendarov, A.; Cvetkova, S.; Stoeva, M.; Petrova, A.; Stefanov, P.; Simova, E.; Georgieva, V.; Sirakov, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Recent advances in contemporary radiology turn it into one of the major sources for patient information with improved emergency techniques. Emergency Radiology (EP) focuses on acute diagnosing conditions in ER patients. Objectives: The main objective of this paper is to present the ER curriculum at Medical Imaging Department, Medical University - Plovdiv, aiming to deliver knowledge about the indications, possibilities and diagnostic value of the contemporary imaging methods in ER cases. Material and methods: The curriculum covers various aspects of ER Radiology - diagnostic imaging methods, contrast enhanced examinations, imaging topography, traumatic and acute conditions, physical and technical aspects. It includes 6 lectures and 12 practical classes. Results and discussion: The educational course in Emergency Radiology is available for medical students in their 8-th and 9-th semester. Therapeutic methods under imaging control are also covered by the course. Conclusion: Being one of the most advanced areas of radiology, ER improves the quality of care and treatment of patients and of the emergency medicine as a whole

  9. Mobilization suited for each radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambrette, V.

    2013-01-01

    This poster presents the role played by IRSN (French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety) in case of radiological alert. This alert can be sent by the administration, a fire brigade, a nuclear operator or a remote monitor of radioactivity. In case of an emergency situation: IRSN provides radiological intervention and assistance on the site. In case of national crisis organization, IRSN will implement the emergency technical center and will send a mobile cell to the Operational Command Station of the Prefecture concerned. In both cases IRSN will be in charge of assessing the individuals' exposure and the impact on the environment

  10. The radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The report is based on a meeting held in Brazil, 19-27 July 1988. It describes how the accident occurred, examines how it was managed and how its consequences were contained, and sets out observations and recommendations based upon lessons learned. Many people received large doses of radiation, due to both external and internal exposure. Four of the casualties ultimately died and 28 people suffered radiation burns. Residences and public places were contaminated. The decontamination necessitated the demolition of seven residences and various other buildings, and the removal of the topsoil from large areas. In total 3,500 m 3 of radioactive waste was generated. Refs, figs, tabs and photographs

  11. Emergency radiology in Canada: a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreggiani, W.C.; Nicolaou, S.; Lyburn, I.D.; Harris, A.C.; Buckley, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    To document the existing radiology services available to emergency physicians in hospitals across Canada and to preview future trends and needs. Questionnaires (n = 130) regarding the type, availability and satisfaction with radiology services were distributed to radiologists and emergency physicians at 65 hospitals across Canada. Fifty-three (41%) questionnaires were returned, and 45 (35%) completed questionnaires from 35 hospitals were used for analysis (24 from radiologists and 21 from emergency physicians). Plain radiographs were available in all hospitals at all times. Ultrasonography, intravenous pyleograms and computed tomography (CT) were available in all departments during normal working hours; after hours, CT was unavailable in 1 hospital and ultrasonography was unavailable in 2. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) was routinely performed for blunt abdominal trauma in 6 centres, and 10 centres had teleradiology services. Regarding the quality of emergency service, 7 of 45 responded 'poor,' 4 'average,' 14 'good,' and 17 of 45 rated service 'excellent.' Interestingly, most radiologists answered 'good' or 'excellent,' and most of the 'poor' responses came from emergency physicians. Regarding staff coverage after 5 pm, 34 hospitals provided CT services, 20 had ultrasonography staff available, and there was radiology nursing coverage in 14 hospitals. Clinical details on requisitions were generally rated 'adequate' or 'poor.' Although most radiograph reports were available within 48 hours, some took longer. Hot-seat reporting was available in 11 centres. During normal working hours, radiologists were the first to read films in 5 of 35 hospitals. After hours, emergency physicians were the first to read films in all hospitals, but only 14 hospitals indicated they were 'formally' trained to do so. This survey documents the strengths and weaknesses of the radiology services available to emergency physicians. The perceptions of emergency physicians

  12. Radiological aerial monitoring in a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeongki; Kim, Juyoul; Jung, Gunhyo

    2008-01-01

    Since North Korea announced the underground nuclear test on last October 9th, 2006, many countries around the world have worried about the atmospheric dispersion and pollution of radioactive materials crossing the border by the clandestine nuclear test. After that time, verifying the existence of nuclear test by detecting radioactive materials such as xenon, I-131, and Cs-134 at the early stage of radiological emergency, locating the position of test site by backward trajectory analysis, and chasing the moving path of airborne radionuclide have been heavily issued. And collection of airborne radioactivity and gamma radiation monitoring technology using an aircraft have been recently examined by an authority concerned in South Korea. Although various techniques of radiological aerial monitoring have been developed and operated around the world, the relevant technical development or research is still required. In order to decide potential measuring location and time within the framework of radiological monitoring system, we use HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model developed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of U.S. Department of Commerce. The model is validated and assessed against North Korea's nuclear test. Calculation results of radionuclide trajectory show a good agreement with measured values. Backward trajectory analysis is useful to track the radiological source term, possible time and place of nuclear accidents and/or activities. Nationwide early warning system using aircraft and atmospheric dispersion model can help a nearly real-time forecasting and warning in preparation for radiological emergencies. (author)

  13. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, P.

    1998-01-01

    The state of Louisiana's radiological emergency response programme is based on the federal guidance 'Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants' (NUREG-0654, FEMA-REP-1 Rev. 1). Over the past 14 years, the planning and implementation of response capabilities became more organized and efficient; the training programme has strengthened considerably; co-ordination with all participating agencies has assumed a more co-operative role, and as a result, a fairly well integrated response planning has evolved. Recently, a more 'functional' approach is being adopted to maximize the programme's efficiency not only for nuclear power plant emergency response, but radiological emergency response as a whole. First, several broad-based 'components' are identified; clusters of 'nodes' are generated for each component; these 'nodes' may be divided into 'sub-nodes' which will contain some 'attributes'; 'relational bonds' among the 'attributes' will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the 'nodes' assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the 'attributes'. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is thus eliminated, the overlapping of functions is avoided, and a well structured and efficient organization is produced, that is essential for today's complex nature of emergency response. (author)

  14. Off-site response for radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, J.S.; Oakes, T.W.; Hubbard, H.M.; Hibbitts, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental radiological surveillance under emergency conditions at off-site locations is one of the advisory functions provided by DOE within the ORO jurisdiction. The Department of Environmental Management of ORNL has been requested to provide sampling and analytical assistance at such emergency response activities. We have assembled and identified specific individuals and equipment to provide a rapid response force to perform field measurements for environmental radioactivity releases as a consequence of nuclear accidents. Survey teams for sample collection and field measurements are provided along with analytical assistance to operate the radioactivity measuring equipment in the DOE emergency van

  15. Psychosocial aspects of the victims of the accident with caesium-137 in Goiania (1987-1994)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curado, M P [Fundacao Leide das Neves Ferreira, Goias (Brazil); Costa Neto, S B [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Psicologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2000-05-01

    In September of 1987 two men took possession of and violated a source containing Caesium-137, which caused the Radiological Accident of Goiania. Besides the direct victims, a significant part of the community of Goiania was directly involved with this accident. The psychosocial impact in the social groups involved in this radiological accident - the population as a whole, immediate neighbours of contaminated sites, professionals and the victims themselves - gave rise to specific behaviour and attitudes which will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  16. Psychosocial aspects of the victims of the accident with caesium-137 in Goiania (1987-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curado, M.P.; Costa Neto, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    In September of 1987 two men took possession of and violated a source containing Caesium-137, which caused the Radiological Accident of Goiania. Besides the direct victims, a significant part of the community of Goiania was directly involved with this accident. The psychosocial impact in the social groups involved in this radiological accident - the population as a whole, immediate neighbours of contaminated sites, professionals and the victims themselves - gave rise to specific behaviour and attitudes which will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Prosanta [Louisiana Radiation Protection Div., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The radiological emergency response program in the State of Louisiana is discussed. The improved approach intends to maximize the efficiency for both nuclear power plant and radiological emergency response as a whole. Several broad-based components are identified: cluster of `nodes` are generated for each component; these `nodes` may be divided into `sub-nodes` which will contain some `attributes`; `relational bonds` among the `attributes` will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the `nodes` assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the `attributes`. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is eliminated; overlapping of functions is avoided, and is produced a well-structure and efficient organization 1 ref., 6 figs.; e-mail: prosanta at deq.state.la.us

  18. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Prosanta

    1997-01-01

    The radiological emergency response program in the State of Louisiana is discussed. The improved approach intends to maximize the efficiency for both nuclear power plant and radiological emergency response as a whole. Several broad-based components are identified: cluster of 'nodes' are generated for each component; these 'nodes' may be divided into 'sub-nodes' which will contain some 'attributes'; 'relational bonds' among the 'attributes' will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the 'nodes' assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the 'attributes'. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is eliminated; overlapping of functions is avoided, and is produced a well-structure and efficient organization

  19. Short radiological emergency response training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.D.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of a radiological emergency response training program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the health physics and safety training staff. This course is given to groups from local, county, state, and federal agencies and industrial organizations. It is normally three days in length, although the structure is flexible to accommodate individual needs and prior training. An important feature of the course is an emergency exercise utilizing a short lived radionuclide to better simulate real accident conditions. Groups are encouraged to use their own instruments to gain better familiarity with their operating characteristics under field conditions. Immediately following the exercise, a critical review of the students' performance is conducted

  20. Brazilian emergency planning for radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Brazilian emergency planning for radiological accidents is organized to respond promptly to any emergency at nuclear power plants or other installations utilizing nuclear fuel. It consists of several committees: a general coordination committee with representatives from several federal departments, with final decision with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (SEMA). Some committees conduct support activities. For example, the Operational Coordination Committee supervises the tasks undertaken by the Army, Navy, and Air Force in response to the needs and decisions of the general coordination committee

  1. Early measurements after the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Moreira, M.C.F.; Fonseca, E.S. da

    2000-01-01

    During the early, intermediate late phase of the Goiania radiological accident different survey methods were applied involving aerial and terrestrial (using a car and directly in the field) inspections. The present work aims to show how and when they were and the obtained results. Furthermore, the 137 Cs concentration in soils were determined using a NaI(Tl) spectrometer during the accident, and also in Rio de Janeiro in a high resolution gamma spectrometry system. The concordance among those results and the validity of the 137 Cs measurements in soil with NaI(TI) are demonstrated. (author)

  2. Offsite emergency radiological monitoring system and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yongze

    1994-01-01

    The study and advance of the offsite radiological monitoring system and technology which is an important branch in the field of nuclear monitoring technology are described. The author suggests that the predicting and measuring system should be involved in the monitoring system. The measuring system can further be divided into four sub-systems, namely plume exposure pathway, emergency worker, ingestion exposure pathway and post accident recovery measuring sub-systems. The main facilities for the monitoring system are concluded as one station, one helicopter, one laboratory and two vehicles. The instrumentation for complement of the facilities and their good performance characteristics, up-to-date technology are also introduced in brief. The offsite emergency radiation monitoring system and technology are compared in detail with those recommended by FEMA U.S.A.. Finally the paper discusses some trends in development of emergency radiation monitoring system and technology in the developed countries

  3. Management of a radiological emergency. Organization and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiau, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    After a recall of potential radiological emergency situations and their associated risks, this article describes the organization in France of the crisis management and its operation at the national and international scale: 1 - Nuclear or radiological emergency situations and their associated risks: inventory of ionising radiation sources, accidental situations, hazards; 2 - crisis organization in situation of radiological or nuclear emergency: organization at the local scale, organization at the national scale; 3 - management of emergency situations: accident at a facility, action circle, radiological emergency situations outside nuclear facilities, international management of crisis, situations that do not require the implementation of an emergency plan. (J.S.)

  4. Distinguishing human responses to radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.H. Jr.; Ziegler, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inherent in the revised emergency planning regulations recently issued by the federal government is the assumption that people will follow official protective action advisories during a nuclear reactor accident. In this paper the authors argue that this is an unrealistic assumption and present empirical evidence which supports the proposition that a radiological emergency in likely to give rise to a high degree of extreme public behavior. Their analyses indicate that less than one-third of the households on Long Island are likely to follow instructions in the event of an accident at the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. Among the families who would not follow instructions, some would underreact but most would overreact. Perceived distance from the plant and age of household head appear to be the strongest discriminators among those who are most likely to follow orders, those most likely to underreact, and those most likely to overreact. Implications for radiological emergency preparedness and response planning are discussed. 71 references, 3 figures, 8 tables

  5. Exercising the federal radiological emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.; Wolff, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Multiagency exercises were an important part of the development of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This paper concentrates on two of these exercises, the Federal Field Exercise in March 1984 and the Relocation Tabletop Exercise in December 1985. The Federal Field Exercise demonstrated the viability and usefulness of the draft plan; lessons learned from the exercise were incorporated into the published plan. The Relocation Tabletop Exercise examined the federal response in the postemergency phase. This exercise highlighted the change over time in the roles of some agencies and suggested response procedures that should be developed or revised. 8 refs

  6. A model national emergency plan for radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    The IAEA has supported several projects for the development of a national response plan for radiological emergencies. As a result, the IAEA has developed a model National Emergency Response Plan for Radiological Accidents (RAD PLAN), particularly for countries that have no nuclear power plants. This plan can be adapted for use by countries interested in developing their own national radiological emergency response plan, and the IAEA will supply the latest version of the RAD PLAN on computer diskette upon request

  7. A model national emergency response plan for radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The IAEA has supported several projects for the development of a national response plan for radiological emergencies. As a results, the IAEA has developed a model National Emergency Response Plan for Radiological Accidents (RAD PLAN), particularly for countries that have no nuclear power plants. This plan can be adapted for use by countries interested in developing their own national radiological emergency response plan, and the IAEA will supply the latest version of the RAD PLAN on computer diskette upon request. 2 tabs

  8. The Goiania accident - environmental survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Moreira, M.C.F.; Fonseca, E.S. da

    1997-01-01

    The survey methods applied during the Goiania accident could be considered complementary one to the other, and were able to give a clear picture about the contamination in the city to guide the further decontamination works. (author)

  9. Spinoffs from radiological emergency preparedness programmes to generic emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the USA, the radiological emergency preparedness (REP) programme for nuclear power plants is being used to enhance emergency management programmes for other types of emergencies. The REP programme is particularly useful in developing plans and preparedness measures for chemical accidents. The Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) approach provides a means for maximizing relationships between the REP programme and other programmes. IEMS essentially involves applying common elements of planning and preparedness to all types of emergencies, while recognizing that unique characteristics of specific natural and man-made emergencies require special planning and preparedness considerations. Features of the REP programme that make it compatible with the IEMS approach and useful in coping with other types of emergencies are: (1) the close co-operation between the national nuclear regulatory and emergency management organizations; (2) the programme integration among all levels of government, the nuclear power industry, public interest groups and the general public and (3) the comprehensiveness and sophistication of the programme. The REP programme in the USA represents a state-of-the-art emergency management capability. Some of its elements are readily transferrable to most other types of emergency preparedness programmes, while other elements can be adapted more readily to other hazard-specific programmes. The Bhopal accident has been a catalyst for this adaptation to chemical accidents, in such areas as furnishing hazard-specific information to the public, alert and notification systems, definition of the hazards and risks involved, establishing planning zones and developing close working relationships among the industry, the public and government

  10. Forensic radiology: An emerging tool in identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In any mass disaster condition, identification of the person is most important. For this purpose, the forensic investigators use different methods for identifying the dead. They consider skeletal remains of the dead as the initial step in identification. Radiographs carry great evidence to act as antemortem records and also assist in identifying the person, age, gender, race, etc. Forensic dentistry is also emerging as a new branch in forensics. So, the forensic dentist must be aware of different techniques, developments, and resources to incorporate the technology in order to achieve success in human identification. So, our aim of the present review is to focus on different radiological techniques and new developments available for successful identification of the dead.

  11. A probable radiological emergency in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: When a therapeutic dose of 131 I is indicated, especially in the thyroid carcinomas, the authorized doctor must always have present the possibility that the patient eliminates high activities of the radio-active material with the vomit. Keeping in mind that dose of 100 to 200 mCi is habitual in the carcinoma of thyroid, this episode can constitute a true radiological emergency, particularly because the first ones in taking knowledge of the fact can be people without appropriate preparation to this situation, what can cause contaminations difficult to manage them. Because it is not acceptable that a source open of high activity remains without treatment long time, the authorized doctor must act immediately, for that which should be prepared with anticipation, and have the necessary elements, to have an operative routine and to administer the storage of the polluted elements appropriately. To such an effect, we have orchestrated a sequential program of performance of 11 points, in the cases of plentiful vomits, with contamination of floors and things of the room. The program begins with the writing instructions for the patient and the personnel of infirmary in case of feeling desires to vomit, and de program is completed in case of being necessary. The elements are detailed in a handbag that contains for radiological emergencies for vomit. It notes that the low cost of the elements and clothes kind for surgery disposable. It discusses about the necessity of having prepared rooms for to receive patient with treatment with 131 I, in the clinics and public hospitals. (author) [es

  12. Brazilian bentonite study: use in Goiania; Estudo das bentonitas nacionais: utilizacao em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The evaluation of the bentonite effect in the waste cementation process and in the final solidified product properties is presented. The research showed that bentonite amounts until 15% in the product improves the caesium retention without jeopardizing the other product properties. These results were very useful in the treatment of the wastes from the radiological accident occurred in Goiania in 1987, when a caesium sources was broken. Paste, mortar and grout with bentonite were used to solidify and immobilize these wastes. (author) 20 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.; e-mail: tellocc at urano.cdtn.br

  13. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  14. Planning for a radiological emergency in health care institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez Vegueria, S.F.; Jerez Vegueria, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    The possible occurrence of accidents involving sources of ionizing radiation calls for response plans to mitigate the consequences of radiological accidents. An emergency planning framework is suggested for institutions which use medical applications of ionizing radiation. Bearing in mind that the prevention of accidents is of prime importance in dealing with radioactive materials and other sources of ionizing radiation, it is recommended that emergency instructions and procedures address certain aspects of the causes of these radiological events. Issues such as identification of radiological events in medical practices and their consequences, protective measures, planning for an emergency response and maintenance of emergency capacity are considered. (author)

  15. Medical intervention in radiological emergencies, formation and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas H, J.

    2006-01-01

    The work exposes the national experience in the development of training programs in medical aspects of the radiological emergencies. Implemented after valuing the existent situation, identified the necessities and the reach of the training, additionally it was elaborated the content of the training program whose purpose is guided to the invigoration of the medical answer capacity in radiological emergencies The content of the modular program it approaches theoretical- practical aspects on preparation and medical answer in radiological emergencies. The program includes an exercise that simulates a radiological accident, to evaluate during the same one, the answer capacity before this situation. The training concludes with the design of a strategy for the preparation and answer in radiological emergencies in correspondence with the potential accidental scenarios that the participants can face. (Author)

  16. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms

  17. Review of IAEA documentation on Nuclear and radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhono, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    The project focuses on the review of IAEA documentation on nuclear or radiological emergencies with main focus on methodology for developing and arrangement for nuclear and radiological emergencies. The main objective of this work is to identify limitations in IAEA documentation on emergency preparedness and response (EPR) and provide recommendation on the main actions needed to fill the gaps identified thus aiding in improvement of emergency preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological accidents. The review of IAEA documentation on nuclear and radiological emergency has been carried out by evaluating various emergency response elements. Several elements for EPR were highlighted covering the safety fundamentals, general safety requirements and EPR methods for development of an effective emergence response capability for nuclear or radiological emergencies. From these issues, the limitations of IAEA documentation on EPR were drawn and recommendations suggested as a means of improving EPR methods. Among them was the need for IAEA consider establishment of follow up and inspection programmes to facilitate implementation of EPR requirements in most developing countries, establishment of programmes that provide platforms for the countries to be motivated to update their system in line with the current status of emergency preparedness, review of the international information exchange aspects of nuclear emergencies in order to improve capabilities to communicate reliable data, information and decisions quickly and effectively among national authorities and their emergency and emergency response centres. (au)

  18. Generic procedures for assessment and response during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    One of the most important aspects of managing a radiological emergency is the ability to promptly and adequately determine and take actions to protect members of the public and emergency workers. Radiological accident assessment must take account of all critical information available at any time and must be an iterative and dynamic process aimed at reviewing the response as more detailed and complete information becomes available. This manual provides the tools, generic procedures and data needed for an initial response to a non-reactor radiological accident. This manual is one out of a set of IAEA publications on emergency preparedness and response, including Method for the Development of Emergency Response Preparedness for Nuclear or Radiological Accidents (IAEA-TECDOC-953), Generic Assessment Procedures for Determining Protective Actions During a Reactor Accident (IAEA-TECDOC-955) and Intervention Criteria in a Nuclear or Radiation Emergency (Safety Series No. 109)

  19. Evaluation criteria for emergency response plans in radiological transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper identifies a set of general criteria which can be used as guides for evaluating emergency response plans prepared in connection with the transportation of radiological materials. The development of criteria takes the form of examining the meaning and role of emergency plans in general, reviewing the process as it is used in connection with natural disasters and other nonnuclear disasters, and explicitly considering unique aspects of the radiological transportation setting. Eight areas of critical importance for such response plans are isolated: notification procedures; accident assessment; public information; protection of the public at risk; other protective responses; radiological exposure control; responsibility for planning and operations; and emergency response training and exercises. (Auth.)

  20. Application of geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.; Mueller, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Comprehensive and timely radiological, cultural, and environmental data are required in order to make informed decisions during a radiological emergency. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. The most recent addition to this essential function has been the development of the Field Analysis System for Emergency Response (FASER). It is an integrated system with compatible digital image processing and Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities. FASER is configured with commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software components. To demonstrate the potential of the FASER system for radiological emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. (R.P.)

  1. Technical support and preparations for the response to radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas H, J.; Ramos V, E.O.; Fernandez G, I.M.; Capote F, E.; Zerquera J, T.; Garcia L, O.; Lopez B, G.; Molina P, D.; Lamdrid B, A.I.; Benitez N, J.C.; Salgado M, M.; Lopez F, Y.; Jerez V, P.

    2006-01-01

    The work picks up the efforts directed to elevate the technical capacity of the answer in front of the radiological emergencies. Expressing them by means of the actions carried out as for teaching, research and development and intervention before accidental radiological events. The same one reflects the leading role of the participant institutions in those marks of the answer system to radiological emergencies that for its technical level it satisfies the national and international demands in the matter. In execution of the mentioned goals research projects guided to endow to the national system of methodologies and procedures for the administration of radiological emergencies have been executed that favor the improvement of its technical and organizational capacities. As well as the postulates of the National Plan of Measures for Case of Catastrophes in the corresponding to radiological accidents. (Author)

  2. Planning and preparedness for radiological emergencies at nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, R.; Muzzarelli, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program was created after the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) assists state and local governments in reviewing and evaluating state and local REP plans and preparedness for accidents at nuclear power plants, in partnership with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which evaluates safety and emergency preparedness at the power stations themselves. Argonne National Laboratory provides support and technical assistance to FEMA in evaluating nuclear power plant emergency response exercises, radiological emergency plans, and preparedness

  3. Emerging new modalities in dental radiology and radiation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Dental radiology is emerging day by day with technological innovations and new dental radiological equipments. These sophisticated new emerging technological raise a concern about the radiation emitted by these equipments. This becomes more relevant in the context that there is frequent diagnostic radiographic exposure of head and neck region due to recurrent dental problems. The presentation deals with radiation exposure to the patients and professionals from these equipments. (author)

  4. The early medical response to the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, N.J.; Oliveira, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Goiania accident was the most severe radiological one that ever happened in the western hemisphere. The response to its human, social, environmental, economical and psychological burdens represented a huge challenge. Thanks to a multi-institutional intervention the consequences of the accident were greatly minimised. The medical response followed the same pattern and was based on a three-level system of progressive assistance. The early medical response encompassed medical and 'radiological' triage, admission to a specially prepared ward of a local hospital and treatment at a reference center in Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  5. Planning for spontaneous evacuation during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) radiological emergency preparedness program ignores the potential problem of spontaneous evacuation during a nuclear reactor accident. To show the importance of incorporating the emergency spatial behaviors of the population at risk in radiological emergency preparedness and response plans, this article presents empirical evidence that demonstrates the potential magnitude and geographic extent of spontaneous evacuation in the event of an accident at the Long Island Lighting Company's Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. The results indicate that, on the average, 39% of the population of Long Island is likely to evacuate spontaneously and thus to cast an evacuation shadow extending at least 25 miles beyond the plant. On the basis of these findings, necessary revisions to FEMA's radiological emergency preparedness program are outlined

  6. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states

  7. Diagnostic efficacy of handheld devices for emergency radiologic consultation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, Rachel J

    2010-02-01

    Orthopedic injury and intracranial hemorrhage are commonly encountered in emergency radiology, and accurate and timely diagnosis is important. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the diagnostic accuracy of handheld computing devices is comparable to that of monitors that might be used in emergency teleconsultation.

  8. L-62: Radiological emergencies revision to first responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference describes the different types of radiological emergencies, the different emergency situations as well as the experience obtained. The radioactive material places, the damages and injuries caused by radioactive sources, the overexposure and the contamination levels are the main aspects to be considered in each situation

  9. Airborne systems for emergency radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupiter, C.; Boyns, P.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of aerial radiological monitoring systems are available to respond to a radiological accident or incident affecting large areas. These are operated by EG and G, Inc. for ERDA's Division of Operational Safety. A survey system can be airborne within approximately two hours after notification. Both airborne and terrestrial radioactivity can be measured and mapped. Special analysis procedures allow discrimination between radioactivity from most man-made radioelements and naturally occurring radioelements. A position accuracy of +-54 feet can be maintained over a large area survey. Detection sensitivity for gamma sources employing NaI detector arrays on board an airplane flying at 500 feet altitude is better than 2 μR/hr for surface planar contaminants and approximately 10 mCi for a point gamma source

  10. Method for the analysis pre and post radiological emergency (MAPPER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Velazquez, R.S.; Perez Gonzalez, F.; Fornet Rodriguez, O.; Mustelier Echavarria, A.; Miller Clemente, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Everything practices associated to the employment he/she gives ionizing radiations it generates a risk, and therefore the possibility exists potentially, he/she gives occurrences he/she gives a radiological accident. Assisting it, all the entities where the nuclear techniques are applied, they should have a method that allows them to evaluate, before y/o after having happened a radiological accident, if the planning and preparation to face emergencies give this it is or it has been effective

  11. Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis: Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. The FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), which is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted State(s) and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division (M ampersand A) is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, and quality assurance. To assure consistency, completeness, and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures manual is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets, and operations of the FRMAC M ampersand A and the content and preparation of the manual

  12. Development on the radiological emergency management guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khang, Byung Oui; Lee, Jong Tai; Lee, Goan Yup; Lee, Moon

    2000-01-01

    The comprehensive emergency management system in KAERI describes the requirements for emergency plan, preparedness, evaluations and readiness assurance, response and recovery activities to timely and effectively countermeasure according to the type and size of an event. The guidance of facility emergency plan and detailed response procedures for initial action, building/site evacuation, personnel accountability, search and fire fighting in the radioactive, fissionable, toxic and inflammable hazardous substances handling facilities are also developed. (author)

  13. Radiological emergency preparedness arrangements in the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, V.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the different procedures established within the European Commission, which are relevant to radiological emergency planning and response. Although emergency preparedness is a national responsibility within the European Union, the Commission has clearly defined operational tasks in terms of emergency information exchange and community foodstuff regulations. In addition the Commission promotes research programmes and training courses in the field

  14. Radiological Emergency Preparedness using Old ORTEC Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    During a radiological emergency (RE) a large number of occupational and public may be exposed externally and to a number of radionuclides internally as a result of inhalation or injection. The radiological effect is directly proportional to the time of exposure and the activity of the contaminant materials. The main task of this paper is to show the emergency preparedness capability of using the old ORTEC whole body counter (WBC). In case of a nuclear accident ORTEC WBC is ready for use to estimate the radioactivity which inhaled or digested with food, as well as in case of medical exposure in general and nuclear medicine in particular. The present study showed that the duration time to make analysis for only one individual is about 25 min. Hence 57 individuals are monitored per day. Consequently, old ORTEC WBC is effective tool in field of research and limited use for radiological and nuclear emergencies

  15. A conceptualization of a nuclear or radiological emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantopoulos, Stasinos [Institute of Informatics and Telecommunications National Center for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, Agia Paraskevi 15310, Attiki (Greece); Ikonomopoulos, Andreas, E-mail: anikon@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety National Center for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, Agia Paraskevi 15310, Attiki (Greece)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Communicating nuclear and radiological safety concepts to the general public. • Multi-lingual semantic indexing of nuclear or radiological emergency content. • Linking informal language to formal nuclear or radiological emergency terms. • Extracting nuclear or radiological emergency terminologies from textual glossaries. • The IAEA Safety Glossary is the core of a cross-linked system of formal terminologies. - Abstract: A novel implementation is presented for NREO, a subject-specific ontology of the Nuclear or Radiological Emergency domain. The ontology design is driven by the requirements of ontology-based, multi-lingual language processing and retrieval use cases, but care is taken to architect the foundations in a way that can be extended to support other use cases in the domain. More specifically, NREO codifies and cross-references existing terminology glossaries and stakeholder lists into machine-processable terminological resources. At the interest of semantic interoperability, the proposed architecture is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization Scheme catalyzing the extensive cross-linking to different ontologies both within the nuclear technology domain and in related domains and disciplines. This and all other core design decisions are presented and discussed under the prism of their adequacy for our use cases and requirements. Both the ontology and terminological data have been made publicly available.

  16. A conceptualization of a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Ikonomopoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Communicating nuclear and radiological safety concepts to the general public. • Multi-lingual semantic indexing of nuclear or radiological emergency content. • Linking informal language to formal nuclear or radiological emergency terms. • Extracting nuclear or radiological emergency terminologies from textual glossaries. • The IAEA Safety Glossary is the core of a cross-linked system of formal terminologies. - Abstract: A novel implementation is presented for NREO, a subject-specific ontology of the Nuclear or Radiological Emergency domain. The ontology design is driven by the requirements of ontology-based, multi-lingual language processing and retrieval use cases, but care is taken to architect the foundations in a way that can be extended to support other use cases in the domain. More specifically, NREO codifies and cross-references existing terminology glossaries and stakeholder lists into machine-processable terminological resources. At the interest of semantic interoperability, the proposed architecture is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization Scheme catalyzing the extensive cross-linking to different ontologies both within the nuclear technology domain and in related domains and disciplines. This and all other core design decisions are presented and discussed under the prism of their adequacy for our use cases and requirements. Both the ontology and terminological data have been made publicly available

  17. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-01-01

    annual averages of crude rates of incidence. The spatial correlation of groups (clusters) of new cases has been verified, through the Moran index, and from geographically referenced radiometric measurements obtained in the previous step, the correlation between the incidence of breast cancer and ionizing radiation levels was assessed by unconditional linear regression. The results were presented in two papers. In the first, radiometric surveys were conducted in 1.405 of the 1.636 (85,9%) census tracts sectors that make up the seven Sanitary Districts in the city of Goiania. In total 197.811 geographically referenced measures of the absorbed dose rate in the air were made, with a average of 29,85 ± 7,47 and amplitude from 9,17 to 629,88 nGy/h. From these values were estimated the average of annual effective dose and collective effective dose for outdoor environments, with values of 0,036 ± 0,003 mSv/year and 28,51 ± 11,68 man.mSv/year, respectively. The levels of exposure to external gamma radiation, found in the city of Goiania 28 years after the radiological accident with Cesium-137, are compatible with the values estimated by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). And the value of the annual average of effective dose in Goiania, is lower than in other places in Brazil, which have only 'background' of natural radiation outdoors. The results obtained in this study indicate that the dosimetric situation in Goiania does not present undue risk to people and the environment. In the second article, were identified 4.105 new cases of breast cancer, 2.233 in the study area and 1.286 (57,59%) of these geographically referenced. The annual average values of crude rates of incidence, considering the total numbers of cases and geographically referenced presented in the study area are, respectively, 102,91 and 71,86 new cases per 100.000 women. The crude rate of incidence in Goiania was 66,59 cases per 100.000, while in the

  18. Radiological emergency response planning in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    The most important aspect of emergency preparedness is to recognize and accept the fact that there exists a potential for a problem or a condition and that it requires some attention. Emergency plans should be sufficiently flexible so as to accommodate the emergency situation as it unfolds. Of the several emergency responses that may be taken following a nuclear power plant accident evacuation evokes the greatest attention and discussion as to whether it is truly a feasible option. Movements of people confined to mass care facilities or on life support systems involve special requirements. The Three Mile Island accident has been the most studied nuclear incident in the history of the nuclear power reactor industry. The findings of these reports will have a major influence on nuclear power issues as they are addressed in the future. The question remains as to whether the political leadership will be willing to provide the resources required by the emergency plan. Future safety and emergency response to nuclear accidents depend upon Government and industry acting responsibly and not merely responding to regulations. The Three Mile Island accident has had some beneficial side effects for the emergency management community. It has: increased the level of awareness and importance of emergency planning; served as a catalyst for the sharing of experiences and information; encouraged standardization of procedures; and emphasized the need for identifying and assigning responsibilities. The Emergency Management Organization in responding to a disaster situation does not enjoy the luxury of time. It needs to act decisively and correctly. It does not often get a second chance. Governments, at all levels, and the nuclear power industry have been put on notice as a result of Three Mile Island. The future of nuclear energy may well hang in the balance, based upon the public's perception of the adequacy of preparedness and safety measures being taken. (author)

  19. Radiologic procedures, policies and protocols for pediatric emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, George A.

    2008-01-01

    Protocol development between radiology and pediatric emergency medicine requires a multidisciplinary approach to manage straightforward as well as complex and time-sensitive needs for emergency department patients. Imaging evaluation requires coordination of radiologic technologists, radiologists, transporters, nurses and coordinators, among others, and might require accelerated routines or occur at sub-optimal times. Standardized protocol development enables providers to design a best practice in all of these situations and should be predicated on evidence, mission, and service expectations. As in any new process, constructive feedback channels are imperative for evaluation and modification. (orig.)

  20. A psychological analysis of the rehabilitation of the Goiania accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Neto, S.B. da

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a psycho social analysis of the consequences of the radiologic accident of Goiania-Brazil, verified especially among its direct victims. It makes clear the psychological aspects shown by the isolated victims (hospitalized and sheltered) and the psycho therapeutic processes used by the Psychology Department. After all that study, it is clear the need of specific training for health professionals necessary for the regards and multi professional and interdisciplinary attendance to the victims Goiania. It is also important a unity of institutional objectives such as essential conditions for the rehabilitation of the patients in its largest bio psycho social aspect. (author)

  1. NNSA/NV Consequence Management Capabilities for Radiological Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) provides an integrated Consequence Management (CM) response capability for the (NNSA) in the event of a radiological emergency. This encompasses planning, technical operations, and home team support. As the lead organization for CM planning and operations, NNSA/NV coordinates the response of the following assets during the planning and operational phases of a radiological accident or incident: (1) Predictive dispersion modeling through the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the High Consequence Assessment Group at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); (2) Regional radiological emergency assistance through the eight Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) regional response centers; (3) Medical advice and assistance through the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; (4) Aerial radiological mapping using the fixed-wing and rotor-wing aircraft of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS); (5) Consequence Management Planning Teams (CMPT) and Consequence Management Response Teams (CMRT) to provide CM field operations and command and control. Descriptions of the technical capabilities employed during planning and operations are given below for each of the elements comprising the integrated CM capability

  2. Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. Following a major radiological incident the FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted states and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis and quality assurance. This program includes: (1) Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed Wing and Helicopter, (2) Field Monitoring and Sampling, (3) Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories, (4) Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance, (5) Environmental Dosimetry, and (6) An integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures handbook is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets and operations of FRMAC monitoring and analysis and the content and preparation of this handbook

  3. Radiological Emergency Response Health and Safety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. R. Bowman

    2001-05-01

    This manual was created to provide health and safety (H&S) guidance for emergency response operations. The manual is organized in sections that define each aspect of H and S Management for emergency responses. The sections are as follows: Responsibilities; Health Physics; Industrial Hygiene; Safety; Environmental Compliance; Medical; and Record Maintenance. Each section gives guidance on the types of training expected for managers and responders, safety processes and procedures to be followed when performing work, and what is expected of managers and participants. Also included are generic forms that will be used to facilitate or document activities during an emergency response. These ensure consistency in creating useful real-time and archival records and help to prevent the loss or omission of information.

  4. Management and transport of radioactive wastes in Goiania, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, A.M.; Mezrahi, A.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological accident occured in Goiania, which has led to the liberation to the environment of c.l.350 Ci of Cs-137, demanded the formulation of special procedures related to waste management and transport of radioactive materials to a provisory storage facility. The main objectives of the present article are to describe the work performed in the above mentioned fields and to point out the basic needs for Brazilian research and development in the areas of waste treatment and design and testing of packages. (author) [pt

  5. Promoting interventional radiology in clinical practice of emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bing; Yuan Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Interventional radiology has lot of advantages in dealing with various emergencies. The technique is minimally-invasive, highly-effective and immediately-efficient, moreover, it integrates the diagnosis with the therapy perfectly. Besides, the interventional techniques applied in emergency medicine include not only the vascular interventions,such as embolization, embolectomy, etc, but also the nonvascular interventions, such as tracheal s tent implantation, percutaneous vertebroplasty and so forth. However, importance has not been attached to the clinical use of interventional therapy in emergency medicine so far. It is imperative for us to promote the acceptance of interventional therapy in emergency medicine as well as to popularize the technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  6. Emergency department radiology: Reality or luxury? An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, D.R.; Blickman, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in society and developments within emergency care affect imaging in the emergency department. It is clear that radiologists have to be pro-active to even survive. High quality service is the goal, and if we are to add value to the diagnostic (and therapeutic) chain of healthcare, sub-specialization is the key, and, although specifically patient-oriented and not organ-based, emergency and trauma imaging is well suited for that. The development of emergency radiology in Europe and the United States is compared with emphasis on how different healthcare systems and medical cultures affect the utilization of Acute Care imaging.

  7. The Role of Current Emergency Radiology Practice: A prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Which imaging modality best evaluates specific clinical emergencies has evolved and ... department of radiology at the duty hours and accounted for 40.9% of all cases. ... (21.6%), blunt abdominal trauma (5.7%) and pulmonary edema (4.7%).

