NORBERT OPIYO AKECH
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the first results on the water quality of the River Niger at Niamey based on the Chironomidae. Artificial substrata of stones covered with galvanized wire netting were used for collecting the chironomid larvae. Water samples were taken for physicochemical analysis. Twenty taxa of ...
Wilson Michael D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.
Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan
Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment.
Full Text Available The mode of speciation adopted by a species or group of related species of animals (insects is clearly determined to a certain extent by the architecture of their genetic system. Chromosome rearrangements, the localization and appearance of the heterochromatin as well as the reproductive relations in sympatric, allopathric speciation and intrograssion process of different species of Chironomidae family are considered. A high chromosome polymorphism and changes in the constitutive heterochromatin are shown as predominant mechanism in the phyletic evolution of some species. Based on an analysis of inversions in different chromosome arms, a chromosome evolution in the "plumosus" group (genus Chironomus is traced. It was found that the floating inversions in an initial standard karyotype became fixed in a derived karyotype and underlined that the heterochromatin is a dynamic element in the speciation of family Chironomidae. In addition, hybridization tests revealed that pre - and postmating isolating mechanisms were operating in process of formation in different sibling species. It is concluded that the species with overlapping ranges are characterized by more complex chromosome changes, while in species with allopatric speciation there are less chromosome rearrangements. In this case, the distance between the populations is a very important factor as well.
Studies in South-Occidental Amazon: contribution to the knowledge of Brazilian Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera=Estudos na Amazônia Sul-ocidental: contribuição para os conhecimentos sobre Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera no Brasil
Maria Rosélia Marques Lopes
Full Text Available Chironomidae (Diptera are a diverse and large group of small flies, whose larvae inhabit nearly every possible niche in most freshwater aquatic ecosystems. The Acre river is an important affluent of the Purus river. Our objective was to contribute to the knowledge of Chironomidae in this region by making the first survey of Chironomidae composition in the Acre river (Amazon Basin, and relate its distribution to physical and chemical variables. Samples were collected at three sites using a modified Petersen grab. A grain size analysis showed heterogeneity between sampling sites. Eighteen morphospecies of Chironomidae larvae were recorded. In site 2, there was higher density of Chironomidae. Higher richness was observed in site 1, and the composition of this site was similar to site 3. The present study showed that the Chironomidae community was influenced by urban area. Chironomidae can be considered an important component of the fauna of this river and a potential instrument in future studies of ecology in the region.Chironomidae é uma família de Diptera com muitas espécies, cujas larvas ocupam praticamente todos os nichos possíveis na maioria dos ecossistemas aquáticos de água doce. O rio Acre é um importante afluente do rio Purus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o levantamento da composição da comunidade de larvas de Chironomidae do rio Acre (Bacia Amazônica e relacionar a distribuição da comunidade com as variáveis físicas e químicas. As amostras foram coletadas em três estações utilizando-se um pegador do tipo Petersen modificado. Foram encontradas larvas de 18 morfoespécies de Chironomidae. Na estação 2, foram registradas as maiores densidades. A maior riqueza foi observada na estação 1 e a composição desta estação foi mais similar a da estação 3. O presente estudo revelou que a comunidade de Chironomidae respondeu a influência do trecho urbano. Chironomidae pode ser considerado um importante componente
Tucker, Taaja R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Riley, Stephen
Larvae of the family Chironomidae have developed a variety of ways to tolerate environmental stress, including the formation of cocoons, which allows larvae to avoid unfavorable temperature conditions, drought, or competition with other chironomids. Summer cocoon formation by younger instars of the genus Hydrobaenus Fries allows persistence through increased temperatures and/or intermittent dry periods in arid regions or temporary habitats, but this behavior was not observed in the Great Lakes until the current study. Cocoon-aestivating Hydrobaenus sp. larvae were found in benthic grab samples collected in 2010–2013 near Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in northern Lake Michigan with densities up to 7329/m2. The aestivating species was identified as Hydrobaenus johannseni (Sublette, 1967), and the associated chironomid community was typical for an oligotrophic nearshore system. Hydrobaenus cocoon formation in the Great Lakes was likely previously unnoticed due to the discrepancies between the genus' life history and typical benthos sampling procedures which has consequences for describing chironomid communities where Hydrobaenus is present.
Full Text Available Dupnisa Mağarası’nın (Sarpdere Köyü, Demirköy, Kırklareli Chironomidae (Diptera ve Gammaridae (Amphipoda Faunası. Dupnisa Mağarasına 20.08.2001 ve 06.07.2004 tarihlerinde 2 arazi çalışması gerçekleştirildi. 4 örnekleme lokalitesinden Chironomidae (Diptera ve Gammaridae (Amphipoda familyalarına ait örnekler toplandı. Daha sonra laboratuvarda mikroskop altında teşhisleri gerçekleştirildi. 1 nolu lokalitede Chironomidae familyasına ait larva bulunmadı. 2 nolu lokalitede Paratrissocladius excerptus (Walker, 1806; Epoicocladius ephemerae (Kieffer, 1924; Polypedilum (Tripodura scalaenum (Schrank, 1803, 3 nolu lokalitede Macropelopia nebulosa (Meigen, 1804; Telmatopelopia nemorum Goetghebuer, 1921; Paratrichocladius rufiventris (Meigen, 1830; Rheotanytarsus sp.; Micropsectra praecox Wiedemann, 1918 ve 4 nolu lokalitede Heleniella orniaticollis Edwards, 1929; Chaetocladius piger Goetghebuer, 1913; Psectrocladius barbimans Edwards, 1929; Polypedilum (Tripodura scalaenum (Schrank, 1803; Micropsectra praecox Wiedemann, 1918 türleri bulundu. Gammaridae familyasından ise 4 örnekleme lokalitesinin herbirinde yalnız Gammarus arduus G.S. Karaman, 1973 türü saptandı
Michailova, Paraskeva; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elzbieta; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Kownacki, Andrzej
The investigation was carried out on a small pond situated on a recent mine spoil at Bolesław in the Olkusz region with Zn-Pb ore deposits. Water of the pond had pH 7.2-8.5 and low concentrations of heavy metals. Concentrations of Pb (487 μg g( - 1)) and Zn (1,991 μg g( - 1)) in the sediment were very high and potentially could lead to toxicological effects. In the pond, 48 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to Oligochaeta and water stages of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Megaloptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Diptera (mainly Chironomidae family) were found. The influence of heavy metals on macroinvertebrates diversity was not found. Effect of heavy metal pollution was observed on the appearance of chromosome aberrations in the polytene chromosomes of Chironomidae larvae. It was manifested by two ways: (1) in Kiefferulus tendipediformis and Chironomus sp. chromosome rearrangements in fixed state (tandem fusion and homozygous inversions), indicated intensive process of speciation; (2) in Chironomus sp., K. tendipediformis, Glyptotendipes gripekoveni (Chironomidae) somatic chromosome rearrangements (inversions, deficiencies, specific puffs, polyploidy) affected few cells of every individual. The somatic functional and structural alterations in Chironomidae species are particular suitable as biomarkers-they can be easily identified and used for detecting toxic agents in the environment.
Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.
Matěna, Josef; Šímová, I.; Brom, J.; Novotná, K.
Roč. 113, January (2016), s. 122-129 E-ISSN 1802-8829 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Chironomus aprilinus * coal mining * hydric restoration * saline inland waters * fertilization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016
Full Text Available Larvae of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Chironomidae, Diptera collected from two polluted water basins in Bulgaria, the Maritsa and Chaya Rivers (adjacent to Plovdiv and Asenovgrad respectively, a small pool (near Plovdiv plus controls reared in the laboratory were studied. High concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Cd were recorded in the sediments of the polluted stations. Marked somatic structural chromosome aberrations were found in C. riparius salivary polytene chromosomes from the field stations and their frequency was significantly higher (p<0.01 compared to the control. The observed somatic chromosome changes are discussed as a response of the chironomid genome to aquatic pollution. A new cytogenetic index based on the number of aberrations found in larvae from polluted regions in comparison with the control was applied to the data to more easily evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our study of a polluted site near the River Chaya showed that the somatic index was very high at 3.35 for 2010 and 11.66 for 2013 compared to 0.5 in the control. The cytogenetic index was effective in showing that all studied sites were highly polluted in comparison with the control. To determine the mechanism involved in the concentration of aberration breakpoints within specific regions of the chironomid polytene chromosome the FISH method was applied. The localization of a transposable element TFB1 along the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius was analyzed and the sites of localization were compared with breakpoints of chromosome aberrations. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was found which shows that most of the aberrations do not appear randomly but are concentrated in sites rich in transposable elements.
Full Text Available A Chironomidae (Diptera fauna list for headwater streams of high altitude areas in Serra da Estrela (Portugal is presented, doubling the previously established species richness for the region. The findings include 17 new records for Portugal, which represent an increase to 219 species for the Continental Portugal Chironomidae fauna. Two new records were detected for the Iberian Peninsula: one species (Tvetenia duodenaria, and one subgenus –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–; and the presence of the genus Natarsia is confirmed. The last two occurrences correspond to monoespecific taxa of the Palearctic region. However, as taxonomic identification has been based on larval material, instead of pupae, pupal exuviae or imagoes, species level assignment is still uncertain.
Se presenta una lista de especies de Chironomidae (Diptera recolectadas en los ríos de cabecera de zonas de alta montaña en la Serra da Estrela (Portugal. Con esta aportación se duplica la riqueza de especies regional conocida hasta el momento y se eleva la fauna de quironómidos del Portugal continental a 219 especies. Se incluyen dos nuevas citas para la Península Ibérica, una especie (Tvetenia duodenaria y un subgénero –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–, y se confirma la presencia del género Natarsia. En los dos últimos casos se trata de larvas de taxones hasta el momento monoespecíficos en la región paleárctica, pero al no haberse recolectado pupas o adultos no se puede asegurar la identificación específica.
Full Text Available La familia Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera es uno de los grupos de insectos más ampliamente distribuidos y abundantes en cuerpos de agua dulce. Los representantes de esta familia pueden explotar áreas con amplios gradientes ambientales. La información que se presenta está basada en la recopilación de datos distribucionales bibliográficos, del estudio del material tipo de las especies de Chironomidae depositadas en el Natural History Museum (UK y del material de colección del Museo de La Plata (Argentina. En la Patagonia, se registran 9 subfamilias, la subfamilia monotípica Chilenomyiinae es endémica de esta área. Dentro de estas subfamilias, 53 de los 111 géneros conocidos para América del Sur están presentes en la Patagonia. Del total de géneros de la Patagonia, el 20 % es endémico y 7 de ellos muestran relaciones transantárticas. En la Patagonia, se registran 177 especies de Chironomidae, el 98% de éstas son endémicas, el 3 % son consideradas nomina dubia y el 17% requiere revisión ya que su ubicación sistemática es dudosa. Las descripciones originales de las especies patagónicas de Chironomidae están basadas principalmente sobre machos (n=58 y machos y hembras (n=43, ambas representan el 57% del total; el resto de las especies han sido descriptas con diferentes combinaciones de estadios del ciclo de desarrollo.
Sebastião José de Oliveira
Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new species of a non-biting midge of the genus Aedokritus Roback, 1958 (Chironominae, Chironomidae from Brazil and Bolívia. That is the fifth species of this genus. The other species of the genus are: A. penicilligerus (Edwards, 1931, from Argentina and Peru; A. pruinescens (Edwards, 1931, from Argentina; A. platycnemis (Edwards, 1931, from Argentina; and A. sartis Roback, 1960, from Brazil.
Brown, Andrew Edward
The successional changes in a new. lowland reservoir in Leicestershire, England, were investigated, with particular refere~ce to larvae of the Chironomidae. During the first four years major changes in water chemistry were the result of the different sources of water used to fill the reservoir and the release of nutrients from the inundated terrestrial vegetation. Phytoplankton populations showed erratic changes in species composition and standing crop during the first ye...
Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.
Does predator benefits prey? Commensalism between Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae and Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae in Southeastern Brazil O predador beneficia sua presa? Comensalismo entre Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae e Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae no Sudeste do Brasil
Full Text Available Commensalism between Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Megaloptera, Corydalidae and Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae larvae was recorded in Indaiá stream, at 1,380 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, 19º-20ºS, 43º-44ºW and in the headwaters of São Francisco river, at 1,300-1,700 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, 20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Seventy eight Corydalus larvae (range 22-88 mm were sampled: 61 in the Indaiá stream and 17 in other two streams. Twelve Corydalus larvae (22-79 mm in the Indaiá stream and three out of 15 larvae in the headwaters of São Francisco river (38-50 mm had Corynoneura, larvae and pupae on their gills (3rd to 6th and a few larvae attached to the abdominal segments of larger Corydalus larvae (> 25 mm. Sixty-nine larvae of Corynoneura were found in the regurgitated material from Corydalus. It is remarkable that by attaching to larger body size predators, prey could become free from predator bouts and could also be transported by them.Comensalismo entre Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Insecta, Megaloptera, Corydalidae e Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Insecta, Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae foi registrado no córrego Indaiá situado a 1.380 m de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (19-20ºS, 43-44ºW e nas nascentes do rio São Francisco a 1.300-1.700 m de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Setenta e oito larvas de Corydalus (tamanhos: 22-88 mm foram coletadas: 61 no córrego Indaiá e 17 em outros córregos. Doze larvas de Corydalus (tamanhos: 22-79 mm no córrego Indaiá e três encontradas nas nascentes do rio São Francisco (tamanhos: 38-50 mm apresentaram larvas e pupas de Corynoneura em suas brânquias (3ª a 6ª e algumas larvas fixadas nos segmentos abdominais de grandes Corydalus (> 25 mm. Sessenta e nove larvas de Corynoneura foram
Krosch, Matt; Cranston, Peter S
Many insect clades, especially within the Diptera (true flies), have been considered classically 'Gondwanan', with an inference that distributions derive from vicariance of the southern continents. Assessing the role that vicariance has played in the evolution of austral taxa requires testing the location and tempo of diversification and speciation against the well-established predictions of fragmentation of the ancient super-continent. Several early (anecdotal) hypotheses that current austral distributions originate from the breakup of Gondwana derive from studies of taxa within the family Chironomidae (non-biting midges). With the advent of molecular phylogenetics and biogeographic analytical software, these studies have been revisited and expanded to test such conclusions better. Here we studied the midge genus Stictocladius Edwards, from the subfamily Orthocladiinae, which contains austral-distributed clades that match vicariance-based expectations. We resolve several issues of systematic relationships among morphological species and reveal cryptic diversity within many taxa. Time-calibrated phylogenetic relationships among taxa accorded partially with the predicted tempo from geology. For these apparently vagile insects, vicariance-dated patterns persist for South America and Australia. However, as often found, divergence time estimates for New Zealand at c. 50 mya post-date separation of Zealandia from Antarctica and the remainder of Gondwana, but predate the proposed Oligocene 'drowning' of these islands. We detail other such 'anomalous' dates and suggest a single common explanation rather than stochastic processes. This could involve synchronous establishment following recovery from 'drowning' and/or deleteriously warming associated with the mid-Eocene climatic optimum (hence 'waving', which refers to cycles of drowning events) plus new availability of topography providing of cool running waters, or all these factors in combination. Alternatively a
Cristina Márcia de Menezes Butakka
Full Text Available We characterized the local benthic Chironomidae by analyzing the numerical density, biomass, diversity index of Shannon-Wiener and dominance of larvae in the main channel of the Ivinhema River, in a secondary channel, in five lakes connected to the main channel and in five lakes without connection. Of the 68 taxa identified, Aedokritus sp., Tanytarsus sp., Chironomus strenzkei Fittkau, 1968 and Procladius sp.1 were found in all sampling sites and were considered morphospecies with greater of greatest ecological plasticity. Chironomus strenzkei Fittkau, 1968, contributed with the greatest biomass in the central region of lakes without connection, whereas Aedokritus sp. dominated in the littoral of lakes. The greater values of diversity indices in the littoral region of channels were due to the greater water flow and to the higher food availability in these areas. The dominance indices, by contrast, were greater on the central region of these environments. The littoral region has exclusive characteristics, representing habitats that could play important controlling in the numerical density and index diversity on the ecosystem, whereas that the biomass of benthic invertebrates in the central region in some biotopes would have different spatial probably according organisms drift.
Full Text Available The niche overlap between trophic groups of Chironomidae larvae in different habitats was observed between trophic groups and between different environments in Neotropical floodplain. For the evaluation we used the index of niche overlap (CXY and analysis of trophic networks, both from the types and amount of food items identified in the larval alimentary canal. In all environments, the larvae fed on mainly organic matter such as plants fragments and algae, but there were many omnivore larvae. Species that have high values of food items occurred in diverse environments as generalists with great overlap niche and those with a low amount of food items with less overlap niche were classified as specialists. The largest number of trophic niche overlap was observed among collector-gatherers in connected floodplain lakes. The lower values of index niche overlap were predators. The similarity in the diet of different taxa in the same niche does not necessarily imply competition between them, but coexistence when the food resource is not scarce in the environment even in partially overlapping niches.
