WorldWideScience

Sample records for goes satellites

  1. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  2. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  3. New GOES satellite synchronized time code generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossler, D. E.; Olson, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The TRAK Systems' GOES Satellite Synchronized Time Code Generator is described. TRAK Systems has developed this timing instrument to supply improved accuracy over most existing GOES receiver clocks. A classical time code generator is integrated with a GOES receiver.

  4. NOAA GOES Geostationary Satellite Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOES-West Visible Current Full Disk Himawari 8 Visible Image Loop GOES-West AVN Infrared Current Full Disk Himawari 8 AVN Infrared Image Loop GOES-West Funktop Infrared Current Full Disk Himawari 8 Funktop Visible Image Loop Himawari-8 AVN Infrared Current Full Disk Himawari 8 AVN Infrared Image Loop Himawari-8

  5. The YORP effect on the GOES 8 and GOES 10 satellites: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja, Antonella A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Cognion, Rita L.; Ryan, William; Ryan, Eileen V.

    2018-01-01

    The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is a proposed explanation for the observed rotation behavior of inactive satellites in Earth orbit. This paper further explores the YORP effect for highly asymmetric inactive satellites. Satellite models are developed to represent the GOES 8 and GOES 10 satellites, both of which are currently inactive in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). A simple satellite model for the GOES 8 satellite is used to analyze the short period variations of the angular velocity and obliquity as a result of the YORP effect. A more complex model for the rotational dynamics of the GOES 8 and GOES 10 satellites are developed to probe their sensitivity and to match observed spin periods and states of these satellites. The simulated rotation periods are compared to observations for both satellites. The comparison between YORP theory and observed rotation rates for both satellites show that the YORP effect could be the cause for the observed rotational behavior. The YORP model also predicts a novel state for the GOES 8 satellite, namely that it could periodically fall into a tumbling rotation state. Recent observations of this satellite are consistent with this prediction.

  6. NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series provides continuous measurements of the atmosphere and surface over the Western Hemisphere....

  7. After 10 years of service, NOAA retires GOES-12 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOAA HOME WEATHER OCEANS FISHERIES CHARTING SATELLITES CLIMATE RESEARCH COASTS CAREERS National oceans. In addition to GOES, NOAA also operates the polar operational environmental satellite (POES spacecraft. NOAA's mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths

  8. GHRSST Level 2P West Atlantic Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-12 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  9. GHRSST Level 2P Eastern Pacific Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-11 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  10. The solar panels on the GOES-L satellite are deployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Loral workers at Astrotech, Titusville, Fla., check out the solar panels of the GOES-L weather satellite, to be launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) aboard an Atlas II rocket in late March. The GOES-L is the fourth of a new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It is a three-axis inertially stabilized spacecraft that will provide pictures and perform atmospheric sounding at the same time. Once launched, the satellite, to be designated GOES-11, will undergo checkout and provide backup capabilities for the existing, aging GOES East weather satellite.

  11. GHRSST Level 2P Western Atlantic Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-13 satellite (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  12. GHRSST Level 2P Central Pacific Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-15 satellite (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  13. Post launch calibration and testing of the Advanced Baseline Imager on the GOES-R satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebair, William; Rollins, C.; Kline, John; Todirita, M.; Kronenwetter, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United State's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first launch of the GOES-R series is planned for October 2016. The GOES-R series satellites and instruments are being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). One of the key instruments on the GOES-R series is the Advance Baseline Imager (ABI). The ABI is a multi-channel, visible through infrared, passive imaging radiometer. The ABI will provide moderate spatial and spectral resolution at high temporal and radiometric resolution to accurately monitor rapidly changing weather. Initial on-orbit calibration and performance characterization is crucial to establishing baseline used to maintain performance throughout mission life. A series of tests has been planned to establish the post launch performance and establish the parameters needed to process the data in the Ground Processing Algorithm. The large number of detectors for each channel required to provide the needed temporal coverage presents unique challenges for accurately calibrating ABI and minimizing striping. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on ABI over the six-month Post Launch Test period and the expected performance as it relates to ground tests.

  14. Chronology of the episode 54 eruption at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, from GOES-9 satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.J.L.; Keszthelyi, L.; Flynn, L.P.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Thornber, C.; Kauahikaua, J.; Sherrod, D.; Trusdell, F.; Sawyer, M.W.; Flament, P.

    1997-01-01

    The free availability of GOES satellite data every 15 minutes makes these data an attractive tool for studying short-term changes on cloud-free volcanoes in the Pacific basin. We use cloud-free GOES-9 data to investigate the chronology of the January 1997, episode 54 eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Seventy-six images for this effusive eruption were collected over a 60-hour period and show the opening and shutdown of active fissures, the draining and refilling of the Pu'u 'O'o lava lake, and the cessation of activity at the ocean entry. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Estimating and forecasting the precipitable water vapor from GOES satellite data at high altitude sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Julio C.; Pozo, Diana; Curé, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe a method to estimate the precipitable water vapor (PWV) from Geostationary Observational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data at high altitude sites. The method was applied at Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) and Cerro Toco sites, located above 5000 m altitude in the Chajnantor plateau, in the north of Chile. It was validated using GOES-12 satellite data over the range 0-1.2 mm since submillimeter/millimeter astronomical observations are only useful within this PWV range. The PWV estimated from GOES and the Final Analyses (FNL) at APEX for 2007 and 2009 show root mean square error values of 0.23 mm and 0.36 mm over the ranges 0-0.4 mm and 0.4-1.2 mm, respectively. However, absolute relative errors of 51% and 33% were shown over these PWV ranges, respectively. We recommend using high-resolution thermodynamic profiles from the Global Forecast System (GFS) model to estimate the PWV from GOES data since they are available every three hours and at an earlier time than the FNL data. The estimated PWV from GOES/GFS agrees better with the observed PWV at both sites during night time. The largest errors are shown during daytime. Short-term PWV forecasts were implemented at both sites, applying a simple persistence method to the PWV estimated from GOES/GFS. The 12 h and 24 h PWV forecasts evaluated from August to October 2009 indicates that 25% of them show a very good agreement with observations whereas 50% of them show reasonably good agreement with observations. Transmission uncertainties calculated for PWV estimations and forecasts over the studied sites are larger over the range 0-0.4 mm than over the range 0.4-1.2 mm. Thus, the method can be used over the latter interval with more confidence.

  16. Incorporating GOES Satellite Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Retrievals to Improve Biogenic Emission Estimates in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; White, Andrew T.; Pour Biazar, Arastoo; McNider, Richard T.; Cohan, Daniel S.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the influence of insolation and cloud retrieval products from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system on biogenic emission estimates and ozone simulations in Texas. Compared to surface pyranometer observations, satellite-retrieved insolation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) values tend to systematically correct the overestimation of downwelling shortwave radiation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The correlation coefficient increases from 0.93 to 0.97, and the normalized mean error decreases from 36% to 21%. The isoprene and monoterpene emissions estimated by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature are on average 20% and 5% less, respectively, when PAR from the direct satellite retrieval is used rather than the control WRF run. The reduction in biogenic emission rates using satellite PAR reduced the predicted maximum daily 8 h ozone concentration by up to 5.3 ppbV over the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) region on some days. However, episode average ozone response is less sensitive, with a 0.6 ppbV decrease near DFW and 0.3 ppbV increase over East Texas. The systematic overestimation of isoprene concentrations in a WRF control case is partially corrected by using satellite PAR, which observes more clouds than are simulated by WRF. Further, assimilation of GOES-derived cloud fields in WRF improved CAMx model performance for ground-level ozone over Texas. Additionally, it was found that using satellite PAR improved the model's ability to replicate the spatial pattern of satellite-derived formaldehyde columns and aircraft-observed vertical profiles of isoprene.

  17. Post launch calibration and testing of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on GOES-R satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafal, Marc; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 μs) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.

  18. Improving Satellite Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Using GOES-Retrieved Cloud Optical Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenz, Ronald; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Feng, Zhe; Kuligowski, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    To address significant gaps in ground-based radar coverage and rain gauge networks in the U.S., geostationary satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) such as the Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrievals (SCaMPR) can be used to fill in both the spatial and temporal gaps of ground-based measurements. Additionally, with the launch of GOES-R, the temporal resolution of satellite QPEs may be comparable to that of Weather Service Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) volume scans as GOES images will be available every five minutes. However, while satellite QPEs have strengths in spatial coverage and temporal resolution, they face limitations particularly during convective events. Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) have large cloud shields with similar brightness temperatures (BTs) over nearly the entire system, but widely varying precipitation rates beneath these clouds. Geostationary satellite QPEs relying on the indirect relationship between BTs and precipitation rates often suffer from large errors because anvil regions (little/no precipitation) cannot be distinguished from rain-cores (heavy precipitation) using only BTs. However, a combination of BTs and optical depth (τ) has been found to reduce overestimates of precipitation in anvil regions (Stenz et al. 2014). A new rain mask algorithm incorporating both τ and BTs has been developed, and its application to the existing SCaMPR algorithm was evaluated. The performance of the modified SCaMPR was evaluated using traditional skill scores and a more detailed analysis of performance in individual DCS components by utilizing the Feng et al. (2012) classification algorithm. SCaMPR estimates with the new rain mask applied benefited from significantly reduced overestimates of precipitation in anvil regions and overall improvements in skill scores.

  19. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES): R series hyperspectral environmental suite (HES) overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gene; Criscione, Joseph C.; Cauffman, Sandra A.; Davis, Martin A.

    2004-11-01

    The Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) instrument is currently under development by the NASA GOES-R Project team within the framework of the GOES Program to fulfill the future needs and requirements of the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Office. As part of the GOES-R instrument complement, HES will provide measurements of the traditional temperature and water vapor vertical profiles with higher accuracy and vertical resolution than obtained through current sounder technologies. HES will provide measurements of the properties of the shelf and coastal waters and back up imaging (at in-situ resolution) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The HES team is forging the future of remote environmental monitoring with the development of an operational instrument with high temporal, spatial and spectral-resolution and broad hemispheric coverage. The HES development vision includes threshold and goal requirements that encompass potential system solutions. The HES team has defined tasks for the instrument(s) that include a threshold functional complement of Disk Sounding (DS), Severe Weather/Mesoscale Sounding (SW/M), and Shelf and Coastal Waters imaging (CW) and a goal functional complement of Open Ocean (OO) imaging, and back up imaging (at in-situ resolution) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). To achieve the best-value procurement, the GOES-R Project has base-lined a two-phase procurement approach to the HES design and development; a Formulation/study phase and an instrument Implementation phase. During Formulation, currently slated for the FY04-05 timeframe, the developing team(s) will perform Systems Requirements Analysis and evaluation, System Trade and Requirements Baseline Studies, Risk Assessment and Mitigation Strategy and complete a Preliminary Conceptual Design of the HES instrument. The results of the formulation phase will be leveraged to achieve an effective and efficient system solution during

  20. Comparison of the simultaneous measurement results of SCR fluxes received by geostationary satellites 'Electro-L' and 'GOES'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakelov, A S; Burov, V A; Ochelkov, Y P

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper the comparison of the results of the simultaneous measurements of solar proton fluxes on board geostationary satellites 'GOES' and 'Electro' was made for the purpose of calibration of 'Electro-L' detectors and determination of the possibility to utilize 'Electro-L' data for space weather monitoring. It was shown that the solar proton observation data on board 'Electro-L' recalculated to energy thresholds of 'GOES' 10 and 30 MeV are in a good consistent with 'GOES' data and may be used for control of radiation conditions in near-earth space.

  1. Real-time new satellite product demonstration from microwave sensors and GOES-16 at NRL TC web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossuth, J.; Richardson, K.; Surratt, M. L.; Bankert, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Tropical Cyclone (TC) satellite webpage (https://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/TC.html) provides demonstration analyses of storm imagery to benefit operational TC forecast centers around the world. With the availability of new spectral information provided by GOES-16 satellite data and recent research into improved visualization methods of microwave data, experimental imagery was operationally tested to visualize the structural changes of TCs during the 2017 hurricane season. This presentation provides an introduction into these innovative satellite analysis methods, NRL's next generation satellite analysis system (the Geolocated Information Processing System, GeoIPSTM), and demonstration the added value of additional spectral frequencies when monitoring storms in near-realtime.

  2. Use of GOES, SSM/I, TRMM Satellite Measurements Estimating Water Budget Variations in Gulf of Mexico - Caribbean Sea Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system designed to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of 3ourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5-channel Imager, the TRMM TMI radiometer, and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometers (SSM/I) have been acquired for the combined Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology has been tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the TRMM and SSM/I passive microwave measurements in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, the intent is to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is validated by cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple- algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. A further check on the validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithms to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin, although it is fair to say that these checks are more effective m identifying problems in estimating vapor transports from a leaky operational radiosonde network than in verifying

  3. Prediction of daily fine particulate matter concentrations using aerosol optical depth retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A; Lee, Hyung Joo; Kostinski, Alex; Kotlov, Tanya; Koutrakis, Petros

    2012-09-01

    Although ground-level PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm) monitoring sites provide accurate measurements, their spatial coverage within a given region is limited and thus often insufficient for exposure and epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate location- and/or subject-specific exposures to PM2.5. In this study, the authors apply a mixed-effects model approach to aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) to predict PM2.5 concentrations within the New England area of the United States. With this approach, it is possible to control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM2.5 relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles, and ground surface reflectance. The model-predicted PM2.5 mass concentration are highly correlated with the actual observations, R2 = 0.92. Therefore, adjustment for the daily variability in AOD-PM2.5 relationship allows obtaining spatially resolved PM2.5 concentration data that can be of great value to future exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. The authors demonstrated how AOD can be used reliably to predict daily PM2.5 mass concentrations, providing determination of their spatial and temporal variability. Promising results are found by adjusting for daily variability in the AOD-PM2.5 relationship, without the need to account for a wide variety of individual additional parameters. This approach is of a great potential to investigate the associations between subject-specific exposures to PM2.5 and their health effects. Higher 4 x 4-km resolution GOES AOD retrievals comparing with the conventional MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 10-km product has the potential to capture PM2.5 variability within the urban domain.

  4. Phase Change Material for Temperature Control of Imager or Sounder on GOES Type Satellites in GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses phase change material (PCM) in the scan cavity of an imager or sounder on satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO) to maintain the telescope temperature stable. When sunlight enters the scan aperture, solar heating causes the PCM to melt. When sunlight stops entering the scan aperture, the PCM releases the thermal energy stored to keep the components in the telescope warm. It has no moving parts or bimetallic springs. It reduces heater power required to make up the heat lost by radiation to space through the aperture. It is an attractive thermal control option to a radiator with a louver and a sunshade.

  5. A calibrated, high-resolution goes satellite solar insolation product for a climatology of Florida evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, S.J.; Mecikalski, J.R.; Sumner, D.M.; Pathak, C.S.; Wu, Q.; Islam, S.; Sangoyomi, T.

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of incoming solar radiation (insolation) from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations have been produced for the state of Florida over a 10-year period (1995-2004). These insolation estimates were developed into well-calibrated half-hourly and daily integrated solar insolation fields over the state at 2 km resolution, in addition to a 2-week running minimum surface albedo product. Model results of the daily integrated insolation were compared with ground-based pyranometers, and as a result, the entire dataset was calibrated. This calibration was accomplished through a three-step process: (1) comparison with ground-based pyranometer measurements on clear (noncloudy) reference days, (2) correcting for a bias related to cloudiness, and (3) deriving a monthly bias correction factor. Precalibration results indicated good model performance, with a station-averaged model error of 2.2 MJ m-2/day (13%). Calibration reduced errors to 1.7 MJ m -2/day (10%), and also removed temporal-related, seasonal-related, and satellite sensor-related biases. The calibrated insolation dataset will subsequently be used by state of Florida Water Management Districts to produce statewide, 2-km resolution maps of estimated daily reference and potential evapotranspiration for water management-related activities. ?? 2009 American Water Resources Association.

  6. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products from the GOES-8 satellite spanning the 1987-1988 El Nino...

  7. IBM Demonstrates a General-Purpose, High-Performance, High-Availability Cloud-Hosted Data Distribution System With Live GOES-16 Weather Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, P. L.; Brown, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    IBM has created a general purpose, data-agnostic solution that provides high performance, low data latency, high availability, scalability, and persistent access to the captured data, regardless of source or type. This capability is hosted on commercially available cloud environments and uses much faster, more efficient, reliable, and secure data transfer protocols than the more typically used FTP. The design incorporates completely redundant data paths at every level, including at the cloud data center level, in order to provide the highest assurance of data availability to the data consumers. IBM has been successful in building and testing a Proof of Concept instance on our IBM Cloud platform to receive and disseminate actual GOES-16 data as it is being downlinked. This solution leverages the inherent benefits of a cloud infrastructure configured and tuned for continuous, stable, high-speed data dissemination to data consumers worldwide at the downlink rate. It also is designed to ingest data from multiple simultaneous sources and disseminate data to multiple consumers. Nearly linear scalability is achieved by adding servers and storage.The IBM Proof of Concept system has been tested with our partners to achieve in excess of 5 Gigabits/second over public internet infrastructure. In tests with live GOES-16 data, the system routinely achieved 2.5 Gigabits/second pass-through to The Weather Company from the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC. Simulated data was also transferred from the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites — North Carolina to The Weather Company, as well. The storage node allocated to our Proof of Concept system as tested was sized at 480 Terabytes of RAID protected disk as a worst case sizing to accommodate the data from four GOES-16 class satellites for 30 days in a circular buffer. This shows that an abundance of performance and capacity headroom exists in the IBM design that can be applied to additional missions.

  8. A numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, and its demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a geostationary satellite constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Ding, Shouguo; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Mishchenko, Michael

    2014-01-01

    synergic use of two future geostationary satellites, GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series) and TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution). Strong synergy between GEOS-R and TEMPO are found especially in their characterization of surface bi-directional reflectance, and thereby, can potentially improve the AOD retrieval to the accuracy required by GEO-CAPE. - Highlights: • A numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols for any satellite/algorithm design. • Linearly and coupled scattering and radative transfer codes, optimization code included. • Hyperspectral study of gas absorption effect on retrievals of aerosol height. • Strong synergy between geo-satellites (GOES and TEMPO/GEO-CAPE) for aerosol retrieval. • Polarization in O 2 A band is sensitive to aerosol height over visibly bright surface

  9. Evaluation of Temperature and Material Combinations on Several Lubricants for Use in the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Mission Filter Wheel Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Predmore, Roamer E.

    2001-01-01

    A bearing test apparatus was used to investigate lubricant degradation rates and elastohydrodynamic transition temperatures for several perfluoropolyether (Krytox) formulations, a pentasilahydrocarbon, and a synthetic hydrocarbon (Pennzane 2001 A) in an MPB 1219 bearing, which is used in the geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) mission filter wheel assembly. Test conditions were the following: 1000-hr duration, 75 C, 20 lb axial load, vacuum level less than 1 x 10(exp -6) Torr, and a 600-rpm rotational speed. Baseline tests were performed using unformulated Krytox 143AB, the heritage lubricant. Krytox additive formulations showed small reductions in degradation rate. Krytox GPL-105, a higher viscosity version, yielded the least amount of degradation products. Both the silahydrocarbon and Pennzane 2001A showed no signs of lubricant degradation and had ample amounts of free oil at test conclusion.

  10. A Numerical Testbed for Remote Sensing of Aerosols, and its Demonstration for Evaluating Retrieval Synergy from a Geostationary Satellite Constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Ding, Shouguo; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    synergic use of two future geostationary satellites, GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series) and TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution). Strong synergy between GEOS-R and TEMPO are found especially in their characterization of surface bi-directional reflectance, and thereby, can potentially improve the AOD retrieval to the accuracy required by GEO-CAPE.

  11. GOES-12 Solar X-ray Imager Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOES Solar X-ray Imager is integrated into the GOES-12 satellite, whose primary mission is to provide Earth-weather monitoring. The SXI is operated by NOAA's...

  12. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products spanning the 1987/1988 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...

  13. OW NOAA GOES-POES Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains blended satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellites (GOES)...

  14. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  15. GOES Fire Detects from the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF-ABBA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOES ABBA is a contextual multi-spectral thresholding algorithm which utilizes dynamic local thresholds derived from the GOES satellite imagery and ancillary...

  16. GHRSST Level 2P USA NAVOCEANO GOES11 SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SST calculated from the IR channels of GOES-11 at full resolution on a half hourly basis. In raw satellite projection, vertically adjacent pixels averaged and read...

  17. OSDPD-L2P-GOES13:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SST calculated from the IR channels of GOES-13 at full resolution on a half hourly basis. In raw satellite projection, vertically adjacent pixels averaged and read...

  18. GHRSST Level 2P USA NAVOCEANO GOES12 SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SST calculated from the IR channels of GOES-12 at full resolution on a half hourly basis. In raw satellite projection, vertically adjacent pixels averaged and read...

  19. Calibration of NOAA-7 AVHRR, GOES-5 and GOES-6 VISSR/VAS solar channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, R.; Gautier, C.

    1986-01-01

    The NOAA-7, GOES-5 and GOES-6 Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer/Vertical Atmospheric Sounder (VISSR/VAS) solar channels were calibrated. The White Sands Monument area in New Mexico, whose reflectance properties are well known, and space are used as calibration targets. The shortwave reflected terrestrial irradiance that is measured at satellite altitude is computed using a fairly accurate radiative transfer model which accounts for multiple scattering and bidirectional effects. The ground target reflectance and relevant characteristics of the overlying atmosphere are estimated from climatological data and observation at the nearest meteorological sites. The approach is believed to produce accuracies of 8 to 13% depending on the channel considered.

  20. Validation of the GOES-16 magnetometer using multipoint measurements and magnetic field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califf, S.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Redmon, R. J.; Sarris, T. E.; Brito, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been providing continuous geomagnetic field measurements for over 40 years. While the primary purpose of GOES is operational, the magnetometer data are also widely used in the scientific community. In an effort to validate the recently launched GOES-16 magnetometer, we compare the measurements to existing magnetic field models and other GOES spacecraft currently on orbit. There are four concurrent measurements from GOES-13, 14, 15 and 16 spanning 75W to 135W longitude. Also, GOES-13 is being replaced by GOES-16 in the GOES-East location, and during the transition, GOES-13 and GOES-16 will be parked nearby in order to assist with calibration of the new operational satellite. This work explores techniques to quantify the performance of the GOES-16 magnetometer by comparison to data from nearby spacecraft. We also build on previous work to assimilate in situ measurements with existing magnetic field models to assist in comparing data from different spatial locations. Finally, we use this unique dataset from four simultaneous geosynchronous magnetometer measurements and the close separation between GOES-13 and GOES-16 to study the spatial characteristics of ULF waves and other magnetospheric processes.

  1. Development of IDEA product for GOES-R aerosol data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai; Hoff, Raymond M.; Kondragunta, Shobha

    2009-08-01

    The NOAA GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will have nearly the same capabilities as NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to generate multi-wavelength retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) with high temporal and spatial resolution, which can be used as a surrogate of surface particulate measurements such as PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm). To prepare for the launch of GOES-R and its application in the air quality forecasting, we have transferred and enhanced the Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) product from University of Wisconsin to NOAA NESDIS. IDEA was created through a NASA/EPA/NOAA cooperative effort. The enhanced IDEA product provides near-real-time imagery of AOD derived from multiple satellite sensors including MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, GOES EAST and GOES WEST imager. Air quality forecast guidance is produced through a trajectory model initiated at locations with high AOD retrievals and/or high aerosol index (AI) from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). The product is currently running at http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/spb/aq/. The IDEA system will be tested using the GOES-R ABI proxy dataset, and will be ready to operate with GOES-R aerosol data when GOES-R is launched.

  2. GOES-K solar panel inspection at Astrotech

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Space Systems/LORAL employees inspect solar panels for the GOES-K weather satellite in the Astrotech facility at Titusville, Fla., as they begin final testing of the imaging system, communications and power systems of the spacecraft. The GOES-K is the third spacecraft to be launched in the new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The GOES-K is built for NASA and NOAA by Space Systems/LORAL of Palo Alto, Calif. The launch of the satellite from Launch Pad 36B at Cape Canaveral Air Station on an Atlas 1 rocket (AC-79) is currently planned for Apr. 24 at the opening of a launch window which extends from 1:56 to 3:19 a.m. EDT.

  3. Biomass goes to waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom))

    1994-08-01

    Currently the two most suitable words to describe the biomass energy industry are waste and recycling. However, there are several ways of looking at this. The first is a literal one. This reflects the current changes which are taking place in waste treatment as a consequence of new environmental initiatives. These are predicted to intensify as and when new Community Directives come into force through national legislation within the European Union (EU). At the same time biomass, in the true sense, both goes to waste as crops are not used and generates waste in terms of resources as uneconomic ventures are funded for political reasons. The net result is a depleted industry, in some sectors, and one based on false hopes in others. At the same time there is also some clarity emerging in respect of end use, with most activities focussing on decentralised electricity generation and the formation of liquid transport fuels. (Author)

  4. Who goes, who stays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, D A

    2001-01-01

    The merger announcement between DeWaal Pharmaceuticals and BioHealth Labs was front-page news. Pictures of CEO Steve Lindell and chairman Kaspar van de Velde had appeared in newspapers around the world. Two months later, the press had moved on to a new story, and the hard labor of integration loomed. Steve had worked tirelessly to clear regulatory hurdles, and all signs pointed toward approval in the near future. Now Steve was feeling pressure to attack the real challenge of the merger: bringing together two very different cultures as quickly and efficiently as possible. DeWaal was an established drug-maker based in the Netherlands, and BioHealth, headquartered just north of New York City, had in recent years become competitive at the highest tier of the market. The first step in integrating the two companies was to select the top layers of management for the new company. At the moment, there were some 120 people on two continents for about 65 senior-level jobs. Steve's urgency was not without cause: talented people from both sides were jumping ship, and BioHealth's stock price had dipped 20% after the initial euphoria over the deal had worn off. Complicating matters was confusion over who was really in charge: Steve wanted to take leadership and move ahead rapidly, but he was often disarmed by Kaspar's charming persuasiveness. As the two men attempt to work through the important personnel issues during a lunch meeting, they quickly hit a roadblock. How can they come to agreement about who goes and who stays? Four commentators offer advice in response to this fictional case.

  5. GOES-16 Space Weather Data Availability and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, M.; Rowland, W. F.; Codrescu, S.; Seaton, D. B.; Redmon, R. J.; Hsu, V.

    2017-12-01

    In November 2016, NOAA launched the first in the "R" series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, GOES-16. Compared to its GOES predecessors, the GOES-R series satellites provide improved in situ measurements of charged particles, higher cadence magnetic field measurements, and enhanced remote sensing of the sun through ultraviolet (UV) imagery and X-ray/UV irradiance. GOES-16 space weather instruments will nominally reach provisional status near the beginning of 2018. After this milestone has been achieved, NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) will provide archive access to GOES-16 space weather data. This presentation will describe the status of the space weather instruments, including available products and their applicability for forecasters, modelers, academics, spacecraft operators, and other users. It will discuss the available access systems for all levels of data-raw telemetry (Level 0), science measurements in high resolution (L1b), and higher-level (L2+) products developed by NCEI scientists. Finally, it will cover NCEI's efforts to promote space weather awareness through data visualization tools and image dissemination via the Helioviewer project.

  6. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three orthogonal flux-gate magnetometer elements, (spinning twin fluxgate magnetometer prior to GOES-8) provide magnetic field measurements in three mutually...

  7. Advantageous GOES IR results for ash mapping at high latitudes: Cleveland eruptions 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Rose, William I.; Schneider, D.J.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Watson, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The February 2001 eruption of Cleveland Volcano, Alaska allowed for comparisons of volcanic ash detection using two-band thermal infrared (10-12 ??m) remote sensing from MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES 10. Results show that high latitude GOES volcanic cloud sensing the range of about 50 to 65??N is significantly enhanced. For the Cleveland volcanic clouds the MODIS and AVHRR data have zenith angles 6-65 degrees and the GOES has zenith angles that are around 70 degrees. The enhancements are explained by distortion in the satellite view of the cloud's lateral extent because the satellite zenith angles result in a "side-looking" aspect and longer path lengths through the volcanic cloud. The shape of the cloud with respect to the GOES look angle also influences the results. The MODIS and AVHRR data give consistent retrievals of the ash cloud evolution over time and are good corrections for the GOES data. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Title of the paper goes here second line

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Title of the paper goes here second line. AUTHOR11, AUTHOR21 and AUTHOR32,*. 1 Department of P, University X. 2 Department of Q, University Z. Abstract. Abstract text goes here. Abstract text goes here. Abstract text goes here. Abstract text goes here. Abstract text goes here. Abstract text goes here. Abstract text goes ...

  9. The GOES-R Proving Ground: 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, J.; Goodman, S. J.; Schmit, T.; Demaria, M.; Mostek, A.; Siewert, C.; Reed, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R will provide a great leap forward in observing capabilities, but will also offer a significant challenge to ensure that users are ready to exploit the vast improvements in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. To ensure user readiness, forecasters and other users must have access to prototype advanced products well before launch, and have the opportunity to provide feedback to product developers and computing and communications managers. The operational assessment is critical to ensure that the end products and NOAA's computing and communications systems truly meet their needs in a rapidly evolving environment. The GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) engages the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast, watch and warning community and other agency users in pre-operational demonstrations of select products with GOES-R attributes (enhanced spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution). In the PG, developers and forecasters test and apply algorithms for new GOES-R satellite data and products using proxy and simulated data sets, including observations from current and future satellite instruments (MODIS, AIRS, IASI, SEVIRI, NAST-I, NPP/VIIRS/CrIS, LIS), lightning networks, and computer simulated products. The complete list of products to be evaluated in 2012 will be determined after evaluating results from experiments in 2011 at the NWS' Storm Prediction Center, National Hurricane Center, Aviation Weather Center, Ocean Prediction Center, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, and from the six NWS regions. In 2012 and beyond, the PG will test and validate data processing and distribution systems and the applications of these products in operational settings. Additionally developers and forecasters will test and apply display techniques and decision aid tools in operational environments. The PG is both a recipient and a source of training. Training materials are developed using various distance training tools in

  10. Transcom goes on the road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, L.; Boyd, G.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DoE) developed the Transportation Tracking and Communications (Transcom) system to enhance oversight of shipments of potentially harmful materials and to improve plans for responding to emergency situations. Transcom tracks DoE sponsored shipments of spent fuel, high level waste, and other high visibility shipping campaigns by using land-based positioning and two-way satellite communications equipment. The Transcom system comprises satellite communications, database management, computer networks, and a commercial telecommunications service to monitor the movements of waste shipments and to communicate with the vehicle operators, shippers, receivers and government agencies. (Author)

  11. Early Transition and Use of VIIRS and GOES-R Products by NWS Forecast Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin K.; Smith, Mathew; Jedlovec, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, part of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), and the ABI and GLM sensors scheduled for the GOES-R geostationary satellite will bring advanced observing capabilities to the operational weather community. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at Marshall Space Flight Center has been facilitating the use of real-time experimental and research satellite data by NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) for a number of years to demonstrate the planned capabilities of future sensors to address particular forecast challenges through improve situational awareness and short-term weather forecasts. For the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) activity, SPoRT is developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. SPoRT developed the a pseudo-Geostationary Lightning Mapper product and helped in the transition of the Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Convective Initiation (CI) proxy product for the Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) Spring Experiment,. Along with its partner WFOs, SPoRT is evaluating MODIS/GOES Hybrid products, which brings ABI-like data sets from existing NASA instrumentation in front of the forecaster for everyday use. The Hybrid uses near real-time MODIS imagery to demonstrate future ABI capabilities, while utilizing standard GOES imagery to provide the temporal frequency of geostationary imagery expected by operational forecasters. In addition, SPoRT is collaborating with the GOES-R hydrology AWG to transition a baseline proxy product for rainfall rate / quantitative precipitation estimate (QPE) to the OCONUS regions. For VIIRS, SPoRT is demonstrating multispectral observing capabilities and the utility of low-light channels not previously available on operational weather satellites to address a variety of weather forecast challenges. This presentation will discuss the results of

  12. Office of Satellite and Product Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Strategy » International Agreements » POES Current » GOES Current History » History in Images » POES History » GOES History OSPO Information » Access and Distribution Policy » Organization Chart  Branch utilizes interactive processing technology to integrate multiple satellite sensor data streams

  13. GOES-R Space Weather Data: Achieving User Ready Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, W. F.; Tilton, M.; Redmon, R. J.; Goodman, S. J.; Comerford, M.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasters and the science community will rely on improved Space Weather products from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R Series) for decades to come. Many issues must be successfully addressed in order to produce useful products. The instruments themselves and their basic scientific measurements (Level 1b data, i.e. L1b) must be calibrated and validated. Algorithms must be created to transform L1b into the specific environmental parameters that are of interest to forecasters and the community (Level 2+, i.e. L2+). In the case of Space Weather data, because the L2+ products are not generated within the core GOES-R Ground Segment, a separate system had to be developed in order to implement the L2+ products. Finally, the products must be made available to real time and retrospective users, as well as preserved for future generations. We give an overview of the path to production of the GOES-R Space Weather products, and the role of the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) in this process.

  14. Translation goes to the movies

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This highly accessible introduction to translation theory, written by a leading author in the field, uses the genre of film to bring the main themes in translation to life. Through analyzing films as diverse as the Marx Brothers' A Night at the Opera, The Star Wars Trilogies and Lost in Translation, the reader is encouraged to think about both issues and problems of translation as they are played out on the screen and issues of filmic representation through examining the translation dimension of specific films. In highlighting how translation has featured in both mainstream commercial and arthouse films over the years, Cronin shows how translation has been a concern of filmmakers dealing with questions of culture, identity, conflict and representation. This book is a lively and accessible text for translation theory courses and offers a new and largely unexplored approach to topics of identity and representation on screen. Translation Goes to the Movies will be of interest to those on translation studies...

  15. Data Filtering of Western Hemisphere GOES Wildfire ABBA Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, M.; Prins, E.; Schmidt, C.; Reid, J. S.; Hunter, J.; Westphal, D.

    2002-05-01

    The Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE') project was developed to model biomass burning emissions, transport, and radiative effects in real time. The model relies on data from the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellites (GOES-8, GOES-10), that is generated by the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF ABBA). In an attempt to develop the most accurate modeling system the data set needs to be filtered to distinguish the true fire pixels from false alarms. False alarms occur due to reflection of solar radiation off of standing water, surface structure variances, and heat anomalies. The Reoccurring Fire Filtering algorithm (ReFF) was developed to address such false alarms by filtering data dependent on reoccurrence, location in relation to region and satellite, as well as heat intensity. WF ABBA data for the year 2000 during the peak of the burning season were analyzed using ReFF. The analysis resulted in a 45% decrease in North America and only a 15% decrease in South America, respectively, in total fire pixel occurrence. The lower percentage decrease in South America is a result of fires burning for longer periods of time, less surface variance, as well as an increase in heat intensity of fires for that region. Also fires are so prevalent in the region that multiple fires may coexist in the same 4-kilometer pixel.

  16. Satellite images to aircraft in flight. [GEOS image transmission feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, D.; Luers, J. K.; Kadlec, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of transmitting selected GOES images to aircraft in flight. Pertinent observations that could be made from satellite images on board aircraft include jet stream activity, cloud/wind motion, cloud temperatures, tropical storm activity, and location of severe weather. The basic features of the Satellite Aircraft Flight Environment System (SAFES) are described. This system uses East GOES and West GOES satellite images, which are interpreted, enhanced, and then retransmitted to designated aircraft.

  17. Calibration/validation strategy for GOES-R L1b data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Kline, Elizabeth; Pogorzala, David; MacKenzie, Wayne; Williams, Ryan; Mozer, Kathryn; Carter, Dawn; Race, Randall; Sims, Jamese; Seybold, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R series (GOES-R) will be the next generation of NOAA geostationary environmental satellites. The first satellite in the series is planned for launch in November 2016. The satellite will carry six instruments dedicated to the study of the Earth's weather, lightning mapping, solar observations, and space weather monitoring. Each of the six instruments require specialized calibration plans to achieve their product quality requirements. In this talk we will describe the overall on-orbit calibration program and data product release schedule of the GOES-R program, as well as an overview of the strategies of the individual instrument science teams. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is the primary Earth-viewing weather imaging instrument on GOES-R. Compared to the present on-orbit GOES imagers, ABI will provide three times the spectral bands, four times the spatial resolution, and operate five times faster. The increased data demands and product requirements necessitate an aggressive and innovative calibration campaign. The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) will provide continuous rapid lightning detection information covering the Americas and nearby ocean regions. The frequency of lightning activity points to the intensification of storms and may improve tornado warning lead time. The calibration of GLM will involve intercomparisons with ground-based lightning detectors, an airborne field campaign, and a ground-based laser beacon campaign. GOES-R also carries four instruments dedicated to the study of the space environment. The Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) and the Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS) will study solar activity that may affect power grids, communication, and spaceflight. The Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) and the Magnetometer (MAG) study the in-situ space weather environment. These instruments follow a calibration and validation (cal/val) program that relies on

  18. From Data to Knowledge — Faster: GOES Early Fire Detection System to Inform Operational Wildfire Response and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, A.; Quayle, B.; Prins, E. M.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ustin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fire managers at various levels require near-real-time, low-cost, systematic, and reliable early detection capabilities with minimal latency to effectively respond to wildfire ignitions and minimize the risk of catastrophic development. The GOES satellite images collected for vast territories at high temporal frequencies provide a consistent and reliable source for operational active fire mapping realized by the WF-ABBA algorithm. However, their potential to provide early warning or rapid confirmation of initial fire ignition reports from conventional sources remains underutilized, partly because the operational wildfire detection has been successfully optimized for users and applications for which timeliness of initial detection is a low priority, contrasting to the needs of first responders. We present our progress in developing the GOES Early Fire Detection (GOES-EFD) system, a collaborative effort led by University of California-Davis and USDA Forest Service. The GOES-EFD specifically focuses on first detection timeliness for wildfire incidents. It is automatically trained for a monitored scene and capitalizes on multiyear cross-disciplinary algorithm research. Initial retrospective tests in Western US demonstrate significantly earlier identification detection of new ignitions than existing operational capabilities and a further improvement prospect. The GOES-EFD-β prototype will be initially deployed for the Western US region to process imagery from GOES-NOP and the rapid and 4 times higher spatial resolution imagery from GOES-R — the upcoming next generation of GOES satellites. These and other enhanced capabilities of GOES-R are expected to significantly improve the timeliness of fire ignition information from GOES-EFD.