  8. Mitigating action strategies in radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, D.

    1984-08-01

    On the basis of an assumed reactor accident, the report deals with the evaluation of the emergency response effectiveness obtained under several response strategies. The selected strategies consider sheltering, evacuation and short-term relocation (24 h) separately and in combination. The selected strategies give rise to different biological radiation effects. These effects are used as comparative parameters in the evaluation of the response effectiveness. The biological radiation effects have been calculated by means of the consequence assessment program CRAC 2

  9. Orphan sources and the challenges: requirement for the prevention of malevolent use of radioactive sources and preparedness for radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2006-01-01

    cannot be ensured internationally. Past experiences from the radiological accidents demonstrate the magnitude of the possible acute exposure to persons and spread of contamination. On the other hand, the challenges from the dispersion of a Radiological Dispersal Device (R.D.D.) are more due to the environmental contamination causing panic, disruption and economic loss due to the large scale clean up needed, though the acute radiation exposure and immediate causalities due to radiation will be much lower. 50 TBq (1.3 k Ci) of 137 Cs (quantity that caused radiological emergency in Goiania) can be contained in 15 gm and if unshielded and un-dispersed can lead to dose rate of 45 Gy.h -1 at 30 cm from the source. For 60 Co, 50 TBq can be contained in 1.2 gm giving dose rate of 188 Gy.h -1 at 30 cm and 17 Gy.h -1 at 1 meter. This can lead to lethal doses to those in proximity. But if dispersed in an explosion, these may not lead to an acute exposure more than few mSv within an area of 60 m radius. Even at 50 mSv, the life time fatal cancer risk for members of public is about 1 in 400 compared to 80 persons succumbing to natural cancer. Since a dispersed source can contaminate many buildings/area leading to generation of large volume of radioactive waste, strengthening control over the radioactive sources, preventing its illegal transport and developing quick response capability are very essential. (authors)

  10. Importance ranking of various aspects of offsite radiological emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockert, J.W.; Carter, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    Under contract to the Edison Electric Institute, IEAL developed a method to assess the relative importance of various aspects of offsite radiological emergency preparedness. The basic approach involved structuring the 35 objectives that the Federal Emergency Management Agency expects offsite emergency planners to demonstrate during nuclear power plant emergency preparedness exercises into a hierarchy based upon the emergency response capabilities they support. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed to derive the quantitative relative importance of each of the 35 objectives based upon its contribution to the overall capability of offsite agencies to assist in protecting public health and safety in the event of an emergency at a nuclear power plant. The judgments of a cross-section of state and local emergency planners, federal regulators, and intervenors were solicited to rank the 35 objectives

  11. Radiological evaluation of surgical emergencies in neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, C. O.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Most pathologic conditions requiring emergent operation in neonate are congenital anomalies and delayed diagnosis and associated anomaly are important factors which have contributed to the high mortality rate of congenital anomalies. To prevent this delay, early recognition of the danger signals, adequate roentagenologic examination and accurate diagnosis should be made. Furthermore radiologists should be aware of developing mechanism, clinical manifestations and roentgenographic findings of those neonatal emergencies. 135 cases of neonatal emergencies were analyzed at this point of view, which verified by surgery and pathologic examination at Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital since 1968. Embryology and characteristic roentgenographic pictures of each disease were discussed. The conclusions are as follows; 1. Most cases (110/135) presented intestinal obstruction. Imperforate anus (29 cases) was most common disease which followed by infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (25 cases), small bowel atresia and stenosis (18 cases), congenital megacolon (15 cases) and esophageal atresia (14 cases). 2. Clinical Type and time of occurrence of symptoms and signs were so characteristic that these were helpful for differential diagnosis. 3. In infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, confirmative diagnosis could be made in plain abdominal film, when 'Caterpillar sign' was seen. 4. When small bowel obstruction was suspected in plain abdominal film, barium enema examination was more helpful than upper G-I study. When microcolon was found, lower small bowel obstruction was highly suggested. 5. Diagnosis of midgut malrotation was possible in larger cases (4/7). Upper G-I examination was more valuable than barium enema study, because duodenal obstruction due to Ladd's band was common problem in neonate. 6. In neonatal period, diagnosis of aganglionosis could be made with the finding of barium stasis on 24-48 hours delay film, even though no demonstration of

  12. Radiological emergency: road map for radiation accident victim transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, V.S.G.; Alcantara, Y.P.; Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F. C. A. da

    2017-01-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, a number of necessary actions are taken, both within the radiation protection of individuals and the environment, involving many institutions and highly specialized personnel. Among them it is possible to emphasize the air transportation of radiation accident victims.The procedures and measures for the safe transport of these radiation accident victims are generally the responsibility of the armed forces, specifically the Aeronautics, with the action denominated 'Aeromedical Military Evacuation of Radiation Accident Victims'. The experience with the Radiological Accident of Goiânia demonstrated the importance of adequate preparation and response during a radiological emergency and the need for procedures and measures with regard to the transport of radiation victims are clearly defined and clearly presented for the effectiveness of the actions. This work presents the necessary actions for the transport of radiation accident victim during a radiological emergency, through the road map technique, which has been widely used in scientific technical area to facilitate understanding and show the way to be followed to reach the proposed objectives

  13. Goiania 1987: searching for radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke Binns, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The founding of the Searching for Radiation Group following the radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987, is described. Particulars on the equipment and detector used, the number of people monitored, the techniques used to gather information on the probable date of the accident, about possibly contaminated places and people are provided and communicating with the general public is addressed. The discussion is divided into three main parts: 1) how the Searching for Radiation Group was formed; 2) the participation of the state Health Secretariat and the street children in the Group and 3) the lessons learned. (author)

  14. Improvement of the Radiological system of emergency classification in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez Vegueria, Pablo F.; Yamil Lopez Forteza; Diaz Guerra, Pedro I.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 the National Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN), on the base of the experience in the one handling of emergencies and the preparation aspects, planning and answer, it perfects and it modernizes, with the approval of the national bigger State of the Civil Defense, the approaches of the Scale of Radiological Events approved from 1992. Given the operational experience of the System of Answer to Emergency of the Ministry Of Science Technology And Environment in the year 2001 the CNSN develops, it perfects and it puts in vigor a more complete System of Classification of Emergency of unique use for all the entities that use sources of radiations ionizations and that it also includes those answer forces that are imbricate in the Plan of Measures Against Catastrophe for cases of Radiological Accidents. The setting in vigor of this Unique System of Classification of Emergencies at national level has allowed to secure the coordination, planning and answer in an effective, quick and effective way. Presently work is exposed the philosophy on which this System of Classification was elaborated, the approaches used to classify the events as much in radioactive facilities as in the practice of the transport of radioactive materials and the activation of the forces of answers in cases of radiological emergencies

  15. Standards for radiology interpretation and reporting in the emergency setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    The radiologist plays a pivotal role in the medical management of injury and illness in both adults and children in the emergency setting. Although the primary role of the radiologist is to assist in establishing a correct diagnosis, the radiologist's responsibility goes well beyond simple detection and documentation. Communication is fundamental in assuring delivery of quality and safe health care. Lines of communication are most easily recognized between the radiologist and the patient's health-care provider (e.g., emergency department physician), but they are also becoming increasingly important between the radiologist and the patient. Radiologists must be familiar with both local and national practice guidelines related to the care of the patient in the emergency setting, in relation to both construction of the radiology report and appropriate communication of the results of radiologic studies. Familiarity with these aspects of the radiologists' responsibilities maximizes the chance of successful outcomes and minimizes the frequency of (and liability for) malpractice. (orig.)

  16. Non-nuclear radiological emergencies. Special plan for radiological risk of the Valencian Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Rodrigo, I.; Piles Alepuz, I.; Peiró Juan, J.; Calvet Rodríguez, D.

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the Radiological Hazard Basic Directive, Generalitat (the regional government in Valencian Community) initiated the edition of the pertinent Special Plan, with the objective to assemble the response of all the Security and Emergency Agencies, including the Armed Forces, in a radiological emergency affecting the territory of the Valencian Community, under a single hierarchy command. Being approved and homologated the Radiological Hazard Special Plan, Generalitat has undertaken the implementation process planned to finish in June 2015. Following the same process as other Plans, implementation is organized in a first informative stage, followed of a formative and training stage, and finishing with an activation exercise of the Plan. At the end of the process, is expected that every Agency will know their functions, the structure and organization in which the intervention takes place, the resources needed, and adapt their protocols to the Plan requirements. From the beginning, it has been essential working together with the Nuclear Safety Council, as is established in the agreement signed in order to collaborate in Planning, Preparedness and Response in Radiological Emergencies. [es

  17. Integrating pathology and radiology disciplines: an emerging opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Pathology and radiology form the core of cancer diagnosis, yet the workflows of both specialties remain ad hoc and occur in separate "silos," with no direct linkage between their case accessioning and/or reporting systems, even when both departments belong to the same host institution. Because both radiologists' and pathologists' data are essential to making correct diagnoses and appropriate patient management and treatment decisions, this isolation of radiology and pathology workflows can be detrimental to the quality and outcomes of patient care. These detrimental effects underscore the need for pathology and radiology workflow integration and for systems that facilitate the synthesis of all data produced by both specialties. With the enormous technological advances currently occurring in both fields, the opportunity has emerged to develop an integrated diagnostic reporting system that supports both specialties and, therefore, improves the overall quality of patient care. PMID:22950414

  18. Study on Korean Radiological Emergency System-Care System- and National Nuclear Emergency Preparedness System Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad Khusyairi; Yudi Pramono

    2008-01-01

    Care system; Radiological Emergency Supporting System. Environmental radiology level is the main aspect that should be concerned deal with the utilization of nuclear energy. The usage of informational technology in nuclear area gives significant contribution to anticipate and to protect human and environment. Since 1960, South Korea has developed environment monitoring system as the effort to protect the human and environment in the radiological emergency condition. Indonesia has possessed several nuclear installations and planned to build and operate nuclear power plants (PLTN) in the future. Therefore, Indonesia has to prepare the integrated system, technically enables to overcome the radiological emergency. Learning from the practice in South Korea, the system on the radiological emergency should be prepared and applied in Indonesia. However, the government regulation draft on National Radiological Emergency System, under construction, only touches the management aspect, not the technical matters. Consequently, when the regulation is implemented, it will need an additional regulation on technical aspect including the consideration on the system (TSS), the organization of operator and the preparation of human resources development of involved institution. For that purpose, BAPETEN should have a typical independence system in regulatory frame work. (author)

  19. Generic procedures for monitoring in a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    One of the most important aspects of managing a radiological emergency is the ability to promptly and adequately assess the need for protective actions. Protective action accident management must make use of the key relevant information available. Decision-making and accident assessment will be an iterative and dynamic process aimed at refining the initial evaluation as more detailed and complete information becomes available. Emergency monitoring is one of the main sources for obtaining needed information. This publication is in the scope of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Legal Series No. 14) under which the IAEA is authorized to assist a State Party or a Member State among other matters in developing appropriate radiation monitoring programmes, procedures and standards (Article 5). The scope of this manual is restricted to practical guidance for environmental and source monitoring during a nuclear or other radiological emergency. It does not address emergency response preparedness, nor does it cover the emergency management aspects of accident assessment. This manual is organised into sections relating to measurements in order of priority of a major reactor accident, namely: ambient gamma/beta dose rates from plume, ground deposition or source; radionuclide concentrations in air; deposition maps for 131 I and 137 Cs and other important radionuclides; radionuclide mix in deposition and radionuclide concentrations in food, drinking water and other samples. The introductory section provides an overview of the design of emergency monitoring and sampling programmes, monitoring teams and their qualifications and training, monitoring equipment and instrumentation, protective actions for emergency monitoring teams and quality assurance and quality control checks

  20. Basic principles for intervention after a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per Hedemann Jensen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of internationally agreed principles for intervention after a nuclear accident or radiological emergency and the international development of intervention guidance since the Chernobyl accident are reviewed. The experience gained after the Chernobyl accident indicates that the international advice on intervention existing at the time of the Chernobyl accident was not fully understood by decision makers neither in Western Europe nor in the former USSR and that the guidance failed to address adequately the difficult social problems which can arise after a serious nuclear accident. The radiation protection philosophy of today distinguishes between practices and interventions. The radiological protection system of intervention includes justification of the protective action and optimization of the level of protection achieved by that action. Dose limits do not apply in intervention situations. The inputs to justification and optimization studies include factors that are related to radiological protection, whereas the final decisions on introduction of countermeasures would also depend on other factors. The basic principles for intervention as recommended by international organisations are discussed in detail and the application of the principles on a generic basis is illustrated for long-term protective actions. The concepts of intervention level, operational intervention level and action level are presented and the relation between these quantities is illustrated. The numerical guidance on intervention in a nuclear accident or radiological emergency or a chronic exposure situation given by ICRP, IAEA and in the Basic Safety Standards is presented. (author)

  1. Guide for prepare the plan for radiological emergency by the users of ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Radiological Emergency Plan foresees all the possible radiological accidents with the ionizing sources the entity is using. The measures should be adopted by every factor is supped to take part in the emergencies created. The effectiveness of the guaranteed. THis guide establishes the model for elaborating the radiological Emergency Plans

  2. Intervention levels for protective action in the radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.Y.; Khang, B.O.; Lee, M.; Lee, J.T.

    1998-09-01

    In the event of nuclear accident or radiological emergency, the protective action based on intervention levels prepared in advance should be implemented in order to minimize the public hazard. There are several protective measures such as sheltering, evacuation, iodine prophylaxis, foodstuff restrictions, temporary relocation, permanent resettlement, etc. for protecting the public. The protective measures should be implemented on the basis of operational intervention level of action level. This report describes the basic principles of intervention and the methodology for deriving intervention levels, and also recommendations for the intervention levels suggested from IAEA, ICRP, WHO and EU are summarized to apply to the domestic radiological emergency. This report also contains a revision procedure of operational intervention levels to meet a difference accident condition. Therefore, it can be usefully applied to establish revised operational intervention levels considering or the regional characteristics of our country. (author). 20 refs

  3. NDMA guidelines on management of nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abani, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), ever since it's formation as an apex policy making body for the country in the field of disaster management, has formulated a set of guidelines to assist the various ministries, states and stakeholders in preparing their plans to handle different types of disasters. The guidelines on management of nuclear and radiological emergencies assume great importance in the present context, as our country has very ambitious programme to exploit nuclear energy for peaceful uses. Though, we have an enviable and impeccable record of safety and virtually fail-safe operations in all our nuclear establishments, the possibility, however, remote it may be, of human error, systems failure, sabotage, earthquake, floods, terrorist attacks etc leading to the release of radioactive material in the public domain, cannot be entirely ruled out. With this view, it was decided to prepare the national guidelines by NDMA to manage any nuclear/radiological emergency in public domain. Through these guidelines, we aim to further strengthen our existing nuclear/radiological emergency management framework and generate public awareness, which will go a long way in allaying misapprehensions, if any, amongst the public about the country's nuclear programme. Like in all our guidelines for handling of different types of the disasters, in these Guidelines also, maximum emphasis has been laid on the prevention of nuclear and radiological emergencies, along with a detailed consideration of all other elements of the disaster management continuum. The national guidelines have been prepared and a consensus was arrived on various issues, after widespread consultations and elaborates discussions amongst experts as well as stakeholders. It is assumed that once these guidelines are implemented by the stakeholders and converted into action plans followed by SOPs that will further reduce the chances of accidents in the nuclear arena. (author)

  4. Application for Limitation of Food Stuffs in a Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tai; Lee, Goan Yup; Khang, Byung Oui; Oh, Ki Hoon; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Intervention levels for foodstuff restriction in a radiological emergency in Korea are suggested based on the justification and the optimization through the cost-benefit approach method from IAEA Safety Series 109 recommendation. Intervention levels are specified for three broad groups of radionuclides with similar values of committed effective dose per unit intake and specified for two broad categories of foodstuff grouped according to value per kg. It is also discussed on the applicability of revised intervention levels for foodstuff restriction

  5. Exercises for radiological and nuclear emergency response. Planing - performance - evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Faleschini, J.; Goelling, K.; Stapel, R.; Strobl, C.

    2010-01-01

    The report of the study group emergency response seminar covers the following topics: (A) purpose of exercises and exercise culture: fundamentals and appliances for planning, performance and evaluation; (B) exercises in nuclear facilities; (C) exercises of national authorities and aid organizations on nuclear scenarios; exercises of national authorities and aid organizations on other radiological scenarios; (D) exercises in industrial plants, universities, medical facilities and medical services, and research institutes; (E) transnational exercises, international exercises; (F): exercises on public information.

  6. Guidelines for mutual emergency assistance arrangements in connection with a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The document contains the recommendations of a group of experts from 22 Member States and three international organizations which met in April 1983. These recommendations may serve as guidelines for use by states for the negotiation of bilateral or regional agreements relating to emergency assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

  7. Emergency response during the radiological control of scraps in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Viltre, Enma O.; Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Caveda Ramos, Celia; Carrazana, Jorge; Barroso Perez, Idelisa

    2008-01-01

    In the last few years, in the international scene, incidents have been reported due to the presence of radioactive materials in the scrap. This reality has motivated the adoption of measures of radiological security, due to the implications that these incidents have for the public and the environment, as well as for the international trade. Among theses actions is the implementation of the radiological control of scrap, with the additional requirement that this control has to be implemented in the framework of a Quality Management Program.Taking into account the international experience, our institution designed and organized in 2002 a national service for the radiological monitoring of scrap, being the clients the main exporting and trading enterprises of this material in the country. During these years, several contaminated materials have been detected, causing incidents that activated the radiological emergency response system. In this sense, since some years ago, our country has been working in the implementation of a national and ministerial system for facing and mitigating the consequences of accidental radiological situations, conjugating efforts and wills from different national institutions with the leadership of the Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) and the Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN) in correspondence with the social responsibility assigned to the them. These incidents propitiate to have not only a system of capacity and quick response oriented to limit the exposure of people, to control the sources, to mitigate the consequences of the accident and to reestablish the conditions of normality, but also a previous adequate planning that guarantees the speed and effectiveness of it. In these work the experiences reached by the specialists of the CPHR from Cuba during the occurrence of an incident in the execution of the service of radiological monitoring of scraps are exposed. (author)

  8. Derived reference levels for prenatal exposure in a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuccetelli, C.; Risica, S.; Rogani, A.

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident many countries renewed their radiological emergency plans, also considering the possibility of over boundary accidents. This has been set out by the 96/29/Euratom Directive (Council Directive, 1996), which states that E ach Member State shall ensure that account is taken of the fact that radiological emergencies may occur in connection with practices on or outside its territory and affect it . Moreover, after September 11, 2001, the need to prepare emergency plans for possible terroristic attacks became evident and these plans are now being worked out in many countries for intervention in case of biological, chemical and/or radiological risk. In the event of radiological emergency, all decisions to be taken are based on possible doses to critical groups (European Commission, 1997), which are the population groups most at risk. These critical groups are, in most cases, infants or children, given that dose coefficients for these age groups are generally higher than for adults. However, a new ICRP Recommendation (ICRP, 2001) has recently been published that gives dose coefficients for embryo/foetus due to intake by the mother, by inhalation or ingestion, of 31 radionuclides. Also as a result of the revaluation in the last years of the possible health effects of prenatal exposure to ionising radiation (see e.g. the review in P. Fattibene et al., 1999), the consequences for the embryo/foetus of a possible radiological emergency connected to a nuclear plant and to possible dispersion of Depleted Uranium (DU) in the environment are analysed and discussed in this paper. For the former type of accident, Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) are calculated for prenatal exposure due to acute inhalation by the mother (female member of the public) and an assessment is performed of ingestion doses for the offspring resulting from consumption of foodstuffs by the mother of which 10% of the annual consumption is contaminated at the maximum levels

  9. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  10. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  11. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Chinese Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  12. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: October 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  13. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  14. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  15. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  16. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  17. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  18. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  19. Application of Fuzzy Theory to Radiological Emergency Preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Moon Hee; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae

    2005-01-01

    Emergency preparedness for nuclear facility is considered as an important part for public health and safety. In an emergency, it is not easy to get the information which is needed for the operation of an emergency system. Even though the lack of the information, decision-maker should make an early decision for the public. And the real situation is often not crisp and deterministic. The concept of fuzzy set provides the mathematical formulations which can characterize the uncertain variables in the models related to radiological emergency preparedness. And it provides a method which can describe the characteristics of uncertain variables represented by the fuzzy membership functions, and the effects of distribution can be handled with the fuzzy relation and the fuzzy reasoning. By the application of linguistic variables and fuzzy algorithms, it is possible to provide an approximate and effective tool to describe the system which is too complex or ill defined to use precise mathematical analysis

  20. Subspecialisation in Emergency Radiology: Proposal for a harmonised European curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner, M. G.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiology plays a crucial role in the emergency care setting by delivering early and precise diagnoses under pressure of time, right at the beginning of patient treatment. Although there is a need for postgraduate education in emergency radiology, most of the national bodies responsible do not offer it in a uniform fashion and a general proof of qualification is missing in Europe. Therefore, the European Society of Radiology (ESR has founded the (Sub-Society of Emergency Radiology (ESER, prompting them to develop a European curriculum. This trend, which is currently also encouraged in many other non-radiological specialties which demand the highest professional qualifications, often lacks expertise in medical education.Goals: The goal of this article is the general description of the curricular planning process for a European postgraduate subspecialisation programme, using the example of Emergency Radiology (European Diploma in Emergency Radiology, EDER, including the utilisation of TOOLS and recommendations derived from comparable projects.Project description: The project was divided into partial steps: the timeline displayed in a GANTT chart, and tasks and responsibilities assigned in a RASCI matrix. The curriculum was iteratively developed using the KERN approach and steps were prioritised using the PARETO principle. Furthermore, the following TOOLS were used: limitations and needs assessment, SWOT analysis, formulating learning objectives and categorising them after MILLER and SCLO, and using BLOOM’s taxonomy for cognitive learning objectives and operationalising them according to MAGER. Psychomotoric and affective learning objectives were assigned to CANMEDS roles, grouped by topic using CLUSTERING, and then mapped by MATRIX analysis to appropriate learning and evaluation methods. Striving for continuous improvement, the curriculum was finally embedded in curricular quality management.Results: The standardisation of the EDER

  1. Subspecialisation in Emergency Radiology: Proposal for a harmonised European curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M. G.; Fischer, M. R.; Scaglione, M.; Linsenmaier, U.; Schueller, G.; Berger, F. H.; Dick, E.; Basilico, R.; Stajgis, M.; Calli, C.; Vaidya, S.; Wirth, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Radiology plays a crucial role in the emergency care setting by delivering early and precise diagnoses under pressure of time, right at the beginning of patient treatment. Although there is a need for postgraduate education in emergency radiology, most of the national bodies responsible do not offer it in a uniform fashion and a general proof of qualification is missing in Europe. Therefore, the European Society of Radiology (ESR) has founded the (Sub-)Society of Emergency Radiology (ESER), prompting them to develop a European curriculum. This trend, which is currently also encouraged in many other non-radiological specialties which demand the highest professional qualifications, often lacks expertise in medical education. Goals: The goal of this article is the general description of the curricular planning process for a European postgraduate subspecialisation programme, using the example of Emergency Radiology (European Diploma in Emergency Radiology, EDER), including the utilisation of TOOLS and recommendations derived from comparable projects. Project description: The project was divided into partial steps: the timeline displayed in a GANTT chart, and tasks and responsibilities assigned in a RASCI matrix. The curriculum was iteratively developed using the KERN approach and steps were prioritised using the PARETO principle. Furthermore, the following TOOLS were used: limitations and needs assessment, SWOT analysis, formulating learning objectives and categorising them after MILLER and SCLO, and using BLOOM’s taxonomy for cognitive learning objectives and operationalising them according to MAGER. Psychomotoric and affective learning objectives were assigned to CANMEDS roles, grouped by topic using CLUSTERING, and then mapped by MATRIX analysis to appropriate learning and evaluation methods. Striving for continuous improvement, the curriculum was finally embedded in curricular quality management. Results: The standardisation of the EDER access

  2. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  3. Development of a statewide hospital plan for radiologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Delli Carpini, Domenico; Bohan, Michael; Werdmann, Michael; Wilds, Edward; Barlow, Agnus; Beck, Charles; Cheng, David; Daly, Nancy; Glazer, Peter; Mas, Peter; Nath, Ravinder; Piontek, Gregory; Price, Kenneth; Albanese, Joseph; Roberts, Kenneth; Salner, Andrew L.; Rockwell, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although general guidelines have been developed for triage of victims in the field and for hospitals to plan for a radiologic event, specific information for clinicians and administrators is not available for guidance in efficient management of radiation victims during their early encounter in the hospital. A consensus document was developed by staff members of four Connecticut hospitals, two institutions of higher learning, and the State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and Office of Emergency Preparedness, with assistance of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. The objective was to write a practical manual for clinicians (including radiation oncologists, emergency room physicians, and nursing staff), hospital administrators, radiation safety officers, and other individuals knowledgeable in radiation monitoring that would be useful for evaluation and management of radiation injury. The rationale for and process by which the radiation response plan was developed and implemented in the State of Connecticut are reviewed. Hospital admission pathways are described, based on classification of victims as exposed, contaminated, and/or physically injured. This manual will be of value to those involved in planning the health care response to a radiologic event

  4. Implementation of procedures of radiological protection in the section of Radiology of the emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzini, F.; Rizzati, M.R. [Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre, HPS (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre (HPS) is one of the main reference centers for the population in the attendance of medical emergencies/urgencies. The Section of Radiology, which informs the patients clinical conditions based on radiological images, is the most demanded section of the hospital (81.43 % of the medical cases request radiological exams) in the aid of the diagnosis, in which excels for the search of the quality in the health branch. In this work are presented the procedures to have been implemented about radiological protection according to effective norm, methods, ways and conditions to satisfy the radiation workers and the internal and external patients. (Author)

  5. Implementation of procedures of radiological protection in the section of Radiology of the emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzini, F.; Rizzati, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    The Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre (HPS) is one of the main reference centers for the population in the attendance of medical emergencies/urgencies. The Section of Radiology, which informs the patients clinical conditions based on radiological images, is the most demanded section of the hospital (81.43 % of the medical cases request radiological exams) in the aid of the diagnosis, in which excels for the search of the quality in the health branch. In this work are presented the procedures to have been implemented about radiological protection according to effective norm, methods, ways and conditions to satisfy the radiation workers and the internal and external patients. (Author)

  6. Generic procedures for monitoring in a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This book is a Japanese version of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publication (Report No., IAEA-TECDOC-1092, published in Vienna, 1999) of the same title. The translation of the original English into Japanese was done by the Department of Dose Assessment, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Since the Department was organized in addition to the Emergency Medicine Dept. in the Center in 2003 to establish a system for rapid and accurate dose assessment at emergent radiation exposure, the translation is thus a result of the department works, and is published with permission by IAEA as one of a series of NIRS Report (NIRS-M--179) for use in the country. The book is essentially a manual for providing technical requirements and procedures for radiation monitoring, environmental sampling and laboratory analyses for a nuclear or other radiological emergency. The contents are: Introduction, Outline of monitoring, Monitoring of outdoor radiation and contamination, Outdoor sampling, Gross alpha/beta measurement, Gamma spectrometry, Activation analyses, Basic data assessment, Work-sheets, Check-list for measuring equipments, Appendices, References, and others. (S.I.)

  7. Preventing radiological accidents and emergencies by legislative and regulatory means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1998-01-01

    The Goiania radiation accident triggered a reassessment of radiation safety systems. From a legal point of view, the course of events indicates that there were deficiencies either in the existing legal framework or in the implementation of that framework. Proposals to avoid similar accidents in the future are discussed, stressing the need for a sound legal regime and a close co-operation between state authorities and users of radioactive sources. In particular, the importance is underscored of the human factor in achieving a high level of radiation safety. (author)

  8. Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. Maps are the most common type of spatial data, but any type of data that can be referenced by an x-y location or geographic coordinate can be used in a GIS. In a radiological emergency, it is critical that data of all types be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. Developing a baseline GIS for nuclear facilities would offer a significant incentive for all organizations to contribute to and utilize this powerful data management tool. The system being developed could integrate all elements of emergency planning, from the initial protective actions based on models through the emergency monitoring phase, and finally ending with the complex reentry and recovery phase. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises. An interactive GIS system has been deployed and used to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. For this application, both hardcopy and real-time spatial displays were generated with the GIS. Composite maps with different sizes, scales, and themes were produced to support the exercises

  9. Expecting the unexpected [The IAEA's Incident and Emergency Centre helps prepare States to face radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, W.; Buglova, E.

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA works with its partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies. The IAEA's Statute assigns functions to the Secretariat in relation to radiation emergencies, including fostering international cooperation in the area of emergency preparedness and response. The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (often called the 'Emergency Conventions') place specific legal obligations on the IAEA with regard to emergency preparedness and response. In 2005, the IAEA established a fully integrated Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) which acts as the global focal point for international preparedness, communication and response to nuclear and radiological incidents or emergencies irrespective of their cause. In this role, the IEC stands at the centre of coordinating effective and efficient activities worldwide. While emergency response capabilities have existed within the IAEA since concluding the Emergency Conventions in the 1980s, the decision to create an integrated Centre within the IAEA became more pressing with the growing use of nuclear applications worldwide as well as increasing concern over malicious use of nuclear or radioactive materials. Today, the IEC provides around-the-clock assistance to States dealing with nuclear and radiological events. Under the Emergency Conventions, the IEC coordinates actions of global experts and efforts within the IAEA. It also helps coordinate the responses of States as well as other international organizations, such as the WHO (World Health Organization), FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) or WMO (World Meteorological Organization) in case of a nuclear or radiological emergency. Response to incidents and emergencies can involve exchange of information, provision of advice and/or coordination of field response. The IEC ensures that the IAEA's incident and emergency arrangements are fully

  10. Applying radiological emergency planning experience to hazardous materials emergency planning within the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltman, A.; Newsom, D.; Lerner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has extensive radiological emergency planning (REP) experience that is directly applicable to hazardous materials emergency planning. Recently, the Feed Materials Production Center near Cincinnati, Ohio, successfully demonstrated such application. The REP experience includes conceptual bases and standards for developing plans that have been tested in hundreds of full-scale exercises. The exercise program itself is also well developed. Systematic consideration of the differences between chemical and radiological hazards shows that relatively minor changes to the REP bases and standards are necessary. Conduct of full-scale, REP-type exercises serves to test the plans, provide training, and engender confidence and credibility

  11. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania; Avaliacao da radiacao ionizante como fator de risco para a incidencia de cancer de mama em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-11-01

    annual averages of crude rates of incidence. The spatial correlation of groups (clusters) of new cases has been verified, through the Moran index, and from geographically referenced radiometric measurements obtained in the previous step, the correlation between the incidence of breast cancer and ionizing radiation levels was assessed by unconditional linear regression. The results were presented in two papers. In the first, radiometric surveys were conducted in 1.405 of the 1.636 (85,9%) census tracts sectors that make up the seven Sanitary Districts in the city of Goiania. In total 197.811 geographically referenced measures of the absorbed dose rate in the air were made, with a average of 29,85 ± 7,47 and amplitude from 9,17 to 629,88 nGy/h. From these values were estimated the average of annual effective dose and collective effective dose for outdoor environments, with values of 0,036 ± 0,003 mSv/year and 28,51 ± 11,68 man.mSv/year, respectively. The levels of exposure to external gamma radiation, found in the city of Goiania 28 years after the radiological accident with Cesium-137, are compatible with the values estimated by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). And the value of the annual average of effective dose in Goiania, is lower than in other places in Brazil, which have only 'background' of natural radiation outdoors. The results obtained in this study indicate that the dosimetric situation in Goiania does not present undue risk to people and the environment. In the second article, were identified 4.105 new cases of breast cancer, 2.233 in the study area and 1.286 (57,59%) of these geographically referenced. The annual average values of crude rates of incidence, considering the total numbers of cases and geographically referenced presented in the study area are, respectively, 102,91 and 71,86 new cases per 100.000 women. The crude rate of incidence in Goiania was 66,59 cases per 100.000, while in the

  12. Nuclear accident/radiological emergency assistance plan. NAREAP - edition 2000. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Nuclear Accident/Radiological Emergency Assistance Plan (NAREAP) is to describe the framework for systematic, integrated, co-ordinated, and effective preparedness and response for a nuclear accident or radiological emergency involving facilities or practices that may give rise to a threat to health, the environment or property. The purpose of the NAREAP is: to define the emergency response objectives of the Agency's staff in a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency; to assign responsibilities for performing the tasks and authorities for making the decisions that comprise the Agency staff's response to a nuclear accident or radiological emergency; to guide the Agency managers who must ensure that all necessary tasks are given the necessary support in discharging the Agency staff responsibilities and fulfilling its obligations in response to an emergency; to ensure that the development and maintenance of detailed and coherent response procedures are well founded; to act as a point of reference for individual Agency staff members on their responsibilities (as an individual or a team member) throughout a response; to identify interrelationships with other international intergovernmental Organizations; and to serve as a training aid to maintain readiness of personnel. The NAREAP refers to the arrangements of the International Atomic Energy Agency and of the United Nations Security and Safety Section at the Vienna International Centre (UNSSS-VIC) that may be necessary for the IAEA to respond to a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, as defined in the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions. It covers response arrangements for any situation that may have actual, potential or perceived radiological consequences and that could require a response from the IAEA, as well as the arrangements for developing, maintaining and exercising preparedness. The implementing procedures themselves are not included in the NAREAP, but they are required

  13. Generic procedures for medical response during a nuclear or radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this publication is to serve as a practical resource for planning the medical response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. It fulfils in part functions assigned to the IAEA under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), namely, to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and available results of research relating to such emergencies. Effective medical response is a necessary component of the overall response to nuclear or radiological (radiation) emergencies. In general, the medical response may represent a difficult challenge for the authorities due to the complexity of the situation, often requiring specialized expertise, and special organizational arrangements and materials. To be effective, adequate planning and preparedness are needed. This manual, if implemented, should help to contribute to coherent international response. The manual provides the practical tools and generic procedures for use by emergency medical personnel during an emergency situation. It also provides guidance to be used at the stage of preparedness for development of medical response capabilities. The manual also addresses mass casualty emergencies resulting from malicious acts involving radioactive material. This part was supported by the Nuclear Security Fund. The manual was developed based on a number of assumptions about national and local capabilities. Therefore, it must be reviewed and revised as part of the planning process to match the potential accidents, threats, local conditions and other unique characteristics of the facility where it may be used

  14. Regional training course on medical response on radiological emergencies. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This short information is an annex of the documentation distributed to the participants to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on Medical Response on Radiological Emergencies, organised by the IAEA in co-operation with the Government of Argentina thought the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 16-20 October 2000. The course was intended to people from IAEA Member State in the Latin American and Caribbean region, and to professionals and workers on medicine related with the radiation protection. This annex present information about: Radioactive materials transport; Internal and external contamination; Radiation accidents; Physical dosimetry

  15. Interdepartmental circular on nuclear and radiological emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document deals with the planning of nuclear and radiological emergency exercises for 2012 in France. It discusses the return on experience of these exercises, identifies the national objectives for 2012, and indicates the exercise agenda for 2012 and predictions for 2013. The appendix is a guide for the preparation and assessment of these exercises. It indicates the concerned references and regulations, describes the classification of these exercises, and indicates how they must be prepared, performed and reported, how they must be assessed, and the different aspects which must be addressed in terms of return on experience

  16. Radiological emergency assessment of local decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kusar, A.; Boznar, M.Z.; Mlakar, P.

    2003-01-01

    Local decision support system has been developed based on the needs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant for quick dose projection and it is one of important features required for proposal of intervention before actual release may occur. Radiological emergency assessment in the case of nuclear accident is based on plant status analysis, radiation monitoring data and on prediction of release of radioactive sources to the environment. There are possibilities to use automatic features to predict release source term and manual options for selection of release parameters. Advanced environmental modelling is used for assessment of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive contamination in the environment. (author)

  17. An emergency response centre (ERC) for the preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirement for a state of the art Emergency Response Centre (ERC) to be developed and kept in readiness for the quick response to any nuclear or radiological emergencies. For an effective response to any major nuclear emergency an ERC having the facilities of i) environmental dose rate monitoring network established using both mobile and fixed units ii) on-line meteorological data collection and information station iii) on-line computation and prediction of isodose curves in real time and iv) properly developed and tested monitoring methodologies are essential. Vehicles with on-line data transfer facility to the ERC and equipped with different type of monitoring systems can function as Mobile Monitoring Laboratories (MMLs) and can help in quick decision making even during a radiological emergency far away from the ERC. (author)

  18. Radioecology teaching: response to a nuclear or radiological emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, R. M.

    2006-03-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers rarely have the opportunity to discuss with their students the effects of radioactive contamination in forest and agricultural ecosystems following a nuclear or radiological emergency, or to conduct experiments to illustrate the methodology employed to assess the consequences of such an event. This paper presents a laboratory experiment which could be included as part of a teaching programme on ionizing radiation physics, addressing some of the aspects related to the fate and effects of anthropogenic radionuclides following a radiation emergency, and the possible physical countermeasures that could be adopted in order to reduce their impact on the environment.

  19. Radioecology teaching: response to a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R M

    2006-01-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers rarely have the opportunity to discuss with their students the effects of radioactive contamination in forest and agricultural ecosystems following a nuclear or radiological emergency, or to conduct experiments to illustrate the methodology employed to assess the consequences of such an event. This paper presents a laboratory experiment which could be included as part of a teaching programme on ionizing radiation physics, addressing some of the aspects related to the fate and effects of anthropogenic radionuclides following a radiation emergency, and the possible physical countermeasures that could be adopted in order to reduce their impact on the environment

  20. Protection of school children during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.B.; Johnson, F.C.; Goodkind, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The protection of children during a radiological emergency is a potential concern that clearly transcends national boundaries and is therefore international in scope. Careful planning is needed to prevent independent actions on the part of school officials and parents that, although well intended, may lead to increased risks from radiation exposure, from traffic accidents, or from panic behavior. As part of its overall support for off-site emergency preparedness program, the Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) has recently expanded the scope of planning for the protection of students in schools near its Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station in Cordova, Illinois. Working with off-site officials and with the assistance of emergency planners from Impell Corp., CECo has developed standard operating procedures (SOPs) to direct the emergency response activities for school administrators. These SOPs establish the chain of command for implementing protective actions and list alternative precautionary actions for a range of site conditions. In addition, during the development of these SOPs, CECo has had to address the following issues: interagency cooperation and consistency in approach; resource identification for transport, reception, registration, and communication; internal school procedures; and emergency preparedness training and exercising

  1. United States Department of Energy radiological emergency response programme - a national capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon-Hagerty, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    In order to respond to a radiological emergency, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) maintains seven emergency response assets and capabilities in support of a radiological emergency of any proportion within the continental United States and abroad. The seven emergency response assets and capabilities include: Accident Response Group; Aerial Measuring Systems; Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability; Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; Nuclear Emergency Search Team; Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site; and Radiological Assistance Program. Presently, USDOE maintains the most comprehensive national radiological emergency response assets in the United States, capable of dealing with any type of emergency involving nuclear materials. In all, the Department's assets are available to support any type of accident/incident involving radioactive materials in coordination with other United States Federal agencies, as well as state and local governments, as required. (author)

  2. Radiometric mapping of Goiania urban area: natural and artificial radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T. Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: danilacdias@gmail.com, E-mail: edertzg@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Santos, Eliane E.; Pimenta, Lucinei R.; Costa, Heliana F., E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lucinei@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the city of Goiania it is common to observe in some social groups, such as medical society, academy and communication (media), the association between cancer incidence and the 1987's Goiania radiological accident. Moreover, data of Population-Base Cancer Register published in 2010 by INCA (Instituto Nacional do Cancer), reveals that Goiania figures among the three cities where the major increases in cancer incidence were observed. Therefore, this project aims to provide a dose rate database over Goiania's road network aiming to: 1) assess the level radiation dose to which the population is exposed and 1) provide technical support for social communication of Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy. The monitoring was accomplished by using a mobile system (EBERLINE FHT 1376) which includes a 5-liter plastic scintillator detector coupled with a GPS (Global Positioning System) and a portable computer. This system allowed the recording of both the geographical coordinates and the dose rate of each single point. Using a NBR (Natural Background Rejection) the system is able to discriminate between natural and artificial radiation. After the field campaign, the raw data were then treated in a Geographical Information System (GIS) using the ArcGis software in order to produce dose maps. Therefore, this paper will present the results of the current stage of this research encompassing the monitoring of streets located on seven regions Goiania - divided in for administrative purposes. It is important to point out that more than 175175 individual data were collected with results ranging from 13 to 490 nSv/h. (author)

  3. Radiometric mapping of Goiania urban area: natural and artificial radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T. Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the city of Goiania it is common to observe in some social groups, such as medical society, academy and communication (media), the association between cancer incidence and the 1987's Goiania radiological accident. Moreover, data of Population-Base Cancer Register published in 2010 by INCA (Instituto Nacional do Cancer), reveals that Goiania figures among the three cities where the major increases in cancer incidence were observed. Therefore, this project aims to provide a dose rate database over Goiania's road network aiming to: 1) assess the level radiation dose to which the population is exposed and 1) provide technical support for social communication of Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy. The monitoring was accomplished by using a mobile system (EBERLINE FHT 1376) which includes a 5-liter plastic scintillator detector coupled with a GPS (Global Positioning System) and a portable computer. This system allowed the recording of both the geographical coordinates and the dose rate of each single point. Using a NBR (Natural Background Rejection) the system is able to discriminate between natural and artificial radiation. After the field campaign, the raw data were then treated in a Geographical Information System (GIS) using the ArcGis software in order to produce dose maps. Therefore, this paper will present the results of the current stage of this research encompassing the monitoring of streets located on seven regions Goiania - divided in for administrative purposes. It is important to point out that more than 175175 individual data were collected with results ranging from 13 to 490 nSv/h. (author)

  4. The Goiania accident: release from hospital criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcao, R.C.; Hunt, J.

    1990-01-01

    On the thirteenth of September 1987, a 1357 Ci Cesium source was removed from the 'Instituto de Radiologia de Goiania' - probably two or three days later the source was opened, causing the internal and external contamination of 247 people, and part of the city of Goiania. This paper describes the release from hospital criterion of the contaminated patients, based on radiation protection principles which were developed for this case. The estimate of the biological half-life for cesium is also described. (author) [pt

  5. Strategic aspects of nuclear and radiological emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahier, B.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, as well as experience from national emergency management programmes. Additionally, experience from the INEX-3 exercise (2005-2006) has shown that longer-term consequence management and the transition to recovery remain particularly challenging. As such, the WPNEM also focused on the development of strategies for countermeasures for managing the longer-term consequences of an emergency. As decision-making is at the core of emergency management, the WPNEM developed a strategic framework to be considered by national emergency management authorities when establishing or enhancing processes for decision-making, and when developing or implementing protection strategies. The outcomes are presented in the report 'Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management'. The report provides insights into and a strategic basis for decision-making as an integral part of emergency management. Such a guiding strategic view, applied during preparedness, will enhance the management of complex emergency situations involving many organisations and stakeholders at the local, national and international levels

  6. Localized lesions induced by 137Cs during the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Valverde, N.J.; Farina, R.; Curado, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of initial symptoms and clinical observations regarding acute localized radiation lesions in 28 persons exposed to 137Cs during the Goiania radiological accident. Specialized procedures to estimate the extent and gravity of the lesions and establish a therapeutic strategy, as well as to anticipate the prognosis in each case, are briefly discussed. Measures taken for reduction of pain and inflammation are noted, and an explanation is given for difficulties encountered due to adverse working conditions and the serious clinical manifestations presented by various patients concomitantly with their lesions. Also noted is the difficulty in obtaining credible information regarding exposure, such as source-to-object distance, duration of exposure, and source activity, which precluded dosimetry studies in most cases

  7. Radiological emergencies: the role of the ARCAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gironzini, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Latin American countries have undertaken various nuclear development programmes while at the same time making considerable efforts to strengthen radiation protection. Since 1985, activities in this field, carried out with the technical co-operation of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) under the ARCAL (Regional Co-operative Arrangements for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America) Programme have produced satisfactory results. The ARCAL Programme started with 10 countries and nine projects, one of the most important being the project entitled 'Radiation Protection' (ARCAL I) carried out in two phases: 1985-90 and 1991-93. Work continued with ARCAL XVII (1994-96), entitled 'Radiation Protection Legal Framework', in which 18 countries participated. ARCAL XX entitled 'Control of Radiation Sources' is currently under way. ARCAL projects I and XVII have contributed enormously to improving radiation protection in the region through the implementation of numerous activities such as national and regional courses, seminars, workshops, expert meetings, training courses, expert missions, supply of equipment, regional congresses, the ARCAL Bulletin called 'Proteccion Radiological', etc. Radiological emergencies have been a priority subject in various projects, particularly ARCAL I, under which the first regional course was held in 1991 with participants from 10 countries and lecturers from the region. ARCAL I was very useful in promoting the exchange of experience, in providing staff with training opportunities involving countries with more experience in this field and in the training of staff at the national level. (author)

  8. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  9. Study of criteria for foodstuffs control following a radiological emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Min; Park, Sang Hyun; Jeong, Seung Young; Kim, Dong Il [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The foodstuff control standards on APPRE should be applied to emergency situation only, while the Korean Food Stands Codex standards of the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) should be applied in normal situation. To reflect the lessons learned form the Fukushima accident, the standards of foodstuff control has been studied by surveying newly recommended systems of radiological protection based on reference level commensurated with exposure situations and international trends. Existing standards for restriction on ingestion of foodstuff is based on simple cost-benefit approach and it is confirmed that the projected doses is contributed excessively on the specific food categories. In future, the standards will be revised considering domestic diet feature, nuclide analysis procedure, international standard and the latest recommendation of radiation protection. Also, modification of provisions and standards for foodstuff control of related departments are needed for well integrated national EPR framework.