Lundström, J O; Schäfer, M L; Petersson, E; Persson Vinnersten, T Z; Landin, J; Brodin, Y
Massive mosquito nuisance problems, caused by the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus, occur after floods in the flood plains of the River Dalälven, central Sweden. Since 2002, the biological mosquito larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) has been used to control these mosquitoes. Here, we report results from the first six years of monitoring Chironomidae, the most susceptible non-target organisms, in three wetlands with Bti-treatment against mosquitoes and in three wetlands without treatment. Emergence traps were used for continuous insect sampling from May to September each year, 2002-2007, and were emptied once a week. A total of 21,394 chironomids of 135 species were collected, and the subfamily Orthocladiinae dominated the fauna followed by Chironominae and Tanypodinae. The annual chironomid production in the wetlands was low, with an average of 1917 individuals per m(2), and 42 g ash-free dry weight per m(2). We found no reduced production of chironomids at neither family, nor subfamily level, in Bti-treated as compared to untreated wetlands. This is the first long-term follow-up study of the possible effects of Bti-based mosquito larval control on chironomid species production. In the short-term view, one species had higher production in treated areas. In the long-term view, four species had higher and one species had lower production in treated areas. We conclude that the Bti-based control of flood-water mosquitoes does not cause any major direct negative effects on chironomid production, and therefore does not seem to induce any risk for indirect negative effects on birds, bats or any other predators feeding on chironomids.
Full Text Available The diversity and distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae were studied in relation to environmental factors in 81 springs under pristine conditions in the Italian Prealps and Alps (Trentino and Veneto, NE-Italy, 46°N, 10-11°E. Each spring was surveyed once, between May and November, in 2005 or in 2007-2008, within 50 m of the spring's source (eucrenal. A total of 173 macroinvertebrate samples were collected, in which 26,871 chironomids (including larvae, pupae, pupal exuviae and adults were counted. Five subfamilies (Tanypodinae, Diamesinae, Prodiamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Chironominae, 54 genera and 104 species/groups of species were identified. As expected, Orthocladiinae accounted for a large part of specimens (82%, followed by Diamesinae (10%, Chironominae Tanytarsini (6% and Tanypodinae (2%. Together the Chironominae Chironomini and Prodiamesinae contributed less than 0.05% of the fauna. Larvae represented 97.5% of specimens, mostly juveniles (62.6%. Maximum richness and diversity occurred at intermediate altitudes (ca 900-2100 m a.s.l.. Most taxa were found in a small proportion of sites, and frequencies declined gradually for more widely distributed species. A high number (67% of rare (= present in less than 10% of sites taxa were found. Three to 27 taxa were identified per spring. The rheocrene/rheo-helocrene springs were richest in taxa (generally >15 taxa, the mineral spring was poorest, with only three taxa. Most taxa were crenophilous, including lentic, rheobiontic and bryophilous taxa. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA was performed including 98 taxa. Axes were interpreted calculating the correlation coefficients between site scores and 24 environmental factors. The species with the highest scores were Pseudokiefferiella parva, Corynoneura sp. A, Metriocnemus eurynotus gr., Paratrichocladius skirwithensis and Tvetenia calvescens. Five clusters of sites were identified with K-means analysis on the basis of the first
Frouz, Jan; Ali, A.; Lobinske, R. J.
Roč. 95, č. 4 (2002), s. 699-705 ISSN 0022-0493 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : midge * Chironomidae * temperature Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.865, year: 2002
Frouz, Jan; Lobinske, R. J.; Ali, A.
Roč. 518, - (2004), s. 169-177 ISSN 0018-8158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Chironomidae * benthos * ecosystem engineers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.653, year: 2004
Frouz, Jan; Ali, A.; Lobinske, R. J.
Roč. 97, č. 6 (2004), s. 1884-1890 ISSN 0022-0493 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Chironomidae * algal food * larval development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2004
Daniela Aparecida Silveira Cesar
Full Text Available Abstract Numerous factors may affect the pattern of distribution of benthic fauna in a river mouth region and, among the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae and Oligochaeta are the most abundant groups and most tolerant to environmental changes. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the controlling factors of and a possible similarity between Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblies at two close sites, the mouth of the Guareí River into the Paranapanema River (São Paulo, Brazil and its lateral fluvial area. Methods Fauna samples were collected every three months during one year. Water physical and chemical variables and sediment variables were also determined in the same period. Results Both assemblies presented low density variability over time in the lateral area due to sediment characteristics and environmental factors. Taxa Caladomyia, Parachironomus, Pristina sp., Pristina osborni, Bothrioneurum and Opistocysta funiculus were recorded at this site. The Guareí River presented both greater temporal and spatial variations, attributed mainly to a reduction in the water level. Greater organism abundance, especially of Chironomus and Tubificinae, was observed in the river. Conclusions Dissimilarity in temporal and spatial distributions of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta was attributed to peculiar characteristics of the two study sites, a river channel and a lateral area. Reduction in the water level over the year was the main controlling factor of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta richness and density in the river. In the lateral area, the presence and abundance of certain taxa were determined by the nature of the sediment and water physical and chemical variables.
Full Text Available Diversity and biomass of Chironomidae larvae were studied between January-November 1993 and March-November 1994 in an impacted lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in an attempt to establish the ecological consequences of anthropogenic eutrophication processes. Nine hundred and seventy-five organisms belonging to the Tanypodinae, Orthocladiinae, and Chironominae were collected. Polypedilum (62% and Chironomus (58% were the most common genera found in the limnetic and littoral zones.
Full Text Available Diversity and biomass of Chironomidae larvae were studied between January-November 1993 and March-November 1994 in an impacted lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in an attempt to establish the ecological consequences of anthropogenic eutrophication processes. Nine hundred and seventy-five organisms belonging to the Tanypodinae, Orthocladiinae, and Chironominae were collected. Polypedilum (62% and Chironomus (58% were the most common genera found in the limnetic and littoral zones.
João Ânderson Fulan
Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of predation by nymphs of Erythemis Hagen, 1861 on Elmidae and Chironomidae and to check if the presence and the architecture of aquatic macrophytes may mediate this interaction. Methods: All prey as well as nymphs were captured near macrophytes in a small lagoon alongside a highway near Humaitá, Amazonas, Brazil. Twelve buckets were used in three different treatments: with Pistia stratiotes Linnaeus, 1753, with Salvinia auriculata Aublet and without macrophytes. Results: We found a mortality rate of 100% of Chironomidae and Elmidae larvae in the treatment without macrophytes. There was a greater survival of Elmidae compared to Chironomidae in the treatments with P. stratiotes and S. auriculata; however, there was a greater survival of both preys on treatment with P. stratiotes. Conclusions: We conclude that the presence of macrophytes decreased the efficiency of predation of Erythemis nymphs under experimental conditions. The architecture of macrophytes affected predation as macrophytes with longer roots and with greater habitat complexity promoted a greater survival of prey.
Comunidades de Chironomidae (Diptera) en arroyos de montaña del NOA: comparación entre Yungas y Monte Chironomidae (Diptera) communities from Northwestern Argentinean mountain streams: comparison between Yungas and Monte
Eva G. Tejerina; Carlos Molineri
Se comparan las comunidades de Chironomidae en dos áreas, una ubicada en la provincia biogeográfica del Monte y otra en las Yungas (en dos niveles altitudinales, bajo o selva montana y alto o bosque de aliso). Se presenta por primera vez una lista de taxones presentes en el área que incluye 15 géneros pertenecientes a cinco subfamilias. Los sitios estudiados en la región del Monte se caracterizaron por altas densidades de Pentaneura sp., Parametriocnemus sp. y Podonominae spp.; Lopescladius s...
PENGARUH KONTAMINASI LOGAM BERAT TERHADAP KECACATAN LARVA (Dicrotendipes simpsoni (DIPTERA: CHIRONOMIDAE: STUDI KASUS DI WADUK SAGULING JAWA BARAT (Effects of Heavy Metals On Dicrotendipes Simpsoni Larvae Deformities Diptera: Chironomidae: A Case Study
Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penggunaan kecacatan morfologi bagian mulut dan antena pada larva Chironomidae telah lama dikethui sensitif dalam mendeteksi adanya stress yang disebabkan oleh kontaminasi bahan polutan yang ada di sedimen maupun terlaurt dalam air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji tingkat kecacatan Chiromedae yang terjadi pada spesies Dicrotendipes simpsoni yang dikaitkan dengan kontaminasilogam berat pada air permukaan di Waduk Saguling. Untuk memperolteh hewan tersebut dari lapangan, maka digunakan subtrat buatan melayang sebagai trap yang direndam pada air di kedalaman 2m pada sentra-sentra perikanan jaring apung (St. Batujajar, Ciminyak, Dam. Hasil analisis kecacatan pada spesies Dicrotendipes simpsoni menunjukkan frekwensi kecactan total secara umum paling banyak dijumpai pada St. Batujajar (95,56% diikuti Dam (82,2%, dan Ciminyak (68,89%. Hasil analisis multivariat dengan PCA dan korelasi sederhana Pearson-product moment menunjukkan adanya kecenderungan dari logam Cr menyebabkan peningkatan frekuensi kecacatan antena secara signifikan (r=0,7099, p=0,032, dan frekwensi cacat total berkorelasi signifikan dengan kontaminasi logam Pb (r=7055, p=0,034. Logam Cu cenderung mencirikan tipe kecacatan pada pecten ephipharyngis (r=0,6131, walaupun tidak signifikan pada level 95%. Adanya respon kecacatan bagian mulut dan antena pada Dicrotendipes simpsoni merupan sinyal yang positif bagi pengembangan sistem peringatan dini dari kontaminasi logam berat di ekosistem perairan tawar. ABSTRACT Mouthpart and antenna deformities of Chironomidae have been known and sensitive to detect stress which is caused by pollutant contamination in sediment and water. The research have objective to reveal deformities on Dicrotendipes simpsoni Chironomidae larvae in Saguling Reservoir and to know correlation between the deformities with contamination heavy metals on surface water. The animal was collected from reservoir using artificial subtrat submerged in deepness of
Leaf litter as a possible food source for chironomids (Diptera in Brazilian and Portuguese headwater streams Detritos foliares como possível fonte de alimento para Chironomidae (Diptera em riachos de cabeceira brasileiros e portugueses
Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the potential use of leaf detritus by chironomid larvae. Field and laboratory experiments were performed using leaves and chironomid species collected in Portugal and Brazil. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were done using microbial conditioned senescent leaves of Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn, Neriumoleander L., Protium heptaphilum (Aubl. March, Protium brasiliense (Spreng Engl., Myrcia guyanensis(Aubl. DC and Miconia chartacea Triana. Laboratory experiments were performed using specimens collected from leaf litter in local streams. Whenever possible, after the experiments, chironomids were allowed to emerge as adults and identified. In Portugal the following taxa were identified: Micropsectra apposita (Walker, 1856, Polypedilum albicorne (Meigen, 1838,Eukiefferiella claripennis Lundbeck (1898, Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus atripes Rempel (1937 and Ablabesmyia Johannsen (1905 (Diptera, Chironomidae. Consumption rates ranged from 0.15 ± 0.10 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Micropsectra apposita feeding on Alnus glutinosa up to 0.85 ± 0.33 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Polypedilum albicorne feeding on Miconia chartacea. In Brazil, the following taxa were identified from leaves: Phaenopsectra sp., Chironomus spp. and Polypedilum sp. and maximum consumption rates reached 0.47 ± 0.28 (AFDM of leaf mg.animal-1.day-1 (Chironomus Meigen (1803 feeding on Protium heptaphilum. Feeding experiments with laboratory cultured specimens, revealed that some chironomids were unable to feed on decomposing leaves (e.g., C. xanthus Rempel (1939 on P.brasiliensis and M.guyanensis. Our results suggest that some stream chironomids (not typical shredders can use leaf litter of riparian vegetation as a complementary food source.O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial uso de detritos foliares por larvas de Chironomidae. Foram realizados experimentos em campo e em laboratório utilizando folhas e larvas de Chironomidae
Full Text Available Species of Chironomidae are widely used as bioindicators of water quality, since their larvae undergo morphological deformities when in contact with sediment contaminated with chemicals. In this work we endeavored to study the morphology of head structures (antennae, mandible, mentum, pecten epipharyngis, ventromental plate and premandible throughout the development of the four larval instars of Chironomus sancticaroli Strixino & Strixino, 1981, which can be used in environmental impact analyses. Our results show that it is possible to differentiate among larval instars by doing a quantitative analysis on the number of striae on the ventromental plates. The six structures analyzed changed during larval ontogeny. These changes are part of the ontogeny of the immature stages not exposed to xenobiotics. We believe that the morphological pattern defined in this work can be used for comparisons with ontogenetic changes observed in field studies conducted in polluted environments.
Diversity of larvae of littoral Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta and their role as bioindicators in urban reservoirs of different trophic levels Diversidade de larvas de Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta e seu papel como bioindicadores na região litorânea de reservatórios urbanos em diferentes níveis tróficos
Full Text Available The Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta have a high species richness, with species adapted to live under widely different environmental conditions. The study of the taxonomic composition of chironomid larvae and the percentage of occurrence of deformities in mouthparts, mainly in the mentum, are used in biomonitoring programmes in order to obtain information on the levels of organic and chemical pollution of aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abundance of chironomid larvae and to quantify the occurrence of mentum deformities in the specimens collected in three urban reservoirs with different trophic levels. The reservoirs are located in the hydrographic basin of the Paraopeba River, an affluent of the São Francisco River basin (Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The Serra Azul Reservoir is oligotrophic, the Vargem das Flores Reservoir is mesotrophic, and the Ibirité Reservoir is eutrophic. Along the littoral zone of each reservoir, 30 samples were collected during each sampling campaign. Sampling was carried out every three months for one year, with two sampling campaigns during the wet season and two during the dry season in 2008. Physical and chemical parameters measured in the water column included the water depth, Secchi depth, air and water temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, Total-N, Total-P, P-ortho, and chlorophyll-a. The chironomid larvae were identified to the genus level. The structure of the chironomid assemblages was evaluated based on taxonomic richness (24 genera, density, equitability, and diversity. The potential indicator taxa for each reservoir were established through an Indicator Species Analysis. The values for taxonomic richness (20 taxa, equitability (0.737, and Shannon-Wiener diversity (2.215 were highest in the Serra Azul Reservoir. Fissimentum was the indicator taxon in Serra Azul, the oligotrophic reservoir
Distribución espacio-temporal de larvas de Chironomidae (Diptera en un arroyo andino (Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina Spatial and temporal distribution of larvae of Chironomidae (Diptera in an Andean stream (Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina
Erica E. Scheibler
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre la composición larval de la familia Chironomidae en un arroyo andino en la localidad de Uspallata (Mendoza, Argentina. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante un ciclo anual completo (2001/2002 en tres sitios, siguiendo un gradiente altitudinal. Se midieron variables físico-químicas en campo y laboratorio. La relación entre presencia y abundancia de quironómidos y parámetros ambientales se exploró mediante un análisis de Correspondencia Canónica. Se identificaron siete géneros pertenecientes a cuatro subfamilias: Chironominae, Orthocladiinae, Podonominae y Tanypodinae. Orthocladiinae fue la subfamilia que tuvo mayor riqueza genérica (Cricotopus van der Wulp, Onconeura Andersen & Saether y Parametriocnemus Goetghebuer, densidad y frecuencia de aparición a nivel estacional y espacial. Podonominae (Podonomus Philippi y Podonomopsis Brundin se halló únicamente en SA mientras que Chironominae (Polypedilum Kieffer estuvo presente en UD. Tanypodinae (Pentaneura Philippi se encontró en los tres sitios de muestreo aunque con una densidad menor. Se detectó incremento de la conductividad y temperatura del agua, y disminución del tamaño del sustrato desde SA a UD, lo que coincide con la desaparición de Podonomus y Podonomopsis y la aparición de Polypedilum hacia UD. De este estudio se concluye que el sistema presenta baja riqueza genérica comparada con otros sistemas montañosos de Argentina.A study was conducted on the larval composition of the family Chironomidae in an Andean stream in Uspallata locality (Mendoza, Argentina. Seasonal samplings were performed over a full annual cycle (2001/2002 at three sites, along an altitudinal gradient. Physical and chemical variables were measured in both the field and the laboratory. Relationship between presence and abundance of chironomids and environmental parameters was explored using a Canonical Correspondence analysis. Seven genera were identified
Lundström, J O; Brodin, Y; Schäfer, M L; Vinnersten, T Z Persson; Ostman, O
Species richness and species turn-over of Chironomidae was studied in irregularly flooded wetlands of the River Dalälven flood-plains in central Sweden. The chironomid fauna, sampled with emergence traps in six wetlands over six summers, contained as much as 135 species, and the cumulative species curves indicated that the regional species pool contain several more species. Recurrent irregular floods may have induced this high chironomid species richness and the high species turn-over in the temporary wetlands, as the dominance between terrestrial and aquatic species shifted between years. Half of the wetlands were treated with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) against larvae of the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus. These treatments had no significant effect on chironomid species richness, but there was a higher species turn-over between years of primarily low abundance species in the treated wetlands. The cumulative number of species was also higher in the Bti-treated experimental wetlands than in the untreated reference wetlands. Thus, Bti treatment against mosquito larvae seemed to have only small effects on chironomid species richness but seemed to increase the colonisation-extinction dynamics.
Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva; Czaplicka, Anna
In this paper, a study of the morphology of the pupa and male imago of Glyptotendipes (G.) glaucus (Meigen 1818) was carried out, with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM provided additional valuable information on the morphology of the species. Adult male head, antenna, wing, leg, abdomen, hypopygium, pupal cephalothorax and abdomen were examined. It is emphasized that SEM was not often used in Chironomidae studies. The present results confirm SEM as a suitable approach in carrying out morphological and taxonomical descriptions of Chironomidae species.
Rosa, B F J V; Dias-Silva, M V D; Alves, R G
This study describes the structure of the Chironomidae community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. Samples of bryophytes adhered to rocks along a 100-m stretch of the stream were removed with a metal blade, and 200-mL pots were filled with the samples. The numerical density (individuals per gram of dry weight), Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index, the dominance index (DI), and estimated richness were calculated for each collection period (dry and rainy). Linear regression analysis was employed to test the existence of a correlation between rainfall and the individual's density and richness. The high numerical density and richness of Chironomidae taxa observed are probably related to the peculiar conditions of the bryophyte habitat. The retention of larvae during periods of higher rainfall contributed to the high density and richness of Chironomidae larvae. The rarefaction analysis showed higher richness in the rainy season related to the greater retention of food particles. The data from this study show that bryophytes provide stable habitats for the colonization by and refuge of Chironomidae larvae, mainly under conductions of faster water flow and higher precipitation.
Fabio Laurindo da Silva
Full Text Available The Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera type collection deposited at the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ are listed and reviewed. It is represented by 23 primary types, as well as paratypes and paralectotypes for an additional 29 species, mostly resulting from research endeavors of H. Loew and H. K Townes. Notes updating the taxonomic status of several species are provided.
Full Text Available Chironomidae larvae constituted the largest proportion of benthic invertebrates collected from 99 rivers stretching from northern Labrador (latitude 58°N to northern parts of Ellesmere Island (82°N. We describe 92 species of Chironomidae (mainly larval forms providing new descriptions, a revision for the adult female of Parametriocnemus boreoalpinus Gowin et Thienemann, a possible new genus (larval form only, and 9 larval forms that may represent a new species. In addition, new geographical distribution records are specified for 1 Nearctic species, 6 species in Canada, 10 for Labrador, and 17 for Nunavut. This work contributes to Environment Canada’s International Polar Year output (2007-2009.
Eva G. TEJERINA; Carlos MOLINERI
Se comparan las comunidades de Chironomidae en dos áreas, una ubicada en la provincia biogeográfica del Monte y otra en las Yungas (en dos niveles altitudinales, bajo o selva montana y alto o bosque de aliso). Se presenta por primera vez una lista de taxones presentes en el área que incluye 15 géneros pertenecientes a cinco subfamilias. Los sitios estudiados en la región del Monte se caracterizaron por altas densidades de Pentaneura sp., Parametriocnemus sp. y Podonominae spp.; Lopescladius s...
Full Text Available Chironomidae es una familia cosmopolita de dípteros nematóceros que comprende más de 20 000 especies descritas. Sin embargo, la diversidad de géneros y especies presentes en la región andina del Neotrópico es poco conocida. Por tal motivo se desarrolló una clave taxonómica para identificar las pupas y exuvias pupales de 46 géneros de la familia Chironomidae presentes en ríos de alta montaña ubicados en la cordillera de los Andes por encima de los 2 000msnm. Se utilizó material de colección obtenido de levantamientos faunísticos y estudios de biomonitoreo en diferentes ríos y quebradas de Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. La clave incluye ilustraciones y breves descripciones taxonómicas de todos los géneros incluyendo algunos que aún no han sido descritos formalmente. Para estos últimos se siguió la nomenclatura usada por Roback & Coffman (1983. Para los géneros Cricotopus y Género 1 se incluyen claves para la determinación de las morfoespecies más comunes. En el ensamblaje de quironómidos de la región altoandina domina la subfamilia Orthocladiinae (22 géneros seguida por Chironominae (13 géneros, patrón que contrasta con la dominancia de Chironominae en las zonas de menor altura de la región Neotropical. Se encontraron seis géneros pertenecientes a la subfamilia Tanypodinae, mientras que para Podonominae y Diamesinae estuvieron presentes tres y dos géneros respectivamente. Esta clave podría llegar a ser muy útil en estudios de la deriva y programas de biomonitoreo de los ríos altoandinos neotropicales.
Evaluation of a commercial Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis formulation for the control of chironomid midge larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in establishing rice crops in south-eastern Australia.
Stevens, Mark M; Hughes, Peter A; Mo, Jianhua
A commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (B.t.i.) was evaluated for its potential to control chironomid midge larvae in newly sown rice crops in south-eastern Australia. Two replicated small-plot field trials were conducted using product application rates of 0.5-6 kg/ha. In trial 1 application rates between 2 and 6 kg product/ha all significantly (Plarvae to species level from selected samples indicated that populations of Chironomus tepperi, the principal pest species that attacks the roots of rice seedlings, were reduced at all application rates; elimination of C. tepperi was achieved in trial 1 at an application rate of 2 kg/ha. Consistent with other studies, non-target Tanypodinae were not adversely affected by B.t.i., and in some treatments populations of Tanypodinae exceeded control levels by up to 73%. In the first trial, which was conducted under relatively high pest pressure, plant establishment was significantly (Plarvae in establishing rice crops where members of the Chironominae, the group most susceptible to B.t.i., are the principal species of concern. The high specificity of B.t.i. for nematoceran Diptera should lead to reduced impacts on non-target organisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mogren, Christina L.; Webb, Samuel M.; Walton, William E.; Trumble, John T.
The distribution and speciation of arsenic (As) were analyzed in individuals of various life stages of a midge, Chironomus riparius, and the mosquito Culex tarsalis exposed to 1000 μg/l arsenate. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that C. riparius larvae accumulate As in their midgut, with inorganic arsenate [As(V)] being the predominant form, followed by arsenite [As(III)] and an As-thiol. Reduced concentrations of As in pupal and adult stages of C. riparius indicate excretion of As between the larval and pupal stages. In adults, As was limited to the thorax, and the predominant form was an As-thiol. In Cx. tarsalis, As was not found in high enough concentrations to determine As speciation, but the element was distributed throughout the larva. In adults, As was concentrated in the thorax and eyes of adults. These results have implications for understanding the biotransformation of As and its movement from aquatic to terrestrial environments. -- Highlights: •C. riparius larvae reduced arsenate to arsenite in the midgut. •C. riparius larvae accumulated As in the midgut, with 27% as a transformed As-thiol. •C. riparius adults retained As in the thorax, with 53% as As-thiol. •Larvae of Cx. tarsalis did not have a specific site of As accumulation. •Low concentrations of As in adults suggest reduced terrestrial transfer potential. -- Arsenic accumulation and biotransformation in aquatic insects is variable, but the location and speciation of As provides insight into the detoxification mechanisms of aquatic Diptera
Análise da dieta das larvas de 4º estádio de Cricotopus sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae, em diferentes substratos artificiais e fases hídricas, no trecho superior do rio Paraná = Diet analysis of Cricotopus sp. larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae, fourth stage, in different artificial substrates and hydrological phases, in the upper Paraná river
Adriana Felix dos Anjos
Full Text Available No Brasil, estudos sobre hábitos alimentares das larvas de Chironomidae ainda são escassos e estas informações são importantes para entender a estrutura trófica e a organização dos ecossistemas aquáticos. Neste estudo, teve-se como objetivo identificar osprincipais itens alimentares ingeridos por Cricotopus sp. e comparar as possíveis diferenças na dieta das larvas em diferentes substratos artificiais e fases hídricas. Foram utilizados quatro tipos de substratos artificiais: madeira em forma de X (MADX, placas de nitacetal em forma de X (NITX, PVC em forma de tubo (PVCT e metal galvanizado em forma de tubo (METT, cada um com três réplicas. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, entre os meses de agosto de 2004 e dezembro de 2005. A dieta de Cricotopus sp. foi constituída por detritos, algas e hifas de fungos. Detrito foi o principal item alimentar, com valores superiores a 50% do total consumido. Os resultados indicaram que Cricotopus sp. é uma espécie coletora e, independentemente do substrato, as larvas alimentam-se dos recursos disponíveis no ambiente. Entretanto, mudanças no regime hidrológico do rio Paraná podem influenciar a disponibilidade de alimento, principalmente algumas diatomaceas como Melosira sp., consumidas em maior quantidade apenas na fase de águas baixas.In Brazil, studies on the diet of Chironomidae larvae are still scarce and these data are important to understand the trophic structure and organization of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we identified the main food items consumed by Cricotopus sp. and compared possible differences in the larval diet at different artificial substrates and hydrological phases. We used four types of artificial substrates: X-shaped wood (MADX; X-shaped nitacetal plates (NITX; tube-shaped PVC (PVCT and tube-shaped galvanizedmetal (METT, each with three replicates. Samplings were undertaken fortnightly, between August 2004 and December 2005. Cricotopus sp. diet was
José de Sousa e Silva Junior
Full Text Available The paper contextualizes the creation of the Goeldi Museum Zoobotanical Park, in Belém, State of Pará, in 1895, considered the oldest zoo in Brazil. It features two rare historical sources on the Park, a 1897 article by the German zoologist Hermann Meerwarth (1870-1943, Scientific Assistant of Zoology and Inspector of the Goeldi Museum's Zoo between August 1895 and April 1899; and a 1901 book of the Swiss zoologist Gottfried Hagmann (1874-1946, who held the same positions between November 1899 and mid 1904. Both texts are technical reports originally published in German, were translated into Portuguese and updated in a taxonomic viewpoint. They allow not only studies on the Goeldi Museum Zoobotanical Park, as well as about zoos in general, and specific readings in the areas of history of science, environmental history, museology, architecture, environmental education and science communication.
Larvas de Chironomidae arvas (Diptera da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná: distribuição e composição em diferentes ambientes e períodos hidrológicos = Chironomidae larvae (Diptera from the upper Paraná river floodplain: distribution and composition in different environments and hydrological periods
Gisele Cristina Rosin
Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivos, identificar possíveis diferenças na estrutura da comunidade de larvas de Chironomidae em quatro ambientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná com diferentes características e analisar a influência dos fatores abióticos e das variações do nível hidrométrico sobre a comunidade. As coletas foram realizadas em março e setembro de 2003. Em cada um dos 12 pontos coletados foram realizadas quatro amostragens: três para análise biológica e uma para análise sedimentológica. O material biológico foi lavado em conjunto de peneiras com malhas de abertura 2, 1 e 0,2 mm e fixado em álcool 70%. As larvas de Chironomidae foram identificadas até a categoria de gênero. Foram encontradas 1478larvas de Chironomidae pertencentes a 19 gêneros. Polypedilum, Tanytarsus e Chironomus foram registrados em todos os ambientes. As maiores densidades e diversidade de Chironomidae foram registradas nos períodos de águas baixas, especialmente em ambientes lênticos. Avariação da densidade, dominância e diversidade de Chironomidae entre as duas coletas foi influenciada, principalmente, pelo ciclo hidrológico e pelo oxigênio dissolvido, enquanto que a variação espacial esteve associada ao tipo de sedimento, porcentagem de matéria orgânica e a presença ou ausência de macrófitas aquáticas.The present study had the aim to identify possible differences in the community structure of Chironomidae larvae in four different environments of the upper Paraná river floodplain with different characteristics and to analyze the influence of abiotic factors and variations in the hydrometric level of the community. Samplings were carried out in March and September, 2003. Four samplings were taken from each of the 12 collecting points: three for biological analysis and one for sediment analysis. Biological contents were washed with the aid of a system with 2.0; 1.0 and 0.2 mm sieves. Chironomidae larvae were
da Silva, Timóteo Monteiro; Dos Santos, Juliana Corrêa; Ferreira, Victor Amazonas Viegas; Ramos, Lorran Alves da Cruz; Wosiacki, Wolmar Benjamin; de Sousa, Marcos Paulo Alves
This dataset contains information on the occurrence of Neotropical fishes (Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, Sarcopterygii) collected in South America, mostly from the Brazilian Amazon. The ichthyology collections of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG: http://www.museu-goeldi.br/) include specimens collected between 1900 and 2014. The dataset is now available for public consultation on the Global Biodiversity Information Facility portal (http://www.gbif.org/dataset/b0059a3a-5cab-4a08-8d14-d92c23378e43), and through Sistema de Informação sobre a Biodiversidade Brasileira (http://gbif.sibbr.gov.br/explorador/pt/recurso/62).
A survey of the aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata was conducted in selected Kenyan and Ugandan lakes, and emerging chironomid adults were collected from samples of Hydrilla and seven other aquatic macrophytes. Hydrilla was absent from Lake Victoria, in sites where it previously occurred. Hydrilla was found in four of ...
Maiduguri, Nigeria, were studied between January and June 2002. Dipteran samples were collected every 2 weeks from five different stations. Five groups of diptera organisms simulidae, chironomidae, centrapogo nidae, culicidae and chaoboridae were found in analyzable numbers. The diptera assemblage was ...
Larval gut pH profile in pestiferous .i.Chironomus crassicaudatus./i. and .i.Glyptotendipes paripes./i. (Chironomidae: Diptera) in reference to the toxicity potential of .i.Bacillus thuringiensis./i. serovar .i.israelensis./i
Frouz, Jan; Lobinske, R.J.; Yaqub, A.; Ali, A.
Roč. 23, č. 3 (2007), s. 355-358 ISSN 8756-971X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : chironomidae larvae * gut pH * Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2007
Gisele dos Santos Morais
Full Text Available Phenanthrene, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, remains adsorbed to sedimentary particles in aquatic environments. It affects mainly benthic organisms, and is considered potentially genotoxic. In ecotoxicology, species of Chironomus Meigen, 1803 are widely known as bioindicators of the effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. This study investigates the effects of phenanthrene on the size of the head capsule of Chironomus sancticaroli Strixino & Strixino, 1981 larvae after chronic (eight days exposure, and DNA damage after acute (96 hours and chronic exposure (eight days, under laboratory conditions. DNA damage, evaluated using the alkaline comet assay, detected effects for both exposure periods, indicating that phenanthrene is toxic for C. sancticaroli. For the acute exposure, we analyzed five concentrations of phenanthrene, between 0.16 mg.l-1 and 1.60 mg.l-1, detecting significant differences (Kruskall-Wallis test with p < 0.05 in the degree of DNA damage in all groups. These effects were not dose-dependent. For the chronic exposure, two concentrations (0.16 mg.l-1, 0.83 mg.l-1 were analyzed, and DNA damage was observed in both. Again, the effects were not dose-dependent. This indicates that phenanthrene is genotoxic to larvae of C. sancticaroli even at low concentrations. The size of the head capsule was evaluated after chronic exposure to concentrations of 0.16 mg.l-1 and 0.83 mg.l-1. Significant differences (ANOVA test with p < 0.05 were detected in the two concentrations, and a reduction in the size of the larval head capsule was observed. This suggests that phenanthrene causes delay in larval development. These results indicate that phenanthrene affects the development of and causes DNA damage in C. sancticaroli larvae. Therefore, we suggest that C. sancticaroli can be used as a biological indicator for environmental contamination with phenanthrene.
Dantas, Galileu P.S.; Hamada, Neusa; Mendes, Humberto F.
Abstract A new species of Denopelopia from Brazil is described based on adult male and pupa. The male of the new species can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the genitalia and fore-tibial spur morphology. The pupa is very similar to those of Denopelopia atria, but it can be distinguished by the absence of distinct constrictions in the respiratory atrium of the thoracic horn. Generic diagnosis to male and pupa of Denopelopia is emended and keys to male and pupae of known species are provided. PMID:26877674
Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of Chironomidae were detected emerging in the Crimea during the period from December 2010 to March 2013. Twenty-three are Orthocladiinae and 4 are Chironominae (one Chironomini and three Tanytarsini species. Nine species are recorded for the first time in Crimea. At the genus-level the hibernal emergence in Crimea shows resemblance to the patterns reported for streams in Kansas.
Richardi, Vinicius Sobrinho
Resumo: Imaturos de Chironomidae são considerados bioindicadores de qualidade de sedimentos em ecossistemas aquáticos. A utilização de biomarcadores histopatológicos para compreender os efeitos de xenobióticos nestes organismos pode nos fornecer indícios da qualidade ambiental, porém não existem descrições histológicas recentes do grupo, o que enfatiza também a necessidade de estudos histológicos. O objetivo do trabalho foi descrever a histologia da larva de Chironomus sancticaroli e avaliar ...