  19. Improving precipitation estimates over the western United States using GOES-R precipitation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaee, N.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Gourley, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing data with fine spatial and temporal resolution are widely used for precipitation estimation for different applications such as hydrological modeling, storm prediction, and flash flood monitoring. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites-R series (GOES-R) is the next generation of environmental satellites that provides hydrologic, atmospheric, and climatic information every 30 seconds over the western hemisphere. The high-resolution and low-latency of GOES-R observations is essential for the monitoring and prediction of floods, specifically in the Western United States where the vantage point of space can complement the degraded weather radar coverage of the NEXRAD network. The GOES-R rainfall rate algorithm will yield deterministic quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE). Accounting for inherent uncertainties will further advance the GOES-R QPEs since with quantifiable error bars, the rainfall estimates can be more readily fused with ground radar products. On the ground, the high-resolution NEXRAD-based precipitation estimation from the Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system, which is now operational in the National Weather Service (NWS), is challenged due to a lack of suitable coverage of operational weather radars over complex terrain. Distribution of QPE uncertainties associated with the GOES-R deterministic retrievals are derived and analyzed using MRMS over regions with good radar coverage. They will be merged with MRMS-based probabilistic QPEs developed to advance multisensor QPE integration. This research aims at improving precipitation estimation over the CONUS by combining the observations from GOES-R and MRMS to provide consistent, accurate and fine resolution precipitation rates with uncertainties over the CONUS.

  20. New GOES High-Resolution Magnetic Measurements and their Contribution to Understanding Magnetospheric Particle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, R. J.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Boudouridis, A.; Chi, P. J.; Singer, H. J.; Kress, B. T.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Abdelqader, A.; Tilton, M.

    2017-12-01

    The era of NOAA observations of the geomagnetic field started with SMS-1 in May 1974 and continues to this day with GOES-13-16 (on-orbit). We describe the development of a new 20+ year archive of science-quality, high-cadence geostationary measurements of the magnetic field from eight NOAA spacecraft (GOES-8 through GOES-15), the status of GOES-16 and new scientific results using these data. GOES magnetic observations provide an early warning of impending space weather, are the core geostationary data set used for the construction of magnetospheric magnetic models, and can be used to estimate electromagnetic wave power in frequency bands important for plasma processes. Many science grade improvements are being made across the GOES archive to unify the format and content from GOES-8 through the new GOES-R series (with the first of that series launched on November 19, 2016). A majority of the 2-Hz magnetic observations from GOES-8-12 have never before been publicly accessible due to processing constraints. Now, a NOAA Big Earth Data Initiative project is underway to process these measurements starting from original telemetry records. Overall the new archive will include vector measurements in geophysically relevant coordinates (EPN, GSM, and VDH), comprehensive documentation, highest temporal cadence, best calibration parameters, recomputed means, updated quality flagging, full spacecraft ephemeris information, a unified standard format and public access. We are also developing spectral characterization tools for estimating power in standard frequency bands (up to 1 Hz for G8-15), and detecting ULF waves related to field-line resonances. We present the project status and findings, including in-situ statistical and extreme ULF event properties, and case studies where the ULF oscillations along the same field line were observed simultaneously by GOES near the equator in the magnetosphere, the ST-5 satellites at low altitudes, and ground magnetometer stations. For event

  1. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: National Weather Service Modernization and Weather Satellite Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willemssen, Joel

    2000-01-01

    ...). At your request, we will discuss the status of the National Weather Service (NWS) systems modernization and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) program...

  2. Dither Gyro Scale Factor Calibration: GOES-16 Flight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reth, Alan D.; Freesland, Douglas C.; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    This poster is a sequel to a paper presented at the 34th Annual AAS Guidance and Control Conference in 2011, which first introduced dither-based calibration of gyro scale factors. The dither approach uses very small excitations, avoiding the need to take instruments offline during gyro scale factor calibration. In 2017, the dither calibration technique was successfully used to estimate gyro scale factors on the GOES-16 satellite. On-orbit dither calibration results were compared to more traditional methods using large angle spacecraft slews about each gyro axis, requiring interruption of science. The results demonstrate that the dither technique can estimate gyro scale factors to better than 2000 ppm during normal science observations.

  3. OW NOAA GOES Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite. The data is...

  4. SPoRT Participation in the GOES-R and JPSS Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For the last several years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at has been working with the various algorithm working groups and science teams to demonstrate the utility of future operational sensors for GOES-R and the suite of instruments for the JPSS observing platforms. For GOES-R, imagery and products have been developed from polar-orbiting sensors such as MODIS and geostationary observations from SEVIRI, simulated imagery, enhanced products derived from existing GOES satellites, and data from ground-based observing systems to generate pseudo or proxy products for the ABI and GLM instruments. The suite of products include GOES-POES basic and RGB hybrid imagery, total lightning flash products, quantitative precipitation estimates, and convective initiation products. SPoRT is using imagery and products from VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS to show the utility of data and products from their operational counterparts on JPSS. The products include VIIRS imagery in swath form, the GOES-POES hybrid, a suite of RGB products including the air mass RGB using water vapor and ozone channels from CrIS, and several DNB products. Over a dozen SPoRT collaborative WFOs and several National Centers are involved in an intensive evaluation of the operational utility of these products.

  5. Merging thermal and microwave satellite observations for a high-resolution soil moisture data product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many societal applications of soil moisture data products require high spatial resolution and numerical accuracy. Current thermal geostationary satellite sensors (GOES Imager and GOES-R ABI) could produce 2-16km resolution soil moisture proxy data. Passive microwave satellite radiometers (e.g. AMSR...

  6. The world goes modern 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the contemporary art historical focus on multiple modernities through two significant exhibitions: After Year Zero at Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin 2013/Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw 2015 and The World Goes Pop, Tate Modern, London (2015). These different exhibitions...

  7. Avoiding Stair-Step Artifacts in Image Registration for GOES-R Navigation and Registration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Tan, Bin; Isaacson, Peter J.; De Luccia, Frank J.; Dellomo, John

    2016-01-01

    In developing software for independent verification and validation (IVV) of the Image Navigation and Registration (INR) capability for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R Series (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), we have encountered an image registration artifact which limits the accuracy of image offset estimation at the subpixel scale using image correlation. Where the two images to be registered have the same pixel size, subpixel image registration preferentially selects registration values where the image pixel boundaries are close to lined up. Because of the shape of a curve plotting input displacement to estimated offset, we call this a stair-step artifact. When one image is at a higher resolution than the other, the stair-step artifact is minimized by correlating at the higher resolution. For validating ABI image navigation, GOES-R images are correlated with Landsat-based ground truth maps. To create the ground truth map, the Landsat image is first transformed to the perspective seen from the GOES-R satellite, and then is scaled to an appropriate pixel size. Minimizing processing time motivates choosing the map pixels to be the same size as the GOES-R pixels. At this pixel size image processing of the shift estimate is efficient, but the stair-step artifact is present. If the map pixel is very small, stair-step is not a problem, but image correlation is computation-intensive. This paper describes simulation-based selection of the scale for truth maps for registering GOES-R ABI images.

  8. Using the SPoRT POES/GOES Hybrid Product in OCONUS Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matt; Fuell, Kevin; Nelson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The SPoRT (Short-term Prediction and Research Transition) Program at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center has been providing unique NASA and NOAA data and techniques to partner Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) for ten years. Data are provided in the Decision Support System used by WFO forecasters: AWIPS. For the last couple of years, SPoRT has been producing the POES/GOES Hybrid. This suite of products combines the strength ofl5- minute animations of GOES imagery - providing temporal continuity, with the higher resolution, relatively random availability, of polar orbiting (POES) imagery data. The product was first introduced with only MODIS data from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, but recently the VIIRS instrument onboard the Suomi-NPP satellite was added, providing better high-resolution coverage. These products represent SPoRT's efforts to prepare for higher resolution, higher frequency GOES-R imagery - as well as helping to move VIIRS (JPSS) data into the mainstream of weather forecasting. SPoRT generates 5 products for this dataset: Visible, Longwave Infrared (11 micrometers), Shortwave IR (3.7 micrometers), Water Vapor (6.7 micrometers), and Fog (Difference of 11 micrometer and 3.7 micrometer channels). The Water Vapor hybrid product has a Red-Blue-Green image from MODIS inlaid, since it provides even more qualitative information than water vapor alone. Animated examples of the products will be shown in this presentation. While the resolution at nadir of GOES imagery is nominally Han (4km for IR channels), the inlaid polar orbiter imagery has a resolution of 250m (lkm for IR channels). This has tremendous application in the continental US. However, in high latitudes, since the usefulness of GOES degrades poleward rapidly, the contrast of GOES and POES data is stark. The consistent temporal nature of GOES, even though at a reduced resolution at high latitudes, provides basic situational awareness, but the introduction of polar data is very helpful in seeing

  9. Calibration of GOES-derived solar radiation data using a distributed network of surface measurements in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, David M.; Pathak, Chandra S.; Mecikalski, John R.; Paech, Simon J.; Wu, Qinglong; Sangoyomi, Taiye; Babcock, Roger W.; Walton, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation data are critically important for the estimation of evapotranspiration. Analysis of visible-channel data derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) using radiative transfer modeling has been used to produce spatially- and temporally-distributed datasets of solar radiation. An extensive network of (pyranometer) surface measurements of solar radiation in the State of Florida has allowed refined calibration of a GOES-derived daily integrated radiation data product. This refinement of radiation data allowed for corrections of satellite sensor drift, satellite generational change, and consideration of the highly-variable cloudy conditions that are typical of Florida. To aid in calibration of a GOES-derived radiation product, solar radiation data for the period 1995–2004 from 58 field stations that are located throughout the State were compiled. The GOES radiation product was calibrated by way of a three-step process: 1) comparison with ground-based pyranometer measurements on clear reference days, 2) correcting for a bias related to cloud cover, and 3) deriving month-by-month bias correction factors. Pre-calibration results indicated good model performance, with a station-averaged model error of 2.2 MJ m–2 day–1 (13 percent). Calibration reduced errors to 1.7 MJ m–2 day–1 (10 percent) and also removed time- and cloudiness-related biases. The final dataset has been used to produce Statewide evapotranspiration estimates.

  10. Status of Land Surface Temperature Product Development at NOAA/NESDIS/STAR for JPSS and GOES-R Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunyue; Liu, yuling; yu, peng; Casiszar, Ivan; Zhou, Lihang

    2016-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is of fundamental importance to many aspects of the geosciences, e.g., net radiation budget at the Earth surface, monitoring state of crops and vegetation, as well as an important indicator of both the greenhouse effect and the physics of land-surface processes at local through global scales. Satellite LST measurements provide unique data sources for regional and global coverage in fairly good temporal, spatial resolution and time span. Therefore, LST is one of baseline products in both JPSS and GOES-R satellite missions. The Center for SaTellite Applications and Research (STAR) of NOAA/NESDIS is responsible for developing high quality LST products for a variety of satellite missions including JPSS and GOES-R. The JPSS LST data, which is produced for each swath of observations, has reached its beta, provisional and validated stage 1 status in October 2013, May 2014, and December 2015, respectively. A routine validation and monitoring toolkit has been developed and its results are available through a public web site. Our validation results against the U.S. SURFRAD ground stations show that uncertainty of the VIIRS LST is less than 2.35K (vs. the JPSS mission requirement of 2.5K). Improvement of the JPSS LST product is on-going, which counts surface emissive variation explicitly in retrieval algorithm. Further, a gridded daily global LST product will be available by end of 2016. In terms of the GOES-R LST product, we have evaluated the retrieval algorithm using SEVIRI and AHI data as proxies. The evaluation results show that the accuracy of GOES-R LST is expected to be less than 2.30K (GOES-R mission requirement). The validation toolkit developed for JPSS mission will be extended and applicable for the GOES-R mission as well. A detailed Readiness, Implementation and Management Plan (RIMP) of GOES-R LST beta and provisional validation has been developed for the GOES-R launch that is scheduled in October 2016.

  11. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  12. SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew; Stano, Geoffrey; Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT s activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental

  13. Earth Science Goes E-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Software packages commercially marketed by Agri ImaGIS allow customers to analyze farm fields. Agri ImaGIS provides satellite images of farmland and agricultural views to US clients. The company approached NASA-MSU TechLink for access to technology that would improve the company's capabilities to deliver satellite images over the Internet. TechLink found that software with the desired functions had already been developed through NASA's Remote Sensing Database Program. Agri ImaGIS formed a partnership with the University of Minnesota group that allows the company to further develop the software to meet its Internet commerce needs.

  14. What goes up... gravity and scientific method

    CERN Document Server

    Kosso, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The concept of gravity provides a natural phenomenon that is simultaneously obvious and obscure; we all know what it is, but rarely question why it is. The simple observation that 'what goes up must come down' contrasts starkly with our current scientific explanation of gravity, which involves challenging and sometimes counterintuitive concepts. With such extremes between the plain and the perplexing, gravity forces a sharp focus on scientific method. Following the history of gravity from Aristotle to Einstein, this clear account highlights the logic of scientific method for non-specialists. Successive theories of gravity and the evidence for each are presented clearly and rationally, focusing on the fundamental ideas behind them. Using only high-school level algebra and geometry, the author emphasizes what the equations mean rather than how they are derived, making this accessible for all those curious about gravity and how science really works.

  15. The GOES-R Product Generation Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittberner, G. J.; Kalluri, S.; Hansen, D.; Weiner, A.; Tarpley, A.; Marley, S.

    2011-12-01

    The GOES-R system will substantially improve users' ability to succeed in their work by providing data with significantly enhanced instruments, higher resolution, much shorter relook times, and an increased number and diversity of products. The Product Generation architecture is designed to provide the computer and memory resources necessary to achieve the necessary latency and availability for these products. Over time, new and updated algorithms are expected to be added and old ones removed as science advances and new products are developed. The GOES-R GS architecture is being planned to maintain functionality so that when such changes are implemented, operational product generation will continue without interruption. The primary parts of the PG infrastructure are the Service Based Architecture (SBA) and the Data Fabric (DF). SBA is the middleware that encapsulates and manages science algorithms that generate products. It is divided into three parts, the Executive, which manages and configures the algorithm as a service, the Dispatcher, which provides data to the algorithm, and the Strategy, which determines when the algorithm can execute with the available data. SBA is a distributed architecture, with services connected to each other over a compute grid and is highly scalable. This plug-and-play architecture allows algorithms to be added, removed, or updated without affecting any other services or software currently running and producing data. Algorithms require product data from other algorithms, so a scalable and reliable messaging is necessary. The SBA uses the DF to provide this data communication layer between algorithms. The DF provides an abstract interface over a distributed and persistent multi-layered storage system (e.g., memory based caching above disk-based storage) and an event management system that allows event-driven algorithm services to know when instrument data are available and where they reside. Together, the SBA and the DF provide a

  16. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster Observations of EMIC Waves, ULF Pulsations, and an Electron Flux Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; Macdowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12-14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 h from 12 to 14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervals of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12-13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He+ electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13-14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dstwaves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.

  17. New GOES-R Risk Reduction Activities at CIRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M. A.; Miller, S. D.; Grasso, L. D.; Haynes, J. M.; NOH, Y. J.; Forsythe, J.; Zupanski, M.; Lindsey, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    A team of atmospheric scientists at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at the Colorado State University has been selected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) GOES-R Risk Reduction (GOES-R3) science program to develop applications to enhance the utilization of the GOES-R sensors, including the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). The selected project topics follow NOAA's Research and Development Objectives listed in its 5-year Strategic Plan. The projects will be carried out over a three-year period which started on 1 July 2017 and will end on 30 June 2019. CIRA is working on five GOES-R3 application developments: 1) Developing an Environmental Awareness Repertoire of ABI Imagery (`DEAR-ABII') to Advise the Operational Weather Forecaster. DEAR-ABII maximizes the vast potential of the new GOES-R/GOES-16 sensor technology. 2) GOES-R ABI channel differencing used to reveal cloud-free zones of `precursors of convective initiation'. This product identifies where convective initiation may occur in cloud free skies. 3) Improving the ABI Cloud Layers Product for Multiple Layer Cloud Systems and Aviation Forecast Applications. This project aims to improve the GOES-16 cloud layer product by providing information on the boundaries of cloud layers even when one layer overlies another. 4) Using the New Capabilities of GOES-R to Improve Blended, Multisensor Water Vapor Products for Forecasters. GOES-R TPW retrievals will be merged with TPW derived from polar orbiter and surface data to improve the operational NOAA blended TPW product. 5) Data assimilation of GLM observations in HWRF/GSI system. Assimilation of GOES-R GLM observations for the NOAA operational hurricane model with the goal to improve operational hurricane forecasting. Examples for each of these applications will be presented.

  18. GOES Surface and Insolation Products (GSIP), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 2 of the GOES Surface and Insolation Products (GSIP) is a high spatial resolution (1/8 x 1/8 degrees) solar radiation product estimated from the GOES-East...

  19. Determining Aerosol Plume Height from Two GEO Imagers: Lessons from MISR and GOES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol plume height is a key parameter to determine impacts of particulate matters generated from biomass burning, wind-blowing dust, and volcano eruption. Retrieving cloud top height from stereo imageries from two GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) have been demonstrated since 1970's and the principle should work for aerosol plumes if they are optically thick. The stereo technique has also been used by MISR (Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) since 2000 that has nine look angles along track to provide aerosol height measurements. Knowing the height of volcano aerosol layers is as important as tracking the ash plume flow for aviation safety. Lack of knowledge about ash plume height during the 2010 Eyja'rjallajokull eruption resulted in the largest air-traffic shutdown in Europe since World War II. We will discuss potential applications of Asian GEO satellites to make stereo measurements for dust and volcano plumes.

  20. The GOES-16 Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) Ion Composition and Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) was built by the University of New Hampshire, subcontracted to Assurance Technology Corporation, as part of the Space Environmental In-Situ Suite (SEISS) on the new GOES-16 satellite (formerly GOES-R) in Geostationary orbit. EHIS measures energetic ions over the range 10-200 MeV for protons, and energy ranges for heavy ions corresponding to the same stopping range (e.g., 19-207 MeV/u for carbon and 38-488 MeV/u for iron). EHIS uses the Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS) technique to provide single-element charge resolution. Though on an operational mission for Space Weather monitoring, EHIS can thus provide a new source of high quality Solar Particle Event (SPE) data for science studies. With a high rate of on-board processing ( 2000 events/s), EHIS will provide exceptional statistics for ion composition measurements in large SPEs. For the GOES Level 1-B and Level 2 data products, heavy ions are distinguished in EHIS using pulse-height analysis with on-board processing producing charge histograms for five energy bands. Fits to these data are normalized to priority rate data on the ground. The instrumental cadence for histograms is 1 minute and the primary Level 1-B heavy ion data products are 1-minute and 5-minute averages. We discuss the preliminary EHIS heavy ion data results which show elemental peaks from H to Fe, with peaks for the isotopes D and 3He. (GOES-16 was launched in 19 November, 2016 and data has, though July 2017, been dominated by Galactic Cosmic Rays.) The EHIS instrument development project was funded by NASA under contract NNG06HX01C.

  1. THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR FLARES OVER THREE SOLAR CYCLES USING GOES X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Daniel F.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Dennis, Brian R.; Kim Tolbert, A.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Alex Young, C.

    2012-01-01

    Solar flare X-ray emission results from rapidly increasing temperatures and emission measures in flaring active region loops. To date, observations from the X-Ray Sensor (XRS) on board the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) have been used to derive these properties, but have been limited by a number of factors, including the lack of a consistent background subtraction method capable of being automatically applied to large numbers of flares. In this paper, we describe an automated Temperature and Emission measure-Based Background Subtraction method (TEBBS), that builds on the methods of Bornmann. Our algorithm ensures that the derived temperature is always greater than the instrumental limit and the pre-flare background temperature, and that the temperature and emission measure are increasing during the flare rise phase. Additionally, TEBBS utilizes the improved estimates of GOES temperatures and emission measures from White et al. TEBBS was successfully applied to over 50,000 solar flares occurring over nearly three solar cycles (1980-2007), and used to create an extensive catalog of the solar flare thermal properties. We confirm that the peak emission measure and total radiative losses scale with background subtracted GOES X-ray flux as power laws, while the peak temperature scales logarithmically. As expected, the peak emission measure shows an increasing trend with peak temperature, although the total radiative losses do not. While these results are comparable to previous studies, we find that flares of a given GOES class have lower peak temperatures and higher peak emission measures than previously reported. The TEBBS database of flare thermal plasma properties is publicly available at http://www.SolarMonitor.org/TEBBS/.

  2. Modeling 13.3nm Fe XXIII Flare Emissions Using the GOES-R EXIS Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, H.; Thiemann, E.

    2017-12-01

    The solar EUV spectrum is dominated by atomic transitions in ionized atoms in the solar atmosphere. As solar flares evolve, plasma temperatures and densities change, influencing abundances of various ions, changing intensities of different EUV wavelengths observed from the sun. Quantifying solar flare spectral irradiance is important for constraining models of Earth's atmosphere, improving communications quality, and controlling satellite navigation. However, high time cadence measurements of flare irradiance across the entire EUV spectrum were not available prior to the launch of SDO. The EVE MEGS-A instrument aboard SDO collected 0.1nm EUV spectrum data from 2010 until 2014, when the instrument failed. No current or future instrument is capable of similar high resolution and time cadence EUV observation. This necessitates a full EUV spectrum model to study EUV phenomena at Earth. It has been recently demonstrated that one hot flare EUV line, such as the 13.3nm Fe XXIII line, can be used to model cooler flare EUV line emissions, filling the role of MEGS-A. Since unblended measurements of Fe XXIII are typically unavailable, a proxy for the Fe XXIII line must be found. In this study, we construct two models of this line, first using the GOES 0.1-0.8nm soft x-ray (SXR) channel as the Fe XXIII proxy, and second using a physics-based model dependent on GOES emission measure and temperature data. We determine that the more sophisticated physics-based model shows better agreement with Fe XXIII measurements, although the simple proxy model also performs well. We also conclude that the high correlation between Fe XXIII emissions and the GOES 0.1-0.8nm band is because both emissions tend to peak near the GOES emission measure peak despite large differences in their contribution functions.

  3. The GOES-16 Energetic Heavy Ion Instrument Proton and Helium Fluxes for Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) was built by the University of New Hampshire, subcontracted to Assurance Technology Corporation, as part of the Space Environmental In-Situ Suite (SEISS) on the new GOES-16 satellite, in geostationary Earth orbit. The EHIS measures energetic ions in space over the range 10-200 MeV for protons, and energy ranges for heavy ions corresponding to the same stopping range. Though an operational satellite instrument, EHIS will supply high quality data for scientific studies. For the GOES Level 1-B and Level 2 data products, protons and helium are distinguished in the EHIS using discriminator trigger logic. Measurements are provided in five energy bands. The instrumental cadence of these rates is 3 seconds. However, the primary Level 1-B proton and helium data products are 1-minute and 5-minute averages. The data latency is 1 minute, so data products can be used for real-time predictions as well as general science studies. Protons and helium, comprising approximately 99% of all energetic ions in space are of great importance for Space Weather predictions. We discuss the preliminary EHIS proton and helium data results and their application to Space Weather. The EHIS instrument development project was funded by NASA under contract NNG06HX01C.

  4. Net Surface Shortwave Radiation from GOES Imagery—Product Evaluation Using Ground-Based Measurements from SURFRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Inamdar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s surface net radiation controls the energy and water exchanges between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere, and can be derived from satellite observations. The ability to monitor the net surface radiation over large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for many applications, such as weather forecasting, short-term climate prediction or water resources management. The objective of this paper is to derive the net surface radiation in the shortwave domain at high temporal (half-hourly and spatial resolution (~1 km using visible imagery from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES. The retrieval algorithm represents an adaptation to GOES data of a standard algorithm initially developed for the NASA-operated Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES scanner. The methodology relies on: (1 the estimation of top of atmosphere shortwave radiation from GOES spectral measurements; and (2 the calculation of net surface shortwave (SW radiation accounting for atmospheric effects. Comparison of GOES-retrieved net surface shortwave radiation with ground-measurements at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD stations yields very good agreement with average bias lower than 5 W·m−2 and root mean square difference around 70 W·m−2. The algorithm performance is usually higher over areas characterized by low spatial variability in term of land cover type and surface biophysical properties. The technique does not involve retrieval and assessment of cloud properties and can be easily adapted to other meteorological satellites around the globe.

  5. Applications of Geostationary Satellite Data to Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellrod, Gary P.; Pryor, Kenneth

    2018-03-01

    Weather is by far the most important factor in air traffic delays in the United States' National Airspace System (NAS) according to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Geostationary satellites have been an effective tool for the monitoring of meteorological conditions that affect aviation operations since the launch of the first Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) in the United States in 1974. This paper will review the global use of geostationary satellites in support of aviation weather since their inception, with an emphasis on the latest generation of satellites, such as Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R (16) with its Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Specific applications discussed in this paper include monitoring of convective storms and their associated hazards, fog and low stratus, turbulence, volcanic hazards, and aircraft icing.

  6. GRIP GOES 11 VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES imagery files were produced and archived in near real time here at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (http://ghcc.nsstc.nasa.gov) throughout the...

  7. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Daily GOES Precipitation Index (GPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GOES Precipitation Index (GPI) is a precipitation estimation algorithm. The GPI technique estimates tropical rainfall using cloud-top temperature as the sole...

  8. Your Aging Eyes: How You See as Time Goes By

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Special Issue: Seniors Print this issue Your Aging Eyes How You See as Time Goes By ... Building Social Bonds Coping with Caregiving Osteoporosis in Aging Wise Choices Protect Your Vision Have a comprehensive ...

  9. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  10. The GOES-R/JPSS Approach for Identifying Hazardous Low Clouds: Overview and Operational Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Corey; Pavolonis, Michael; Lindstrom, Scott; Gravelle, Chad; Terborg, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Low ceiling and visibility is a weather hazard that nearly every forecaster, in nearly every National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Office (WFO), must regularly address. In addition, national forecast centers such as the Aviation Weather Center (AWC), Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) and the Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) are responsible for issuing low ceiling and visibility related products. As such, reliable methods for detecting and characterizing hazardous low clouds are needed. Traditionally, hazardous areas of Fog/Low Stratus (FLS) are identified using a simple stand-alone satellite product that is constructed by subtracting the 3.9 and 11 μm brightness temperatures. However, the 3.9-11 μm brightness temperature difference (BTD) has several major limitations. In an effort to address the limitations of the BTD product, the GOES-R Algorithm Working Group (AWG) developed an approach that fuses satellite, Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) analyses, and other data sets (e.g. digital surface elevation maps, surface emissivity maps, and surface type maps) to determine the probability that hazardous low clouds are present using a naïve Bayesian classifier. In addition, recent research has focused on blending geostationary (e.g. GOES-R) and low earth orbit (e.g. JPSS) satellite data to further improve the products. The FLS algorithm has adopted an enterprise approach in that it can utilize satellite data from a variety of current and future operational sensors and NWP data from a variety of models. The FLS products are available in AWIPS/N-AWIPS/AWIPS-II and have been evaluated within NWS operations over the last four years as part of the Satellite Proving Ground. Forecaster feedback has been predominantly positive and references to these products within Area Forecast Discussions (AFD's) indicate that the products are influencing operational forecasts. At the request of the NWS, the FLS products are currently being

  11. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  12. Properties of CIRRUS Overlapping Clouds as Deduced from the GOES-12 Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Khaiyer, Mandana

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the impact of cirrus clouds on modifying both the solar reflected and terrestrial emitted radiations is crucial for climate studies. Unlike most boundary layer stratus and stratocumulus clouds that have a net cooling effect on the climate, high-level thin cirrus clouds can have a warming effect on our climate. Many research efforts have been devoted to retrieving cirrus cloud properties due to their ubiquitous presence. However, using satellite observations to detect and/or retrieve cirrus cloud properties faces two major challenges. First, they are often semitransparent at visible to infrared wavelengths; and secondly, they often occur over a lower cloud system. The overlapping of high-level cirrus and low-level stratus cloud poses a difficulty in determining the individual cloud top altitudes and optical properties, especially when the signals from cirrus clouds are overwhelmed by the signals of stratus clouds. Moreover, the operational satellite retrieval algorithms, which often assume only single layer cloud in the development of cloud retrieval techniques, cannot resolve the cloud overlapping situation properly. The new geostationary satellites, starting with the Twelfth Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12), are providing a new suite of imager bands that have replaced the conventional 12-micron channel with a 13.3-micron CO2 absorption channel. The replacement of the 13.3-micron channel allows for the application of a CO2-slicing retrieval technique (Chahine et al. 1974; Smith and Platt 1978), which is one of the important passive satellite methods for remote sensing the altitudes of mid to high-level clouds. Using the CO2- slicing technique is more effective in detecting semitransparent cirrus clouds than using the conventional infrared-window method.

  13. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster Observations of EMIC Waves, ULF Pulsations, and an Electron Flux Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; Macdowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12-14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 h from 12 to 14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervals of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12-13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He+ electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13-14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dst<100 nT. At the start of the recovery phase, both the 0.8 and 2.0 MeV electron fluxes finally returned to near prestorm values, possibly in response to strong ultralow frequency (ULF) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.

  14. A general theory for the Uranian satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, J.

    1986-01-01

    A general analytical theory of the five main satellites of Uranus, including the secular and short period terms hereafter denoted by GUST, is presented. A comparison is made with an internal numerical integration with nominal masses of Veillet (1983). The precision of the theory goes from about 10 km for Miranda to 100 km for Oberon. The short period terms in the motions of Titania and Oberon are larger than 500 km. They should make possible the determination of the masses of the outer satellites through the optical data of Voyager encounter.

  15. Normalization and calibration of geostationary satellite radiances for the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desormeaux, Yves; Rossow, William B.; Brest, Christopher L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures are described for normalizing the radiometric calibration of image radiances obtained from geostationary weather satellites that contributed data to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The key step is comparison of coincident and collocated measurements made by each satellite and the concurrent AVHRR on the 'afternoon' NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellite at the same viewing geometry. The results of this comparison allow transfer of the AVHRR absolute calibration, which has been established over the whole series, to the radiometers on the geostationary satellites. Results are given for Meteosat-2, 3, and 4, for GOES-5, 6, and 7, for GMS-2, 3, and 4 and for Insat-1B. The relative stability of the calibrations of these radiance data is estimated to be within +/- 3 percent; the uncertainty of the absolute calibrations is estimated to be less than 10 percent. The remaining uncertainties are at least two times smaller than for the original radiance data.

  16. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  17. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  18. Satellite myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David

    2008-01-01

    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  19. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  20. Design of the GOES Telescope secondary mirror mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookman, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The GOES Telescope utilizes a flexure mounting system for the secondary mirror to minimize thermally induced distortions of the secondary mirror. The detailed design is presented along with a discussion of the microradian pointing requirements and how they were achieved. The methodology used to dynamically tune the flexure/secondary mirror assembly to minimize structural interactions will also be discussed.

  1. Title of the paper goes here second line

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    %%Please download if these packages are not included %%in your local TeX distribution %%txfonts,balance,textcase,float %% \\begin{document} %%paper title %%For line breaks, \\\\ can be used within title \\title{Title of the paper goes here\\\\ second line} %%author names are separated by comma (,) %%use \\and before ...

  2. Boomerang Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.

    2017-10-01

    We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.

  3. Derivation and evaluation of land surface temperature from the geostationary operational environmental satellite series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been continuously monitoring the earth surface since 1970, providing valuable and intensive data from a very broad range of wavelengths, day and night. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is currently operating GOES-15 and GOES-13. The design of the GOES series is now heading to the 4 th generation. GOES-R, as a representative of the new generation of the GOES series, is scheduled to be launched in 2015 with higher spatial and temporal resolution images and full-time soundings. These frequent observations provided by GOES Image make them attractive for deriving information on the diurnal land surface temperature (LST) cycle and diurnal temperature range (DTR). These parameters are of great value for research on the Earth's diurnal variability and climate change. Accurate derivation of satellite-based LSTs from thermal infrared data has long been an interesting and challenging research area. To better support the research on climate change, the generation of consistent GOES LST products for both GOES-East and GOES-West from operational dataset as well as historical archive is in great demand. The derivation of GOES LST products and the evaluation of proposed retrieval methods are two major objectives of this study. Literature relevant to satellite-based LST retrieval techniques was reviewed. Specifically, the evolution of two LST algorithm families and LST retrieval methods for geostationary satellites were summarized in this dissertation. Literature relevant to the evaluation of satellite-based LSTs was also reviewed. All the existing methods are a valuable reference to develop the GOES LST product. The primary objective of this dissertation is the development of models for deriving consistent GOES LSTs with high spatial and high temporal coverage. Proper LST retrieval algorithms were studied

  4. PELAKSANAAN KEGIATAN SPECIAL EVENT JAKARTA GOES PINK OLEH LOVEPINK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Ajie Hartono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kegiatan special event yang dilakukan Lovepink Indonesiadalam menyelenggarakan Jakarta Goes Pink 2015 untuk meningkatkan kesadaran. Penelitian inimenggunakan Event Management Process Joe Goldblatt sebagai landasan konsep.Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi deskriptif. Teknik pengumpulan datadilakukan dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi partisipan pasif, dan studi kepustakaan, dengan teknik pengumpulan key informan purposive sampling. Teknik analisis data menggunakan tiga tahap yaitu reduksi data, penyajian data, serta penarikan kesimpulan. Teknik validitas data menggunakantriangulasi sumber data.Hasil penelitian ini mengemukakan bahwa manajemen special event Jakarta Goes Pink dikategorikandalam riset, desain, perencanaan, koordinasi, dan evaluasi. Riset yang dilakukan meliputi analisissituasi terkait kesadaran masyarakat Indonesia tentang kanker payudara, hasil riset menyatakanbahwa kesadaran masih rendah, terutama dibandingkan dengan aktivitas Pink Ribbon diluar negeridan evaluasi acara tahun sebelumnya. Desain acara dilakukan menggunakan unsur warna untukmemerahmudakan Jakarta, edukasi pengunjung terhadap kanker payudara, dan unsur hiburan dengankonsep fair and festival. Perencanaan Jakarta Goes Pink meliputi penentuan tujuan yang kemudiandapat menentukan tanggal dan lokasi, penetapan anggaran, pembagian tugas pengurus, dan publikasiyang dilakukan melalui media sosial dan bantuan mitra media. Koordinasi dilakukan sebagai upayapengelolaan komunikasi antara pihak eksternal seperti komunitas, relawan, sponsor, dan mitra media;serta pihak internal yaitu kepengurusan Jakarta Goes Pink. Tahap evaluasi yang dilakukan JakartaGoes Pink meliputi evaluasi acara, feedback langsung dari orang terdekat, dan penghitungan jumlahliputan media massa dan sifat pemberitaan.Kata kunci: Special event, kesadaran, organisasi, kanker payudara, event management process ABSTRACTThis study

  5. NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial

  6. Variations in Upper-Level Water Vapor Transport Diagnosed from Climatological Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Jeffrey A; Jedlovee, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    GOES-7 VAS measurements during the Pathfinder period (1987-88) have been analysed to reveal seasonal and interannual variations in moisture transport. Long term measurements of quality winds and humidity from satellite estimates show superior benefit in diagnosing middle and upper tropospheric large scale climate variations such as ENSO events and direct circulation systems such as the Hadley Cell. A water Vapor Transport Index (WVTI) has been developed to diagnose preferred regions of strong moisture transport and to gauge the seasonal and interannual intensities detected in the GOES viewing area. Second-order variables that may be derived from GOES winds will be also discussed on the poster.