  10. Transportation radiological emergency preparedness: STAR 95 Exercise final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Emergency response for a transportation accident involving radiological materials, while not inherently difficult, presents a challenge for several reasons. These accidents, although they can occur anywhere, are rare. Also, although the health consequences are usually slight, accidents involving radioactive materials generally cause a great deal of concern, both for the emergency responders and the general public. How can communities be prepared for an event that requires some technical knowledge, but is so rare that it will never occur in most areas, without expending an effort disproportionate to the actual risk? How can one appropriately deal with an event that may cause excessive public concern? These questions are at the heart of the preparedness issues this program addressed. The overall goal of the Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program was to establish the framework for a coordinated response by all levels of government to a transportation accident involving radioactive material. The Program involved both preparedness activities and the development, conduct and evaluation of a field exercise in Saratoga County, New York. This Report concentrates on the functional activities, lessons learned, recommendations, and action plans for improving preparedness and response to a transportation accident involving radioactive materials

  11. External plans for radiological emergency; Plan de emergencia radiologica externo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, G; Vizuet G, J; Benitez S, J A [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Since 1989, the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico shares in the task of Food and Water Control corresponding to the FT-86 task force of External Plans for Radiological Emergency (PERE), in charge of the Veracruz Health Services. In the PERE preparation stage previous actions are necessary developed for the preparation and updating of this plan and the task organization with the purpose to maintaining standing and operable in any time and circumstance, the capability to response in the face of an emergency. This stage englobes activities which must be realized before to carry out the Plan as they are the specialized training of personnel which participates and the execution of exercises and simulacrums. Until 1998, training and exercises for this task had been realized under diverse possible sceneries but in conditions that simulated the presence of radioactive material. For this reason, it should be emphasized the training realized during the days 6th, 7th, 8th July, 1999, in the emergency planning zone of the Plan, which to carry out using radioactive material. The National Institute of Nuclear Research had in charge of the training. This work describes all the activities for the realization of this training. (Author)

  12. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racana, R.; Terrado, C.

    2006-01-01

    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  13. Radiation monitoring strategy in nuclear or radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Radiation measurements provide indispensable data needed for the management of a nuclear or radiological emergency. There must exist pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies, with accompanying procedures and methods, that help the authorities to perform measurements efficiently and, consequently, to evaluate the radiological situation correctly and to carry out proper countermeasures on time. However, defining a realistic yet comprehensive radiation monitoring strategy for emergencies is far from being an easy task. The very concept of 'emergency monitoring strategy' should be understood in a broad sense. In an ideal case, a strategy has interfaces with all related emergency and information exchange arrangements and agreements both at the national and international level. It covers all activities from the recognition of a potential hazard situation to environmental sampling performed during the late phases of an accident. It integrates routine-monitoring practices with the special requirements set by emergency monitoring and the use of fixed monitoring stations with that of mobile measurement teams. It includes elements for gathering, analyzing, transmitting and presenting data, as well as for combining them with different kinds of forecasts. It also takes into account the various intrinsic characteristics of possible threat scenarios and contains options for adapting measuring activities according to prevailing environmental conditions. Furthermore, a strategy must have relevant links to the social and economical realities and to the primary interests of different stakeholders. In order to assist individual countries in establishing national strategies, international organisations (IAEA, OECD/NEA, EU) have published basic guidelines for emergency response and radiation measurements. Nuclear accidents, especially the Chernobyl case with its large-scale environmental consequences, and other kinds of shocking events (like the one on September 11, 2001

  14. Being prepared for emergency situations involving radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardemann, F.; Vandecasteele, C.; Sohier, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The events of 11 September 2001 and the evolution of the public perception of terrorism in the aftermath have given rise to concern that one day some terrorist group might make use of Radiological Dispersion Devices (RDD). Perhaps due to the attention that this issue has received from the media, a recent enquiry among the Belgian population has shown that the risk of a terrorist attack on nuclear facilities is believed to be high, and that terrorism in general is one of the major preoccupations, largely preceding environmental or technological risks. As such, it is worthwhile considering the response to this threat, focussing an expected characteristics of RDD scenarios, measurement strategies and advice for first interventions. Preventive measures are beyond the scope of this contribution. The purpose is not to present a dedicated solution to the problem nor to present an exhaustive list of problems and hypotheses, but to launch a framework for discussion with other participants, in order to generate some broadly accepted and sound principles for the response the day it would be necessary. The 'dirty bomb' scenario shows many differences as compared to 'traditional' emergency scenarios. A non exhaustive series of examples is given below: a) the source term is unpredictable, both the isotopic composition and the range of activities, although some information on 'candidate sources' is available in public literature. b) The location of the accident may be anywhere; it has a large probability within urban or strategic areas. The 'heart' of the crisis will presumably be in the public domain, not in a nuclear facility. An attack may arise in areas not having any presence of nuclear facilities in the vicinity or even in non-nuclear countries, which implies little expertise to respond. c) One may live the combination of important damage by the explosion combined with the a priori unknown existence of a radioactive, biological or chemical risk. d) There will be

  15. L-027: EPR-First Responders: First Medical Response in a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The main topics covered in this conference are the tasks and the roles of medical emergency services and the local hospital such as firsts aid in a radiological emergency, protective measures, contamination level of the victims and lifesaving

  16. L-059: EPR-First responders: Radiological emergency manual for first responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference is an emergency manual review about the first responders knowledge. The IAEA safety standard manuals, the medical gestion, the security forces and the fast communications are very important in a radiological emergency

  17. Resolution no. 18/2012 Guide for the preparation and emergency response radiological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This guide aims to establish requirements to ensure an adequate level of entities, for the preparation and response to radiological emergencies and to prepare the Radiation Emergency Plan (PER), asset out in the Basic Safety Standards radiological and authorizations Regulations in force. This guide applies to organizations providing employment practices associated with sources of ionizing radiation, hereinafter sources.

  18. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region

  19. Emergency Radiology Practice Patterns: Shifts, Schedules, and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tarek N; Shekhani, Haris; Lamoureux, Christine; Mar, Hanna; Nicola, Refky; Sliker, Clint; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2017-03-01

    To assess the practice environment of emergency radiologists with a focus on schedule, job satisfaction, and self-perception of health, wellness, and diagnostic accuracy. A survey drawing from prior radiology and health care shift-work literature was distributed via e-mail to national societies, teleradiology groups, and private practices. The survey remained open for 4 weeks in 2016, with one reminder. Data were analyzed using hypothesis testing and logistic regression modeling. Response rate was 29.6% (327/1106); 69.1% of respondents (n = 226) were greater than 40 years old, 73% (n = 240) were male, and 87% (n = 284) practiced full time. With regard to annual overnight shifts (NS): 36% (n = 118) did none, 24.9% (n = 81) did 182 or more, and 15.6% (n = 51) did 119. There was a significant association between average NS worked per year and both perceived negative health effects (P impact on memory (P job enjoyment and number of annual NS (P job" for radiologists who work no NS is 2.21 times greater than for radiologists who work at least 119 NS, when shift length is held constant. Radiologists with 11+ years of experience who work no NS or 1 to 100 NS annually have lower odds of feeling overwhelmed when compared with those working the same number of NS with job satisfaction and negative health self-perception. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Audit of litigation against the accident and emergency radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, S; De Stefano, F; Mari, A; Savaia, F; Rosso, R; Derchi, L

    2009-09-01

    The aims of this study were to reduce and monitor litigation due to failure to diagnose a fracture, to evaluate whether the cases were due to radiological error or other problems in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients and to identify organisational, technical or functional changes or guidelines to improve the management of patients with suspected fracture and their expectations. We analysed the litigation database for the period 2004-2006 and extracted all episodes indicating failure to diagnose a fracture at the accident and emergency radiology department of our centre. The radiographs underwent blinded review by two experts, and each case was jointly analysed by a radiologist and a forensic physician to see what led to the compensation claim. We identified 22 events (2004 seven cases; 2005 eight cases; 2006 seven cases). Six cases were unrelated to radiological error. Six were due to imperceptible fractures at the time of the examination. These were accounted for by the presence of a major lesion distracting the examiner's attention from a less important associated lesion in one case, a false negative result in a patient examined on a incompletely radiolucent spinal board and underexposure of the coccyx region in an obese patient. Six cases were related to an interpretation error by the radiologist. In the remaining cases, the lesion being referred to in the compensation claim could either not be established or the case was closed by the insurance company without compensation. Corrective measures were adopted. These included planning the purchase of a higher performance device, drawing up a protocol for imaging patients on spinal boards, reminding radiologists of the need to carefully scrutinise the entire radiogram even after having identified a lesion, and producing an information sheet explaining to patients the possibility of false negative results in cases of imperceptible lesions and inviting them to return to the department if symptoms

  1. Method for Developing a Communication Strategy and Plan for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide a practical resource for emergency planning in the area of public communication in the development of a radiation emergency communication plan (RECP). The term 'public communication' is defined as any activity that communicates information to the public and the media during a nuclear or radiological emergency. To avoid confusion, the term public communication has been used in this publication rather than public information, which may be used in other IAEA publications and documents to ensure consistency with the terminology used in describing the command and control system. This publication also aims to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(11) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research with regard to the response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. This publication is intended to provide guidance to national and local authorities on developing an RECP which incorporates the specific functions, arrangements and capabilities that will be required for public communication during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The two main features of this publication are the template provided to develop an RECP and detailed guidance on developing a communication strategy for emergency preparedness and response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The template is consistent with the outline of the national radiation emergency plan proposed in Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (EPR-Method 2003). This publication is part of the IAEA

  2. Medical intervention in radiological emergencies, formation and training; Intervencion medica en emergencias radiologicas, formacion y adiestramiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas H, J. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113, e/41 y 47 Playa, CP 11300, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: cardenas@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The work exposes the national experience in the development of training programs in medical aspects of the radiological emergencies. Implemented after valuing the existent situation, identified the necessities and the reach of the training, additionally it was elaborated the content of the training program whose purpose is guided to the invigoration of the medical answer capacity in radiological emergencies The content of the modular program it approaches theoretical- practical aspects on preparation and medical answer in radiological emergencies. The program includes an exercise that simulates a radiological accident, to evaluate during the same one, the answer capacity before this situation. The training concludes with the design of a strategy for the preparation and answer in radiological emergencies in correspondence with the potential accidental scenarios that the participants can face. (Author)

  3. Emergent radiologically guided drainage of large pericardial effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartz, W.H.; Gatenby, R.A.; Kessler, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors drained eight pericardial effusions on an emergency basis because of profound symptoms of pericardial tamponade. The etiology of the pericardial was metastatic disease in all eight cases. US of the subxyphoid region allowed definition of an optimal percutaneous approach. The pericardium was initially punctured with a 22-gauge needle, followed by tract dilation over a wire, which allowed ultimate placement of either an 8.4-F or 10-F nephrostomy catheter. Some 500 - 1,500 ml of bloody fluid drained from the pericardial space within minutes, and a total of 2 - 4 L over the next 4 days. No significant arrhythmias or immediate hypotensive episodes were observed. Six of the patients were successfully treated with sclerosis of the pericardium by injection of tetracyline into the pericardial catheter before it was removed. No recurrent effusions have been observed in any of these patients. Two patients died, one of unsuspected cerebral edema and uncal herniation and one of intractable congestive heart failure. At autopsy, the pericardial catheter was properly positioned with no significant remaining fluid. Echocardiograms were falsely normal in two patients, but CT findings were uniformly diagnostic. Radiologically guided drainage of large pericardial effusions appears to be a safe and effective technique for the treatment of pericardial tamponade from metastatic effusions. This technique is an alternative to the usual surgical intervention and does not require general anesthesia

  4. Radiological emergency response in a medical waste treatment unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.; Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Vianna, Estanislau B.; Nicolau, Jose R.A.; Rodrigues, Demerval L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Radioactive materials are largely used in medicine, research and industry. The amount of radioactive material employed in each application varies from negligible to large and it can be in sealed or non-sealed form. A medical waste treatment unit that deals only with A-type medical waste (ABNT-NBR 12808), which does not include radioactive waste, detected abnormal radiation levels in a collecting truck and the IPEN-CNEN/SP Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Team was called. The presence of radioactive material inside the truck was confirmed; however, its origin and nature were not possible to be determined because the truck had collected medical waste in several facilities. So, an operation in order to segregate and identify that material was carried out. During the operation, a second collecting truck presenting abnormal radiation levels arrived to the unit and the same procedure was carried out on that truck. In both situations, the contaminated objects found were infantile diapers. The radioactive waste was transported to IPEN-CNEN/SP to be managed. Samples of the radioactive materials were submitted to gamma spectrometry and the radionuclide was identified as Iodine-131. Since that attendance, similar occurrences have been frequent. These events suggest that it is necessary a better control of the radioactive waste at the generating facilities and there should be basic radioprotection orientations to the discharging patients that were submitted to nuclear medicine procedures. (author)

  5. Radiological emergency response in a medical waste treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.; Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Vianna, Estanislau B.; Nicolau, Jose R.A.; Rodrigues, Demerval L.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive materials are largely used in medicine, research and industry. The amount of radioactive material employed in each application varies from negligible to large and it can be in sealed or non-sealed form. A medical waste treatment unit that deals only with A-type medical waste (ABNT-NBR 12808), which does not include radioactive waste, detected abnormal radiation levels in a collecting truck and the IPEN-CNEN/SP Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Team was called. The presence of radioactive material inside the truck was confirmed; however, its origin and nature were not possible to be determined because the truck had collected medical waste in several facilities. So, an operation in order to segregate and identify that material was carried out. During the operation, a second collecting truck presenting abnormal radiation levels arrived to the unit and the same procedure was carried out on that truck. In both situations, the contaminated objects found were infantile diapers. The radioactive waste was transported to IPEN-CNEN/SP to be managed. Samples of the radioactive materials were submitted to gamma spectrometry and the radionuclide was identified as Iodine-131. Since that attendance, similar occurrences have been frequent. These events suggest that it is necessary a better control of the radioactive waste at the generating facilities and there should be basic radioprotection orientations to the discharging patients that were submitted to nuclear medicine procedures. (author)

  6. Emergency Preparedness. Practical proposals for further harmonisation of the reactions in European countries to any distant nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, Hannele; Bijlholt, Jette; Calvaro, Jose-Manuel Martin; Degueldre, Didier; Vandecasteele, Christian; Willems, Petra; Djounova, Jana; Fueloep, Nandor; Haywood, Stephanie; Herzeele, Michel; Janssens, Augustin; ); Hofer, Peter; Holo, Eldri; Hubbard, Lynn; Lindh, Karin; Isnard, Olivier; Lieser, Joachim; Majerus, Patrick; McMahon, Ciara; Nizamska, Marina; Palsson, Sigurdur Emil; Perrin, Marie-Line; Xicluna, Delphine; Piller, Georges; Rusch, Ronald; Rauber, Dominique; Rother, Wolfram; Stephen, Patrick; Tkavc, Marjan; Van Gelder, Iris

    2013-06-01

    It was clear from the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi in Japan in March 2011 that national assessment and responses to nuclear emergencies even if at a great distance from Europe could be significantly improved by a more rapid exchange of information. Discussions on this point during the 7. HERCA Board of Heads meeting in June 2011 led to the 'Working Group Emergencies' (WGE) being tasked with reviewing the issues and proposing practical working solutions for a more harmonized approach in response to such distant nuclear and radiological emergency situations. The present report is the result of that work. The aim of the report is on the one hand to assist radiological safety authorities to improve their preparedness in some areas and, on the other hand, to provide an overview of the important radiological issues to be considered by radiation protection authorities in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency in a distant country

  7. 30 years of the Goiania Accident: a comparative study with other radioactivity dispersion events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ricardo Bastos; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: rbsmith@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The year 2017 marks 30 years since the radioactive accident that occurred in the city of Goiania, capital of the state of Goias. It was the largest radiological accident in Brazil, and one of the largest in the world occurring outside nuclear facilities. Regarding the accidents at nuclear power plants, two of the biggest were Chernobyl in Ukraine, a year and a half before Goiania, and the Fukushima accident in Japan, in 2011. Different amounts of radioactive material were dispersed in the environment in each of these events. However, each one’s main pathway of dispersion was different: the accident of Goiania was terrestrial, Chernobyl was at the atmosphere, and Fukushima was mainly in the ocean. This work aims to study these different amounts, comparing such activities. In addition, it proposes to compare the sea dispersion of Fukushima with the amount of radioactive waste dumped in the oceans, when the release of radioactive waste at sea was permitted. It also proposes to compare the Chernobyl aerial dispersion with the radioactive material dissipated in the atmosphere, resulting from the more than 500 atmospheric nuclear tests conducted between 1945 and 1962 by the United States, the former Soviet Union, England, France and China. (author)

  8. 30 years of the Goiania Accident: a comparative study with other radioactivity dispersion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ricardo Bastos; Vicente, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The year 2017 marks 30 years since the radioactive accident that occurred in the city of Goiania, capital of the state of Goias. It was the largest radiological accident in Brazil, and one of the largest in the world occurring outside nuclear facilities. Regarding the accidents at nuclear power plants, two of the biggest were Chernobyl in Ukraine, a year and a half before Goiania, and the Fukushima accident in Japan, in 2011. Different amounts of radioactive material were dispersed in the environment in each of these events. However, each one’s main pathway of dispersion was different: the accident of Goiania was terrestrial, Chernobyl was at the atmosphere, and Fukushima was mainly in the ocean. This work aims to study these different amounts, comparing such activities. In addition, it proposes to compare the sea dispersion of Fukushima with the amount of radioactive waste dumped in the oceans, when the release of radioactive waste at sea was permitted. It also proposes to compare the Chernobyl aerial dispersion with the radioactive material dissipated in the atmosphere, resulting from the more than 500 atmospheric nuclear tests conducted between 1945 and 1962 by the United States, the former Soviet Union, England, France and China. (author)

  9. Study on the action guidelines for medical support team for nuclear and radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chang'an; Liu Ying; Geng Xiusheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the action guidelines for medical support team for nuclear and radiological emergency. Methods: It is based on the experience and lessons learned in the course of meeting the emergencies preparedness and response of nuclear and radiological emergencies in China and abroad with the reference of the relevant reports of International Atomic Energy Agency. Results: Essential requirements and practical recommendations for the roles, responsibilities, emergency preparedness, principles and procedures of medical assistance at the scene, as well as the radiological protection of medical support team were provided. Conclusion: The document mentioned above can be applied to direct the establishment, effective medical preparedness and response of the medical support team for nuclear and radiological emergency. (authors)

  10. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, J.M.; Moreau, J.F.; Nahum, H.; Bellet, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 17th International Congress of Radiology was conducted in two separate scientific sessions, one for radiodiagnosis and one for radiation oncology. Topics covered are: Radiobiology -radioprotection; imaging and data processing; contrast media; MRI; nuclear medicine; radiology and disasters; radiology of tropical diseases; cardiovascular radiology; interventional radiology; imaging of trauma; imaging of chest, gastro-intestinal tract, breast and genito-urinary tract; imaging in gynecology;imaging in oncology; bone and joint radiology; head and neck-radiology; neuro-radiology. (H.W.). refs.; fig.; tabs

  11. The Emergency Radiological Monitoring and Analysis Division of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. The FRERP authorises the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), which is established to co-ordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted States and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for co-ordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, and quality assurance. This program includes: 1. Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed-Wing and Helicopter; 2. Field Monitoring and Sampling; 3. Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories; 4. Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance; 5. Environmental Dosimetry; 6. Integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness, and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures manual is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets, and operations of the FRMAC Monitoring and Analysis Division and the content and preparation of the manual. (author)

  12. Workshop on the first response in a radiological emergency. Lost source. Tabletop exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a radiological accident occurred in a Hospital. A teletherapy unit has been damaged during a work in the installations. In the cancer treatment center a Cesium source disappeared so the dosimeters alarm was activated. The first responders have to know who are the actors involved in the radiologic emergency

  13. WS-011: EPR-First Responders: Demonstration of a radiological emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this working session is that the participant can apply their knowledge in a radiological emergency response as well as how to prevent potential contamination damage. The participants have to know how to respond in a radiological criminal scenario, the personal protection and the risks

  14. Report about decontamination and follow-up of Cesium-137 radiation victims at the FEBEM unit in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambises, P.B.S.; Sanchez, A.S.; Almeida, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The acquired experience and the facts related to treatment and external decontamination of contaminated people of the primary group of the Goiania accident are reported. This group was sent to Unidade FEBEM from October 10 to December 20, 1987. The external decontamination methods and the observed results obtained by daily monitoring reports are presented. Furthermore, the applied methodology to release people or to ask them for further periodical check ups at the radiological control units is also presented. (author)

  15. Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    The full text of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency adopted by the General Conference at its special session from 24-26 September 1986 is presented. It is stipulated that the States Parties shall cooperate between themselves and with the Agency to facilitate prompt assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency to minimize its consequences and to protect life, the property and the environment from the effects of radioactive releases

  16. A mobile computer system to support first responders to a radiological emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio J.D. da, E-mail: antoniojoseds@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Informatica; Santos, Joao R. dos; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Decision-making in emergency situations is characterized by its speed, pressure, and especially the uncertainty of information. Uninformed decisions or decisions based on unreliable data may lead to inappropriate actions. Although several studies that aim to combine different databases and provide full information to emergency response operation commanders can be found, only few of them are dedicated to radiological emergencies situations and even less are those that aim to provide support for the emergency first responder. We developed a system to support first responders to deal with radiological emergencies using cognitive task analysis techniques to elicit the tacitly knowledge of practitioners to grasp what information is really needed during radiological emergency response. (author)

  17. A mobile computer system to support first responders to a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Antonio J.D. da

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making in emergency situations is characterized by its speed, pressure, and especially the uncertainty of information. Uninformed decisions or decisions based on unreliable data may lead to inappropriate actions. Although several studies that aim to combine different databases and provide full information to emergency response operation commanders can be found, only few of them are dedicated to radiological emergencies situations and even less are those that aim to provide support for the emergency first responder. We developed a system to support first responders to deal with radiological emergencies using cognitive task analysis techniques to elicit the tacitly knowledge of practitioners to grasp what information is really needed during radiological emergency response. (author)

  18. The spread of 137Cs by resuspension of contaminated soil in the urban area of Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires do Rio, M.A.; Amaral, E.C.S.; Paretzke, H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements regarding the population exposure were performed in Goiania after the radiological accident as well as studies on resuspension and redeposition of 137 Cs in urban areas, on the contribution of soil splash to the 137 Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and on the transfer of 137 Cs from soil to chicken meat and eggs. Periodical street dust sampling was used to follow-up the spreading of the radionuclide in the city. The results do not indicate a measurable spreading of this radionuclide throughout the city from the contaminated areas, but resuspension can lead to significant local contamination of agricultural products, equipment, structures, etc. (author)

  19. Radiological emergencies and the ARCAL project; Emergencias radiologicas y el rol del proyecto ARCAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gironzini, Eduardo Medina [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    1997-12-31

    The ARCAL project and its purpose are described. The project has started on 1985 and assembles the Latin American countries in a concentrate effort to develop and to strengthen activities of radiological protection in technical cooperation with the IAEA. Radiological emergency is a high important subject in all the projects developed by ARCAL. The ARCAL activities are briefly presented, such as: meetings, training courses, seminars, dissemination of information, preparing of technical documents, books, etc. The role of ARCAL in the field of radiological emergency is discussed 6 refs.; e-mail: congres at ciplim.org.pe

  20. Assessment of radiological referral practice and effect of computer-based guidelines on radiological requests in two emergency departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carton, Matthieu; Auvert, Bertran; Guerini, Henri; Boulard, Jean-Christophe; Heautot, Jean-Francois; Landre, Marie-France; Beauchet, Alain; Sznajderi, Marc; Brun-Ney, Dominique; Chagnon, Sophie

    2002-02-01

    AIM: To assess medical emergency radiology referral practice compared with a set of French guidelines and to measure the efficiency of computer-based guidelines on unnecessary medical imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All radiological requests were computerized in the medical emergency departments of two French teaching hospitals. During control periods, radiological requests were recorded but no action was taken. During intervention periods, reminder displays on screen indicated the appropriate recommendations. Three control and three intervention periods of 1 month each were conducted. The percentage of requests that did not conform to the guidelines and variation related to periods of control and intervention were measured. RESULTS: The proportion of requests that did not conform to the guidelines was 33{center_dot}2% when the guidelines were inactive and decreased to 26{center_dot}9% when the recommendations were active (P < 0{center_dot}0001). The three imaging examinations (chest radiographs, abdominal plain radiographs and CT of the brain) accounted for more than 80% of all requests; more than 50% of abdominal plain radiographs requests did not conform with recommendations while this percentage was respectively 24{center_dot}9% and 15{center_dot}8% for chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of the brain. Seven situations accounted for 70% of non-conforming radiological referrals; in these situations, junior practitioners' knowledge was inadequate. CONCLUSION: While the computer provided advice that was tailored to the needs of individual patients, concurrent with care, the effect of our intervention was weak. However, our study identified the few situations that were responsible for the majority of unnecessary radiological requests; we expect that this result could help clinicians and radiologists to develop more specific actions for these situations. Carton, M. et al. (2002). Clinical Radiology (2002)

  1. Assessment of radiological referral practice and effect of computer-based guidelines on radiological requests in two emergency departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carton, Matthieu; Auvert, Bertran; Guerini, Henri; Boulard, Jean-Christophe; Heautot, Jean-Francois; Landre, Marie-France; Beauchet, Alain; Sznajderi, Marc; Brun-Ney, Dominique; Chagnon, Sophie

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess medical emergency radiology referral practice compared with a set of French guidelines and to measure the efficiency of computer-based guidelines on unnecessary medical imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All radiological requests were computerized in the medical emergency departments of two French teaching hospitals. During control periods, radiological requests were recorded but no action was taken. During intervention periods, reminder displays on screen indicated the appropriate recommendations. Three control and three intervention periods of 1 month each were conducted. The percentage of requests that did not conform to the guidelines and variation related to periods of control and intervention were measured. RESULTS: The proportion of requests that did not conform to the guidelines was 33·2% when the guidelines were inactive and decreased to 26·9% when the recommendations were active (P < 0·0001). The three imaging examinations (chest radiographs, abdominal plain radiographs and CT of the brain) accounted for more than 80% of all requests; more than 50% of abdominal plain radiographs requests did not conform with recommendations while this percentage was respectively 24·9% and 15·8% for chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of the brain. Seven situations accounted for 70% of non-conforming radiological referrals; in these situations, junior practitioners' knowledge was inadequate. CONCLUSION: While the computer provided advice that was tailored to the needs of individual patients, concurrent with care, the effect of our intervention was weak. However, our study identified the few situations that were responsible for the majority of unnecessary radiological requests; we expect that this result could help clinicians and radiologists to develop more specific actions for these situations. Carton, M. et al. (2002). Clinical Radiology (2002)

  2. Nordic Intervention Criteria for Nuclear or Radiological Emergencies. Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Recommendations of the Nordic radiation protection authorities on application of international criteria in a nuclear or radiological emergency in the Nordic countries are presented. The recommendations are focused on the generic intervention levels for various actions to protect members of the public and workers undertaking an intervention. Prompt precautionary actions for the near zones around the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants are defined. These actions are; preventive sheltering, iodine prophylaxis and precautionary evacuation. No special intervention levels for these precautionary actions have been set, because implementation of these actions is always based on very limited information about an accident. These actions can be initiated on a mere indication of possible release of radioactivity. The indication might be an alarm or any other predefined signal. Intervention level for actions to protect members of the public are based on the concept of avertable dose. They are in line with the international recommendations. With regard to iodine prophylaxis, a national approach is recommended due to different national policies of advance distribution of iodine tablets. The longer term intervention actions, temporary relocation and permanent resettlement, will be based not only on radiation protection factors but also on wider judgement of the overall situation. For that reason, no generic intervention levels, in terms of radiation dose, are recommended. The intervention levels for various protective actions are in the following table.Table 1. Generic intervention levels for actions to protect members of the public.Protective action. Generic intervention level as an avertable dose. Sheltering: 10 mSv within two days (effective dose); Iodine prophylaxis: National recommendations; Evacuation: 50 mSv within one week (effective dose); Temporary relocation: No predetermined intervention level; Permanent resettlement: No predetermined intervention level. Workers

  3. L-035: EPR-First Responders: Basic Risk and Protection for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    There are some basic actions and self-protective actions to take in an radiological emergency. Radiation is detected with appropriate instrumentation and measuring the rate of exposure (Sv per hour) in contact with radioactive materials involved. Is important to note: Responsive to a radiological emergency, tool to identify radiological risks, radiation protection, radioactive symbol and instrumentation

  4. Management of a radiological emergency. Organization and operation; Gestion d'une urgence radiologique. Organisation et fonctionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubiau, Ph. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France)

    2007-07-15

    After a recall of potential radiological emergency situations and their associated risks, this article describes the organization in France of the crisis management and its operation at the national and international scale: 1 - Nuclear or radiological emergency situations and their associated risks: inventory of ionising radiation sources, accidental situations, hazards; 2 - crisis organization in situation of radiological or nuclear emergency: organization at the local scale, organization at the national scale; 3 - management of emergency situations: accident at a facility, action circle, radiological emergency situations outside nuclear facilities, international management of crisis, situations that do not require the implementation of an emergency plan. (J.S.)

  5. International exchange of radiological information in emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; De Vries, G.; Breitenbach, L.; Fraser, G.; Vade, S.

    1998-01-01

    Description of the current system, experience gained, and expected future developments is given for the ECURIE system and, in particular, the EURDEP European-wide radiological information exchange system. It is concluded that the existing situation continues to be inhomogeneous. Although EURDEP foresees a common format for data exchange, which has been successfully implemented in 9 European countries, and regular exercises for data have been performed for a few years, important efforts will still have to be made to come to a more homogeneous and consistent European system for radiological information exchange. (P.A.)

  6. Development of software to provide practical guidance in the managing of a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Filho, Alfredo L.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Loureiro, Eduardo C.M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of managing a radiological emergency is the ability to promptly and adequately determine and take actions to protect members of public and emergency workers. This work brings up to date a computer software program in Delphi, with the tools, generic procedures and the data necessary to support the Incident Commander, the Radiological Assessor and other members of a generic response organization in case of radiological accident. The aim is also to provide practical guidance for the first responders who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency and for the national officials who would support this early response. Software is now based on the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency (EPR-First Responders), published in 2006 as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, as well as in the IAEA technical document, Generic Procedures for Assessment and Response during a Radiological Emergency, the IAEA-TECDOC-1162, taking account of the lessons learned from using this last document in the area of early response and first responders' actions. The proposed procedures provide action criteria that are clear, concise and predetermined, based on the present knowledge and the accumulated experiences, allowing the immediate decision-making. The objective is to provide, through a portable computer, practical guidance, in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data for emergency response that, if implemented, will provide a basic assessment and the response capability needed to protect public and workers in case of different types of radiological emergencies. In addition to appropriate protective action recommendations, it will also provide, when it is necessary, general guidance on the recovery of radioactive sources and initial cleanup operations. The philosophy is to keep the process simple and fast, yet effective. Software is available in Spanish, English and Portuguese

  7. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edholm, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    This is a report describing diagnostic techniques used in radiology. It describes the equipment necessary for, and the operation of a radiological department. Also is described the standard methods used in radiodiagnosis. (K.A.E.)

  8. Cesium-137 monitoring of aquatic and terrestrial environment in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.N.O.; Guimaraes, J.R.D.; Gouvea, V.A.; Rochedo, E.R.R.

    1988-01-01

    During the Goiania radiological accident, aprox. 1200 Ci of Cs - 137 were inadvertently manipulated and an unknown fraction of this total was available for environmental dispertion during at least 6 weeks, before efficient remedial action could be undertaken. The main dispersion pathways were rainwater run-off and soil ressuspension and further deposition. Cs-137 monitoring in the local environment started in the first week of October, including to date aprox. 1300 measurements of soil, vegetable (fruits and kitchen-gardens), ground and drinking water, sediments and fish, aerosol, precipitation and external dose measurement with TL dosimeters, in the surroundings of the main contamination spots. Until the conclusion of de-contamination activities in late December, the ranges of Cs-137 in a 50m radius of evacuated areas were as follows: 10 2 -10 4 Bq/Kg for surface soils and edible vegetables, 10 0 -10 1 mBq/m 3 in air and 10 Bq/l in all water types. River sediment and fish 5-10 Km downstream the accident are ranged respectively 10 2 -10 3 and 10 2 /Kg. These data indicated the pathways and locations for intervention for further reduction of radiation exposure. This intervention consisted mainly in tree-tipping and surface soil removal. (author) [pt

  9. Cesium-137: psychological and social consequences of the Goiania's accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Suzana; Costa Neto, Sebastiao Benicio da

    1995-01-01

    The book care for radioactive accident occurred in 1987 in Goiania - brazilian city. The accident had origin by the hospitable equipment incorrect handling which contained a stainless steel capsule, in which interior there was cesium-137 chloride. The main boarded aspects are: psychological and social aspects verified after the accident; psychological and social analysis of population of Goiania three years after the accident; essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania; and psychological and mobile evaluation of intra-uterus children exposed to the radiation with cesium-137

  10. Psychological and social aspects verified after the Goiania's radioactive accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Suzana

    1995-01-01

    Psychological and social aspects verified after the radioactive accident occurred in 1987 in Goiania - brazilian city - are discussed. With this goal was going presented a public opinion research in order to retract the Goiania's radioactive accident residual psychological effects. They were going consolidated data obtained in 1.126 interviews. Four involvement different levels groups with the accident are compared with regard to the event. The research allowed to conclude that the accident affected psychologically somehow all Goiania's population. Besides, the research allowed to analyze the professionals performance quality standard in terms of the accident

  11. New aspects in the radiological emergency plan outside the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alva L, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican government through the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards has imposed to the Federal Commission of Electricity to fulfill the requirement of having a functional Emergency Plan and under the limits that the regulator organisms in the world have proposed. The PERE (Plan of External Radiological Emergency) it has been created for the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde, Mexico

  12. Role of first responder's training in the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, V.; Sankhla, Rajesh; Verma, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Consequent to the terrorist attacks on WTC in USA and other similar terrorist attacks worldwide, there has been increasing public concern regarding the use of radioactive materials in a malevolent act. As the radioactive sources are widely used in the industries, terrorists may have access to these facilities and obtain the radioactive material suitable for making Radioactive Dispersal Device (RDD) often called as dirty bomb. Response to nuclear or radiological emergency may involve highly specialized agencies or technical experts. Hence well-coordinated arrangements must be integrated with those required for any other conventional emergencies. During radiological emergencies, emergency service personnel are expected to play a major role in the early response. Though these personnel are well equipped and trained in tackling the normal emergencies it is essential to train them to deal with the radiological emergencies due to inherent characteristics of radioactivity. For the effective management of radiological emergencies, these first responders are required to be trained in such a way that they understand the concept of radiation protection. This objective can be achieved by using a typical training module consisting of interactive class room lectures, practical sessions to use the instruments and handling of radioactive sources, demonstration of radiation protection practices, exhibition of all radiation survey instruments and protective equipment etc., display of various posters and RDD Emergency Exercise. (author)

  13. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary

  14. Scientific issues and emerging challenges for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific knowledge is constantly evolving as more advanced technologies become available and more in-depth research is carried out. Given the potential implications that new findings could have on policy decisions, in 1998 the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) performed a survey of state-of-the-art research in radiological protection science. This study suggested that, while the current system of radiological protection was well under-pinned by scientific understanding, growing knowledge in several areas could seriously impact policy and regulation. Ten years later, the CRPPH has again performed a survey of state-of-the-art research which reiterates and clarifies its earlier conclusions. This report summarises the results of this latest CRPPH assessment of radiological protection science. Specifically, it explains that knowledge of non-targeted and delayed effects, as well as of individual sensitivity, have been significantly refined over the past ten years. Although at this point there is still no scientific certainty in these areas, based on the most recent studies and results, the report strongly suggests that policy makers and regulatory authorities should consider possible impacts that could arise from research in the next few years. Further, the report identifies research areas that should be supported to more definitively answer scientific questions having the most direct impacts on policy choices. (author)

  15. The application of geographic information system to radiological and nuclear emergency monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaniowski, I.V.; Rodriguez, M.; Rojas, C.A.; Jordan, O.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Geographic Information System (GIS) implementation for the preparation and response in case of to radiological and nuclear emergencies is being developed in the Emergency Control Center of the Argentina Nuclear Regulatory Authority, since many years ago. Additionals features have been incorporated such as integration with the results of radiological monitoring, improving and expanding its benefits both in the preparation stage and during the work of emergency response. This paper shows the specific application of GIS to radiological monitoring in case of emergency situations such as during the search of orphan sources and the characterization of geographic context around nuclear power plants and atomic centers. The GIS provides essential data cartographic for the monitoring with sophisticated detectors, to integrate with the information received with infrastructure, urban and rural population maps, physical features of the place, satellite images, etc. The monitoring results are analyzed and compared with relevant information for decision making during the response, like evacuation routes, affected population, security forces in the area, radiological characterization, application of protective actions, hospitals, schools, etc. These two integrated tools improve preparedness and response system in case of radiological or nuclear emergency. (authors) [es

  16. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability

  17. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability

  18. Generic Procedures for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency at Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The IAEA publishes the Emergency Preparedness and Response Series to fulfil that function. This publication is part of that series. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, contains the following requirement: 'To ensure that arrangements are in place for a timely, managed, controlled, coordinated and effective response at the scene...'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(53)/RES/10, continues to encourage Member States '...to enhance, where necessary, their own preparedness and response capabilities for nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies, by improving capabilities to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences...'. This publication is intended to assist Member States meet the requirements of GS-R-2 and enhance their preparedness by providing guidance on the response by facility personnel to emergencies at research reactor facilities.

  19. Preparation, conduct and evaluation of exercises to test preparedness for a nuclear or radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this publication is to serve as a practical tool for the preparation, conduct and evaluation of exercises to test preparedness for response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. It fulfils in part the functions assigned to the IAEA under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), namely, to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning the methodologies, techniques and available results of research on such emergencies. To ensure effective response to radiation emergencies when needed, provisions should be made for regular training of emergency response personnel. As stated in Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (Safety Requirements, Safety Standard Series No. GS-R-2), 'The operator and the response organizations shall make arrangements for the selection of personnel and training to ensure that the personnel have the requisite knowledge, skills, abilities, equipment, procedures and other arrangements to perform their assigned response functions'. A further requirement is that 'Exercise programmes shall be conducted to ensure that all specified functions required to be performed for emergency response and all organizational interfaces for facilities in threat category I, II or III and the national level programmes for threat category IV or V are tested at suitable intervals'. In 2004 the IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(48)/RES/10 encouraged Member States to 'implement the Safety Requirements for Preparedness and Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency'. This document is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. It was developed based on a number of assumptions about national and local capabilities. Therefore, the exercise structure, terms and scenarios must be

  20. Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (Updating IAEA-TECDOC-953) (Spanish Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides a practical resource for emergency planning and fulfils, in part, functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. If used effectively, it will help users to develop a capability to adequately respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency

  1. Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (Updating IAEA-TECDOC-953) (French Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides a practical resource for emergency planning and fulfils, in part, functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. If used effectively, it will help users to develop a capability to adequately respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency

  2. Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (Updating IAEA-TECDOC-953) (Russian Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides a practical resource for emergency planning and fulfils, in part, functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. If used effectively, it will help users to develop a capability to adequately respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency

  3. A model national emergency plan for radiological accidents; Plan modelo nacional de respuesta de emergencia para accidentes radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The IAEA has supported several projects for the development of a national response plan for radiological emergencies. As a result, the IAEA has developed a model National Emergency Response Plan for Radiological Accidents (RAD PLAN), particularly for countries that have no nuclear power plants. This plan can be adapted for use by countries interested in developing their own national radiological emergency response plan, and the IAEA will supply the latest version of the RAD PLAN on computer diskette upon request.