Análise da dieta das larvas de 4º estádio de Cricotopus sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae, em diferentes substratos artificiais e fases hídricas, no trecho superior do rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.3522 Diet analysis of Cricotopus sp. larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae, fourth stage, in different artificial substrates and hydrological phases, in the upper Paraná river - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.3522
Alice Michiyo Takeda
Full Text Available No Brasil, estudos sobre hábitos alimentares das larvas de Chironomidae ainda são escassos e estas informações são importantes para entender a estrutura trófica e a organização dos ecossistemas aquáticos. Neste estudo, teve-se como objetivo identificar os principais itens alimentares ingeridos por Cricotopus sp. e comparar as possíveis diferenças na dieta das larvas em diferentes substratos artificiais e fases hídricas. Foram utilizados quatro tipos de substratos artificiais: madeira em forma de X (MADX, placas de nitacetal em forma de X (NITX, PVC em forma de tubo (PVCT e metal galvanizado em forma de tubo (METT, cada um com três réplicas. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, entre os meses de agosto de 2004 e dezembro de 2005. A dieta de Cricotopus sp. foi constituída por detritos, algas e hifas de fungos. Detrito foi o principal item alimentar, com valores superiores a 50% do total consumido. Os resultados indicaram que Cricotopus sp. é uma espécie coletora e, independentemente do substrato, as larvas alimentam-se dos recursos disponíveis no ambiente. Entretanto, mudanças no regime hidrológico do rio Paraná podem influenciar a disponibilidade de alimento, principalmente algumas diatomaceas como Melosira sp., consumidas em maior quantidade apenas na fase de águas baixasIn Brazil, studies on the diet of Chironomidae larvae are still scarce and these data are important to understand the trophic structure and organization of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we identified the main food items consumed by Cricotopus sp. and compared possible differences in the larval diet at different artificial substrates and hydrological phases. We used four types of artificial substrates: X-shaped wood (MADX; X-shaped nitacetal plates (NITX; tube-shaped PVC (PVCT and tube-shaped galvanized metal (METT, each with three replicates. Samplings were undertaken fortnightly, between August 2004 and December 2005. Cricotopus sp. diet was
Full Text Available Shores of lentic waters are poorly studied as habitats of Chironomidae. We investigated floating shore marsh surrounding the lakes Bol’shoe Rakovoe (Äyräpäänjärvi or Eteläjärvi and Okhotnich’e (Muolaanlampi, shallow mesotrophic wetlands in the Karelian Isthmus. Our research aimed to identify species structure of immature chironomid assemblages in this peculiar habitat and to provide their quantitative assessment. Five sites of the water margin zone (a 20-m part of floating marsh adjoining the lake littoral were studied using two techniques, quantitative samples taken with a grab-net and laboratory rearings of adults from substrata. Thirty-two samples were taken in July and October; 2970 emerging chironomid adults were identified. Nineteen species were found, 3 of Tanypodinae, 10 of Orthocladiinae and 6 of Chironominae. Tavastia yggdrasilia, Thienemanniella minuscula and Polypedilum trigonus are first recorded from Russia, and 8 more species, from NW Russia. Orthocladiinae accounted for over 99% emerging adults, with 3 species predominant and numerous on all sites, Paraphaenocladius impensus, Limnophyes minimus and L. natalensis. Species structure is discussed and compared with the data on similar habitats. Chironomid larvae were most numerous macroinvertebrates. Mean abundance of chironomid immatures varied from 1246 to 32060 ind./m2, mean biomass, 0.104 to 3.591 g(wet weight/m2, depending on site and season. In July, Chironomidae comprised 3-15% of Diptera biomass and 1-5% of macroinvertebrates biomass; in October, 13-49% and 7-20%, respectively.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1410.Published online: 17 October 2012.
Full Text Available O texto apresenta três contribuições do zoólogo suíço Emílio Augusto Goeldi (1859-1917 à arqueologia e etnologia amazônica, publicadas em alemão entre 1900 e 1906, quando era diretor do Museu Paraense, em Belém (PA, Brasil. A primeira é um artigo de divulgação científica sobre a descoberta da cerâmica Cunani, ocorrida em 1895, no norte do Amapá, Brasil. A segunda expõe os achados arqueológicos do Museu Paraense na foz do Amazonas, área identificada como prioritária para pesquisas do gênero, incluindo as cerâmicas encontradas em Maracá (AP e na ilha de Marajó (PA, e as estatuetas líticas originárias do Baixo Amazonas. A terceira descreve o uso dos machados de pedra pelos índios Baikiri. As três contribuições comprovam o interesse de Goeldi pelo estudo da cultura material e pela compilação de dados que permitissem um melhor arranjo dos troncos etnolinguísticos indígenas, fazendo a junção, de maneira bastante habilidosa, dos recursos intelectuais proporcionados, na época, pela etnologia, pela arqueologia e pela linguística.
Villa, Sara; Di Nica, Valeria; Pescatore, Tanita; Bellamoli, Francesco; Miari, Francesco; Finizio, Antonio; Lencioni, Valeria
Several studies have indicated the presence of contaminants in Alpine aquatic ecosystems. Even if measured concentrations are far below those that cause acute effects, continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations may have detrimental effects on the aquatic species present in these remote environments. This may lead to a cascade of indirect effects at higher levels of the ecological hierarchy (i.e., the community). To improve the determination of ecologically relevant risk endpoints, behavioural alterations in organisms due to pollutants are increasingly studied in ecotoxicology. In fact, behaviour links physiological function with ecological processes, and can be very sensitive to environmental stimuli and chemical exposure. This is the first study on behavioural alteration in a wild population of an Alpine species. In the present study, a video tracking system was standardized and subsequently used to identify contaminant-induced behavioural alterations in Diamesa zernyi larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae). Diamesa zernyi larvae, collected in an Italian Alpine stream (Rio Presena, Trentino Region), were acclimated for 24 h and successively exposed to several aquatic contaminants (pesticides: chlorpyrifos, metolachlor, boscalid, captan; pharmaceuticals: ibuprofen, furosemide, trimethoprim) at concentrations corresponding to their Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC). After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, changes in the distance moved, the average speed, and the frequency of body bends were taken to reflect contaminant- and time-dependent effects on larval behaviour. In general, metolachlor, captan, and trimethoprim tended to reduce all the endpoints under consideration, whereas chlorpyrifos, boscalid, ibuprofen, and furosemide seemed to increase the distances moved by the larvae. This could be related to the different mechanisms of action of the investigated chemicals. Independently of the contaminant, after 72 h a general slowing down of all the
Jun 1, 2016 ... [Sarswat M., Dewan S. and Fartyal R. S. 2016 Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Drosophilid species (Diptera: Drosophilidae) along altitudinal gradient from central Himalayan region of India. ... 2500 species belonging to 55 genera in this family (Wheeler. 1981) with two subfamilies, Steganinae and ...
Jun 1, 2016 ... biological research. Drosophilidae is a large family of acalyptrate diptera with worldwide distribution. The first catalogue listed more than. 2500 species ... Although researchers in this region have documented several novel ..... distance estimates than most other methods when the rates of transitional and ...
Jan 31, 2012 ... This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Changes in physiology of the nervous system and metabolism can be detected through the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha esterase (EST-a and beta esterase (EST-ß in chironomids exposed to pollutants. However, to understand the real effect of xenobiotics on organisms, it is important to investigate how certain factors can interfere with enzyme activity. We investigated the effects of different temperatures, food stress and two steps of the enzymatic protocol on the activity of AChE, EST-a and EST-ß in Chironomus sancticaroli. In experiment of thermal stress individuals from the egg stage to the fourth larval instar were exposed to different temperatures (20, 25 and 30 °C. In food stress experiment, larvae were reared until IV instar in a standard setting (25 °C and 0.9 g weekly ration, but from fourth instar on they were divided into groups and offered different feeding regimes (24, 48 and 72 h with/without food. In sample freezing experiment, a group of samples was processed immediately after homogenization and another after freezing for 30 days. To test the effect of centrifugation on samples, enzyme activity was quantified from centrifuged and non-centrifuged samples. The activity of each enzyme reached an optimum at a different temperature. The absence of food triggered different changes in enzyme activity depending on the period of starvation. Freezing and centrifugation of the samples significantly reduced the activity of three enzymes. Based on these results we conclude that the four factors studied had an influence on AChE, EST-a and EST-ß and this influence should be considered in ecotoxicological approaches.
Full Text Available Chironomid adults attracted to the light were collected at Dangsan-ri, Muju-eup, Muju-gun, Jeollabuk-do in 2008-2009. Two new species, Lymnophyes parakitanaides sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella mujuensis sp. nov., and four unrecorded species, Cardiolcladius capusinus, Thienemanniella vittata, Conchapelopia pallidula, and Nilotanypus dubius were found and are described with illustrations. The genera Thienemanniella and Nilotanypus have not been previously reported in Korea. The genus Thienemanniella which belongs to Orthocladiinae is characterized by the radial sector retracted and apically fused with the costa, and the genus Nilotanypus which belongs to Tanypodinae is characterized by the absence of R2+3, pubescent eyes and lack of the gonocoxal lobes.
Khodyrev, V P
Natural factors regulating the population of chironomids were studied. The bacteria Bacillus cereus were isolated from chironomids sampled from Kuyalnitskii Firth after epizooty of Chironomus sp., and bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis (Bti) were isolated from dead larva of Chironomus plumosus sampled in the Sea of Azov (3-m depth). Bti were characterized by high insecticide activity on midges Anopheles messeae Fall., Aedes cireneus Mg., and Culex pipiens pipiens f. pipiens L.
Steiner, J.W.; Doughman, J.S.; Moore, C.R.
Larvae of the tribe Tanytarsini occur in nearly every aquatic habitat in North America where they act as primary consumers in the food chain. This new taxonomic guide overcomes some deficiencies in existing keys to this tribe and the reviewed and updated taxonomy enables identification of the larvae that may be useful as ecological indicators. Over 2,000 specimens from 26 states were examined, identified and measured in this study. The following genera were included: Stempellinell, Zavrelia, Stempellina, Constempellina, Corynocera, Cladotanytarsus,.. Paratanytarsus, Rheotanytarsus,. Micropsectra, Lauterbornia, Nimbocera, Tanytarsus and Neozavrelia. Photographs illustrate mature larvae of these genera with the exception of Zavrelia and Neozavrelia which are not known to exist in North America. The morphological data, Which are summarized in a table of distinctive characteristics and the dichotomous key, enable identification to genus. Notes on range, habitat and food preference are included, and species identifications are presented where applicable.
Frouz, Jan; Lobinske, R.J.; Ali, A.
Roč. 43, č. 2 (2009), s. 487-500 ISSN 1386-2588 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : food availability * Glyptotendipes paripes * larval density Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2009
Jäckle, H; Schmidt, O
The molecular weights of ribosomal RNAs from eggs of 2 different insect species and of their mitochondrial rRNA were determined. By denaturating conditions, the 28 S rRNA from both insect eggs is converted to 18 S products.
Full Text Available Chironomid adults were collected by light traps at night, sweeping on grasses, during daytime hours, sweeping of swarming males with an insect net, and aspiration of light-attracted adults using a sucking tube. The collected specimens were slide-mounted and examined. I identified two species new to science, namely Orthocladius manhaei n. sp. and Ablabesmyia jeongi n. sp., and three species for the first time in Korea: Paratrichocladius tamaator Sasa, 1981, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus (Edwards, 1929 and Hayesomyia tripunctata (Goetghebuer, 1922. This is the first report of the genera Rheocricotopus and Hayesomyia in Korea. The genus Hayesomyia in the tribe Pentaneurini of Tanypodinae has a Holarctic distribution with only one species recorded from each of the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions.
Han Il Ree
Full Text Available Adult chironomids were collected by various methods, such as light traps, sweeping on grasses, aspiration of light-attracted adults, and sweeping of swarming males with insect nets at various localities. All collected specimens were slide-mounted and identified. I report eight species new to science: Chironomus jangchungensis n. sp., Demicryptochironomus paracamptolabis n. sp., Demicryptochironomus wontongensis n. sp., Microtendipes paratamagouti n. sp., Polypedilum macrohemisphere n. sp., Eukiefferiella busanensis n. sp., Psectrocladius paratogaminimus n. sp., and Pseudosmittia seosania n. sp. I also report four species for the first time in Korea: Chironomus fujiprimus Sasa, Pentapedilum convexum Johannsen, Tanytarsus smolandicus Brundin, and Tanytarsus oyamai Sasa. All species are fully described with illustrations. This is the first report of the genera Eukiefferiella and Pseudosmittia in Korea.
Sejsebaev, A.T.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Siirin, M.T.
For the first time the morphology of larvae, pupae, imago and karyotype of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. n. collected from Water-Body D-3-3 of the Degelen Mountain Massif has been described. The larvae have a species-specific structure and color of the head capsule, ventral-mental blades, and mandibula hamuli. The male gnat is characterized for grid structure in IX tergite. The karyotype of C. degelenus I Sp. n. has the following combination of chromosome arms: AB, CD, EF, and G (thummi complex), which is typical for Chironomus species. It was concluded that the origin of the new species of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. N. is related to the long-term genetic processes of Chironomini adaptation to the elevated radiation background level. (author)
Frouz, Jan; Matěna, Josef; Ali, A.
Roč. 100, - (2003), s. 459-465 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/98/P156; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911; CEZ:AV0Z6017912; CEZ:MSM 124100001 Keywords : insect ecology * midges * colonization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.741, year: 2003
Full Text Available A new species of the genus Microtendipes Kieffer, 1915, M. zhejiangensis sp.n., is described, and its morphological description and illustrations are given. A catalogue of the genus in Oriental Region is provided and a key to the males of Microtendipes in the Oriental Region is given.
Hamerlik, Ladislav; Jacobsen, Dean; Brodersen, Klaus Peter
Chironomid assemblages of 22 artificial water bodies, mainly fountains, in two South American cities were surveyed. We found surprisingly low diversities, with a total of 11 taxa, averaging two taxa per site. The typical fountain assemblages mainly consisted of common species that have a wide...... of the water bodies of Quito and Bogota differed significantly. There was no correlation between sample similarities and distances among the sites either. The low number of taxa recorded can be attributed to the combination of naturally limited species pool and the heavy pollution in natural water bodies...... distribution pattern and are tolerant to organic pollution. Also taxa independent of the natural aquatic sources, such as tap-water and semi-terrestrial species were represented. There was no significant difference between the taxa richness of the two S. American regions, however, the assemblage structures...
Jacobsen, R.E.; Perry, S.A.
We document the first record of Polypedilum nubifer in Pan-America. This eurytopic species often reaches severe nuisance population sizes in Australia, Asia, and Hawaii in warm, shallow, eutrophic waters subject to drying. A large population was discovered in newly-constructed infiltration basins and neighboring marshes along the eastern boundary of Everglades National Park. Presently, this population appears minimally invasive to Park marshes and is far removed from urban areas. However, we anticipate this species could disperse and attain nuisance population sizes in suitable urban and agricultural habitats in south Florida. (author)
Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis
Vinclozolin (Vz) is a pollutant found in aquatic environments whose antiandrogenic effects in reproduction are well known in mammals. Although its reproductive effects have been less studied in invertebrates, other effects, including genotoxicity, have been described. Therefore, in this work, we studied the genotoxic effects of Vz in the freshwater benthic invertebrate Chironomus riparius. DNA damage was evaluated with the comet assay (tail area, olive moment, tail moment and % DNA in tail), and the transcriptional levels of different genes involved in DNA repair (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) and apoptosis (DECAY) were measured by RT-PCR. Fourth instar larvae of C. riparius, were exposed to Vz for 24 h at 20 and 200 μg/L. The Vz exposures affected the DNA integrity in this organism, since a dose-response relationship occurred, with DNA strand breaks significantly increased with increased dose for tail area, olive moment and tail moment parameters. Additionally, the lower concentration of Vz produced a significant induction of the transcripts of three genes under study (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) showing the activation of the cellular repair mechanism. In contrast, the expression of these genes with the highest concentration were downregulated, indicating failure of the cellular repair mechanism, which would explain the higher DNA damage. These data report for the first time the alterations of Vz on gene transcription of an insect and confirm the potential genotoxicity of this compound on freshwater invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Three new species: Ionthosmittia cuneipenne sp. nov., Orthocladius (Euorthocladius okinawanus sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella semiovata sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyus, Japan. In addition to these species, twelve species are newly recorded from this island. Diagnostic characters of Tokyobrillia tamamegaseta (Kobayashi et Sasa are emended. Pentapedilum yakuabeum Sasa et Suzuki syn. nov. and Polypedilum yakucedeum Sasa et Suizuki syn. nov. are junior synonyms of Ainuyusurika tuberculatum (Tokunaga. Einfeldia kanazawai (Yamamoto is transferred to the genus Chironomus Meigen and its systematic position is discussed.