  7. Mapping Surface Heat Fluxes by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture and GOES Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Farhadi, Leila; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in the surface energy and water balance. In situ measurements are costly and difficult, and large-scale flux mapping is hindered by surface heterogeneity. Previous studies have demonstrated that surface heat fluxes can be estimated by assimilating land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture to determine two key parameters: a neutral bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) and an evaporative fraction (EF). Here a methodology is proposed to estimate surface heat fluxes by assimilating Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture data and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data into a dual-source (DS) model using a hybrid particle assimilation strategy. SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated using a particle filter (PF), and GOES LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) to account for the large gap in the spatial and temporal resolution. The methodology is implemented in an area in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Assessment against in situ observations suggests that soil moisture and LST estimates are in better agreement with observations after assimilation. The RMSD for 30 min (daytime) flux estimates is reduced by 6.3% (8.7%) and 31.6% (37%) for H and LE on average. Comparison against a LST-only and a soil moisture-only assimilation case suggests that despite the coarse resolution, assimilating SMAP soil moisture data is not only beneficial but also crucial for successful and robust flux estimation, particularly when the uncertainties in the model estimates are large.

  8. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi- form broadcasts. This has led to a ... diversity offormats, languages, genre, and a universal reach that cannot be met by .... programs can be delivered to whom it is intended. In the case of.

  9. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  10. Satellite Formation during Coalescence of Unequal Size Drops

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, F. H.

    2009-03-12

    The coalescence of a drop with a flat liquid surface pinches off a satellite from its top, in the well-known coalescence cascade, whereas the coalescence of two equally sized drops does not appear to leave such a satellite. Herein we perform experiments to identify the critical diameter ratio of two drops, above which a satellite is produced during their coalescence. We find that the critical parent ratio is as small as 1.55, but grows monotonically with the Ohnesorge number. The daughter size is typically about 50% of the mother drop. However, we have identified novel pinch-off dynamics close to the critical size ratio, where the satellite does not fully separate, but rather goes directly into a second stage of the coalescence cascade, thus generating a much smaller satellite droplet.

  11. Satellite Formation during Coalescence of Unequal Size Drops

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, F. H.; Li, E. Q.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2009-01-01

    The coalescence of a drop with a flat liquid surface pinches off a satellite from its top, in the well-known coalescence cascade, whereas the coalescence of two equally sized drops does not appear to leave such a satellite. Herein we perform experiments to identify the critical diameter ratio of two drops, above which a satellite is produced during their coalescence. We find that the critical parent ratio is as small as 1.55, but grows monotonically with the Ohnesorge number. The daughter size is typically about 50% of the mother drop. However, we have identified novel pinch-off dynamics close to the critical size ratio, where the satellite does not fully separate, but rather goes directly into a second stage of the coalescence cascade, thus generating a much smaller satellite droplet.

  12. Hands-on Activities Designed to Familiarize Users with Data from ABI on GOES-R and AHI on Himawari-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, S. S.; Schmit, T.; Gerth, J.; Gunshor, M. M.; Mooney, M. E.; Whittaker, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent and ongoing launches of next-generation geostationary satellites offer a challenge to familiarize National Weather Service (and other) forecasters with the new capabilities of different spectral channels sensed by the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R and the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) on Himawari-8. Hands on HTML5-based applets developed at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies allow for quick comparisons of reflectance in the visible (0.4 to 0.7 um) and near-infrared channels (0.86 to 2.2 um) and brightness temperatures in the infrared (3.9 to 13.3 um). The web apps to explore the different channels on ABI and AHI are at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/webapps/bandapp/; those that offer guidance on how to produce Red/Green/Blue composites are at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/webapps/satrgb/overview.html. This talk will briefly discuss highlights from both websites, and suggest ways the applications can be used to educate forecasters and the general public.

  13. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    noise signal level exceeds 10 times the normal background. EXPERIMENTS FOR SATELLITE ASTRONOMY 615 ANTENNA MONOPOLE -., PREAMPLFE = BANDPASS-FILTER...OUTPUT TO AND DETECTOR TELEMETRYCHANNELS (18) CALIBRATION NOISE MATRIX CLOCK NOISE SOURCE ’ON’ SOURCE COMMAND F ROM PROGRAMERP ANTENNA MONOPOLE FIGURE 13...Animal Tempera- ture Sensing for Studying the Effect of Prolonged Orbital Flight on the Circadian Rhythms of Pocket Mice . Unmanned Spacecraft Meeting

  14. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  15. Solar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poher, C.

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  16. Validation of early GOES-16 ABI on-orbit geometrical calibration accuracy using SNO method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangfang; Shao, Xi; Wu, Xiangqian; Kondratovich, Vladimir; Li, Zhengping

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) onboard the GOES-16 satellite, which was launched on 19 November 2016, is the first next-generation geostationary weather instrument in the west hemisphere. It has 16 spectral solar reflective and emissive bands located in three focal plane modules (FPM): one visible and near infrared (VNIR) FPM, one midwave infrared (MWIR), and one longwave infrared (LWIR) FPM. All the ABI bands are geometeorically calibrated with new techniques of Kalman filtering and Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine the accurate spacecraft attitude and orbit configuration to meet the challenging image navigation and registration (INR) requirements of ABI data. This study is to validate the ABI navigation and band-to-band registration (BBR) accuracies using the spectrally matched pixels of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) M-band data and the ABI images from the Simultaneous Nadir Observation (SNO) images. The preliminary results showed that during the ABI post-launch product test (PLPT) period, the ABI BBR errors at the y-direction (along the VIIRS track direction) is smaller than at the x-direction (along the VIIRS scan direction). Variations in the ABI BBR calibration residuals and navigation difference to VIIRS can be observed. Note that ABI is not operational yet and the data is experimental and still under testing. Effort is still ongoing to improve the ABI data quality.

  17. Inconing solar radiation estimates at terrestrial surface using meteorological satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, N.; Almeida, F.C. de.

    1982-11-01

    By using the digital images of the visible channel of the GOES-5 meteorological satellite, and a simple radiative transfer model of the earth's atmosphere, the incoming solar radiation reaching ground is estimated. A model incorporating the effects of Rayleigh scattering and water vapor absorption, the latter parameterized using the surface dew point temperature value, is used. Comparisons with pyranometer observations, and parameterization versus radiosonde water vapor absorption calculation are presented. (Author) [pt

  18. FOCIS goes south: advances in translational and clinical immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Anegon, Ignacio; González, Pablo A

    2017-09-01

    FOCIS goes South: Advances in Translational and Clinical Immunology was the first Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) ( www.focisnet.org ) meeting held in Latin America (May 15-17, 2017, Santiago de Chile, Chile). The meeting was organized as a 3-day workshop and was fostered by the Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, a recently nominated FOCIS Center of Excellence. The workshop brought together FOCIS associates, such as members of the FOCIS Board of Directors, Directors of different Centers of Excellence, regional speakers and 350 attendees. The Meeting covered aspects of immune regulation and modulation, as well as immunotherapy in areas of autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer and infectious diseases, among others. The activity also had a full-day immunology course and a day-long flow cytometry course.

  19. Validation of Satellite Derived Cloud Properties Over the Southeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J.; Minnis, P.; Zuidema, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Fairall, C.

    2005-12-01

    Satellite measurements of cloud properties and the radiation budget are essential for understanding meso- and large-scale processes that determine the variability in climate over the southeastern Pacific. Of particular interest in this region is the prevalent stratocumulus cloud deck. The stratocumulus albedos are directly related to cloud microphysical properties that need to be accurately characterized in Global Climate Models (GCMs) to properly estimate the Earth's radiation budget. Meteorological observations in this region are sparse causing large uncertainties in initialized model fields. Remote sensing from satellites can provide a wealth of information about the clouds in this region, but it is vital to validate the remotely sensed parameters and to understand their relationship to other parameters that are not directly observed by the satellites. The variety of measurements from the R/V Roger Revelle during the 2003 STRATUS cruise and from the R/V Ron Brown during EPIC 2001 and the 2004 STRATUS cruises are suitable for validating and improving the interpretation of the satellite derived cloud properties. In this study, satellite-derived cloud properties including coverage, height, optical depth, and liquid water path are compared with in situ measurements taken during the EPIC and STRATUS cruises. The remotely sensed values are derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellites, and from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The products from this study will include regional monthly cloud climatologies derived from the GOES data for the 2003 and 2004 cruises as well as micro and macro physical cloud property retrievals centered over the ship tracks from MODIS and VIRS.

  20. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  1. Accelerator Tests of the Prototype Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) for GOES-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) is part of the Space Environmental In-Situ Suite (SEISS) for the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite series R (GOES-R) program. It will measure energetic protons from 10-200 MeV and ions through nickel (Z=28) with similar penetrating power. By use of an Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) system, EHIS achieves single element resolution with extensive on-board event processing. A prototype or "brass-board" instrument, fully functional but not intended for environmental testing, has been completed. In November of 2009, we exposed the prototype to protons at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and in March of 2010, we exposed it to Ni primary and fragment beams at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's (NSCL) Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF). In both cases, the instrument was rotated over a range of angles and a moving degrader spread the energy from full beam energy to zero energy. We will present results of these tests. These show an angular resolution for the prototype which results in a one sigma charge resolution of ~0.25 e at Ni. The prototype also demonstrated the capability for calculating the charge of 2500 events per second with its internal processor, accumulating those events in on-board charge histograms, and thus providing unprecedented statistics in high flux conditions. The EHIS represents a major advance in capabilities for operational space weather instruments while also providing data quality suitable for scientific research. The EHIS instrument development project was funded by NASA under contract NNG06HX01C.

  2. GOES-derived fog and low cloud indices for coastal north and central California ecological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Cindy Combs,; Peters, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Fog and low cloud cover (FLCC) changes the water, energy, and nutrient flux of coastal ecosystems. Easy-to-use FLCC data are needed to quantify the impacts of FLC on ecosystem dynamics during hot, dry Mediterranean climate summers. FLCC indices were generated from 26,000 hourly night and day FLCC maps derived from Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellite (GOES) data for June, July, August, and September, 1999- 2009 for coastal California, latitude 34.50°N, south of Monterey Bay, to latitude 41.95°N, north of Crescent City. Monthly FLCC average hours per day (h/d) range from d) to south (14 h/d) whereas FLCC over land is reversed. Over land, FLCC is highest where land juts into the prevailing NW winds and is lowest in the lee of major capes. FLCC advects furthest inland through low-lying NW ocean-facing valleys. At night hours of FLCC is higher more frequently on land than over the ocean. Interannual FLCC coefficient of variation shows long term geographic stability strongly associated with landform position. Contours delineating homogeneous zones of FLCC, derived from average decadal h/d FLCC, provide data to refine the commonly used term ‘fog belt.’ FLCC indices are available for download from the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative Climate Commons website. FLCC indices can be used to improve analyses of biogeographic and bioclimatic species distribution models, meteorological mechanisms driving FLCC patterns, ecohydrological investigations of evapotranspiration, solar energy feasibility studies, agricultural irrigation demand and viticultural ripening models.

  3. General Impact Of A Single Market - Albania Goes Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikollaq Pano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Brexit did trigger some discussion about the European Single Market future The Commission strategy for an area without internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods persons services and capital is ensured remains the same and increasingly attracts the attention and interest of policy makers and researchers. The digital single market a recent concept developed in the context of the European Union goes beyond the Cloud computing IoT and Big Data that are present-day words frequently mentioned in country strategies. The aim of coming together into a single market is to maximise the benefits of technology while simultaneously preserving values we hold timeless. Expanding this concept and considering the configuration of a digital market in Albania is the underpinning of this paper. Goods and services provided on-line will grant a better access and improved service to the benefit of customers under conditions of fair competition and a high level of consumer and personal data protection. A single platform necessarily digital can incorporate the banking industrial education investment markets and contribute to their unification. This first step of placing the idea should be followed by considering components like digital infrastructure development digitally educated people collaborative economy and others. There is a vision for the country development with no timeline yet above and beyond the brainstorming approach.

  4. Asteroid Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, W. J.

    2001-11-01

    Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other

  5. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  6. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  7. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  8. Image Navigation and Registration Performance Assessment Tool Set for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99.73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24-hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24-hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  9. Satellite image collection optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William

    2002-09-01

    Imaging satellite systems represent a high capital cost. Optimizing the collection of images is critical for both satisfying customer orders and building a sustainable satellite operations business. We describe the functions of an operational, multivariable, time dynamic optimization system that maximizes the daily collection of satellite images. A graphical user interface allows the operator to quickly see the results of what if adjustments to an image collection plan. Used for both long range planning and daily collection scheduling of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite, the satellite control and tasking (SCT) software allows collection commands to be altered up to 10 min before upload to the satellite.

  10. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  11. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  12. Debris Likelihood, based on GhostNet, NASA Aqua MODIS, and GOES Imager, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Debris Likelihood Index (Estimated) is calculated from GhostNet, NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a and NOAA GOES Imager SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended...

  13. Primary Productivity, NASA Aqua MODIS and GOES Imager, 0.1 degrees, Global, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a and NOAA GOES Imager SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific...

  14. Development and validation of satellite based estimates of surface visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2015-10-01

    A satellite based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5% for classifying Clear (V ≥ 30 km), Moderate (10 km ≤ V United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network, and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  15. The 2017 Hurricane Season: A Revolution in Geostationary Weather Satellite Imaging and Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, A. M.; Gundy, J.; Brown-Bertold, B.; Yates, H.; Dobler, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Since their introduction, geostationary weather satellites have enabled us to track hurricane life-cycle movement from development to dissipation. During the 2017 hurricane season, the new GOES-16 geostationary satellite demonstrated just how far we have progressed technologically in geostationary satellite imaging, with hurricane imagery showing never-before-seen detail of the hurricane eye and eyewall structure and life cycle. In addition, new ground system technology, leveraging high-performance computing, delivered imagery and data to forecasters with unprecedented speed—and with updates as often as every 30 seconds. As additional satellites and new products become operational, forecasters will be able to track hurricanes with even greater accuracy and assist in aftermath evaluations. This presentation will present glimpses into the past, a look at the present, and a prediction for the future utilization of geostationary satellites with respect to all facets of hurricane support.

  16. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  17. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  18. Economics of satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    This paper is partly a tutorial, telling systematically how one goes about calculating the total annual costs of a satellite communications system, and partly the expression of some original ideas on the choice of parameters so as to minimize these costs. The calculation of costs can be divided into two broad categories. The first is technical and is concerned with estimating what particular equipment will cost and what will be the annual expense to maintain and operate it. One starts in the estimation of any new system by listing the principal items of equipment, such as satellites, earth stations of various sizes and functions, telemetry and tracking equipment and terrestrial interfaces, and then estimating how much each item will cost. Methods are presented for generating such estimates, based on a knowledge of the gross parameters, such as antenna size, coverage area, transmitter power and information rate. These parameters determine the system performance and it is usually possible, knowing them, to estimate the costs of the equipment rather well. Some formulae based on regression analyses are presented. Methods are then given for estimating closely related expenses, such as maintenance and operation, and then an approximate method is developed for estimating terrestrial interconnection costs. It is pointed out that in specific cases when tariff and geographical information are available, it is usually better to work with specific data, but nonetheless it is often desirable, especially in global system estimating, to approximate these interconnect costs without recourse to individual tariffs. The procedure results in a set of costs for the purchase of equipment and its maintenance, and a schedule of payments. Some payments will be incurred during the manufacture of the satellite and before any systems operation, but many will not be incurred until the system is no longer in use, e.g. incentives. In any case, with the methods presented in the first section, one

  19. SatelliteDL: a Toolkit for Analysis of Heterogeneous Satellite Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloy, M. D.; Fillmore, D.

    2014-12-01

    SatelliteDL is an IDL toolkit for the analysis of satellite Earth observations from a diverse set of platforms and sensors. The core function of the toolkit is the spatial and temporal alignment of satellite swath and geostationary data. The design features an abstraction layer that allows for easy inclusion of new datasets in a modular way. Our overarching objective is to create utilities that automate the mundane aspects of satellite data analysis, are extensible and maintainable, and do not place limitations on the analysis itself. IDL has a powerful suite of statistical and visualization tools that can be used in conjunction with SatelliteDL. Toward this end we have constructed SatelliteDL to include (1) HTML and LaTeX API document generation,(2) a unit test framework,(3) automatic message and error logs,(4) HTML and LaTeX plot and table generation, and(5) several real world examples with bundled datasets available for download. For ease of use, datasets, variables and optional workflows may be specified in a flexible format configuration file. Configuration statements may specify, for example, a region and date range, and the creation of images, plots and statistical summary tables for a long list of variables. SatelliteDL enforces data provenance; all data should be traceable and reproducible. The output NetCDF file metadata holds a complete history of the original datasets and their transformations, and a method exists to reconstruct a configuration file from this information. Release 0.1.0 distributes with ingest methods for GOES, MODIS, VIIRS and CERES radiance data (L1) as well as select 2D atmosphere products (L2) such as aerosol and cloud (MODIS and VIIRS) and radiant flux (CERES). Future releases will provide ingest methods for ocean and land surface products, gridded and time averaged datasets (L3 Daily, Monthly and Yearly), and support for 3D products such as temperature and water vapor profiles. Emphasis will be on NPP Sensor, Environmental and

  20. A simplified physical model for assessing solar radiation over Brazil using GOES 8 visible imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Juan Carlos; Bottino, Marcus Jorge; de Souza, Jaidete Monteiro

    2004-01-01

    Solar radiation assessment by satellite is constrained by physical limitations of imagery and by the accuracy of instantaneous local atmospheric parameters, suggesting that one should use simplified but physically consistent models for operational work. Such a model is presented for use with GOES 8 imagery applied to atmospheres with low aerosol optical depth. Fundamental satellite-derived parameters are reflectance and cloud cover. A classification method applied to a set of images shows that reflectance, usually defined as upper-threshold Rmax in algorithms assessing cloud cover, would amount ˜0.465, corresponding to the transition between a cumuliform and a stratiform cloud field. Ozone absorption is limited to the stratosphere. The model considers two spectral broadband intervals for tropospheric radiative transfer: ultraviolet and visible intervals are essentially nonabsorbing and can be processed as a single interval, while near-infrared intervals have negligible atmospheric scattering and very low cloud transmittance. Typical values of CO2 and O3 content and of precipitable water are considered. A comparison of daily values of modeled mean irradiance with data of three sites (in rural, urban industrial, and urban coastal environments), September-October 2002, exhibits a bias of +5 W m-2 and a standard deviation of ˜15 W m-2 (0.4 and 1.3 MJ m-2 for daily irradiation). A comparison with monthly means from about 80 automatic weather stations (covering a large area throughout the Brazilian territory) still shows a bias generally within ±10 W m-2 and a low standard deviation (annual cycle of local Rmax values. Systematic (mean) errors in partial cloud cover and in nearly clear-sky situations may be enhanced using regional values for atmospheric and surface parameters, such as precipitable water, Rmax, and ground reflectance. The larger errors are observed in situations of high aerosol load (especially in regions with industrial activity or forest or

  1. Design of an Image Motion Compenstaion (IMC Algorithm for Image Registration of the Communication, Ocean, Meteorolotical Satellite (COMS-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek Seo Jung

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Image Motion Compensation (IMC algorithm for the Korea's Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS-1. An IMC algorithm is a priority component of image registration in Image Navigation and Registration (INR system to locate and register radiometric image data. Due to various perturbations, a satellite has orbit and attitude errors with respect to a reference motion. These errors cause depointing of the imager aiming direction, and in consequence cause image distortions. To correct the depointing of the imager aiming direction, a compensation algorithm is designed by adapting different equations from those used for the GOES satellites. The capability of the algorithm is compared with that of existing algorithm applied to the GOES's INR system. The algorithm developed in this paper improves pointing accuracy by 40%, and efficiently compensates the depointings of the imager aiming direction.

  2. Communication satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  3. Using Deep Learning for Targeted Data Selection, Improving Satellite Observation Utilization for Model Initialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. J.; Bonfanti, C. E.; Trailovic, L.; Etherton, B.; Govett, M.; Stewart, J.

    2017-12-01

    At present, a fraction of all satellite observations are ultimately used for model assimilation. The satellite data assimilation process is computationally expensive and data are often reduced in resolution to allow timely incorporation into the forecast. This problem is only exacerbated by the recent launch of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-16 satellite and future satellites providing several order of magnitude increase in data volume. At the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) we are researching the use of machine learning the improve the initial selection of satellite data to be used in the model assimilation process. In particular, we are investigating the use of deep learning. Deep learning is being applied to many image processing and computer vision problems with great success. Through our research, we are using convolutional neural network to find and mark regions of interest (ROI) to lead to intelligent extraction of observations from satellite observation systems. These targeted observations will be used to improve the quality of data selected for model assimilation and ultimately improve the impact of satellite data on weather forecasts. Our preliminary efforts to identify the ROI's are focused in two areas: applying and comparing state-of-art convolutional neural network models using the analysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) weather model, and using these results as a starting point to optimize convolution neural network model for pattern recognition on the higher resolution water vapor data from GOES-WEST and other satellite. This presentation will provide an introduction to our convolutional neural network model to identify and process these ROI's, along with the challenges of data preparation, training the model, and parameter optimization.

  4. Satellite services system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  5. Solar flares observed simultaneously with SphinX, GOES and RHESSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, Tomasz; Gburek, Szymon; Siarkowski, Marek; Sylwester, Barbara; Sylwester, Janusz; Kępa, Anna; Gryciuk, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    In February 2009, during recent deepest solar minimum, Polish Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) begun observations of the Sun in the energy range of 1.2-15 keV. SphinX was almost 100 times more sensitive than GOES X-ray Sensors. The silicon PIN diode detectors used in the experiment were carefully calibrated on the ground using Synchrotron Radiation Source BESSY II. The SphinX energy range overlaps with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) energy range. The instrument provided us with observations of hundreds of very small flares and X-ray brightenings. We have chosen a group of solar flares observed simultaneously with GOES, SphinX and RHESSI and performed spectroscopic analysis of observations wherever possible. The analysis of thermal part of the spectra showed that SphinX is a very sensitive complementary observatory for RHESSI and GOES.

  6. Monitoring and optimization of ATLAS Tier 2 center GoeGrid

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219638; Quadt, Arnulf; Yahyapour, Ramin

    The demand on computational and storage resources is growing along with the amount of information that needs to be processed and preserved. In order to ease the provisioning of the digital services to the growing number of consumers, more and more distributed computing systems and platforms are actively developed and employed. The building block of the distributed computing infrastructure are single computing centers, similar to the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, Tier 2 centre GoeGrid. The main motivation of this thesis was the optimization of GoeGrid performance by efficient monitoring. The goal has been achieved by means of the GoeGrid monitoring information analysis. The data analysis approach was based on the adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and machine learning algorithm such as Linear Support Vector Machine (SVM). The main object of the research was the digital service, since availability, reliability and serviceability of the computing platform can be measured according to the const...

  7. Analysis of microstructure and microtexture in grain-oriented electrical steel (GOES during manufacturing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Volodarskaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The final Goss texture in grain-oriented electrical steels (GOES is affected by microstructure evolution and inheritance during the whole production process. This paper presents the results of detailed microtexture and microstructure investigations on GOES after the basic steps of the industrial AlN + Cu manufacturing process: hot rolling, first cold rolling + decarburization annealing, second cold rolling and final high temperature annealing. Microstructure studies showed that a copper addition to GOES affected solubility of sulphides. Copper rich sulphides dissolved during hot rolling and re-precipitated during decarburization annealing. An intensive precipitation of AlN and Si3N4 took place during decarburization annealing. No ε - Cu precipitation was detected. After high temperature annealing the misorientation of individual grains reached up to 8°.

  8. ELROI Extremely Low Resource Optical Identifier. A license plate for your satellite, and more.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    ELROI (Extremely Low Resource Optical Identifier) is a license plate for your satellite; a small tag that flashes an optical identification code that can be read by a small telescope on the ground. The final version of the tag will be the size of a thick postage stamp and fully autonomous: you can attach it to everything that goes into space, including small cubesats and inert debris like rocket stages, and it will keep blinking even after the satellite is shut down, reliably identifying the object from launch until re-entry.

  9. Assimilating All-Sky Himawari-8 Satellite Infrared Radiances: A Case of Typhoon Soudelor (2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Takumi; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Lien, Guo-Yuan; Nishizawa, Seiya; Yoshida, Ryuji; Adachi, Sachiho A.; Terasaki, Koji; Okamoto, Kozo; Tomita, Hirofumi; Bessho, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    Japan’s new geostationary satellite Himawari-8, the first of a series of the third-generation geostationary meteorological satellites includingGOES-16, has been operational since July 2015. Himawari-8 produces highresolution observations with 16 frequency bands every 10 min for full disk, and every 2.5 min for local regions. This study aims to assimilate all-sky every-10-min infrared (IR) radiances from Himawari-8 with a regional numerical weather prediction model and to investigate its impac...

  10. COIN Goes GLOCAL: Traditional COIN With a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-17

    COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles? A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global P ti D th C t US St t R fl t COIN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perspective: Does...Monograph: COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

  11. GOES-R Proving Ground Activities at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines

  12. NOAA Satellites Provide a Keen View of the Martin Luther King Solar Storm of January 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D. C.; Allen, J. H.

    2005-05-01

    Solar active region 0720 rotated onto the east limb on January 10th and put on a pyrotechnic display uncharacteristic for this phase of the solar cycle before disappearing beyond the west limb on January 23rd. On January 15th this region released the first of five X-class solar flares. The last of those flares, January 20th, was associated with an extraordinary ion storm whose effect reached Earth's surface. This paper highlights the record of this event made by NOAA's GOES satellites via their Space Environment Monitor (SEM) subsystems that measures X-ray, energetic particles, and the magnetic field vector at the satellite. Displays of those data are supplemented by neutron monitor data to illustrate their relationship to the January 20th Ground Level Event. GOES-12 is also equipped with the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) that produces an image of the Sun in X-ray wavelengths once per minute. Movies created from those data perfectly illustrate the cause-and-effect relationship between intense solar activity and satellite disruptions. The flares on January 17th and 20th are closely followed by noise in the SXI telescope resulting from energetic ions penetrating SXI. Ions with sufficient velocity and atomic number can penetrate satellite components and deposit charge along their path. Sufficient charge deposition can introduce erroneous information into solid-state devices. A survey of satellites that experienced problems of this type during this event will also be presented.

  13. Satellite Communications Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Ariane $loom SAJAC 1 Hughes Satellite Japan 06/94 $150m SAJAC 2 Hughes Satellite Japan -- (spare) $150m SatcomHl GE GE Americom /95 $50m SOLIDARIDAD ...1 Hughes SCT (Mexico) 11/93 Ariane $loom SOLIDARIDAD 2 Hughes SCT (Mexico) /94 $loom Superbird Al Loral Space Com Gp (Jap) 11/92 Ariane $175m

  14. Partnership via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Marie Clare

    1980-01-01

    Segments of the 1980 National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) conference were to be telecast nationally by satellite. The author briefly explains the satellite transmission process and advises Catholic educators on how to pick up the broadcast through their local cable television system. (SJL)

  15. The satellite situation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities

  16. The Second Eigenvalue of the p-Laplacian as p Goes to 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Parini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymptotic behaviour of the second eigenvalue of the p-Laplacian operator as p goes to 1 is investigated. The limit setting depends only on the geometry of the domain. In the particular case of a planar disc, it is possible to show that the second eigenfunctions are nonradial if p is close enough to 1.

  17. Deformed GOE for systems with a few degrees of freedom in the chaotic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    New distribution laws for the energy level spacings and the eigenvector amplitudes, appropriate for systems with a few degrees of freedom in the chaotic regime, are derived by conveniently deforming the GOE. The cases of 2X2 and 3X3 matrices are fully worked out. Suggestions concerning the general case of matrices with large dimensions are made. (author)

  18. Deformed GOE for systems with a few degrees of freedom in the chaotic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1990-03-01

    New distribution laws for the energy level spacings and the eigenvector amplitudes, approapriate for systems with a few degrees of freedom in the chaotic regime, are derived by conveniently deforming the GOE. The cases of 2x2 and 3x3 matrices are fully worked out. Suggestions concerning the general case of matrices with large dimensions are made. (author) [pt

  19. GOES-R active vibration damping controller design, implementation, and on-orbit performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Weigl, Harald J.; Goodzeit, Neil E.; Carter, Delano R.; Rood, Timothy J.

    2018-01-01

    GOES-R series spacecraft feature a number of flexible appendages with modal frequencies below 3.0 Hz which, if excited by spacecraft disturbances, can be sources of undesirable jitter perturbing spacecraft pointing. To meet GOES-R pointing stability requirements, the spacecraft flight software implements an Active Vibration Damping (AVD) rate control law which acts in parallel with the nadir point attitude control law. The AVD controller commands spacecraft reaction wheel actuators based upon Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) inputs to provide additional damping for spacecraft structural modes below 3.0 Hz which vary with solar wing angle. A GOES-R spacecraft dynamics and attitude control system identified model is constructed from pseudo-random reaction wheel torque commands and IMU angular rate response measurements occurring over a single orbit during spacecraft post-deployment activities. The identified Fourier model is computed on the ground, uplinked to the spacecraft flight computer, and the AVD controller filter coefficients are periodically computed on-board from the Fourier model. Consequently, the AVD controller formulation is based not upon pre-launch simulation model estimates but upon on-orbit nadir point attitude control and time-varying spacecraft dynamics. GOES-R high-fidelity time domain simulation results herein demonstrate the accuracy of the AVD identified Fourier model relative to the pre-launch spacecraft dynamics and control truth model. The AVD controller on-board the GOES-16 spacecraft achieves more than a ten-fold increase in structural mode damping for the fundamental solar wing mode while maintaining controller stability margins and ensuring that the nadir point attitude control bandwidth does not fall below 0.02 Hz. On-orbit GOES-16 spacecraft appendage modal frequencies and damping ratios are quantified based upon the AVD system identification, and the increase in modal damping provided by the AVD controller for each structural mode is

  20. NASA/SPoRT's GOES-R Activities in Support of Product Development, Management, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, K. K.; Jedlovec, G.; Molthan, A.; Stano, G. T.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports many activities within the GOES-R Proving Grounds (PG). These include the development of imagery from existing instrumentation as a proxy to future Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) capabilities on GOES-R. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instruments are used to provide a glimpse of the multi-spectral capabilities that will become the norm as the number of channels and data rate dramatically increase with GOES-R. The NOAA/NWS has plans to provide operational users with all ABI channels at the highest resolution. Data fusion of individual channels into composite red, green, and blue imagery products will assist the end user with this future wave of information. While increasing the efficiency in the operational use of ABI channels, these composites provide only qualitative information. Within the GOES-R PG, SPoRT and other partners are exploring ways to include quantitative information as part of the composite imagery. However, limitations in local hardware processing and/or data bandwidth for users of the GOES-R data stream are challenges to overcome. This presentation will discuss the creation of these composite images as well as possible solutions to address these processing challenges. In a similar manner the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) to be launched on GOES-R presents several data management challenges. The GLM is a pioneering instrument to quantify total lightning from a geostationary platform. The expected data frequency from the GLM is to be at a sub-minute interval. Users of such a data set may have little experience in handling such a rapid update of information. To assist users, SPoRT is working with the NWS to develop tools within the user's decision support system to allow tracking and analysis of total lightning from a storm-based perspective. This presentation will discuss the

  1. NASA/SPoRT's GOES-R Activities in Support of Product Development, Management, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedlovec, Gary; Molthan, Andrew L.; Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports many activities within the GOES-R Proving Grounds (PG). These include the development of imagery from existing instrumentation as a proxy to future Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) capabilities on GOES-R. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instruments are used to provide a glimpse of the multi-spectral capabilities that will become the norm as the number of channels and data rate dramatically increase with GOES-R. The NOAA/NWS has plans to provide operational users with all ABI channels at the highest resolution. Data fusion of individual channels into composite red, green, and blue imagery products will assist the end user with this future wave of information. While increasing the efficiency in the operational use of ABI channels, these composites provide only qualitative information. Within the GOES-R PG, SPoRT and other partners are exploring ways to include quantitative information as part of the composite imagery. However, limitations in local hardware processing and/or data bandwidth for users of the GOES-R data stream are challenges to overcome. This presentation will discuss the creation of these composite images as well as possible solutions to address these processing challenges. In a similar manner the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) to be launched on GOES-R presents several data management challenges. The GLM is a pioneering instrument to quantify total lightning from a geostationary platform. The expected data frequency from the GLM is to be at a sub-minute interval. Users of such a data set may have little experience in handling such a rapid update of information. To assist users, SPoRT is working with the NWS to develop tools within the user fs decision support system to allow tracking and analysis of total lightning from a storm-based perspective. This presentation will discuss the

  2. Probability of satellite collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarter, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.

  3. The world goes modern: new globalized framings of the postwar era in the contemporary exhibitions After Year Zero and The World Goes Pop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Handberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the contemporary art historical focus on multiple modernities through two significant exhibitions: After Year Zero at Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin 2013/Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw 2015 and The World Goes Pop, Tate Modern, London (2015. These different exhibitions are aimed at re-reading the post-1945 era in a global context, discussing how arts and culture responded to a global modernity. The article emphasizes the overlapping interests in this by academic art history and criticism as well as museal and curatorial efforts and discusses the idea of curatorial research in these different approaches.

  4. Onsets of Solar Proton Events in Satellite and Ground Level Observations: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Rodriguez, Juan V.

    2018-03-01

    The early detection of solar proton event onsets is essential for protecting humans and electronics in space, as well as passengers and crew at aviation altitudes. Two commonly compared methods for observing solar proton events that are sufficiently large and energetic to be detected on the ground through the creation of secondary radiation—known as ground level enhancements (GLEs)—are (1) a network of ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) and (2) satellite-based particle detectors. Until recently, owing to the different time resolution of the two data sets, it has not been feasible to compare these two types of observations using the same detection algorithm. This paper presents a comparison between the two observational platforms using newly processed >100 MeV 1 min count rates and fluxes from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 8-12 satellites, and 1 min count rates from the Neutron Monitor Database. We applied the same detection algorithm to each data set (tuned to the different background noise levels of the instrument types). Seventeen SPEs with GLEs were studied: GLEs 55-70 from Solar Cycle 23 and GLE 71 from Solar Cycle 24. The median difference in the event detection times by GOES and NM data is 0 min, indicating no innate benefit in time of either system. The 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the onset time differences (GOES minus NMs) are -7.2 min, -1.5 min, 2.5 min, and 4.2 min, respectively. This is in contrast to previous studies in which NM detections led GOES by 8 to 52 min without accounting for different alert protocols.

  5. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  6. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  7. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...

  8. Programming a real-time operating system for satellite control applications Satellite Control Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, M.; Anjum, O.; Suddle, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    With the realization of ideas like formation flights and multi-body space vehicles the demands on an attitude control system have become increasingly complex. Even in its most simplified form, the control system for a typical geostationary satellite has to run various supervisory functions along with determination and control algorithms side by side. Within each algorithm it has to employ multiple actuation and sensing mechanisms and service real time interrupts, for example, in the case of actuator saturation and sensor data fusion. This entails the idea of thread scheduling and program synchronization, tasks specifically meant for a real time OS. This paper explores the embedding of attitude determination and control loop within the framework of a real time operating system provided for TI's DSP C6xxx series. The paper details out the much functionality provided within the scaleable real time kernel and the analysis and configuration tools available, It goes on to describe a layered implementation stack associated with a typical control for Geo Stationary satellites. An application for control is then presented in which state of the art analysis tools are employed to view program threads, synchronization semaphores, hardware interrupts and data exchange pipes operating in real time. (author)

  9. Characterizing floodplain evolution by joint analysis of SAR, GOES IR and local precipitation data: Case study of Rio Colorado, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, R.; Oyen, A. M.; Weltje, G.; Sarna, K.; Donselaar, R.

    2013-12-01

    Dryland rivers in an endorheic basin experience downstream decrease of channel width and depth as the consequence of transmission losses by percolation and evapo-transpiration. Major changes in the river morphology take place during short peak discharge periods when the volume of water and sediment by far exceeds the river capacity and, as a consequence, meander bends are cut off, and the river path may change position by avulsion. Successive avulsions create a complex network of cross-cutting abandoned river channels. The Río Colorado, located in the southeast part of the Altiplano basin in Bolivia, is such a river system. This system consists of a very low-gradient lacustrine coastal plain onto which is deposited a 400 km2 sheet of fluvial sediment over the last 4000 year. Traditional studies to monitor the morphological changes at the terminus of the river system are based on field data acquisition of the fluvial sediments. This is time consuming and only covers a small area of the total fluvial morphology. The combination of field measurements and remote sensing imagery allows for the analysis of the development of the entire river system terminus at a longer temporal scale. Changes of alluvial surfaces affect the reflectance of objects and patterns on the ground, which is recorded by satellite images. In this study we show the response of the delta to rainfall events of various intensities in the Rio Colorado watershed. We combine precipitation data in the watershed with spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. We use two data sets that contain precipitation information: rainfall estimates based on Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) weather satellite IR window brightness temperatures and direct measures of rainfall from rain gauges in the vicinity of the delta. To detect changes on the surface water content we use the backscatter intensity or amplitude images from the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) Synthetic Aperture

  10. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  11. Cloud cover typing from environmental satellite imagery. Discriminating cloud structure with Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. L.; Huning, J. R.; Glackin, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of two dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) subjected to pattern recognition technology for the identification and classification of low altitude stratus cloud structure from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery was examined. The development of a scene independent pattern recognition methodology, unconstrained by conventional cloud morphological classifications was emphasized. A technique for extracting cloud shape, direction, and size attributes from GOES visual imagery was developed. These attributes were combined with two statistical attributes (cloud mean brightness, cloud standard deviation), and interrogated using unsupervised clustering amd maximum likelihood classification techniques. Results indicate that: (1) the key cloud discrimination attributes are mean brightness, direction, shape, and minimum size; (2) cloud structure can be differentiated at given pixel scales; (3) cloud type may be identifiable at coarser scales; (4) there are positive indications of scene independence which would permit development of a cloud signature bank; (5) edge enhancement of GOES imagery does not appreciably improve cloud classification over the use of raw data; and (6) the GOES imagery must be apodized before generation of FFTs.