  4. CETESB's actions in Goiania in what concerns cesium-137 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penteado Filho, Azor Camargo; Derisio, Jose Carlos; Albuquerque, Antonio Martins de

    1991-01-01

    This work presents several actions performed by CETESB, the sanitary engineering agency of Sao Paulo State - Southeast Brazil, in what concerns the accident involving cesium-137 in Goiania, Goias State - Center Brazil. The adopted procedures are described in details

  5. A Simulation Learning Approach to Training First Responders for Radiological Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Robert Lon; Rhodes, Graham S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of simulation learning technology, popularized by the emerging serious games industry, for training first responders to properly act in the event of a radiological emergency. Using state-of-the-art video game production tools and runtime engines as an enabling technology, simulation learning combines interactive virtual worlds based on validated engineering models with engaging storylines and scenarios that invoke the emotional response-and the corresponding human stress level-that first responders would encounter during a real-world emergency. For the application discussed here, in addition to providing engaging instruction about the fundamentals of radiological environments and the proper usage of radiological equipment, simulation learning prepares first responders to perform effectively under high stress and enables them to practice in teams

  6. Cooperative approach to training for radiological emergency preparedness and response in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bus, John; Popp, Andrew; Holland, Brian; Murray, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the collaborative and systematic approach to training for nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response and the outcomes of this work with ANSTO's Southeast Asian counterparts, particularly in the Philippines. The standards and criteria being applied are discussed, along with the methods, design and conduct of workshops, table-top and field exercises. The following elements of this training will be presented: (a) identifying the priority areas for training through needs analysis;(b) strengthening individual profesional expertise through a structured approach to training; and (c) enhancing individual Agency and National nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response arrangements and capabilities. Whilst the work is motivated by nuclear security concerns, the implications for effective and sustainable emergency response to any nuclear or radiological incidents are noted. (author)

  7. Emergency department radiology: reality or luxury? An international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, D.R.; Blickman, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in society and developments within emergency care affect imaging in the emergency department. It is clear that radiologists have to be pro-active to even survive. High quality service is the goal, and if we are to add value to the diagnostic (and therapeutic) chain of healthcare,

  8. Some issues on nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear emergency preparedness and response have comprehensively been developed over ten years in China. In order to promote the sound development of emergency preparedness and response, it is useful to retrospect the process of emergency preparedness and response, to summarize the experiences and absorb the experiences from foreign countries. The main issues are as follows: 1) The preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological accident is basically the same as the response to any accident involving hazardous material. 2) The classification of emergency planning, not only for nuclear facilities, but also irradiation installation, etc. 3) The hazard assessment-- a top priority. 4) The emergency planning zones. 5) Psychological impact

  9. Guidelines for attendance and registration for radiological emergencies of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Today in Brazil the use of nuclear energy is becoming an usual practice in various activities. Thus, must be a matter of great weight, directions for attendance and registration for radiological emergencies or nuclear accidents. This work shows the planning elaborated by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Brazilian CNEN) for nuclear plants, aiming avoid the injurious effects from the ionizing radiation exposure, radionuclides release or the direct or indirect exposure of ionizing radiation, that proceeding from a radiological emergencies or a nuclear accidents. (J.A.M.M.)

  10. Preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Samah Alzebair.

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to find out what is ionizing radiation and its users in various medical and industrial fields and extent of the risk resulting from it as a result of inappropriate use. Examples have been mentioned so (the Chernobyl accident and San Salvador) and caused problems. Due to the non-use of nuclear and ionizing radiation in industrial areas in Sudan. There are no radiological incidents remember. Current and universally agreed-upon court plants have been developed by the organization and the competent authorities at the regional and local level and global and who is responsible because of the dangers caused to humans and the environment and all around him. (Author)

  11. Radioecological studies in Goiania urban area: review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Monica Pires do; Amaral, Eliana

    1997-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour and transport of 137 Cs in urban areas, including, resuspension and deposition experiments, 137 Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and small domestic animals that accidentally ingested contaminated soil, were performed in a house located at 57 t h Street near the main focus of contamination. The resuspension of surface soil did not contribute much to the spreading of the radionuclide in Goiania, but can lead to the local contamination of vegetables, equipment, structures and other environmental surfaces. The mechanism also presented a seasonal effect. The soil is an important medium for the uptake of 137 Cs by small domestic animals. The street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the dispersion of 137 Cs in urban areas. After 10 years, the radionuclide activity concentration is restricted only to the initially impacted area an it is decreasing with time. (author)

  12. Participation of the ININ in the external radiological emergency plan of the Laguna Verde power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez S, R.; Cervini L, A.

    1991-01-01

    The planning of performances in radiological emergencies, with the object of reducing the consequences as much as possible on the population to accidental liberations of radioactive material coming from Nuclear power plant, it has been of main interest in the nuclear community in the world. In Mexico it has not been the exception, since with the setting in march of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant exists an executive program of planning for emergencies that it outlines the activities to follow trending to mitigate the consequences that are derived of this emergency. As integral part of this program this the External Plan of Radiological Emergency (PERE) that covers the emergencies that could leave the frontiers of the Laguna Verde power plant. In the PERE it settles down the planning, address and control of the preparation activities, response and recovery in emergencies, as well as the organization and coordination of the institutions that participate. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), like integral part of these institutions in the PERE, has an infrastructure that it allows to participate in the plan in a direct way in the activities of 'Control of the radiological exhibition the response personnel and control of water and foods' and of support way and consultant ship in the activities of 'Monitoring, Classification and decontamination of having evaluated' and 'Specialized medical radiological attention'. At the moment the ININ has a radiological mobile unit and this conditioning a second mobile unit to carry out part of the activities before mentioned; also accounts with 48 properly qualified people that directly intervene in the plan. In order to guarantee an adequate response in the PERE an organization it has been structured like that of the annex as for the personnel, transport, team, procedures and communication system, with the objective always of guaranteeing the security and the population's health in emergency situations in the

  13. Individual monitoring and dosimetry: The Goiania experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsztein, J.L.; Melo, D.R.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Bertelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    Several people were contaminated with 137 Cs in an accident involving the stealing and breaching of a radiotherapy source in Goiania, Brazil. A drug known as Prussian Blue was administered to some contaminated individuals to enhance Cs elimination from the body. Individuals internally contaminated were monitored for the two first months, exclusively by in vitro bioassay, i.e., urine and faeces analysis. After that period of time a field whole-body counter was set up in Goiania and individuals started to be monitored in vivo, on a regular basis. The total internal committed doses and the effect of Prussian blue treatment have been evaluated. For adults, the biological half-time (T 2 ) under PB treatment was reduced to an average value around to 31% of the half-time after finished treatment. For adolescents (T 2 ) was reduced to an average value around to 54% and for children was reduced to an average value around to 57%. A weight dependent biokinetic study of 137 Cs retention in humans was conducted. Data from 10 girls and 7 boys, aged 1 to 10 y old, as well as from 10 adolescents: 4 females and 6 males, and from 30 adults: 15 females and 15 males, contaminated in the accident, were used in this study. A planned experiment with beagle dogs were carried out to furnish some further data for our study. Based on these data, a three terms exponential equation is suggested to describe the 137 Cs retention in the body, the first-term associated with a very short half-time, the second with a longer half-time and the third term with a very long half-time, of the order of 400 to 570 days and relating to a retention fraction of only 0.1%. A table of weight, age and sex specific half-times for the second term is suggested. (author)

  14. Preparation, Conduct and Evaluation of Exercises to Test Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to serve as a practical tool for the preparation, conduct and evaluation of exercises to test preparedness for response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. It fulfils in part the functions assigned to the IAEA under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), namely, to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning the methodologies, techniques and available results of research on such emergencies. To ensure effective response to radiation emergencies when needed, provisions should be made for regular training of emergency response personnel. As stated in Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (Safety Requirements, Safety Standard Series No. GS-R-2), 'The operator and the response organizations shall make arrangements for the selection of personnel and training to ensure that the personnel have the requisite knowledge, skills, abilities, equipment, procedures and other arrangements to perform their assigned response functions'. A further requirement is that 'Exercise programmes shall be conducted to ensure that all specified functions required to be performed for emergency response and all organizational interfaces for facilities in threat category I, II or III and the national level programmes for threat category IV or V are tested at suitable intervals'. In 2004 the IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(48)/RES/10 encouraged Member States to 'implement the Safety Requirements for Preparedness and Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency'. This document is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. It was developed based on a number of assumptions about national and local capabilities. Therefore, the exercise structure, terms and scenarios must be

  15. Radiation protection of workers in radiological emergency situation. Proceedings of the technical day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, Alain; Gosset, Eric; Lahaye, Thierry; Foucher, Laurent; Couasnon, Olivier; Bouchery, Pascal; Gaillard-Lecanu, Emmanuelle; Pectorin, Xavier; Fusil, Laurence; Boudergui, Karim; Adhemar, Bruno; Devin, Patrick; Mace, Jean-Reynald; Chevallier, Michel; Leautaud, Jean-Marc; LANCE, Benoit

    2015-03-01

    Following the Fukushima-Daichi accident, several actions have been taken in France from the lessons learnt from the accident: the elaboration of a national plan for the management of a major nuclear or radiological accident, and the safety complementary evaluations to be carried out by nuclear operators. As a complement to the measures to be implemented for the protection of the overall population in emergency radiological situation, the protection of workers mobilized for the management of the crisis has also to be taken into account in the framework of these measures. The French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) has organized a technical day to take stock of this question. The program comprises 4 topical sessions dealing with: the main actions taken at the national scale after the Fukushima-Daichi accident, the strategies and intervention means of nuclear operators in case of radiological emergency, the radiation protection R and D for the protection of intervenors in case of radiological emergency, and the main actions implemented at the international scale and their perspectives. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - Health status and lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident - workers (Alain RANNOU, IRSN); 2 - National response plan to a major nuclear or radiologic accident (Eric GOSSET, SGDSN); 3 - Legal framework applicable to intervenors (Thierry LAHAYE, DGT); 4 - Prescriptions linked with complementary safety and liability studies (Laurent FOUCHER, ASN); 5 - EDF: radiological risk management in emergency situation (Pascal BOUCHERY, EDF); 6 - CEA: intervention strategy, means and radiation protection (Xavier PECTORIN, Laurence FUSIL - CEA); 7 - AREVA: FINA's Intervention and workers' radiation protection (Bruno ADHEMAR, Patrick DEVIN - AREVA); 8 - Intervention in radiological emergency situation: the INTRA (Robots intervention on accidents) economic

  16. Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, OECD/NEA, PAHO, CTBTO, UNEP, OCHA, WHO and WMO, is the new edition establishing the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency which takes into account the latest experience and developments in the area. It supersedes the previous edition of the Safety Requirements for emergency preparedness and response, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, which was published in 2002. This publication establishes the requirements for ensuring an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, irrespective of its cause. These Safety Requirements are intended to be used by governments, emergency response organizations, other authorities at the local, regional and national levels, operating organizations and the regulatory body as well as by relevant international organizations at the international level.

  17. Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, OECD/NEA, PAHO, CTBTO, UNEP, OCHA, WHO and WMO, is the new edition establishing the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency which takes into account the latest experience and developments in the area. It supersedes the previous edition of the Safety Requirements for emergency preparedness and response, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, which was published in 2002. This publication establishes the requirements for ensuring an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, irrespective of its cause. These Safety Requirements are intended to be used by governments, emergency response organizations, other authorities at the local, regional and national levels, operating organizations and the regulatory body as well as by relevant international organizations at the international level.

  18. Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, OECD/NEA, PAHO, CTBTO, UNEP, OCHA, WHO and WMO, is the new edition establishing the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency which takes into account the latest experience and developments in the area. It supersedes the previous edition of the Safety Requirements for emergency preparedness and response, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, which was published in 2002. This publication establishes the requirements for ensuring an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, irrespective of its cause. These Safety Requirements are intended to be used by governments, emergency response organizations, other authorities at the local, regional and national levels, operating organizations and the regulatory body as well as by relevant international organizations at the international level.

  19. Nigeria status on capabilities for response to nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambo, I.; Elegba, S.B.; Ogharandukun, M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology has been widely employed and will continue to expand in use in Nigeria particularly in the health, industrial, mining, water resources, agriculture, manufacturing, education and research sectors. Incidents and emergencies cannot therefore be ruled out. Effective national response capabilities are essential to minimize the impacts from nuclear and radiological emergencies, and to build public trust in the safety and security of nuclear technology. The often discussed Nigeria's Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) project cannot occur without enhanced national capabilities to respond to an incidence or emergency. Moreover, increased concern over the use of nuclear or radioactive materials malevolent acts increases the need to broaden response capabilities. This paper examines Nigeria's status on capabilities for response to a nuclear and radiological emergency vis-a-vis international requirements for effective response capabilities

  20. WSPEEDI-II system user's manual for a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Chika; Sato, Sohei; Muto, Shigeo; Furuno, Akiko; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) has developed the response system to evaluate the radiological consequences of an accident on a nuclear power plant or nuclear weapons testing around Japan and to support prediction of radioactive material distributions by using an atmospheric dispersion model on the framework of the Response Assistance Network (RANET) which is established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the enhancement of assistance capability to external organizations at a nuclear or radiological emergency, NEAT will introduce a computer-based emergency response system, 'Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information: WSPEEDI 2nd version (WSPEEDI-II)' developed by Division of Environmental and Radiation Sciences. This manual covers the overview of the system and configuration parameters as the basic knowledge needed for operating the systems. (author)

  1. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this text-book basic knowledge about radiology, biomedical diagnostic methods (radiography, computer tomography), nuclear medicine and safety and radiation protection of personnel on the radiodiagnostic place of work are presented

  2. Radiological emergency room management with emphasis on multidetector-row

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, M.O.; Kubin, K.; Hoermann, M.; Metz, V.M. E-mail: viktor.metz@univie.ac.at

    2003-10-01

    Trauma is the fifth leading cause of death after disease of the cardiovascular system, malignomas and disease of the respiratory and digestive system. The management of severely injured patients, including radiological imaging, is a matter of ongoing development. In particular, as for the imaging modalities, multidetector-row CT represents a substantial refinement in the diagnostic work-up of multitrauma patients. Sufficient therapy within the first hour after trauma increases the patient's chances for survival significantly. Thus, therapeutic procedures and diagnostic evaluation have to be concomitant events, performed by a multidisciplinary team, namely trauma surgeon, anesthesiologist and, last but not least, radiologist. The increased performance of multidetector-row CT leads to increased spatial resolution, which is a prerequisite for sophisticated two- and three-dimensional postprocessing. The increased volume coverage speed allows for comprehensive whole-body CT at still high levels of spatial resolution, resulting in significant spare of time which influences patient's survival. Using this technique conventional imaging such as plane film or angiography may be omitted.

  3. L-061: EPR--First responders: Risk and Protection radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference is about the basic risks, protection and the consequences in a radiological emergency. The first responders have to know the deterministic and stochastic effects in the health as well as the cancer risk due of the high radioactive doses exposure

  4. L-63: The IAEA response role in the radiological emergencies: Revision for first responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this conference is that the first responders have to know the IAEA role importance in a radiological emergency. The IAEA is prepared to provide assistance at the scene as well as medical treatment, mistake corrections, monitoring and respond to the media questions.

  5. Problems related to public perceptions of radiological emergency planning and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Margaret A.

    1989-01-01

    Beyond the scientific, the administrative and procedural issues of radiological emergency planning and response there is the issue of public perception. This paper emphasises that, radiation crises being a rare occurrence there is no enough database for generating scholarly quantitative reports. It suggests the need for disseminating timely and accurate information through a single spokesman from a responsible public agency

  6. Lessons learned from the second Federal Radiology Emergency Response Plan Field Exercise (FFE-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.; Weiss, B.H.; Wolff, W.F.; Adler, V.

    1988-01-01

    The FFE-2, held in 1987 at the Zion Nuclear Power Station, provided a large-scale, multiagency, field test of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP). The FRERP provided workable guidance for coordinating the federal response efforts and effectively supplementing the states' resources. Needs for more training for responders and clarification in portions of the response were identified

  7. Workshop on the first response in a radiological emergency. Radiopharmaceuticals transport. Tabletop exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a transport accident. A lorry that was transporting radiopharmaceuticals collided with other vehicles and a fire occurs. The first responders have to know who are the actors involved in the radiological emergency

  8. Planning the medical response to radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive substances and other sources of ionizing radiation are used to assist in diagnosing and treating diseases, improving agricultural yields, producing electricity and expanding scientific knowledge. The application of sources of radiation is growing daily, and consequently the need to plan for radiological accidents is growing. While the risk of such accidents cannot be entirely eliminated, experience shows that most of the rare cases that have occurred could have been prevented, as they are often caused by human error. Recent radiological accidents such as those at Chernobyl (Ukraine 1986), Goiania (Brazil 1987), San Salvador (El Salvador 1989), Sor-Van (Israel 1990), Hanoi (Viet Nam 1992) and Tammiku (Estonia 1994) have demonstrated the importance of adequate preparation for dealing with such emergencies. Medical preparedness for radiological accidents must be considered an integral part of general emergency planning and preparedness and established within the national framework for radiation protection and safety. An IAEA Technical Committee meeting held in Istanbul in 1988 produced some initial guidance on the subject, which was subsequently developed, reviewed and updated by groups of consultants in 1989, 1992 and 1996. Special comments were provided by WHO, as co-sponsor of this publication, in 1997. This Safety Report outlines the roles and tasks of health authorities and hospital administrators in emergency preparedness for radiological accidents. Health authorities may use this document as the basis for their medical management in a radiological emergency, bearing in mind that adaptations will almost certainly be necessary to take into account the local conditions. This publication also provides information relevant to the integration of medical preparedness into emergency plans

  9. Technological considerations in emergency instrumentation preparedness. Phase II-D. Evaluation testing and calibration methodology for emergency radiological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramson, P.E.; Andersen, B.V.; Fleming, D.M.; Kathren, R.L.; Mulhern, O.R.; Newton, C.E.; Oscarson, E.E.; Selby, J.M.

    1976-09-01

    In response to recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, the Division of Operational Safety, U.S. ERDA has contracted with Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories to survey the adequacy of existing instrumentation at nuclear fuel cycle facilities to meet emergency requirements and to develop technical criteria for instrumentation systems to be used in assessment of environmental conditions following plant emergencies. This report, the fifth in a series, provides: (1) calibration methods to assure the quality of radiological measurements and (2) testing procedures for determining whether an emergency radiological instrument meets the performance specifications. Three previous reports in this series identified the emergency instrumentation needs for power reactors, mixed oxide fuel plants, and fuel reprocessing facilities. Each of these three reports contains a Section VI, which sets forth applicable radiological instrument performance criteria and calibration requirements. Testing and calibration procedures in this report have been formatted in two parts: IV and V, each divided into three subsections: (1) Power Reactors, (2) Mixed Oxide Fuel Plants, and (3) Fuel Reprocessing Facilities. The three performance criteria subsections directly coincide with the performance criteria sections of the previous reports. These performance criteria sections have been reproduced in this report as Part III with references of ''required action'' added

  10. Online Food Safety Information System for Nuclear or Radiological Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinet, Franck; Adjigogov, Lazar; Dercon, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Over the last year, the protocol with regards to data management and visualization requirements for food safety decision-making, developed under CRP D1.50.15 on R esponse to Nuclear Emergency Affecting Food and Agriculture , was further implemented. The development team moved away from early series of disconnected prototypes to a more advanced Information System integrating both data management and visualization components outlined in the agreed protocol

  11. The fate of chromosomal aberrations in 137Cs-exposed individuals in the Goiania radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.T.; Nascimento, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, lymphocytes from 110 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. Dose estimates for 21 subjects exceeded 1.0 Gy, and for eight subjects they exceeded 4.0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. After the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 10 of the highest exposed patients was started. The results suggest that the average disappearance half-time of lymphocytes containing dicentric and centric rings was 130 d, which is shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 y reported in the literature

  12. Medical Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Training Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In almost all nuclear and radiological emergencies, local emergency services (e.g. local medical, law enforcement, and fire brigades) will have the most important role in the early response. Within hours, hospitals may also have an important role to play in the response at the local level. Since nuclear and radiological emergencies are rare, medical responders often have little or no experience in dealing with this type of emergency and inexperience may lead to an inadequate response. For this reason, training in medical preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency is an important aspect of preparedness and response activities. These materials are designed for use at a training course on medical preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency. They contain a wide range of lectures and supporting materials, which cover the basic topics and more specific areas of medical preparedness and response. Therefore, in planning their specific courses, organizers are encouraged to choose those lectures and supportive materials from the CD-ROM that best match their training priorities. Materials on the CD-ROM address the following areas: • Terrorism in Perspective; • Malicious Act Scenarios; • Providing Information to the Medical Community and the Public; • Medical Response to a Radiation Mass Casualty Event; • Handling of Contaminated Persons in Malicious Events; • Planning and Preparedness for Medical Response to Malicious Events with Radioactive Material; • Handling the Bodies of Decedents Contaminated with Radioactive Material; • Radiation Emergencies: Scope of the Problem; • Common Sources of Radiation; • Basic Concepts of Ionizing Radiation; • Basic Concepts of Radiation Protection; • Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation – Basic Notions; • Basics of Radiopathology; • External Radioactive Contamination; • Internal Radioactive Contamination; • Acute Radiation Syndrome; • Cutaneous Radiation

  13. Radiation protection measures applied during the autopsies on the casualties of the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, N.S.F.; Silva, L.H.C.; Rosa, R.

    1998-01-01

    The most seriously affected casualties of the radiological accident caused by the opening of a 137 Cs source capsule in Goiania were treated at the Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital (HNMD) in Rio de Janeiro in the period from October to December 1987. Four of the injured died in October. The autopsies were performed at this institution. Due to the external and internal contamination presented by these victims, specific radiation protection procedures were adopted to enable the medical team to perform their duties. The radiation protection staff, under the co-ordination of technicians of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), were responsible for the preparation of the autopsy room and for advising the professionals on duty during these events. The radiation protection staff took specific measures to prevent the spread of contamination throughout the hospital, the contamination of persons attending the autopsies and to minimize any radiation dose to the medical and professional team. The measures aimed at personal control and the preparation of the autopsy room are described as well as the radiation protection steps applied in connection with the performance of the autopsies, the emplacement of the bodies into the coffins and their transport back to Goiania. (author)

  14. ANS [American Nuclear Society] topical meeting on radiological accidents: Perspectives and emergency planning: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The increasing use of radioactive materials and the increasing public concern about possible accidents involving these materials has led to greater emphasis on preparing for such emergencies. The ANS Topical Meeting on Radiological Accidents - Perspectives and Emergency Planning provided a review of experiences with radiological accidents. The meeting covered some of the most important aspects of radiological accidents. Papers were presented which dealt with radiological accident experience. Technical response to accidents is of primary interest to many in the nuclear community; most of the papers submitted fell into this area. So many of these papers dealt with the use of computers in response that a session on that topic was arranged. A very significant impact of most radiological accidents is the cost, especially the cost of cleanup. There were papers on what is known about costs and associated current topics, such as modification and extension of the Price-Anderson Act. At least as important as the technical response to accidents is how society attempts to deal with them. A session on institutional issues was included to discuss how governments and other organizations respond to and deal with accidents. Medical effects of accidents are of great concern to the public. Invited papers to review the effects of high doses of radiation as well as very low doses were included in that session. Although the nuclear industry has an excellent safety record, this fact often does not agree with the public perception of the industry. The final session explored the public response to and perception of radiological emergencies and accidents. This subject will ultimately determine the future use of radioactive materials in this country

  15. Agricultural Aspects of Nuclear and/or Radiological Emergency Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the NEA/OECD Workshop held at Fontenay-aux-Roses on 12-14 June 1995. The Workshop discussions (20 contributions) were grouped in the following six sessions: 1.Introduction (3 papers); 2. Evaluation and management of agricultural questions (8 papers); 3. Economical and social aspects of the agricultural questions (1 paper); 4. Information exchange mechanisms (3 papers); 5. National strategies in agricultural emergency situations (4 papers); 6. Conclusions and recommendations (1 paper). Summarizing, conclusions were drawn to the following issues: public reaction to foodstuffs containing radioisotope concentrations under the danger standards, possible non-adherence of manufacturers, processors, distributors, et al, to the instructions and guidance from radiation protection specialists, integration of all the food chain factors in the elaboration of the emergency intervention programs, etc. As significant recommendations the following may be mentioned: 1. Differences between different intervention levels and the maximum admissible levels agreed upon by national, regional or international nutrition authorities should be further studied; 2. Problems created by the Chernobyl accident (as for instance, the methods of treatment of food chain products containing unacceptable radioactivity concentrations) are still present and must be solved; 3. Further studies should be done on the socio-cultural aspects of the communication, particularly on the information in rural environment; 4. The preventive measures in agriculture should be implemented as rapidly as possible; 5. In elaborating programmes of agriculture countermeasures, the management of contaminated media, particularly of forests and their effect on agriculture

  16. Experiences in planning and response for the radiological emergencies in a radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador B, Z.H.; Perez P, S.; Torres B, M.B.; Ayra P, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    It is internationally recognized the importance of the planning and the assurance for the effective response to the radiological emergencies. In the work those experiences on this thematic one in the Isotopes Center (CENTIS), the radioactive facility where the biggest radioactive inventory is manipulated in Cuba are presented. Due to CENTIS is also the sender and main transport of radioactive materials, it is included this practice. The revision of the abnormal situations during the years 1997 at the 2005, starting from the classification adopted by the Regulatory Authority of the country is carried out. Its are register the details of these occurrences in the Radiological Events Database (BDSR). A correspondence among the radiological impact evaluated in the Emergency Plan for the possible events and that of the registered ones is obtained. The complete training programs and realization of the exercises are carried out. Those results of 3 mockeries made to full scale are picked up. It was concluded that the operational experience and the maintained infrastructure, determine the answer capacity for radiological emergencies in the CENTIS. (Author)

  17. Emergency radiology of the pediatric chest: What every radiologist should know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirks, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiology plays a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of thoracic disease seen in the pediatric emergency room. The history and physical examination of a small infant or an ill child are less reliable than in the adult. Physical examination of the chest in an uncooperative infant is difficult or nonspecific at best and impossible at worst. This does not, however, negate the importance of an adequate history and physical examination before radiologic evaluation. Numerous chest abnormalities in children have a similar history and similar manifestations or physical examination despite specific radiolic features. Conversely, a nonspecific radiologic appearance may become diagnostic when interpreted in the proper clinical context. This paper presents an overview of emergency radiology of pediatric chest disease. The emphasis is on practical matters: acute pediatric chest conditions that are commonly seen in the emergency room, outpatient clinic, or private office are illustrated and discussed. Practical aspects of imaging techniques, interpretative approach, pulmonary infection, asthma, airway foreign body, hydrocarbon aspiration, and near-drowning are emphasized

  18. Emergency preparedness and response to 'Not-in-a-Facility' radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grlicarev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of lessons learned from the past radiological accidents, which have not occurred in an operating facility, i.e. 'not-in-a-facility' radiological emergencies. A method to analyze status of prevention of accidents is proposed taking into account the experiences and findings from the past events. The main emergency planning items are discussed, which would render effective response in case of such emergencies. Although the IAEA has published many documents about establishing an adequate emergency response capability, it is not an easy task to bring these recommendations into life. This paper gives some hints how to overcome the most obvious difficulties while users of these documents trying to adapt the guidance to their own needs. The special cases of alpha emitters and radiological dispersal devices were considered separately. The balanced approach to emergency response is promoted throughout the text, which means that a level of preparedness should be commensurate to the threat and the existing resources should be used to the extent possible. (author)

  19. Emergency radiology eponyms: part 2--Naclerio's V sign to Fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliker, Clint W; Steenburg, Scott D; Archer-Arroyo, Krystal

    2013-06-01

    An eponym is a name based on the name of a person, frequently as a means to honor him/her, and it can be used to concisely communicate or summarize a complex abnormality or injury. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in medicine. Many commonly used eponyms applied to extremity fractures should be familiar to most emergency radiologists and have been previously reported. Yet, a number of non-extremity eponyms can be encountered in an emergency radiology practice as well. This other group of eponyms encompasses a spectrum of traumatic and nontraumatic pathology. In this second part of a two-part series, the authors discuss a number of non-extremity emergency radiology eponyms, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographical information of the eponyms' namesakes.

  20. Management of Large Volumes of Waste Arising in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication, prepared in light of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety developed after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, addresses the management of large volumes of radioactive waste arising in a nuclear or radiological emergency, as part of overall emergency preparedness. The management of large volumes of waste will be one of many efforts to be dealt with to allow recovery of affected areas, to support return of evacuated or relocated populations and preparations for normal social and economic activities, and/or to mitigate additional environmental impacts. The publication is intended to be of use to national planners and policy makers, facility and programme managers, and other professionals responsible for developing and implementing national plans and strategies to manage radioactive waste arising from nuclear or radiological emergencies.

  1. NDMA guidelines on handling of nuclear and radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abani, M C [National Disaster Management Authority, New Delhi (India)

    2010-07-01

    The vulnerability to the disasters is high in India due to the large population density, fast growing urbanization, industrialization and also because of poor economic conditions of people. Natural disasters have been recurring phenomena in India, leading to extensive loss of life, livelihood and property. The primary reason for such heavy losses can be attributed to the reactive and response-centric approach adopted in the past in handling of the disasters. Based on the Guidelines a holistic approach is to be adopted for Nuclear Emergency Management Framework that assigns the highest priority to prevention, mitigation and compliance to regulatory requirements, while strengthening preparedness, capacity development, response etc. It will be implemented through strengthening of the existing action plans or by preparing new action plans at national, state and district levels by the stakeholders at all levels of administration

  2. NDMA guidelines on handling of nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abani, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The vulnerability to the disasters is high in India due to the large population density, fast growing urbanization, industrialization and also because of poor economic conditions of people. Natural disasters have been recurring phenomena in India, leading to extensive loss of life, livelihood and property. The primary reason for such heavy losses can be attributed to the reactive and response-centric approach adopted in the past in handling of the disasters. Based on the Guidelines a holistic approach is to be adopted for Nuclear Emergency Management Framework that assigns the highest priority to prevention, mitigation and compliance to regulatory requirements, while strengthening preparedness, capacity development, response etc. It will be implemented through strengthening of the existing action plans or by preparing new action plans at national, state and district levels by the stakeholders at all levels of administration

  3. Response in the late phase to a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Nisbet, A.; Thome, D.; Savkin, M.; Hoe, S.; Brynildsen, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the key issues that need to be addressed during the transition from the emergency phase to the late phase of a radioactive release, and the development of the initial late phase strategy. It discusses the extent to which current national plans and international advice address the needs of decision makers following contamination of inhabited areas and food production systems. Based on this the following recommendations are made: (1) the issues that will arise at the start of the late phase response to a radioactive release require preparation work in advance of any release; (2) this preparation should consider the adequacy of legislation, technical data and modelling, options for waste storage and disposal, resources for monitoring and implementing clean up; (3) late phase preparedness requires regular exercising and (4) the possibility of terrorist releases adds further emphasis to the need for preparedness for the late phase. (authors)

  4. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments

  5. Method for Developing a Communication Strategy and Plan for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response. Publication Date: July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide a practical resource for emergency planning in the area of public communication in the development of a radiation emergency communication plan (RECP). The term 'public communication' is defined as any activity that communicates information to the public and the media during a nuclear or radiological emergency. To avoid confusion, the term public communication has been used in this publication rather than public information, which may be used in other IAEA publications and documents to ensure consistency with the terminology used in describing the command and control system. This publication also aims to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(11) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research with regard to the response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. This publication is intended to provide guidance to national and local authorities on developing an RECP which incorporates the specific functions, arrangements and capabilities that will be required for public communication during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The two main features of this publication are the template provided to develop an RECP and detailed guidance on developing a communication strategy for emergency preparedness and response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The template is consistent with the outline of the national radiation emergency plan proposed in Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (EPR-Method 2003). This publication is part of the IAEA

  6. Training for the medical response in radiological emergency experiences and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Lopez Forteza, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear techniques int he social practice confers a special imporatnce to the relative aspects to the safety of the practices and radiationsources, for what the implementation of efficient programs of radiation protection constitutes a priority. However in spite of the will before expressed, regrettably radiological situations happen accidental assocaited to multiple causes taht suggest the creation of response capacities to intervention before these fortuitous facts. The experiences accumulated in the last decades related with accidental exposures have evidenced the convenience of having properly qualified human resources for the Medical Response in Radiological Emergencies. The training in the medical aspects of the radiological emergencies acquires a singular character. In such a sense when valuing the national situation put onof manifest deficiences as for the training in medical aspects of the radiological emergencies that advised the development of training programs in such aspects for the different response groups linked to the topic. After identified the training necessities and the scope of the same ones, the contents of the training program were elaborated. The program has as general purpose the invigoration of the capacity of the medical response in front of accidental radiological situations, by means of actions that they bear to prepare groups of medical response in the handling of people accident victims and to the identification of potentials,accidental scenarios, as well as of the necessary resources to confront them. The program content approaches theoretical and paractical aspects to the medical aspect to radiological emergencies. The program include the different topics about fundamental of physical biological to radiation protection, radiation protection during exposure of radiological accidents, medical care for overexposed or contaminated persons, drill, exercises and concludes with designation of a strategy as preparation and

  7. The development and revision of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.; Wolff, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1985, federal agencies have been using the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) in exercises and real events. This experience and the development of other emergency response guidance (e.g., National System for Emergency Coordination) are fueling current efforts to review and revise the FRERP to reflect what the agencies have learned since the FRERP was published. Revision efforts are concentrating on clarifying the plan and addressing deficiencies. No major changes are expected in the general structure of the federal response nor should states need to revise their plans because of these modifications. 5 refs

  8. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability. 14 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  9. A special purpose vehicle for radiological emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeck, K.

    1995-01-01

    The scope of this paper encompasses the design and application of a Contamination Control Station (CCS) Response Vehicle. The vehicle is part of emergency response assets at the Department of Energy Pantex Plant, the nation's final assembly and disassembly point for nuclear weapons. The CCS Response Vehicle was designed to satisfy the need for a rapid deployment of equipment for the setup of a Contamination Control Station. This deployment may be either on the Pantex Plant site, or, if directed by the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, to any location in the US or worldwide to a site having radioactive contamination and needing response assets of this type. Based on the specialized nature of the vehicle and its mission, certain design criteria must be considered. The vehicle must be air transportable. This criteria alone poses size, weight, and material restrictions due to the transporting aircraft and temperature/pressure variations. This paper first focuses on the overall mission of the vehicle, then highlights some of the design considerations

  10. Response in the late phase to a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper will look at the key issues that need to be addressed during the transition from the emergency phase to the recovery phase, and the development of the initial recovery strategy. It will then discuss the extent to which current national plans and international advice address the needs of decision makers following contamination of inhabited areas and food production systems. Since the events of September 11 th 2001, attention is becoming increasingly focussed on the response to the deliberate dispersal of radioactive material, eg so called 'dirty bombs' or deliberate contamination of the food supply. Whilst some aspects of the response to a dirty bomb will be similar to those for a nuclear accident, in other respects such deliberate dispersal will pose additional challenges (e.g. identification of the radionuclide(s) involved, likely dispersion from within an urban area for dirty bombs, identification of the geographical spread of foods contaminated). This papers also considers the extent to which existing arrangements and assessments underpinning nuclear accident response would need modification/upgrading for response to deliberate dispersal. In the transition from the emergency phase to the recovery phase, decision makers will be under pressure to make rapid decisions concerning the lifting of countermeasures implemented during the emergency phase and the need for further measures. A failure to respond promptly will leave an information void in which other, self-styled, experts will advertise their solutions, thereby adding to the pressure. This may then lead to a loss of confidence by the public, and make it more difficult to develop a practicable recovery strategy that is also acceptable to those affected. However, if decisions are made without a full understanding of the contamination pattern and its likely future impact, then it is possible that promises or actions taken early on will need to be reversed as a fuller understanding of the

  11. Magnetoencephalography: Fundamentals and Established and Emerging Clinical Applications in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeutigam, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography is a noninvasive, fast, and patient friendly technique for recording brain activity. It is increasingly available and is regarded as one of the most modern imaging tools available to radiologists. The dominant clinical use of this technology currently centers on two, partly overlapping areas, namely, localizing the regions from which epileptic seizures originate, and identifying regions of normal brain function in patients preparing to undergo brain surgery. As a consequence, many radiologists may not yet be familiar with this technique. This review provides an introduction to magnetoencephalography, discusses relevant analytical techniques, and presents recent developments in established and emerging clinical applications such as pervasive developmental disorders. Although the role of magnetoencephalography in diagnosis, prognosis, and patient treatment is still limited, it is argued that this technology is exquisitely capable of contributing indispensable information about brain dynamics not easily obtained with other modalities. This, it is believed, will make this technology an important clinical tool for a wide range of disorders in the future

  12. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on disease processes originating within the alimentary tract, may extend through the extraperitoneal spaces, and abnormalities primarily arising within other extraperitoneal sites may significantly affect the bowel. Symptoms and signs may be obscure, delayed, or nonspecific, and the area is generally not accessible to auscultation, palpation, or percussion. Radiologic evaluation thus plays a critical role

  13. New around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department: a satisfaction survey among clinicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hun; Jae, Hwan Jun; Shin, Cheong Il; Song, Su Jin; Cha, Won Cheol; Na, Dong Gyu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinician satisfaction of a newly introduced around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department. Seventeen emergency physicians (8 board certified physicians, 9 residents) were invited to fill out a survey pertaining to the newly introduced radiology coverage system for the emergency department. The questionnaire included 10 questions covering three major topics. The first topic related to the around-the-clock radiology coverage by two full-time radiology residents. The second topic focused on the preliminary interpretations of radiology residents. The last topic included the interpretation assistance system by board-certified radiologists. The answers to each question were assessed using a scoring system of 1 to 5. The mean satisfaction score of the around-the-clock radiology coverage system by the two full-time radiology residents was 4.6 (range 3-5). The mean score for the preliminary interpretation system by the radiology residents was 4.8 (range 4-5). The score for the reliability of the preliminary versus the final interpretation was 4.1 (range 4-5). Lastly, the mean score for the interpretation assistance system by board-certified radiologists was 4.9 (range 4-5). The results of this study indicate a high satisfaction rating among clinicians' of the new around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department

  14. A computerized assessment and response system for radiological emergency at Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.C.; Thuillier, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that nuclear power plants provide for rapid assessment and response in the event of a radiological emergency. At the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Pacific Gas and Electric Company uses a system of linked central minicomputer, satellite desktop computers and microprocessors to provide decision makers with timely and pertinent information in emergency situations. The system provides for data acquisition and microprocessing at meteorological and radiological monitoring sites. Current estimates or projections of offsite dose commitment are made in real-time by a dispersion/dose calculation model. Computerized dissemination of data and calculational results to decision makers at the government and utility levels is also available. The basic system in use is a commercially available Emergency Assessment and Response System (EARS). This generic system has been modified in-house to meet requirements specific to emergency situations at the plant. Distinctive features of the modification program includes: a highly professional man-machine interaction; consideration of site-specific factors; simulation of environmental radiology for development of drill scenarios; and concise, pertinent reports as input to decision making

  15. Dose assessment for decontamination in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, E.C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Shortly after the accident at Goiania, the need arose to set derived intervention levels for the various exposure pathways to guide and optimise clean up measures. For the members of the critical group an intervention level of 5 mSv for the total effective dose in the first year after the accident was chosen, which then was subdivided into values of 1 mSv due to the contribution of external irradiation indoors, 3 mSv from external irradiation while being outdoors, and 1 mSv due to incorporation of resuspended particles and ingestion of locally produced food. The clean up indoors could be directed such that a pre-described ambient dose rate was no longer exceeded. These exposure levels and effective doses to the critical groups predicted in 1988 are compared to actual measurements made in 1988 to 1993 in a local house near one primary contamination foci, and best estimate. It can be shown that the actual doses received by members of the public living in the affected areas were significantly lower. The various reasons for this overprediction will be discussed. (author)

  16. Study on generic intervention levels for protecting the public in a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio Fumio

    2003-01-01

    After a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, several social and economical factors shall be considered for the actions to protect the public and to recover the environment. The application of the radiological protection principles on practices in intervention situations may lead to adoption of protective measures disproportional to the involved risk, compromising the resources available to more effective actions. This causes a negative impact on the population and may conduct to discredit about the protective measures and the lost of confidence on the authorities. In this context, the principles of radiological protection for interventions should be studied and analyzed for being adequately applied in accident situations or radiological emergencies that involves the country. These principles are constantly improved and the concept of generic intervention level plays an important role in the decision-making to protect the public. The costs involved to the protective measures for the public in Brazil were studied and cost benefit analysis techniques were applied to estimate the generic intervention levels for public protection applicable in the country. These results were compared to those values internationally recommended, as well to values obtained in a similar study accomplished for Japan. It was also performed a sensibility analysis of the results regarding a value and a simple analysis of the results considering the costs of the several protective measures. (author)

  17. Goiania's radioactive accident - Evolutive description two years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarck, P. de; Almeida Lignelli, O.J. de; Sobrinho, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The authors lead a brief review of three patients that undergone lesions caused by ionizing radiations at the Goiania's radioactive accident, two years after. They describe the actual conditions of the skin lesions, hematologic values, sequels, diagnostic and therapeutics procedures on the follow up of this patients. They still make a comparative study between nuclear weapon's victims at Hiroshima and Nagasaki events (2 sup(nd) World War) and Goiania accident s victims. In their conclusions, the authors point out the importance in detecting early lesions, diseases or late sequels, due to radioactive expositions. (author)

  18. Assessment of the radiological consequences in case of an emergency on a nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manesse, D.; Crabol, B.

    1988-04-01

    The French Institute for Health Physics and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) has, for emergency cases on nuclear installations, an Emergency Technical Centre (Centre Technique de Crise - CTC) to provide the public authorities with the technical analysis of the events and with information concerning possible developments in terms of potential releases and radiological consequences to the environment. The CTC is connected, by a special line, to the French Meteorological Office so as to have access to meteorological parameters and local forecasts on the nuclear site at all times. For atmospheric dispersion and radiological consequences, three methods have been developed: a set of operational graphs (for first aid), a gaussian plume model and a gaussian puff model (SIROCCO); the latter two models are implanted on a VAX 8530 computer (with graphical monitors) reserved for that purpose [fr

  19. Derivation of Intervention levels for Protection of the Public in a Radiological Emergency in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tai; Lee, Goan Yup; Khang, Byung Oui; Oh, Ki Hoon; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2001-01-01

    Intervention levels for protection of the public in a radiological emergency are theoretically derived by the cost-benefit approach with the concept of justification and optimization. Intervention levels on the sheltering, evacuation, temporary relocation and permanent resettlement for protection of the public are estimated with the cost to protective countermeasures and the value from dose averted which are the site specific parameters. As a result, it is confirmed that IAEA guidelines for intervention levels are applicable to the radiological emergency in Korea. Optimum ranges of 5 - 10 mSv/2days for sheltering, 25 - 130 mSv/week for evacuation, 15 - 90 mSv/month for temporary relocation and 600 - 3,500 mSv/lifetime for permanent resettlement for intervention levels are also provided. The result can be applied as useful data to update intervention levels under the theoretical background in Korea

  20. Designing of a mobile decontamination facility (MDF) for preparedness and response to nuclear/radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.H.; Garai, S.K.; Chatterjee, M.K.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    During a radiological emergency in public domain, likelihood of radioactive contamination cannot be completely ruled out. Timely and effective decontamination can significantly reduce possible external and internal radiation exposure to public. The objective of designing of a mobile decontamination facility is to develop the capability for decontaminating affected persons in case of any radiological emergency in public domain. A fully equipped decontamination facility on the wheels will be able to reach at the scene and will be able to decontaminate a large number of victims with the help of optimized decontamination procedures in short duration avoiding unwanted radiation exposure. This self-supporting decontamination facility is designed to be equipped with sufficient number of radiation monitoring instruments, equipments for decontamination, decontamination agents etc. (author)

  1. Radiological emergency system in Madagascar, case of loss of a source of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriantsizafy, R.D.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.