Full Text Available The response of 443 chironomid species to water temperature was analyzed, with the aim of defining their thermal optimum, tolerance limits and thermal habitat. The database included 4442 samples mainly from Italian river catchments collected from the 1950s up to date. Thermal preferences were calculated separately for larval and pupal specimens and for different habitats: high altitude and lowland lakes in the Alpine ecoregion; lowland lakes in the Mediterranean ecoregion; heavily modified water bodies; kryal, krenal, rhithral and potamal in running waters. Optimum response was calculated as mean water temperature, weighted by species abundances; tolerance as weighted standard deviation; skewness and kurtosis as 3rd and 4th moment statistics. The responses were fitted to normal uni- or plurimodal Gaussian models. Cold stenothermal species showed: i unimodal response, ii tolerance for a narrow temperature range, iii optima closed to their minimum temperature values, iv leptokurtic response. Thermophilous species showed: i optima at different temperature values, ii wider tolerance, iii optima near their maximum temperature values, iv platikurtic response, often fitting a plurimodal model. As expected, lower optima values and narrower tolerance were obtained for kryal and krenal, than for rhithral, potamal and lakes. Thermal response curves were produced for each species and were discussed according to species distribution (i.e. altitudinal range in running water and water depth in lakes, voltinism and phylogeny. Thermal optimum and tolerance limits and the definition of the thermal habitat of species can help predicting the impact of global warming on freshwater ecosystems.
Hirabayashi, Kimio; Nagai, Yoshinari; Mushya, Tetsuya; Higashino, Makoto; Taniguchi, Yoshio
A study on the attraction of adult Propsilocerus akamusi midges to different-colored light traps was carried out from October 21 to November 15, 2013. The 6 colored lights used in light-emitting diode (LED) lamps were white, green, red, blue, amber, and ultraviolet (UV). The UV lamp attracted the most P. akamusi, followed by green, white, blue, amber, and red. A white pulsed LED light attracted only half the number of midges as did a continuous-emission white LED light. The result indicated that manipulation of light color, considering that the red LED light and/or pulsed LED light are not as attractive as the other colors, may be appropriate for the development of an overall integrated strategy to control nuisance P. akamusi in the Lake Suwa area.
Full Text Available Ten species of non-biting midges belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae were found in samples from predominantly madicolous habitats in Mallorca, Spain. One species, Bryophaenocladius nidorum (Edwards, 1929, has not previously been recorded from Spain, while Smittia pratorum (Goetghebuer, 1927, Bryophaenocladius inconstans (Brundin, 1947, Orthocladius (O. maius Goetghebuer, 1942, Paracladius conversus (Walker, 1856 and Paraphaenocladius impensus (Walker, 1856 are recorded for the first time from the Balearic Islands.
Michailova, P.; Petrova, N.; Ilkova, J.; Bovero, S.; Brunetti, S.; White, K.; Sella, G.
The genotoxic action of copper (Cu) on the polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius was investigated by analysing structural and functional chromosome aberrations of fourth instars larvae hatched from eggs subject to acute (48 h) exposure with three environmentally relevant concentrations of aqueous Cu (0.005, 0.01, 0.05 mg/l). A dose dependent relationship was observed between Cu concentration and frequency of chromosomal aberrations. A significantly higher frequency of functional alterations, specifically decondensed centromeres and telomeres, and reduction in activity of Balbiani rings, was observed in treated material compared to control. A comparison of breakpoints resulting from treatment with chromium and lead from earlier studies with those Cu-induced identified a series of chromosomal weak points particularly vulnerable to trace metals. We also show that the appearance of structural and functional chromosome aberrations are more sensitive indicators of acute Cu toxicity in chironomid larvae than changes in external morphology. - Acute exposure of Chironomus eggs to copper resulted in changes in chromosome structure and function
Pinho, Luiz Carlos; Andersen, Trond
A new species of Limnophyes Eaton collected in the Corvo Branco Mountains in Santa Catarina State is described and figured, based on male and female adults, larva and pupa. The species groups with L. griseata (Edwards) and L. bidumus Sæther as the adults have a pronounced humeral pit with lanceolate setae and an additional group of lanceolate setae just posterior to antepronotum. The adults are, however, distinctly smaller, have a lower AR and have more lanceolate setae in the group just posterior to antepronotum than the two other species. The pupa can easily be separated from the pupa of L. bidumus as the anal macroseta is longer than the anal lobe. The larva lives hygropetric on vertical rock surfaces. A key to male adults of Neotropical Limnophyes is given.
Ciborowski, J. J. H.; Whelly, M. P.; Leonhardt, C.; Laing, D. [Windsor Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, ON (Canada)
Thirty-three wetlands northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta, ten of which are receiving oil sands mine process-affected water (OSPW), have been examined to assess their biological integrity. Physico-chemical and environmental attributes were measured, sediment, zoobenthic, plankton and chlorophyll samples were analyzed. Results of principal component analysis indicated that the wetlands could be categorized into three classes on the basis of three independent combinations of environmental features, namely pH/size/dissolved oxygen; conductivity; and sediment composition. Cluster analysis identified four groups of wetlands. High conductivity wetlands were found to support greater density but reduced richness of benthic population, irrespective of the presence of OSPW. To evaluate OSPW wetland ability to support and maintain benthic populations chironomid larval morphology, density, adult emergence, flight activity, egg-laying behaviour and the ability of eggs to hatch in OSPW were monitored. Results indicated no inhibition of adult chironomid flight activity, egg-laying or hatching by OSPW, although there was some evidence of OSPW reducing chironomid density, diversity and secondary production.
Organic pollution and nutrients loading were the main factors explaining the differences in spatial distribution. Some taxa, e.g. Chironomus gr. plumosus and Microchironomus sp. are positively correlated to those factors, while others as Tanytarsini, Nilodosis sp., Micropelopinae and Procladius sp. are negatively correlated.
Mar 19, 2014 ... Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira1*, José Bruno Malaquias2, Wennia Rafaelly de Souza Figueiredo3,. Jacinto de Luna Batista4, Eduardo Barbosa Beserra1 and Robério de Oliveira4. 1Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB), campus I/Campina Grande, Bodocongó, Paraíba, ...
Matthews-Bird, F.; Gosling, W. D.; Brooks, S. J.; Montoya, E.; Coe, A. L.
Chironomidae (non-biting midges) is a family of two-winged aquatic insects of the order Diptera. They are globally distributed and one of the most diverse families within aquatic ecosystems. The insects are stenotopic, and the rapid turnover of species and their ability to colonise quickly favourable habitats means chironomids are extremely sensitive to environmental change, notably temperature. Through the development of quantitative temperature inference models chironomids have become important palaeoecological tools. Proxies capable of generating independent estimates of past climate are crucial to disentangling climate signals and ecosystem response in the palaeoecological record. This project has developed the first modern environmental calibration data set in order to use chironomids from the Tropical Andes as quantitative climate proxies. Using surface sediments from c. 60 lakes from Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador we have developed an inference model capable of reconstructing temperatures, with a prediction error of 1-2°C, from fossil assemblages. Here we present the first Lateglacial and Holocene chironomid-inferred temperature reconstructions from two sites in the tropical Andes. The first record, from a high elevation (4153 m asl) lake in the Bolivian Andes, shows persistently cool temperatures for the past 15 kyr, punctuated by warm episodes in the early Holocene (9-10 kyr BP). The chironomid-inferred Holocene temperature trends from a lake sediment record on the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador (1248 m asl) spanning the last 5 millennia are synchronous with temperature changes in the NGRIP ice core record. The temperature estimates suggest along the eastern flank of the Andes, at lower latitudes (~1°S), climate closely resemble the well-established fluctuations of the Northern Hemisphere for this time period. Late-glacial climate fluctuations across South America are still disputed with some palaeoecological records suggesting evidence for Younger Dryas
Gisele Daiane Pinha
Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Gradients of environmental heterogeneity perform a strong influence on the distribution of organisms and determine differences in composition, where more physically complex habitats harbor greater species richness than those simpler. We took as assumptions that differences in environmental requirements of taxa promote distinct distribution patterns which are carried through to community nestedness. Therefore, we hypothesized that more heterogeneous sites hold more nested, richer and abundant communities than those less heterogeneous ones. Methods We analyzed Chironomidae occurrence of 29 floodplain lakes, through one-year-surveys. Analyses of variance were performed to test differences among data. To test our hypothesis, we calculated correlations between the gradients of environmental heterogeneity and Chironomidae metacommunity. Results Highest values in all Chironomidae attributes were recorded in general to the floodplain lakes from Paraná System, mainly in September. Positive correlation between all Chironomidae attributes (i.e, richness, density, Biodiversity score and NODF index both with PCA scores and variation coefficient values supported our initial hypothesis about the importance of environmental heterogeneity in metacommunity assembly. Conclusions We have demonstrated how differences in environmental heterogeneity promote the nestedness in floodplain lakes and the importance of more heterogeneous places in supporting richer and more abundant communities in species. Such results contribute to future studies on composition and richness of Chironomidae community in other kind of environments. Nested distribution suggests that, despite the existence of floodplain lakes including most of the Chironomidae richness, considering the dispersal ability of species and environmental requirements, there is a strong interaction between all environments of the area. Therefore, areas that have locations with different patterns of
This paper presents the first results on the quality of the River Niger at Niamey based on the Chironomidae infestation of its water. Two sampling methods were used for collecting the chironomid larvae and included use of hand net of 500 >m mesh-size and artificial substrata of stones covered with galvanized wire netting.
Rosa, Beatriz Jabour Figueiraujo Vescovi; Rodrigues, Luciana Falci Theza; de Oliveira, Gilmar Simões; da Gama Alves, Roberto
Considering the importance of benthic macroinvertebrates for diagnosis of variations in the ecological conditions of aquatic habitats, the aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages along an organic pollution gradient. The fauna specimens were obtained with the use of artificial substrates, and the environmental variables were recorded at five sites of the São Lourenço River, during 12 months. Metrics of the assemblage and detrended correspondence analysis were used to verify the response of the fauna to the pollution gradient. Procrustes analysis was used to verify whether the data on the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages, as well as the taxonomic and numerical resolution of these groups, provide similar results in relation to the pollution gradient. The richness, evenness, and taxonomic composition of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages varied significantly among the collection sites, with distinct conservation conditions. Genera of the subfamilies Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae were associated with the sites upstream of the urban area, where the dissolved oxygen levels are higher. Species of Oligochaeta and the genus Chironomus were associated with more organically polluted sites. No concordance was observed in the response of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages in relation to the environmental variables, indicating the need to use both groups in biomonitoring studies. On the other hand, both the data on composition (presence or absence) and those on the lowest taxonomic resolution (abundance of subfamilies) were effective to diagnose the pollution gradient in the river studied. Therefore, when the environmental conditions along a river's gradient are contrasting, we suggest the use of the lowest taxonomic resolution of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta in biomonitoring. That procedure considerably reduces the assessment time, besides being a method that can be used by people not
Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B
Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.
Butakka, C M M; Ragonha, F H; Train, S; Pinha, G D; Takeda, A M
Ecological studies on food webs have considerably increased in recent decades, especially in aquatic communities. Because Chironomidae family are highly specious, occurring in almost all aquatic habitats is considered organisms-key to initiate studies on ecological relationships and trophic webs. We tested the hypothesis that the diversity of the morphospecies diet reflects differences on both the food items available among habitats and the preferences of larval feeding. We analyzed the gut content of the seven most abundant Chironomidae morphospecies of the different habitats from the Upper Paraná River. We categorized the food items found into algae, fungal spores, fragments of plants, algae and animal fragments and sponge spicules. We observed the algae predominance in the gut content of morphospecies from lakes. Considering the different regions from each lake, we registered the highest food abundance in the littoral regions in relation to the central regions. From the variety of feeding habits (number of item kinds), we classified Chironomus strenzkei, Tanytarsus sp.1, Procladius sp.1 as generalist morphospecies. We found a nested pattern between food items and Chironomidae morphospecies, where some items were common to all taxa (e.g., Bacillariophyceae algae, especially), while others were found in specific morphospecies (e.g., animals fragments found in Procladius sp.1). The algae represented the most percentage of gut contents of Chironomidae larvae. This was especially true for the individuals from littoral regions, which is probably due to the major densities of algae associated to macrophytes, which are abundant in these regions. Therefore, the feeding behavior of these morphospecies was generalist and not selective, depending only of the available resources.
Paleoecología: el uso de los quironómidos fósiles (Diptera: Chironomidae en reconstrucciones paleoambientales durante el Cuaternario en la Patagonia Paleoecology: the use of fossil chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in Patagonia
Full Text Available Entre los indicadores biológicos lacustres más utilizados en las reconstrucciones ambientales, se encuentran el polen, los ostrácodos y las diatomeas, y entre los insectos, los coleópteros y los quironómidos. Este grupo ha cobrado gran importancia en los últimos tiempos, debido a los resultados prometedores que se han obtenido en reconstrucciones climáticas realizadas en América del Norte y Europa. En América del Sur, el uso de los quironómidos fósiles en estudios cuaternarios es relativamente limitado, principalmente por su escaso conocimiento taxonómico regional. La mayor parte de estos estudios fueron realizados en lagos glaciares patagónicos de Argentina y Chile. Las larvas de quironómidos constituyen una valiosa herramienta paleolimnológica, por ser un grupo de organismos altamente sensible a cambios ambientales, tanto naturales como artificiales. Además, es un grupo de insectos ampliamente distribuido y con una abundancia y diversidad relativamente altas. Sus cápsulas cefálicas se preservan en los sedimentos lacustres y poseen caracteres importantes que permiten identificar géneros y muchas veces especies. El estudio de los ensambles de quironómidos en sedimentos lacustres puede ser utilizado con distintos objetivos, por ejemplo, para estudios de eutrofización, ya que responden rápidamente a cambios en la concentración de nutrientes, materia orgánica y otros elementos, como metales pesados. No obstante, uno de los potenciales más importantes de este grupo de insectos es su sensibilidad a los cambios de temperatura, por este motivo, la aplicación más importante de su estudio en sedimentos se centra en las reconstrucciones climáticas. Esta contribución es una síntesis de los resultados de los trabajos publicados en la Patagonia argentina y chilena, sobre la base del uso de los quironómidos fósiles en reconstrucciones paleoambientales.Pollen, ostracods, diatoms and insects such as beetles and chironomids are the biological indicators from lake sediments more useful in environmental reconstructions. Chironomids have recently acquired great importance due to the promising results obtained regarding climatic reconstructions mainly in Europe and North America. In South America, the use of fossil chironomids in Quaternary studies is still limited and the reason for that is the little regional taxonomic knowledge. Most of these studies were developed in glacial lakes in Patagonia both in Argentina and Chile. The larvae of chironomids are an invaluable paleolimnological tool due to the sensitiveness of these insects to natural and non-natural environmental changes. In addition to that, this group of insects is widely distributed with a high abundance and diversity. Their head capsules can preserve in sediments holding characters which allow their generic and sometimes specific identification. The study of chironomid assemblages can be used with different goals, for instance, to study eutrofication due to their quick response to changes in organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals. However, one of the most significant potentials of this group is its sensitivity to temperature variations, which is why the most important implementation of their study in sediments is centered in climatic reconstructions. This article is a review of the studies developed in Argentinean and Chilean Patagonia, using fossil chironomids for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.
Stefani, F; Rusconi, M; Valsecchi, S; Marziali, L
A multigeneration toxicity test on Chironomus riparius was performed with the aim of investigating the evolutionary consequences of exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; perfluorobutane sulfonate, PFBS). Six-hundred larvae were bred per treatment and per generation until emergence and egg deposition under a nominal concentration of 10μg/L of contaminants. Newborn larvae were used to start the next generation. Evolution of genetic variability was evaluated along a total of 10 consecutive generations based on 5 microsatellite loci. Analysis of life-history traits (survival, sex ratio and reproduction) was also carried out. Rapid genetic variability reduction was observed in all treatments, including controls, across generations due to the test conditions. Nevertheless, an increased mutation rate determined a stronger conservation of genetic variability in PFOS and, at minor extent, in PFBS exposed populations compared to controls. No significant effects were induced by exposure to PFOA. Direct mutagenicity or induced stress conditions may be at the base of increased mutation rate, indicating the potential risk of mutational load caused by exposure to PFOS and PFBS. The test provided the opportunity to evaluate the use of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) and coalescent approaches in evolutionary ecotoxicology. A weak performance was evidenced for ABC, either in terms of bias or dispersion of effective population sizes and of estimates of mutation rate. On the contrary, coalescent simulations proved the sensitivity of traditional genetic endpoints (i.e. heterozygosity and number of alleles) to the alteration of mutation rate, but not to erosion of genetic effective size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The adults and pupa of a new species, Rheocricotopus rarispina are described from the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India. The species is distinguished by the few spines on the thoracic horn, anal lobe without fringe and bristle-like L setae and presence of ovoid humeral pit, nine squamal setae, structure of anal point and triangular and subterminal crista dorsalis in the adult male. With this new species, the number of Indian species of the genus rises to six.
Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Pedersen, Ole; Walker, Ian R.
1. The specific respiration rate of 13 chironomid taxa and Chaoborus were measured to test the hypothesis of the relation between a species' ability to regulate their oxygen uptake and their distributional patterns among nine study lakes in British Columbia, Canada. 2. Respiration patterns of ind...