  12. Geostationary satellite estimation of biomass burning in Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, W.P.; Cutrim, E.C.; Prins, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) infrared window (3.9 and 11.2 microns) data to monitor biomass burning several times per day in Amazonia. The technique of Matson and Dozier using two window channels was adapted to GOES VAS infrared data to estimate the size and temperature of fires associated with deforestation in the vicinity of Alta Floresta, Brazil, during the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment - Amazonia (BASE-A). Although VAS data do not offer the spatial resolution available with AVHRR data 97 km versus 1 km, respectively, this decreased resolution does not seem to hinder the ability of the VAS instrument to detect fires; in some cases it proves to be advantageous in that saturation does not occur as often. VAS visible data are additionally helpful in verifying that the hot spots sensed in the infrared are actually related to fires. Furthermore, the fire plumes can be tracked in time to determine their motion and extent. In this way, the GOES satellite offers a unique ability to monitor diurnal variations in fire activity and transport of related aerosols

  13. ATLAS Tier-2 at the Compute Resource Center GoeGrid in Göttingen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jörg; Quadt, Arnulf; Weber, Pavel; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    GoeGrid is a grid resource center located in Göttingen, Germany. The resources are commonly used, funded, and maintained by communities doing research in the fields of grid development, computer science, biomedicine, high energy physics, theoretical physics, astrophysics, and the humanities. For the high energy physics community, GoeGrid serves as a Tier-2 center for the ATLAS experiment as part of the world-wide LHC computing grid (WLCG). The status and performance of the Tier-2 center is presented with a focus on the interdisciplinary setup and administration of the cluster. Given the various requirements of the different communities on the hardware and software setup the challenge of the common operation of the cluster is detailed. The benefits are an efficient use of computer and personpower resources.

  14. Near-real-time global biomass burning emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ram, Jessica; Schmidt, Christopher; Huang, Ho-Chun

    2012-07-01

    Near-real-time estimates of biomass burning emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass burning emission product from geostationary satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass burning algorithm) from a network of multiple geostationary satellites. The network consists of two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency. These satellites observe wildfires at an interval of 15-30 min. Because of the impacts from sensor saturation, cloud cover, and background surface, the FRP values are generally not continuously observed. The missing observations are simulated by combining the available instantaneous FRP observations within a day and a set of representative climatological diurnal patterns of FRP for various ecosystems. Finally, the simulated diurnal variation in FRP is applied to quantify biomass combustion and emissions in individual fire pixels with a latency of 1 day. By analyzing global patterns in hourly biomass burning emissions in 2010, we find that peak fire season varied greatly and that annual wildfires burned 1.33 × 1012 kg dry mass, released 1.27 × 1010 kg of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter forest and savanna fires in Africa, South America, and North America. Evaluation of emission result reveals that the GBBEP-Geo estimates are comparable with other FRP-derived estimates in Africa, while the results are generally smaller than most of the other global products that were derived from burned

  15. The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Global Observing System for Total Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.; Buechler, D.; Carey, L.; Chronis, T.; Mach, D.; Bateman, M.; Peterson, H.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; hide

    2014-01-01

    for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. The GLM will help address the National Weather Service requirement for total lightning observations globally to support warning decision-making and forecast services. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS national centers, forecast offices, and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in 2016. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

  16. Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99.73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24 hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  17. Satellite failures revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.

  18. ESA's satellite communications programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  19. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  20. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  1. Exobiology of icy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, M. B.

    At the beginning of 2004 the total number of discovered planets near other stars was 119 All of them are massive giants and met practically in all orbits In a habitable zone from 0 8 up to 1 1 AU at less 11 planets has been found starting with HD 134987 and up to HD 4203 It would be naive to suppose existence of life in unique known to us amino-nucleic acid form on the gas-liquid giant planets Nevertheless conditions for onset and evolutions of life can be realized on hypothetical satellites extrasolar planets All giant planets of the Solar system have a big number of satellites 61 of Jupiter 52 of Saturn known in 2003 A small part of them consist very large bodies quite comparable to planets of terrestrial type but including very significant share of water ice Some from them have an atmosphere E g the mass of a column of the Titan s atmosphere exceeds 15 times the mass of the Earth atmosphere column Formation or capture of satellites is a natural phenomenon and satellite systems definitely should exist at extrasolar planets A hypothetical satellite of the planet HD 28185 with a dense enough atmosphere and hydrosphere could have biosphere of terrestrial type within the limits of our notion about an origin of terrestrial biosphere As an example we can see on Titan the largest satellite of Saturn which has a dense nitrogen atmosphere and a large quantity of liquid water under ice cover and so has a great exobiological significance The most recent models of the Titan s interior lead to the conclusion that a substantial liquid layer

  2. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  3. Improved Satellite Techniques for Monitoring and Forecasting the Transition of Hurricanes to Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael; Halverson, Jeffrey; Berndt, Emily; Dunion, Jason; Goodman, Steve; Goldberg, Mitch

    2014-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites R-Series (GOES-R) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Satellite Proving Grounds have introduced multiple proxy and operational products into operations over the last few years. Some of these products have proven to be useful in current operations at various National Weather Service (NWS) offices and national centers as a first look at future satellite capabilities. Forecasters at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Ocean Prediction Center (OPC), NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) and the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) field campaign have had access to a few of these products to assist in monitoring extratropical transitions of hurricanes. The red, green, blue (RGB) Air Mass product provides forecasters with an enhanced view of various air masses in one complete image to help differentiate between possible stratospheric/tropospheric interactions, moist tropical air masses, and cool, continental/maritime air masses. As a compliment to this product, a new Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Ozone product was introduced in the past year to assist in diagnosing the dry air intrusions seen in the RGB Air Mass product. Finally, a lightning density product was introduced to forecasters as a precursor to the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) that will be housed on GOES-R, to monitor the most active regions of convection, which might indicate a disruption in the tropical environment and even signal the onset of extratropical transition. This presentation will focus on a few case studies that exhibit extratropical transition and point out the usefulness of these new satellite techniques in aiding forecasters forecast these challenging events.

  4. Development and Analysis of Image Registration Program for the Communication, Ocean, Meteorological Satellite (COMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un-Seob Lee

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed a software for simulations and analyses of the Image Navigation and Registration (INR system, and compares the characteristics of Image Motion Compensation (IMC algorithms for the INR system. According to the orbit errors and attitude errors, the capabilities of the image distortions are analyzed. The distortions of images can be compensated by GOES IMC algorithm and Modified IMC (MIMC algorithm. The capabilities of each IMC algorithm are confirmed based on compensated images. The MIMC yields better results than GOES IMC although both the algorithms well compensate distorted images. The results of this research can be used as valuable asset to design of INR system for the Communication, Ocean, Meteorological Satellite (COMS.

  5. Multisensor satellite data integration for sea surface wind speed and direction determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, D. L.; Pihos, G. G.; Wheelock, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques to integrate meteorological data from various satellite sensors to yield a global measure of sea surface wind speed and direction for input to the Navy's operational weather forecast models were investigated. The sensors were launched or will be launched, specifically the GOES visible and infrared imaging sensor, the Nimbus-7 SMMR, and the DMSP SSM/I instrument. An algorithm for the extrapolation to the sea surface of wind directions as derived from successive GOES cloud images was developed. This wind veering algorithm is relatively simple, accounts for the major physical variables, and seems to represent the best solution that can be found with existing data. An algorithm for the interpolation of the scattered observed data to a common geographical grid was implemented. The algorithm is based on a combination of inverse distance weighting and trend surface fitting, and is suited to combing wind data from disparate sources.

  6. The American Satellite Company (ASC) satellite deployed from payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The American Satellite Company (ASC) communications satellite is deployed from the payload bay of the Shuttle Discovery. A portion of the cloudy surface of the earth can be seen to the left of the frame.

  7. Leveraging the NPS Femto Satellite for Alternative Satellite Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    programmed for eventual integration with the Iridium Network , which is then tested. C. THESIS ORGANIZATION The thesis addresses these questions...NPS FEMTO SATELLITE FOR ALTERNATIVE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS by Faisal S. Alshaya September 2017 Co-Advisors: Steven J. Iatrou...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LEVERAGING THE NPS FEMTO SATELLITE FOR ALTERNATIVE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 5

  8. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Jr., Richard A; Elsea, Jennifer K

    2008-01-01

    ... and law enforcement purposes, in addition to the civil applications that have been supported for years. In 2007, it moved to transfer responsibility for coordinating civilian use of satellites to the Department of Homeland Security. The transfer occurred, however, apparently without notification of key congressional oversight committees.

  9. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of vB_BveP-Goe6, a Virus Infecting Bacillus velezensis FZB42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tobias; Hoppert, Michael; Daniel, Rolf; Hertel, Robert

    2018-02-22

    The new virus vB_BveP-Goe6 was isolated on the host organism Bacillus velezensis FZB42. The virus morphology indicated its association with the genus Phi29virus The genome of vB_BveP-Goe6 (19,105 bp) comprises a linear chromosome with a GC content of 39.99%. The genome harbors 26 putative protein-coding genes and a noncoding packaging RNA. Copyright © 2018 Schilling et al.

  11. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) Microwave (MW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Microwave (MW) observations of tropical cyclones worldwide data consist of raw satellite observations. The data derive from the...

  12. Satellite transmission of oceanographic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; DeSa, E.J.

    Oceanographic data collected on a research vessel has been transmitted to a shore laboratory using the INMARSAT maritime satellite The system configuration used, consisted of Satellite Communication Terminals interfaced to desk top computers...

  13. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  14. Monitoring Cyanobacteria with Satellites Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    real-world satellite applications can quantify cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms and related water quality parameters. Provisional satellite derived cyanobacteria data and different software tools are available to state environmental and health agencies.

  15. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  16. Validation of Cloud Properties From Multiple Satellites Using CALIOP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher R.; Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Heck, Patrick W.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Trepte, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Langley Satellite ClOud and Radiative Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) is routinely applied to multispectral imagery from several geostationary and polar-orbiting imagers to retrieve cloud properties for weather and climate applications. Validation of the retrievals with independent datasets is continuously ongoing in order to understand differences caused by calibration, spatial resolution, viewing geometry, and other factors. The CALIOP instrument provides a decade of detailed cloud observations which can be used to evaluate passive imager retrievals of cloud boundaries, thermodynamic phase, cloud optical depth, and water path on a global scale. This paper focuses on comparisons of CALIOP retrievals to retrievals from MODIS, VIIRS, AVHRR, GOES, SEVIRI, and MTSAT. CALIOP is particularly skilled at detecting weakly-scattering cirrus clouds with optical depths less than approx. 0.5. These clouds are often undetected by passive imagers and the effect this has on the property retrievals is discussed.

  17. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rosa

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  18. Development and validation of satellite-based estimates of surface visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2016-02-01

    A satellite-based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5 % for classifying clear (V ≥ 30 km), moderate (10 km ≤ V United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  19. Sustainability and the cultural factor. Results from the Dutch GOES Mass Public Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, P.; Vinken, H. [Institute for Globalization and Sustainable Development GLOBUS, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    GOES stands for the GlObal Environmental Survey. The Dutch government declared sustainable development as the cornerstone of its environmental policy. This strategic policy shift presupposes a concerned citizenry willing to accept the way this might affect private lifestyles. The Dutch GOES MASS PUBLIC MODULE - part of a large-scale international study on citizens' environmental perceptions, values, and behaviors - shows the Dutch are concerned about environmental problems. Though they are most worried about classic environmental problems (e.g. air pollution), they realize that more long-term issues (e.g. global warming) are pressing too. They define themselves as being well-informed, feel the individual can make a difference, display a high self-efficacy, and prioritize ecological concerns over economic gains. They, however, do not accept policies that limit personal choice. The Dutch favor soft policies, voluntary lifestyle change, and softer ways of taking action (e.g. checkbook participation). Water and energy conservation no longer seem on the household agenda. Explaining policy preferences, protective action, and individual environmentally-friendly behavior shows environmental attitudes hardly make a difference. Basic values (e.g. post materialism), supporting the environment over economic growth, and a higher education do have an impact as regards protective action. This is less so for policy preferences or environmentally-friendly behavior. The Dutch GOES MASS PUBLIC MODULE points at the imperative necessity to bridge the grand environmental narratives of policy makers, particularly when they frame ecological problems as global, abstract, and long-term issues, and the here-and-now narratives of the well-informed and concerned citizens in their role of responsible consumers.

  20. The long-term effects of space weather on satellite operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Welling

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated lifetime radiation damage may cause spacecraft to become more susceptible to operational anomalies by changing material characteristics of electronic components. This study demonstrates and quantifies the impact of these effects by examining the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC satellite anomaly database. Energetic particle data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES is used to construct the total lifetime particle exposure a satellite has received at the epoch of an anomaly. These values are compared to the satellite's chronological age and the average exposure per year (calculated over two solar cycles. The results show that many anomalies occur on satellites that have received a total lifetime high-energy particle exposure that is disproportionate to their age. In particular, 10.8% of all events occurred on satellites that received over two times more 20 to 40 MeV proton lifetime particle exposure than predicted using an average annual mean. This number inflates to 35.2% for 40 to 80 MeV protons and 33.7% for ≥2 MeV electrons. Overall, 73.5% of all anomalies occurred on a spacecraft that had experienced greater than two times the expected particle exposure for one of the eight particle populations used in this study. Simplistically, this means that the long term radiation background exposure matters, and that if the background radiation is elevated during the satellite's lifetime, the satellite is likely to experience more anomalies than satellites that have not been exposed to the elevated environment.

  1. Return to "0": A Lacanian Reading of Ingeborg Bachmann's "Undine Goes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica P. Scrol

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay approaches Ingeborg Bachmann's "Undine Goes" from a Lacanian perspective. The object of the study is three-fold: first, to demonstrate Bachmann's deconstruction of the ideal ego through the water-sprite Undine's criticism of the human Hans. Second, to transcend the limitations of dualistic interpretations (as noted by some feminist critics, by introducing the triple Lacanian registers—the imaginary, the symbolic, and the real—into this particular reading. Finally, to establish Bachmann's monologic text as a discourse of the real and Undine as the voice of the death instinct.

  2. Infrared Astronomy Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, G. A.

    1981-09-01

    In 1982, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) will be launched into a 900-km sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit to perform an unbiased, all-sky survey of the far-infrared spectrum from 8 to 120 microns. Observations telemetered to ground stations will be compiled into an IR astronomy catalog. Attention is given the cryogenically cooled, 60-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescope carried by the satellite, whose primary and secondary mirrors are fabricated from beryllium by means of 'Cryo-Null Figuring'. This technique anticipates the mirror distortions that will result from cryogenic cooling of the telescope and introduces dimensional compensations for them during machining and polishing. Consideration is also given to the interferometric characterization of telescope performance and Cryo/Thermal/Vacuum simulated space environment testing.

  3. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements....

  4. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J

    2013-01-01

    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  5. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  6. Validation of GOES-Derived Surface Radiation Using NOAA's Physical Retrieval Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2013-01-01

    This report was part of a multiyear collaboration with the University of Wisconsin and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to produce high-quality, satellite-based, solar resource datasets for the United States. High-quality, solar resource assessment accelerates technology deployment by making a positive impact on decision making and reducing uncertainty in investment decisions. Satellite-based solar resource datasets are used as a primary source in solar resource assessment. This is mainly because satellites provide larger areal coverage and longer periods of record than ground-based measurements. With the advent of newer satellites with increased information content and faster computers that can process increasingly higher data volumes, methods that were considered too computationally intensive are now feasible. One class of sophisticated methods for retrieving solar resource information from satellites is a two-step, physics-based method that computes cloud properties and uses the information in a radiative transfer model to compute solar radiation. This method has the advantage of adding additional information as satellites with newer channels come on board. This report evaluates the two-step method developed at NOAA and adapted for solar resource assessment for renewable energy with the goal of identifying areas that can be improved in the future.

  7. Satellite Photometric Error Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    Satellite Photometric Error Determination Tamara E. Payne, Philip J. Castro, Stephen A. Gregory Applied Optimization 714 East Monument Ave, Suite...advocate the adoption of new techniques based on in-frame photometric calibrations enabled by newly available all-sky star catalogs that contain highly...filter systems will likely be supplanted by the Sloan based filter systems. The Johnson photometric system is a set of filters in the optical

  8. Use of satellite data to estimate radiation and evaporation for northwest Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.B.; Watts, C.J.; Rodriguez, J.C.; Bruin, H.A.R. de; Berg, A.R. van den; Garatuza-Payán, J.

    1999-01-01

    Incoming solar radiation was estimated from visible band data obtained by the GOES satellite over northwest Mexico. Comparisons against ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation showed good agreement, particularly in months with low cloud cover. The data from an automatic weather station installed within the Yaqui Valley Irrigation Scheme was used to estimate potential evaporation from a formula based on incoming solar radiation and climatological values of temperature. The success of this formula was assessed by comparison against potential evaporation estimated using the Penman and Penman–Monteith formulae and measurements of net radiation. (author)

  9. What Goes Around: the process of building a community-based harm reduction research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloh, Chelsea; Illsley, Shohan; Wylie, John; Migliardi, Paula; West, Ethan; Stewart, Debbie; Mignone, Javier

    2017-11-16

    Often, research takes place on underserved populations rather than with underserved populations. This approach can further isolate and stigmatize groups that are already made marginalized. What Goes Around is a community-based research project that was led by community members themselves (Peers). This research aimed to implement a community-based research methodology grounded in the leadership and growing research capacity of community researchers and to investigate a topic which community members identified as important and meaningful. Chosen by community members, this project explored how safer sex and safer drug use information is shared informally among Peers. Seventeen community members actively engaged as both community researchers and research participants throughout all facets of the project: inception, implementation, analysis, and dissemination of results. Effective collaboration between community researchers, a community organization, and academics facilitated a research process in which community members actively guided the project from beginning to end. The methods used in What Goes Around demonstrated that it is not only possible, but advantageous, to draw from community members' involvement and direction in all stages of a community-based research project. This is particularly important when working with a historically underserved population. Purposeful and regular communication among collaborators, ongoing capacity building, and a commitment to respect the experience and expertise of community members were essential to the project's success. This project demonstrated that community members are highly invested in both informally sharing information about safer sex and safer drug use and taking leadership roles in directing research that prioritizes harm reduction in their communities.

  10. Was Feyerabend an anarchist? The structure(s) of 'anything goes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The near consensus in the secondary literature on Feyerabend is that his epistemological anarchism, characterized by the slogan 'anything goes', was not a positive proposal but the conclusion of a reductio argument against his opponents (Lloyd 1997; Staley 1999; Munévar 2000; Farrell 2003; Tsou 2003; Oberheim 2006; Roe 2009). This makes anarchism a mere criticism rather than a substantive position in its own right. In this paper, I argue that Feyerabend held anarchism as a positive thesis. Specifically, I present two possible interpretations of anarchism: one where anarchism is entailed by Feyerabend's radical view of pluralism and another where scientists must be 'methodological opportunists', which Feyerabend held simultaneously from at least 1970. I then consider how these positions fare against the more influential criticisms of anarchism (Nagel 1977; Worrall 1978; Godfrey-Smith 2003). I conclude by suggesting two avenues to constraining a literal interpretation of 'anything goes' on Feyerabendian grounds. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mobile satellite service communications tests using a NASA satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Katherine H.; Koschmeder, Louis A.; Hollansworth, James E.; ONeill, Jack; Jones, Robert E.; Gibbons, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Emerging applications of commercial mobile satellite communications include satellite delivery of compact disc (CD) quality radio to car drivers who can select their favorite programming as they drive any distance; transmission of current air traffic data to aircraft; and handheld communication of data and images from any remote corner of the world. Experiments with the enabling technologies and tests and demonstrations of these concepts are being conducted before the first satellite is launched by utilizing an existing NASA spacecraft.

  12. Cross Calibration of the GPS Constellation CXD Proton Data With GOES EPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Matthew R.; Sullivan, John P.; Morley, Steven K.; Rodriguez, Juan V.

    2018-03-01

    Accurate proton flux measurements of the near-Earth environment are essential to the understanding of many phenomena which have a direct impact on our lives. Currently, there is only a small set of satellites capable of performing these measurements which makes certain studies and analyses difficult. This paper details the capabilities of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), flown on 21 satellites of the Global Positioning System constellation, as it relates to proton measurements. We present a cross calibration of the CXD with the Energetic Particle Sensor (EPS) onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. By utilizing Solar Energetic Particle Events when both sets of satellites were operational we have orders of magnitude in flux and energy to compare against. Robust statistical analyses show that the CXD and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite flux calculations are similar and that for proton energies >30 MeV the CXD fluxes are on average within 20% of EPS. Although the CXD has a response to protons as low as 6 MeV, the sensitivity at energies below 20 MeV is reduced and so flux comparisons of these are generally worse. Integral flux values >10 MeV are typically within 40% of EPS. These calibrated CXD data sets will give researchers capabilities to study solar proton access to the inner magnetosphere down to L 4 near the equatorial plane at high temporal cadence.

  13. Satellite disintegration dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, R. R.; Kaufman, B.; Heard, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of satellite disintegration is examined in detail. Elements of the orbits of individual fragments, determined by DOD space surveillance systems, are used to accurately predict the time and place of fragmentation. Dual time independent and time dependent analyses are performed for simulated and real breakups. Methods of statistical mechanics are used to study the evolution of the fragment clouds. The fragments are treated as an ensemble of non-interacting particles. A solution of Liouville's equation is obtained which enables the spatial density to be calculated as a function of position, time and initial velocity distribution.

  14. Do asteroids have satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenschilling, S.J.; Paolicchi, P.; Zappala, V.

    1989-01-01

    A substantial body of indirect evidence suggests that some asteroids have satelities, although none has been detected unambiguously. Collisions between asteroids provide physically plausible mechanisms for the production of binaries, but these operate with low probability; only a small minority of asteroids are likely to have satellites. The abundance of binary asteroids can constrain the collisional history of the entire belt population. The allowed angular momentum of binaries and their rate of tidal evolution limit separations to no more than a few tens of the primary's radii. Their expected properties are consistent with failure to detect them by current imaging techniques

  15. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  16. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  17. Understanding satellite navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  18. Pre-Launch GOES-R Risk Reduction Activities for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Boccippio, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a new instrument planned for GOES-R that will greatly improve storm hazard nowcasting and increase warning lead time day and night. Daytime detection of lightning is a particularly significant technological advance given the fact that the solar illuminated cloud-top signal can exceed the intensity of the lightning signal by a factor of one hundred. Our approach is detailed across three broad themes which include: Data Processing Algorithm Readiness, Forecast Applications, and Radiance Data Mining. These themes address how the data will be processed and distributed, and the algorithms and models for developing, producing, and using the data products. These pre-launch risk reduction activities will accelerate the operational and research use of the GLM data once GOES-R begins on-orbit operations. The GLM will provide unprecedented capabilities for tracking thunderstorms and earlier warning of impending severe and hazardous weather threats. By providing direct information on lightning initiation, propagation, extent, and rate, the GLM will also capture the updraft dynamics and life cycle of convective storms, as well as internal ice precipitation processes. The GLM provides information directly from the heart of the thunderstorm as opposed to cloud-top only. Nowcasting applications enabled by the GLM data will expedite the warning and response time of emergency management systems, improve the dispatch of electric power utility repair crews, and improve airline routing around thunderstorms thereby improving safety and efficiency, saving fuel and reducing delays. The use of GLM data will assist the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service in quickly detecting lightning ground strikes that have a high probability of causing fires. Finally, GLM data will help assess the role of thunderstorms and deep convection in global climate, and will improve regional air quality and global chemistry/climate modeling

  19. A Land Product Characterization System for Comparative Analysis of Satellite Data and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gallo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Land Product Characterization System (LPCS has been developed to provide land data and products to the community of individuals interested in validating space-based land products by comparing them with similar products available from other sensors or surface-based observations. The LPCS facilitates the application of global multi-satellite and in situ data for characterization and validation of higher-level, satellite-derived, land surface products (e.g., surface reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index, and land surface temperature. The LPCS includes data search, inventory, access, and analysis functions that will permit data to be easily identified, retrieved, co-registered, and compared statistically through a single interface. The system currently includes data and products available from Landsat 4 through 8, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra and Aqua, Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, and simulated data for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI. In addition to the future inclusion of in situ data, higher-level land products from the European Space Agency (ESA Sentinel-2 and -3 series of satellites, and other high and medium resolution spatial sensors, will be included as available. When fully implemented, any of the sensor data or products included in the LPCS would be available for comparative analysis.

  20. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication sa...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  1. Agent control of cooperating satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, N.K.; Veres, S.M.; Dennis, Louise; Fisher, Michael; Lisitsa, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    A novel, hybrid, agent architecture for (small)swarms of satellites has been developed. The software architecture for each satellite comprises ahigh-level rational agent linked to a low-level control system. The rational agent forms dynamicgoals, decides how to tackle them and passes theactual implementation of these plans to the control layer. The rational agent also has access to aMatLabmodel of the satellite dynamics, thus allowing it to carry out selective hypothetical reasoningabout pote...

  2. National Satellite Forest Monitoring systems for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop national satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost- effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the support to UN-REDD pilot countries in this capacity building effort is the training of technical forest people and IT persons from interested REDD+ countries, and to set- up the national satellite forest monitoring systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a basis for this initiative, allows

  3. Using Deep Learning Model for Meteorological Satellite Cloud Image Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X.

    2017-12-01

    A satellite cloud image contains much weather information such as precipitation information. Short-time cloud movement forecast is important for precipitation forecast and is the primary means for typhoon monitoring. The traditional methods are mostly using the cloud feature matching and linear extrapolation to predict the cloud movement, which makes that the nonstationary process such as inversion and deformation during the movement of the cloud is basically not considered. It is still a hard task to predict cloud movement timely and correctly. As deep learning model could perform well in learning spatiotemporal features, to meet this challenge, we could regard cloud image prediction as a spatiotemporal sequence forecasting problem and introduce deep learning model to solve this problem. In this research, we use a variant of Gated-Recurrent-Unit(GRU) that has convolutional structures to deal with spatiotemporal features and build an end-to-end model to solve this forecast problem. In this model, both the input and output are spatiotemporal sequences. Compared to Convolutional LSTM(ConvLSTM) model, this model has lower amount of parameters. We imply this model on GOES satellite data and the model perform well.

  4. Trends in mobile satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Klaus G.; Bowles, Mike W.; Milliken, Samuel; Cherrette, Alan R.; Busche, Gregory C.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the U.S. Federal Communication Commission opened the discussion on spectrum usage for personal handheld communication, the community of satellite manufacturers has been searching for an economically viable and technically feasible satellite mobile communication system. Hughes Aircraft Company and others have joined in providing proposals for such systems, ranging from low to medium to geosynchronous orbits. These proposals make it clear that the trend in mobile satellite communication is toward more sophisticated satellites with a large number of spot beams and onboard processing, providing worldwide interconnectivity. Recent Hughes studies indicate that from a cost standpoint the geosynchronous satellite (GEOS) is most economical, followed by the medium earth orbit satellite (MEOS) and then by the low earth orbit satellite (LEOS). From a system performance standpoint, this evaluation may be in reverse order, depending on how the public will react to speech delay and collision. This paper discusses the trends and various mobile satellite constellations in satellite communication under investigation. It considers the effect of orbital altitude and modulation/multiple access on the link and spacecraft design.

  5. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  6. Klein, Debra L. – Yorùbá Bàtá Goes Global

    OpenAIRE

    Vallier, Gilles-Félix

    2012-01-01

    Yorùbá Bàtá Goes Global, l’ethnographie de Debra Klein fait la chronique de l’émergence d’un « mouvement culturel yorùbá », une industrie de la culture centrée sur Bàtá, une tradition de danses masquées et rythmes de percussions (egúngún agbégijó). De par sa nature même, le Bàtá yorùbá a trait à la collaboration et l’innovation. Influencé autrefois par l’islam, Bàtá est désormais formalisé par les collaborations entretenues aussi bien entre des percussionnistes locaux, l’État fédéral nigérian...

  7. On trying to say what “goes without saying”. Wittgenstein on certainty and ineffability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boncompagni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a philosophical outlook on the subject of the communication of certainty and uncertainty, by focusing on the later Ludwig Wittgenstein’s image of “hinges”. Hinges are basic common sense certainties which ordinarily “go withoutsaying”. In a sense, they even require not to be said. Lingering over the debate on the ineffability of hinges which is at the core of the Wittgensteinian secondary literature, but also hinting at some studies in psychopathology, the paper argues that in extraordinary contexts to assert explicitly a hinge-certainty is possible and maybe important, while in ordinary contexts certainty can only be communicated through silence: when a certainty which “goes without saying” is explicitly said, the situation paradoxically results in uncertainty.

  8. NASA/SPoRt: GOES-R Activities in Support of Product Development, Management, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin; Jedlovec, Gary; Molthan, Andrew; Stano, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    SPoRT is using current capabilities of MODIS and VIIRS, combined with current GOES (i.e. Hybrid Imagery) to demonstrate mesoscale capabilities of future ABI instrument. SPoRT is transitioning RGBs from EUMETSAT standard "recipes" to demonstrate a method to more efficiently handle the increase channels/frequency of ABI. Challenges for RGB production exist. Internal vs. external production, Bit depth needed, Adding quantitative information, etc. SPoRT forming group to address these issues. SPoRT is leading efforts on the application of total lightning in operations and to educate users of this new capability. Training in many forms is used to support testbed activities and is a key part to the transition process.

  9. Spatio-temporal distribution of global solar radiation for Mexico using GOES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, R.; Cuahutle, M.; Valdes, M.; Riveros, D.

    2013-05-01

    Increased need of sustainable and renewable energies around the world requires studies about the amount and distribution of such types of energies. Global solar radiation distribution in space and time is a key component on order to know the availability of the energy for different applications. Using GOES hourly data, the heliosat model was implemented for Mexico. Details about the model and its components are discussed step by stem an once obtained the global solar radiation images, different time datasets (hourly, daily, monthly and seasonal) were built in order to know the spatio-temporal behavior of this type of energy. Preliminary maps of the available solar global radiation energy for Mexico are presented, the amount and variation of the solar radiation by regions are analyzed and discussed. Future work includes a better parametrization of the model using calibrated ground stations data and more use of more complex models for better results.

  10. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  11. NOAA: Primary GOES-R instrument cleared for installation onto spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOAA HOME WEATHER OCEANS FISHERIES CHARTING SATELLITES CLIMATE RESEARCH COASTS CAREERS National primary instrument for scanning Earth's weather, oceans, and environment and is a significant improvement changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to

  12. International Satellite Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Dunk, Frans

    2017-07-01

    there are the major categories of space applications—as these have started to impact everyday life on earth: the involvement of satellites in communications infrastructures and services, the most commercialized area of space applications yet; the special issue of space serving to mitigate disasters and their consequences on earth; the use of satellites for remote sensing purposes ranging from weather and climate monitoring to spying; and the use of satellites for positioning, navigation, and timing.

  13. The Future of Satellite Communications Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowland, Wayne

    1985-01-01

    Discusses technical advances in satellite technology since the 1960s, and the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization's role in these developments; describes how AUSSAT, Australia's domestic satellite system, exemplifies the latest developments in satellite technology; and reviews satellite system features, possible future…

  14. Oceanic Weather Decision Support for Unmanned Global Hawk Science Missions into Hurricanes with Tailored Satellite Derived Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Wayne; Griffin, Sarah; Velden, Christopher; Zipser, Ed; Cecil, Daniel; Braun, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to identify in-flight hazards to high-altitude aircraft, namely the Global Hawk. The Global Hawk was used during Septembers 2012-2016 as part of two NASA funded Hurricane Sentinel-3 field campaigns to over-fly hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. This talk identifies the cause of severe turbulence experienced over Hurricane Emily (2005) and how a combination of NOAA funded GOES-R algorithm derived cloud top heights/tropical overshooting tops using GOES-13/SEVIRI imager radiances, and lightning information are used to identify areas of potential turbulence for near real-time navigation decision support. Several examples will demonstrate how the Global Hawk pilots remotely received and used real-time satellite derived cloud and lightning detection information to keep the aircraft safely above clouds and avoid regions of potential turbulence.

  15. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements...

  16. The solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction, launch, components, and operations of satellite solar power systems (SSPS) for direct beaming of solar energy converted to electricity to earth stations are outlined. The reference designs of either Si or concentrator GaAs solar cell assemblies large enough to project 5 GW of power are described. The beam will be furnished by klystrons or amplitrons for reception by rectennas on earth. Conforming to the law of amplitude and the equiphase law will permit high efficiencies, pointing accuracy, and low power deposition/sq cm, thus avoiding environmental problems, although some telecommunications systems may suffer interference. The construction of the dipole rectenna grid is sketched, noting that one receiver would be an ellipse sized at 10 x 13 km. Various forms of pollution which could result from the construction of an SSPS are examined.

  17. Launching the First Indian Satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    materials and chemicals, rocket propulsion, satellite technology, control and guidance system, etc. ... entire country, especially the rural areas, and in the survey and management of natural resources. Listeners are no .... satellite will store the information over a longer period and then on command from the ground station at ...

  18. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element for an...

  19. Newspaper Uses of Satellite Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, David

    Replacing slower mail service, satellite transmission now gives the newspaper industry a practical and almost spontaneous method for sending all kinds of information to any newspaper across the country. Unlike other communication industries, newspapers did not begin to make widespread use of satellite technology until 1979, when government…

  20. Satellite Demonstration: The Videodisc Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propp, George; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a satellite demonstration of video disc materials. It is explained that a panel of deaf individuals in Washington, D.C. and another in Nebraska came into direct two-way communication for the first time, and video disc materials were broadcast via the satellite.…

  1. A Primer on Satellite Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Information provided for school districts desiring to offer distance education courses to their students describes the kind of satellite dish needed; its size, sturdiness, placement, and number of dishes needed; satellite receivers; the function of a descrambler; copyright restrictions; features of an Integrated Receiver/Descrambler; selecting a…

  2. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  3. Mobility management in satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the methods used or proposed for use in multi-beam and/or multi-satellite networks designed to provide Mobile Satellite Services (MSS). Specific topics include beam crossover in the North American Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system as well as registration and live call hand-off for a multi-regional geosynchronous (GEO) satellite based system and a global coverage Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) system. In the MSAT system, the individual satellite beams cover very large geographic areas so the need for live call hand-off was not anticipated. This paper discusses the methods used to keep track of the beam location of the users so that incoming call announcements or other messages may be directed to them. Proposed new GEO systems with large numbers of beams will provide much smaller geographic coverage in individual beams and thus the need arises to keep track of the user's location as well as to provide live call hand-off as the user traverses from beam to beam. This situation also occurs in proposed LEO systems where the problems are worsened by the need for satellite to satellite hand-off as well as beam to beam hand-off within a single satellite. The paper discusses methods to accomplish these handoffs and proposes system architectures to address the various hand-off scenarios.

  4. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  5. A framework to monitor activities of satellite data processing in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M. D.; Kryukov, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of SINP MSU is one of the several centers in the world that collects data on the radiational conditions in near-Earth orbit from various Russian (Lomonosov, Electro-L1, Electro-L2, Meteor-M1, Meteor-M2, etc.) and foreign (GOES 13, GOES 15, ACE, SDO, etc.) satellites. The primary purposes of SMDC are: aggregating heterogeneous data from different sources; providing a unified interface for data retrieval, visualization, analysis, as well as development and testing new space weather models; and controlling the correctness and completeness of data. Space weather models rely on data provided by SMDC to produce forecasts. Therefore, monitoring the whole data processing cycle is crucial for further success in the modeling of physical processes in near-Earth orbit based on the collected data. To solve the problem described above, we have developed a framework called Live Monitor at SMDC. Live Monitor allows watching all stages and program components involved in each data processing cycle. All activities of each stage are logged by Live Monitor and shown in real-time on a web interface. When an error occurs, a notification message will be sent to satellite operators via email and the Telegram messenger service so that they could take measures in time. The Live Monitor’s API can be used to create a customized monitoring service with minimum coding.

  6. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les

    2013-01-01

    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  7. Encryption protection for communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, D. R.; Hoernig, O. W., Jr.