    2012-06-01

    In Madagascar, a national radiological emergency response is not formally established. However, an Ad Hoc Committee of safety and nuclear safety and radiological is in place. The committee is composed of several Government entities and the role of each is identified. This Ad Hoc Committee has demonstrated its effectiveness for real action in 2010 with the loss of industrial radiography Container with Ir-192 source, the emergency is classified in threat category IV. Concerning the theft, the communication with the public and the other state entities, the search for the source and the source recovery were conducted in coordination between the different members. And of course, the lessons were reported during the operation which lasted more than three months

  2. Radiological emergency response for community agencies with cognitive task analysis, risk analysis, and decision support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Travis S; Muething, Joseph Z; Lima, Gustavo Amoras Souza; Torres, Breno Raemy Rangel; del Rosario, Trystyn Keia; Gomes, José Orlando; Lambert, James H

    2012-01-01

    Radiological nuclear emergency responders must be able to coordinate evacuation and relief efforts following the release of radioactive material into populated areas. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a nuclear emergency, high-level coordination is needed between a number of large, independent organizations, including police, military, hazmat, and transportation authorities. Given the complexity, scale, time-pressure, and potential negative consequences inherent in radiological emergency responses, tracking and communicating information that will assist decision makers during a crisis is crucial. The emergency response team at the Angra dos Reis nuclear power facility, located outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presently conducts emergency response simulations once every two years to prepare organizational leaders for real-life emergency situations. However, current exercises are conducted without the aid of electronic or software tools, resulting in possible cognitive overload and delays in decision-making. This paper describes the development of a decision support system employing systems methodologies, including cognitive task analysis and human-machine interface design. The decision support system can aid the coordination team by automating cognitive functions and improving information sharing. A prototype of the design will be evaluated by plant officials in Brazil and incorporated to a future trial run of a response simulation.

  3. Radioactive waste management Goiania - São Paulo: 30 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.C.B. de; Geraldo, B.; Tessaro, A.P.X.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Marumo, J.T.; Carvalho, V.S.; Barbosa, N.K.O.; Vicente, R.

    2017-01-01

    Considered the largest urban radiological accident in the world, the accident in Goiânia with Cesium-137 resulted in the death of four people and injuries in another 49, besides measurable levels of internal or external contamination in 129. The accident generated also environmental contamination and thousands of tons of radioactive waste that resulted from the response activities. The accident occurred as a result of the dismantling of an equipment of radiotherapy by employees of a junkyard. Before the accident was identified, contaminated materials were sent to recycling companies in the state of São Paulo. The objective of this work was to report the existence of waste from Goiania accident in the state of São Paulo and to check the estimated activities at the time of the waste conditioning by measuring the current dose rates in waste packages, allowing a refinement of previously applied calculations. (author)

  4. Determination of cesium-137 soil-to-plant concentration ratios for vegetables in Goiania City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.; Sachett, I.A.; Pereira, J.C.; Zenaro, R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiological accident that occurred in Goiania City, Brazil, in September 1987, led to the spreading of 137 Cs in the urban area. Even after the decontamination procedure, there was a reminiscence of 137 Cs activity in the soil of residential gardens. This activity was enough to conduct preliminary experiments for determination of soil to vegetable concentration ratios. Experiments were conducted for carrots, lettuce and radishes. Two types of experimental patterns were used to determine the concentration ratios: lysimeters cultivation under greenhouse condition and soil cultivation in open field plot. The concentration ratios measured for cultivation under greenhouse and field plot conditions are considerably higher than those mentioned in the International Union of Radioecologist (IUR) data bank for the same vegetables and cultivation condition. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  5. Radioactive waste management Goiania - São Paulo: 30 years later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.C.B. de; Geraldo, B.; Tessaro, A.P.X.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Marumo, J.T.; Carvalho, V.S.; Barbosa, N.K.O.; Vicente, R., E-mail: dcsouza@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Considered the largest urban radiological accident in the world, the accident in Goiânia with Cesium-137 resulted in the death of four people and injuries in another 49, besides measurable levels of internal or external contamination in 129. The accident generated also environmental contamination and thousands of tons of radioactive waste that resulted from the response activities. The accident occurred as a result of the dismantling of an equipment of radiotherapy by employees of a junkyard. Before the accident was identified, contaminated materials were sent to recycling companies in the state of São Paulo. The objective of this work was to report the existence of waste from Goiania accident in the state of São Paulo and to check the estimated activities at the time of the waste conditioning by measuring the current dose rates in waste packages, allowing a refinement of previously applied calculations. (author)

  6. Recent evaluation of gamma radiation levels due to 137 Cs accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umisedo, Nancy K.; Okuno, Emico; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.; Guimaraes, Carla C.; Facure, Alessandro; Anjos, Roberto Meigikos dos

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents recent results of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) in two lots of Goiania, the city of central region of Brazil that was the local of one of the worst radiological accidents of the world, in 1987. The dosimeters used in this work are similar to those used in the Dosimetry Laboratory of Physics Institute of S. Paulo University in routine dosimetry. Fifteen environmental monitors were placed in air, one meter above the ground, at chosen locations of both lots during 56 days. Three persons that live and work at one of the lots were also monitored with personnel dosimeters. The highest value obtained for personal dose equivalent rate was 3.56 mSv/year and the values of ambient dose equivalent rate ranged from 2.31 to 12.47 mSv/year. (author)

  7. Commercial sugar, an alternative dosemeter for the dose determination in radiological emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena N, F.; Galindo, S.

    1997-01-01

    It was carried out the dosimetric evaluation of commercial sugar, with the purpose to determine the feasibility to be able to use this type of substance as a dosimetric material in cases to present some radiological emergency cases. The studied parameters using the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) technique were: pre-doses signal or depth signal, dose-response stability, reproducibility, reliability and signal clearing decreasing. (Author)

  8. Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document presents the status of signatures and notifications of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency which entered into force on 26 February 1987, i.e. thirty days after the date (26 January 1987) on which the third State expressed its consent to be bound by the Convention. The list of signature, notification, acceptance, approval or accession by States or Organizations is given

  9. Radiological emergency response planning: Handbook for Federal Assistance to State and Local Governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The handbook is directed toward those federal agencies involved in providing direct field assistance to state and local governments in radiological emergency response planning. Its principal purpose is to optimize the effectiveness of this effort by specifying the functions of the following federal agencies: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Department of Transportation, Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, Federal Disaster Assistance Administration, and Federal Preparedness Agency

  10. Applying Systems Engineering Reduces Radiology Transport Cycle Times in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin A.; Yun, Brian J.; Lev, Michael H.; Raja, Ali S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergency department (ED) crowding is widespread, and can result in care delays, medical errors, increased costs, and decreased patient satisfaction. Simultaneously, while capacity constraints on EDs are worsening, contributing factors such as patient volume and inpatient bed capacity are often outside the influence of ED administrators. Therefore, systems engineering approaches that improve throughput and reduce waste may hold the most readily available gains. Decreasing radiology turnaround times improves ED patient throughput and decreases patient waiting time. We sought to investigate the impact of systems engineering science targeting ED radiology transport delays and determine the most effective techniques. Methods This prospective, before-and-after analysis of radiology process flow improvements in an academic hospital ED was exempt from institutional review board review as a quality improvement initiative. We hypothesized that reorganization of radiology transport would improve radiology cycle time and reduce waste. The intervention included systems engineering science-based reorganization of ED radiology transport processes, largely using Lean methodologies, and adding no resources. The primary outcome was average transport time between study order and complete time. All patients presenting between 8/2013–3/2016 and requiring plain film imaging were included. We analyzed electronic medical record data using Microsoft Excel and SAS version 9.4, and we used a two-sample t-test to compare data from the pre- and post-intervention periods. Results Following the intervention, average transport time decreased significantly and sustainably. Average radiology transport time was 28.7 ± 4.2 minutes during the three months pre-intervention. It was reduced by 15% in the first three months (4.4 minutes [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–7.3]; to 24.3 ± 3.3 min, P=0.021), 19% in the following six months (5.4 minutes, 95% CI [2.7–8.2]; to 23.3 ± 3

  11. Technical support and preparations for the response to radiological emergencies; Soporte tecnico y preparativos para la respuesta a emergencias radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas H, J; Ramos V, E O; Fernandez G, I M; Capote F, E; Zerquera J, T; Garcia L, O; Lopez B, G; Molina P, D; Lamdrid B, A I; Benitez N, J C; Salgado M, M [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113, e/41 y 47 Playa, CP 11300, La Habana (Cuba); Lopez F, Y; Jerez V, P [CNSN, Calle 28 e/5ta y 7ta, Playa, La Habana (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    The work picks up the efforts directed to elevate the technical capacity of the answer in front of the radiological emergencies. Expressing them by means of the actions carried out as for teaching, research and development and intervention before accidental radiological events. The same one reflects the leading role of the participant institutions in those marks of the answer system to radiological emergencies that for its technical level it satisfies the national and international demands in the matter. In execution of the mentioned goals research projects guided to endow to the national system of methodologies and procedures for the administration of radiological emergencies have been executed that favor the improvement of its technical and organizational capacities. As well as the postulates of the National Plan of Measures for Case of Catastrophes in the corresponding to radiological accidents. (Author)

  12. Nuclear radiation sensors and monitoring following a nuclear or radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Management of Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies arising from Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND), Nuclear Reactors/Power plants and Nuclear War require measurement of ionizing radiations and radioactivity on an enhanced scale relative to the levels encountered in peaceful uses of ionizing radiations and radioactivity. It is heartening that since Hiroshima, Nagasaki nuclear disaster, the world has been quiet but since early 2000 there has been a fear of certain devices to be used by terrorists, which could lead to panic, and disaster due to dispersal of radioactivity by RDD, IND. Nuclear attack would lead to blast, thermal, initial nuclear radiation, nuclear fall out leading to gamma and neutron dose, dose rates in range from few R, R/h to kR, kR/h, and determinations of k Bq or higher order. Such situations have been visualized at national levels and National Disaster Management Authority NDMA has been established and Disaster Management Act 2005 has come into existence. NDMA has prepared guidelines for Nuclear and radiological emergency management highlighting preparedness, mitigation, response, capacity building, etc. Critical point in all these issues is detection of emergency, quick intimation to the concerned for action in shortest possible time. Upper most requirement by those involved in pursuing action, is radiation sensor based radiation monitors for personnel, area, and to assess contamination due to radioactivity.This presentation briefly describes the Indian scenario in the development of the radiation sensors and the sensor-based radiation monitors. (author)

  13. Nuclear radiation sensors and monitoring following a nuclear or radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, P K [Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (India)

    2009-01-15

    Management of Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies arising from Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND), Nuclear Reactors/Power plants and Nuclear War require measurement of ionizing radiations and radioactivity on an enhanced scale relative to the levels encountered in peaceful uses of ionizing radiations and radioactivity. It is heartening that since Hiroshima, Nagasaki nuclear disaster, the world has been quiet but since early 2000 there has been a fear of certain devices to be used by terrorists, which could lead to panic, and disaster due to dispersal of radioactivity by RDD, IND. Nuclear attack would lead to blast, thermal, initial nuclear radiation, nuclear fall out leading to gamma and neutron dose, dose rates in range from few R, R/h to kR, kR/h, and determinations of k Bq or higher order. Such situations have been visualized at national levels and National Disaster Management Authority NDMA has been established and Disaster Management Act 2005 has come into existence. NDMA has prepared guidelines for Nuclear and radiological emergency management highlighting preparedness, mitigation, response, capacity building, etc. Critical point in all these issues is detection of emergency, quick intimation to the concerned for action in shortest possible time. Upper most requirement by those involved in pursuing action, is radiation sensor based radiation monitors for personnel, area, and to assess contamination due to radioactivity.This presentation briefly describes the Indian scenario in the development of the radiation sensors and the sensor-based radiation monitors. (author)

  14. The management of post nuclear or radiological emergency situations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, Jean-Luc; Mehl-Auget, Isabelle; Johanna Fite

    2008-01-01

    For several years, public authorities have defined an organisation for the management of emergency situations arising from an accident occurring at a nuclear installation. So far, the management of the risk arising from the post accident step was, in itself, not explored with the same care. Whatsoever, no formal policy on which the action of public authority could be based is today available. The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), in relation with the other concerned departments, is now in charge to prepare and implement the necessary provisions to respond to a post accident situation. In June 2005, ASN established the steering committee for the management of post nuclear or radiological emergency situations (CODIRPA). The definition of a national policy related to the management of the radiological risk during a post event situation has to integrate various organisation aspects such as: lifting of protection emergency provisions and rehabilitation of buildings, life in contaminated rural territories, agriculture and water, dose and radiological consequences, sanitary surveillance of victims and populations, indemnification, waste management of contaminated crops and soils, organisation of public Authorities. During the 2nd step of CODIRPA work (2008-2009), the first elements of policy will be consolidated and new scenarios will be studied (one worsened scenario and one scenario with alpha emitting radionuclide). In parallel, a procedure for local actor's consultation has just been launched. (author)

  15. A Swedish co-operation programme for radiological emergency planning activities in the Baltic Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson, B.

    1998-01-01

    Short overview of the Swedish cooperation projects with Baltic countries in the field of radiological emergency preparedness is presented. Cooperation programme is going since 1993 and is divided into following sections: sub-projects on planning, training and exercises, sub-projects on measurement strategies, including early warning systems, sub-project on information to the public and the media, sub-projects on review of the Ignalina NPP on-site emergency preparedness and planning of on-site rescue operations. Total budget amount allocated for these projects is 9 million Swedish crowns

  16. Establishment of a national capability to respond to nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahunsi, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Establishment of a national capability to respond to nuclear accidents and radiological emergency involves the planning, preparedness, readiness, assurance and response application of the necessary human and material resources to mitigate consequences of an emergency and protect workers, the public, the environment, and national security in the event of such accident. This obligation helps to prepare for the security of lives and properties during such accidents and it is binding and the responsibility of the operator to provide answers to fundamental questions about the nature of radiation, guidance on protecting against the harmful effects, detailed policies, procedures and training. The response to such emergency will involve highly specialized agencies and technical experts. For the Nigerian response capability to be well co-ordinated, the arrangements must be appropriately integrated with those for a conventional emergency. This project will discuss the hazard analysis based on the available inventory of radiation practices, facilities, installations, radiation sources and radioactive materials used in Nigeria. Based upon this analysis, a commensurate nuclear accident and radiological emergency planning and response capabilities has been proposed.(au)

  17. Indian Point Nuclear Power Station: verification analysis of County Radiological Emergency-Response Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, J.; Whitfield, R.

    1983-05-01

    This report was developed as a management tool for use by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region II staff. The analysis summarized in this report was undertaken to verify the extent to which procedures, training programs, and resources set forth in the County Radiological Emergency Response Plans (CRERPs) for Orange, Putnam, and Westchester counties in New York had been realized prior to the March 9, 1983, exercise of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station near Buchanan, New York. To this end, a telephone survey of county emergency response organizations was conducted between January 19 and February 22, 1983. This report presents the results of responses obtained from this survey of county emergency response organizations

  18. Handbook of radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgcock, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is organized around radiologic procedures with each discussed from the points of view of: indications, contraindications, materials, method of procedures and complications. Covered in this book are: emergency radiology chest radiology, bone radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, GU radiology, pediatric radiology, computerized tomography, neuroradiology, visceral and peripheral angiography, cardiovascular radiology, nuclear medicine, lymphangiography, and mammography

  19. Radioecological studies in Goiania urban area: review; Estudos radioecologicos na area urbana de Goiania: revisao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Monica Pires do; Amaral, Eliana [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Studies on the behaviour and transport of {sup 137} Cs in urban areas, including, resuspension and deposition experiments, {sup 137} Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and small domestic animals that accidentally ingested contaminated soil, were performed in a house located at 57{sup t}h Street near the main focus of contamination. The resuspension of surface soil did not contribute much to the spreading of the radionuclide in Goiania, but can lead to the local contamination of vegetables, equipment, structures and other environmental surfaces. The mechanism also presented a seasonal effect. The soil is an important medium for the uptake of {sup 137} Cs by small domestic animals. The street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the dispersion of {sup 137} Cs in urban areas. After 10 years, the radionuclide activity concentration is restricted only to the initially impacted area an it is decreasing with time. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  20. Radiometric evaluation of graves of victims of the accident with Cesium 137 in Goiania, GO, Brazil: 25 years after; Avaliacao radiometrica das sepulturas das vitimas do acidente com o Cesio 137 em Goiania: 25 anos apos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo B.; Correa, Rosangela da S.; Santos, Eliane E. dos, E-mail: leonardobl@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rcorrea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil); Freitas-Junior, Ruffo, E-mail: uffojr@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Mastologia

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-five years after the radiation accident in Goiania, this study aims to evaluate the radiological situation in the area demarcated by the graves of the victims of the accident with cesium-137. Radiometric survey was carried out on the surface that encompasses the four graves and vicinity, from a pre-established mesh. Dose rate measurements were carried out, using the IdentFINDER equipment, positioned at 1 m height from the ground. The values of dose rates at the points measured ranged from 0.03 to 0.07 μSv/h. This variation of dose rate is less than those obtained in the local graveyard and are in the range of background radiation observed in Goiania. Considering the results obtained 25 years after the accident, it was concluded that engineering barriers adopted at that time are effective, stating the place absolutely safe from a radiological point of view, both for the individual from the public as to the environment.

  1. The information in Nuclear Energy: The Experience in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.M.; Campos, E.P.

    1998-01-01

    After the accident in Goiania the Nuclear Energy National Commission implant in this city a information system for the human population. The objective consisted on giving a technical knowledge about the nuclear energy utilization. This work represents the utilized strategy and the results reached in this program during the period 1991-1996

  2. National radiological emergency response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011, when two natural disasters of unprecedented strengths, an earthquake with magnitude 9 followed one hour later by a powerful tsunami struck northeastern Japan and felled the external power supply and the emergency diesel generators of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, resulting in a loss of coolant accident. There were core meltdowns in three nuclear reactors with the release of radioactivity estimated to be 1/10 of what was released to the environment during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986. The Fukushima nuclear accident tested the capability of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) in responding to such radiological emergency as a nuclear power plant accident. The PNRI and NDRRMC activated the RADPLAN for possible radiological emergency. The emergency response was calibrated to the status of the nuclear reactors on site and the environmental monitoring undertaken around the site and off-site, including the marine environment. This orchestrated effort enabled the PNRI and the national agencies concerned to reassure the public that the nuclear accident does not have a significant impact on the Philippines, both on the health and safety of the people and on the safety of the environment. National actions taken during the accident will be presented. The role played by the International Atomic Energy Agency as the central UN agency for nuclear matters will be discussed. (author)

  3. Development of national level preparedness for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    In India, DAE being the nodal agency for technical support for response to any radiation emergency nuclear disaster and various nuclear and radiological emergency scenarios and their impacts are identified. To reduce their consequences development of methodologies for detection and quick impact assessment, trained First Responders and Quick Response Teams (QRTs), twenty two DAE Emergency Response Centers, mobile and aerial radiation monitoring systems, aerial and ground based validation trials etc. are carried out. Study related to radiological threats and simulated RDD experiments conducted using stable isotopes indicates that radiation levels for distances more than 50 m will not be very high as hotspots may be restricted to nearby area. The biggest challenge from an RDD explosion will be handling of the radioactive contamination and 'fear factor' compared to radiation exposure to public or First Responders. Level and pattern of radioactive contamination on ground following releases during nuclear accidents and minimum strength of orphan radioactive sources to be detected are taken into account for optimizing systems and monitoring methodology required for emergency preparedness

  4. Radiometric evaluation of graves of victims of the accident with Cesium 137 in Goiania, GO, Brazil: 25 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, Leonardo B.; Correa, Rosangela da S.; Santos, Eliane E. dos; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years after the radiation accident in Goiania, this study aims to evaluate the radiological situation in the area demarcated by the graves of the victims of the accident with cesium-137. Radiometric survey was carried out on the surface that encompasses the four graves and vicinity, from a pre-established mesh. Dose rate measurements were carried out, using the IdentFINDER equipment, positioned at 1 m height from the ground. The values of dose rates at the points measured ranged from 0.03 to 0.07 μSv/h. This variation of dose rate is less than those obtained in the local graveyard and are in the range of background radiation observed in Goiania. Considering the results obtained 25 years after the accident, it was concluded that engineering barriers adopted at that time are effective, stating the place absolutely safe from a radiological point of view, both for the individual from the public as to the environment

  5. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissner, J.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is still the foremost of all innovative medical disciplines. This has many advantages but also some handicaps, e.g. the siting problem of medical equipment whose clinical potential is not fully known. This applies in particular to nuclear spin tomography, where the Laender governments and the Scientific Council seen to agree that all universities should have the appropriate equipment as soon as possible in order to intensify interdisciplinary research. Formerly, in the case of computerized tomography, there was less readiness. As a result, the siting of CT equipment is less organically structured. A special handicap of innovative fields is the problem of training and advanced training. The Chamber of Medicine and the Association of Doctors Participating in the Health Insurance Plan have issued regulations aimed at a better standardisation in this field. (orig.) [de

  6. Recovery operations in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Much progress has been made over the last decade in the field of emergency planning and preparedness, including the development of guidance, criteria, training programmes, regulations and comprehensive plans in the support of nuclear facilities. To provide a forum for international review and discussion of actual experiences gained and lessons learned from the different aspects of recovery techniques and operations in response to serious accidents at nuclear facilities and accidents associated with radioactive materials, the IAEA organized the International Symposium on Recovery Operations in the Event of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The symposium was held from 6 to 10 November 1989 in Vienna, Austria, and was attended by over 250 experts from 35 Member State and 7 international organizations. Although the prime focus was on on-site and off-site recovery from nuclear reactor accidents and on recovery from radiological accidents unrelated to nuclear power plants, development of emergency planning and preparedness resources was covered as well. From the experiences reported, lessons learned were identified. While further work remains to be done to improve concepts, plans, materials, communications and mechanisms to assemble quickly all the special resources needed in the event of an accident, there was general agreement that worldwide preparations to handle any possible future radiological emergencies had vastly improved. A special feature of the symposium programme was the inclusion of a full session on an accident involving a chemical explosion in a high level waste tank a a plutonium extraction plant in the Southern Urals in the USSR in 1957. Information was presented on the radioactive release, its dissemination and deposition, the resultant radiation situation, dose estimates, health effects follow-up, and the rehabilitation of contaminated land. This volume contains the full text of the 49 papers presented at the symposium together with a

  7. Hotspot health physics codes used as a tool for managing excess risk on radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Alves, Nelson Mendes; Rocha, Joao B.T.; Cruz, Ivana B. Manica da; Santos, Greice F. Fey dos; Machado, Michel Mansur; Rossato, Veronica Venturini; Bauermann, Liliane Freitas

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed to use the Hotspot Health Physics codes in acute mode in order to estimate the immediate radiological impact associated with high acute radiation doses, which is applied to special target organs such as lung, small intestine wall, and red bone marrow. Organic compounds such as Diphenyl Diselenide (C 6 H 5 Se 2 C 6 H 5 ) and Ebselen (C 13 H 9 NOSe), an antioxidants selenium containing compounds, were used over irradiated phospholipids extracted from chicken yolk eggs, in vitro in order to reduce lipo-peroxidation. Experimental data were measured by Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) assay which is able to measure the production of oxidative stress in the sample. Experimental data were extrapolated and applied as a reduction factors over equations for cancer excess risk calculation from BEIR V, for helping the decisonmaking process on Radiological Emergency Scenarios. (author)

  8. Radiological review of accident and emergency radiographs: A 1-year audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Stuart M.; Connelly, Daniel J.; Wadsworth, Susan; Wilson, David

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact and cost effectiveness of a system of radiological review of accident and emergency (A and E) plain films. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review documentation was studied retrospectively over a 1-year period. Six hundred and eighty-four actual or suspected errors in the initial radiological interpretation by A and E staff were highlighted by radiologists in training. These selected 'red reports' were then further reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist and a more senior member of the A and E team. RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty-one missed or strongly suspected fractures were detected, with ankle, finger and elbow lesions predominating. Other errors included 11 missed chest radiograph abnormalities and 24 A and E false-positives. Radiologists in training tended to over-report abnormalities with an 18% false-positive rate when compared to the subsequent musculoskeletal radiology opinion. Following review, further action was taken by A and E staff in 286 (42.6%) of cases. No operative intervention was required in those patients with a delayed or missed A and E diagnosis. Consideration is given to the cost of providing this form of review and the impact of medico-legal factors. CONCLUSION: Compared with the large numbers of patients seen and radiographed in a busy A and E department, the number of radiological errors was small. There were even fewer changes in management. Despite this, concern over litigation, clinical governance and future work patterns in A and E make this form of review a useful means of risk reduction in a teaching hospital. Williams, S.M. (2000). Clinical Radiology 55, 861-865

  9. Quantitative analysis of the level of readability of online emergency radiology-based patient education resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberry, David R; D'Angelo, Michael; White, Michael D; Prabhu, Arpan V; Cox, Mougnyan; Agarwal, Nitin; Deshmukh, Sandeep

    2018-04-01

    The vast amount of information found on the internet, combined with its accessibility, makes it a widely utilized resource for Americans to find information pertaining to medical information. The field of radiology is no exception. In this paper, we assess the readability level of websites pertaining specifically to emergency radiology. Using Google, 23 terms were searched, and the top 10 results were recorded. Each link was evaluated for its readability level using a set of ten reputable readability scales. The search terms included the following: abdominal ultrasound, abdominal aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, appendicitis, cord compression, CT abdomen, cholecystitis, CT chest, diverticulitis, ectopic pregnancy, epidural hematoma, dural venous thrombosis, head CT, MRI brain, MR angiography, MRI spine, ovarian torsion, pancreatitis, pelvic ultrasound, pneumoperitoneum, pulmonary embolism, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma. Any content that was not written for patients was excluded. The 230 articles that were assessed were written, on average, at a 12.1 grade level. Only 2 of the 230 articles (1%) were written at the third to seventh grade recommended reading level set forth by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and American Medical Association (AMA). Fifty-two percent of the 230 articles were written so as to require a minimum of a high school education (at least a 12th grade level). Additionally, 17 of the 230 articles (7.3%) were written at a level that exceeded an undergraduate education (at least a 16th grade level). The majority of websites with emergency radiology-related patient education materials are not adhering to the NIH and AMA's recommended reading levels, and it is likely that the average reader is not benefiting fully from these information outlets. With the link between health literacy and poor health outcomes, it is important to address the online content in this area of radiology, allowing for patient to more fully benefit

  10. Emergency response to radiological occurrences in the centre of isotopes in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Zayda H.; Perez, Saul; Torres, Mirta B.; Ayra, Fernando E.

    2008-01-01

    It is internationally recognized that establishment and implementation emergency provisions are key issues for an effective response. This paper aims to summarize the experiences in responding to radiological events in the Centre of Isotopes (CENTIS), the biggest radioactive facility in Cuba. Specific potential accident scenarios are assessed by identifying maximum radioactive inventories, operational procedures, room dimensions and ventilation system parameters. Additionally, transport accidents are analyzed since CENTIS is also the main carrier of radioactive materials in Cuba. A range of events is considered from highly improbable events of larger consequence to more frequent events of small radiological impact. The maximum radionuclide release events are identified. A review of the radiological occurrences from 1997 to 2007 is conducted, using the Cuban's regulatory classification system. The details of these occurrences have been entered into the Radiological Event Database (RED). Spills of 131 I in controlled zone are mainly registered. It has been not reported any incident in about two thousand road shipments carried out. Results show a good agreement between hypothesized occurrences and those registered. There were obtained the maximum values of exposures for workers and first responders as follows: 2.23mSv (effective dose (E)), 0.7mSv (committed effective dose) and 50.49mSv (equivalent dose to hands). The biggest contribution to E took place during opening a radioactive package with 14.8GBq of 90 Sr in controlled zone. Suitable sets of individual protective means and monitoring equipment have been guaranteed. The programmes of training and full-scale exercises are fulfilled. Finally, it is concluded that findings from operational experience and preparedness infrastructure have contributed to CENTIS' emergency response capabilities. (author)

  11. A rapid radiobioassay method for strontium estimation in nuclear/radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankhede, Sonal; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    During a nuclear/radiological emergency, workers as well as members of the public (MOP) may get internally contaminated with the radionuclides like Sr and Cs. In such situations, a truly rapid radiobioassay method is required to screen a large number of people in order to assess internal contamination and also to decide on subsequent medical intervention. The current precipitation method used at Bioassay Lab., Trombay is quite lengthy and laborious. Efforts are being made to optimize bioassay methods at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre using Solid Extraction Chromatography (SEC) technique for emergency response. The present work reports standardization of SEC technique for rapid estimation of Sr in urine samples. The method standardized using Sr spec is simpler, shorter, result in higher recoveries and reproducible results. It is most suitable for quick dose assessment of 90 Sr in bioassay samples in case of emergency

  12. Revision of criteria for foodstuffs control following a nuclear or radiological emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Young Min; Jeong, Seung Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    GAL(generic action level)s were derived using cost-benefit methods. But the factors used to derive GALs, such as Gross National Product (GNP) and cost of foodstuff, have been changed for last 10 years. Moreover the standards did not consider exposure situation change from emergency exposure to existing exposure situation. In this study, two ways to revise existing standards for foodstuff control were considered; 1st, revision of GAL, 2nd, newly derived reference level. In this study, two methods to revise food control criteria following nuclear emergency were suggested. GAL based on recent GNI and cost of foodstuff would be revised and decreased up to 30 % than existing criteria. DRLs reflecting exposure situation and consumption pattern were smaller than existing criteria for group 1 nuclides. The approach considered in the study would be applied to set up domestic criteria for food control during and following nuclear or radiological emergency.

  13. Revision of criteria for foodstuffs control following a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Young Min; Jeong, Seung Young

    2015-01-01

    GAL(generic action level)s were derived using cost-benefit methods. But the factors used to derive GALs, such as Gross National Product (GNP) and cost of foodstuff, have been changed for last 10 years. Moreover the standards did not consider exposure situation change from emergency exposure to existing exposure situation. In this study, two ways to revise existing standards for foodstuff control were considered; 1st, revision of GAL, 2nd, newly derived reference level. In this study, two methods to revise food control criteria following nuclear emergency were suggested. GAL based on recent GNI and cost of foodstuff would be revised and decreased up to 30 % than existing criteria. DRLs reflecting exposure situation and consumption pattern were smaller than existing criteria for group 1 nuclides. The approach considered in the study would be applied to set up domestic criteria for food control during and following nuclear or radiological emergency

  14. How to operate a university institute as a radiological emergency service?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besancon, A.; Bochud, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA) is attached to the Department of Medical Radiology at the Vaud University Hospital Center (CHUV) in Lausanne. The Institute's main tasks are strongly linked to the medical activities of the Department: radiotherapy, radiodiagnostics, interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The Institute also works in the fields of operational radiation protection, radiation metrology and radioecology. In the case of an accident involving radioactive materials, the emergency services are able to call on the assistance of radiation protection specialists. In order to avoid having to create and maintain a specific structure, both burdensome and rarely needed, Switzerland decided to unite all existing emergency services for such events. Thus, the IRA was invited to participate in this network. The challenge is therefore to integrate a university structure, used to academic collaborations and the scientific approach, to an interventional organization accustomed to strict policies, a military-style command structure and 'drilled' procedures. The IRA's solution entails mobilizing existing resources and the expertise developed through professional experience. The main asset of this solution is that it involves the participation of committed collaborators who remain in a familiar environment, and are able to use proven materials and mastered procedures, even if the atmosphere of an accident situation differs greatly from regular laboratory routines. However, this solution requires both a commitment to education and training in emergency situations, and a commitment in terms of discipline by each collaborator in order to be integrated into a response plan supervised by an operational command center. (authors)

  15. Radiological Emergency Preparedness after the Early Phase of an Accident : Focusing on an Air Contamination Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyo Joon; Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2010-01-01

    Toxic materials in an urban area can be caused by a variety of events, such as accidental releases on industrial complexes, accidents during the transportation of hazardous materials and intentional explosions. Most governments around the world and their citizens have become increasingly worried about intentional accidents in urban area after the 911 terrorist attack in the United States of America. Even though there have been only a few attempted uses of Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs), accidental releases have occurred many times at commercial nuclear power plants and nuclear waste disposal sites. When an intentional release of radioactive materials occurs in an urban area, air quality for radioactive materials in the environment is of great importance to take action for countermeasures and environmental risk assessments. Atmospheric modeling is part of the decision making tasks and that it is particularly important for emergency managers as they often need to take actions quickly on very inadequate information(1). A simple model such as HOTSPOT required wind direction and source term would be enough to support the decision making in the early phase of an accident, but more sophisticated atmospheric modeling is required to adjust decontamination area and relocation etc after the early phase of an accidental event. In this study, we assume an explosion of 137 Cs using RDDs in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea. California Puff Model (CALPUFF) is used to calculate an atmospheric dispersion and transport for 137 Cs. Atmospheric dispersion and quantitative radiological risk analysis for 137 Cs were performed assuming an intentional explosion in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea after the early phase of emergency. These kinds of atmospheric modeling and risk analysis could provide a means for decision makers to take action on important issues such as the cleanup of the contaminated area and countermeasures to protect the public caused by

  16. Survey of the WHO-REMPAN network's capability for strengthening preparedness for radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A [Takashi Nagai Memorial International Hibakusha Medical Centre, Nagasaki Univ. Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan); Carr, Z [Dept. of Public Health and Environment, Health Security and Environment Cluster, World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Akira, O [Takashi Nagai Memorial International Hibakusha Medical Centre, Nagasaki Univ. Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan); Christie, D [Dept. of Public Health and Environment, Health Security and Environment Cluster, World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Yamashita, S [Takashi Nagai Memorial International Hibakusha Medical Centre, Nagasaki Univ. Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan); Fukushima Medical Univ. (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of the World Health Organization (WHO)-REMPAN network in responding to radiological incidents and nuclear emergencies. A survey developed by the WHO Secretariat and Nagasaki Univ. was sent to all 40 WHO-REMPAN collaborating centres and liaison institutes in order to verify the current situation of the network, identify needs and collect suggestions for future improvements. Most of the responding institutions said they were satisfied with the current status of the network. However, several responses to the survey indicate that better internal communication is needed, as well as a position document to specify the roles, rights and responsibilities of the network members. (authors)

  17. Survey of the WHO-REMPAN network's capability for strengthening preparedness for radiological and nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, A.; Carr, Z.; Akira, O.; Christie, D.; Yamashita, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of the World Health Organization (WHO)-REMPAN network in responding to radiological incidents and nuclear emergencies. A survey developed by the WHO Secretariat and Nagasaki Univ. was sent to all 40 WHO-REMPAN collaborating centres and liaison institutes in order to verify the current situation of the network, identify needs and collect suggestions for future improvements. Most of the responding institutions said they were satisfied with the current status of the network. However, several responses to the survey indicate that better internal communication is needed, as well as a position document to specify the roles, rights and responsibilities of the network members. (authors)

  18. Vehicle tracking based technique for radiation monitoring during nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saindane, Shashank S.; Otari, Anil D.; Suri, M.M.K.; Patil, S.S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC has developed an advanced online radiation measurement cum vehicle tracking system for use. For the preparedness for response to any nuclear/radiological emergency scenario which may occur anywhere, the system designed is a Global System for Mobile (GSM) based Radiation Monitoring System (GRaMS) along with a Global Positioning System (GPS). It uses an energy compensated GM detector for radiation monitoring and is attached with commercially available Global Positioning System (GPS) for online acquisition of positional coordinates with time, and GSM modem for online data transfer to a remote control centre. The equipment can be operated continuously while the vehicle is moving

  19. Radiological emergencies due to unaccounted sources or failures of the control system in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainhaeusler, F.; Wieland, P.

    1998-01-01

    The widespread use of radiological sources in developing countries represents a potentially significant risk. Two examples of accident scenarios of different severities - one in El Salvador, the other in Taiwan - are reviewed in the light of their causes, effects on man and the environment, and economic consequences. Recent operational and regulatory advances on improved emergency management are discussed. The international dimension of these issues is significant, as over 160 industrial irradiation facilities comparable to the installation in El Salvador are currently in operation worldwide and close to 40 cases are known of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal, as is likely to have happened in Taiwan. (author)

  20. The IAEAs incident and emergency centre: the global focal point for nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglova, E.

    2016-08-01

    The continuous use of nuclear power to generate electricity and the continued threat of radioactive materials being used for nefarious reasons reminds us of the importance to stay prepared to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Stringent nuclear safety and nuclear security requirements, the training of personnel, operational checks and legal frameworks cannot always prevent radiation-related emergencies. Though these events can range in severity, each has the potential to cause harm to the public, employees, patients, property and the environment. Until the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, there was no international information exchange system. Immediately following that accident, the international community negotiated the so-called Emergency Conventions to ensure that the country suffering an accident with an international transboundary release of radioactive material would issue timely, authenticated information, while the States that could field technical support, would do so in a coordinated fashion. The Conventions also place specific legal obligations on the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) with regard to emergency preparedness and response. (Author)

  1. Preliminary reports in the emergency department: is a subspecialist radiologist more accurate than a radiology resident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Barton F; Morgan, Matthew B; Nesbit, Chadd E; Phillips, Jinnah A; Lionetti, David M; Chang, Paul J; Towers, Jeffrey D

    2007-02-01

    To determine whether emergency department (ED) preliminary reports rendered by subspecialist attending radiologists who are reading outside their field of expertise are more accurate than reports rendered by radiology residents, and to compare error rates between radiologists and nonradiologists in the ED setting. The study was performed at a large academic medical center with a busy ED. An electronic preliminary report generator was used in the ED to capture preliminary interpretations rendered in a clinical setting by radiology residents, junior attendings (within 2 years of taking their oral boards), senior attendings, and ED clinicians between August 1999 and November 2004. Each preliminary report was later reviewed by a final interpreting radiologist, and the preliminary interpretation was adjudicated for the presence of substantial discordances, defined as a difference in interpretation that might immediately impact the care of the patient. Of the 612,890 preliminary reports in the database, 65,780 (11%) met inclusion criteria for this study. A log-linear analysis was used to assess the effects of modality and type of author on preliminary report error rates. ED clinicians had significantly higher error rates when compared with any type of radiologist, regardless of modality. Within the radiologists, residents and junior attendings had lower error rates than did senior attendings, but the differences were not statistically significant. Subspecialized attending radiologists who interpret ED examinations outside their area of expertise have error rates similar to those of radiology residents. Nonradiologists have significantly higher error rates than radiologists and radiology residents when interpreting examinations in the ED.

  2. Contributions to an on-line exchange of radiological data in case of an emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuffer, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Financed by the Commission of the European Communities, an international on-line exchange of radiological data and information via a Wide Area Network (WAN) called 'Prototype System' (PDX) was realized. The concept is based on modern data base and communication techniques using TCP/IP connections and the EURDEP file standard. The system is suitable to exchange measured data, processed information, source terms, results of Decision Support Systems (DSS) and other information like reports being relevant for emergency management. The WAN guarantees the availability of the information during emergency situations. The project is focused on showing the feasibility of a system for data exchange, storage and visualization in the beneficiary countries Hungary, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. The system comprises three different levels: 1. connection of national monitoring networks and decision support systems to one National Data Centre (NDC) and concentration, storage, and visualization of national radiological and meteorological data and information relevant for nuclear emergency management and decision support. 2. Automatic exchange of data and information between different NDCs via a superior Regional Data Centre (RDC). 3. Data exchange between the different RDCs by downloading available data and information from corresponding regional platforms. All nodes of the WAN (NDCs, RDCs) engage the same data base and user interface. In the prototype phase, the system distributes validated radiological and meteorological data and information collected from more than 10 national organizations operating monitoring networks respectively performing laboratory measurements. The international exchange of data and information takes place on an agreed regular procedure by standard technical means one time per day in normal mode and one time per hour in emergency mode. Other periods are configurable as adequate. Main achievement of the project is that the different existing

  3. Emergency Evacuation Simulation for Radiological Emergency; A Case Study of Gijang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyu M.; Na, Kyoungseok; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ahn, Seokyoung; Park, Seonghee [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The recent nuclear reactor accident at Fukushima caused the residents at Gijang to be concerned about the safety of their local nuclear plants. The nuclear reactor-related accidents is very rare but may cause the serious consequences and last for significant period. Especially, Gijang is located next to Busan, at which most population is concentrated. Hence, the effective and efficient emergency evacuation plan cannot be overemphasized in addition to well-designed nuclear disaster prevention measures. The central government has studied the safety issues of nuclear plants and developed the prevention systems. However, the local government also needs their emergency evacuation plan for its residents, considering its geographical and local factors such as various modes of transportations, transportation and shelters systems. The disasters related to nuclear power plants is rare but their influence is considerable. Therefore, while maintaining the safe facilities, the disaster preparedness cannot be overemphasized. An agent-based emergency evacuation simulation tool has been developed and tested for Gijang area.

  4. Radiological emergencies due to postulated events of melted radioactive material mixed in steel reaching public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, T.R.; Anoj Kumar; Patra, R.P.; Vikas; Patil, S.S.; Chatterjee, M.K.; Sharma, Ranjit; Murali, S.