Paul, N; Hazra, N; Mazumdar, A
The pupa and the male imago of Paramerina valida n. sp. and the larva of Paramerina inficia Chaudhuri & Debnath are described and illustrated along with a brief re-description of the adult of P. inficia from the Eastern Himalaya and Satpura hill regions of India. A key to the adult males of the Indian species of the genus Paramerina Fittkau is provided. The notes on ecology of the two species are also provided.
Bimalendu B. Nath
Full Text Available All living cells respond to temperature stress through coordinated cellular, biochemical and molecular events known as “heat shock response” and its genetic basis has been found to be evolutionarily conserved. Despite marked advances in stress research, this ubiquitous heat shock response has never been analysed quantitatively at the whole organismal level using behavioural correlates. We have investigated behavioural response to heat shock in a tropical midge Chironomus ramosus Chaudhuri, Das and Sublette. The filter-feeding aquatic Chironomus larvae exhibit characteristic undulatory movement. This innate pattern of movement was taken as a behavioural parameter in the present study. We have developed a novel computer-aided image analysis tool “Chiro” for the quantification of behavioural responses to heat shock. Behavioural responses were quantified by recording the number of undulations performed by each larva per unit time at a given ambient temperature. Quantitative analysis of undulation frequency was carried out and this innate behavioural pattern was found to be modulated as a function of ambient temperature. Midge larvae are known to be bioindicators of aquatic environments. Therefore, the “Chiro” technique can be tested using other potential biomonitoring organisms obtained from natural aquatic habitats using undulatory motion as a behavioural parameter.
Park, Kiyun; Park, Jungan; Kim, Jongkyu; Kwak, Inn-Sil
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is an agricultural contaminant found in rural ground water. It remains to be determined whether neither 2,4-D poses environmental risks, nor is the mechanism of toxicity known at the molecular level. To evaluate the potential ecological risk of 2,4-D, we assessed the biological parameters including the survival rate, adult sex ratio of emerged adults, and mouthpart deformities in Chironomus riparius after long-term exposure to 2,4-D. The larvae were treated with 0.1, 1 or, 10microgL(-1) of 2,4-D for short- and long-term exposure periods. The sex ratio was changed in C. riparius exposed to only 10microgL(-1) of 2,4-D, whereas mouthpart deformities were observed as significantly higher in C. riparius exposed to 0.1microgL(-1) of 2,4-D. Survival rates were not significantly affected by 2,4-D. Furthermore, we evaluated the molecular and biochemical responses of biomarker genes such as gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), ferritins and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in C. riparius exposed to 2,4-D for 24h. The expressions of HSP70, HSP40, HSP90 and GST levels in C. riparius were significantly increased after exposure to a 10microgL(-1) concentration of 2,4-D, whereas ferritin heavy and light chain gene expressions were significantly increased at all concentrations of 2,4-D exposure. Finally, these results may provide an important contribution to our understanding of the toxicology of 2,4-D herbicide in C. riparius. Moreover, the 2,4-D-mediated gene expressions may be generated by 2,4-D is the causative effects on most probable cause of the observed alterations. These biological, molecular and morphological parameters and the measured parameters can be used to monitor 2,4-D toxicity in an aquatic environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lavarías, Sabrina; Arrighetti, Florencia; Siri, Augusto
Pesticides are extensively used for the control of agricultural pests and disease vectors, but they also affect non-target organisms. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a synthetic pyrethroid used worldwide. Otherwise, bioinsecticides like Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) have received great attention as an environmentally benign and desirable alternative. In order to evaluate the toxicity of those pesticides, Chironomus calligraphus was selected due to its high sensitivity to some toxicants. Third and fourth instars larvae were exposed to serial dilutions of CYP and Bti to determine LC 50 values. In order to evaluate the potentially histopathological alterations as biomarkers, after 96-h of exposure, live larvae were fixed for histological analysis of the mid region of digestive tract. The 96-h LC 50 values were 0.52 and 1.506μg/L for CYP and Bti, respectively. Midgut histological structure of the control group showed a single layer of cubical cells with microvilli in their apical surface and a big central nucleus. The midgut epithelium of larvae exposed to a low concentration of CYP (0.037μg/L) showed secretion activity and vacuolization while at high concentration (0.3μg/L) cells showed a greater disorganization and a more developed fat body. On the other hand, Bti caused progressive histological damage in this tissue. Chironomus calligraphus is sensitive to Bti and CYP toxicity like other Chironomus species. The histopathological alterations could be a valuable tool to assess toxicity mechanism of different pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Pepinelli, Mateus
Six new species of Endotribelos from Brazil are described and illustrated as male, female, pupa and larva: E. bicolor sp. n., E. fulvidus sp. n., E. jaragua sp. n., E. jiboia sp. n., E. semibruneus sp. n. and E. sublettei sp. n. The female of E. calophylli Roque & Trivinho-Strixino and the larvae of four unknown morphotypes are also described. Keys including males and larvae of all known species of Endotribelos are provided. Adults' males and females from five species were linked using DNA Barcoding mtCOI sequences.
Chironomidae ratio, %EPT, %Corixidae, %Oligochaeta + Hirudinae, Chironomidae + Oligochaeta abundance and Hemiptera + Diptera richness did not discriminate between the reference and impacted sites. Keywords: ASPT, biomonitoring, ...
A. L. Brandimarte
Full Text Available Abstract We examined the effects of the Mogi-Guaçu river damming (São Paulo State, Brazil on the Chironomidae fauna. Pre, during, and post-filling sampling was carried out in the main channel and margins of one site in the upper zone of the reservoir, using a modified Petersen grab (325 cm2. We evaluated the total, subfamily, and tribe densities and also their relative abundance. Analysis of genera included densities, relative abundance, richness, and dominance. The Rosso’s ecological value index (EVI determined the ecological importance of each genus. There was a tendency of decrease of the total Chironomidae density, increase in the percentage of Chironomini, and decrease in densities and percentages of Orthocladiinae and Tanytarsini. These changes in percentage were respectively related to Polypedilum, Lopescladius, and Rheotanytarsus, the genera with the highest EVI values. After-filling richness was lower in the margins and dominance of genera did not change significantly. Chironomidae in the margins was more sensitive to damming than in the main channel. This difference in sensibility sustains the use of Chironomidae as bioindicators. Damming impact was indicated by the reduction of both genera richness in the margins and relative abundance of groups typical of faster waters. The results have highlighted the need for multi-habitat analysis combined with a before-after sampling approach in the environmental impact studies concerning the damming impact on the benthic fauna.
Naime Arslan; Burcu Koç; Arzu Çiçek
Samples of lake water and sediment, and sediment and two dominant zoobenthic taxa (Oligochaeta: Potamothrix hammoniensis and Chironomidae: Chironomus [Camptochironomus] tentans larvae), were collected from 12 stations in Lake Uluabat and examined from the metal level point of view (cadmium, chromium, lead, copper, nickel, and zinc). Our results showed that the occurence of metals in water, sediment, and the two zoobenthic taxa are relatively high. The opinion that supports the results of Lake...
Skuhravá,Marcela; Martinez,Michel; Roques,Alain
Of the 19,400 native species and 125 families forming the European diptera fauna, 98 species (less than 0.5%) in 22 families are alien to Europe. These aliens constitute 66 species (18 families) of the suborder Brachycera and 32 species (4 families) of the suborder Nematocera. By family in this category, there are 23 Cecidomyiidae species, 18 Drosophilidae, nine Phoridae, eight Tachinidae and seven Culicidae. Another 32 fly species belonging to five families are considered to be alien in Euro...
Leonard Charles Ferrington Jr
Full Text Available Relative efficiencies of standard dip-net sampling (SDN versus collections of surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE were determined for detecting Chironomidae at catchment and site scales and at subfamily/tribe-, genus- and species-levels based on simultaneous, equal-effort sampling on a monthly basis for one year during a biodiversity assessment of Bear Run Nature Reserve. Results showed SFPE was more efficient than SDN at catchment scales for detecting both genera and species. At site scales, SDN sampling was more efficient for assessment of a first-order site. No consistent pattern, except for better efficiency of SFPE to detect Orthocladiinae genera, was observed at genus-level for two second-order sites. However, SFPE was consistently more efficient at detecting species of Orthocladiinae, Chironomini and Tanytarsini at the second order sites. SFPE was more efficient at detecting both genera and species at two third-order sites. The differential efficiencies of the two methods are concluded to be related to stream order and size, substrate size, flow and water velocity, depth and habitat heterogeneity, and differential ability to discriminate species among pupal exuviae specimens versus larval specimens. Although both approaches are considered necessary for comprehensive biodiversity assessments of Chironomidae, our results suggest that there is an optimal, but different, allocation of sampling effort for detecting Chironomidae across stream orders and at differing spatial and taxonomic scales.Article submitted 13. August 2014, accepted 31. October 2014, published 22. December 2014.
Sonoda, K. C.; Matthaei, C.; Vettorazzi, C. A.; Trivinho-Strixino, S.
We investigated whether the conversion of riparian land use from indigenous forest to pasture is associated with changes in midge community composition in two South Brasilian rivers. Our study was conducted in the main rivers (Sao Jose dos Dourados 6th order; Aguapei 7th order) of two catchments in Sao Paulo State. Both catchments are dominated by agricultural ecosystems but retain substantial patches of native riparian forest in certain areas. Replicated artificial substrates (baskets filled with clay rocks) were exposed in forested and pasture reaches in both rivers. Both land uses had to be present for at least 500m along both river banks, and the riparian forest had to be at least 50m wide. In each river, six baskets per reach type were sampled after a colonization period of 44 days, and all Chironomidae in these samples were sorted and identified to genus level (a total of 3399 individuals belonging to 28 different taxa). As expected, land use affected midge communities. Total midge density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forested reaches. By contrast, midge taxon richness was higher at the forested reaches. These results show the importance of native riparian forests for preserving aquatic biodiversity in Brasilian rivers.
Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C
We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates.
Rezaei M. Kamali A. and Shapoori M.
Full Text Available Marine ecosystem pollution is one of the important problems of today environment. In this study the existence of heavy metal in the Namrood River, situated in Firoozkooh in Tehran province, Iran has been investigated. The Namrood River is located near Firoozkooh route, and is affected by pollutant from tourist centers, entertainment, gas stations, nearby villages’ sewage systems, farming effluent, and hatchery farms. In some areas, its water is heavily polluted possibly by heavy metals. After selecting two stations in upstream and downstream of the river, they were sampled three times in both cold and hot seasons of year (mid-March, and June for Chironomidae, and Gammarus plux sediments. The measured heavy metals were cadmium and lead. The results showed that the concentration of cadmium in measured samples varied from 0.010-0.2033 ppm. The concentration of lead in samples varied from 0.11-2.16 ppm. The results also indicated that sediments of samples taken from the upper station in the cold season had a higher proportion of cadmium and a higher concentration of lead than sediments in the lower station during the hot season.
Checklist of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types of the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil, and of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Pará, Belém, Brazil.
Monné, Miguel A; Almeida, Lucia M; Oliveira, Marcio L; Viana, Jéssica Herzog; Monné, Marcela L
The primary types of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil (DZUP), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil (INPA), and in the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Pará, Belém,Brazil (MPEG) are catalogued. There are 54 primary types of Cerambycidae in the DZUP, 48 in the INPA, and 25 in the MPEG.
Chironomidae larvae from the lower Athabasca River, AB, Canada and its tributaries including macroscopic subfamily and tribe keys, indices for environmental tolerance and trait-based information for biomonitoring
Full Text Available Since 2011 the Joint Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM program has been conducted in the lower Athabasca River by the Governments of Canada and Alberta to assess the freshwater health in areas associated with oil sands development. The majority of the benthic invertebrate assemblage of the Athabasca River and its tributaries are Chironomidae larvae. Assessments of such benthic assemblages are made difficult because the identification of Chironomidae larvae is costly and time consuming. To facilitate this identification process, we aimed to develop a simple taxonomic key for Chironomidae larvae of this region. This taxonomic reference and identification key makes use of the known taxonomic details on these Chironomidae species. Moreover, we provide details on their geographical distribution, ecology, habitats, environmental tolerance values for species, and traitbased morphological characters. Our main goal was to make this information readily available to both non-specialists and specialists so that biomonitoring programs can more readily utilize these organisms in biomonitoring.
Arslan, Naime; Koç, Burcu; Ciçek, Arzu
Samples of lake water and sediment, and sediment and two dominant zoobenthic taxa (Oligochaeta: Potamothrix hammoniensis and Chironomidae: Chironomus [Camptochironomus] tentans larvae), were collected from 12 stations in Lake Uluabat and examined from the metal level point of view (cadmium, chromium, lead, copper, nickel, and zinc). Our results showed that the occurrence of metals in water, sediment, and the two zoobenthic taxa are relatively high. The opinion that supports the results of Lake Uluabat shows that certain species of oligochaetes and chironomids accumulate examined metals several times over compared to their surroundings. Therefore, it is concluded that the oligochaetes and the chironomids are suitable candidates to be used in biomonitoring surveys of Lake Uluabat.
Full Text Available Samples of lake water and sediment, and sediment and two dominant zoobenthic taxa (Oligochaeta: Potamothrix hammoniensis and Chironomidae: Chironomus [Camptochironomus] tentans larvae, were collected from 12 stations in Lake Uluabat and examined from the metal level point of view (cadmium, chromium, lead, copper, nickel, and zinc. Our results showed that the occurence of metals in water, sediment, and the two zoobenthic taxa are relatively high. The opinion that supports the results of Lake Uluabat shows that certain species of oligochaetes and chironomids accumulate examined metals several times over compared to their surroundings. Therefore, it is concluded that the oligochaetes and the chironomids are suitable candidates to be used in biomonitoring surveys of Lake Uluabat.
Zorina, Oksana V
A new species of the genus Constempellina Brundin, 1947, C. tokunagai sp. n., from the Russian Far East is described and figured as male, pupa and larva. The male and pupa of C. brevicosta (Edwards 1937) are redescribed and figured. Consequently, the generic diagnosis is emended. Keys to the males, pupae and larvae of Russian Constempellina are also given.
Giłka, Wojciech; Zakrzewska, Marta; Dominiak, Patrycja; Urbanek, Aleksandra
The first detailed systematic study on the tanytarsine chironomids recorded in the Eocene amber from the Rovno region (Ukraine) revealed seven new taxa. Archistempellina gen. nov., represented by A. bifurca sp. nov. (type for the genus, male) and A. falcifera sp. nov. (male), displays characters similar to those found in Stempellina Thienemann et Bause, and is recognized as one of probable basal lineages in the subtribe Stempellinina Shilova. Corneliola gen. nov., represented by C. avia sp. nov. (male, female), combines features known from several genera of the tribe Tanytarsini, and tentatively is regarded as the closest relative of Constempellina Brundin. Rheotanytarsus alliciens sp. nov. (male), featuring a long hypopygial digitus, is considered to be the oldest species of the genus. Tanytarsus congregabilis sp. nov. (male) is the first known Eocene representative of the lugens systematic species group. A complemented description of the male of Tanytarsus serafini Giłka is provided as well.
Moreau, X.; Saez, G.; Thiery, A. [Equipe ' Biomarqueurs and Bioindicateurs Environnementaux' , UMR-CNRS 6116 IMEP, Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille cedex 3 (France); Clot-Faybesse, O.; Guiraudie-Capraz, G. [' Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative' -UMR 6149, Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille cedex 3 (France); Bienboire-Frosini, C. [' Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative' -UMR 6149, Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille cedex 3 (France); Pherosynthese, Le Rieu Neuf, 84490 St Saturnin d' Apt (France); Martin, C. [Equipe ' Biomarqueurs and Bioindicateurs Environnementaux' , UMR-CNRS 6116 IMEP, UAPV, 33 rue Louis Pasteur, 84000 Avignon (France); De Jong, L. [Equipe ' Biomarqueurs and Bioindicateurs Environnementaux' , UMR-CNRS 6116 IMEP, Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: email@example.com
A new simple and sensitive method to distinguish chemically polluted from unpolluted situations in freshwater ecosystems is reported. For this purpose, Chironomus gr thumni larvae were collected from a polluted urban river downstream a sewage treatment plant. For the first time, ELISA assay was used to semi-quantify the multixenobiotic resistance transporters (MXR) in these small pertinent bioindicators. The use of samples immediately fixed in the field gives a delay to isolate larvae and allows multi-sampling along a longitudinal transect in a river at a given time. Results exhibit an induction of MXR proteins in larvae from the polluted river and a deinduction in larvae maintained 11 days in unpolluted water. They show new evidences to use midge larvae in biomonitoring environmental programs. They answer to first biomarker calibration steps for the ongoing development of MXR transporters as a detection tool of xenobiotic impacts on bioindicator invertebrates in their freshwater habitats. - Semi-quantification of midge larval MXR transporters by ELISA is a simple and sensitive method to detect chemically polluted situations in running freshwaters.