    In connection with the growing importance of the commercial communication satellite systems and the introduction of new technological developments, users and operators of these systems become increasingly concerned with aspects of security. The user community is concerned with maintaining confidentiality and integrity of the information being transmitted over the satellite links, while the satellite operators are concerned about the safety of their assets in space. In response to these concerns, the commercial satellite operators are now taking steps to protect the communication information and the satellites. Thus, communication information is being protected by end-to-end encryption of the customer communication traffic. Attention is given to the selection of the NBS DES algorithm, the command protection systems, and the communication protection systems.

  8. The Fritz Roethlisberger Memorial Award Goes to "Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fritz J. Roethlisberger Memorial Award for the best article in the 2011 "Journal of Management Education" goes to Rae Andre for her article, Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses ("Journal of Management Education," Volume 35, Number 5, pp. 596-619). In keeping with Roethlisberger's legacy, this year's…

  9. ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013). ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. In Pixel (Ed.), Proceedings of ICT for Language Learning, Conference Proceedings 2013, 6th Conference edition (pp. xx-xx).

  10. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual presentation, including audio, will follow).

  11. ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013). ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. In Pixel (Ed.), Proceedings of ICT for Language Learning, Conference Proceedings 2013, 6th Conference edition (pp. xx-xx). November, 14-15, 2013, Florence, Italy: Libreriauniversitaria.it Edizioni.

  12. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual

  13. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  14. Innovative Approaches for the Dissemination of Near Real-time Geostationary Satellite Data for Terrestrial and Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, G.; McGrath, K.; Meyer, P. J.; Berndt, E.

    2017-12-01

    A GOES-R series receiving station has been installed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support GOES-16 transition-to-operations projects of NASA's Earth science program and provide a community portal for GOES-16 data access. This receiving station is comprised of a 6.5-meter dish; motor-driven positioners; Quorum feed and demodulator; and three Linux workstations for ingest, processing, display, and subsequent product generation. The Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP) is used to process GOES Rebroadcast data from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) into Level 1b and Level 2 files. GeoTIFFs of the imagery from several of these instruments are ingested into an Esri Arc Enterprise Web Map Service (WMS) server with tiled imagery displayable through a web browser interface or by connecting directly to the WMS with a Geographic Information System software package. These data also drive a basic web interface where users can manually zoom to and animate regions of interest or acquire similar results using a published Application Program Interface. While not as interactive as a WMS-driven interface, this system is much more expeditious with generating and distributing requested imagery. The legacy web capability enacted for the predecessor GOES Imager currently supports approximately 500,000 unique visitors each month. Dissemination capabilities have been refined to support a significantly larger number of anticipated users. The receiving station also supports NASA's Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition Center's (SPoRT) project activities to dissemination near real-time ABI RGB products to National Weather Service National Centers, including the Satellite Analysis Branch, National Hurricane Center, Ocean Prediction Center, and Weather Prediction Center, where they

  15. Theory of satellite geodesy applications of satellites to geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaula, William M

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this classic text is to demonstrate how Newtonian gravitational theory and Euclidean geometry can be used and developed in the earth's environment. The second is to collect and explain some of the mathematical techniques developed for measuring the earth by satellite.Book chapters include discussions of the earth's gravitational field, with special emphasis on spherical harmonies and the potential of the ellipsoid; matrices and orbital geometry; elliptic motion, linear perturbations, resonance, and other aspects of satellite orbit dynamics; the geometry of satellite obser

  16. Towards a Cloud Computing Environment: Near Real-time Cloud Product Processing and Distribution for Next Generation Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Spangenberg, D.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA LaRC Satellite ClOud and Radiative Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) processes and derives near real-time (NRT) global cloud products from operational geostationary satellite imager datasets. These products are being used in NRT to improve forecast model, aircraft icing warnings, and support aircraft field campaigns. Next generation satellites, such as the Japanese Himawari-8 and the upcoming NOAA GOES-R, present challenges for NRT data processing and product dissemination due to the increase in temporal and spatial resolution. The volume of data is expected to increase to approximately 10 folds. This increase in data volume will require additional IT resources to keep up with the processing demands to satisfy NRT requirements. In addition, these resources are not readily available due to cost and other technical limitations. To anticipate and meet these computing resource requirements, we have employed a hybrid cloud computing environment to augment the generation of SatCORPS products. This paper will describe the workflow to ingest, process, and distribute SatCORPS products and the technologies used. Lessons learn from working on both AWS Clouds and GovCloud will be discussed: benefits, similarities, and differences that could impact decision to use cloud computing and storage. A detail cost analysis will be presented. In addition, future cloud utilization, parallelization, and architecture layout will be discussed for GOES-R.

  17. VLBI Observations of Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, T.; Nothnagel, A.; La Porta, L.

    2013-08-01

    For a consistent realization of a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), a proper tie between the individual global reference systems used in the analysis of space-geodetic observations is a prerequisite. For instance, the link between the terrestrial, the celestial and the dynamic reference system of artificial Earth orbiters may be realized by Very Long O Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of one or several satellites. In the preparation phase for a dedicated satellite mission, one option to realize this is using a geostationary (GEO) satellite emitting a radio signal in X-Band and/or S-Band and, thus, imitating a quasar. In this way, the GEO satellite can be observed by VLBI together with nearby quasars and the GEO orbit can, thus, be determined in a celestial reference frame. If the GEO satellite is, e.g., also equipped with a GNSS-type transmitter, a further tie between GNSS and VLBI may be realized. In this paper, a concept for the generation of a radio signal is shown. Furthermore, simulation studies for estimating the GEO position are presented with a GEO satellite included in the VLBI schedule. VLBI group delay observations are then simulated for the quasars as well as for the GEO satellite. The analysis of the simulated observations shows that constant orbit changes are adequately absorbed by estimated orbit parameters. Furthermore, the post-fit residuals are comparable to those from real VLBI sessions.

  18. Security Concepts for Satellite Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Rathje, R.; Weigl, A.; Gorecki, Ch.; Michalik, H.

    2008-08-01

    The high costs to develop, launch and maintain a satellite network makes protecting the assets imperative. Attacks may be passive such as eavesdropping on the payload data. More serious threat are active attacks that try to gain control of the satellite, which may lead to the total lost of the satellite asset. To counter these threats, new satellite and ground systems are using cryptographic technologies to provide a range of services: confidentiality, entity & message authentication, and data integrity. Additionally, key management cryptographic services are required to support these services. This paper describes the key points of current satellite control and operations, that are authentication of the access to the satellite TMTC link and encryption of security relevant TM/TC data. For payload data management the key points are multi-user ground station access and high data rates both requiring frequent updates and uploads of keys with the corresponding key management methods. For secure satellite management authentication & key negotiation algorithms as HMAC-RIPEMD160, EC- DSA and EC-DH are used. Encryption of data uses algorithms as IDEA, AES, Triple-DES, or other. A channel coding and encryption unit for payload data provides download data rates up to Nx250 Mbps. The presented concepts are based on our experience and heritage of the security systems for all German MOD satellite projects (SATCOMBw2, SAR-Lupe multi- satellite system and German-French SAR-Lupe-Helios- II systems inter-operability) as well as for further international (KOMPSAT-II Payload data link system) and ESA activities (TMTC security and GMES).

  19. Satellite communications principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Calcutt, David

    1994-01-01

    Satellites are increasingly used for global communications, as well as for radio and television transmissions. With the growth of mobile communications, and of digital technology, the use of satellite systems is set to expand substantially and already all students of electronics or communications engineering must study the subject.This book steers a middle path between offering a basic understanding of the process of communication by satellite and the methodology used; and the extensive mathematical analysis normally adopted in similar texts. It presents the basic concepts, using as mu

  20. Absence of satellites of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, T.; Drummond, J.D.; Levenson, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of satellites within 0.1-7.0 arcmin of minor planets noted in the present CCD imaging survey is judged consistent with previous theoretical studies of collisions in which it is held that satellites would have to be larger than about 30 km in order to be collisionally stable. In view of tidal stability, the only main belt asteroid satellites which could conceivably possess stability over eons are near-contact binaries. Any recent collisional debris would be chaotic and collisionally unstable. 15 references

  1. Long-duration high-energy proton events observed by GOES in October 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anttila

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the prolonged injection of the high-energy (>10 MeV protons during the three successive events observed by GOES in October 1989. We apply a solar-rotation-stereoscopy approach to study the injection of the accelerated particles from the CME-driven interplanetary shock waves in order to find out how the effectiveness of the particle acceleration and/or escape depends on the angular distance from the shock axis. We use an empirical model for the proton injection at the shock and a standard model of the interplanetary transport. The model can reproduce rather well the observed intensity–time profiles of the October 1989 events. The deduced proton injection rate is highest at the nose of the shock; the injection spectrum is always harder near the Sun. The results seem to be consistent with the scheme that the CME-driven interplanetary shock waves accelerate a seed particle population of coronal origin.Key words. Interplanetary physics · Energetic particles · Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy · Flares and mass ejections

  2. Optimization of the GOES-1 Imagers radiometric accuracy: Drift and 1/f noise suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, J.C.; Comeyne, G.J. III

    1994-01-01

    The raw output of many scanning radiometers is a small, rapidly varying signal superimposed on a large background that varies more slowly, due to thermal drifts and 1/f noise. To isolate the signal, it is necessary to perform a differential measurement: measure a known reference and subtract it from each of the raw outputs, canceling the common-mode background. Calibration is also a differential measurement: the difference between two outputs is divided by the difference between the two known references that produced them to determine the gain. The GOES-I Imager views space as its background subtraction reference and a full-aperture blackbody as its second reference for calibration. The background suppression efficiency of a differential measurement algorithm depends on its timing. The Imager measures space references before and after each scan line and performs interpolated background subtraction: a unique, linearly weighted average of the two references is subtracted from each scene sample in that line, canceling both constant bias and linear drift. One model quantifies the Gaussian noise and 1/f noise terms in the noise equivalent bandwidth, which is minimized to optimize the algorithm. The authors have obtained excellent agreement between the analytical predictions and Monte Carlo computer simulations

  3. Satellite tracking of threatened species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISTO/satellite_tracking. It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  4. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  5. Small Satellite Mechanical Design Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, Stewart

    1993-01-01

    The design approach used and the experience gained in the building of four small satellite payloads is explained. Specific recommendations are made and the lessons learned on the SAMPEX program are detailed.

  6. Sea Turtle Satellite Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles captured in various fishing gear (pound nets, long haul seines, gill nets) were outfitted with satellite transmitters so that their movements, migratory...

  7. Next generation satellite communications networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, P. J.; Osborne, F. J.; Streibl, I.

    The paper introduces two potential uses for new space hardware to permit enhanced levels of signal handling and switching in satellite communication service for Canada. One application involves increased private-sector services in the Ku band; the second supports new personal/mobile services by employing higher levels of handling and switching in the Ka band. First-generation satellite regeneration and switching experiments involving the NASA/ACTS spacecraft are described, where the Ka band and switching satellite network problems are emphasized. Second-generation satellite development is outlined based on demand trends for more packet-based switching, low-cost earth stations, and closed user groups. A demonstration mission for new Ka- and Ku-band technologies is proposed, including the payload configuration. The half ANIK E payload is shown to meet the demonstration objectives, and projected to maintain a fully operational payload for at least 10 years.

  8. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  9. The Educational Satellite in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D. O.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion which contends that there is merit in not gearing satellite systems solely to educational broadcasting and that they should be designed for general communication, including telephony and television entertainment. (Author/HB)

  10. Comparing MODIS-Terra and GOES surface albedo for New York City NY, Baltimore MD and Washington DC for 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubenga, K.; Hoff, R.; McCann, K.; Chu, A.; Prados, A.

    2006-05-01

    The NOAA GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) is a product displaying the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over the United States. The GASP retrieval involves discriminating the upwelling radiance from the atmosphere from that of the variable underlying surface. Unlike other sensors with more visible and near- infrared spectral channels such as MODIS, the sensors on GOES 8 through 12 only have one visible and a several far infrared channels. The GASP algorithm uses the detection of the second-darkest pixel from the visible channel over a 28-day period as the reference from which a radiance look-up table gives the corresponding AOD. GASP is reliable in capturing the AOD during large events. As an example, GASP was able to precisely show the Alaska and British Columbia smoke plume advecting from Alaska to the northeastern U.S. during the summer of 2004. Knapp et al. (2005) has shown that the AOD retrieval for GOES- 8 is within +/-0.13 of AERONET ground data with a coefficient of correlation of 0.72. Prados (this meeting) will update that study. However, GASP may not be as reliable when it comes to observing smaller AOD events in the northeast where the surface brightness is relatively high. The presence of large cities, such as New York, increases the surface albedo and produces a bright background against which it may be difficult to deduce the AOD. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua platforms provides an independent measurement of the surface albedo at a resolution greater than available on GOES. In this research, the MODIS and GOES surface albedo product for New York, Washington and Baltimore are compared in order to see how we can improve the AOD retrieval in urban areas for air quality applications. Ref: K. Knapp et al. 2005. Toward aerosol optical depth retrievals over land from GOES visible radiances: determining surface reflectance. Int.Journal of Remote Sensing 26, 4097-4116

  11. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Satellite medical centers project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arvind

    2002-08-01

    World class health care for common man at low affordable cost: anywhere, anytime The project envisages to set up a national network of satellite Medical centers. Each SMC would be manned by doctors, nurses and technicians, six doctors, six nurses, six technicians would be required to provide 24 hour cover, each SMC would operate 24 hours x 7 days. It would be equipped with the Digital telemedicine devices for capturing clinical patient information and investigations in the form of voice, images and data and create an audiovisual text file - a virtual Digital patient. Through the broad band connectivity the virtual patient can be sent to the central hub, manned by specialists, specialists from several specialists sitting together can view the virtual patient and provide a specialized opinion, they can see the virtual patient, see the examination on line through video conference or even PCs, talk to the patient and the doctor at the SMC and controlle capturing of information during examination and investigations of the patient at the SMC - thus creating a virtual Digital consultant at the SMC. Central hub shall be connected to the doctors and consultants in remote locations or tertiary care hospitals any where in the world, thus creating a virtual hub the hierarchical system shall provide upgradation of knowledge to thedoctors in central hub and smc and thus continued medical education and benefit the patient thru the world class treatment in the smc located at his door step. SMC shall be set up by franchisee who shall get safe business opportunity with high returns, patients shall get Low cost user friendly worldclass health care anywhere anytime, Doctors can get better meaningful selfemplyment with better earnings, flexibility of working time and place. SMC shall provide a wide variety of services from primary care to world class Global consultation for difficult patients.

  13. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  14. Satellites You Can See for Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Artificial satellites are easily observed most nights when the weather is fine. The website called "Heavens Above" at www.heavens-above.com will help locate these satellites flying over one's location. It also includes how bright they will appear. The direction of travel of each satellite in the night sky also indicates the type of satellite. For…

  15. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  16. Advancements in the Development of an Operational Lightning Jump Algorithm for GOES-R GLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Chris; Petersen, Walter; Carey, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning have been shown to precede the manifestation of severe weather at the surface. These rapid increases have been termed lightning jumps, and are the current focus of algorithm development for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Recent lightning jump algorithm work has focused on evaluation of algorithms in three additional regions of the country, as well as, markedly increasing the number of thunderstorms in order to evaluate the each algorithm s performance on a larger population of storms. Lightning characteristics of just over 600 thunderstorms have been studied over the past four years. The 2 lightning jump algorithm continues to show the most promise for an operational lightning jump algorithm, with a probability of detection of 82%, a false alarm rate of 35%, a critical success index of 57%, and a Heidke Skill Score of 0.73 on the entire population of thunderstorms. Average lead time for the 2 algorithm on all severe weather is 21.15 minutes, with a standard deviation of +/- 14.68 minutes. Looking at tornadoes alone, the average lead time is 18.71 minutes, with a standard deviation of +/-14.88 minutes. Moreover, removing the 2 lightning jumps that occur after a jump has been detected, and before severe weather is detected at the ground, the 2 lightning jump algorithm s false alarm rate drops from 35% to 21%. Cold season, low topped, and tropical environments cause problems for the 2 lightning jump algorithm, due to their relative dearth in lightning as compared to a supercellular or summertime airmass thunderstorm environment.

  17. Post-GOE redox insights from Mo isotopes, Ce anomalies, and Mn from the 2.24 Ga Kazput Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoby, M.; Konhauser, K.; Philippot, P.; Killingsworth, B.; Warchola, T.; Lalonde, S.

    2017-12-01

    Following the Great Oxidation event (GOE) defined from 2.45 to 2.2 Ga, an event marking the first appearance of widespread atmospheric oxygen, a combination of decreased Mn(II) supply from land and increased Mn(IV)-precipitation in the oceans should have resulted in lower concentrations of Mn in seawater. Nevertheless, it appears that some early Proterozoic marine sediments record high seawater Mn concentrations hundreds of millions of years after the GOE. Here we investigate a Mn excursion associated with marine carbonates and shales of the 2.31 Ga Kazput Formation. Samples were recovered from drill core collected during the Turee Creek Drilling Project (TCDP). Using molybdenum (Mo) isotope data coupled with cerium (Ce) anomalies, we define the redox condition of the Kazput depositional environment. Initial results show no Mo fractionation and few cerium anomalies in carbonates, pointing to an anoxic basin without Mn oxide precipitates. Additionally, XRF data on the shales indicates an association of Mn with calcium (Ca) suggesting an anoxic environment at the time of their deposition. Our results provide new insights into the nature and environment of the Turee Creek basin and the extent of oxygenation of surface waters after the GOE.

  18. Simultaneous Radar and Satellite Data Storm-Scale Assimilation Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter Approach for 24 May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas A.; Stensrud, David; Wicker, Louis; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra

    2015-01-01

    Assimilating high-resolution radar reflectivity and radial velocity into convection-permitting numerical weather prediction models has proven to be an important tool for improving forecast skill of convection. The use of satellite data for the application is much less well understood, only recently receiving significant attention. Since both radar and satellite data provide independent information, combing these two sources of data in a robust manner potentially represents the future of high-resolution data assimilation. This research combines Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 13 (GOES-13) cloud water path (CWP) retrievals with Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) reflectivity and radial velocity to examine the impacts of assimilating each for a severe weather event occurring in Oklahoma on 24 May 2011. Data are assimilated into a 3-km model using an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter approach with 36 members over a 2-h assimilation window between 1800 and 2000 UTC. Forecasts are then generated for 90 min at 5-min intervals starting at 1930 and 2000 UTC. Results show that both satellite and radar data are able to initiate convection, but that assimilating both spins up a storm much faster. Assimilating CWP also performs well at suppressing spurious precipitation and cloud cover in the model as well as capturing the anvil characteristics of developed storms. Radar data are most effective at resolving the 3D characteristics of the core convection. Assimilating both satellite and radar data generally resulted in the best model analysis and most skillful forecast for this event.

  19. Choosing ESRO's first scientific satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Arturo

    1992-11-01

    The choice of the scientific payloads of the European Space Research Organization's (ESRO's) first generation of satellites is analyzed. Concentration is on those aspects of the decision process that involved more directly the scientific community and that emerged as major issues in the discussion of the Launching Program Advisory Committee (LPAC). The main theme was the growing competition between the various fields of space science within the progressive retrenching of the Organization's financial resources available for the satellite program. A general overview of the status of the program by the end of 1966 is presented. The choice of the first small satellites' payloads (ESRO 1 and 2, and HEOS-A) and the difficult definition of the TD satellite program are discussed. This part covers a time span going from early 1963 to the spring of 1966. In the second part, the narrative starts from the spring of 1967, when the decision to recommend a second HEOS-type satellite was taken, and then analyzes the complex situation determined by the crisis of the TD program in 1968, and the debates which eventually led to the abandonment of TD-2 and the start of the far less ambitious ESRO 5 project.

  20. Physical characteristics of satellite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Johnson, T.V.; Matson, D.; Housen, K.

    1986-01-01

    Both exogenic and endogenic effects have been proposed to explain the major observed characteristics of satellite surfaces. The current view is that the basic properties of most surfaces result from the intrinsic composition of a body and its geologic history. Exogenic effects have, however, played a role in modifying the appearance of nearly all surfaces. The most important exogenic effect is impact cratering, one manifestation of which is the production of micrometeoroid gardened regoliths on airless bodies. On large, silicate bodies the micrometeoroid bombardment can produce an optically mature, dark agglutinate-rich soil; the nature of regoliths on predominantly icy satellites remains uncertain. Direct accumulation of infalling material does not appear to play a major role in modifying most surfaces. Solar wind radiation effects have not altered greatly the optical properties of solar system objects; magnetospheric charged particles may have modified the optical properties of some outer planet satellites (e.g., sulfur ion bombardment in the case of some of the satellites of Jupiter). Other effects, such as aeolian and liquid/solid chemical weathering, may be important on satellites with atmospheres like Titan and Triton

  1. Satellite Cell Self-Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Lorenzo; Parisi, Alice; Le Grand, Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is endowed with regenerative potential through partially recapitulating the embryonic developmental program. Upon acute injury or in pathological conditions, quiescent muscle-resident stem cells, called satellite cells, become activated and give rise to myogenic progenitors that massively proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form new myofibers and restore tissue functionality. In addition, a proportion of activated cells returns back to quiescence and replenish the pool of satellite cells in order to maintain the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair. Self-renewal is the process by which stem cells divide to make more stem cells to maintain the stem cell population throughout life. This process is controlled by cell-intrinsic transcription factors regulated by cell-extrinsic signals from the niche and the microenvironment. This chapter provides an overview about the general aspects of satellite cell biology and focuses on the cellular and molecular aspects of satellite cell self-renewal. To date, we are still far from understanding how a very small proportion of the satellite cell progeny maintain their stem cell identity when most of their siblings progress through the myogenic program to construct myofibers. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2017-09-18

    Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution.

  3. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  4. Gaussian entanglement distribution via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In this work we analyze three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme, the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the tradeoff between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation.

  5. Advanced satellite servicing facility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Garry D.; Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-sponsored systems analysis designed to identify and recommend advanced subsystems and technologies specifically for a manned Sun-synchronous platform for satellite management is discussed. An overview of system design, manned and unmanned servicing facilities, and representative mission scenarios are given. Mission areas discussed include facility based satellite assembly, checkout, deployment, refueling, repair, and systems upgrade. The ferrying of materials and consumables to and from manufacturing platforms, deorbit, removal, repositioning, or salvage of satellites and debris, and crew rescue of any other manned vehicles are also examined. Impacted subsytems discussed include guidance navigation and control, propulsion, data management, power, thermal control, structures, life support, and radiation management. In addition, technology issues which would have significant impacts on the system design are discussed.

  6. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  7. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  8. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls

    2012-01-01

    uncertain. The COX enzymes regulate satellite cell activity, as demonstrated in animal models; however the roles of the COX enzymes in human skeletal muscle need further investigation. We suggest using the term 'muscle damage' with care. Comparisons between studies and individuals must consider changes......-damaging exercise', primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role...... variation in individual responses to a given exercise should, however be expected. The link between cytokine and satellite cell responses and exercise-induced muscle damage is not so clear The systemic cytokine response may be linked more closely to the metabolic demands of exercise rather than muscle...

  9. Landsat—Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-11-25

    Since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth’s land surface, providing data that serve as valuable resources for land use/land change research. The data are useful to a number of applications including forestry, agriculture, geology, regional planning, and education. Landsat is a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA develops remote sensing instruments and the spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and data distribution. The result of this program is an unprecedented continuing record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  10. Resonant satellite transitions in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.A.R.; Lee Eunmee; Chung, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The production of specific Ar + satellite states has been studied with synchrotron radiation at wavelengths between 300 and 350 A with an effective energy resolution of 20 meV. The specific states studied were the ( 3 P)4p( 2 P 3/2 ), ( 1 D)4p( 2 F 7/2 ), and ( 1 D)4p( 2 P 1/2 ) states. The fluorescent radiation emitted from these excited ionic states was measured at 4766, 4611, and 4133 A by the use of narrow band interference filters. The variation of the fluorescence intensity was measured as a function of wavelength. This provided a measure of the relative cross section for production of the satellite states. Each satellite state was found to be completely dominated by autoionization of the neutral doubly excited states (3s 2 3p 4 )nl, n'l' found in this spectral region. (orig.)

  11. Expanding the Operational Use of Total Lightning Ahead of GOES-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Wood, Lance; Garner, Tim; Nunez, Roland; Kann, Deirdre; Reynolds, James; Rydell, Nezette; Cox, Rob; Bobb, William R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) has been transitioning real-time total lightning observations from ground-based lightning mapping arrays since 2003. This initial effort was with the local Weather Forecast Offices (WFO) that could use the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). These early collaborations established a strong interest in the use of total lightning for WFO operations. In particular the focus started with warning decision support, but has since expanded to include impact-based decision support and lightning safety. SPoRT has used its experience to establish connections with new lightning mapping arrays as they become available. The GOES-R / JPSS Visiting Scientist Program has enabled SPoRT to conduct visits to new partners and expand the number of operational users with access to total lightning observations. In early 2014, SPoRT conducted the most recent visiting scientist trips to meet with forecast offices that will used the Colorado, Houston, and Langmuir Lab (New Mexico) lightning mapping arrays. In addition, SPoRT met with the corresponding Center Weather Service Units (CWSUs) to expand collaborations with the aviation community. These visits were an opportunity to learn about the forecast needs of each office visited as well as to provide on-site training for the use of total lightning, setting the stage for a real-time assessment during May-July 2014. With five lightning mapping arrays covering multiple geographic locations, the 2014 assessment has demonstrated numerous uses of total lightning in varying situations. Several highlights include a much broader use of total lightning for impact-based decision support ranging from airport weather warnings, supporting fire crews, and protecting large outdoor events. The inclusion of the CWSUs has broadened the operational scope of total lightning, demonstrating how these data can support air traffic management, particularly in the Terminal Radar Approach

  12. Satellite communications: possibilities and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, M.

    1986-01-01

    Communication links via satellites are becoming available in Europe, both as part of the development of the telephone system and as special services aimed at data traffic. They offer the possibility of speeds between 50 kb/s and 2 Mb/s, without the problems and long term commitments of long distance land lines. Such links are provided by the PTT's as circuits which can be booked for variable periods, and have error rates which can be very low and well controlled. Problems in networking can arise from the satellite delay, particularly if errors occur in the local connections, and from the leased circuit and tariff philosophies of the PTT's. (Auth.)

  13. Satellite switched FDMA advanced communication technology satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, S.; Higton, G. H.; Wood, K.; Kline, A.; Furiga, A.; Rausch, M.; Jan, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The satellite switched frequency division multiple access system provided a detailed system architecture that supports a point to point communication system for long haul voice, video and data traffic between small Earth terminals at Ka band frequencies at 30/20 GHz. A detailed system design is presented for the space segment, small terminal/trunking segment at network control segment for domestic traffic model A or B, each totaling 3.8 Gb/s of small terminal traffic and 6.2 Gb/s trunk traffic. The small terminal traffic (3.8 Gb/s) is emphasized, for the satellite router portion of the system design, which is a composite of thousands of Earth stations with digital traffic ranging from a single 32 Kb/s CVSD voice channel to thousands of channels containing voice, video and data with a data rate as high as 33 Mb/s. The system design concept presented, effectively optimizes a unique frequency and channelization plan for both traffic models A and B with minimum reorganization of the satellite payload transponder subsystem hardware design. The unique zoning concept allows multiple beam antennas while maximizing multiple carrier frequency reuse. Detailed hardware design estimates for an FDMA router (part of the satellite transponder subsystem) indicate a weight and dc power budget of 353 lbs, 195 watts for traffic model A and 498 lbs, 244 watts for traffic model B.

  14. A 10-Year Climatology of Cloud Cover and Vertical Distribution Derived from Both Surface and GOES Observations Over the DOE ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, P.; Khaiyer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of a decade of ARM radar-lidar and GOES observations at the SGP site reveal that 0.5 and 4-hr averages of the surface cloud fraction correspond closely to 0.5deg and 2.5deg averages of GOES cloudiness, respectively. The long-term averaged surface and GOES cloud fractions agree to within 0.5%. Cloud frequency increases and cloud amount decreases as the temporal and spatial averaging scales increase. Clouds occurred most often during winter and spring. Single-layered clouds account for 61.5% of the total cloud frequency. There are distinct bimodal vertical distributions of clouds with a lower peak around 1 km and an upper one that varies from 7.5 to 10.8 km between winter and summer, respectively. The frequency of occurrence for nighttime GOES high-cloud tops agree well with the surface observations, but are underestimated during the day.

  15. Advances in analysis of pre-earthquake thermal anomalies by analyzing IR satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Bryant, N.; Filizzola, C.; Pergola, N.; Taylor, P.; Tramutoli, V.

    Presented work addresses the possible relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere and increasing infrared (IR) flux as part of a larger family of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena related to earthquake activity. Thermal infra-red (TIR) surveys performed by polar orbiting (NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS) and geosynchronous weather satellites (GOES, METEOSAT) seems to indicate the appearance (from days to weeks before the event) of "anomalous" space-time TIR transients associated with the place (epicentral area, linear structures and fault systems) and the time of occurrence of a number of major earthquakes with M>5 and focal depths no deeper than 50km. As Earth emitted in 8-14 microns range the TIR signal measured from satellite strongly vary depending on meteorological conditions and other factors (space-time changes in atmospheric transmittance, time/season, solar and satellite zenithal angles and etc) independent from seismic activity, a preliminary definition of "anomalous TIR signal" should be given. To provide reliable discrimination of thermal anomalous area from the natural events (seasonal changes, local morphology) new robust approach (RAT) has been recently proposed (and successfully applied in the field of the monitoring of the major environmental risks) that permits to give a statistically based definition of thermal info-red (TIR) anomaly and reduce of false events detection. New techniques also were specifically developed to assure the precise co-registration of all satellite scenes and permit accurate time-series analysis of satellite observations. As final results we present examples of most recent 2000/2004 worldwide strong earthquakes and the techniques used to capture the tracks of thermal emission mid-IR anomalies and methodology for practical future use of such phenomena in the early warning systems.

  16. Comparison of Cloud Properties from CALIPSO-CloudSat and Geostationary Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Chang, F.; Winker, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Spangenberg, D.; Austin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud properties are being derived in near-real time from geostationary satellite imager data for a variety of weather and climate applications and research. Assessment of the uncertainties in each of the derived cloud parameters is essential for confident use of the products. Determination of cloud amount, cloud top height, and cloud layering is especially important for using these real -time products for applications such as aircraft icing condition diagnosis and numerical weather prediction model assimilation. Furthermore, the distribution of clouds as a function of altitude has become a central component of efforts to evaluate climate model cloud simulations. Validation of those parameters has been difficult except over limited areas where ground-based active sensors, such as cloud radars or lidars, have been available on a regular basis. Retrievals of cloud properties are sensitive to the surface background, time of day, and the clouds themselves. Thus, it is essential to assess the geostationary satellite retrievals over a variety of locations. The availability of cloud radar data from CloudSat and lidar data from CALIPSO make it possible to perform those assessments over each geostationary domain at 0130 and 1330 LT. In this paper, CloudSat and CALIPSO data are matched with contemporaneous Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT), and Meteosat-8 data. Unlike comparisons with cloud products derived from A-Train imagers, this study considers comparisons of nadir active sensor data with off-nadir retrievals. These matched data are used to determine the uncertainties in cloud-top heights and cloud amounts derived from the geostationary satellite data using the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud retrieval algorithms. The CERES multi-layer cloud detection method is also evaluated to determine its accuracy and limitations in the off-nadir mode. The results will be useful for

  17. Satellite constellation design and radio resource management using genetic algorithm.

    OpenAIRE

    Asvial, Muhamad.

    2003-01-01

    A novel strategy for automatic satellite constellation design with satellite diversity is proposed. The automatic satellite constellation design means some parameters of satellite constellation design can be determined simultaneously. The total number of satellites, the altitude of satellite, the angle between planes, the angle shift between satellites and the inclination angle are considered for automatic satellite constellation design. Satellite constellation design is modelled using a mult...

  18. Using Information From Prior Satellite Scans to Improve Cloud Detection Near the Day-Night Terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher R.; Minnis, Patrick; Trepte, Qing Z.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Ayers, Jeffrey K.; Spangenberg, Doulas A.

    2012-01-01

    With geostationary satellite data it is possible to have a continuous record of diurnal cycles of cloud properties for a large portion of the globe. Daytime cloud property retrieval algorithms are typically superior to nighttime algorithms because daytime methods utilize measurements of reflected solar radiation. However, reflected solar radiation is difficult to accurately model for high solar zenith angles where the amount of incident radiation is small. Clear and cloudy scenes can exhibit very small differences in reflected radiation and threshold-based cloud detection methods have more difficulty setting the proper thresholds for accurate cloud detection. Because top-of-atmosphere radiances are typically more accurately modeled outside the terminator region, information from previous scans can help guide cloud detection near the terminator. This paper presents an algorithm that uses cloud fraction and clear and cloudy infrared brightness temperatures from previous satellite scan times to improve the performance of a threshold-based cloud mask near the terminator. Comparisons of daytime, nighttime, and terminator cloud fraction derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) radiance measurements show that the algorithm greatly reduces the number of false cloud detections and smoothes the transition from the daytime to the nighttime clod detection algorithm. Comparisons with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data show that using this algorithm decreases the number of false detections by approximately 20 percentage points.

  19. Classification of Clouds and Deep Convection from GEOS-5 Using Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, William; Suarez, Max

    2010-01-01

    With the increased resolution of global atmospheric models and the push toward global cloud resolving models, the resemblance of model output to satellite observations has become strikingly similar. As we progress with our adaptation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) as a high resolution cloud system resolving model, evaluation of cloud properties and deep convection require in-depth analysis beyond a visual comparison. Outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) provides a sufficient comparison with infrared (IR) satellite imagery to isolate areas of deep convection. We have adopted a binning technique to generate a series of histograms for OLR which classify the presence and fraction of clear sky versus deep convection in the tropics that can be compared with a similar analyses of IR imagery from composite Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We will present initial results that have been used to evaluate the amount of deep convective parameterization required within the model as we move toward cloud system resolving resolutions of 10- to 1-km globally.

  20. DeepSAT's CloudCNN: A Deep Neural Network for Rapid Cloud Detection from Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, S.; Li, S.; Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud and cloud shadow detection has important applications in weather and climate studies. It is even more crucial when we introduce geostationary satellites into the field of terrestrial remotesensing. With the challenges associated with data acquired in very high frequency (10-15 mins per scan), the ability to derive an accurate cloud/shadow mask from geostationary satellite data iscritical. The key to the success for most of the existing algorithms depends on spatially and temporally varying thresholds, which better capture local atmospheric and surface effects.However, the selection of proper threshold is difficult and may lead to erroneous results. In this work, we propose a deep neural network based approach called CloudCNN to classifycloud/shadow from Himawari-8 AHI and GOES-16 ABI multispectral data. DeepSAT's CloudCNN consists of an encoder-decoder based architecture for binary-class pixel wise segmentation. We train CloudCNN on multi-GPU Nvidia Devbox cluster, and deploy the prediction pipeline on NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Pleiades supercomputer. We achieved an overall accuracy of 93.29% on test samples. Since, the predictions take only a few seconds to segment a full multi-spectral GOES-16 or Himawari-8 Full Disk image, the developed framework can be used for real-time cloud detection, cyclone detection, or extreme weather event predictions.

  1. Satellite monitoring of black bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

  2. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  3. Audio Satellites: Overhearing Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Jonas Rasmussen; Breinbjerg, M.; Højlund, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    around or displaced arbitrarily in a given landscape. In the web browser, the different sound streams from the individual satellites can be mixed together to form a cooperative soundscape. The project thus allows people to tune into and explore the overheard soundscape of everyday life in a collaborative...

  4. Electrophotometric observations of artificial satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovchyk, Yeva; Blagodyr, Yaroslav; Kraynyuk, Gennadiy; Bilinsky, Andriy; Lohvynenko, Alexander; Klym, Bogdan; Pochapsky, Yevhen

    2004-01-01

    Problems associated with polarimetric observations of low Earth orbit artificial satellites as important solar system objects are discussed. The instrumentation (the optical and mechanical parts, the control and drive electronics, and the application software) for performing such observations is also described

  5. The Mobile Satellite Services Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samuel

    Mobile satellite (MSAT) technology is the basis for a new component of the telecommunications industry capable of providing services to small inexpensive subscriber terminals located almost any place in the world. The market for MSAT space segment capacity (bandwidth and power) is a natural monopoly that can be logically and technically…

  6. Launching the First Indian Satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    long run, this is not bad since it generates self-confidence and self-reliance - which in the final analysis are .... hopes to find some new X-ray sources. The second ... from the state of health of the satellite can be judged. A tracking network gives ...