    2014-01-01

    National level response mechanism is developed at emergency response centres of DAE (DAE-ERCs) at 22 different locations spread all over the country and National Disaster Response Forces with National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). ERCs are equipped with radiation monitors, radionuclide identifinders, Personnel Radiation Dosimeters (PRD) with monitoring capabilities of the order of tens of nGy/h (μR/hr) above the radiation background at any suspected locations. Even if small amounts of radioactive material is smuggled and brought in some other form into public domain, ERCs are capable to detect, identify and segregate the radioactive material from any inactive scrap. DAE-ERCs have demonstrated their capability in source search, detection, identification and recovery during the radiological emergency at Mayapuri, New Delhi

  5. Radiological emergencies due to postulated events of melted radioactive material mixed in steel reaching public domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, T. R.; Kumar, Anoj; Patra, R. P.; Vikas,; Patil, S. S.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Sharma, Ranjit; Murali, S., E-mail: tejram@barc.gov.in [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    National level response mechanism is developed at emergency response centres of DAE (DAE-ERCs) at 22 different locations spread all over the country and National Disaster Response Forces with National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). ERCs are equipped with radiation monitors, radionuclide identifinders, Personnel Radiation Dosimeters (PRD) with monitoring capabilities of the order of tens of nGy/h (μR/hr) above the radiation background at any suspected locations. Even if small amounts of radioactive material is smuggled and brought in some other form into public domain, ERCs are capable to detect, identify and segregate the radioactive material from any inactive scrap. DAE-ERCs have demonstrated their capability in source search, detection, identification and recovery during the radiological emergency at Mayapuri, New Delhi.

  6. Environmental and emergency response capabilities of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's radiological air sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, T.C.

    1980-05-01

    Environmental and emergency response radiological air sampling capabilities of the Environmental Surveillance Group at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. The air sampling program provides a supplementary check on the adequacy of containment and effluent controls, determines compliance with applicable protection guides and standards, and assesses potential environmental impacts on site environs. It also allows evaluation of potential individual and total population doses from airborne radionuclides that may be inhaled or serve as a source of external radiation. The environmental program is sufficient in scope to detect fluctuations and long-term trends in atmospheric levels of radioactivity originating onsite. The emergency response capabilities are designed to respond to both onsite unplanned releases and atmospheric nuclear tests

  7. Radiological mapping of emergency planning zone of Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, R.N.; Saindane, Shashank; Narsaiah, M.V.R.; Solase, S.S.; Chaudbury, Probal; Kumar, Deepak; Gautam, Y.P.; Sharma, A.K.; Kumar, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    As a part of emergency preparedness programme, environmental radiation monitoring of Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) (16 km radius) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is being carried out periodically. An environmental radiation monitoring of EPZ of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) was carried out by installing various state-of-the-art mobile radiation monitoring systems in a vehicle and soil samples were collected from 40 locations. Around 200 important villages within EPZ were monitored and the radiological mapping of the monitored area is shown. The average dose rate recorded was 125 ± 28.8 nGy h -1 . Analysis of the collected dose rate data and the soil samples indicate normal background radiation level in the area

  8. The GRS Emergency Centre during the Fukushima NPS Accident: Communicating Radiological Information to the Public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentuc, F.N.; Dokter, S.

    2012-01-01

    During Fukushima 2011, the GRS Emergency Centre continuously analysed the situation and provided detailed information on the current plant status and the radiological consequences, not only for the German government but also for the worried public. The expert team primarily informed the competent authority about on-going developments in Japan via status reports. The status reports provided technical and radiological information promptly and were updated several times a day at the beginning and towards the end twice a week until July 1 2011. Additionally, these reports were translated into English and published on the web-site. In the course of the event, approximately 200 reports were issued by the GRS-EC. It became clear through media and public enquires that information, even at a very basic level, was needed in the field of nuclear technology and radiation protection. Therefore, technical experts and public relation team members worked together to prepare explanatory and background material. Owing to this strong interest, GRS established a special Fukushima portal on its web-site, to meet the need for information. As well as the technical aspects, which dominated the expert's work in the GRS Emergency Centre, one challenge was communicating the radiological information to the public in a comprehensible yet professional way. The media and the public appear to be very interested in getting information about the exposure of workers at the plant, the dose limits, the release of radioactive material in the atmosphere and the long-term effects of the contamination. The article is followed by the slides of the presentation

  9. Canadian Cytogenetic Emergency network (CEN) for biological dosimetry following radiological/nuclear accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M; Ferrarotto, Catherine L; Vlahovich, Slavica; Wilkins, Ruth C; Boreham, Douglas R; Dolling, Jo-Anna

    2007-07-01

    To test the ability of the cytogenetic emergency network (CEN) of laboratories, currently under development across Canada, to provide rapid biological dosimetry using the dicentric assay for triage assessment, that could be implemented in the event of a large-scale radiation/nuclear emergency. A workshop was held in May 2004 in Toronto, Canada, to introduce the concept of CEN and recruit clinical cytogenetic laboratories at hospitals across the country. Slides were prepared for dicentric assay analysis following in vitro irradiation of blood to a range of gamma-ray doses. A minimum of 50 metaphases per slide were analyzed by 41 people at 22 different laboratories to estimate the exposure level. Dose estimates were calculated based on a dose response curve generated at Health Canada. There were a total of 104 dose estimates and 96 (92.3%) of them fell within the expected range using triage scoring criteria. Half of the laboratories analyzed 50 metaphases in emergency biological dosimetry. When this network is fully operational, it will be the first of its kind in Canada able to respond to radiological/nuclear emergencies by providing triage quality biological dosimetry for a large number of samples. This network represents an alternate expansion of existing international emergency biological dosimetry cytogenetic networks.

  10. Standards and criteria of international organizations concerning agricultural aspects of radiological emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.; Crick, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear facilities are not generally located in densely populated zones, but usually in rural rather agricultural environment. The Chernobyl accident has shown that farming activities may be affected over hundreds if not thousands kilometers from the accident site. Emergency plans must be implemented in order to trigger countermeasures aiming at reducing agricultural product contamination even in countries having not nuclear facilities or programmes of their own. In Introduction the paper presents the principal objectives to be taken into account by the governmental authorities (at central and local level) after an agricultural countermeasure strategy has been elaborated. The second section deals with the development of criteria and intervening levels. On the basis of the new Recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection and the Guidelines concerning the Intervention Levels for Protecting the Public in the Event of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency issued by an IAEA Consultative Group, IAEA and FAO have published in 1994 common directives concerning the measures to be taken at agricultural level in case of an accidental release of radioactivity. The section 3 presents the concepts and criteria for selecting efficient and appropriate countermeasures. It discusses the importance of planning and intervention preparations, the management of accidents and the proper protection measures. The generic activity levels requiring intervention for withdraw from market of alimentary products are presented in the Section 4. The paper discusses also specific level s of intervention (for milk and meat for instance adopted in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia) as well as future prospects

  11. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Emerging Technology Committee report on electronic brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine C; Yom, Sue S; Podgorsak, Matthew B; Harris, Eleanor; Price, Robert A; Bevan, Alison; Pouliot, Jean; Konski, Andre A; Wallner, Paul E

    2010-03-15

    The development of novel technologies for the safe and effective delivery of radiation is critical to advancing the field of radiation oncology. The Emerging Technology Committee of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology appointed a Task Group within its Evaluation Subcommittee to evaluate new electronic brachytherapy methods that are being developed for, or are already in, clinical use. The Task Group evaluated two devices, the Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System by Xoft, Inc. (Fremont, CA), and the Intrabeam Photon Radiosurgery Device by Carl Zeiss Surgical (Oberkochen, Germany). These devices are designed to deliver electronically generated radiation, and because of their relatively low energy output, they do not fall under existing regulatory scrutiny of radioactive sources that are used for conventional radioisotope brachytherapy. This report provides a descriptive overview of the technologies, current and future projected applications, comparison of competing technologies, potential impact, and potential safety issues. The full Emerging Technology Committee report is available on the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Web site. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Real-time meteorological data flow in support of TVA's radiological emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.H.; Pittman, D.E.; Malo, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) presently operates two nuclear power plants - Browns Ferry (3 units) and Sequoyah (2 units). Two additional plants are under construction. These are Watts Bar scheduled for commercial operation later this year, and Bellefonte (2 units), scheduled for operation near the end of the decade. Under regulations promulgated under 10 CFR Part 50, TVA has developed a Radiological Emergency Plan (REP) to facilitate assessment of the effects of a radiological accident at any of the operational plants. As part of the REP, TVA has developed a system for collecting, displaying, and reviewing, and disseminating real-time meteorological information collected at the nuclear plant sites. The flow of this information must be reliable and continuous so that prompt, informed decisions are possible. This system has been designed using guidance provided in applicable Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) documents, most notably Supplement 1 to NUREG-0737 and Regularoty Guide (R.G.) 1.23. This paper presents a brief description of the REP meteorological support. Meteorological support for nuclear plant emergency preparedness at TVA nuclear plants has been provided for several years. The system has undergone numerous changes during this time, reflecting changes in regulatory guidance and experience gained in implementing the system through numerous drills and exercises. A brief discussion of some of this experience is also presented

  13. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Emerging Technology Committee Report on Electronic Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Catherine C.; Yom, Sue S.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.; Harris, Eleanor; Price, Robert A.; Bevan, Alison; Pouliot, Jean; Konski, Andre A.; Wallner, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The development of novel technologies for the safe and effective delivery of radiation is critical to advancing the field of radiation oncology. The Emerging Technology Committee of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology appointed a Task Group within its Evaluation Subcommittee to evaluate new electronic brachytherapy methods that are being developed for, or are already in, clinical use. The Task Group evaluated two devices, the Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System by Xoft, Inc. (Fremont, CA), and the Intrabeam Photon Radiosurgery Device by Carl Zeiss Surgical (Oberkochen, Germany). These devices are designed to deliver electronically generated radiation, and because of their relatively low energy output, they do not fall under existing regulatory scrutiny of radioactive sources that are used for conventional radioisotope brachytherapy. This report provides a descriptive overview of the technologies, current and future projected applications, comparison of competing technologies, potential impact, and potential safety issues. The full Emerging Technology Committee report is available on the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Web site.

  14. Review of Virtual Reality Technology Application in Fire and Medical Exercise for Development of VR based Radiological Emergency Exercise System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Byung Il; Park, Seong Jun; Lee, Dewhey; Park, Younwon

    2016-01-01

    The article of Act on Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency (APPRE) was amended as a nuclear licensee shall formulate a radiological emergency exercise plan as prescribed by the Ordinance of the Prime minister and execute such plan with the approval of the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC). Current radiological emergency exercise is basically conducting in the field. The field exercise essentially requires participation of mass population. Due to lack of time, cost, communication and participation, the field exercise necessarily causes several limitations in an aspect of effectiveness. The public participants often misunderstood the situation as real though it is just an exercise so several conflicts are occurring. Furthermore, the exercise program is too ideal to reflect the real accident situation. In this point of view, application of virtual reality (VR) technology is highlighted with its many advantages. VR technology is expected to resolve those existing problems. Our research team is currently developing VR based radiological emergency exercise system. In this paper, the advantages and actual application of VR based training were introduced. With those advantages and improvement of existing disadvantages, our VR based radiological emergency exercise system will be developed. Not only physical interactive features, but also interactive fail-considered real-like scenarios will be adopted in the system. The ultimate goal of the system is safe and perfect evacuation of residents in case of radioactive accident

  15. Review of Virtual Reality Technology Application in Fire and Medical Exercise for Development of VR based Radiological Emergency Exercise System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Byung Il; Park, Seong Jun; Lee, Dewhey; Park, Younwon [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The article of Act on Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency (APPRE) was amended as a nuclear licensee shall formulate a radiological emergency exercise plan as prescribed by the Ordinance of the Prime minister and execute such plan with the approval of the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC). Current radiological emergency exercise is basically conducting in the field. The field exercise essentially requires participation of mass population. Due to lack of time, cost, communication and participation, the field exercise necessarily causes several limitations in an aspect of effectiveness. The public participants often misunderstood the situation as real though it is just an exercise so several conflicts are occurring. Furthermore, the exercise program is too ideal to reflect the real accident situation. In this point of view, application of virtual reality (VR) technology is highlighted with its many advantages. VR technology is expected to resolve those existing problems. Our research team is currently developing VR based radiological emergency exercise system. In this paper, the advantages and actual application of VR based training were introduced. With those advantages and improvement of existing disadvantages, our VR based radiological emergency exercise system will be developed. Not only physical interactive features, but also interactive fail-considered real-like scenarios will be adopted in the system. The ultimate goal of the system is safe and perfect evacuation of residents in case of radioactive accident.

  16. Novel biodosimetry methods applied to victims of the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Langlois, R.G.; Lucas, J.; Jensen, R.H.; Bigbee, W.L.; Ramalho, A.T.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two biodosimetric methods under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were applied to five persons accidentally exposed to a 137Cs source in Goiania, Brazil. The methods used were somatic null mutations at the glycophorin A locus detected as missing proteins on the surface of blood erythrocytes and chromosome translocations in blood lymphocytes detected using fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Biodosimetric results obtained approximately 1 y after the accident using these new and largely unvalidated methods are in general agreement with results obtained immediately after the accident using dicentric chromosome aberrations. Additional follow-up of Goiania accident victims will (1) help provide the information needed to validate these new methods for use in biodosimetry and (2) provide independent estimates of dose

  17. Considerations about house decontamination in Goiania: limits and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Luiz, M.T.B.; Cunha, P.G.; Barros, P.D. de

    1988-01-01

    We are considering some aspects related to the decontamination activities about 50 houses affected by Cs-137 in Goiania city. We described the way these contaminations occurred, the instruments used and the procedures. We also discuss the dose limits establised in the decontamination and the consequences resulting from this action. We call attention to the fact that not only the technical aspects in such activities bu also the psycho-social implications resulting from them are specially important. (author) [pt

  18. The national radiological emergency preparedness and response plan in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, Eulinia Mendoza

    2007-01-01

    The use of radiation sources of various types and activities is now widespread in the fields of industry, medicine, research and education in the Philippines. These radiation sources have been under the regulatory control of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) to ensure that these materials are used in a safe manner and stored in a safe and secure location, and that those which have exceeded their useful life are appropriately disposed of. And while the safety record of the nuclear industry remains admirable compared to other industries, the occurrence of an accident affecting members of the public is always a possibility but with very low probability. In 2001, the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) approved the revised National Radiological Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan (RADPLAN). This plan outlines the activities and organizations necessary to mitigate the effects of nuclear emergencies or radiation related accidents. An important component of this plan is the education of the public as well as the emergency responders such as the police authorities fire emergency personnel, medical responders, community leaders and the general public. The threat of nuclear terrorism as an aftermath of the September 11 incident in the United States has also been considered in the latest revision of this document. (author)

  19. The Fukushima radiological emergency and challenges identified for future public health responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles W

    2012-05-01

    On 11 March 2011, northern Japan was rocked by first a magnitude 9.0 earthquake off the eastern coast and then an ensuing tsunami. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant complex was hit by these twin disasters, and a cascade of events was initiated that led to radionuclide releases causing widespread radioactive contamination of residential areas, agricultural land, and coastal waters. Radioactive material from Japan was subsequently transmitted to locations around the globe, including the U.S. The levels of radioactive material that arrived in the U.S. were never large enough to be a concern for health effects, but the presence of this material in the environment was enough to create a public health emergency in the U.S. The radiation safety and public health communities in the U.S. are identifying challenges they faced in responding to this incident. This paper discusses three of those challenges: (1) The growing shortage of trained radiation subject matter experts in the field of environmental transport and dosimetry of radionuclides; (2) the need to begin expressing all radiation-related quantities in terms of the International System of Units; and (3) the need to define when a radiation dose is or is not one of "public health concern." This list represents only a small subset of the list of challenges being identified by public health agencies that responded to the Fukushima incident. However, these three challenges are fundamental to any radiological emergency response. Addressing them will have a significant positive impact on how the U.S. responds to the next radiological emergency.

  20. NERIS: European platform on preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.; Bohunova, J.; Schneider, T.; Biduener, S.; Badelay, J.; Gallego, E.; Gering, F.; Hrdeman, F.; Dubreuil, G.; Murith, Ch.; Oughton, D.; Raskob, W.

    2014-01-01

    The NERIS platform was established in June 2010 to encourage European, national, regional and local authorities, technical support organisation, operators, professional organisations, research institutes, universities, and non-governmental organisations to cooperate and to facilitate access expertise and technology in maintaining competence in the field of nuclear emergency management and recovery for the benefit of European countries and citizens. 49 organisations are members of the NERIS Platform from 24 countries and 20 members are supporting organisations. The NERIS Association has been registered in August 2012 as a legal European Association under the French Law. It is operated by a management board of 10 members and the NERIS R and D Committee elaborates its strategic orientation. The NERIS Platform is linked to research projects, managed by KIT: - NERIS TP 'Towards a self sustaining European Technology Platform on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response and Recovery'. - PREPARE project on innovative integrative tools and platforms to be prepared for radiological emergencies and post-accident response in Europe. To set up a common reflection, cooperation have been established with European and international organisations: HERCA, ALLIANCE, CRPPH, ICRP and AIEA. To share issues on lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident, cooperation have been initiated with IGES (Institute for Global Environment Strategies) and with the Fukushima University. The NERIS Platform is also involved in the steering committee of the EC Project OPERRA, aiming at structuring the research in the field of radiation protection at the Horizon 2020. This paper will present the key components of the NERIS Platform and its objectives. (authors)

  1. NERIS: The European platform on preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.; Bohunova, J.; Schneider, T.; Biduener, S.; Badelay, J.; Gallego, E.; Gering, F.; Hrdeman, F.; Dubreuil, G.; Murith, Ch.; Oughton, D.; Raskob, W.

    2014-01-01

    The NERIS platform was established in June 2010 to encourage European, national, regional and local authorities, technical support organisation, operators, professional organisations, research institutes, universities, and non-governmental organisations to cooperate and to facilitate access expertise and technology in maintaining competence in the field of nuclear emergency management and recovery for the benefit of European countries and citizens. 49 organisations are members of the NERIS Platform from 24 countries and 20 members are supporting organisations. The NERIS Association has been registered in August 2012 as a legal European Association under the French Law. It is operated by a management board of 10 members and the NERIS R and D Committee elaborates its strategic orientation. The NERIS Platform is linked to research projects, managed by KIT: - NERIS TP 'Towards a self sustaining European Technology Platform on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response and Recovery'. - PREPARE project on innovative integrative tools and platforms to be prepared for radiological emergencies and post-accident response in Europe. To set up a common reflection, cooperations have been established with European and international organisations: HERCA, ALLIANCE, CRPPH, ICRP and AIEA. To share issues on lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident, cooperation have been initiated with IGES (Institute for Global Environment Strategies) and with the Fukushima University. The NERIS Platform is also involved in the steering committee of the EC Project OPERRA, aiming at structuring the research in the field of radiation protection at the Horizon 2020. This paper will present the key components of the NERIS Platform and its objectives. (authors)

  2. A mobile radiological laboratory for rapid response to off-site radiation emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoch, D. S.; Sharma, R. C.; Mehta, D. J.; Raj, V. Venkat [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-07-01

    A mobile radiological laboratory (MRL) has been designed and developed primarily for providing a rapid response to radiation emergencies arising as a consequence of nuclear and/or radiological accidents. It is equipped specifically to monitor the environment and provide quick assessment of radiological hazards to the population living within a radius of 30 km around a nuclear facility. In this paper, various design features of an Indian MRL together with the details of installed equipment are presented. The MRL has been designed for a continuous outdoor operation of about two weeks. It is built on a 10.70 m long air suspension Bus Chassis and has four sections : Driver's Cabin, Main Counting Laboratory, Whole Body Monitor and Rear section housing general utilities. The electric power is provided by two diesel generators during field operation and by 230 V AC mains supply at headquarters and wherever possible. The equipment installed in the MRL includes : Alpha, beta and gamma counting systems and low and high volume air samplers for the assessment of radioactive contents in the samples of air, water, soil and vegetation; environment dose rate meters and a variety of survey meters for evaluating any potential increase in radiation levels; personal dosimeters to control external radiation exposure; personal protective equipment for avoiding skin and clothing contamination; a chair type of whole body monitor for the assessment of internal radioactive contamination of the human body, in particular, thyroidal uptake of radioiodine; an automatic weather station for recording continuously the meteorological parameters and a satellite based global positioning system to continuously track and display the geographical location of the MRL. The calibrations of the installed equipment are presently in progress. Preliminary results obtained for the methods needed for rapid detection of gamma emitters in the environment and human body, namely, in situ gamma spectrometry and

  3. Radiology imaging delays as independent predictors of length of hospital stay for emergency medical admissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournane, S.; Conway, R.; Creagh, D.; Byrne, D.G.; Sheehy, N.; Silke, B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the extent to which the time to completion for computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound could be shown to influence the length of stay and costs incurred while in hospital, while accounting for patient acuity. Materials and methods: All emergency admissions, totalling 25,326 imaging investigations between 2010–2014 were evaluated. The 50"t"h, 75"t"h, and 90"t"h centiles of completion times for each imaging type was entered into a multivariable truncated Poisson regression model predicting the length of hospital stay. Estimates of risk (odds or incidence rate ratios [IRRs]) of the regressors were adjusted for acute illness severity, Charlson comorbidity index, chronic disabling disease score, and sepsis status. Quantile regression analysis was used to examine the impact of imaging on total hospital costs. Results: For all imaging examinations, longer hospital lengths of stay were shown to be related to delays in imaging time. Increased delays in CT and MRI were shown to be associated with increased hospital episode costs, while ultrasound did not independently predict increased hospital costs. The magnitude of the effect of imaging delays on episode costs were equivalent to some measures of illness severity. Conclusion: CT, MRI, and ultrasound are undertaken in patients with differing clinical complexity; however, even with adjustment for complexity, the time delay in a more expeditious radiological service could potentially shorten the hospital episode and reduce costs. - Highlights: • There are differing clinical complexities for patients depending on the modality. • A predictive risk model, incorporating advanced imaging, was devised. • Inpatients delays in radiology imaging associated with longer LOS. • Inpatients who underwent radiology imaging associated with increased hospital costs.

  4. Medical and radiological aspects of emergency preparedness and response at SevRAO facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savkin, M N; Sneve, M K; Grachev, M I; Frolov, G P; Shinkarev, S M; Jaworska, A

    2008-12-01

    Regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) of the Russian Federation has the overall goal of promoting improvements in radiation protection in Northwest Russia. One of the projects in this programme has the objectives to review and improve the existing medical emergency preparedness capabilities at the sites for temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. These are operated by SevRAO at Andreeva Bay and in Gremikha village on the Kola Peninsula. The work is also intended to provide a better basis for regulation of emergency response and medical emergency preparedness at similar facilities elsewhere in Russia. The purpose of this paper is to present the main results of that project, implemented by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre. The first task was an analysis of the regulatory requirements and the current state of preparedness for medical emergency response at the SevRAO facilities. Although Russian regulatory documents are mostly consistent with international recommendations, some distinctions lead to numerical differences in operational intervention criteria under otherwise similar conditions. Radiological threats relating to possible accidents, and related gaps in the regulation of SevRAO facilities, were also identified. As part of the project, a special exercise on emergency medical response on-site at Andreeva Bay was prepared and carried out, and recommendations were proposed after the exercise. Following fruitful dialogue among regulators, designers and operators, special regulatory guidance has been issued by FMBA to account for the specific and unusual features of the SevRAO facilities. Detailed sections relate to the prevention of accidents, and emergency preparedness and response, supplementing the basic Russian regulatory requirements. Overall it is concluded that (a) the provision of medical and sanitary components of emergency

  5. Preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State. Their implementation is intended to minimize the consequences for people, property and the environment of any nuclear or radiological emergency. The fulfilment of these requirements will also contribute to the harmonization of arrangements in the event of a transnational emergency. These requirements are intended to be applied by authorities at the national level by means of adopting legislation, establishing regulations and assigning responsibilities. The requirements apply to all those practices and sources that have the potential for causing radiation exposure or environmental radioactive contamination warranting an emergency intervention and that are: (a) Used in a State that chooses to adopt the requirements or that requests any of the sponsoring organizations to provide for the application of the requirements. (B) Used by States with the assistance of the FAO, IAEA, ILO, PAHO, OCHA or WHO in compliance with applicable national rules and regulations. (C) Used by the IAEA or which involve the use of materials, services, equipment, facilities and non-published information made available by the IAEA or at its request or under its control or supervision. Or (d) Used under any bilateral or multilateral arrangement whereby the parties request the IAEA to provide for the application of the requirements. The requirements also apply to the off-site jurisdictions that may need to make an emergency intervention in a State that adopts the requirements. The types of practices and sources covered by these requirements include: fixed and mobile nuclear reactors. Facilities for the mining and processing of radioactive ores. Facilities for fuel reprocessing and other fuel cycle facilities. Facilities for the management of radioactive waste. The transport of radioactive material. Sources of radiation used in

  6. An analysis of the transient's social behavior in the radiological emergency planning zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Sun Young; Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun; Lee, Jae Eun

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the social behavior, especially, the evacuation-related social behavior, of the transients in the radiological Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear power plants. So, the meaning and kinds of the evacuation and the significance of the Trip Generation Time (TGT) have been reviewed. The characteristics of the social behavior of the transient around Ulchin, Wolsong and Kori sites was analyzed through field surveys by using the questionnaire. The major findings of this research implications are as follows. First, for securing the safe evacuation, the alternatives to effectively provide the information on the evacuation warning may be prepared. Second, it is necessary to establish the education and training of transient's evacuation. Third, it is needed that the cause and background of the evacuation refusal are identified and the new response plan to secure transient's safety is prepared

  7. New method for presenting offsite radiological monitoring data during emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, M.P.; Martin, G.F.; Hickey, E.E.; Jamison, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    As scenarios for exercises become more complicated and flexible to challenge emergency response personnel, improved means of presenting data must be developed. To provide maximum realism and free play during an exercise, staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have recently devised a simple method of presenting realistic radiological field monitoring information for a range of possible releases. The method uses only two pieces of paper. The first is a map of the offsite area showing the shape of the plume for the duration of the exercise. The second is a semilog graph containing curves that relate exposure rate and iodine concentration to downwind distance and time. Several techniques are used to maximize the information on the graph

  8. New method for presenting off-site radiological monitoring data during emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, M.P.; Martin, G.F.; Hickey, E.E.; Jamison, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    As scenarios for exercises become more complicated and flexible to challenge emergency response personnel, improved means of presenting data must be developed to meet this need. To provide maximum realism and free play during an exercise, staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have recently devised a simple method of presenting realistic radiological field monitoring information for a range of possible releases. The method utilizes only two pieces of paper. The first is a map of the offsite area showing the shape of the plume for the duration of the exercise. The second is a semi-log graph containing curves relating exposure rate and iodine concentration to downwind distance and time. Several techniques are used to maximize the information on the graph

  9. Investigation of radiological emergencies by the IPEN-CNEN/SP during the years 2001 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio Fumio; Mitake, Malvina Boni

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission maintain, in each of its unities, a technical team for investigation and initial response to radiological and nuclear emergency situations which can occur outside of its installations. At the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, that task is accomplished by the Radioprotection Management (GRP) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil. This paper shows the results obtained by the GRP, analysing which entities action the system, the nature of the event, the involved type of radiation source and the geographical distribution of occurrences in the state. During the period between 2001 and 2010, the GRP attended to 98 notifications, and the entity which the most action the system was the Fire Department. The radionuclide of most incidence was the Am-241, mainly because of radioactive lightning-arrester, followed of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine such as Mo-99/Tc-99m and I-131

  10. Guidance Manual for preparing Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammed, Kabiru [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung-Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan(NREPRP) describes the capabilities, responsibilities and authorities of government agencies and a conceptual basis for integrating the activities of these agencies to protect public health and safety. The NREPRP addresses issues related to actual or perceived radiation hazard requiring a national response in order to: i. Provide co-ordination of a response involving multi-jurisdictions or significant national responsibilities; or ii. Provide national support to state and local governments. The objective of this research is to establish Guidance Manual for preparing a timely, organized and coordinated emergency response plan for Authorities/agencies to promptly and adequately determine and take actions to protect members of the public and emergency workers. The manual will not provide sufficient details for an adequate response. This level of details is contained in standard operating procedures that are being developed based on the plan developed. Base on the data obtain from integrated planning levels and responsibility sharing, the legal document of major government agencies participating in NREPRP form the legal basis for the response plan. Also the following documents should be some international legal binding documents. Base on the international safety requirement and some countries well developed NREPRP, we have drafted a guidance manual for new comer countries for easy development of their countries NREPRP. Also we have taken in to consideration lessons learn from most accident especially Fukushima accident.

  11. Development of experts for radiation emergency medicine. An experience at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, H.; Hachiya, M.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences has been conducting many training courses on radiation emergency medicine, both for Japanese and foreigners. Medical professionals working in hospitals and first responders who deal with victims have been main participants of these courses for Japanese. Typically, these courses include table top exercises and/or practical drills, which give unique features to our courses, in addition to lectures. Apart from training courses, some medical professionals came to work as a staff member of NIRS for a long term, such as two years, to learn about radiation emergency medicine. Some foreigners also stayed in NIRS as short to middle term visitors to learn about the fields. Courses for foreigners were organized sometimes in cooperation with international organizations. Participants were mainly from Asian countries, and some courses targeted one country. For example, courses for Korean professionals were organized nine times. The NIRS will continue to contribute to human development in radiation emergency medicine with training courses and other methods of education. (author)

  12. Guidance Manual for preparing Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammed, Kabiru; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan(NREPRP) describes the capabilities, responsibilities and authorities of government agencies and a conceptual basis for integrating the activities of these agencies to protect public health and safety. The NREPRP addresses issues related to actual or perceived radiation hazard requiring a national response in order to: i. Provide co-ordination of a response involving multi-jurisdictions or significant national responsibilities; or ii. Provide national support to state and local governments. The objective of this research is to establish Guidance Manual for preparing a timely, organized and coordinated emergency response plan for Authorities/agencies to promptly and adequately determine and take actions to protect members of the public and emergency workers. The manual will not provide sufficient details for an adequate response. This level of details is contained in standard operating procedures that are being developed based on the plan developed. Base on the data obtain from integrated planning levels and responsibility sharing, the legal document of major government agencies participating in NREPRP form the legal basis for the response plan. Also the following documents should be some international legal binding documents. Base on the international safety requirement and some countries well developed NREPRP, we have drafted a guidance manual for new comer countries for easy development of their countries NREPRP. Also we have taken in to consideration lessons learn from most accident especially Fukushima accident

  13. Development of a computer program for supporting to the radiological adviser in the management of an emergency situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, E.C.M.; Ferreira F, A.L.; Andrade L, F.R. de

    2006-01-01

    One of the more important aspects of the handling of a radiological emergency it is the capacity for, in an immediate and appropriate way, to take the actions to protect the public members and the personnel that intervenes in the emergency. The evaluation of the radiological accident should keep in mind the whole available pertinent information in any moment and it should be an iterative and dynamic process directed to examine the answer in the measure that more complete and detailed information is available. This work presents a program in Delphi, with the tools, generic procedures and the necessary data to support to the radiological advisory in the initial answer to a radiological accident. It is based on the IAEA document, Generic Procedures for the Evaluation and Answer during a radiological emergency, the IAEA-TECDOC-1162. These procedures offer clear, concise and predetermined action criteria, based on the current knowledge and in the accumulated experiences, allowing the immediate decision making. The philosophy is to maintain the simple and quick, but effective process. The objective is to toast, through a laptop, practical and quick orientation for the answer to emergencies that of being implemented, it will provide an estimation or basic evaluation of the situation and it will guarantee the capacity of necessary answer to protect the public and the workers in the event of different types of radiological emergencies. Besides the recommendations of actions of appropriate protection, also it will toast, when it is necessary, orientations on the recovery of sources and initial operations of cleaning. (Author)

  14. Improving Emergency Department radiology transportation time: a successful implementation of lean methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Eveline A; El-Eid, Ghada R; Tamim, Hani; Saleh, Rana; Saliba, Miriam; Naffaa, Lena

    2017-09-05

    Emergency Department overcrowding has become a global problem and a growing safety and quality concern. Radiology and laboratory turnaround time, ED boarding and increased ED visits are some of the factors that contribute to ED overcrowding. Lean methods have been used in the ED to address multiple flow challenges from improving door-to-doctor time to reducing length of stay. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using Lean management methods on improving Emergency Department transportation times for plain radiography. We performed a before and after study at an academic urban Emergency Department with 49,000 annual visits after implementing a Lean driven intervention. The primary outcome was mean radiology transportation turnaround time (TAT). Secondary outcomes included overall study turnaround time from order processing to preliminary report time as well as ED length of stay. All ED patients undergoing plain radiography 6 months pre-intervention were compared to all ED patients undergoing plain radiography 6 months post-intervention after a 1 month washout period. Post intervention there was a statistically significant decrease in the mean transportation TAT (mean ± SD: 9.87 min ± 15.05 versus 22.89 min ± 22.05, respectively, p-value <0.0001). In addition, it was found that 71.6% of patients in the post-intervention had transportation TAT ≤ 10 min, as compared to 32.3% in the pre-intervention period, p-value <0.0001, with narrower interquartile ranges in the post-intervention period. Similarly, the "study processing to preliminary report time" and the length of stay were lower in the post-intervention as compared to the pre-intervention, (52.50 min ± 35.43 versus 54.04 min ± 34.72, p-value = 0.02 and 3.65 h ± 5.17 versus 4.57 h ± 10.43, p < 0.0001, respectively), in spite of an increase in the time it took to elease a preliminary report in the post-intervention period. Using Lean change management

  15. Quality assurance and assessment of preparedness at DAE-ERCs for handling radiological emergencies in public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Murali, S.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    The radiological emergencies are very rare in occurrence the mechanism to improve the preparedness can be ensured through conducting mock exercises/drills. Emergency kit comprises of adequate number of radiation monitoring equipments and PPEs required for response is kept in readiness at ERC. There is a need of training modules on radiological emergencies for all stake holders e.g. district officials, Local Police, Medical professionals and National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) to improve the knowledge and response capability. The adaptability to situations is important for ERTs based on the lessons learned from emergency at Mayapuri, Delhi. The role and responsibility of different agencies have been identified and drafted in the preparedness plan to meet the challenges during response

  16. Implementation of the Service for Radiological Emergency Response of CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE, Recife, PE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Claudio J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, it was created in the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE) - the Brazilian regional center of nuclear sciences -, Recife, PE, Brazil, the Service for Radiological Emergency Response with the objective of providing the population of Pernambuco and neighboring States a team of professionals specialized in emergency situations and radiological protection. This action has the purpose of decentralization of actions of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), an agency responsible for licensing and safety of radioactive sources in Brazil. With this study we can conclude that the settlement of SAER/CRCN came to meet initial expectations, having in the last years provided assistance in situations with suspected radioactive material and participated actively: with radioactive load simulation; of the Exercicio de Emergencia Aeronautica Completo (EXEAC) - an emergency simulated training in airports- from the Guararapes-Gilberto Freire Airport; trained, every two years, the services of emergency for accidents and participated in events of the area

  17. Generalized concepts for measures in case of nuclear and radiological emergencies; Generalisierte Konzepte fuer Massnahmen bei nuklearen und radiologischen Notfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogalla, Martin; Buettner, Uwe; Schnadt, Horst

    2015-05-15

    In the frame of the project 3610S60014 GRS has developed a generalized concept of measures for an improved availability of support and information systems for emergency purposes and the planning of press and public relations that shall be applicable for the complete spectrum of nuclear end radiological emergencies. The concept allows the derivation of criteria and clear procedures for the situation evaluation and decision making. The project is aimed to integrate all available measure concepts from external emergency preparedness, prevention of ABD hazards and specific nuclear emergency plans.

  18. Criteria for preparation and evaluation of radiological emergency response plans and preparedness in support of nuclear power plants. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a common reference and interim guidance source for: state and local governments and nuclear facility operators in the development of radiological emergency response plans and preparedness in support of nuclear power plants; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other Federal agency personnel engaged in the review of state, local government, and licensee plans and preparedness

  19. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  20. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements. Working document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.

    2006-04-01

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  1. Radiological accidents: analysis of the information disseminated by media and public acceptance of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Tauhata, Luiz; Garcia, Marcia Maria

    1995-01-01

    A methodology to treat quantitatively information by Media concerning a nuclear or a radiological accident is presented. It allows us to classify information according to the amount, importance and way of showing, into one indicator, named Information Equivalent. This establishes a procedure for analysis of released information and includes: number of head-lines, illustrations, printed lines, editorials, authorities quoted and so on. Interpretation becomes easier when the evolution and statistical trend of this indicator is observed. The application to evaluate the dissemination of the accident which took place in 1987 in Goiania, Brazil, was satisfactory and allowed us to purpose a model. This will aid the planning, the decision making process and it will improve relationships between technical staff and media during the emergency. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Management of agricultural aspects in nuclear and/or radiological emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griperay, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    In revealing the agricultural aspects of the nuclear and/or radiological emergency situations the paper stresses upon the shocking role which the Chernobyl nuclear accident had on the agricultural management in France. Merely, the misunderstand, unawareness and lack of information relative to production as well as contamination conditions led to damages of FF 150 millions to the detriment of French farmers. Reflexions upon and analysis of this case has led to several conclusions concerning the role of information, the situation of international standards, and the lack of knowledge in important practical issues related to radioisotope migration in plants and agricultural products. Among the future lines of action in this field there are discussed the issues of indemnity, post-accident planning, drilling and information. In conclusion the following points are highlighted: 1. Redefinition of the EU standards; 2. Updating the situation of food and agricultural production units located around basic nuclear facilities in order to dispose of the necessary statistics to make decisions in emergency situations; 3. In absence of a post-accident plan, a scheme of action should be elaborated able to be rapidly implemented by public authorities in order to protect the consumer and restrict the supply to local market and exportation only to warranted agricultural products

  3. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Praveen Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of “contamination” is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article. PMID:21829321

  4. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Amar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of "contamination" is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article.

  5. Biodosimetry versus physical dosimetry for emergency dose assessment following large-scale radiological exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Sholom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data on intercomparisons involving biodosimetry or physical dosimetry methods are analyzed and the results interpreted regarding their efficacy in triage in emergency dosimetry following mass casualty radiological events. The biodosimetry technique examined is dicentric chromosome aberrations (DCA). The physical dosimetry techniques include electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of biological material (teeth) and physical material (smartphone screen glass), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of electronic components (surface mount resistors) from mobile phones. Issues relating to calibration and interpretation of the data are discussed. An important conclusion of the analysis is that more research is critically needed to interpret the efficacy of the various methods. Included in this needed research are intercomparisons of the various methods in controlled experiments and the need to harmonize protocols. - Highlights: • Utility of bio- and physical dosimetry methods for emergency dosimetry triage. • Analysis of intercomparison data for different bio- and physical dosimetry methods. • The percentage of false positives and false negatives for a simulated IND event. • More research, especially intercomparisons, is required to reduce uncertainties.

  6. Maintaining competence in radiological protection in emergency situations - a challenge for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: State of the art radiological protection in emergency situations requires specific resources and competence in a variety of scientific and technical areas. These include e.g. nuclear and reactor physics, metrology, health sciences, radiobiology, food production, waste management, and information technology. In many of these areas a high technical standard is currently available. This standard is based on great efforts of governments, universities/research institutions and the nuclear industry during the second half of the 20 th century. Although the number of scientists and technicians in these areas may appear to be sufficient today at least in some countries, there are strong indicators that future expertise is at risk. The indicators are declining university enrolment, dilution of university course content, high retirement expectations of staff members with little or no replacement planned. During the last decade many international organizations have analyzed the current situation and identified risk areas. Many proposals of general nature are available to take appropriate steps to maintain competence in the 21 st century. These proposals include the following recommendations for governments, for the industry, and for international and supra-national organisations. Governments are encouraged to engage in long term strategic planning and funding to maintain competence; organize networks of collaboration between specialised organisations to maintain critical groups size; take responsibility for ensuring that human resources are available to meet obligations; support 'educational networks' among universities, research institutions, and the industry; provide scholarships, fellowships, and traineeships as part of their funding policy. The industry is encouraged to maintain high level training and in house education to meet their specific needs; develop research programmes which are attractive for students and employees; improve co-operation with

  7. Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management. Planning for Effective Decision Making; Consequence Management and Transition to Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The collective experience of the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), and in particular, the experience from the International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, has shown that it is important to plan and to implement emergency response actions based on a guiding strategic vision. Within this context, Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management presents a framework of strategic planning elements to be considered by national emergency management authorities when establishing or enhancing processes for decision making, and when developing or implementing protection strategies. The focus is on nuclear or radiological emergency situations leading to complex preparedness and response conditions, involving multiple jurisdictions and significant international interfaces. The report is aimed at national emergency management authorities, international organisations and those who are seeking to improve the effectiveness of emergency management. Its goal is to provide insights into decision-making processes within existing emergency planning arrangements. It also highlights common areas of good practice in decision making. Specific areas for improvement, identified during the INEX-3 consequence management exercise, are included, particularly in support of decision making for countermeasures for consequence management and the transition to recovery. (authors)

  8. The 1987 radiation accident in Goiania: medical and organizational experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de; Souza, P.C. de

    1989-12-01

    The present works describes the circumstances of the accident occurred on 13 September 1987, in Goiania (Brazil), when two scavengers removed a teletherapy device a 50.9 TB q (1375Ci) cesium source, from a clinic. They took the apparatus home and tried to dismantled it. The authors describe the circumstances of the event, the first aid measures taken on the site, and the medical structure organized to triage and treat the casualties. Aspects relating to hospital contamination control, the environment, and radioprotection and decontamination procedures are also discussed. (L.M.J.) [pt

  9. Behaviour of {sup 137} Cs in oxysoils and Goiania soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassermann, Maria Angelica [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    {sup 137} Cs soil-to-plant transfer factor obtained in oxy soils accidentally contaminated in Goiania and artificially contaminated shows that these soils present higher transfer when compared with data obtained under temperate climates. These differences were discussed in the light of pedology and geochemical partitioning. Some tropical soil characteristics as acidity, low available nutritive elements and low content of 2:1 clay type seems determine high availability for {sup 137} Cs. Results of sequential extraction showed {sup 137} Cs weakly bound to soil components and underline the importance of Fe oxides in the control of {sup 137} Cs availability in tropical climates. (author) 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Radiological emergency: road map for radiation accident victim transport; Emergência radiológica: roadmap para o transporte de radioacidentado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, V.S.G.; Alcantara, Y.P. [Faculdade Casa Branca, SP (Brazil); Lima, C.M.A. [MAXIM Cursos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, F. C. A. da, E-mail: franciscodasilva13uk@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, a number of necessary actions are taken, both within the radiation protection of individuals and the environment, involving many institutions and highly specialized personnel. Among them it is possible to emphasize the air transportation of radiation accident victims.The procedures and measures for the safe transport of these radiation accident victims are generally the responsibility of the armed forces, specifically the Aeronautics, with the action denominated 'Aeromedical Military Evacuation of Radiation Accident Victims'. The experience with the Radiological Accident of Goiânia demonstrated the importance of adequate preparation and response during a radiological emergency and the need for procedures and measures with regard to the transport of radiation victims are clearly defined and clearly presented for the effectiveness of the actions. This work presents the necessary actions for the transport of radiation accident victim during a radiological emergency, through the road map technique, which has been widely used in scientific technical area to facilitate understanding and show the way to be followed to reach the proposed objectives.