Moreau, X.; Saez, G.; Thiery, A.; Clot-Faybesse, O.; Guiraudie-Capraz, G.; Bienboire-Frosini, C.; Martin, C.; De Jong, L.
A new simple and sensitive method to distinguish chemically polluted from unpolluted situations in freshwater ecosystems is reported. For this purpose, Chironomus gr thumni larvae were collected from a polluted urban river downstream a sewage treatment plant. For the first time, ELISA assay was used to semi-quantify the multixenobiotic resistance transporters (MXR) in these small pertinent bioindicators. The use of samples immediately fixed in the field gives a delay to isolate larvae and allows multi-sampling along a longitudinal transect in a river at a given time. Results exhibit an induction of MXR proteins in larvae from the polluted river and a deinduction in larvae maintained 11 days in unpolluted water. They show new evidences to use midge larvae in biomonitoring environmental programs. They answer to first biomarker calibration steps for the ongoing development of MXR transporters as a detection tool of xenobiotic impacts on bioindicator invertebrates in their freshwater habitats. - Semi-quantification of midge larval MXR transporters by ELISA is a simple and sensitive method to detect chemically polluted situations in running freshwaters
Full Text Available Entre los indicadores biológicos lacustres más utilizados en las reconstrucciones ambientales, se encuentran el polen, los ostrácodos y las diatomeas, y entre los insectos, los coleópteros y los quironómidos. Este grupo ha cobrado gran importancia en los últimos tiempos, debido a los resultados prometedores que se han obtenido en reconstrucciones climáticas realizadas en América del Norte y Europa. En América del Sur, el uso de los quironómidos fósiles en estudios cuaternarios es relativamente limitado, principalmente por su escaso conocimiento taxonómico regional. La mayor parte de estos estudios fueron realizados en lagos glaciares patagónicos de Argentina y Chile. Las larvas de quironómidos constituyen una valiosa herramienta paleolimnológica, por ser un grupo de organismos altamente sensible a cambios ambientales, tanto naturales como artificiales. Además, es un grupo de insectos ampliamente distribuido y con una abundancia y diversidad relativamente altas. Sus cápsulas cefálicas se preservan en los sedimentos lacustres y poseen caracteres importantes que permiten identificar géneros y muchas veces especies. El estudio de los ensambles de quironómidos en sedimentos lacustres puede ser utilizado con distintos objetivos, por ejemplo, para estudios de eutrofización, ya que responden rápidamente a cambios en la concentración de nutrientes, materia orgánica y otros elementos, como metales pesados. No obstante, uno de los potenciales más importantes de este grupo de insectos es su sensibilidad a los cambios de temperatura, por este motivo, la aplicación más importante de su estudio en sedimentos se centra en las reconstrucciones climáticas. Esta contribución es una síntesis de los resultados de los trabajos publicados en la Patagonia argentina y chilena, sobre la base del uso de los quironómidos fósiles en reconstrucciones paleoambientales.
Full Text Available The Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus chalybeatus species group from China is reviewed. Three new species, R. (P. brochus sp. n., R. (P. rotundus sp. n. and R. (P. serratus sp. n. are described as adult males. R. (P. imperfectus Makarchenko & Makarchenko, 2005, R. (P. robacki (Beck & Beck, 1964 and R. (P. valgus Chaudhuri & Sinharay, 1983 are recorded from China for the first time and annotated. The diagnosis for the species group is emended and a key to adult males of the species group in China is presented.
Michailova, P; Ilkova, J; Dean, A P; White, K N
The genotoxicity of trace metals in the sediments from a number of polluted sites on UK and Bulgarian rivers to Chironomus piger was assessed by an examination of genome instability as demonstrated by structural and functional changes to the salivary glands chromosomes. Based on the metal assays, the sediments were characterized to range from 'extremely' to 'strongly contaminated'. The cytogenetic index calculated on the basis of somatic structural chromosome alterations in the polytene chromosomes indicates a high level of pollution (0.07-0.06 in Bulgarian and 0.10-0.13 in UK stations). Exposure of C. piger to contaminated sediments resulted in a high level of chromosome damage as indicated by a somatic index of between 1.96 and 4.0. The transcription mechanism of the Balbiani rings and nucleolar organizer was damaged as their activity was either partially or completely suppressed. We have demonstrated that the C. piger genome is a sensitive sublethal indicator of sediment contamination, and is a highly suitable candidate for ecotoxicological monitoring of running waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As a result of a multi-year survey, we recognized four species including a new species of the subgenus Uresipedilum from the Yaeyama Islands, the Ryukyus, Japan. Polypedilum (Uresipedilum paraconvictum sp. nov. is described. P. (U. classiglobum Zhang et Wang (2004 P. (U. bingoparadoxum Kawai et al. (1998 and P. (U. iriofegeum Sasa et Suzuki (2000 are re-described. The first species is newly recorded from Japan, and the second species is new to the Ryukyus. The diagnostic characters of the subgenus are discussed.
Full Text Available Se presenta el primer registro para Argentina de Goeldichironomus petiolicola Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, especie cuyos estadios inmaduros minan dentro de los pecíolos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms, en humedales del río Paraná Medio. Las larvas y pupas de G. petiolicola fueron recolectadas estacionalmente durante 2005, de los stands de E. crassipes y en muestras de sedimento en diferentes ambientes de la llanura. Ejemplares de la especie fueron criados en laboratorio a fin de completar su ciclo de vida. G. petiolicola fue el quironómido más abundante que habita en el interior de los pecíolos de E. crassipes, se registraron los estadios de larva III y IV y pupa durante todas las estaciones. No fueron registrados los estadios larvales I y II. Las mayores densidades medias de G. petiolicola fueron obtenidas en otoño-invierno (588,5 ind.kg-1 dw - 778,7 ind.kg-1 dw, esto sugiere que presentan mejores condiciones para la supervivencia, lo que permite a los individuos obtener un desarrollo más lento hasta el próximo período de inundación, con mayores temperaturas. El valor calculado de r (Dyar fue 1,66. G. petiolicola mina dentro de los pecíolos de E. crassipes, principalmente, durante el inicio del proceso de senescencia del vegetal, por lo que no provoca daños importantes.
Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA, and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1 crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3 that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13 which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control were EcR (3.8, ERR (2, E74 (2.4, cyp18a1 (2.5, hsp70 (1.7, hsp40 (2.5, cyp4g (6.4, GPx (1.8, and GST (2.1, while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.
Herrero, Óscar; Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Planelló, Rosario
Bisphenol S (BPS) is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1) crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3) that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13) which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control) were EcR (3.8), ERR (2), E74 (2.4), cyp18a1 (2.5), hsp70 (1.7), hsp40 (2.5), cyp4g (6.4), GPx (1.8), and GST (2.1), while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.
Full Text Available In a benthic community on a continuous flat granite substrate in a third-order coastal forest stream, the dominant chironomid (Cricotopus increased in number when shrimps (Macrobrachium olfersi and Potimirim glabra and baetid ephemeropterans were excluded by electricity. The response appeared to be mediated by an increase in periphyton and sediments, rather than a reduction of direct predation or interference. Chironomids, periphyton and sediments decreased significantly compared to the control when shrimps only were excluded. Baetid ephemeropteran appeared to be the most important determinants of periphyton and sediment mass; the density of chironomids appeared to follow the quantity of periphyton and sediments.
Full Text Available A description of the male adult of Heleniella helvetica sp. n is provided based on material collected in pristine lotic habitats delimited by the crenal and rhithral of the cold stenothermic springfed stream, which is located in the upper Rhône catchment (Mutt stream, central Switzerland, altitude 1800-2600 m. H. extrema Albu, 1972 represents the nearest species to H. helvetica sp. n. from which it can be separated by the following combination of characters: chaetotaxy of the thorax; low value of the BR ratio; distribution pattern of setae on tergite IX and anal point; anal point broad basally, parallel-sided medially and bearing dorsal setae; inferior volsella long nose-like lobe projecting downwards; gonostylus twisted, macroseta unusually inserted medially on a distinct cylindrical and projecting prominence. H. extrema and H. helvetica sp. n. currently belong to the emended extrema-group, which includes two additional new undescribed species both confined to glacier habitats: H. sp.1, known from the Mutt stream located in central Switzerland (altitude 2200-2400 m; H. sp. A, known from the Eastern Pyrenees (France, altitude 2200-2300 m. Taxonomic remarks, key to male adults of known Heleniella species from Europe and comments on the ecology and geographical distribution of the new species are given.
Capability of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) males to made and inseminate female flies in different mating ratios to sustain a laboratory tsetsefly colony for sterile insect technique control programme in Ghana.
Kennedy, K.; Ciborowski, J.
Concerns over the environmental impacts of oil sands extraction in northeastern Alberta has increased as the industry continues to expand. This study examined if the emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae differ in reclaimed wetlands constructed with oil sands process materials (OSPM) when compared with growth in reference wetlands. Five floating 30 cm diameter halo traps were deployed in various wetlands for a 24 hour period. Exuviae trapped in the surface water film were then collected, identified, and counted. Chironomids grown in laboratories from egg masses collected from 2 OSPM-affected wetlands and 2 reference wetlands were paired according to geographic proximity under controlled conditions for 1 generation. Chironomid larval growth was quantified in situ in the wetlands by reciprocally transferring second instar, second generation culture larva. The dispersal of the larvae was quantified by tabulating the number of adults caught in sticky insect traps located along 3 radially-arranged transects in each wetland. A preliminary analysis has suggested that fewer chironomids emerged from the OSPM-affected wetlands. No differences in dispersal distance between the OSPM-affected and reference wetlands were observed.
Alyssa M Anderson
Full Text Available Collections of Chironomidae surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE provide an effective means of assessing water quality in streams. Although not widely used in the United States, the technique is not new and has been shown to be more cost-efficient than traditional dip-net sampling techniques in organically enriched stream in an urban landscape. The intent of this research was to document the efficiency of sorting SFPE samples relative to dip-net samples in trout streams with catchments varying in amount of urbanization and differences in impervious surface. Samples of both SFPE and dip-nets were collected from 17 sample sites located on 12 trout streams in Duluth, MN, USA. We quantified time needed to sort subsamples of 100 macroinvertebrates from dip-net samples, and less than or greater than 100 chironomid exuviae from SFPE samples. For larger samples of SFPE, the time required to subsample up to 300 exuviae was also recorded. The average time to sort subsamples of 100 specimens was 22.5 minutes for SFPE samples, compared to 32.7 minutes for 100 macroinvertebrates in dip-net samples. Average time to sort up to 300 exuviae was 37.7 minutes. These results indicate that sorting SFPE samples is more time-efficient than traditional dip-net techniques in trout streams with varying catchment characteristics.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1380.Published online: 17 October 2012.
Full Text Available In order to examine how extruded and pelleted feed affects the fatty acid composition of carp meat and Chironomidae larvae, two-month-old carp specimens were set in two fishponds (L1 and L2. The fatty acid composition of extruded and pelleted feed is characterized by a significantly higher content of ω-3 fatty acids and higher ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids ratio (ω-3/ω-6 in extruded (11.34±0.12% and 0.315±0.005, respectively compared to pelleted feed (7.72±0.08%, 0.180±0.001, respectively. The fatty acid composition of carp meat is characterized by higher ω-3 fatty acid content and ω-3/ω-6 in carp fed with extruded feed (L1, 6.98±0.53% and 0.295±0.022, respectively compared to carp fed with extruded feed (L2, 5.46±0.07% and 0.232±0.009, respectively. Chironomidae larvae from the fishpond L2 had significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid content (8.22±0.89%, and therefore higher ω-3/ω-6 (0.81±0.09 in comparison to Chironomidae from the L1 fishpond where these parameters were 4.48±0.06% and 0.21±0.01, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31075 i br. 173040
First record and ecological features of Goeldichironomus petiolicola (Diptera: Chironomidae mining Eichhornia crassipes in the Middle Paraná River floodplain, Argentina Primer registro y aspectos ecológicos de Goeldichironomus petiolicola (Diptera: Chironomidae minador de Eichhornia crassipes en la llanura aluvial del río Paraná Medio, Argentina
Full Text Available The first records from Argentina of larvae of Goeldichironomus petiolicola Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino mining in Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms petioles in wetlands of the Paraná River floodplain were analyzed. G petiolicola larvae and pupae were collected seasonally during 2005 from stands of E. crassipes and bottom sediment samples in floodplain habitats. Larvae inside E. crassipes petioles were reared with the purpose of obtaining their complete life cycle. G. petiolicola was the most abundant chironomid species living inside E. crassipes petioles; the III and IV instar larvae and pupae were found during all the seasons while the I and II instar larvae were not found. The highest average densities of G. petiolicola larvae inside the E. crassipes petioles were recorded in Autumn-Winter (588.5 ind.kg-1 dw - 778.7 ind.kg-1 dw. This suggests that they have better conditions for survival, allowing the individuals to develop more slowly until the next flooded period with higher temperatures. The r (Dyar value obtained was 1.66. We conclude that G. petiolicola mines into E. crassipes petioles mainly when the plants begin their senescence process and does not cause important damage to them.Se presenta el primer registro para Argentina de Goeldichironomus petiolicola Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, especie cuyos estadios inmaduros minan dentro de los pecíolos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms, en humedales del río Paraná Medio. Las larvas y pupas de G petiolicola fueron recolectadas estacionalmente durante 2005, de los stands de E. crassipes y en muestras de sedimento en diferentes ambientes de la llanura. Ejemplares de la especie fueron criados en laboratorio a fin de completar su ciclo de vida. G petiolicola fue el quironómido más abundante que habita en el interior de los pecíolos de E. crassipes, se registraron los estadios de larva III y IV y pupa durante todas las estaciones. No fueron registrados los estadios larvales I y II. Las mayores densidades medias de G petiolicola fueron obtenidas en otoño-invierno (588,5 ind.kg¹ dw - 778,7 ind.kg¹ dw, esto sugiere que presentan mejores condiciones para la supervivencia, lo que permite a los individuos obtener un desarrollo más lento hasta el próximo período de inundación, con mayores temperaturas. El valor calculado de r (Dyar fue 1,66. G petiolicola mina dentro de los pecíolos de E. crassipes, principalmente, durante el inicio del proceso de senescencia del vegetal, por lo que no provoca daños importantes.
Cleber Barreto Espindola
Full Text Available Fannia flavicincta Stein, 1904 (Diptera, Fannidae is first recorded as a vector of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781. The material was collected in Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in September, 2002.Fannia flavicincta Stein, 1904 (Diptera, Fannidae é registrada pela primeira vez como vetor de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781. O material foi coletado em Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil em setembro de 2002.
Bactrocera (Bactrocera) invadens Drew (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a new species of fruit fly in 2005. It belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, but is difficult to diagnose based on solely morphological identification. It occurs in India, Bhutan and some countries of Africa. In this study, 14 adult samples of fruit flies were ...
Full Text Available The paper presents an account on the Tabanidae (Diptera from Chhattisgarh, which includes 16 species representing five genera under three subfamilies: Pangoniinae, Chrysopsinae and Tabaninae. Among these species, Haematopota latifascia Ricardo is new addition to the fauna of Chhattisgarh. The distributional area of the collection localities, key characters are also provided.
Sinha, S K
This paper reports one case of wound myiasis by Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera, Calliphoridae) that occurred in a goat and three cases of vaginal myiasis, five cases of cutaneous myiasis and one case of hoof myiasis in goat, buffalo and bull respectively by Seniorwhitea reciproca (Diptera, Sarcophagidae), for the first time in West Bengal, India.
Epele, Luis Beltrán; Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia
Chironomid substrate-specific associations regarding the nature (organic-inorganic) and stability (stable-unstable) of different habitats were investigated at two low order Patagonian streams, during high and low water periods. Nant y Fall and Glyn rivers were visited twice (October 2007 and March 2008) and seven different habitat types were identified. A total of 60 samples were collected using a Surber sampler (0.09 m(-2) and 250 µm) and a set of 23 environmental descriptors including physicochemical parameters and different fractions of particulate organic matter were assessed. 35 Chironomidae taxa were recorded with Orthocladiinae (20), Chironominae (7), and Podonominae (4) being the most well-represented subfamilies. Paratrichocladius sp. 1, Parapsectrocladius sp. 2, Parametriocnemus sp. 1, Pseudochironomus sp., and Rheotanytarsus sp. were the most abundant taxa. According to the relative preference index, at least 14 taxa showed strong affinity for a particular substrate. The structurally complex macrophyte Myriophyllum quitense supported 11 taxa compared with only five taxa found on the less complex Isoetes savatieri. Generally, stable substrates (boulders, cobbles, and rooted plants) supported significantly higher chironomids richness, abundance, and diversity than unstable ones (gravel-sand). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that detritus (leaves, seeds, and biomass), macrophyte biomass, and secondarily hydraulic variables had high explanatory power on chironomids species composition and structure. This work suggests that more complex substrates showing persistence in the temporal dimension supported a diverse array of chironomids, meaning that the maintenance of natural habitat heterogeneity is essential for the community. Land-use practices having significant effects on ecological stream attributes such as increased turbidity, sediment deposition, and runoff patterns will alter assemblages. Understanding environmental associations of the
Vaughan, Jefferson A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Turell, Michael J; Chadee, Dave D
.... Mansonella ozzardi (Manson) is a benign filarial nematode parasite of humans in Latin America and is transmitted by black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Because M...
van der Weele Ruud
Full Text Available The first record of Dolichocephala ocellata (Costa, 1854 (Diptera, Empididae for the territory of Slovakia and Central Europe is presented. This increases the number of known empidid species for Slovakia to 286.