  7. University Satellite Campus Management Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Doug; Stott, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Among the 60 or so university satellite campuses in Australia are many that are probably failing to meet the high expectations of their universities and the communities they were designed to serve. While in some cases this may be due to the demand driven system, it may also be attributable in part to the ways in which they are managed. The…

  8. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  9. Satellite-Based Precipitation Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, S. J.; Huffman, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Of the possible sources of precipitation data, those based on satellites provide the greatest spatial coverage. There is a wide selection of datasets, algorithms, and versions from which to choose, which can be confusing to non-specialists wishing to use the data. The International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG) maintains tables of the major publicly available, long-term, quasi-global precipitation data sets (http://www.isac.cnr.it/ ipwg/data/datasets.html), and this talk briefly reviews the various categories. As examples, NASA provides two sets of quasi-global precipitation data sets: the older Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and current Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG). Both provide near-real-time and post-real-time products that are uniformly gridded in space and time. The TMPA products are 3-hourly 0.25°x0.25° on the latitude band 50°N-S for about 16 years, while the IMERG products are half-hourly 0.1°x0.1° on 60°N-S for over 3 years (with plans to go to 16+ years in Spring 2018). In addition to the precipitation estimates, each data set provides fields of other variables, such as the satellite sensor providing estimates and estimated random error. The discussion concludes with advice about determining suitability for use, the necessity of being clear about product names and versions, and the need for continued support for satellite- and surface-based observation.

  10. Satellite Tags- Guam/CNMI EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  11. New Equipment Training Center-Satellite Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Satellite Facility is a 24-hour on-site military satellite transmission and downlink capability to Southwest Asia and all other military OCONUS and CONUS...

  12. Some European capabilities in satellite cinema exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    The likely performance envelope and architecture for satellite cinema systems are derived from simple practical assumptions. A case is made for possible transatlantic cooperation towards establishing a satellite cinema standard.

  13. Multiple Usage of Existing Satellite Sensors (PREPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeney, James T

    2006-01-01

    .... Space offers a near-perfect vacuum to operate a passive or active sensor. Volume, mass and power on satellites is limited and risk management approaches tended to remove such sensors from satellite systems...

  14. Multiple Usage of Existing Satellite Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeney, James T

    2006-01-01

    .... Space offers a near-perfect vacuum to operate a passive or active sensor. Volume, mass and power on satellites is limited and risk management approaches tended to remove such sensors from satellite systems...

  15. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  16. Clock Management Data Analysis for Satellite Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gross, Rachel; Melkers, Raimond

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has installed GPS-based timing systems in several Defense Satellite Communication System "DSCS-III" satellite communication facilities to support the Single Channel Transponder "SCT" program...

  17. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  18. RFP for the italien satellite AGILE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels

    1999-01-01

    The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE.......The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE....

  19. Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalmeir, Michael; Gataullin, Yunir; Indrajit, Agung

    HERMES (Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite) is potential European satellite mission for global flood management, being implemented by Technical University Munich and European Space Agency. With its main instrument - a reliable and precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna...

  20. Assessing Teacher and Student Effects of the Research Goes to School Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kararo, Alex T.

    There have been calls by the Federal government and policymakers for improvements in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education through the development of excellent teachers with the content knowledge and skills to teach and motivate students. A shared goal among teacher professional development (PD) programs is to improve students' learning outcomes through changes in teachers' classroom practices. One way to address classroom practice is by studying pedagogical content knowledge and skill (PCK&S), which is the way teachers incorporate both subject matter and teaching strategies to transform the way they teach content to support student learning. PCK&S includes the knowledge and planning as well as the act of teaching. The NSF-funded Research Goes to School (RGS) project sought to impact teachers' PCK&S through the introduction of a current scientific research topic simultaneously with an evidence-based teaching strategy. As part of the RGS project, high-school STEM teachers from Indiana applied to attend summer PD workshops. At these workshops, aspects of nanoscience taken from the Big Ideas of Nanoscale Science and Engineering book and project-based learning (PjBL) were taught. Nanoscience was chosen due to the rapid growth of this field and the call by scientists and policymakers for the development of standards and curricula focused on nanoscience within K-12 education. Introduction of fundamental nanoscience concepts can expose students to current research within what is considered the next industrial revolution. PjBL was chosen since within this teaching strategy, scientific processes are used to address unstructured authentic problems. As part of PjBL, the students are required to synthesize ideas, collect and analyze data, and work with peers to develop an answer to the authentic question. Teachers who attended the workshops developed a nanoscience-based PjBL unit that aligned with Indiana state standards and implemented these units

  1. The Uncanny Thing : Paranoia and Claustrophobia in The Thing and “Who Goes There?”

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    This essay examines the themes of paranoia and claustrophobia as elements of horror in John Campbell’s novella “Who Goes There?” (1938) and John Carpenter’s film-adaptation of said novella, called The Thing (1982). The novella and the film utilize the lack of trust and reliability in between the characters as elements of fear as well as supernatural elements in the form of a monster. This essay focuses on the different parts of the story running through both versions, mainly the setting, the ...

  2. Smap: A Hydrologist Goes Crazy with a New High-Quality Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal

    2018-01-01

    By providing global measurements of near-surface soil moisture (down to about 5 cm) with unprecedented accuracy, the Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) satellite mission has opened the door to new and (in my opinion) exciting hydrological science. In this seminar, I present the results of a recent series of analyses performed with SMAP soil moisture data, covering a wide range of topics: (a) the characterization of the dynamics of near-surface soil moisture, with implications for forecasting soil moisture days into the future; (b) the multi-faceted character of the SMAP data, in the sense that different, established analysis approaches can extract information from the data that is largely (and perhaps unexpectedly) complementary; and (c) the interpretation of the data in the context of large-scale water fluxes. This final analysis is particularly exciting to me because it shows that, once the relevant algorithms are calibrated, precipitation and streamflow rates in hydrological basins can be estimated from the SMAP data alone - a reflection of the fact that the near-surface soil is a critical gateway between the atmospheric and subsurface branches of the hydrological cycle.

  3. Sustained Satellite Missions for Climate Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David

    2012-01-01

    Satellite CDRs possess the accuracy, longevity, and stability for sustained moni toring of critical variables to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system and predict future conditions. center dot Satellite CDRs are a critical element of a global climate observing system. center dot Satellite CDRs are a difficult challenge and require high - level managerial commitment, extensive intellectual capital, and adequate funding.

  4. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  5. Computing Thermal Imbalance Forces On Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Schutz, Robert E.; Sewell, Granville; Abusali, Pothai A. M.

    1994-01-01

    HEAT.PRO computer program calculates imbalance force caused by heating of surfaces of satellite. Calculates thermal imbalance force and determines its effect on orbit of satellite, especially where shadow cast by Earth Causes periodic changes in thermal environment around satellite. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Experiment In Aeronautical-Mobile/Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrey, Thomas C.; Lay, Norman E.; Dessouky, Khaled

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of performance of digital mobile/satellite communication terminals of advanced design intended for use in ground stations and airplanes in aeronautical-mobile service. Study was collaboration of NASA, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Communications Satellite Corp. (COMSAT), and International Maritime Satellite System (INMARSAT).

  7. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2006-01-01

    on satellite data. Additionally, most conventional methods are loosely connected to the image forming physics of the satellite image, giving these methods an ad hoc feel. Vesteinsson et al. (2005) proposed a method of fusion of satellite images that is based on the properties of imaging physics...

  8. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor is...

  9. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  10. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  11. Several thoughts for using new satellite remote sensing and global modeling for aerosol and cloud climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Makiko; Takenaka, Hideaki; Goto, Daisuke; Oikawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Uchida, Junya; Dai, Tie; Shi, Chong

    2017-04-01

    The rapid growth of satellite remote sensing technologies in the last two decades widened the utility of satellite data for understanding climate impacts of aerosols and clouds. The climate modeling community also has received the benefit of the earth observation and nowadays closed-collaboration of the two communities make us possible to challenge various applications for societal problems, such as for global warming and global-scale air pollution and others. I like to give several thoughts of new algorithm developments, model use of satellite data for climate impact studies and societal applications related with aerosols and clouds. Important issues are 1) Better aerosol detection and solar energy application using expanded observation ability of the third generation geostationary satellites, i.e. Himawari-8, GOES-R and future MTG, 2) Various observation functions by directional, polarimetric, and high resolution near-UV band by MISR, POLDER&PARASOL, GOSAT/CAI and future GOSAT2/CAI2, 3) Various applications of general purpose-imagers, MODIS, VIIRS and future GCOM-C/SGLI, and 4) Climate studies of aerosol and cloud stratification and convection with active and passive sensors, especially climate impact of BC aerosols using CLOUDSAT&CALIPSO and future Earth Explorer/EarthCARE.

  12. ARM Radiosondes for National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project Validation Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Lori [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tobin, David [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reale, Anthony [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Knuteson, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Feltz, Michelle [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This IOP has been a coordinated effort involving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, and the JPSS project to validate SNPP NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). In this arrangement, funding for radiosondes was provided by the JPSS project to ARM. These radiosondes were launched coincident with the SNPP satellite overpasses (OP) at four of the ARM field sites beginning in July 2012 and running through September 2017. Combined with other ARM data, an assessment of the radiosonde data quality was performed and post-processing corrections applied producing an ARM site Best Estimate (BE) product. The SNPP targeted radiosondes were integrated into the NOAA Products Validation System (NPROVS+) system, which collocated the radiosondes with satellite products (NOAA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites [EUMETSAT], Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite [GOES], Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate [COSMIC]) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP forecasts for use in product assessment and algorithm development. This work was a fundamental, integral, and cost-effective part of the SNPP validation effort and provided critical accuracy assessments of the SNPP temperature and water vapor soundings.

  13. Influence of satellite-derived photolysis rates and NOx emissions on Texas ozone modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.; Cohan, D. S.; Pour-Biazar, A.; Lamsal, L. N.; White, A. T.; Xiao, X.; Zhou, W.; Henderson, B. H.; Lash, B. F.

    2015-02-01

    Uncertain photolysis rates and emission inventory impair the accuracy of state-level ozone (O3) regulatory modeling. Past studies have separately used satellite-observed clouds to correct the model-predicted photolysis rates, or satellite-constrained top-down NOx emissions to identify and reduce uncertainties in bottom-up NOx emissions. However, the joint application of multiple satellite-derived model inputs to improve O3 state implementation plan (SIP) modeling has rarely been explored. In this study, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations of clouds are applied to derive the photolysis rates, replacing those used in Texas SIP modeling. This changes modeled O3 concentrations by up to 80 ppb and improves O3 simulations by reducing modeled normalized mean bias (NMB) and normalized mean error (NME) by up to 0.1. A sector-based discrete Kalman filter (DKF) inversion approach is incorporated with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx)-decoupled direct method (DDM) model to adjust Texas NOx emissions using a high-resolution Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 product. The discrepancy between OMI and CAMx NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) is further reduced by increasing modeled NOx lifetime and adding an artificial amount of NO2 in the upper troposphere. The region-based DKF inversion suggests increasing NOx emissions by 10-50% in most regions, deteriorating the model performance in predicting ground NO2 and O3, while the sector-based DKF inversion tends to scale down area and nonroad NOx emissions by 50%, leading to a 2-5 ppb decrease in ground 8 h O3 predictions. Model performance in simulating ground NO2 and O3 are improved using sector-based inversion-constrained NOx emissions, with 0.25 and 0.04 reductions in NMBs and 0.13 and 0.04 reductions in NMEs, respectively. Using both GOES-derived photolysis rates and OMI-constrained NOx emissions together reduces modeled NMB and NME by 0.05, increases the model

  14. Satellite Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Budget over Gulf of Mexico- Caribbean Basin: Seasonal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Santos, Pablo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system designed to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of hourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5 Imager and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometer (SSM/I) have been acquired for the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology is being tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the SSM/I passive microwave signals in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, we have sought to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is partly validated by first cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple-algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. More fundamental validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithm to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin. Total columnar atmospheric water budget results will be presented for an extended annual cycle consisting of the months of October-97, January-98, April-98, July-98, October-98, and January-1999. These results are used to emphasize

  15. UV Spectrophotometry of the Galilean Satellites, Saturnian Satellites & Selected Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert M.

    We propose a series of ultraviolet spectral observations of solid surfaces of selected solar system objects, specifically the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, several atmosphereless satellites of Saturn, and the asteroids, 5 Astraea, 18 Melpomene, 532 Herculina, 68 Leto, 31 Euphmsyne, 80 Sappho, 3 Juno, and 39 Laetitia. Historically such spectral observations have allowed for the Identification of spectrally active solid state materials on planetary surfaces. Furthermore, because the rotational properties are known for all the objects proposed for study, this technique will provide a longitude map of such materials on the objects' surfaces. The study of asteroid surface mineralogy is an important method of constraining solar system formation models. The asteroid spectra we have previously acquired with IUE have created unique subdivisions within the existent asteroid types. The new spectra will provide more sophisticated mineralogical characterizations of asteroid surface materials. Our other accomplishments with IUE include mapping of the distribution of condensed S02 on Io, identification of a longitudinal asymmetry on Europa associated with magnetospheric particle bombardment of the surface, and establishing the ultraviolet geometric albedo variation as a function of longitude for all the Galilean satellites. Because Io is the most volcanically active body In the solar system, and short tern variations in selected regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are known to occur, it is important to periodically check for temporal variations in the spectra of the Galilean satellites that may be due to variations n Io tectonic/volcanic activity, or magnetosphere changes. These proposed UV observations are critical to the design and operation of several instruments on Project Galileo, NASA's Jupiter Orbiter and Probe Mission. Spectra of Iapetus, Rhea and Dione have been acquired during the previous year; however, only at orbital locations near elongation. In addition, the dark

  16. Ocean tides for satellite geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    Spherical harmonic tidal solutions have been obtained at the frequencies of the 32 largest luni-solar tides using prior theory of the author. That theory was developed for turbulent, nonglobal, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing realistic bathymetry and linearized bottom friction; the oceans satisfy no-flow boundary conditions at coastlines. In this theory the eddy viscosity and bottom drag coefficients are treated as spatially uniform. Comparison of the predicted degree-2 components of the Mf, P1, and M2 tides with those from numerical and satellite-based tide models allows the ocean friction parameters to be estimated at long and short periods. Using the 32 tide solutions, the frequency dependence of tidal admittance is investigated, and the validity of sideband tide models used in satellite orbit analysis is examined. The implications of admittance variability for oceanic resonances are also explored.

  17. Induction studies with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    1999-01-01

    The natural variations of the Earth's magnetic field of periods spanning from milliseconds to decades can be used to infer the conductivity-depth profile of the Earth's interior. Satellites provide a good spatial coverage of magnetic measurements, and forthcoming missions will probably allow...... for observations lasting several years, which helps to reduce the statistical error of the estimated response functions. Two methods are used to study the electrical conductivity of the Earth's mantle in the period range from hours to months. In the first, known as the potential method, a spherical harmonic...... days, this difference probably is not caused purely by differences in mantle conductivity (for which one would expect less difference for the longer periods). Further studies with data from recently launched and future satellites are needed....

  18. Satellite communications network design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Kenneth Y

    2011-01-01

    This authoritative book provides a thorough understanding of the fundamental concepts of satellite communications (SATCOM) network design and performance assessments. You find discussions on a wide class of SATCOM networks using satellites as core components, as well as coverage key applications in the field. This in-depth resource presents a broad range of critical topics, from geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellites and direct broadcast satellite systems, to low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, radio standards and protocols.This invaluable reference explains the many specific uses of

  19. The Swedish satellite project Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1990-01-01

    The Swedish satellite project Viking is described and related to earlier missions. Some new operational characteristics are discussed, including the real-time data analysis campaigns that were an important part of the project. Some areas of important scientific impact of the project are also described. Viking was specially designed and equipped for investigation of plasma physical acceleration and other processes in the transition region between hot and cold plasma on auroral latitude magnetic field lines

  20. Hybrid Maritime Satellite Communication Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst

    Hybrid antennas for a maritime satellite communication terminal with simultaneous operation at L- and Ka-band have been investigated. The frequency bands of interest are 1; 525:0 1; 660:5 MHz (RX+TX, RHCP), 19:7 20:2 (RX, LHCP) and 29:5 30:0 GHz (TX, RHCP), which are all part of the Inmarsat BGAN...

  1. SDR Implementation for Satellite Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Carin; Sjödin, Olof

    2017-01-01

    SDR (Software Defined Radio) is a radio communicationsystem that has been of great interest and developmentover the last 20 years. It decreases communication costs significantlyas it replaces expensive analogue system components withcheap and flexible digital ones. In this article we describe anSDR implementation for communication with the SEAM (SmallExplorer for Advances Missions) satellite, a CubeSat satellitethat will perform high quality magnetic measurements in theEarth orbit. The projec...

  2. Collage of Saturn's smaller satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This family portrait shows the smaller satellites of Saturn as viewed by Voyager 2 during its swing through the Saturnian system. The following chart corresponds to this composite photograph (distance from the planet increases from left to right) and lists names, standard numerical designations and approximate dimensions (radii where indicated) in kilometers: 1980S26Outer F-ringshepherd120 X 100 1980S1Leadingco-orbital220 X 160 1980S25TrailingTethys trojanradii: 25 1980S28Outer Ashepherdradii: 20 1980S27Inner F-ringco-orbital145 X 70 1980S3TrailingTethys trojan140 X 100 1980S13LeadingTethys trojanradii: 30 1980S6LeadingDione trojanradii: 30 These images have been scaled to show the satellites in true relative sizes. This set of small objects ranges in size from small asteroidal scales to nearly the size of Saturn's moon Mimas. They are probably fragments of somewhat larger bodies broken up during the bombardment period that followed accretion of the Saturnian system. Scientists believe they may be mostly icy bodies with a mixture of meteorite rock. They are somewhat less reflective than the larger satellites, suggesting that thermal evolution of the larger moons 'cleaned up' their icy surfaces. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  3. Satellite-based laser windsounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.F.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Quick, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project''s primary objective is to determine the technical feasibility of using satellite-based laser wind sensing systems for detailed study of winds, aerosols, and particulates around and downstream of suspected proliferation facilities. Extensive interactions with the relevant operational organization resulted in enthusiastic support and useful guidance with respect to measurement requirements and priorities. Four candidate wind sensing techniques were evaluated, and the incoherent Doppler technique was selected. A small satellite concept design study was completed to identify the technical issues inherent in a proof-of-concept small satellite mission. Use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of a Fabry-Perot would significantly simplify the optical train and could reduce weight, and possibly power, requirements with no loss of performance. A breadboard Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based system has been built to verify these predictions. Detailed plans were made for resolving other issues through construction and testing of a ground-based lidar system in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin, and through numerical lidar wind data assimilation studies

  4. Phillips Laboratory small satellite initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Mark K.; Imler, Thomas A.; Davis, Robert J.

    1993-09-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Space Experiments Directorate in conjunction with the Air Force Space Test Program (AF STP), Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency (DARPA) and Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), are managing five small satellite program initiatives: Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) sponsored by SDIO, Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) sponsored by SDIO, Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) sponsored by Phillips Laboratory, TechSat sponsored by SDIO, and the Advanced Technology Standard Satellite Bus (ATSSB) sponsored by DARPA. Each of these spacecraft fulfills a unique set of program requirements. These program requirements range from a short-lived `one-of-a-kind' mission to the robust multi- mission role. Because of these diverging requirements, each program is driven to use a different design philosophy. But regardless of their design, there is the underlying fact that small satellites do not always equate to small missions. These spacecraft with their use of or ability to insert new technologies provide more capabilities and services for their respective payloads which allows the expansion of their mission role. These varying program efforts culminate in an ATSSB spacecraft bus approach that will support moderate size payloads, up to 500 pounds, in a large set of orbits while satisfying the `cheaper, faster, better' method of doing business. This technical paper provides an overview of each of the five spacecraft, focusing on the objectives, payoffs, technologies demonstrated, and program status.

  5. Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Conti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.

  6. Configurable software for satellite graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartzman, P D

    1977-12-01

    An important goal in interactive computer graphics is to provide users with both quick system responses for basic graphics functions and enough computing power for complex calculations. One solution is to have a distributed graphics system in which a minicomputer and a powerful large computer share the work. The most versatile type of distributed system is an intelligent satellite system in which the minicomputer is programmable by the application user and can do most of the work while the large remote machine is used for difficult computations. At New York University, the hardware was configured from available equipment. The level of system intelligence resulted almost completely from software development. Unlike previous work with intelligent satellites, the resulting system had system control centered in the satellite. It also had the ability to reconfigure software during realtime operation. The design of the system was done at a very high level using set theoretic language. The specification clearly illustrated processor boundaries and interfaces. The high-level specification also produced a compact, machine-independent virtual graphics data structure for picture representation. The software was written in a systems implementation language; thus, only one set of programs was needed for both machines. A user can program both machines in a single language. Tests of the system with an application program indicate that is has very high potential. A major result of this work is the demonstration that a gigantic investment in new hardware is not necessary for computing facilities interested in graphics.

  7. Antennas for mobile satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, John

    1991-12-01

    A NASA sponsored program, called the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system, has prompted the development of several innovative antennas at L-band frequencies. In the space segment of the MSAT system, an efficient, light weight, circularly polarized microstrip array that uses linearly polarized elements was developed as a multiple beam reflector feed system. In the ground segment, a low-cost, low-profile, and very efficient microstrip Yagi array was developed as a medium-gain mechanically steered vehicle antenna. Circularly shaped microstrip patches excited at higher-order modes were also developed as low-gain vehicle antennas. A more recent effort called for the development of a 20/30 GHz mobile terminal antenna for future-generation mobile satellite communications. To combat the high insertion loss encountered at 20/30 GHz, series-fed Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) microstrip array antennas are currently being developed. These MMIC arrays may lead to the development of several small but high-gain Ka-band antennas for the Personal Access Satellite Service planned for the 2000s.

  8. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., lo, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  9. Weather Satellite Pictures and How to Obtain Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Noel J.; Johnson, Philip

    1982-01-01

    An introduction to satellite meteorology is presented to promote use of live weather satellite photographs in the classroom. Topics addressed include weather satellites, how they work, earth emissions, satellite photography, satellite image analysis, obtaining satellite pictures, and future considerations. Includes sources for materials to…

  10. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  11. Monthly-Diurnal Water Budget Variability Over Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea Basin from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E. A.; Santos, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system design d to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of hourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5-channel Imager, the TRMM TMI radiometer, and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometers (SSM/I) have been acquired for the combined Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology has been tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the TRMM and SSM/I passive microwave measurements in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, the intent is to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is validated by cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple-algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. A further check on the validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithms to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin, although it is fair to say that these checks are more effective in identifying problems in estimating vapor transports from a "leaky" operational radiosonde network than in

  12. Results from the northern New Mexico satellite-beacon radio interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, R.; Jacobson, A.; Massey, R.; Wu, G.

    1994-01-01

    An interferometer described in the Boston, 1992, meeting of the Beacon Satellite Symposium has been in full operation for over a year now. It consists of four autonomous stations; three are in a triangle 70 km on a side and one is in the center. The stations receive the VHF beacons from two geosynchronous satellites, GOES-2 and ATS-3. The phases of the beacons are tracked at each station by referring them to an extremely stable rubidium oscillator. The studies of the two satellites are virtually separate experiments. The received phase of the beacon is retarded by the increased Total-Electron-Content of the dense regions of waves in the ionosphere. By comparing the phase history at four spatially separated stations, the authors can determine the two-dimensional propagation vector of the waves. This array is optimal for wavelengths of 70--300 km (periods of 300--3,000 seconds). Since the measurement is of the phase of the signal rather than the difference between the O-mode and X-mode phases, and since the beacons are in the VHF rather than in the L-band of GPS beacons, the array is very sensitive. It has a noise level of 10 13 electrons/m 2 , or 10 -4 of the normal daytime TEC. This has been verified by operating two stations in the same location, so that they saw the same ionosphere. The first interesting results from a year's study is that the authors do not see the same TID's when looking at the two satellites. One conclusion they draw is that they do not see evidence of ionospheric winds

  13. Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Transitioning Satellite Data to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center located at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting testbed activities aimed at transitioning satellite products to National Weather Service operational end users for the last 10 years. SPoRT is a NASA/NOAA funded project that has set the bar for transition of products to operational end users through a paradigm of understanding forecast challenges and forecaster needs, displaying products in end users decision support systems, actively assessing the operational impact of these products, and improving products based on forecaster feedback. Aiming for quality partnerships rather than a large quantity of data users, SPoRT has become a community leader in training operational forecasters on the use of up-and-coming satellite data through the use of legacy instruments and proxy data. Traditionally, SPoRT has supplied satellite imagery and products from NASA instruments such as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). However, recently, SPoRT has been funded by the GOES-R and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Grounds to accelerate the transition of selected imagery and products to help improve forecaster awareness of upcoming operational data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This presentation provides background on the SPoRT Center, the SPoRT paradigm, and some example products that SPoRT is excited to work with forecasters to evaluate.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Homogeneity of Solar Surface Irradiance across Satellite Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Posselt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar surface irradiance (SIS is an essential variable in the radiation budget of the Earth. Climate data records (CDR’s of SIS are required for climate monitoring, for climate model evaluation and for solar energy applications. A 23 year long (1983–2005 continuous and validated SIS CDR based on the visible channel (0.45–1 μm of the MVIRI instruments onboard the first generation of Meteosat satellites has recently been generated using a climate version of the well established Heliosat method. This version of the Heliosat method includes a newly developed self-calibration algorithm and an improved algorithm to determine the clear sky reflection. The climate Heliosat version is also applied to the visible narrow-band channels of SEVIRI onboard the Meteosat Second Generation Satellites (2004–present. The respective channels are observing the Earth in the wavelength region at about 0.6 μm and 0.8 μm. SIS values of the overlapping time period are used to analyse whether a homogeneous extension of the MVIRI CDR is possible with the SEVIRI narrowband channels. It is demonstrated that the spectral differences between the used visible channels leads to significant differences in the solar surface irradiance in specific regions. Especially, over vegetated areas the reflectance exhibits a high spectral dependency resulting in large differences in the retrieved SIS. The applied self-calibration method alone is not able to compensate the spectral differences of the channels. Furthermore, the extended range of the input values (satellite counts enhances the cloud detection of the SEVIRI instruments resulting in lower values for SIS, on average. Our findings have implications for the application of the Heliosat method to data from other geostationary satellites (e.g., GOES, GMS. They demonstrate the need for a careful analysis of the effect of spectral and technological differences in visible channels on the retrieved solar irradiance.

  15. Forecasting Global Horizontal Irradiance Using the LETKF and a Combination of Advected Satellite Images and Sparse Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, T. M.; Lorenzo, A.; Holmgren, W.; Morzfeld, M.

    2017-12-01

    The irradiance incident on a solar panel is the main factor in determining the power output of that panel. For this reason, accurate global horizontal irradiance (GHI) estimates and forecasts are critical when determining the optimal location for a solar power plant, forecasting utility scale solar power production, or forecasting distributed, behind the meter rooftop solar power production. Satellite images provide a basis for producing the GHI estimates needed to undertake these objectives. The focus of this work is to combine satellite derived GHI estimates with ground sensor measurements and an advection model. The idea is to use accurate but sparsely distributed ground sensors to improve satellite derived GHI estimates which can cover large areas (the size of a city or a region of the United States). We use a Bayesian framework to perform the data assimilation, which enables us to produce irradiance forecasts and associated uncertainties which incorporate both satellite and ground sensor data. Within this framework, we utilize satellite images taken from the GOES-15 geostationary satellite (available every 15-30 minutes) as well as ground data taken from irradiance sensors and rooftop solar arrays (available every 5 minutes). The advection model, driven by wind forecasts from a numerical weather model, simulates cloud motion between measurements. We use the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) to perform the data assimilation. We present preliminary results towards making such a system useful in an operational context. We explain how localization and inflation in the LETKF, perturbations of wind-fields, and random perturbations of the advection model, affect the accuracy of our estimates and forecasts. We present experiments showing the accuracy of our forecasted GHI over forecast-horizons of 15 mins to 1 hr. The limitations of our approach and future improvements are also discussed.

  16. Prediction of GNSS satellite clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broederbauer, V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the characterisation and prediction of GNSS-satellite-clocks. A prerequisite to develop powerful algorithms for the prediction of clock-corrections is the thorough study of the behaviour of the different clock-types of the satellites. In this context the predicted part of the IGU-clock-corrections provided by the Analysis Centers (ACs) of the IGS was compared to the IGS-Rapid-clock solutions to determine reasonable estimates of the quality of already existing well performing predictions. For the shortest investigated interval (three hours) all ACs obtain almost the same accuracy of 0,1 to 0,4 ns. For longer intervals the individual predictions results start to diverge. Thus, for a 12-hours- interval the differences range from nearly 10 ns (GFZ, CODE) until up to some 'tens of ns'. Based on the estimated clock corrections provided via the IGS Rapid products a simple quadratic polynomial turns out to be sufficient to describe the time series of Rubidium-clocks. On the other hand Cesium-clocks show a periodical behaviour (revolution period) with an amplitude of up to 6 ns. A clear correlation between these amplitudes and the Sun elevation angle above the orbital planes can be demonstrated. The variability of the amplitudes is supposed to be caused by temperature-variations affecting the oscillator. To account for this periodical behaviour a quadratic polynomial with an additional sinus-term was finally chosen as prediction model both for the Cesium as well as for the Rubidium clocks. The three polynomial-parameters as well as amplitude and phase shift of the periodic term are estimated within a least-square-adjustment by means of program GNSS-VC/static. Input-data are time series of the observed part of the IGU clock corrections. With the estimated parameters clock-corrections are predicted for various durations. The mean error of the prediction of Rubidium-clock-corrections for an interval of six hours reaches up to 1,5 ns. For the 12-hours

  17. Downscaling Satellite Land Surface Temperatures in Urban Regions for Surface Energy Balance Study and Heat Index Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Bah, A.; Prakash, S.; Nouri, N.; Blake, R.

    2017-12-01

    A great percentage of the world's population reside in urban areas that are exposed to the threats of global and regional climate changes and associated extreme weather events. Among them, urban heat islands have significant health and economic impacts due to higher thermal gradients of impermeable surfaces in urban regions compared to their surrounding rural areas. Therefore, accurate characterization of the surface energy balance in urban regions are required to predict these extreme events. High spatial resolution Land surface temperature (LST) in the scale of street level in the cities can provide wealth of information to study surface energy balance and eventually providing a reliable heat index. In this study, we estimate high-resolution LST maps using combination of LandSat 8 and infrared based satellite products such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and newly launched Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R). Landsat 8 provides higher spatial resolution (30 m) estimates of skin temperature every 16 days. However, MODIS and GOES-R have lower spatial resolution (1km and 4km respectively) with much higher temporal resolution. Several statistical downscaling methods were investigated to provide high spatiotemporal LST maps in urban regions. The results reveal that statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can provide reliable estimations of LST downscaling with 2K accuracy. Other methods also were tried including aggregating (up-scaling) the high-resolution data to a coarse one to examine the limitations and to build the model. Additionally, we deployed flux towers over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops in New York City to monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. This

  18. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  19. Activities of Canadian Satellite Communications, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Canadian Satellite Communications (Cancom) has as its core business the provision of television and radio signals to cable systems in Canada, with the objective of making affordable broadcast signals available to remote and/or small communities. Cancom also provides direct-to-home services to backyard receiving dishes, as well as satellite digital data business communications services, satellite business television, and satellite network services. Its business communication services range from satellite links for big-city businesses with small branch operations located far from major centers, to a mobile messaging and tracking system for the trucking industry. Revenues in 1992 totalled $48,212,000 and net income was just over $7 million. Cancom bought 10 percent interest in Leosat Corp. of Washington, DC, who are seeking approval to operate a position locator network from low-orbit satellites. Cancom has also become a partner in SovCan Star Satellite Communications Inc., which will build an international satellite system in partnership with Russia. The first satellite in this east-west business network will be placed in a Russian orbital slot over the Atlantic by 1996, and a second satellite will follow for the Pacific region. This annual report of Cancom's activities for 1992 includes financial statements and a six year financial review.

  20. German telecommunications satellite (Deutscher fernmelde satellit) (DFS-1 and -2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiendlmeier, G.; Schmeller, H.

    1991-01-01

    The German Telecommunications Satellite (DFS) Program is to provide telecommunications service for high data rate transmission of text and video data to the Federal Republic of Germany within the 11-14 GHz and 20-30 GHz bands. The space segment of this program is composed of three satellites, DFS-1, DFS-2, and DFS-3, which will be located at 23.5 degrees E longitude of the geostationary orbit. The DFS will be launched from the Center Spatial Guyanis in French Giana on an Ariane launch vehicle. The mission follows the typical injection sequence: parking orbit, transfer orbit, and earth orbit. Attitude maneuvers will be performed to orient the spacecraft prior to Apogee Kick Motor (AKM) firing. After AKM firing, drift phase orbital and attitude maneuvers will be performed to place the spacecraft in its final geostationary position. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. Information is presented in tabular form for the following areas: DSN support, compatibility testing, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibilities.

  1. Tracking System : Suaineadh satellite experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Brengesjö, Carl; Selin, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to present a tracking system for the Suaineadh satellite experiment. The experiment is a part of the REXUS (Rocket EXperiments for University Students) program and the objective is to deploy a foldable web in space. The assignment of this thesis is to develop a tracking system to find the parts from the Suaineadh experiment that will land on Earth. It is important to find the parts and recover all the data that the experiment performed during the travel ...

  2. An introduction to optimal satellite range scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez Álvarez, Antonio José

    2015-01-01

    The satellite range scheduling (SRS) problem, an important operations research problem in the aerospace industry consisting of allocating tasks among satellites and Earth-bound objects, is examined in this book. SRS principles and solutions are applicable to many areas, including: Satellite communications, where tasks are communication intervals between sets of satellites and ground stations Earth observation, where tasks are observations of spots on the Earth by satellites Sensor scheduling, where tasks are observations of satellites by sensors on the Earth. This self-contained monograph begins with a structured compendium of the problem and moves on to explain the optimal approach to the solution, which includes aspects from graph theory, set theory, game theory and belief networks. This book is accessible to students, professionals and researchers in a variety of fields, including: operations research, optimization, scheduling theory, dynamic programming and game theory. Taking account of the distributed, ...

  3. Study of chaos in chaotic satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayub; Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study the qualitative behaviour of satellite systems using bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré section, Lyapunov exponents, dissipation, equilibrium points, Kaplan-Yorke dimension etc. Bifurcation diagrams with respect to the known parameters of satellite systems are analysed. Poincaré sections with different sowing axes of the satellite are drawn. Eigenvalues of Jacobian matrices for the satellite system at different equilibrium points are calculated to justify the unstable regions. Lyapunov exponents are estimated. From these studies, chaos in satellite system has been established. Solution of equations of motion of the satellite system are drawn in the form of three-dimensional, two-dimensional and time series phase portraits. Phase portraits and time series display the chaotic nature of the considered system.

  4. Kagawa Satellite “STARS” in Shikoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohmi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Andatsu, Akira; Takagi, Yohei; Nishikawa, Yusuke; Kaneko, Takashi; Kunitom, Daisuke

    The Space Tethered Autonomous Robotic Satellite (STARS) is being developed in Kagawa University, and it will be launched by the H-IIA rocket by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in summer 2008. STARS is the first satellite developed in Shikoku, and its specific characteristics are: (i) mother and daughter satellites, which have basic satellite system respectively, and those are launched at the same time; (ii) large space system more than 5m by extending tether; (iii) robotic system, the daughter satellite controls its arm link and the mother satellite controls tether extension. Development of STARS in Kagawa University demonstrates space technology in local community, which has been considered to be a national project. Also, it promotes popularization, enlightenment, and understanding of space technology in local area of the Kagawa prefecture and around it.

  5. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  6. The Antarctic Ice Sheet, Sea Ice, and the Ozone Hole: Satellite Observations of how they are Changing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    Antarctica is the Earth's coldest and highest continent and has major impacts on the climate and life of the south polar vicinity. It is covered almost entirely by the Earth's largest ice sheet by far, with a volume of ice so great that if all the Antarctic ice were to go into the ocean (as ice or liquid water), this would produce a global sea level rise of about 60 meters (197 feet). The continent is surrounded by sea ice that in the wintertime is even more expansive than the continent itself and in the summertime reduces to only about a sixth of its wintertime extent. Like the continent, the expansive sea ice cover has major impacts, reflecting the sun's radiation back to space, blocking exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere, and providing a platform for some animal species while impeding other species. Far above the continent, the Antarctic ozone hole is a major atmospheric phenomenon recognized as human-caused and potentially quite serious to many different life forms. Satellites are providing us with remarkable information about the ice sheet, the sea ice, and the ozone hole. Satellite visible and radar imagery are providing views of the large scale structure of the ice sheet never seen before; satellite laser altimetry has produced detailed maps of the topography of the ice sheet; and an innovative gravity-measuring two-part satellite has allowed mapping of regions of mass loss and mass gain on the ice sheet. The surrounding sea ice cover has a satellite record that goes back to the 1970s, allowing trend studies that show a decreasing sea ice presence in the region of the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas, to the west of the prominent Antarctic Peninsula, but increasing sea ice presence around much of the rest of the continent. Overall, sea ice extent around Antarctica has increased at an average rate of about 17,000 square kilometers per year since the late 1970s, as determined from satellite microwave data that can be collected under both light and

  7. History of Satellite Orbit Determination at NSWCDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-31

    meeting of the Satellite Division of ION, Palm Springs, CA., 12–15 Sep 1995. Hughey, Raymond H., Jr., “ History of Mathematics and Computing Technology ...TR-17/229 HISTORY OF SATELLITE ORBIT DETERMINATION AT NSWCDD BY EVERETT R. SWIFT WARFARE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND INTEGRATION...AND SUBTITLE History of Satellite Orbit Determination at NSWCDD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  8. Satellite Communication and Long Distance Education

    OpenAIRE

    Hafied Cangara

    2016-01-01

    Since Indonesia introduced communication satellite for telecommunication network, the satellite has brought a number of advantages for national development in various areas, such as telephone network, mass media development, business, education, politics, security and national defence as well as regional and International cooperation. In education, satellite communication could be used for long-distance learning as implemented by 13 state universities in eastern parts of Indonesia. It is also...