  11. Restart of the Armenia-2 Nuclear Power Station: Radiological emergency preparedness considerations for the nearby American community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.J.; Sherwood, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Armenia Nuclear Power Station is located at Metsamor, approximately 30 km NW of the capital, Yerevan. The station, a two-unit, first-generation Soviet-designed VVER-440/270 pressurized water reactor plant was closed following the 1988 earthquake near Spitak. Because of a severe energy shortage the Government of Armenia has undertaken a program to recommission Unit 2. The plant design and circumstances surrounding its closure caused members of the U.S. Embassy staff and the American community in Armenia to express concerns for their safety in the event of a radiological emergency. In response, two representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy's International Nuclear Safety Program traveled to Armenia to review the Status of radiological emergency preparedness, meet with the American community, and make protective action recommendations. In this presentation we examine the major issues associated with recommissioning of Armenia-2, the challenges involved with developing a radiological emergency preparedness program for the American community, and our recommendations for protective actions in the absence of a strong communications and radiological monitoring infrastructure

  12. Evaluation of management of communication in the actions of preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Beserra, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes, E-mail: maurootto@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: maurootto@gmail.com, E-mail: mbeserra@cefet-rj.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Celso Sucknow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica Vergara, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Julio Cesar de Faria Alvim, E-mail: geowass@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The use of practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in diverse areas of knowledge increases every day. This growth warning about the increased probability of accidents, radiological and nuclear emergencies, with possible consequences for the public, workers and the environment. Within this scenario, it is clear that studies and reassessments of the emergency response actions, receive proposals for continuous improvement. The achievement of the objectives of the response must be sustained by tactical, operation and logistics optimized processes. The articulation through communication between the teams involved in the response must be adaptable to each accident or emergency, respecting its size. The objectives of this study is to perform an assessment on the management of communication in the actions of Preparedness and Response to Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. This assessment is supported by best practices of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the Institute of Project Management (Project Management Institute-PMI). For this purpose, based on models referred were established performance indicators supported by the BSC (Balanced Scorecard). These indicators allowed to evaluate more objectively the performance of the communication processes associated with each phase of the response. The study resulted in the proposed model documents aiming to assist planning of communications exercises in preparation and response actions, supported and adapted the best practices of PMI. These methodologies were evaluated by real cases selected from radiological and nuclear emergencies published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  13. Evaluation of management of communication in the actions of preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Beserra, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes; Wasserman, Maria Angelica Vergara; Wasserman, Julio Cesar de Faria Alvim

    2013-01-01

    The use of practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in diverse areas of knowledge increases every day. This growth warning about the increased probability of accidents, radiological and nuclear emergencies, with possible consequences for the public, workers and the environment. Within this scenario, it is clear that studies and reassessments of the emergency response actions, receive proposals for continuous improvement. The achievement of the objectives of the response must be sustained by tactical, operation and logistics optimized processes. The articulation through communication between the teams involved in the response must be adaptable to each accident or emergency, respecting its size. The objectives of this study is to perform an assessment on the management of communication in the actions of Preparedness and Response to Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. This assessment is supported by best practices of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the Institute of Project Management (Project Management Institute-PMI). For this purpose, based on models referred were established performance indicators supported by the BSC (Balanced Scorecard). These indicators allowed to evaluate more objectively the performance of the communication processes associated with each phase of the response. The study resulted in the proposed model documents aiming to assist planning of communications exercises in preparation and response actions, supported and adapted the best practices of PMI. These methodologies were evaluated by real cases selected from radiological and nuclear emergencies published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  14. Aerial radiometric surveying of Goiania city, Brazil, after the accident with Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, P.M.C.; Fonseca, E.S. da

    1988-01-01

    A low altitude (40 m) aeroradiometric survey with an helicopter was carried out over Goiania city few days after the Cs-137 radiological accident was communicated to CNEN. The objective was to evaluate the extension of the contamination. All the urban area plus dwellings centers in the outskirts of the city as well as drainage systems were surveyed in two days of operation. A total of 67 million m 2 were evaluated. This survey found out only one contamination point (1.1 R/h) which was not yet identified by the ground crews. No contamination was found in the Capin Puba Creek and Meia Ponte river. Detection tests at differen heights over the main contamination points showed that Cs-137 radiation could be detected at more than 350m above them. The results demonstrated that the contamination was restricted to points in the neighbourhood of the junkyard where the source was violated. Such points were under the control of CNEN personnel. The advantages of the airbone technique was to cover a large area in short time. The non-existence of a regional contamination was an important fact to calm the population and the Government. (author) [pt

  15. Six years of cytogenetic follow-up of unstable chromosome aberrations in Goiania patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.T.; Curado, M.P.; Natarajan, A.T.; Cohen, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Following the radiological accident which occurred in the city of Goiania (Brazil), in September of 1987, a cytogenetic follow-up of 16 exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean life time of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals (doses above 1 Gy) the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two-term exponential function. Up to 470 days after exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow. These results may reflect different subpopulations of human lymphocytes, with different life spans. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (doses above 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. For the individuals who had received less than 1 Gy the disappearance of aberrations seems to have occurred in a slower way. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. (author)

  16. Summary of JRC activities related to European-wide exchange of radiological information during nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Court, M.; Vries de, G.; Galmarini, S.

    2003-01-01

    foreseen to enforce the role of ECURIE as early notification system and to reduce its role as data-exchange network, because the exchange of large amounts of off-site monitoring data is more efficiently covered by the EURDEP system. 2.) EURDEP: based on the need to enhance the ECURIE system, the JRC together with the EC Radiation Protection Unit (DG TREN H.4) decided to set up the European Radiological Data Exchange Platform (EURDEP) in 1994. The general objectives were: 'voluntary participation of European countries in rapid exchange of radiological information throughout Europe in order to support nuclear emergency response, and the exploration, without prior commitment, of its feasibility for meeting relevant EC requirements in routine and emergency conditions (Art. 36 of the Euratom Treaty, Council Decision 87/600)'. The EURDEP information exchange format has gained international acknowledgement in the past few years and is now also used an national level by various countries as well as for bi- and multi-lateral data-exchange systems (e.g. by the Baltic Sea States). During 2002 major modifications to this format were proposed and accepted (EURDEP format 2.0). The EURDEP network receives monitoring data from existing gamma dose-rate monitors in 23 European countries on a daily basis. The central EURDEP system at the JRC checks the incoming data an formatting errors and then loads the data in the EURDEP database. The layout of the system is such that it can handle the increase in load during an emergency (tested in 2002). A web application allows authorized users to view data on a European map. Downloading of selected data is also possible. The current system is able to handle all sample types as well as meteorological data. Further work will focus an motivating the participants to make additional data available to the system. In the first place they will be asked to include continuous aerosol, deposition and water measurements as well as meteorological data. In the

  17. The follow-up of in vivo measurements on the patients of the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N.; Melo, D.R.; Dantas, B.M.; Nani, G.J.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Laurer, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    A radiological accident occurred in September 1987 in the city of Goiania, Brazil, due to violation of a 50.9 TBq 137 Cs source used for medical therapy. This accident resulted internal and external contamination as well as irradiation of members of the public. Some people had radiation bums after rubbing the fragments of the source on their skin. Successive skin decontamination were carried on until there was no external detection of $ radiation. In August 1990, with the objective of verifying the long term retention of Cs in the scares, a detection system to perform in vivo measurements in specific regions of the body, with enough sensitivity to discriminate surface and deep contamination, based on the ratio K α /K β ( 137m Ba characteristic X-rays) was set up in Goiania. This system was also used to obtain information of the distribution of residual activities of 137 Cs in the body, 3 years after the intake. The detector applied in this set of measurements system consisted of a HPGe type N, collimated with a 20 cm x 0.5 mm layer of cooper. Ten people were selected for this study based on their remaining 137 Cs body burden, which was obtained using a 8''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector, and on the presence of radiation bum scares. The selected individuals laid down on a thin matrix under the detection system. The HPGe was positioned over and close to the region of interest, which was different for each patient. Two of the subjects showed evidence of significant caesium activity still remaining in wound sites. These results were obtained through the detection of the 137m Ba characteristic X-rays from the decay of 137 Cs. Four of the 10 individuals measured exhibited high levels of X-ray activity in the surface area above the liver. The measurement of these low energy X-rays (30 keV) from an organ as deep in the body as the liver indicates a significant amount of activity in that organ and also that caesium is probably not homogeneously distributed. (author)

  18. Radiological safety for the public during nuclear emergencies: application of intervention levels and derived intervention levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.; Kumar, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    public from a practice is relatively small, the intervention level based on averted dose may have to be high, as significant reduction in exposure is required to justify the intervention. For intervention after a major nuclear / radiological accident, the non-radiological risk could be much larger, particularly if it is necessary to evacuate a large number of people. The variation between intervention levels for different nuclear/ radiological emergency situation could also differ quite significantly. In case of intervention, the doses received before the countermeasures are implemented should not be counted for balancing the detriment and benefit as these doses will be received whether or not the intervention is carried out. At the same time, applying the concept of averted dose involves lot of uncertainty in predicting and advising the time of intervention. The initial planning for various emergencies should include a choice of intervention levels, as discussed in this paper, in terms of averted doses, that will be justified and reasonably well optimized. Each protective action should therefore be considered on its own merits and the doses that would be incurred via all relevant pathways of exposure should also be assessed. (authors)

  19. Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management and Rehabilitation Strategies: Towards a EU approach for decision support tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Gering, F.; Lochard, J.; Nisbet, A.; Starostova, V.; Tomic, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → European emergency management and rehabilitation was strengthened. → Development of generic European handbooks for urban and agricultural areas. → Decision support systems became more operational. → Harmonisation of tools in Europe has been promoted. - Abstract: The 5-year multi-national project EURANOS (European Approach to Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management and Rehabilitation Strategies), funded by the European Commission and 23 European Member States, started in April 2004. Integrating 17 national emergency management organisations with 33 research institutes, it brings together best practices, knowledge and technology to enhance the preparedness for Europe's response to any radiation emergency and long term contamination. Key objectives of the project are to collate information on the likely effectiveness and consequences of a wide range of countermeasures, to provide guidance to emergency management organisations and decision makers on the establishment of an appropriate response strategy and to further enhance advanced decision support systems (DSS), in particular, RODOS (Real-time On-line Decisions Support) decision support system), through feedback from their operational use. Further, the project aims to create regional initiatives leading to information exchange based on state-of-the-art information technologies, to develop guidance which assists Member States in developing a framework for the sustainable rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated areas and to maintain and enhance knowledge and competence through emergency exercises, training and education, thus fostering best practice in emergency response. The project is divided into three major research activities and a set of demonstration projects which are split in two phases lasting over two and three years, respectively. The research activities address specific issues previously identified by the users or by previous research in the area. They are focused

  20. Report about decontamination and follow-up of Cesium-137 radiation victims at the FEBEM unit in Goiania; Relato de participacao e a experiencia adquirida no tratamento de descontaminacao e acompanhamento de radioacidentados com Cesio-137 na Unidade FEBEM de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambises, P.B.S.; Sanchez, A.S.; Almeida, C.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The acquired experience and the facts related to treatment and external decontamination of contaminated people of the primary group of the Goiania accident are reported. This group was sent to Unidade FEBEM from October 10 to December 20, 1987. The external decontamination methods and the observed results obtained by daily monitoring reports are presented. Furthermore, the applied methodology to release people or to ask them for further periodical check ups at the radiological control units is also presented. (author) 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Design and implementation of wireless dose logger network for radiological emergency decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is implemented in Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for providing guidance for emergency decision making in case of an inadvertent nuclear accident. Real time gamma dose rate measurement around the stack is used for estimating the radioactive release rate (source term) by using inverse calculation. Wireless gamma dose logging network is designed, implemented, and installed around the Madras Atomic Power Station reactor stack to continuously acquire the environmental gamma dose rate and the details are presented in the paper. The network uses XBee–Pro wireless modules and PSoC controller for wireless interfacing, and the data are logged at the base station. A LabView based program is developed to receive the data, display it on the Google Map, plot the data over the time scale, and register the data in a file to share with DSS software. The DSS at the base station evaluates the real time source term to assess radiation impact.

  2. Design and implementation of wireless dose logger network for radiological emergency decision support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2016-08-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is implemented in Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for providing guidance for emergency decision making in case of an inadvertent nuclear accident. Real time gamma dose rate measurement around the stack is used for estimating the radioactive release rate (source term) by using inverse calculation. Wireless gamma dose logging network is designed, implemented, and installed around the Madras Atomic Power Station reactor stack to continuously acquire the environmental gamma dose rate and the details are presented in the paper. The network uses XBee-Pro wireless modules and PSoC controller for wireless interfacing, and the data are logged at the base station. A LabView based program is developed to receive the data, display it on the Google Map, plot the data over the time scale, and register the data in a file to share with DSS software. The DSS at the base station evaluates the real time source term to assess radiation impact.

  3. Medical response in the initial phase of a radiological or nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, M.; Perez, M.R.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.; Malvicini, M.

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of radiological and nuclear accidents is low with relationship to another type of have an accident, but the use of radioactive sources has been increased in the finish decades. Additionally, a growing world concern exists by the eventual use of radioactive material with malevolent ends. These facts put in relevance the necessity to have an appropriate preparation for the medical answer in this type of emergencies. The medical answer consists of different phases: Initial: pre-hospital and in local general hospitals; Intermediate: in local general hospitals and central reference hospitals. Late: in central reference hospitals and the pursuit to long term. The presence of conventional injuries (radio combined injuries) modifies in substantial form the assignment in the priority of the attention, the prediction and the evolution. The establishment of an appropriate triage is outstanding in the initial phase. The present communication approaches the early medical answer, sustained in the anamnesis, the chronology and severity of the symptoms and prodromal signs besides the laboratory results and complementary exams arisen during the first ones 24 to 72 hours. (Author)

  4. Dose - Response Curves for Dicentrics and PCC Rings: Preparedness for Radiological Emergency in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rungsimaphorn, B.; Rerkamnuaychoke, B.; Sudprasert, W.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing in-vitro dose calibration curves is important for reconstruction of radiation dose in the exposed individuals. The aim of this pioneering work in Thailand was to generate dose-response curves using conventional biological dosimetry: dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay. The peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated with 137 Cs at a dose rate of 0.652 Gy/min to doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Gy for DCA technique, and 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy for PCC technique. The blood samples were cultured and processed following the standard procedure given by the IAEA with slight modifications. At least 500-1,000 metaphases or 100 dicentrics/ PCC rings were analyzed using an automated metaphase finder system. The yield of dicentrics with dose was fitted to a linear quadratic model using Chromosome Aberration Calculation Software (CABAS, version 2.0), whereas the dose-response curve of PCC rings was fitted to a linear relationship. These curves will be useful for in-vitro dose reconstruction and can support the preparedness for radiological emergency in the country.

  5. Management of a radiological emergency. Experience feedback and post-accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiau, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    In France, the organization of crisis situations and the management of radiological emergency situations are regularly tested through simulation exercises for a continuous improvement. Past severe accidents represent experience feedback resources of prime importance which have led to deep changes in crisis organizations. However, the management of the post-accident phase is still the object of considerations and reflections between the public authorities and the intervening parties. This document presents, first, the nuclear crisis exercises organized in France, then, the experience feedback of past accidents and exercises, and finally, the main aspects to consider for the post-accident management of such events: 1 - Crisis exercises: objectives, types (local, national and international exercises), principles and progress, limits; 2 - Experience feedback: real crises (major accidents, other recent accidental situations or incidents), crisis exercises (experience feedback organization, improvements); 3 - post-accident management: environmental contamination and people exposure, management of contaminated territories, management of populations (additional protection, living conditions, medical-psychological follow up), indemnification, organization during the post-accident phase; 4 - conclusion and perspectives. (J.S.)

  6. Design and implementation of wireless dose logger network for radiological emergency decision support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B. [Radiation Impact Assessment Section, Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2016-08-15

    A decision support system (DSS) is implemented in Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for providing guidance for emergency decision making in case of an inadvertent nuclear accident. Real time gamma dose rate measurement around the stack is used for estimating the radioactive release rate (source term) by using inverse calculation. Wireless gamma dose logging network is designed, implemented, and installed around the Madras Atomic Power Station reactor stack to continuously acquire the environmental gamma dose rate and the details are presented in the paper. The network uses XBee–Pro wireless modules and PSoC controller for wireless interfacing, and the data are logged at the base station. A LabView based program is developed to receive the data, display it on the Google Map, plot the data over the time scale, and register the data in a file to share with DSS software. The DSS at the base station evaluates the real time source term to assess radiation impact.

  7. Dealing with at-risk populations in radiological/nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.

    2009-01-01

    In a mass casualty event, there will be at-risk populations that will require unique triage, treatment and consequence management to minimise immediate and long-term health effects. This statement is particularly true for radiological/nuclear (R/N) disasters where individuals exhibit a broad range of physiological responses to radiation exposure. For example, immunocompromised individuals will experience more detrimental radiation health effects; however, it is not always possible to definitively identify these individuals at the time of triage. Immediate and long-term consequence management for these individuals may require unique and potentially limited resources. Thus, at the time of an R/N event, it is crucial to assist community planners by: (a) rapidly identifying at-risk individuals who may have been exposed; (b) determining the dose and individual-specific health risks associated with radiation exposure; (c) identifying additional resources needed to deal with unique, population-specific requirements; and (d) developing treatment strategies in keeping with the rules of 'supply and demand'. A comprehensive approach to identifying issues relevant to the R/N emergency preparedness for dealing with at-risk populations will be discussed with the aim of defining future research objectives. (authors)

  8. Radiology imaging delays as independent predictors of length of hospital stay for emergency medical admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournane, S; Conway, R; Creagh, D; Byrne, D G; Sheehy, N; Silke, B

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the extent to which the time to completion for computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound could be shown to influence the length of stay and costs incurred while in hospital, while accounting for patient acuity. All emergency admissions, totalling 25,326 imaging investigations between 2010-2014 were evaluated. The 50(th), 75(th), and 90(th) centiles of completion times for each imaging type was entered into a multivariable truncated Poisson regression model predicting the length of hospital stay. Estimates of risk (odds or incidence rate ratios [IRRs]) of the regressors were adjusted for acute illness severity, Charlson comorbidity index, chronic disabling disease score, and sepsis status. Quantile regression analysis was used to examine the impact of imaging on total hospital costs. For all imaging examinations, longer hospital lengths of stay were shown to be related to delays in imaging time. Increased delays in CT and MRI were shown to be associated with increased hospital episode costs, while ultrasound did not independently predict increased hospital costs. The magnitude of the effect of imaging delays on episode costs were equivalent to some measures of illness severity. CT, MRI, and ultrasound are undertaken in patients with differing clinical complexity; however, even with adjustment for complexity, the time delay in a more expeditious radiological service could potentially shorten the hospital episode and reduce costs. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization aspects of the ARAC real-time radiological emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.S.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1985-07-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory responds to radiological emergencies throughout the Continental United States. Using complex three-dimensional dispersion models to account for the effects of complex meteorology and regional terrain, ARAC simulates the release of radioactive materials and provides dispersion, deposition, and dose calculations that are displayed over local geographic features for use by authorities at the accident/release site. ARAC's response is ensured by a software system that (1) makes optimal use of dispersion models, (2) minimizes the time required to provide projections, and (3) maximizes the fault-tolerance of the system. In this paper we describe ARAC's goals and functionality and the costs associated with its development and use. Specifically, we address optimizations in ARAC notifications, meteorological data collection, the determination of site- and problem-specific parameters, the generation of site-specific topography and geography, the running of models, and the distribution of ARAC products. We also discuss the backup features employed to ensure ARAC's ability to respond

  10. System-Level Process Change Improves Communication and Follow-Up for Emergency Department Patients With Incidental Radiology Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccei, Steven J; Chinai, Sneha A; Reznek, Martin; Henderson, Scott; Reynolds, Kevin; Brush, D Eric

    2018-04-01

    The appropriate communication and management of incidental findings on emergency department (ED) radiology studies is an important component of patient safety. Guidelines have been issued by the ACR and other medical associations that best define incidental findings across various modalities and imaging studies. However, there are few examples of health care facilities designing ways to manage incidental findings. Our institution aimed to improve communication and follow-up of incidental radiology findings in ED patients through the collaborative development and implementation of system-level process changes including a standardized loop-closure method. We assembled a multidisciplinary team to address the nature of these incidental findings and designed new workflows and operational pathways for both radiology and ED staff to properly communicate incidental findings. Our results are based on all incidental findings received and acknowledged between November 1, 2016, and May 30, 2017. The total number of incidental findings discovered was 1,409. Our systematic compliance fluctuated between 45% and 95% initially after implementation. However, after overcoming various challenges through optimization, our system reached a compliance rate of 93% to 95%. Through the implementation of our new, standardized communication system, a high degree of compliance with loop closure for ED incidental radiology findings was achieved at our institution. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Method for developing arrangements for response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. Updating IAEA-TECDOC-953. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: October 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    In 1997 the IAEA compiled, consolidated and organized existing information, and published the TECDOC-953 'Method for Development of Emergency Response Preparedness for Nuclear or Radiological Accidents'. Subsequently this publication was used extensively by the IAEA for training and for evaluation of emergency response programmes. In November 1999 a technical committee meeting (TCM) with representatives of over 20 States reviewed and provided feedback on IAEA-TECDOC-953. In March 2002, the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Safety Requirements publication, 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', jointly sponsored by seven international organizations, which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State. The IAEA General Conference in resolution GC(46)/RES/9 encouraged Member States to implement, if necessary, instruments for improving their own preparedness and response capabilities for nuclear and radiological incidents and accidents, including their arrangements for responding to acts involving the malicious use of nuclear or radioactive material and to threats of such acts, and has further encouraged them to implement the Safety Requirements for Preparedness and Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. The obligations, responsibilities and requirements for preparedness and response for radiation emergencies are set out in the safety standards, in particular the 1996 'International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources'. Consensus information on relevant radiation protection criteria was established in 1994 and published in 'Intervention Criteria in a Nuclear or Radiation Emergency'. Several other guides and publications in the area of emergency preparedness and response had previously been issued. The present publication now being issued in the Emergency Preparedness and

  12. Study on Generic Intervention Levels for Protecting the Public in a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, E. F.; Sordi, G. M. A. A.; Rodrigues, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of radioactive material can be released to the environment in a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. In these cases, social and economical factors should be considered in the actions for protecting the public and to recover the environment, as these actions may affect not only the exposed individuals but also the society as a whole, because of the social impact and high costs. In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, published the radiological protection principles for intervention criteria in accident situations involving radioactive materials, as well as numeric values for the generic intervention levels, GIL, for the main countermeasures for protecting the public. These GIL values were selected to achieve broadly the maximum net benefit in many accident situations and, nowadays, those principles still represent the international consensus about this matter. On the other hand, the economic differences between countries can lead the optimization process to get GIL values that are quite different from those recommended. In this context, the monetary value of unit collective averted dose, called alpha-value, is a key element for the determination of the GIL. In this work, the method recommended by the IAEA, based on the human capital approach, was used to estimate the alpha-value for Brazil and the value of US$ 3268 per person-sievert was obtained, considering the year 2000 prices. The per capita costs of the countermeasures for protecting the public, as sheltering, evacuation, temporary relocation and permanent resettlement, were estimated and the cost-benefit analysis technique was applied to estimate the respective GIL applicable in the country. Some of the results for the GILs were smaller than those internationally recommended, even the alpha-value being about six times lower than the alpha-value considered by the IAEA. These results were discussed and they were also compared to values estimated by a similar study accomplished

  13. Establishment of exposure dose assessment laboratory in National Radiation Emergency Medical Center (NREMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Ryong; Ha, Wi Ho; Yoon, Seok Won; Han, Eun Ae; Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    As unclear industry grown, 432 of the nuclear power plants are operating and 52 of NPPs are under construction currently. Increasing use of radiation or radioisotopes in the field of industry, medical purpose and research such as non-destructive examination, computed tomography and x-ray, etc. constantly. With use of nuclear or radiation has incidence possibility for example the Fukushima NPP incident, the Goiania accident and the Chernobyl Nuclear accident. Also the risk of terror by radioactive material such as Radiological Dispersal Device(RDD) etc. In Korea, since the 'Law on protection of nuclear facilities and countermeasure for radioactive preparedness was enacted in 2003, the Korean institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences(KIRAMS) was established for the radiation emergency medical response in radiological disaster due to nuclear accident, radioactive terror and so on. Especially National Radiation Emergency Medical Center(NREMC) has the duty that is protect citizens from nuclear, radiological accidents or radiological terrors through the emergency medical preparedness. The NREMC was established by the 39-article law on physical protection of nuclear material and facilities and measures for radiological emergencies. Dose assessment or contamination survey should be performed which provide the radiological information for medical response. For this reason, the NREMC establish and re-organized dose assessment system based on the existing dose assessment system of the NREMC recently. The exposure dose could be measured by physical and biological method. With these two methods, we can have conservative dose assessment result. Therefore the NREMC established the exposure dose assessment laboratory which was re-organized laboratory space and introduced specialized equipment for dose assessment. This paper will report the establishment and operation of exposure dose assessment laboratory for radiological emergency response and discuss how to enhance

  14. Generic Procedures for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency at Triga Research Reactors. Attachment 1 (2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The publication provides guidance for response to emergencies at TRIGA research reactors in Threat Category II and III. It contains information on the unique behaviour of TRIGA fuel during accident conditions; it describes design characteristics of TRIGA research reactors and provides specific symptom-based emergency classification for this type of research reactor. This publication covers the determination of the appropriate emergency class and protective actions for a nuclear or radiological emergency at TRIGA research reactors. It does not cover nuclear security at TRIGA research reactors. The term 'threat category' is used in this publication as described in Ref. [6] and for the purposes of emergency preparedness and response only; this usage does not imply that any threat, in the sense of an intention and capability to cause harm, has been made in relation to facilities, activities or sources. The threat category is determined by an analysis of potential nuclear and radiological emergencies and the associated radiation hazard that could arise as a consequence of those emergencies. STRUCTURE. The attachment consists of an introduction which defines the background, objective, scope and structure, two sections covering technical aspects and appendices. Section 2 describes the characteristics of TRIGA fuel in normal and accident conditions. Section 3 contains TRIGA research reactor specific emergency classification tables for Threat Category II and III. These tables should be used instead of the corresponding emergency classification tables presented in Ref. [1] while developing the emergency response arrangements at TRIGA research reactors. The appendices present some historical overview and typical general data for TRIGA research reactor projects and the list of TRIGA installations around the world. The terms used in this document are defined in the IAEA Safety Glossary and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors.

  15. The nuclear medicine department in the emergency management plan: a referent structure for the nuclear and radiological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Lesgourgues, P.; Zamaron, S.; Boulard, G.

    2006-01-01

    Each french public or private hospital has to establish guidelines for an immediate response to mass casualties (Emergency Management Plan or 'White' Plan). For a nuclear accident or terrorist attack, the staff of the Nuclear Medicine Department may be adequately prepared and equipped. This paper presents the nuclear and radiological risks section of the final draft of the White Plan developed at Bordeaux University Hospital. (author)

  16. Development of a Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring Network for Emergency Response at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldo, N; Hunter, S; Fertig, R; Laguna, G; MacQueen, D

    2004-01-01

    A real-time radiological sensor network for emergency response was developed and deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring (RTRAM) network is comprised of 16 Geiger-Mueller (GM) sensors positioned on the LLNL Livermore site perimeter to continuously monitor for a radiological condition resulting from a terrorist threat to site security and the health and safety of LLNL personnel. The RTRAM network sensor locations coincide with wind sector directions to provide thorough coverage of the one square mile site. These loW--power sensors are supported by a central command center (CCC) and transmit measurement data back to the CCC computer through the LLNL telecommunications infrastructure. Alarm conditions are identified by comparing current data to predetermined threshold parameters and are validated by comparison with plausible dispersion modeling scenarios and prevailing meteorological conditions. Emergency response personnel are notified of alarm conditions by automatic radio and computer based notifications. A secure intranet provides emergency response personnel with current condition assessment data that enable them to direct field response efforts remotely. The RTRAM network has proven to be a reliable system since initial deployment in August 2001 and maintains stability during inclement weather conditions

  17. Development of a national doctrine for the management of the post-accident phase of a radiological emergency situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, J.Ch.; Godet, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    For several years, public Authorities have defined an organization for the management of emergency situations arising from an accident occurring at a nuclear installation. So far, the management of the risk arising from the post accident phase was, in itself, not explored with the same care. What so ever, no format policy on which the action of public Authority could be based is today available. The nuclear safety Authority (ASN), in relation with the other concerned departments, is now in charge, according to the above mentioned directive, to prepare and implement the necessary provisions to respond to a post accident situation. In dune 2005, ASN established the steering committee for the management of post nuclear or radiological emergency situations (CODIRPA). The definition of a national policy related to the management of the radiological risk during a post event situation having to integrate various organization aspects as: lifting of protection emergency provisions and rehabilitation of buildings, life in contaminated rural territories, agriculture and water, dose and radiological consequences, sanitary surveillance of victims and populations, indemnification, waste management of contaminated crops and soils, organization of public Authorities. During the 2. phase of CODIRPA work (2008-2009), the first elements of policy will be consolidated and new scenarios will be studied (one worsened scenario and one scenario with alpha emitting radionuclide). in parallel, a procedure for local actor's consultation should be elaborated. (authors)

  18. The Role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in a Response to Nuclear and Radiological Incidents and Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglova, E.; Baciu, F., E-mail: E.Buglova@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in a response to nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies has been defined and further expanded through the IAEA Statute, the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, IAEA safety standards, relevant decisions by Policy Making Organs of the IAEA, inter-agency agreements and other documents such as the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. The IAEA Secretariat fulfils its roles through the Agency's Incident and Emergency System (IES) and the Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC). The IEC is the global focal point for international preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological safety or security related incidents, emergencies, threats or events of media interest and for coordination of International assistance. During a response the IEC performs and facilitates for Member States many specific functions which include: prompt notification; official information exchange; assessment of potential consequences; prognosis of emergency progression; provision, facilitation and coordination of International assistance; provision of timely, accurate and easily understandable public information; coordination of inter-agency response at the International level. Through officially designated contact points of Member States the IEC is able to communicate at any time with national authorities to ensure the prompt and successful sharing of information and resources. The IEC routinely performs internal exercising of all aspects of the IAEA response and in cooperation with Member States, the IAEA organizes and facilitates the conduct of large scale international exercises to practice cooperation and coordination. This presentation outlines in detail the specific functions of the IAEA IEC during a response. (author)

  19. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d’Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  20. Psychological intervention in medical preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Cuiping; Liu, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Although the incidence rate of nuclear or radiological accident and their terror attack is very low, their influence is tremendous because of the unexpected of their occurrence and uncertainty of their damage degree. An attack involving the release of radiation will create uncertainty, fear, and terror. Therefore, the management of acute psychological and behavioral responses is likely to be as important and challenging as the treatment of radiation-related injuries and illnesses. In this paper, we introduce the principle of psychological intervention at the preparation stage and during and after emergency. At the preparation stage, people should be educated by various means to prevent them from the impact of accident. When accident happens, effective action should be taken immediately to reduce the psychological influence. Special groups such as children and pregnant women must be considered. Furthermore, we analyze the symptom of different groups including victims, the public and responders and put forward the methods to prevent and treat psychological damage. After radiation accident, victims who have been exposed or anticipate possible exposure may experience feelings of vulnerability, anxiety, and lack of control. The most important element is providing good medical care. Moreover, communication between patients and their family is very important too. The public in the affected community is likely to be anxious and terrified. Trusted and informed leadership should be assigned to give psychological support in counselling center established at monitoring and evacuation centers. Government must be honest in communication with public and media. Responders have to perform their duty under stressful condition. Some of them are unable to deal with such stress could develop mental health problems such as post traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse or depression. Protective clothing and dosimeters must be provided to ensure responders' safety. Moreover

  1. Objectives and actions of Public Health Authorities in external radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera V, L.; Aguilar P, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Here are discussed actions and objectives that the public health authorities could think about uncontrolled liberation of radioactive materials. The approaches on the more convenient actions to continue are established upon assimilating the Chernobyl experience. We will enumerate problems that, they could arise with the foregone actions in order to diminish the population detriment. In the face of the uncontrolled liberation of radioactive material in the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, Veracruz, classified like external radiological emergency, the objective of these serious authorities reduce the deleterious effect to the health of the inhabitants around the CNLV, due to the radioactive material liberated to the atmosphere. In consequence, it is necessary carry out actions of protection for the population affected directly by the external irradiation, for the contamination deposited on inhabited areas, cultivation zones, shepherding, manufacturing and farms. The early actions or immediate are in order to limit deterministic damages to the population and give attendance to people with radio lesions. And the intermediate or they of recuperation are in order to maintain for under an acceptable value the risk to the population due to radiation stochastic effects. In the recuperation phase the plan of water and foods control should consider: foods destined to the self consume in the affected region for the liberation and foods processed for the sale or exportation. We will discuss the stage in a mediate phase after the evacuation of the population. The general tasks could be: 1. Actions in order to impede the contamination propagation. 2. Sampling of waters and foods, contamination situation and its quantification. And acceptance quality in elaborated foods. 3. Safeguard of the material and polluted areas. 4. Election of the actions to continue in function of the reference levels and the comparison of the risk of several alternatives. (Author)

  2. Development of an integrated system for evaluation of environmental radiologic impact during emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Luiz Fernando de Carvalho

    2002-03-01

    An integrated system for performing environmental dose assessment after nuclear or radiological emergencies has been developed, as a tool for decision making process. The system includes databases such as those describing radionuclide decay, dose conversion factors for several environmental geometries and radionuclides with emitted radiation and energies. It includes several models for predicting environmental behaviour at the short,medium and long terms, for both rural and urban environments and is flexible enough for simulating the exposure of members of the public due to small accidents involving individual sources up to large scale nuclear accidents with complex source terms to the environment. The model has been built in a way that can perform assessment of actual exposures or make forecasts for future exposure based on dynamic simulation of the fate of radionuclides in environmental and potential exposure pathways to members of the public, taking into account he kind of contaminated environment and the age groups of exposed persons. Input data may come from a predicted source term or information on environmental concentration based on dispersion models or on environmental measurements, including on line monitoring systems, environmental surveys, direct measurements by in situ gamma spectrometry or analysis of environmental samples. Outputs of the model are dose estimates to members of the public as a function of the exposure pathway, time after the contamination and age group, for different groups of members of the public and kind of use of the environment. Time dependent kerma rates in air and concentrations in environmental compartments such as soil and foodstuff are also available, including the simulation of the effect of protective measures, to support the decision making process. (author)

  3. Radiological accident of cesium-137 in brazil activities of surveillance and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a serious radiological accident occurred in Goiania, Brazil. Four inhabitants died and about 250 persons were internally or externally contaminated with 137 Cs released from a removed and then broken source vessel. In this report, outline of the accident and, activities on surveillance of contamination and works for decontamination are described. (author)

  4. General medical and related aspects of the Goiania accident, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de; Brandao-Melo, C.E.; Hunt, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent radiation accident occurred in the city of Goiania, central area of Brazil, approximately 250 people were exposed to a 137Cs source from a radiotherapy unit abandoned in a amedical clinic in that city. At least twelve patients showed some degree of bone marrow depression, from which eight developed the classical signs and symptoms of Acute radiation Syndrome (ARS). 28 people presented local radiation burns ranging from first to third degree. Around 100 people showed evidences of internal contamination due to the dissemination of the source powder. The authors describe the circumstances of the event, the first-aid measures taken at place, the criteria adopted during the triage of victims and the radiation protection procedures used during the management and treatment of the irradiated individuals. (author) [pt

  5. JRODOS system: a modern and efficient tool for the management and preparation of nuclear and radiological emergencies and rehabilitation. Implementation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Dvirzhark, A.; Acero, A.; Gallego Diaz, E.

    2011-01-01

    JRODOS system is revealed as an efficient, flexible and user-approved at European level to assist in the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies and the subsequent rehabilitation of contaminated environments, both at the national response in the first phase emergence as a regional / local level in emergency preparedness and recovery environment with the help of the social partners concerned.

  6. Soil sampling in emergency situations; Amostragem de solos em situacoes de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ramos Junior, Anthenor Costa [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Licenciamento e Controle

    1997-12-31

    The soil sampling methods used in Goiania`s accident (1987) by the environmental team of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are described. The development of this method of soil sampling to a emergency sampling method used in a Nuclear Emergency Exercise in Angra dos Reis Reactor Site (1991) is presented. A new method for soil sampling based on a Chernobyl environmental monitoring experience (1995) is suggested. (author) 15 refs.

  7. Build-up forces at Military Institute of Medical Radiology and Oncology for emergency medical response to some eventualities of radiological accidents - some suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Van Cu; Nguyen Huu Nghia

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of various nuclear sources in some fields of the life has brought many practical advantages in general; especially in the next several years, our country will begin construction of the first nuclear plant. However, if there were user carelessness or objective disadvantageous factors (earthquake, tsunami, etc.), that disadvantages could lead to a radiation accident or nuclear accident which causes damages not only for economy but also for public health. Therefore, the emergency response to radiation accident, especially the emergency medical response that has a great important position. To satisfy this real demand, in 1996, Vietnam Ministry of Defence made the decision to establish Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protecting (now becomes Military Institute of Medical Radiology and Oncology) with the main missions are research, applying radiation protecting methods and organizing treatments to radiation injured victims. To fulfill above main missions, with the help of Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VAEI), Vietnam Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (VARANS), the doctors and staffs of our Institute have been participated in the international training courses and workshops that organized in Vietnam or in regional countries about emergency medical response to radiation accidents, they get valuable information, knowledge and documents from these courses and workshops. Depending on the principles of radiation emergency medical response to nuclear/ radiation accidents that International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guided, and with the experience learned from other countries in Asia region, our Institute have been gradually improving on organization and curing processes for the radiation victims and also setting the preparedness for emergency medical response to radiation accidents if maybe they could occur. (author)

  8. Emergency response guidance for the first 48 hours after the outdoors detonation of an explosive radiological dispersal device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Frederick Taylor; Musolino, Stephen V.

    2006-01-01

    Strategies and decisions to protect emergency responders, the public, and critical infrastructure against the effects of a radiological dispersal device detonated outdoors must be made in the planning stage, not in the early period just after an attack. This contrasts with planning for small-scale types of radiological or nuclear emergencies, or for a large-scale nuclear-power-type accident that evolves over many hours or days before radioactivity is released to the environment, such that its effects can be prospectively modeled and analyzed. By the time it is known an attack has occurred, most likely there will have been casualties, all the radioactive material will have been released, plume growth will be progressing, and there will be no time left for evaluating possible countermeasures. This paper offers guidance to planners, first responders, and senior decision makers to assist them in developing strategies for protective actions and operational procedures for the first 48 hours after an explosive radiological dispersal device has been detonated

  9. Results of the radiologic emergencies response in the state of Sao Paulo during the last five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Suzuki, Fabio F.; Nicolau, Jose R.A.; Rodrigues, Demerval L.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation is often associated with bombs, diseases, and destruction rather than with the many benefits of nuclear technology that are present in the daily life. The radiation risk symbol still frightens the population. In addition, small risks related to nuclear area are overestimated. So, when there is a radiological accident, a prompt response is necessary because some of its major deleterious impacts are not quantified just in terms of radiation dose, but they are related to the risk perceived, and in many cases, wrong information or just lack of information induces fear or anxiety. In case of unusual situations involving radiation sources in Sao Paulo State, the people can contact IPEN-CNEN/SP Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Team by telephone. The objective of this paper is to show the results obtained in the last five years. In this period, there were 89 calls. About half of those calls were performed by intervening organizations, as Fire Department or Civil Defense. Most of the situations presented low potential risks and some did not involve radiation sources. The results indicate that arrangements should be made for training the intervening organization personnel, which usually are the first ones that arrive at the emergency scene, in fundamentals of radiological protection, including both theoretical and practical aspects. Moreover, major efforts should be intended to divulge and clarify the public about the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, focusing the safety requirements and the regulatory control over the radiation sources. (author)

  10. Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.