  9. Estimating Rain Attenuation In Satellite Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Attenuation computed with help of statistical model and meteorological data. NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model (SLAM) program QuickBASIC computer program evaluating static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of rain attenuation on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Application in specification, design, and assessment of satellite communication links for any terminal location in continental United States. Written in Microsoft QuickBASIC.

  10. Estimation of solar radiation over Cambodia from long-term satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Pankaew, P.; Laksanaboonsong, J. [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Kitichantaropas, P. [Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency, Ministry of Energy, 17 Rama 1 Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, monthly average daily global solar irradiation over Cambodia was estimated from a long-term satellite data. A 14-year period (1995-2008) of visible channel data from GMS5, GOES9 and MTSAT-1R satellites were used to provide earth-atmospheric reflectivity. A satellite-based solar radiation model developed for a tropical environment was used to estimate surface solar radiation. The model relates the satellite-derived earth-atmospheric reflectivity to absorption and scattering coefficients of various atmospheric constituents. The absorption of solar radiation due to water vapour was calculated from precipitable water derived from ambient relative humidity and temperature. Ozone data from the TOMS and OMI satellite data were employed to compute the solar radiation absorption by ozone. The depletion of radiation due to aerosols was estimated from the visibility data. Five new solar radiation measuring stations were established at Cambodian cities, namely Siem Reap (13.87 N, 103.85 E), Kompong Thom (12.68 N, 104.88 E), Phnom Penh (11.55 N, 104.83 E), Sihanouke Ville (10.67 N, 103.63 E) and Kampot (10.70 N, 104.28 E). Global solar radiation measured at these stations was used to validate the model. The validation was also carried out by using solar radiation measured at four Thai meteorological stations. These stations are situated near the Cambodian border. Monthly average daily global irradiation from these stations was compared with that calculated from the model. The measured and calculated irradiation is in good agreement, with the root mean square difference of 6.3%, with respect to the mean values. After the validation, the model was used to calculate monthly average daily global solar irradiation over Cambodia. Based on this satellite-derived irradiation, solar radiation maps for Cambodia were generated. These maps show that solar radiation climate of this country is strongly influenced by the monsoons. A solar radiation database was also generated

  11. Comparisons of Satellite-Deduced Overlapping Cloud Properties and CALIPSO CloudSat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to the overlapped cloud properties derived from polar-orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (GOES-12, -13, Meteosat-8, -9, etc.) meteorological satellites, which are produced at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) cloud research & development team (NASA lead scientist: Dr. Patrick Minnis). Comparison of the LaRC CERES MODIS Edition-3 overlapped cloud properties to the CALIPSO and the CloudSat active sensing data. High clouds and overlapped clouds occur frequently as deduced by CALIPSO (44 & 25%), CloudSat (25 & 4%), and MODIS (37 & 6%). Large fractions of optically-thin cirrus and overlapped clouds are deduced from CALIPSO, but much smaller fractions are from CloudSat and MODIS. For overlapped clouds, the averaged upper-layer CTHs are about 12.8 (CALIPSO), 10.9 (CloudSat) and 10 km (MODIS), and the averaged lower-layer CTHs are about 3.6 (CALIPSO), 3.2 (CloudSat) and 3.9 km (MODIS). Based on comparisons of upper and lower-layer cloud properties as deduced from the MODIS, CALIPSO and CloudSat data, more enhanced passive satellite methods for retrieving thin cirrus and overlapped cloud properties are needed and are under development.

  12. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  13. Satellite Ozone Analysis Center (SOAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Sullivan, T.J.; Knox, J.B.; Korver, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    Many questions have been raised during the 1970's regarding the possible modification of the ozonosphere by aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Concern also has been expressed over the manner in which the ozonosphere may change in the future as a result of fluorocarbon releases. There are also other ways by which the ozonosphere may be significantly altered, both anthropogenic and natural. Very basic questions have been raised, bearing upon the amount of ozone which would be destroyed by the NO/sub x/ produced in atmospheric nuclear explosions. Studies of the available satellite data have suggested that the worldwide increase of ozone during the past decade, which was observed over land stations, may have been biased by a poor distribution of stations and/or a shift of the planetary wave. Additional satellite data will be required to resolve this issue. Proposals are presented for monitoring of the Earth's ozone variability from the present time into the 1980's to establish a baseline upon which regional, as well as global, ozone trends can be measured

  14. Photometric Study of Uranian Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Philip R.

    1998-01-01

    The best summary of my work at NASA is expressed in the following abstract, submitted the Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society and to be presented at the annual meeting in Madison in October. We report photometric measurements of Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel and Titania (10.4 Aug. 1995), and Neptune's satellite Triton (21.2 Sept. 1995) with the infrared camera (IRCAM) and standard J (1.13 - 1.42 microns), H (1.53 - 1.81 microns), and K (2.00 - 2.41 microns) filters at the 3.8-m UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea. The individual images frames are 256 x 256 pixels with a platescale of .286 arcsec/pixel, resulting in a 1.22 arc min field of view. This summer brought the IR photometry measurements nearly to a close. As indicated by the abstract above, I will present this work at the annual DPS meeting in October. In anticipation of the opening of the new Carl Sagan Laboratory for Cosmochemisty, of which I will be a participating member, I also devoted a considerable fraction of the summer to learning the biochemistry which underlies the experiments to be conducted. To put the end of the summary close to the beginning, it was a most productive summer.

  15. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

    2008-12-01

    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  16. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Latham, D. W.; Seager, S.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Villasenor, J. S.; Winn, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction of TESS target stars will be 30-100 times brighter than those observed by Kepler satellite, and therefore TESS . planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS will make it possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars. TESS will provide prime targets for observation with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future. TESS data will be released with minimal delay (no proprietary period), inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the very nearest and brightest main-sequence stars hosting transiting exoplanets, thus providing future observers with the most favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  17. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  18. Satellite recovery - Attitude dynamics of the targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, J. E., Jr.; Lahr, B. S.

    1986-01-01

    The problems of categorizing and modeling the attitude dynamics of uncontrolled artificial earth satellites which may be targets in recovery attempts are addressed. Methods of classification presented are based on satellite rotational kinetic energy, rotational angular momentum and orbit and on the type of control present prior to the benign failure of the control system. The use of approximate analytical solutions and 'exact' numerical solutions to the equations governing satellite attitude motions to predict uncontrolled attitude motion is considered. Analytical and numerical results are presented for the evolution of satellite attitude motions after active control termination.

  19. Advanced Deployable Structural Systems for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Straubel, Marco; Wilkie, W. Keats; Zander, Martin E.; Fernandez, Juan M.; Hillebrandt, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key challenges for small satellites is packaging and reliable deployment of structural booms and arrays used for power, communication, and scientific instruments. The lack of reliable and efficient boom and membrane deployment concepts for small satellites is addressed in this work through a collaborative project between NASA and DLR. The paper provides a state of the art overview on existing spacecraft deployable appendages, the special requirements for small satellites, and initial concepts for deployable booms and arrays needed for various small satellite applications. The goal is to enhance deployable boom predictability and ground testability, develop designs that are tolerant of manufacturing imperfections, and incorporate simple and reliable deployment systems.

  20. Live Satellite Communications... An Exciting Teaching Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes ways that orbiting satellites carrying amateur radios can be used in the classroom at various grade levels to supplement physics, mathematics, electronics, and social science curricula. (MLH)

  1. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) simulator development for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The simulation development associated with the network models of both the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures is documented. The ISIS Network Model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communications satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete event simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters, and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  2. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1, Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from derived International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1 observations of tropical cyclones worldwide. The B1 data...

  3. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J.; Nelson, J.; Goldberg, M.; Sjoberg, W.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean prediction center at the national hurricane center's tropical analysis and forecast Branch, the Weather Prediction center and the Satellite analysis branch of NESDIS make up the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation and Satellite Analysis. These centers had early exposure to JPSS products using the S-NPP Satellite that was launched in 2011. Forecasters continue to evaluate new products in anticipation for the launch of JPSS-1 sometime in 2017.

  4. Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) network model for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Full Service Integrated Services Digital Network (FSIS) network model for advanced satellite designs describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ACTS and the Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) perform ISDN protocol analyses and switching decisions in the terrestrial domain, whereas FSIS makes all its analyses and decisions on-board the ISDN satellite.

  5. The Strategic Nature of the Tactical Satellite. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-13

    engagement. Again, the myth of the tactical satellite is that they are tactical. Calling a dandelion a rose doesn’t change its smell. As former...a scary satellite weapon called a ‘parasite satellite.’ This is a micro- satellite that could attach itself to just about any type of satellite with

  6. If One Goes up the Other Must Come Down: Examining Ipsative Relationships between Math and English Self-concept Trajectories across High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Seaton, Marjorie; Van Zanden, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Internal-External frame of reference (IE) model suggests that as self-concept in one domain goes up (e.g., English) self-concept in other domains (e.g., mathematics) should go down (ipsative self-concept hypothesis). Aims: To our knowledge this assumption has not been tested. Testing this effect also provides a context for…

  7. Mobile satellite communications in the 1990's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jai

    1992-07-01

    The evolution of Inmarsat global services from a single market and single service of the 1980's to all of the key mobile markets and a wide range of new terminals and services in the 1990's is described. An overview of existing mobile satellite services, as well as new services under implementation for introduction in the near and longer term, including a handheld satellite phone (Inmarsat-P), is provided. The initiative taken by Inmarsat in the integration of its global mobile satellite services with global navigation capability derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) and the GLONASS (Russian GPS) navigation satellite systems and the provision of an international civil overlay for GPS/GLONASS integrity and augmentation is highlighted. To complete the overview of the development of mobile satellite services in the 1990's, the known national and regional mobile satellite system plans and the various recent proposals for both orbiting and geostationary satellite systems for proving handheld satellite phone and/or data messaging services are described.

  8. Study of chaos in chaotic satellite systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayub Khan

    2017-12-27

    Dec 27, 2017 ... through strange attractor which is framed of the com- plex patterns. The one ... jectory of the Slave satellite be the measured attitude of the Master satellite [12 ... Bifurcation occurs when a tiny smooth change is made to the parameter .... negative and one of these tends to zero which is the required condition ...

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF AERONAUTICAL LOCAL SATELLITE AUGMENTATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojce Ilcev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper introduces development and implementation of new Local Satellite AugmentationSystem as an integration component of the Regional Satellite Augmentation System (RSAS employingcurrent and new Satellite Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS for improvement of the AirTraffic Control (ATC and Air Traffic Management (ATM and for enhancement safety systems includingtransport security and control of flights in all stages, airport approaching, landing, departures and allmovements over airport surface areas. The current first generation of the Global Navigation Satellite SystemGNSS-1 applications are represented by fundamental military solutions for Position, Velocity and Time ofthe satellite navigation and determination systems such as the US GPS and Russian GLONASS (Former-USSR requirements, respectively. The establishment of Aeronautical CNS is also discussed as a part ofGlobal Satellite Augmentation Systems of GPS and GLONASS systems integrated with existing and futureRSAS and LSAS in airports areas. Specific influence and factors related to the Comparison of the Currentand New Aeronautical CNS System including the Integration of RSAS and GNSS solutions are discussedand packet of facts is determined to maximize the new satellite Automatic Dependent Surveillance System(ADSS and Special Effects of the RSAS Networks. The possible future integration of RSAS and GNSS andthe common proposal of the satellite Surface Movement Guidance and Control are presented in thechangeless ways as of importance for future enfacements of ATC and ATM for any hypothetical airportinfrastructure.Keywords: ADSS, ATC, ATM, CNS, GSAS, LRAS, RSAS, SMGC, Special Effects of RSAS.

  10. Study of chaos in chaotic satellite systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lyapunov exponents are estimated. From these studies, chaosin satellite system has been established. Solution of equations of motion of the satellite system are drawn in the form of three-dimensional, two-dimensional and time series phase portraits. Phase portraits and time series display the chaotic nature of the ...

  11. Swarm Satellites : Design, Characteristics and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite swarms are a novelty, yet promise to deliver unprecedented robustness and data-collection efficiency. They are so new in fact that even the definition of what a satellite swarm is is disputable, and consequently, the term "swarm" is used for practically any type of distributed space

  12. Satellite Remote Sensing in Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean surface winds are presented with focus on wind energy applications. The history on operational and research-based satellite ocean wind mapping is briefly described for passive microwave, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Currently 6 GW installed...

  13. Nanosatellite swarm support for larger satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Chris; Engelen, Steven; Noroozi, Arash; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Sundaramoorthy, Prem; Meijer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Nano-satellites are small (less than 10 kg) and low cost satellites of which quite a number has been launched the last few years, mostly as university educational or research projects. The development of professional scientific and commercial applications is still in its infancy and there are only

  14. Fiber optic sensing for telecommunication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Arnd; Glier, Markus; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Lars; Müller, Mathias; Rapp, Stephan; Kurvin, Charles; Ernst, Thomas; McKenzie, Iain; Karafolas, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    Modern telecommunication satellites can benefit from the features of fiber optic sensing wrt to mass savings, improved performance and lower costs. Within the course of a technology study, launched by the European Space Agency, a fiber optic sensing system has been designed and is to be tested on representative mockups of satellite sectors and environment.

  15. Data distribution in the OLFAR satellite swarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Willink-Castro, T.J.; Engelen, S.; Rajan, R.T.; Rajan, Raj; Smith, D.M.P.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Orbiting Low Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project aims to develop a radio telescope for very low frequencies (below 30 MHz) by using a swarm of 50 or more nano-satellites. Spread in a 100-km diameter cloud, the satellites will form a very large aperture capable of sensing the

  16. SOVCAN STAR: An international satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatchkov, Valery A.

    SOVCAN STAR is a Russian-Canadian cooperative venture company formed to manufacture, test, launch and operate a Ku-band satellite system. Drawing on the more than twenty years communications satellite experience of the founding companies, the SOVCAN STAR satellites are being designed to be competitive and cost effective. They will be equipped with 24 transponders and four steerable antennas. The design allows the operators to switch individual transponders between the various antenna coverage beams. These satellites will offer a high degree of operational flexibility and performance. The SOVCAN STAR strategy is to develop a network of satellites in parallel with the growth and evolution of the traffic requirements. Such an approach minimizes the technical, schedule and program risks while at the same time significantly reduces the financial exposure. The first SOVCAN STAR satellite will be commissioned in 1996 and operated at 14 deg W. The beams will be aligned to North America and Europe offering International service between Canada, the Eastern U.S.A., Europe, Russia and the Western C.I.S. Republics. The second SOVCAN STAR satellite will be commissioned a year later and operated at 145 deg E. This satellite will cover the Western Pacific Ocean, Eastern Asia and Australasia.

  17. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas,

  18. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas,

  19. Astrophysics with small satellites in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Satellite Communication and Development: A Reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather E.

    The potential benefits of satellite communications development have been recognized since the notion of a geostationary "space platform" was proposed by Arthur C. Clarke in 1945. Although there have been examples of developmental applications of satellite technology, the promise has been slow in being fulfilled. The history of the…

  1. The Direct Satellite Connection: Definitions and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Rolf T.

    1980-01-01

    Defines direct satellite broadcasting as the transmission of broadcast signals via high-powered satellites that permit direct reception of television or radio programs by means of small antennas. Outlines American, European, and Japanese plans for direct-to-home television reception and implications for the broadcasting industry. (JMF)

  2. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment development for advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Development for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the development of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the RS-499 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the RS-499 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  3. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Design for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the design of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the V.35 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the V.35 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  4. H31G-1596: DeepSAT's CloudCNN: A Deep Neural Network for Rapid Cloud Detection from Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Subodh; Ganguly, Sangram; Li, Shuang; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.

    2017-01-01

    Cloud and cloud shadow detection has important applications in weather and climate studies. It is even more crucial when we introduce geostationary satellites into the field of terrestrial remote sensing. With the challenges associated with data acquired in very high frequency (10-15 mins per scan), the ability to derive an accurate cloud shadow mask from geostationary satellite data is critical. The key to the success for most of the existing algorithms depends on spatially and temporally varying thresholds,which better capture local atmospheric and surface effects.However, the selection of proper threshold is difficult and may lead to erroneous results. In this work, we propose a deep neural network based approach called CloudCNN to classify cloudshadow from Himawari-8 AHI and GOES-16 ABI multispectral data. DeepSAT's CloudCNN consists of an encoderdecoder based architecture for binary-class pixel wise segmentation. We train CloudCNN on multi-GPU Nvidia Devbox cluster, and deploy the prediction pipeline on NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Pleiades supercomputer. We achieved an overall accuracy of 93.29% on test samples. Since, the predictions take only a few seconds to segment a full multispectral GOES-16 or Himawari-8 Full Disk image, the developed framework can be used for real-time cloud detection, cyclone detection, or extreme weather event predictions.

  5. High power communication satellites power systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Peterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a DOE-funded study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. This study brings together a preeminent US Industry/Russian team to cooperate on the role of high power communication satellites in the rapidly expanding communications revolution. These high power satellites play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities will be significant

  6. Temperature diagnostics using lithium-like satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datla, R.U.; Jones, L.A.; Thomson, D.B.

    1980-10-01

    A 60-kJ theta-pinch was operated at a filling pressure of 16 mtorr using a gas mixture of 2% neon and 98% helium. The resonance and intercombination lines from Ne IX and the Li-like satellites were observed with a Bragg crystal monochromator. The electron temperature of the plasma was deduced from the intensity ratios of the Ne IX resonance line and the dielectronic satellites using recent theoretical calculations. The temperature values ranged from 210 eV to 340 eV during the time of occurrence of these satellites. The temperature measured at 1.0 μs by laser scattering for a similar plasma condition was in close agreement with that obtained by the resonance line/satellite ratio. This lends confidence to use of the satellite technique for temperature measurements in other plasmas

  7. Future Satellite Gravimetry and Earth Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    Currently, a first generation of dedicated satellite missions for the precise mapping of the Earth’s gravity field is in orbit (CHAMP, GRACE, and soon GOCE). The gravity data from these satellite missions provide us with very new information on the dynamics of planet Earth. In particular, on the mass distribution in the Earth’s interior, the entire water cycle (ocean circulation, ice mass balance, continental water masses, and atmosphere), and on changes in the mass distribution. The results are fascinating, but still rough with respect to spatial and temporal resolution. Technical progress in satellite-to-satellite tracking and in gravity gradiometry will allow more detailed results in the future. In this special issue, Earth scientists develop visions of future applications based on follow-on high-precision satellite gravimetry missions.

  8. Satellite Observations of Volcanic Clouds from the Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, K. G.; Ekstrand, A. L.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano began erupting on 23 March 2009 (UTC) and consisted of 19 events over a 14 day period. The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula, 175 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. The previous eruption was in 1989/1990 and seriously disrupted air traffic in the region, including the near catastrophic engine failure of a passenger airliner. Plumes and ash clouds from the recent eruption were observed on a variety of satellite data (AVHRR, MODIS and GOES). The eruption produced volcanic clouds up to 19 km which are some of the highest detected in recent times in the North Pacific region. The ash clouds primarily drifted north and east of the volcano, had a weak ash signal in the split window data and resulted in light ash falls in the Cook Inlet basin and northward into Alaska’s Interior. Volcanic cloud heights were measured using ground-based radar, and plume temperature and wind shear methods but each of the techniques resulted in significant variations in the estimates. Even though radar showed the greatest heights, satellite data and wind shears suggest that the largest concentrations of ash may be at lower altitudes in some cases. Sulfur dioxide clouds were also observed on satellite data (OMI, AIRS and Calipso) and they primarily drifted to the east and were detected at several locations across North America, thousands of kilometers from the volcano. Here, we show time series data collected by the Alaska Volcano Observatory, illustrating the different eruptive events and ash clouds that developed over the subsequent days.

  9. Review of surface particulate monitoring of dust events using geostationary satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, M.; Mueller, U.; Blake, D.

    2018-06-01

    The accurate measurements of natural and anthropogenic aerosol particulate matter (PM) is important in managing both environmental and health risks; however, limited monitoring in regional areas hinders accurate quantification. This article provides an overview of the ability of recently launched geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites, such as GOES-R (North America) and HIMAWARI (Asia and Oceania), to provide near real-time ground-level PM concentrations (GLCs). The review examines the literature relating to the spatial and temporal resolution required by air quality studies, the removal of cloud and surface effects, the aerosol inversion problem, and the computation of ground-level concentrations rather than columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD). Determining surface PM concentrations using remote sensing is complicated by differentiating intrinsic aerosol properties (size, shape, composition, and quantity) from extrinsic signal intensities, particularly as the number of unknown intrinsic parameters exceeds the number of known extrinsic measurements. The review confirms that development of GEO satellite products has led to improvements in the use of coupled products such as GEOS-CHEM, aerosol types have consolidated on model species rather than prior descriptive classifications, and forward radiative transfer models have led to a better understanding of predictive spectra interdependencies across different aerosol types, despite fewer wavelength bands. However, it is apparent that the aerosol inversion problem remains challenging because there are limited wavelength bands for characterising localised mineralogy. The review finds that the frequency of GEO satellite data exceeds the temporal resolution required for air quality studies, but the spatial resolution is too coarse for localised air quality studies. Continual monitoring necessitates using the less sensitive thermal infra-red bands, which also reduce surface absorption effects. However, given the

  10. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Alway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell function that is impacted by the environment (niche of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia, and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration. While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function.

  11. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  12. Transition of the GOES Evapotranspiration and Drought Product System (GET-D) into Operations at NOAA/NESDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Fang, L.; Zhan, X.; Otkin, J.

    2016-12-01

    Abnormally dry conditions can adversely affect the health of agricultural crops if the dryness persists for an extended period of time or if it occurs at a sensitive stage of crop development. Depending on its severity and timing, drought can result in significant yield loss, with impacts on both local and global markets as signified by reduced economic output and higher grain and food prices. Due to changing climate conditions, we are moving into a regime where processes controlling drought evolution are becoming more variable and are shifting in intensity, frequency and duration. The unusually rapid increase in water stress during some of these drought events are not well predicted by standard drought indicators. Different remote sensing indicators sample moisture and vegetation conditions occurring on different time scales during the typical evolution of agricultural drought. It has been shown that the thermal-based Evaporative Stress Index (ESI), based on land surface temperature, has an early warning component where vegetation stress manifested through decreased root-zone soil moisture leads to detectable vegetation stress in the LST signal before degradation in vegetation health is observed in VIS/NIR drought indices (e.g., NDVI). To provide this data to a larger user community and address the needs of our project stakeholders, the GOES Evapotranspiration and Drought Product System (GET-D) has been developed to operationally generate daily ET and ESI maps over the North America. The core model in GET-D is the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse model (ALEXI), which is built on the two-source energy (TSEB) approach and partitions the GOES land surface temperature into characteristic soil and canopy temperatures, based on the fraction of vegetation cover. The primary operational data products of the GET-D system include the daily clear-sky ET and daily 2, 4, 8 and 12 week composites of the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) computed from the ET daily estimates over

  13. Explosive Chromospheric Evaporation and Warm Rain in a GOES C3 Flare Observed by IRIS, Hinode/EIS, and RHESSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, J. W.; Inglis, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    IRIS and Hinode/EIS observed a C3.1 flare in AR 12002 in stare mode on 2014 March 15.GOES observed the flare to start at 00:21:35 UT and peak at 00:26:30 UT. The IRIS slitwas pointed near the center of the flare while the EIS slit was pointed 35 arcsec westof the IRIS slit. About 4 minutes before the GOES flare start, the C II and Si IV lineintensities observed by IRIS became (and remained) significantly greater than theirpre-flare average values; this indicates that the flare had begun and that thechromosphere and transition region were involved. IRIS first detected significant,blueshifted Fe XXI emission at 00:22:42 UT, by which time the C II and Si IV lineintensities had increased by factors around 100 and their profiles were significantlyredshifted. This combination of simultaneous, cospatial blueshifted Fe XXI emissionwith redshifted C II and Si IV emission indicates explosive chromospheric evaporation.SDO's HMI observed a localized area of enhanced magnetic field strength toward thesouthernmost portion of the EIS slit's position that appears to be connected to theflare site by faint loops evident in AIA 131 A emission. EIS spectra at this locationreveal intensity enhancements by factors up to about 1.7 in the Fe XIV and Fe XVI lineemission, and the emergence of faint Fe XXIII emission that is too weak to measurevelocities. Emission lines from the two coronal ions show redshifts of about 9 km/saround 00:24:00 UT. The density sensitive line intensity ratio of Fe XIV 264.7/274.2observed by EIS reveals an increase of electron density from (1.03+/-0.20)X10^9 /cm^3before the flare to (3.58+/-0.68)X10^9 /cm^3 during the flare. This combination ofredshifted coronal line emission and increased coronal electron density is consistentwith explosively evaporated flare material observed by IRIS falling as warm rain andaccumulating in the remote area observed by EIS. A thermal/nonthermal fit to the hardX-ray spectrum observed by RHESSI yields a nonthermal energy injection

  14. Satellite Eye for Galathea 3. Annual report 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Sørensen, Peter; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    The Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 project is collecting satellite images from many satellites and, in particular, from the European ENVISAT satellite along the Galathea 3 global route. The expedition takes place from 11 August 2006 to 27 April 2007. Prior to the expedition several satellite images...... Vædderen, pupils in the classrooms and the public at any moment can take a look at the conditions seen from the eyes of the Earth observing satellites....

  15. Margaret Atwood's The handmaid's tale and The heart goes last. A comparative study on two dystopian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Miceli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio è l’analisi di due romanzi di Margaret Atwood ambientati in due città/società con un funzionamento apparentemente perfetto che le rende sicure, pulite, prive di crimine e disciplinate. I romanzi, The Handmaid’s Tale (1985 e The Heart Goes Last (2015, sono ambientati nelle città fittizie di Gilead e Consilience, situate negli Stati Uniti. Tali società condividono alcune caratteristiche, e applicano i principi della prigione studiati da Foucault nel saggio Discipline and Punish, in particolare per ciò che riguarda il controllo sul corpo delle persone per renderle “docili” e utili, l’isolamento dal mondo esterno e le punizioni (torture ed esecuzioni che rendono le persone soggiogate al potere. L’apparente perfezione di Gilead e di Consilience nasconde elementi distopici che, secondo l’autrice, potrebbero rappresentare il futuro delle nostre città, e una misura estrema che suscita dibattiti e riflessioni su quanto una simile gestione della società possa essere peggiore di quella in cui viviamo.

  16. When the uncertainty principle goes up to 11 or how to explain quantum physics with heavy metal

    CERN Document Server

    Moriarty, Philip

    2018-01-01

    There are deep and fascinating links between heavy metal and quantum physics. No, there are. Really. While teaching at the University of Nottingham, physicist Philip Moriarty noticed something odd--a surprising number of his students were heavily into metal music. Colleagues, too: a Venn diagram of physicists and metal fans would show a shocking amount of overlap. What's more, it turns out that heavy metal music is uniquely well-suited to explaining quantum principles. In When the Uncertainty Principle Goes Up to Eleven, Moriarty explains the mysteries of the universe's inner workings via drum beats and feedback: You'll discover how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle comes into play with every chugging guitar riff, what wave interference has to do with Iron Maiden, and why metalheads in mosh pits behave just like molecules in a gas. If you're a metal fan trying to grasp the complexities of quantum physics, a quantum physicist baffled by heavy metal, or just someone who'd like to know how the fundamental sci...

  17. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Aran, A.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ – (φ – φ 0 ) 2 /2σ 2 ], where φ is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, φ 0 is the distribution centroid, and σ determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R –α with α 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  18. Local time dependences of electron flux changes during substorms derived from mulit-satellite observation at synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, T.

    1982-01-01

    Energetic electron (energy higher than 2 MeV) observation by a synchronous satellite chain (which consists of GOES 2, GOES 3, and GMS covering the local time extent of approximately 10 hr) have been used to study the large-scale characteristics of the dynamic behavior in the near-earth magnetosphere for substorms, in which low-latitude positive bay aspects are clearly seen in the ground magnetic data. Simultaneous multi-satellite observations have clearly demonstrated the local time dependence of electron flux changes during substorms and the longitudinal extent of electron flux variations. Before a ground substorm onset the energetic electron flux decreases in a wide longitudinal region of the nighttime and the flux decrease is seen even on the afternoonside. For the flux behavior associated with the onset of the substorm expansion phase, there exists a demarcation line, the LT position of which can be represented as LT = 24.3-1.5 K/sub p/. The flux shows a recovery to a normal level east of the demarcation line, and it shows a decrease west of the demarcation line. The region of the flux decrease during the expansion phase is restricted, and it is observed mainly on the afternoonside. The afternoonside flux decrease has a different characteristic from the nightside flux decrease preceding the expansion phase. The nighside flux decrease-recovery sequence is observed in a wide region of more than 6 hr in the nighttime and the center of this variation exists in the premidnight region. It should be noted that the afternoonside flux decrease is not observed for every substorm and the nightside signature noted that the afternoonside flux sometimes becomes a dominent feature even on the afternoonside

  19. Grand Challenges in Space Technology: Distributed Satellite Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, David

    2001-01-01

    The MITIAFRL Distributed Satellite Systems program examines the motivation, analysis and development of technology associated with the distribution of assets and functionality over a number of cooperating satellites...

  20. DEPRON dosimeter for ``Lomonosov'' satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilkov, Ivan; Vedenkin, Nikolay; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Amelyushkin, Aleksandr; Petrov, Vasily; Nechayev, Oleg; Benghin, Victor

    It is commonly known, that cosmic radiation generates negative impact on the human body during space flight. The structure of the radiation fields in the near-Earth space was studied during intensive research of recent decades. Huge number of dosimetry studies was conducted on manned and unmanned space vehicles in order to solve the problem of radiation safety humans during space flights. It should be noted that most of the measurements was made onboard the spacecrafts, flying along the orbits with inclination of up to 51.6 degrees. Due to the prospect of manned missions at the orbits with larger inclination it seems advisable to conduct preliminary detailed dosimetry measurements at high-altitude orbit, for which the "Lomonosov" satellite provides good opportunities. We chose a method of cosmic radiation dosimetry based on semiconductor detectors. Proposed in the late 70's this method is widely used onboard spacecraft, including full-time radiation monitoring onboard the ISS. Recently it has been improved, providing an opportunity to register not only the absorbed dose of charged particles radiation, but also range of their ionization losses. It allowed assessment of equivalent dose. Appropriate procedure based on using of a telescope consisting of two semiconductor detectors provided a basis of the developed unit. It should be noted that not only the charged particles contribute significantly in the equivalent dose, but also neutrons do. Semiconductor detectors have low sensitivity to neutron radiation and are not sufficient for detecting the expected flux of neutrons. It was therefore decided to add thermal neutrons counter to the developed device in order to provide an opportunity of estimation of neutron flux variations along the satellite trajectory. A gas-discharge counter SI-13N, operated in a mode of corona discharge was chosen as a neutron detector. This method of neutron detection is well-proven and used many times in SINP MSU experiments. Thus, the

  1. PRMT7 Preserves Satellite Cell Regenerative Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roméo Sébastien Blanc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the continued presence of quiescent muscle stem cells (satellite cells, which become activated in response to injury. Here, we report that whole-body protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT7−/− adult mice and mice conditionally lacking PRMT7 in satellite cells using Pax7-CreERT2 both display a significant reduction in satellite cell function, leading to defects in regenerative capacity upon muscle injury. We show that PRMT7 is preferentially expressed in activated satellite cells and, interestingly, PRMT7-deficient satellite cells undergo cell-cycle arrest and premature cellular senescence. These defects underlie poor satellite cell stem cell capacity to regenerate muscle and self-renew after injury. PRMT7-deficient satellite cells express elevated levels of the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1 and low levels of its repressor, DNMT3b. Restoration of DNMT3b in PRMT7-deficient cells rescues PRMT7-mediated senescence. Our findings define PRMT7 as a regulator of the DNMT3b/p21 axis required to maintain muscle stem cell regenerative capacity.

  2. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eSnijders

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodelling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodelling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodelling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  3. Detectors and focal plane modules for weather satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, A. I.; Robinson, E.; Masterjohn, S.; Ely, P.; Khalap, V.; Babu, S.; Smith, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    Weather satellite instruments require detectors with a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to VLWIR. One of the remote sensing applications is the geostationary GOES-ABI imager covering wavelengths from the 450 to 490 nm band through the 13.0 to 13.6 μm band. There are a total of 16 spectral bands covered. The Cross-track infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a Polar Orbiting interferometric sensor that measures earth radiances at high spectral resolution, using the data to provide pressure, temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere. The pressure, temperature and moisture sounding data are used in weather prediction models that track storms, predict levels of precipitation etc. The CrIS instrument contains SWIR (λc ~ 5 μm at 98K), MWIR (λc ~ 9 μm at 98K) and LWIRs (λc ~ 15.5 μm at 81K) bands in three Focal Plane Array Assemblies (FPAAs). GOES-ABI contains three focal plane modules (FPMs), (i) a visible-near infrared module consisting of three visible and three near infrared channels, (ii) a MWIR module comprised of five channels from 3.9 μm to 8.6 μm and (iii) a 9.6 μm to 13.3 μm, five-channel LWIR module. The VNIR FPM operates at 205 K, and the MWIR and LWIR FPMs operate at 60 K. Each spectral channel has a redundant array built into a single detector chip. Switching is thus permitted from the primary selected array in each channel to the redundant array, given any degradation in performance of the primary array during the course of the mission. Silicon p-i-n detectors are used for the 0.47 μm to 0.86 μm channels. The thirteen channels above 1 μm are fabricated in various compositions of Hg1-xCdxTe, and in this particular case using two different detector architectures. The 1.38 μm to 9.61 μm channels are all fabricated in Hg1-xCdxTe grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) using the HDVIP detector architecture. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown Hg1-xCdxTe material are used for the LWIR 10.35 μm to 13.3 μm channels fabricated in Double

  4. Protected transitional solution to transformational satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jerry C.

    2005-06-01

    As the Warfighter progresses into the next generation battlefield, transformational communications become evident as an enabling technology. Satellite communications become even more vital as the battles range over greater non-contiguous spaces. While current satellite communications provide suitable beyond line-of-sight communications and the Transformational Communications Architecture (TCA) sets the stage for sound information exchange, a realizable transition must occur to ensure successful succession to this higher level. This paper addresses the need for a planned escalation to the next generation satellite communications architecture and offers near-term alternatives. Commercial satellite systems continue to enable the Warfighter to reach back to needed information resources, providing a large majority of available bandwidth. Four areas of concentration for transition include encrypted Telemetry, Tracking and Control (or Command) (TT&C), encrypted and covered data, satellite attack detection and protection, and operational mobility. Solution methodologies include directly embedding COMSEC devices in the satellites and terminals, and supplementing existing terminals with suitable equipment and software. Future satellites planned for near-term launches can be adapted to include commercial grade and higher-level secure equipment. Alternately, the expected use of programmable modems (Software Defined Radios (SDR)) enables incorporation of powerful cipher methods approaching military standards as well as waveforms suitable for on-the-move operation. Minimal equipment and software additions on the satellites can provide reasonable attack detection and protection methods in concert with the planned satellite usage. Network management suite modifications enable cohesive incorporation of these protection schemes. Such transitional ideas offer a smooth and planned transition as the TCA takes life.

  5. Satellite ATM Networks: Architectures and Guidelines Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.; Yegendu, Ferit

    1999-01-01

    An important element of satellite-supported asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networking will involve support for the routing and rerouting of active connections. Work published under the auspices of the Telecommunications Industry Association (http://www.tiaonline.org), describes basic architectures and routing protocol issues for satellite ATM (SATATM) networks. The architectures and issues identified will serve as a basis for further development of technical specifications for these SATATM networks. Three ATM network architectures for bent pipe satellites and three ATM network architectures for satellites with onboard ATM switches were developed. The architectures differ from one another in terms of required level of mobility, supported data rates, supported terrestrial interfaces, and onboard processing and switching requirements. The documentation addresses low-, middle-, and geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite configurations. The satellite environment may require real-time routing to support the mobility of end devices and nodes of the ATM network itself. This requires the network to be able to reroute active circuits in real time. In addition to supporting mobility, rerouting can also be used to (1) optimize network routing, (2) respond to changing quality-of-service requirements, and (3) provide a fault tolerance mechanism. Traffic management and control functions are necessary in ATM to ensure that the quality-of-service requirements associated with each connection are not violated and also to provide flow and congestion control functions. Functions related to traffic management were identified and described. Most of these traffic management functions will be supported by on-ground ATM switches, but in a hybrid terrestrial-satellite ATM network, some of the traffic management functions may have to be supported by the onboard satellite ATM switch. Future work is planned to examine the tradeoffs of placing traffic management functions onboard a satellite as

  6. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  7. Technical developments in international satellite business services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P. P.

    At the conception of International Satellite Business Services (ISBS), it was a primary objective to provide flexibility for accommodating a variety of service requirements which might be established by mutual agreement between users. The design guidelines are to ensure that the space segment is efficiently utilized, while other satellite services are protected from interference. Other considerations are related to an acceptable earth segment cost, maximum connectivity in worldwide services, the capability of growth and a reasonably smooth transition into future systems, and the maintenance of high performance objectives. Attention is given to a system overview, the characteristics of satellites for ISBS, and technological developments with some application possibilities for ISBS.

  8. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  9. Small satellites and space debris issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, M.; Kulik, S.; Agapov, V.

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this report is the analysis of the tendencies in designing of small satellites (SS) and the effect of small satellites on space debris population. It is shown that SS to include nano- and pico-satellites should be considered as a particularly dangerous source of space debris when elaborating international standards and legal documents concerning the space debris problem, in particular "International Space Debris Mitigation Standard". These issues are in accordance with the IADC goals in its main activity areas and should be carefully considered within the IADC framework.

  10. Influence of space radiation on satellite magnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, M K [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum (India)

    1978-12-01

    The magnetic circuits and devices used in space-borne systems such as satellites are naturally exposed to space environments having among others, hazardous radiations. Such radiations, in turn, may be of solar, cosmic or nuclear origin depending upon the altitude as well as the propulsion/power systems involving mini atomic reactors when utilised. The influence of such radiations on the magnetic components of the satellite have been analysed revealing the critical hazards in the latter circuits system. Remedial measures by appropriate shielding, etc. necessary for maintaining optimum performance of the satellite have been discussed.

  11. On-board processing for telecommunications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuspl, P. P.; Dong, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this decade, communications satellite systems will probably face dramatic challenges from alternative transmission means. To balance and overcome such competition, and to prepare for new requirements, INTELSAT has developed several on-board processing techniques, including Satellite-Switched TDMA (SS-TDMA), Satellite-Switched FDMA (SS-FDMA), several Modulators/Demodulators (Modem), a Multicarrier Multiplexer and Demodulator MCDD), an International Business Service (IBS)/Intermediate Data Rate (IDR) BaseBand Processor (BBP), etc. Some proof-of-concept hardware and software were developed, and tested recently in the INTELSAT Technical Laboratories. These techniques and some test results are discussed.

  12. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  13. ARTES: the future of satellite telecommunication

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Blázquez, Angel; Detain, Dominique

    2005-08-01

    Throughout its 30-year existence, ESA has played a key role by providing telecommunications infrastructures that have allowed the in-orbit validation, qualification and demonstration of equipment, technology and services. In the past, this has been achieved through the provision of dedicated satellites like OTS, Marecs, Olympus and Artemis, as well as by the implementation of piggy-back payloads on other ESA or commercial satellites. Today, due to the importance of satellite telecommunications, ESA continues to support this sector mainly through its ARTES - Advanced Research in Telecommunications - Programme.

  14. Satellite Communication and Long Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafied Cangara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since Indonesia introduced communication satellite for telecommunication network, the satellite has brought a number of advantages for national development in various areas, such as telephone network, mass media development, business, education, politics, security and national defence as well as regional and international cooperation. In education, satellite communication could be used for long-distance learning as implemented by 13 state universities in eastern parts of Indonesia. It is also possible to develop the Open University System in teaching and learning process, particularly since the internet technology has been intensively used

  15. Satellite Attitude Control Using Only Electromagnetic Actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    when a satellite is on a throughout this thesis. Confined computer capacity and a limit on electrical power supply were separate obstacles.They demanded computational simplicity and power optimality from the attitude control system. The design of quasi optimal controllers for a real-time implementation...... to provide four stable equilibria, one of which was the desired orientation. It was explained how the equilibria depended on the ratio of the satellite's moments of inertia. It was further investigated how to control the attitude, such that the satellite was globally asymptotically stable in the desired...

  16. Deep space optical communication via relay satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, S.; Vilnrotter, V.; Gagliardi, R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of optical communications for a deep space link via an earth-orbiting relay satellite is discussed. The system uses optical frequencies for the free-space channel and RF links for atmospheric transmission. The relay satellite is in geostationary orbit and contains the optics necessary for data processing and formatting. It returns the data to earth through the RF terrestrial link and also transmits an optical beacon to the satellite for spacecraft return pointing and for the alignment of the transmitting optics. Future work will turn to modulation and coding, pointing and tracking, and optical-RF interfacing.

  17. An access alternative for mobile satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W. W.

    1988-01-01

    Conceptually, this paper discusses strategies of digital satellite communication networks for a very large number of low density traffic stations. These stations can be either aeronautical, land mobile, or maritime. The techniques can be applied to international, domestic, regional, and special purpose satellite networks. The applications can be commercial, scientific, military, emergency, navigational or educational. The key strategy is the use of a non-orthogonal access method, which tolerates overlapping signals. With n being either time or frequency partitions, and with a single overlapping signal allowed, a low cost mobile satellite system can be designed with n squared (n squared + n + 1) number of terminals.

  18. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  19. Cosmology with the Planck Satellite

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Sketched out in 1992, selected by ESA in 1996, and launched in 2009, the Planck satellite was shut off in 2013, after a measuring mission that exceeded all expectations. The Planck collaboration delivered a first set of cosmological data and results in March 21st 2013, and the full set in February 2015. Part of the data delivery is a "definitive" map of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), its angular power spectrum together with their full statistical characterisation. The 2015 delivery also includes pioneering polarisation data. The temperature anisotropy map displays minuscule variations as a function of the observing direction, of rms ~100microK, of the fossil radiation around its mean temperature of 2.725K. Other maps reveal the CMB polarisation. The anisotropies are the imprint of the primordial fluctuations which initiated the growth of the large scale structures of the Universe, as transformed by their evolution, in particular during the first 370 000 years, as well as finer e...

  20. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  1. Advancing satellite-based solar power forecasting through integration of infrared channels for automatic detection of coastal marine inversion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostylev, Vladimir; Kostylev, Andrey; Carter, Chris; Mahoney, Chad; Pavlovski, Alexandre; Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs Inc., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Cormier, Dallas Eugene; Fotland, Lena [San Diego Gas and Electric Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The marine atmospheric boundary layer is a layer or cool, moist maritime air with the thickness of a few thousand feet immediately below a temperature inversion. In coastal areas as moist air rises from the ocean surface, it becomes trapped and is often compressed into fog above which a layer of stratus clouds often forms. This phenomenon is common for satellite-based solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. Hour ahead satellite-based solar radiation forecasts are commonly using visible spectrum satellite images, from which it is difficult to automatically differentiate low stratus clouds and fog from high altitude clouds. This provides a challenge for cloud motion tyracking and cloud cover forecasting. San Diego Gas and Electric {sup registered} (SDG and E {sup registered}) Marine Layer Project was undertaken to obtain information for integration with PV forecasts, and to develop a detailed understanding of long-term benefits from forecasting Marine Layer (ML) events and their effects on PV production. In order to establish climatological ML patterns, spatial extent and distribution of marine layer, we analyzed visible and IR spectrum satellite images (GOES WEST) archive for the period of eleven years (2000 - 2010). Historical boundaries of marine layers impact were established based on the cross-classification of visible spectrum (VIS) and infrared (IR) images. This approach is successfully used by us and elsewhere for evaluating cloud albedo in common satellite-based techniques for solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. The approach allows differentiation of cloud cover and helps distinguish low laying fog which is the main consequence of marine layer formation. ML occurrence probability and maximum extent inland was established for each hour and day of the analyzed period and seasonal/patterns were described. SDG and E service area is the most affected region by ML events with highest extent and probability of ML occurrence. Influence of ML was the

  2. GEONEX: Land monitoring from a new generation of geostationary satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, R. R.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, W.; Ganguly, S.; Wang, Y.; Michaelis, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Li, S.; Higuchi, A.; Huete, A. R.; Yeom, J. M.; camacho De Coca, F.; Lee, T. J.; Takenaka, H.

    2017-12-01

    The latest generation of geostationary satellites carry sensors such as ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager on GOES-16) and the AHI (Advanced Himawari Imager on Himawari) that closely mimic the spatial and spectral characteristics of Earth Observing System flagship MODIS for monitoring land surface conditions. More importantly they provide observations at 5-15 minute intervals. Such high frequency data offer exciting possibilities for producing robust estimates of land surface conditions by overcoming cloud cover, enabling studies of diurnally varying local-to-regional biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and operational decision-making in agriculture, forestry and disaster management. But the data come with challenges that need special attention. For instance, geostationary data feature changing sun angle at constant view for each pixel, which is reciprocal to sun-synchronous observations, and thus require careful adaptation of EOS algorithms. Our goal is to produce a set of land surface products from geostationary sensors by leveraging NASA's investments in EOS algorithms and in the data/compute facility NEX. The land surface variables of interest include atmospherically corrected surface reflectances, snow cover, vegetation indices and leaf area index (LAI)/fraction of photosynthetically absorbed radiation (FPAR), as well as land surface temperature and fires. In order to get ready to produce operational products over the US from GOES-16 starting 2018, we have utilized 18 months of data from Himawari AHI over Australia to test the production pipeline and the performance of various algorithms for our initial tests. The end-to-end processing pipeline consists of a suite of modules to (a) perform calibration and automatic georeference correction of the AHI L1b data, (b) adopt the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm to produce surface spectral reflectances along with compositing schemes and QA, and (c) modify relevant EOS retrieval

  3. GEONEX: Land Monitoring From a New Generation of Geostationary Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Ramakrishna; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Weile; Wang, Yujie; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Li, Shuang; Ganguly, Sangram; Michaelis, Andrew; Higuchi, Atsushi; Takaneka, Hideaki; hide

    2017-01-01

    The latest generation of geostationary satellites carry sensors such as ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager on GOES-16) and the AHI (Advanced Himawari Imager on Himawari) that closely mimic the spatial and spectral characteristics of Earth Observing System flagship MODIS for monitoring land surface conditions. More importantly they provide observations at 5-15 minute intervals. Such high frequency data offer exciting possibilities for producing robust estimates of land surface conditions by overcoming cloud cover, enabling studies of diurnally varying local-to-regional biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and operational decision-making in agriculture, forestry and disaster management. But the data come with challenges that need special attention. For instance, geostationary data feature changing sun angle at constant view for each pixel, which is reciprocal to sun-synchronous observations, and thus require careful adaptation of EOS algorithms. Our goal is to produce a set of land surface products from geostationary sensors by leveraging NASA's investments in EOS algorithms and in the data/compute facility NEX. The land surface variables of interest include atmospherically corrected surface reflectances, snow cover, vegetation indices and leaf area index (LAI)/fraction of photosynthetically absorbed radiation (FPAR), as well as land surface temperature and fires. In order to get ready to produce operational products over the US from GOES-16 starting 2018, we have utilized 18 months of data from Himawari AHI over Australia to test the production pipeline and the performance of various algorithms for our initial tests. The end-to-end processing pipeline consists of a suite of modules to (a) perform calibration and automatic georeference correction of the AHI L1b data, (b) adopt the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm to produce surface spectral reflectances along with compositing schemes and QA, and (c) modify relevant EOS retrieval

  4. Fuzzy Logic Controller for Small Satellites Navigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Della Pietra, G; Falzini, S; Colzi, E; Crisconio, M

    2005-01-01

    .... The navigator aims at operating satellites in orbit with a minimum ground support and very good performances, by the adoption of innovative technologies, such as attitude observation GPS, attitude...

  5. Flight Demonstration of Novel Atmospheric Satellite Concept

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dual-Aircraft Platform (DAP) is a novel concept for achieving a low-cost atmospheric satellite in the lower stratosphere which utilizes a combination of wind and...

  6. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  7. On possible life on Jupiter's satellite Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Some of the satellites of Jupiter may well be suitable both for mastering, and for finding possible traces of life there. Among them such satellite like Io - nearest Galilean satellite of Jupiter, and one of the most volcanically active bodies in the solar system. Warming of the mantle is caused by a powerful tidal force from the side of Jupiter. This leads to the heating of some parts of the mantle to a temperature above 1800 K, with an average surface temperature of about 140 K. But under its surface can be safe and even comfortable shelters, where life could once have come from the outside (even in a very primitive form), and could survive to this day. Moreover, according to some model's assumptions, Io could sometime be formed in another part of the Solar system, where the water could exist. Note that on neighboring Galilean satellites now exist significant amounts of water .

  8. A Commercial Architecture for Satellite Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Didier, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    .... This study focuses on the concept of the U.S. government purchasing proven and successful commercial satellites with minimal non-recurring engineering costs to help augment current national systems...

  9. Formation Flying/Satellite Swarm Concept Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA needs a method of not only propelling and rotating small satellites, but also to track their position and orientation. We propose a concept that will, for the first time, demonstrate both tracking and propulsion simultaneously in the same system.

  10. Software for validating parameters retrieved from satellite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Sathe, P.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    -channel Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) onboard the Indian satellites Occansat-1 during 1999-2001 were validated using this software as a case study. The program has several added advantages over the conventional method of validation that involves strenuous...

  11. Reusable Communication Infrastructure for Small Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive communications reference architecture that is applicable to a wide variety of small satellite...

  12. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philip

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  13. Orbit determination for ISRO satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ch. Sreehari; Sinha, S. K.

    Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has been successful in using the in-house developed orbit determination and prediction software for satellite missions of Bhaskara, Rohini and APPLE. Considering the requirements of satellite missions, software packages are developed, tested and their accuracies are assessed. Orbit determination packages developed are SOIP, for low earth orbits of Bhaskara and Rohini missions, ORIGIN and ODPM, for orbits related to all phases of geo-stationary missions and SEGNIP, for drift and geo-stationary orbits. Software is tested and qualified using tracking data of SIGNE-3, D5-B, OTS, SYMPHONIE satellites with the help of software available with CNES, ESA and DFVLR. The results match well with those available from these agencies. These packages have supported orbit determination successfully throughout the mission life for all ISRO satellite missions. Member-Secretary

  14. A Survey of Satellite Communications System Vulnerabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinberger, Jessica A

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. military's increasing reliance on commercial and military communications satellites to enable widely-dispersed, mobile forces to communicate makes these space assets increasingly vulnerable to attack by adversaries...

  15. Smartphone Video Guidance Sensor for Small Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Smartphone Video Guidance Sensor(SVGS) for Small Satellites will provide a low-cost,integrated rendezvous & proximity operations sensor system to allow an...

  16. Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-resistojets offer an excellent combination of simplicity, performance and wet system mass for small satellites (<100 kg, <50 watts) requiring mN level...

  17. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  18. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advatech Pacific proposes to develop a Virtual Satellite Integration Environment (VSIE) for the NASA Ames Mission Design Center. The VSIE introduces into NASA...

  19. Selected Geomagnetic Measurements From Several Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — More than 17 million selected magnetic observations from several orbiting low-altitude satellites are contained in this digital collection. Except for MAGSAT, all...

  20. ECAPS - Eddy Current Approach and Proximity Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multiple, energized coils in a small satellite will generate eddy currents in the skin of the International Space Station (ISS). This will create repulsive forces...

  1. High power communication satellites power systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Peterson, Jerry R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses a planned study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. These high power satellites can play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities can be significant.

  2. Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-resistojets offer the best combination of simplicity, performance, wet system mass and power consumption for small satellites (<100kg, <50Watts)...

  3. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated environment for rapid design studies of small satellite missions will be developed. This environment will be designed to streamline processes at the...

  4. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  5. Land mobile satellite services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, P.; Berretta, G.; Rogard, R.

    The demand for land-mobile communications on a Europe-wide basis is an important and pressing problem. The pan-European cellular network now in the planning stage will be slow in coming and it will have its limitations. A regional satellite system for Europe to complement the cellular network is the only practical way to satisfy a specialised market that encompasses a population of several hundred thousand mobiles, including road vehicles, merchant shipping, fishing boats, and trains. The deployment of a regional system would take place in a number of phases, the first being based on a simple payload embarked on a host satellite belonging to a European organisation. Further phases will involve the development of more advanced payloads on dedicated satellites. For the long-term future, the use of satellites in highly inclined orbits is being considered as a means of improving their visibility and hence the service quality.

  6. Satellite Formation Control Using Atmospheric Drag

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hajovsky, Blake B

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a linear quadratic terminal controller to reconfigure satellite formations using atmospheric drag actuated control while minimizing the loss of energy of the formation...

  7. Space industrialization - Education. [via communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joels, K. M.

    1978-01-01

    The components of an educational system based on, and perhaps enhanced by, space industrialization communications technology are considered. Satellite technology has introduced a synoptic distribution system for various transmittable educational media. The cost of communications satellite distribution for educational programming has been high. It has, therefore, been proposed to utilize Space Shuttle related technology and Large Space Structures (LSS) to construct a system with a quantum advancement in communication capability and a quantum reduction in user cost. LSS for communications purposes have three basic advantages for both developed and emerging nations, including the ability to distribute signals over wide geographic areas, the reduced cost of satellite communications systems versus installation of land based systems, and the ability of a communication satellite system to create instant educational networks.

  8. CERN Courier goes digital

    CERN Multimedia

    Christine Sutton, CERN Courier editor

    2013-01-01

    The January/February 2013 issue of the CERN Courier offers a new way to access the content – the first digital edition of the magazine.   The CERN Courier dates back to August 1959, when the first issue appeared, consisting of 8 black-and-white pages. Since then it has seen many changes in design and layout, leading to the current full-colour editions of more than 50 pages on average. It went on the web for the first time in October 1998, when IOP Publishing took over the production work. Now, we have taken another step forward with a digital edition that provides yet another means to access the content beyond the web and print editions, which continue as before. To download the digital edition, click here. To sign up to the new issue alert, please visit: http://cerncourier.com/cws/sign-up.

  9. Bibi goes travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Anna

    , it did not enjoy similar popularity at home. These critics have suggested different answers to the main research question that animates this dissertation as well: “Why did the Bibi books succeed abroad, but fail at home?” The dissertation furnishes new answers to this overarching research question...

  10. Who Goes There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Biometrics (hand geometry, iris and retina scanners, voice and facial recognition, signature dynamics, facial thermography, and fingerprint readers) identifies people based on physical characteristics. Administrators worried about kidnapping, vandalism, theft, and violent intruders might welcome these security measures when they become more…

  11. Central Dogma Goes Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Folk music goes digital

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Matěj

    -, č. 1 (2013), s. 14-19 ISSN 1211-0264 Grant - others:Central Europe-ERDF(XE) 3CE296P4 Keywords : digitalisation * folk culture * Central Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plait, P.

    2003-05-01

    It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and/or teachers who don't understand astronomy and therefore spread misinformation, urban legends, and so on. Perhaps the most pervasive source of bad astronomy is Hollywood. Science fiction movies are enormously popular, but are commonly written and directed by people who don't have even a passing familiarity with astronomy. The smash hit "Armageddon" (the number one box office movie of 1998), for example, used vast quantities of incorrect astronomy in the plot. It reinforced such popular misconceptions as huge asteroids impacting the Earth with little warning, small meteorites being hot when they impact, air existing in space, and that a simple bomb can blow up an asteroid the size of a small moon (even when the bomb is buried only 800 feet deep!). However, movie scenes can be used as a hook that engages the student, helping them learn and remember the correct science. In this talk, I will light-heartedly discuss specific examples of common misinformation, using movie clips, diagrams, and a splash of common sense to show just where Hollywood gets it wrong, and what you can do to help students and the public get it right.

  14. TESLA project goes public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flegel', I.

    2002-01-01

    The TESLA project connected with the creation of superconducting linear accelerator with colliding neutron and positron beams in the DESY Laboratory (Hamburg) is presented. Scientists of 36 countries make a contribution in the Feasibility study of new accelerator construction. Creation of new accelerator will open the way to the investigation into new elementary particles; TESLA is perfectly suitable for the production of Higgs particles. Exact measurements on the unit will allow to research into properties of supersymmetrical particles. The TESLA project involves the creation of X-ray free electron laser [ru

  15. LHC goes global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    As CERN's major project for the future, the LHC sets a new scale in world-wide scientific collaboration. As well as researchers and engineers from CERN's 19 European Member States, preparations for the LHC now include scientists from several continents. Some 50 per cent of the researchers involved in one way or another with preparations for the LHC experimental programme now come from countries which are not CERN Member States. Underlining this enlarged international involvement is the recent decision by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science and Culture ('Monbusho') to accord CERN a generous contribution of five billion yen (about 65 million Swiss francs) to help finance the construction of the LHC. This money will be held in a special fund earmarked for construction of specific LHC components and related activities. To take account of the new situation, CERN is proposing to set up a totally new 'Associate State' status. This is foreseen as a flexible bilateral framework which will be set up on a case-by-case basis to adapt to different circumstances. This proposal was introduced to CERN Council in June, and will be further discussed later this year. These developments reflect CERN's new role as a focus of world science, constituting a first step towards a wider level of international collaboration. At the June Council session, as a first step, Japan was unanimously elected as a CERN Observer State, giving them the right to attend Council meetings. Introducing the topic at the Council session, Director General Chris Llewellyn Smith sketched the history of Japanese involvement in CERN research. This began in 1957 and has gone on to include an important experiment at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring using laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms, the new Chorus neutrino experiment using an emulsion target, and a major contribution to the Opal experiment at the LEP electronpositron collider. In welcoming the development, many Council delegates looked forward to a fruitful new collaboration. They also pointed to the achievements of Japan's KEK Laboratory and its collaborative schemes, now a focal point of the world particle physics scene. A surprise item was the speech, in Japanese, by A. Herdina of the Austrian delegation. Strictly speaking Mr. Herdina was breaking the rules, as only English, French and German are catered for at CERN Council meetings, but in this instance everybody was happy that the Austrian delegate made his point.

  16. Constructivism Goes Quantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Alekseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the evolution of constructivist paradigm of international relations. The issue is of utmost importance in terms of the search for theoretical alternatives in the IR thinking. First, we are giving basic introduction of constructivism on the basis of historical and hermeneutical approaches. There is no doubt that the paradigm has faced different theoretical challenges and a lot of critics which has to be addressed. The authors reconsider some constructivist theories and notions in Alexander Wendt's works and the way Wendt tried to reinforce and reassure the constructivist paradigm. This allows us to claim that quantum turn in recent Wendt's work was almost inevitable. Second, the article attempts to answer a question whether the fundamentals of quantum physics are relevant when speaking about social and political processes. At first glance, quantum physics approach has nothing in common with the theory of politics and the theory of international relations. However, there are some grounds to believe that certain problem issues of the political science and IR theory are not deadlocks. In the second part of the article we use the unleashed and underestimated potential of analytical philosophy. To conclude, we believe that today there are more questions than answers but the quantum paradigm is expected to be the important part of the political studies and IR theory as well.

  17. FDG goes BP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A monograph for Fluorodeoxyglucose F-18 Injection (FDG) was first released in Supplement 1 of the United States Pharmacopoeia 1990 (USP 90) on 1 November 1989 to become effective on 1 January 1990. As this was the only monograph available until recently it served as the applicable standard to be followed. The Therapeutic Goods Act states that the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) is the precedent to be followed in Australia and implies that if a monograph exists for a finished product then this needs to be applied to achieve a certain standard of quality. If the monograph does not exist in the BP then other pharmacopoeia monographs can be sourced starting with the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur) then the USP. A monograph for FDG first appeared in the Ph Eur in a 1999 Supplement (effective 1 January 1999 and now included in the Ph Eur 2000) and then in the BP 1999 (effective 1 December 1999). The Commonwealth Government Gazette (Notice 48, 1/12/99) published that the BP 99 was adopted on the 1st December 1999. Since then manufacturers have been required to comply with the monograph for FDG in the BP 99. This presentation looks at the content of the BP 99 monograph and compares it with that in the USP. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. OPERA goes on camera

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    OPERA, the experiment which uses the neutrino beam of CERN’s CNGS facility, has delivered its first neutrino "photos". The core of the detector has been commissioned and has produced images of events resulting from neutrino collisions. The reconstruction of the core (a few cubic millimetres!) of a neutrino interaction at OPERA. The neutrino arriving from the left of the image has interacted with the lead of a brick, producing various particles identifiable by their tracks visible in the emulsion.The snapshot is tiny but it was greeted with enthusiasm by the physicists of OPERA. On 2 October, for the first time, the experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy "photographed" an event produced by the beam of neutrinos sent from CERN, 732 kilometres away. One of the 60,000 photosensitive bricks already installed at the heart of the experiment had produced its first particle track. The commissioning of the OPERA experiment began la...

  19. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic spread, and extending t

  20. LHC goes global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    As CERN's major project for the future, the LHC sets a new scale in world-wide scientific collaboration. As well as researchers and engineers from CERN's 19 European Member States, preparations for the LHC now include scientists from several continents. Some 50 per cent of the researchers involved in one way or another with preparations for the LHC experimental programme now come from countries which are not CERN Member States. Underlining this enlarged international involvement is the recent decision by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science and Culture ('Monbusho') to accord CERN a generous contribution of five billion yen (about 65 million Swiss francs) to help finance the construction of the LHC. This money will be held in a special fund earmarked for construction of specific LHC components and related activities. To take account of the new situation, CERN is proposing to set up a totally new 'Associate State' status. This is foreseen as a flexible bilateral framework which will be set up on a case-by-case basis to adapt to different circumstances. This proposal was introduced to CERN Council in June, and will be further discussed later this year. These developments reflect CERN's new role as a focus of world science, constituting a first step towards a wider level of international collaboration. At the June Council session, as a first step, Japan was unanimously elected as a CERN Observer State, giving them the right to attend Council meetings. Introducing the topic at the Council session, Director General Chris Llewellyn Smith sketched the history of Japanese involvement in CERN research. This began in 1957 and has gone on to include an important experiment at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring using laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms, the new Chorus neutrino experiment using an emulsion target, and a major contribution to the Opal experiment at the LEP electronpositron collider. In welcoming the development, many Council delegates looked forward to a fruitful new collaboration. They also pointed to the achievements of Japan's KEK Laboratory and its collaborative schemes, now a focal point of the world particle physics scene. A surprise item was the speech, in Japanese, by A. Herdina of the Austrian delegation. Strictly speaking Mr. Herdina was breaking the rules, as only English, French and German are catered for at CERN Council meetings, but in this instance everybody was happy that the Austrian delegate made his point

  1. The citizen goes shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalopoulos, Tassos

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, product labels are often used to enable consumers choose products that are friendly to the environment and to animals, natural, healthful and socially responsible. However, certain features of commonly used labels limit their usefulness. This thesis identifies a number of these

  2. Desomorphine goes "crocodile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Freudenmann, Roland W; Hiemke, Christoph; Gunst, Ingo M; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify the available data for the term Krokodil, which is a jargon expression for an allegedly new drug. Krokodil seems to be a mixture of several substances and was first used in Russia in 2003, with a tremendous increase in the number of addicted individuals since then. The psychoactive core agent of Krokodil is desomorphine, an opioid-analogon that can be manufactured by boiling tablets containing codeine and other ingredients. The procedure results in a suspension that is used intravenously and regularly causes complications such as abscess, thrombophlebitis, and gangrene.

  3. FAST goes underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridlund, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The FAST-M Cost Estimating Model is a parametric model designed to determine the costs associated with mining and subterranean operations. It is part of the FAST (Freiman Analysis of Systems Techniques) series of parametric models developed by Freiman Parametric Systems, Inc. The rising cost of fossil fuels has created a need for a method which could be used to determine and control costs in mining and subterranean operations. FAST-M fills this need and also provides scheduling information. The model works equally well for a variety of situations including underground vaults for hazardous waste storage, highway tunnels, and mass transit tunnels. In addition, costs for above ground structures and equipment can be calculated. The input for the model may be on a macro or a micro level. This allows the model to be used at various stages in a project. On the macro level, only general conditions and specifications need to be known. On the micro level, the smallest details may be included. As with other FAST models, reference cases are used to more accurately predict costs and scheduling. This paper will address how the model can be used for a variety of subterranean purposes

  4. Agenda 21 goes electronic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D

    1996-01-01

    The Canada Center for Remote Sensing, in collaboration with the International Development Research Center, is developing an electronic atlas of Agenda 21, the Earth Summit action plan. This initiative promises to ease access for researchers and practitioners to implement the Agenda 21-action plan, which in its pilot study will focus on biological diversity. Known as the Biodiversity Volume of the Electronic Atlas of Agenda 21 (ELADA 21), this computer software technology will contain information and data on biodiversity, genetics, species, ecosystems, and ecosystem services. Specifically, it includes several country studies, documentation, as well as interactive scenarios linking biodiversity to socioeconomic issues. ELADA 21 will empower countries and agencies to report on and better manage biodiversity and related information. The atlas can be used to develop and test various scenarios and to exchange information within the South and with industrialized countries. At present, ELADA 21 has generated interest and becomes more available in the market. The challenge confronting the project team, however, is to find the atlas a permanent home, a country or agency willing to assume responsibility for maintaining, upgrading, and updating the software.

  5. Data mining goes multidimensional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, M

    1997-03-01

    The success of a healthcare organization depends on its ability to acquire, store, analyze and compare data across many parts of the enterprise, by many individuals. While relational databases have been around since the 1970s, their two-dimensional structure has limited--or made impossible--the kind of cross-dimensional trend analysis so necessary to healthcare today. Enter online analytical processing (OLAP), in which servers store data in multiple dimensions, opening a world of opportunity for data-mining across the enterprise. In this issue of HEALTHCARE INFORMATICS, we feature our first report from the National Software Testing Laboratories (NSTL) about technologies that will change the way healthcare does business. A division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, NSTL is an independent software and hardware testing lab offering services that include compatibility testing, bug testing, comparison testing, documentation evaluation and usability.

  6. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  7. Metabolism goes viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki J; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2014-04-01

    Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. In this issue, Thai et al. (2014) show that adenovirus E4ORF1 activates MYC glycolytic targets to induce a Warburg-like effect that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gaudi Goes Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    When the author traveled to the city of Barcelona, Spain to see the still-unfinished La Sagrada Familia in person, she marveled at the magical genius of Antoni Gaudi's masterpiece. Inspired by Gaudi's whimsical tile work and cathedral towers, the author developed an art project that engages students in a creative experience, which combined art…

  9. Carbon Goes To…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  10. Aaviksoo goes to Washington

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Oma USA visiidi ajal kohtus kaitseminister Jaak Aaviksoo USA relvajõudude küberväejuhatuse ülema kindral Keith Alexander'iga ja sai ülevaate USA küberkaitsekorraldusest. Ministri ja USA Esindajatekoja järgmise koosseisu relvajõudude komitee esimehe Howard McKeon'i kohtumisel räägiti Euroopa ja Eesti praegusest julgeolekunägemusest. Kaitseministri plaanis oli ka kohtumine USA kaitseministri Robert Gates'iga

  11. Experimental Satellite Phase 3D before Launch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sebesta

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available To build a satellite can be a dream for many engineers. We are happy that we can participate in the AMSAT PHASE 3D project. Our responsibility is very high because one of our on-board receivers is the main one of the command link and will never be switched off. The project is also a very good opportunity for our students to meet satellite technology.

  12. Small Satellite Constellations for Geospace Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    The recent National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey (DS) identified community-consensus science priorities for the decade spanning 2013 - 2022. In this talk, we discuss the ways by which small satellite constellations are already and may soon accelerate progress toward achieving many of these science targets. The DS outlined four overarching science goals: (1) determine the origins of the Sun's activity and predict the variations in the space environment; (2) determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs; (3) determine the interaction of the Sun with the solar system and the interstellar medium; and, (4) discover and characterize fundamental processes that occur both within the heliosphere and throughout the universe. These DS science goals provide the context for key science challenges in the three connected parts of the system that encompass all of solar and space physics, herein referred to as geospace: the Sun and heliosphere; the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere system; and, the coupled atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system. The DS further presented the role that small satellites play in resolving many of these science challenges, with a particular emphasis on the role that constellations of small satellites will play. While once considered by many as being "futuristic" or even "unrealizable", constellations of small satellites are already making important contributions to geospace science and with the promise for more to come. Using the DS as a guidepost, in this presentation, we outline representative small satellite constellation missions alread underway, some in development, and others notionally proposed over the next several years that employ small satellite constellations to tackle large science imperatives. Finally, we give examples of key small satellite technologies in development that will potentially enable great scientific

  13. DUBNA-GRAN SASSO: Satellite computer link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In April a 64 kbit/s computer communication link was set up between the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russia) and Gran Sasso (Italy) Laboratories via nearby ground satellite stations using the INTELSAT V satellite. Previously the international community of Dubna's experimentalists and theorists (high energy physics, condensed matter physics, low energy nuclear and neutron physics, accelerator and applied nuclear physics) had no effective computer links with scientific centres worldwide

  14. Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Tronin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto geological interpretation methods into space. The modern embodiment of this method is alignment analysis. Time series of alignments on the Earth's surface are investigated before and after the earthquake. A further application of satellite data in seismology is related with geophysical methods. Electromagnetic methods have about the same long history of application for seismology. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained based on satellite ionozonds. The most successful current project "DEMETER" shows impressive results. Satellite thermal infra-red data were applied for earthquake research in the next step. Numerous results have confirmed previous observations of thermal anomalies on the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A modern trend is the application of the outgoing long-wave radiation for earthquake research. In ‘80s a new technology—satellite radar interferometry—opened a new page. Spectacular pictures of co-seismic deformations were presented. Current researches are moving in the direction of pre-earthquake deformation detection. GPS technology is also widely used in seismology both for ionosphere sounding and for ground movement detection. Satellite gravimetry has demonstrated its first very impressive results on the example of the catastrophic Indonesian earthquake in 2004. Relatively new applications of remote sensing for seismology as atmospheric sounding, gas observations, and cloud analysis are considered as possible candidates for applications.

  15. Time-Zone-Pattern Satellite Broadcasting Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Victor; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Imbriale, William A.; Cohen, Herb; Cagnon, Ronald R.

    1988-01-01

    Direct-broadcast satellite antenna designs provide contoured beams to match four time zones in 48 contiguous states and spot beams for Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico presented in 29-page report. Includes descriptions of procedures used to arrive at optimized designs. Arrangements, amplitudes, and phases of antenna feeds presented in tables. Gain contours shown graphically. Additional tables of performance data given for cities in service area of Eastern satellite.

  16. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  17. MEMS for pico- to micro-satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    MEMS sensors, actuators, and sub-systems can enable an important reduction in the size and mass of spacecrafts, first by replacing larger and heavier components, then by replacing entire subsystems, and finally by enabling the microfabrication of highly integrated picosats. Very small satellites (1 to 100 kg) stand to benefit the most from MEMS technologies. These small satellites are typically used for science or technology demonstration missions, with higher risk tolerance than multi-ton te...

  18. Leo satellite-based telecommunication network concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, John G.; Swan, Peter A.; Leopold, Ray J.

    1991-01-01

    Design considerations are discussed for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite based telecommunications networks. The satellites are assumed to be connected to each other via intersatellite links. They are connected to the end user either directly or through gateways to other networks. Frequency reuse, circuit switching, packet switching, call handoff, and routing for these systems are discussed by analogy with terrestrial cellular (mobile radio) telecommunication systems.

  19. Dynamics of satellites, asteroids, and rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermott, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    Work is reported on: (1) the shapes and the internal structures of satellites; (2) the tidal heating of Miranda; (3) the dynamics of arc-like rings; and (4) the structure of the zodiacal cloud that was revealed by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite. Significant progress was made in determining the shape and internal structure of Mimas and in understanding the dynamical evolution of Miranda's orbit

  20. Validation of Cloud Parameters Derived from Geostationary Satellites, AVHRR, MODIS, and VIIRS Using SatCORPS Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Bedka, K. M.; Yost, C. R.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Painemal, D.; Chen, Y.; Palikonda, R.; Dong, X.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Validation is a key component of remote sensing that can take many different forms. The NASA LaRC Satellite ClOud and Radiative Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) is applied to many different imager datasets including those from the geostationary satellites, Meteosat, Himiwari-8, INSAT-3D, GOES, and MTSAT, as well as from the low-Earth orbiting satellite imagers, MODIS, AVHRR, and VIIRS. While each of these imagers have similar sets of channels with wavelengths near 0.65, 3.7, 11, and 12 micrometers, many differences among them can lead to discrepancies in the retrievals. These differences include spatial resolution, spectral response functions, viewing conditions, and calibrations, among others. Even when analyzed with nearly identical algorithms, it is necessary, because of those discrepancies, to validate the results from each imager separately in order to assess the uncertainties in the individual parameters. This paper presents comparisons of various SatCORPS-retrieved cloud parameters with independent measurements and retrievals from a variety of instruments. These include surface and space-based lidar and radar data from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively, to assess the cloud fraction, height, base, optical depth, and ice water path; satellite and surface microwave radiometers to evaluate cloud liquid water path; surface-based radiometers to evaluate optical depth and effective particle size; and airborne in-situ data to evaluate ice water content, effective particle size, and other parameters. The results of comparisons are compared and contrasted and the factors influencing the differences are discussed.