    2006-04-01

    In order to manage various nuclear or radiological emergencies the authorities must have pre-prepared plans. The purpose of the NKS project EMARAD (Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents) was to produce and gather various data and information that could be useful in drawing up emergency plans and radiation monitoring strategies. One of the specific objectives of the project was to establish a www site that would contain various radiation-threat and radiation-monitoring related data and documents and that could be accessed by all Nordic countries. Other important objectives were discussing various factors affecting measurements in an emergency, efficient use of communication technology and disseminating relevant information on such topics as urban dispersion and illicit use of radiation. The web server is hosted by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) of Finland. The data stored include pre-calculated consequence data for nuclear power plant accidents as well as documents and presentations describing e.g. general features of monitoring strategies, the testing of the British urban dispersion model UDM and the scenarios and aspects related to malicious use of radiation sources and radioactive material. As regards the last item mentioned, a special workshop dealing with the subject was arranged in Sweden in 2005 within the framework of the project. (au)

  11. Emergency Management and Radiation Moni-toring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    In order to manage various nuclear or radiological emergencies the authorities must have pre-prepared plans. The purpose of the NKS project EMARAD (Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents) was to produce and gather various data and information that could be useful in drawing up emergency plans and radiation monitoring strategies. One of the specific objectives of the project was to establish a www site that would contain various radiation-threat and radiation-monitoring related data and documents and that could be accessed by all Nordic countries. Other important objectives were discussing various factors affecting measurements in an emergency, efficient use of communication technology and disseminating relevant information on such topics as urban dispersion and illicit use of radiation. The web server is hosted by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) of Finland. The data stored include pre-calculated consequence data for nuclear power plant accidents as well as documents and presentations describing e.g. general features of monitoring strategies, the testing of the British urban dispersion model UDM and the scenarios and aspects related to malicious use of radiation sources and radioactive material. As regards the last item mentioned, a special workshop dealing with the subject was arranged in Sweden in 2005 within the framework of the project. (au)

  12. Intervention in radiological emergency situations - the missions of the French fire brigades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordan, D.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive risks listed in France are: the use of sources in industry, education, research and medical environment, transport, by railways and road, of radioactive sources, and, of course, nuclear installations September 11. brought to attention the possible consequences of a hostile act using radioactive sources. The radiological units, created in 1980, are teams of 7 firemen able to cope with and overcome an incident or an accident of a radioactive nature. According to the level of responsibility, there are 4 levels of competency. Experience is essential to these small teams. The radioactivity engine has numerous materials, in particular radioactivity detectors, adapted for each specific task within the assignments of the C.M.I.R.: marking out of the irradiant and contaminated zones, search for sealed sources, search for contamination in the soiled zone, contamination inspection of persons. There are two radioactive engine in the County of the Yvelines: the first one is a C.M.I.R., the second one is radioactive support engine with: a photon spectrometry lab, a dosimetry headquarters, a decontamination unit. Some fire brigades have been equipped with decontamination units insuring the treatment of twenty contaminated people per hour. This year, we tested the contamination unit with radioactive contamination three times. The technetium 99 m has a half life of six hours. Contaminated victims were dummies. We gained much logical knowledge from these experiments and as a result have revised our operational doctrine and techniques: by example, to gain time in decontamination operation, it is necessary to undress contaminated people precociously, even the shower will be deferred, it is impossible to evaluate good decontamination, in the third part of the unit of account of count rate (doctrine says it is the right place), without special stretcher, who do not fixed contamination, without remove the soiled water tanks, decontamination will take a long time, then it

  13. Emergency radiology and mass casualty incidents-report of a mass casualty incident at a level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Ferdia; Linnau, Ken; Mitchell, Steve; Roberge, Eric; Nguyen, Quynh; Robinson, Jeffrey; Lehnert, Bruce; Gross, Joel

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this article are to describe the events of a recent mass casualty incident (MCI) at our level 1 trauma center and to describe the radiology response to the event. We also describe the findings and recommendations of our radiology department after-action review. An MCI activation was triggered after an amphibious military vehicle, repurposed for tourist activities, carrying 37 passengers, collided with a charter bus carrying 45 passengers on a busy highway bridge in Seattle, WA, USA. There were 4 deaths at the scene, and 51 patients were transferred to local hospitals following prehospital scene triage. Nineteen patients were transferred to our level 1 trauma center. Eighteen casualties arrived within 72 min. Sixteen arrived within 1 h of the first patient arrival, and 1 casualty was transferred 3 h later having initially been assessed at another hospital. Eighteen casualties (94.7 %) underwent diagnostic imaging in the emergency department. Of these 18 casualties, 15 had a trauma series (portable chest x-ray and x-ray of pelvis). Whole-body trauma computed tomography scans (WBCT) were performed on 15 casualties (78.9 %), 12 were immediate and performed during the initial active phase of the MCI, and 3 WBCTs were delayed. The initial 12 WBCTs were completed in 101 min. The mean number of radiographic studies performed per patient was 3 (range 1-8), and the total number of injuries detected was 88. The surge in imaging requirements during an MCI can be significant and exceed normal operating capacity. This report of our radiology experience during a recent MCI and subsequent after-action review serves to provide an example of how radiology capacity and workflow functioned during an MCI, in order to provide emergency radiologists and response planners with practical recommendations for implementation in the event of a future MCI.

  14. Arrangements for preparedness for a nuclear or radiological emergency. Safety guide (Spanish Edition); Disposiciones de preparacion para emergencias nucleares o radiologicas. Guia de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and available results of research relating to response to such emergencies. The primary objectives of this Safety Guide, co-sponsored by FAO, OCHA, ILO, PAHO and WHO, are to provide guidance on preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, to describe appropriate responses to a range of emergencies, and to provide background information on past experience, thus helping the user to better implement arrangements that address the underlying issues.

  15. Role of the IAEA's ALMERA network in harmonization of analytical procedures applicable worldwide for radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitois, A.; Osvath, I.; Tarjan, S.; Groening, M.; Osborn, D.; )

    2016-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coordinates and provides analytical support to the worldwide network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA), consisting at the end of 2015 of 154 laboratories in 85 countries. This network, established by the IAEA in 1995, has for aim to provide timely and reliable measurement results of environmental radioactivity in routine monitoring and emergency situations. The IAEA supports the ALMERA laboratories in their routine and emergency response environmental monitoring activities by organizing proficiency tests and inter-laboratory comparison exercises, developing validated analytical procedures for environmental radioactivity measurement, and organizing training courses and workshops. The network also acts as a forum for sharing knowledge and expertise. The aim of this paper is to describe the current status of ALMERA analytical method development activities for radiological emergencies and the plans for further development in the field

  16. Computerized follow-up of discrepancies in image interpretation between emergency and radiology departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, E; Groleau, G; Reiner, B; Stair, T

    1998-08-01

    Radiographs are ordered and interpreted for immediate clinical decisions 24 hours a day by emergency physicians (EP's). The Joint Commission for Accreditation of Health Care Organizations requires that all these images be reviewed by radiologists and that there be some mechanism for quality improvement (QI) for discrepant readings. There must be a log of discrepancies and documentation of follow up activities, but this alone does not guarantee effective Q.I. Radiologists reviewing images from the previous day and night often must guess at the preliminary interpretation of the EP and whether follow up action is necessary. EP's may remain ignorant of the final reading and falsely assume the initial diagnosis and treatment were correct. Some hospitals use a paper system in which the EP writes a preliminary interpretation on the requisition slip, which will be available when the radiologist dictates the final reading. Some hospitals use a classification of discrepancies based on clinical import and urgency, and communicated to the EP on duty at the time of the official reading, but may not communicate discrepancies to the EP's who initial read the images. Our computerized radiology department and picture archiving and communications system have increased technologist and radiologist productivity, and decreased retakes and lost films. There are fewer face-to-face consultants of radiologists and clinicians, but more communication by telephone and electronic annotation of PACS images. We have integrated the QI process for emergency department (ED) images into the PACS, and gained advantages over the traditional discrepancy log. Requisitions including clinical indications are entered into the Hospital Information System and then appear on the PACS along with images on readings. The initial impression, time of review, and the initials of the EP are available to the radiologist dictating the official report. The radiologist decides if there is a discrepancy, and whether it

  17. The blue drama: narratives of the victim's suffering of Cesium-137 radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar

    2014-01-01

    This research presents a dramatic approach to the Cesium-137 Radiological Event. The event, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The ethnography’s output follows a theoretical experiment with the notions of drama and event. In order to better understand the pattern of this event, I analyzed narratives such as romances, arts, photographs, news, documentaries, films, academic bibliography and stories that emerged from the research field. I argue that the narratives politicize the discourses of victimization and the suffering experience. The dramatic form of narratives and symbols concentrates on emotions and promotes the emotional commitment of the subjects on the trial. The drama articulates the relationship between the narratives and the event and creates a tactful space that arouses the recognition of victims through the narrative form and the suffering language. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. (author)

  18. Assessing the gap in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology: trends over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kristopher; Ramonas, Milita; Patlas, Michael; Katz, Douglas S

    2017-12-01

    To examine trends in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology from January 1994 to December 2014. We obtained institutional review board approval for our study. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 1617 articles published in the journal Emergency Radiology over a 20-year period. Original articles, case reports, review articles, and pictorial essays were included. The first and last position author's gender was categorized as female or male. We analyzed trends by comparing the first and last position authors of original articles from the first and last year reviewed. We utilized Chi-square test for statistical analysis, with a p value gender of 96% of the authors. Overall, female authors were 21% of first position authors (290 of 1368) and 15% of last position authors (183 of 1246). Thirty-two percent of articles with female last position authors also had female first position authors (58 of 183). There was a statistically significant increase in female last position authors, from 12.9% in 1994 to 21.3% in 2014 (p = 0.026), a non-significant increase in female first position authors, from 17.5% in 1994 to 20.9% in 2014 (p = 0.514), and a non-significant increase in articles with both a first and last female author, from 25% in 1994 to 35% in 2014 (p = 0.593). Over the last 20 years, there has been a statistically significant upward trend in female last position authors publishing in the journal Emergency Radiology.

  19. Report About a New Standard for Radiation Protection Training of Intervention Persons. In the Case of Radiological emergency Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geringer, T.; Steurer, A.; Schmitzer, C.

    2004-01-01

    In autumn 2003 the Austrian standard OENORM S 5207 with the title R adiation protection training of intervention persons in the case of radiological emergency situations w ill be published. The standard is directed to persons who have to invent in case of a radiological emergency, security forces and as well training centres. The standard has to fulfil three objectives: 1. Regulation of the minimum requirements for the radiation protection training and education of intervention persons. 2. Harmonization of the radiation protection and training of different security forces, for instance Austrian army, Red Cross Austria, Fire Department, Police Department. 3. Mutual recognition of parts of the education between the different security forces. To fulfil these aims the standard is structured in different education modules. If , for instance, a person attended a special training module at the Austrian military, this part of the education is also valid for a career at the Fire Department. Further the modular structure of the education gives the possibility for persons of a special security force to attend one or more modules at another security force. This will lead to an improved cooperation between the different security forces in case of a radiological emergency situation. The education is structured in four levels. The topics of the standard are: 1. Requirements for training centres 2. Guidelines for the examinations of the candidates 3. Topics and goals of the basic education 4. Topics and goals of the advanced education level one 5. Topics and goals of the advanced education level two 6. Topics and examples of specialised education 7. Obligatory further education once every year. (Author)

  20. Emergency control center of the nuclear Regulatory Authority: a national, regional and international tool to coordinate the response to radiological and nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Osvaldo; Hernandez, Daniel; Telleria, Diego; Bruno, Hector; Boutet, Luis; Kunst, Juan; Sadaniowski, Ivana; Rey, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the year 1998, with the regulation of the Nuclear Law, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) is constituted as the national coordinator of the response in case of nuclear or radiological emergencies. The ARN builds his first operative center installed in his Head quarter in Buenos Aires. Likewise, from the obligations that come with the Convention of Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, the ARN is the National Warning Point and the National Competent Authority. Therefore, the operative capacity of the center needs to be expanded to cover not only the national territory but also its link with the region and the IAEA, as an access point to the International community, as the conventions demand. For the purpose of giving ARN capacities which reflect the state of art at the international level on Nuclear Emergency Centers and warrant that its equipment and technology will be compatible with those abroad (mainly with IAEA), the ARN made an arrangements with Department of Energy of United States, in the framework of an existing bilateral Argentine Foreign Office/US Government agreement (Joint Standing Committee on Nuclear Cooperation). This agreement allows a deep experience exchange, high level specialists support and last generation equipment access. As a result, the center of ARN can be considerate as the most advanced civil nuclear emergency center in the region. This work describes the implementation process of the emergency center and the technical features, like the physical distribution, hardware and software resources, communication equipment, Geographic Information Systems, etc. (author)

  1. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, F.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  2. Industrial accidents in radiological controlled areas: the importance of radiation protection in the organisation of the emergency aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenolland, J.L.; Laporte, E.

    2003-01-01

    After some disappointments when the first French nuclear units were started, it became clear that all the aspects linked to radio-protection needed to be taken into account in the context of emergency aid in the case of an industrial accident in radiological controlled area. In the case of an accident involving people, on-site first aid is provided by permanent services of the power plant. These teams are trained in first aid and fire-fighting. They are well trained in radioprotection. The specificity of an industrial event in controlled zone is that the victims' conventional injuries, whether it be a wound, a burn or a fracture, can be complicated by radioactive contamination. If it is justified, the exterior emergency services (firemen and medical teams) sire immediately called in. These teams are not necessarily trained in radioprotection. (authors)

  3. Criteria for Use in Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    This Safety Guide presents a coherent set of generic criteria (expressed numerically in terms of radiation dose) that form a basis for developing the operational levels needed for decision making concerning protective and response actions. The set of generic criteria addresses the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 for emergency preparedness and response, including lessons learned from responses to past emergencies, and provides an internally consistent foundation for the application of principles of radiation protection. The publication also provides a basis for a plain language explanation of the criteria for the public and for public officials. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Basic considerations; 3. Framework for emergency response criteria; 4. Guidance values for emergency workers; 5. Operational criteria; Appendix I: Dose concepts and dosimetric quantities; Appendix II: Examples of default OILs for deposition, individual contamination and contamination of food, milk and water; Appendix III: Development of EALs and example EALs for light water reactors; Appendix IV: Observables on the scene of a radiological emergency.

  4. Criteria for Use in Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide presents a coherent set of generic criteria (expressed numerically in terms of radiation dose) that form a basis for developing the operational levels needed for decision making concerning protective and response actions. The set of generic criteria addresses the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 for emergency preparedness and response, including lessons learned from responses to past emergencies, and provides an internally consistent foundation for the application of radiation protection. The publication also proposes a basis for a plain language explanation of the criteria for the public and for public officials. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Basic considerations; 3. Framework for emergency response criteria; 4. Guidance values for emergency workers; 5. Operational criteria; Appendix I: Dose concepts and dosimetric quantities; Appendix II: Examples of default oils for deposition, individual monitoring and contamination of food, milk and water; Appendix III: Development of EALs and example EALs for light water reactors; Appendix IV: Observables at the scene of a nuclear or radiological emergency

  5. Criteria for Use in Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Guide (Russian Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide presents a coherent set of generic criteria (expressed numerically in terms of radiation dose) that form a basis for developing the operational levels needed for decision making concerning protective and response actions. The set of generic criteria addresses the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 for emergency preparedness and response, including lessons learned from responses to past emergencies, and provides an internally consistent foundation for the application of radiation protection. The publication also proposes a basis for a plain language explanation of the criteria for the public and for public officials. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Basic considerations; 3. Framework for emergency response criteria; 4. Guidance values for emergency workers; 5. Operational criteria; Appendix I: Dose concepts and dosimetric quantities; Appendix II: Examples of default oils for deposition, individual monitoring and contamination of food, milk and water; Appendix III: Development of EALs and example EALs for light water reactors; Appendix IV: Observables at the scene of a nuclear or radiological emergency.

  6. Determination of the cesium distribution coeficient in Goiania and Abadia de Goias cities soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.; Suarez, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    In September, 1987, an unauthorized removal of a cesium-therapy unit and its violation caused an accident, where several places of Goiania's city, capital of Goias, Brazil, were contaminated. The removal of the radioactive wastes generated from decontamination process, was made to Abadia de Goias's city (near Goiania), where an interim storage was constructed. Soil samples collected from the 57 th Street (Goiania) and from the interim storage permitted to determine, through static method, the cesium distribution coefficient for different cesium solution concentrations. Those results allows for some migration/retention evaluations in disposal site selection. Some soils parameters (water content, density, granulometric analysis etc) as well as clay minerals constituents were also determined. (author) [pt

  7. Determination of the cesium distribution coefficient in Goiania and Abadia de Goias cities soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.; Suarez, A.A.

    1989-10-01

    In September, 1987, an unauthorized removal of a cesium-therapy unit and its violation caused an accident, where several places of Goiania's city, capital of Goias, Brazil, were contaminated. The removal of the radioactive wastes generated from decontamination process, was made to Abadia de Goias city (near Goiania), where an interim storage was constructed. Soil samples collected from the 57 th Street (Goiania) and from the interim storage permitted to determine, through static method, the cesium distribution coefficent for different cesium solution concentrations. Those results allows for some migration/retention evaluations in disposal site selection. Some soils parameters (water content, density, granulometric analysis etc) as well as clay minerals constituents were also determined. (author) [pt

  8. Generic Procedures for Medical Response During a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this manual is to provide the medical community with practical guidance for medical emergency preparedness and response, describing the tasks and actions of different members of the national, regional or local medical infrastructure in accordance with international standards. This document provides generic response procedures for medical personnel responding to different types of radiation emergencies and at the different stages of the emergency response (at the scene of the emergency, pre-hospital, hospital), and during the early post-emergency stage (about 1-2 months afterwards).

  9. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents; Metodo para el desarrollo de la preparacion de la respuesta a emergencias nucleares o radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability.

  10. American National Standard: for radiological emergency-preparedness exercises for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The development of emergency plans and procedures should provide for testing and evaluating the emergency response organization and decision making processes. To test and evaluate emergency plans and procedures, realistic scenarios should be used for drills or exercises. Emergency exercises are training activities that require a substantial effort to plan and coordinate effectively. The exercise trains personnel who would be expected to participate in the emergency response. Emergency exercises should be conducted as realistically as possible. Insofar as possible, the participants should not be notified in advance except where necessary to assure that the exercise will not cause injuries or property damage. A real emergency will naturally impart stress on emergency response personnel and their organizations. Exercises should be designed to duplicate this sense of stress insofar as practical. An important element of testing the emergency response is to ensure that provisions have been made for observation, evaluation, and critiquing each exercise. These evaluations and critiques should be used to improve and revise emergency plans and procedures where required

  11. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Jhonatha J.L.; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Oliveira, Lucas N. de; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, twenty five points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiania, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institution, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiania for all points. (author)

  12. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Jhonatha J.L.; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Oliveira, Lucas N. de [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás (IFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V. E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, twenty five points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiania, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institution, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiania for all points. (author)

  13. Radiological and nuclear emergency preparedness and response. How well are we prepared?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geick, Gunther H.G.; Herrmann, Andre R.; Koch, Doris; Meisenberg, Oliver; Rauber, Dominique; Stuerm, Rolf P.; Weiss, Wolfgang; Miska, Horst; Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The contributions to this topic are dealing, in a broad overview, with important aspects of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response, like the influence of the new ICRP recommendations number 103 and number 109 on emergency preparedness and on planning for response, possible problems in installing and operating emergency care centres, experience from exercises as well as the training of response personnel in Austria and Germany. Finally, measures in emergency preparedness with regard to a dirty bomb attack are reported by means of an INEX-4-exercise in Switzerland. (orig.)

  14. Environmental monitoring program for radiological emergencies at the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Plant, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Lilia M.J. Belem; Ramos Junior, Anthenor C.; Gomes, Carlos A.; Carvalho, Zenildo L.; Gouveia, Vandir; Estrada, Julio; Ney, Cezar [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    In order to respond to a major radiological emergency at the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Plant, located in Angra do Reis, Rio de Janeiro, the Emergency Response Team of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN) established a program of environmental monitoring. A monitoring trend to assess the off-site radiological conditions and give support to decision making for implementing protective measure in case of a radiological accident is presented. For the selection of the monitoring points, the program takes into account atmospheric diffusion, population conglomerates and their habits, water and land use; it includes the entire Emergency Planning Zone of 15 km radius. The program has been organized in the form of a handbook to facilitate handling by field teams 2 refs., 1 fig.; e-mail: lilia at ird.gov.br

  15. Goiania radiation accident: activities carried out and lessons learned based on personal experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Goiânia Radiological Accident, on September 13, 1987, with a radioactive source of cesium-137 with 50.9 TBq, used in radiotherapy, is one of the most important accidents in the scientific area, representing a milestone for all workers in the areas of radiation protection and radiological emergency that worked during the event. A personal view of the Goiânia Radiological Accident is presented, showing some activities carried out in contaminated areas and lessons learned based on own experience during the event

  16. Emergency radiology elective improves second-year medical students' perceived confidence and knowledge of appropriate imaging utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschied, Jessica R; Knoepp, Ursula S; Hoff, Carrie Nicole; Mazza, Michael B; Klein, Katherine A; Mullan, Patricia B; Kelly, Aine M

    2013-09-01

    Given recent advances in and wider availability of complex imaging, physicians are expected to understand imaging appropriateness. We introduced second-year medical students to the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria (ACR-AC) in an interactive case-based elective to demonstrate their use in imaging for common emergency department clinical complaints. Prospective pre- and post-test design assessed second-year medical students' performance on case-based knowledge applications and self-assessed confidence related to ACR-AC guidelines compared to second-year students participating in a different concurrent radiology elective. Students participated in a 3-day elective covering the ACR-AC, comparative effective imaging, and risks associated with imaging radiation exposure, with outcomes of perceived confidence using a 5-point Likert scale and knowledge of ACR-AC using case-based multiple choice questions. Analysis included computing mean scores and assessing effect sizes for changes in knowledge. Before the elective, 24 students scored an average of 3.45 questions correct of 8 (43.1%). On course completion, students scored an average of 5.3 questions correct of the same questions (66.3%) (P .85; effect size = 0.008). Students' confidence in ordering appropriate imaging improved nearly 2-fold from a range of 1.9 to 3.2 (on a scale of 1.0 to 5.0) to a range of 3.7 to 4.5. Following a short radiology elective, second-year medical students improved their knowledge of appropriate image utilization and perceived awareness of the indications, contraindications, and effects of radiation exposure related to medical imaging. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. DAE emergency response centre (ERC) at Kalpakkam for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies in public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshisundaram, V.; Rajagopal, V.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Subramanian, V.; Rajaram, S.; Somayaji, K.M.; Kannan, V.; Rajagopalan, H.

    2008-01-01

    In India, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has been identified as the nodal agency/authority in respect of providing the necessary technical inputs in the event of any radiation emergency that may occur in public domain. The overall system takes into consideration statutory requirements, executive decisions as well as National and International obligations. This paper highlights the details about the strength of the Kalpakkam ERC and other essential requisites and their compliance since its formation

  18. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl available in Nigeria for use as accident dosimeter in radiological emergency situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Ayobami Ademola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to assess and quantify radiation dose to the population. This could be done using materials in the vicinity that are sensitive to ionizing radiation. Common salt (NaCl is known to be a sensitive thermoluminescence (TL phosphor. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl used in Nigeria were investigated using an automated luminescence reader Risø TL/OSL-DA-15, with attention focused more on the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL. Strong radiation-induced TL and OSL signals were observed. The TL peaks occurred at about 100 °C, 240 °C and 280 °C. The dose response of both the TL and OSL signals showed a linear relationship. From the OSL pulse anneal curve with TL curve, a preheat temperature of 190 °C for 10 s was found adequate for the OSL measurements. There was no significant difference in the OSL decay for stimulation temperatures of 100 and 120 °C. Fading experiment over a storage period of 14 days showed about 13 and 3% decrease in the OSL signal of sample 1 and sample 2, respectively. The ratios of measured to given dose for dose recovery test were within ±19% of unity. Within the limit of error the samples could be used as a complementary emergency dosimeter in radiological accident situation.

  19. Workshop on the first response in a radiological emergency. Contaminated food. Tabletop exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a fire emergency. A terrorist group steal important documents from a meat plant because they suspected that the packaged were illegal and had contamination signs. A fire occurs suspiciously and the plant has to be evacuated. The first responder have to know who are the actors involved in the fire emergency

  20. Medical response guide for the initial phase of a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Marina A.; Perez, Maria del R.

    2007-01-01

    In case of a sanitary emergency, the local community and its health care system are the first aid providers. Therefore, preparedness through education and training programs would allow emergency systems to provide an appropriate first medical response. The main objective of this guide is to give basic guidelines for the medical response management after situations involving radioactive materials, in an easy and simple way. The information contained in this guide is addressed to health care personnel of any local assistance center. (author) [es

  1. Decision Tree and Survey Development for Support in Agricultural Sampling Strategies during Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Amelia Lee Zhi; Dercon, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    In the event of a severe nuclear or radiological accident, the release of radionuclides results in contamination of land surfaces affecting agricultural and food resources. Speedy accumulation of information and guidance on decision making is essential in enhancing the ability of stakeholders to strategize for immediate countermeasure strategies. Support tools such as decision trees and sampling protocols allow for swift response by governmental bodies and assist in proper management of the situation. While such tools exist, they focus mainly on protecting public well-being and not food safety management strategies. Consideration of the latter is necessary as it has long-term implications especially to agriculturally dependent Member States. However, it is a research gap that remains to be filled.

  2. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs

  3. EURANOS. Generic handbook for assisting in the management of contaminated food production systems in Europe following a radiological emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Howard, B.J.; Jones, A.

    production sectors and others who may be affected. The handbook is a living document that requires updating from time to time to remain state-of-the-art and customisation of the generic handbook is an essential part of its use within individual countries. The handbook includes management options......The handbook for food production systems has been developed as a result of a series of UK and European initiatives involving a wide range of stakeholders. It is aimed at national and local authorities, central government departments and agencies, radiation protection experts, agriculture and food...... for application in the pre-release, emergency and longer term phases of an incident. Sources of contamination considered in the handbook are nuclear accidents, radiological dispersion devices and satellite accidents. Agricultural and domestic food production systems are considered, including the gathering of free...

  4. Summary of principles for intervention in food and drinking water in a radiological emergency developed by several international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 it became clear that the guidelines on the management of the consequence of a nuclear accident were needed for action over long time scales and for dealing with the widespread radioactive contamination that affected many countries at distances far from the accident site. One of the major difficulties in area away from the site of a nuclear accident concerns decisions on the safety of contaminated food and drinking water. International organizations, ICRP, IAEA, WHO and several other organizations, have considered it appropriate to develop guidelines to assist national authorities in making decisions on the control of food in the event of widespread contamination by radionuclides in a radiological emergency. These guidelines and the recommendations for intervention in food and drinking water by WHO, ICRP and CEC are summarized, and the considerations and problems to adopt the guidelines are proposed in this paper. (author)

  5. HYSPLIT's Capability for Radiological Aerial Monitoring in Nuclear Emergencies: Model Validation and Assessment on the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gunhyo; Kim, Juyoul; Shin, Hyeongki

    2007-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident took place on 25 April 1986 in Ukraine. Consequently large amount of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The release was a widespread distribution of radioactivity throughout the northern hemisphere, mainly across Europe. A total of 31 persons died as a consequence of the accident, and about 140 persons suffered various degrees of radiation sickness and health impairment in the acute health impact. The possible increase of cancer incidence has been a real and significant increase of carcinomas of the thyroid among the children living in the contaminated regions as the late health effects. Recently, a variety of atmospheric dispersion models have been developed and used around the world. Among them, HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model developed by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)/ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) is being widely used. To verify the HYSPLIT model for radiological aerial monitoring in nuclear emergencies, a case study on the Chernobyl accident is performed

  6. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Spanish Edition); Comunicacion con el publico en caso de emergencia nuclear o radiologica. Preparacion y respuesta en caso de emergenicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  7. Analysis of bacterial contamination on surface of general radiography equipment and CT equipment in emergency room of radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dong Hee; KIm, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We aim to offer basic materials about infection management through conducting bacterial contamination test about general radiography equipment and CT equipment installed in ER of three general hospitals with 100 sickbeds or more located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, and suggest management plan. It had been conducted from 1st December 2015 to 31st December, and objects were general radiography equipment and CT equipment of emergency room located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province. For general radiography equipment, sources were collected from 4 places such as upper side of control box which employees use most, upper side of exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, upper side of stand bucky's grid, and where patients put their jaws on. For CT equipment, sources were collected from 3 places such as upper side of control box which radiography room employees use most, X-ray exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, and gantry inner. Surface contamination strain found at general radiography equipment in emergency room of radiology are Providencia stuartii(25%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia(18%), Enterobacter cloacae(8%), Pseudomonas species(8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis(8%), Gram negative bacilli(8%), and ungrown bacteria at incubator after 48 hours of incubation (67%) which is the biggest. Most bacteria were found at upper side of stand bucky-grid and stand bucky of radiology's general radiography equipment, and most sources of CT equipment were focused at patient table, which means it is contaminated by patients who have various diseases, and patients who have strains with decreased immunity may get severe diseases. Thus infection prevention should be made through 70% alcohol disinfection at both before test and after test.

  8. Analysis of bacterial contamination on surface of general radiography equipment and CT equipment in emergency room of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Dong Hee; KIm, Hyeong Gyun

    2016-01-01

    We aim to offer basic materials about infection management through conducting bacterial contamination test about general radiography equipment and CT equipment installed in ER of three general hospitals with 100 sickbeds or more located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, and suggest management plan. It had been conducted from 1st December 2015 to 31st December, and objects were general radiography equipment and CT equipment of emergency room located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province. For general radiography equipment, sources were collected from 4 places such as upper side of control box which employees use most, upper side of exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, upper side of stand bucky's grid, and where patients put their jaws on. For CT equipment, sources were collected from 3 places such as upper side of control box which radiography room employees use most, X-ray exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, and gantry inner. Surface contamination strain found at general radiography equipment in emergency room of radiology are Providencia stuartii(25%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia(18%), Enterobacter cloacae(8%), Pseudomonas species(8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis(8%), Gram negative bacilli(8%), and ungrown bacteria at incubator after 48 hours of incubation (67%) which is the biggest. Most bacteria were found at upper side of stand bucky-grid and stand bucky of radiology's general radiography equipment, and most sources of CT equipment were focused at patient table, which means it is contaminated by patients who have various diseases, and patients who have strains with decreased immunity may get severe diseases. Thus infection prevention should be made through 70% alcohol disinfection at both before test and after test

  9. Victims of Chernobyl and Goiania with the same symptoms of Aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, P.; Ladislau, W.

    1991-01-01

    Some consequences of the Goiania nuclear accident are discussed, including the serious injuries and the lack of resources towards the victims and the construction of a final repository. The study of the pollucite in natura, that can cause diseases due to natural radiation is also mentioned. 6 figs

  10. Final report of aerial surveying team of the Goiania City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, P.M.C.; Simoes, E.

    1987-10-01

    The results of the aeroradiometric survey using an helicopter, in Goiania City, Brazil, to localize focus of radioactive contamination due an accidental rupture of a capsule of Cs-137 source, are presented. The system of radiometric measurements consisted of two portable gamma spectrometers, two NaI(Tl) detectors and a graphic register. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Decision-Making Risks Concerning the Construction of the Goiania Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Rozental, J.J.; Tranjan Filho, A.

    2001-01-01

    As it is well known, an accident with a teletherapy source made of 137 CsCl with an initial activity of 59 TBq occurred in Goiania, in September of 1987. This paper will discuss the decision-making process, and the struggle that followed the decision to build the final repository for the remnants of the Goiania accident. The Goiania final repository was built as planned. The two subsurface structures under the grassy artificial hills hold the overall volume of the remnants of the Goiania accident. The near hill holds 5x10 3 m3 of stabilized wastes without radioactivity, or with very low radioactivity. The far hill holds the remaining 6.5x10 3 m 3 of stabilized wastes with low and medium radioactivity. The central part of each subsurface hill has been shielded by wastes with less and less radioactivity. The overall fenced area occupies 1.85x10 5 m 2 . The external radiation levels are similar to the surrounding background, and much lower than those found in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity. The site is permanently monitored by independent institutions, including Brazilian universities, and national and international organizations. As it was mentioned earlier, the final repository was build to last for at least 400 years. Although the initial decision to adopt a too conservative decontamination criterion in the case of the Goiania accident was bound to produce excessive amount of waste; such decision proved, retrospectively, not to be bad because the excess low radioactive waste produced was used as extra shielding material in final repository. The technical decision-maker should not abandon risk estimates, but should be aware that credibility is the main basis to achieve acceptability of a decision by the general public. Risk perception should be regarded as only a first step towards what may be called knowledge, or comprehension of risk estimates, but risk perception by the general public is still an open issue. The problem of a fixed, or near

  12. Decision-Making Risks Concerning the Construction of the Goiania Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoa, A.S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rozental, J.J. [Ministry of Environment (Israel); Tranjan Filho, A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    As it is well known, an accident with a teletherapy source made of {sup 137}CsCl with an initial activity of 59 TBq occurred in Goiania, in September of 1987. This paper will discuss the decision-making process, and the struggle that followed the decision to build the final repository for the remnants of the Goiania accident. The Goiania final repository was built as planned. The two subsurface structures under the grassy artificial hills hold the overall volume of the remnants of the Goiania accident. The near hill holds 5x10{sup 3} m3 of stabilized wastes without radioactivity, or with very low radioactivity. The far hill holds the remaining 6.5x10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of stabilized wastes with low and medium radioactivity. The central part of each subsurface hill has been shielded by wastes with less and less radioactivity. The overall fenced area occupies 1.85x10{sup 5} m{sup 2}. The external radiation levels are similar to the surrounding background, and much lower than those found in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity. The site is permanently monitored by independent institutions, including Brazilian universities, and national and international organizations. As it was mentioned earlier, the final repository was build to last for at least 400 years. Although the initial decision to adopt a too conservative decontamination criterion in the case of the Goiania accident was bound to produce excessive amount of waste; such decision proved, retrospectively, not to be bad because the excess low radioactive waste produced was used as extra shielding material in final repository. The technical decision-maker should not abandon risk estimates, but should be aware that credibility is the main basis to achieve acceptability of a decision by the general public. Risk perception should be regarded as only a first step towards what may be called knowledge, or comprehension of risk estimates, but risk perception by the general public is still an open issue. The

  13. Survey of state and tribal emergency response capabilities for radiological transportation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardo, F J; Mitter, E L; Palmer, J A; Briggs, H C; Fesenmaier, J [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1990-05-01

    This publication is the final report of a project to survey the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and selected Indian Tribal jurisdictions to ascertain their emergency-preparedness planning and capabilities for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. The survey was conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies with information concerning the current level of emergency-response preparedness of the states and selected tribes and an assessment of the changes that have occurred since 1980. There have been no major changes in the states' emergency-response planning strategies and field tactics. The changes noted included an increased availability of dedicated emergency-response vehicles, wider availability of specialized radiation-detection instruments, and higher proportions of police and fire personnel with training in the handling of suspected radiation threats. Most Indian tribes have no capability to evaluate suspected radiation threats and have no formal relations with emergency-response personnel in adjacent states. For the nation as a whole, the incidence of suspected radiation threats declined substantially from 1980 to 1988. 58 tabs.

  14. UME in the nuclear and radiological emergencies; UME ante las emergencias nucleares y radiológicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armada, C.J.; Martín, J.M.

    2015-07-01

    This article begins with a general overview of the Military Emergencies Unit (UME) which allows the reader to learn about their missions and capabilities as well as the historical background of its creation. Later we will focus on the composition, resources and capabilities of the Emergency Intervention Group and Environment al Technology (GIETMA), which is the specialized unit of the UME for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies, focusing on its radiation detection and identification equipment. Next we will explain the importance of the collaboration agreement with the CSN, which has allowed the cession of materials to establish an Environmental Mobile Unit in the UME, the training of technical staff and the support in the selection of radiological equipment provided to the GIETMA. This collaboration will also seek to reach an agreement with UNESA that will allow the support of the UME in all of the Spanish NPP’s Emergency Plans. Finally, an assessment of the current state of the UME will be conducted to support interventions in nuclear and radiological emergencies. [Spanish] En este artículo se comenzará con una presentación general de la Unidad Militar de Emergencias (UME) que permita al lector conocer sus misiones y capacidades, así como los antecedentes históricos de su creación. Posteriormente nos centraremos en la composición, medios y capacidades del Grupo de Intervención en Emergencias Tecnológicas y Medioambientales (GIETMA), que es la Unidad especializada de la UME para intervención en emergencias nucleares y radiológicas, haciendo hincapié en los equipos de detección e identificación radiológica con los que está dotado. Se explicará la mportancia que ha tenido el convenio de colaboración con el CSN, con la cesión de los materiales necesarios para establecer una Unidad Móvil Ambiental en la UME, la formación técnica del personal y su apoyo en la elección de los equipos radiológicos con los que se ha dotado al GIETMA. También se

  15. The Ability of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center to Collect and Disseminate Environmental Measurements during Radiological Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marianno, Craig; Essex, James

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is the United States response organization for radiological emergencies. The FRMAC is structured as an operations center and employs the combined resources of several federal agencies to respond to any disaster resulting in the release of radioactivity. The mission of the FRMAC is to support state and local authorities in the gathering of environmental data using an array of survey equipment ranging from alpha probes, beta/gamma probes, and high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectroscopy to the gathering of physical samples. Once collected, the data are projected on maps to assist public officials make protective action decisions. In addition to the accumulation of data, it is the legal obligation of the FRMAC to keep archival records of all data points and their actions. During an event, it is conceivable that hundreds to thousands of sample points will be recorded over a relatively short time. It is in the interest of the federal government and public that the information collected be put to the best use as fast as possible. Toward this end, the Remote Sensing Laboratory, working under the direction of the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, is investigating the use of several technologies that will accelerate data flow from field teams to the FRMAC and, finally, distribution of data to decision makers and the public. Not only can finished data products be viewed through the internet, but the actual collection of data via 'real-time' telemetry can be viewed using this same method. Data from the field will be transferred directly to the FRMAC using the MCPD (multi-path communication device). This base station receives the survey information from the field teams via Bluetooth and instantly investigates the best communication pathway to transfer data to the FRMAC. Possible paths include standalone radio, commercial cellular networks (GPRS and CDMA) and satellite

  16. European approach to nuclear and radiological emergency management and rehabilitation strategies (EURANOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    2007-01-01

    The 5-year multi-national project EURANOS, funded by the European Commission and 23 European Member States, started in April 2004. Integrating 17 national emergency management organisations with 33 research institutes, it brings together best practice, knowledge and technology to enhance the preparedness for Europe's response to any radiation emergency and long-term contamination. Key objectives of the project are to collate information on the likely effectiveness and consequences of a wide range of countermeasures, to provide guidance to emergency management organisations and decision makers on the establishment of an appropriate response strategy and to further enhance advanced decision support systems, in particular, RODOS (Real-time On-Line DecisiOn Support), through feedback from their operational use. The research activities focused on emergency actions and countermeasures, the enhancement of decision support systems for operational application and the development of strategies for the sustainable rehabilitation of contaminated territories. The demonstration activities exercise the developed methods and tools in the actual operational environment. (orig.)

  17. Use of radiological accident experience in establishing appropriate perspectives in emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Moeller, D.W.; Stephan, J.G.

    1987-08-01

    Within a nuclear facility, an emergency can range from a situation that only involves the employees of that facility to a series of events that have both onsite and offsite consequences. Analyses of nuclear and non-nuclear emergencies can provide valuable information on the causes of, as well as the problems encountered during emergencies. Reports on facility emergencies indicate that up to 90% involve human error. Such events occur more frequently during the night shifts or on weekends. These occurrences may result from the absence of experienced personnel as well as the reduced alertness of onsite personnel. Therefore, this paper emphasizes the human element in a review of accidents that have occurred at nuclear facilities including Windscale, SL-1, the Recuplex criticality, the Wood River Junction criticality, the Browns Ferry fire, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl. These accidents are described, and their consequences are evaluated. The information obtained from these evaluations may be useful for inclusion in nuclear plant operating and testing procedures. 21 refs

  18. Emergency Response Equipment and Related Training: Airborne Radiological Computer System (Model II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Colton

    2007-02-28

    The materials included in the Airborne Radiological Computer System, Model-II (ARCS-II) were assembled with several considerations in mind. First, the system was designed to measure and record the airborne gamma radiation levels and the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates, and to provide a first overview look of the extent and severity of an accident's impact. Second, the portable system had to be light enough and durable enough that it could be mounted in an aircraft, ground vehicle, or watercraft. Third, the system must control the collection and storage of the data, as well as provide a real-time display of the data collection results to the operator. The notebook computer and color graphics printer components of the system would only be used for analyzing and plotting the data. In essence, the provided equipment is composed of an acquisition system and an analysis system. The data can be transferred from the acquisition system to the analysis system at the end of the data collection or at some other agreeable time.

  19. Emergency Response Equipment and Related Training: Airborne Radiological Computer System (Model II) user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David P. Colton

    2007-01-01

    The materials included in the Airborne Radiological Computer System, Model-II (ARCS-II) were assembled with several considerations in mind. First, the system was designed to measure and record the airborne gamma radiation levels and the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates, and to provide a first overview look of the extent and severity of an accident's impact. Second, the portable system had to be light enough and durable enough that it could be mounted in an aircraft, ground vehicle, or watercraft. Third, the system must control the collection and storage of the data, as well as provide a real-time display of the data collection results to the operator. The notebook computer and color graphics printer components of the system would only be used for analyzing and plotting the data. In essence, the provided equipment is composed of an acquisition system and an analysis system. The data can be transferred from the acquisition system to the analysis system at the end of the data collection or at some other agreeable time

  20. The NKS-B Programme for Nordic cooperation on nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness, including measurement strategies, radioecology and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Leino, Kaisu; Magnússon, Sigurður M.

    2014-01-01

    The NKS platform for Nordic cooperation and competence maintenance in nuclear and radiological safety comprises two parallel programmes: the NKS-R programme on nuclear reactor safety and the NKS-B programme on emergency preparedness. This paper introduces the NKS-B programme and its current...