Reemer, M.; Renema, W.
Three species of hoverflies removed from the Dutch list (Diptera: Syrphidae) Doubtful records of three hoverfly species from the Netherlands are discussed. Two specimens previously identified as Cheilosia acutilabris Becker, 1894 belong to C. proxima (Zetterstedt, 1843). Five specimens previously
Spatio-temporal effects of selected physico-chemical variables of water, algae and sediment chemistry on the larval community of nuisance Chironomidae (Diptera) in a natural and a man-made lake in central Florida
Ali, A.; Frouz, Jan; Lobinske, R. J.
Roč. 470, - (2002), s. 181-193 ISSN 0018-8158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : community structure * chironomid midges * variation partitioning Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.694, year: 2002
Trials of traps and attractants for Stomoxys spp. ( Diptera : Muscidae). J Med Entomol 32:283–289. Rosen L, Gubler D. 1974. The use of mosquitoes to detect... Diptera : Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus Author(s): Michael J. Turell, David J. Dohm, Christopher J. Geden, Jerome A. Hogsette, and...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential for Stable Flies and House Flies ( Diptera : Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus 5a
sandßyLutzomyia longipalpis ( Diptera : Psychodidae) in- duces neurophysiological responses and attracts both males and females. J. Insect Physiol. 51...VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Surface Polar Lipids Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi ( Diptera : Psychodidae...Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi ( Diptera : Psychodidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d
M., H. A. Hanafi, and E. A. Dykstra. 2004. Eval- uation of 1-octen-3-ol and carbon dioxide as attractants for Phlebotomus papatasi ( Diptera ...VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies ( Diptera : Psychodidae) in...forDiseaseControl andPrevention (CDC) light trap for efÞcacy in collecting phlebotomine sand ßies ( Diptera : Psychodidae) in a small farming village in the
Picard, C J; Johnston, J S; Tarone, A M
Genome size estimates for both sexes of forensically relevant Diptera from 17 species (four families) are reported herein. Average genome sizes ranged from 425.8 Mb for female Chrysomya rufifacies to 1,197.4 Mb for male Haematobia irritans. These estimates are useful not only for molecular studies, but also for determination of the species and sex of immatures. Species in three of the sampled families had sexually dimorphic genome sizes, presenting a new tool useful for the determination of sex in these species, especially in the immature stages where sexes are morphologically difficult or impossible to identify. In addition, closely related species had significantly different genome sizes, suggesting the use of flow cytometry as a new tool for species identification of some species of forensically relevant larvae.
Piwczyński, Marcin; Pape, Thomas; Deja-Sikora, Edyta
life habit remains unsettled. Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic tree consisting of 58 representatives of Miltogramminae, reconstructed using sequence data from three mitochondrial (COI, cytB, ND4) and one nuclear (Ef-1α) genes. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that......Miltogramminae is one of the phylogenetically most poorly studied taxa of the species-rich family Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Most species are kleptoparasites in nests of solitary aculeate wasps and bees, although parasitoids and saprophagous species are also known, and the ancestral miltogrammine......-monophyletic: Miltogramma, Senotainia and Pterella and (4) the genus Sarcotachina, which traditionally has been considered as belonging to the Paramacronychiinae, is placed in one of the clades of “lower miltogrammines”. Ancestral state reconstruction of larval feeding strategy and five larval characters reveals...
Valente, V. L. S.
Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.
James O Hara
Full Text Available The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically.
Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K
Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.
Studies on biodiversity and bionomics of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) were conducted in Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania from 2004 to 2006. Specifically studies aimed at determining the biodiversity of fruit flies, their host range, infestation rate, incidence and seasonality. These are among the pre-requisites for ...
A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided.
New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...
Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery
Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...
Biology and ecology of the Dutch woodlouse-flies (Diptera: Rhinophoridae) In a previous paper the faunistics of seven Dutch species of Rhinophoridae were summarised (Wijnhoven & Zeegers 1999). In the current publication the distribution, the biology and ecology of six species of woodlouse-flies in
Full Text Available A checklist of the Syrphidae (Diptera recorded from Finland. Three species of Syrphidae, Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926, Cheilosia barovskii (Stackelberg, 1930 and Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871, are published as new to the Finnish fauna. P. modestus is also new to the Palaearctic.
Reemer, M.; Aartsen, van B.; Renema, W.; Smit, J.T.; Steenis, van W.
Interesting new records of hoverflies in TheNetherlands (Diptera: Syrphidae) The preliminary distribution atlas of the Dutch hoverflies (NJN 1998) marked the start of the Syrphidae recording scheme (1998-2002). This publication has proven to be a major stimulus for the study of this interesting
Sukontason Kabkaew L
Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.
Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.
Aartsen, van B.
New and rare hoverflies for the Dutch fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae). Paragus albifrons (Fallén), P. bicolor (Fabricius), Sphegina verecunda Collin, Neoascia annexa (O.F. Müller), Callicera aenea (Fabricius), Cheilosia caerulescens (Meigen), C. chloris (Meigen), C. flavipes (Panzer), Chamaesyrphus
Jan 12, 2012 ... Drosophila melanogaster: Practical uses in cell and molecular biology in: Goldstein LSB (Eds). Methods in cell biology. Academic Press Inc. p. 555. Henry W, Dey SK, Varma R (2009). The salivary gland chromosomes of the Himalayan Black fly Simulium (Simulium) dentatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). Zool. Sci.
Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera:Tephritidae) is the most important and widespread pest in the olive growing countries in the Mediterranean basin. The development and survival of olive fruit fly, B. oleae from egg to adult stage was studied in the laboratory at 16, 22, 27 and 35°C. The objective of the study was to get ...
Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...
This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...
Medeiros, Jansen F; Rapini, Alessandro; Barbosa, Ulysses C; Py-Daniel, Victor; Braga, Pedro I S
The presence of pollinaria of two species of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae), possibly Tassadia cf. martiana Decne. and T. cf. obovata Decne., attached to the mouth parts of simulid black flies [Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Goeldi), C. argentiscutum (Shelley & Luna Dias), C. oyapockense (Floch & Abonnenc), and Cerqueirellum sp.] are reported for the first time. The frequency and distribution of simulids recorded with pollinaria suggest that removal of pollinaria by these flies is not casual. Simulids probably use nectar in flowers of Asclepiadoideae as source of sugar, being able to remove their pollinaria. This finding demonstrates that simulids are not only vector of pathogenic parasites, but also carry pollinaria, and thus may represent a group of pollinators for species of Asclepiadoideae with small flowers.
Tuno, N; Kohzu, A; Tayasu, I; Nakayama, T; Githeko, A; Yan, G
The population sizes of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) increase dramatically with the onset of the rainy season in sub-Saharan Africa, but the ecological mechanisms underlying the increases are not well understood. As a first step toward to understand, we investigated the proliferation of algae, the major food of mosquito larvae, in artificial fresh water bodies exposed to sunlight for a short period, and old water bodies exposed to sunlight for a long period, and the effects thereof on the development of these anopheline larvae. We found that an epizoic green algal species of the genus Rhopalosolen (Chlorophyta: Chlorophyceae) proliferated immediately after water freshly taken from a spring was placed in sunlight. This alga proliferated only briefly (for ~10 d) even if the water was repeatedly exposed to sunlight. However, various algal species were observed in water that remained under sunlight for 40 d or longer (i.e., in old water bodies). The growth performance of larvae was higher in sunlight-exposed (alga-rich) water than in shade-stored (alga-poor) water. Stable isotope analysis suggested that these two anopheline species fed on Rhopalosolen algae in fresh water bodies but hardly at all on other algae occurring in the old water bodies. We concluded that freshly formed ground water pools facilitate high production of anopheline species because of the proliferation of Rhopalosolen algae therein, and the increase in the number of such pools in the rainy season, followed by rapid increases in A. gambiae and A. arabiensis numbers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.
Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [es
José O. de Almeida Silva; Fernando da S. Carvalho-Filho; Maria C. Esposito; Geniana A. Reis
First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann). In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart) has only been reported from Argentina and Colom...
Paula Rozo-Lopez; Ximo Mengual
Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes ( Diptera : Culicidae ) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 reco...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine hymenopteran parasitoids attacking leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera in Bangladesh. Four parasitoid species, viz. Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood and Cirrospilus sp. belonging to family Eulophidae and Opius sp. under family Braconidae of the order Hymenoptera are reported as new to the fauna of Bangladesh. All parasitoids were reared from three agromyzid flies namely Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, Melanagromyza obtusa Mallochand and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon.
Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) Author(s): Kristen Bartlett-Healy, Isik Unlu, Peter Obenauer, Tony Hughes...japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) KRISTEN BARTLETT-HEALY,1,2,3 ISIK UNLU,1,3,4 PETER OBENAUER,5 TONY HUGHES,6
Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu
Two new species of Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859, crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae) from the Korean peninsula are described, illustrated and compared with already known and related species. An identification key and check-list of all Korean Dicranoptycha is presented.
Full Text Available Diptera that breed in undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diversity and abundance, and several species are of veterinary importance and may cause economic losses. To survey the diversity, abundance and seasonality of Diptera associated to this microhabitat, 83 samples of 10 dung pats each were taken from April 1992 to April 1994 in the vicinity of São Carlos, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. A total of 46,135 Diptera belonging to 20 families and at least 51 species were found to breed in the pats. The most abundant and diverse families were Sepsidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Sphaeroceridae. In general, the abundance was higher from October to March, the warm and wet months. The importance of some Diptera, both as horn fly enemies and as cattle dung decaying agents, is discussed.
Goot, van der V.S.; Aartsen, van B.; Chvála, M.
De Nederlandse soorten van het dansvliegengeslacht Hilara (Diptera: Empididae) In deze studie wordt alle beschikbare informatie over het dansvliegengeslacht Hilara samengevat. Door kritisch literatuur-, collectie- en veldonderzoek werden 57 soorten voor de Nederlandse fauna vastgesteld, waarvan er
Ribeiro, Antonia de Castro; UNIRIO; Cardoso, Debora; UESB; Lessa, Cláudia Soares dos Santos; UNIRIO; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo Efrain; UFRRJ; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães; UNIRIO
The present note reports the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in Southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The collecting was conducted with Diptera traps using fresh fish as bait. Primeiro Registro de Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) no Sudeste do Brasil Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Serop&...
Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.
The Diptera genus-group names of Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart are reviewed and annotated. A total of 399 available genus-group names in 69 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically, for each name giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species......,611, of which 3,543 are available) is given with bibliographic reference (year and page) to each original citation....
Viviane R. de Sousa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Japanagromyza Sasakawa, 1958 (Diptera, Agromyzidae is poorly known from Brazil, with only three species recorded. This contribution increases the knowledge of the genus in Brazil, where two new species are described and illustrations of male and female adults and terminalia are presented. The material was collected in states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and Rondônia and is deposited in the collections of Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas
The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632
Ândrio Z. da Silva
Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.
Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens
Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oscar Akio Shibatta
Full Text Available A new species of the previously monotypic catfish genus Phreatobius is described from an artificial well in the village of Rio Pardo, located 90 km south of the city of Porto Velho, State of Rondônia, Brazil, in the drainage area of the Rio Branco (Rio Madeira system, Amazon basin. Phreatobius dracunculus n. sp. differs from its only congener, P. cisternarum, by the absence of eyes (vs. present, the lack of dark integumentary pigmentation (vs. faint dark pigment always present, the presence of five pectoral-fin rays (vs. four, ventral procurrent rays 11-13 (vs. 22 to 26, dorsal procurrent rays 29-31 (vs. 42 to 50, fewer vertebrae (52 or 53 vs. 59 to 64 and the larger pseudotympanus. The new species shows all diagnostic characters so far proposed for Phreatobius, including an unusual red coloration in life. The localities of the two species of Phreatobius are approximately 1900 km apart. That, in association with their peculiar and mostly inaccessible habitats, indicates that the genus may be widely distributed in the Amazon basin.Uma nova espécie do gênero previamente monotípico Phreatobius é descrita de um poço artificial no Povoado de Rio Pardo, localizado 90 km ao sul da cidade de Porto Velho, Estado de Rondônia, Brasil, na área de drenagem do rio Branco (sistema do Rio Madeira, bacia Amazônica. Phreatobius dracunculus sp. n. difere da única espécie congênere, P. cisternarum, pela ausência de olhos (vs. presente, ausência de pigmentação na pele (vs. algum pigmento escuro sempre presente, presença de cinco raios na nadadeira peitoral (vs. 4, menor número de raios procorrentes ventrais 11-13 (vs. 22 a 26, e menor número de raios procorrentes dorsais 29-31 (vs. 42 a 50, menor número de vértebras (52 ou 53 vs. 59 a 64 e pseudotímpano maior. A nova espécie apresenta todos os caracteres diagnósticos propostos para Phreatobius, incluindo a conspícua coloração vermelha em vida. As localidades das duas espécies de Phreatobius estão aproximadamente a 1900 km de distância. A presença desta espécie em região tão distante da ocorrência de P. cisternarum em associação com o ambiente freático peculiar, evidenciam que o grupo pode estar amplamente distribuído na bacia amazônica.
Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas
biodiversity is challenging, but significant advances have been made in the last few decades. Since Hennig first discussed the monophyly of major groupings, Diptera has attracted much study, but most researchers have used non-numerical qualitative methods to assess morphological data. More recently......Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global...... revision for this ordinal-level study, with homology assessed beyond their original formulation and across all infraorders. We found significant support for many major clades (including the Diptera, Culicomorpha, Bibionomorpha, Brachycera, Eremoneura, Cyclorrhapha, Schizophora, Calyptratae and Oestroidea...
Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae ) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ,1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON,1 CARL W. DOUD,1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...gypti (Diptera: Culicidae ) control with community par- ticipation using a new fumigant formulation. J. Med. Entomol. 48: 577Ð583. Kittayapong, P., and
attractants for Phlebotomus papatasi ( Diptera : Psychodidae) in southern Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 20: 130–133. Burkett DA, Knight R, Dennet JA...Dioxide–Baited Traps for Adult Sand Fly ( Diptera : Psychodidae) Surveillance in Three Counties of Mesrata, Libya Author(s): P.J. Obenauer, B.B. Annajar...00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Efficacy of Light and Nonlighted Carbon Dioxide-Baited Traps for Adult Sand Fly ( Diptera : Psychodidae) Surveillance
José O. de Almeida Silva
Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.
Fonseca, Dina M.
Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520
Full Text Available Many hoverfly species of faunal and zoogeographical interest are found in Serbia's northern province of Vojvodina due to the diversity of its biotopes. In this paper, the presence of 252 species of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae from 69 genera is documented. Five species are here recorded for the first time in Serbia: Anasimyia contracta Claussen & Torp Pedersen, 1980; Anasimyia transfuga (Linnaeus, 1758; Eristalinus megacephalus (Rossi, 1794; Helophilus hybridus Loew, 1846; and Mallota fuciformis (Fabricius, 1794. One species is recorded for the first time in Vojvodina: Cheilosia brunnipennis (Becker, 1894. The records of 12 species from Vojvodina Province are the only ones on the Balkan Peninsula, while the records of 15 species are the only ones in Serbia.
Cupp, M S; Zhang, D; Cupp, E W
The horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), is an important pest of livestock because the adult stage of both sexes are aggressive blood-feeders. Remarkably, even though horn fly adults feed recurrently on their hosts as ectoparasites, these flies lack the ADP-responsive antiplatelet aggregation and vasodilatory antihemostatic systems described for other blood-feeding Diptera. Horn fly salivary gland extracts do interfere with the normal coagulation process as demonstrated by the recalcification time assay. Using this as a baseline, the effects of saliva on recalcification time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time were measured to determine which arm(s) of the coagulation cascade might be impacted. Factor-deficient plasma assays also were used to measure possible perturbations in clotting. Gland-free saliva delayed the recalcification time as well as the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time. Saliva also further delayed clotting times of plasmas deficient in factor V, factor VIII, and factor XIII, indicating that other factors in the coagulation cascade were inhibited. Although horn fly saliva did not alter the ability of deficient plasma reconstituted with factor X to clot, it did inhibit deficient plasma reconstituted with factor II (thrombin). Antithrombin activity in saliva was confirmed by its ability to interfere with thrombin hydrolysis of fibrinogen, its normal substrate, and by its inhibition of thrombin action on a chromagenic substrate that mimics the hydrolytic site of fibrinogen. Thus, horn fly saliva contains a factor that specifically targets thrombin, a key component in the coagulation cascade. While the biochemical mechanisms of inhibition may vary, this antihemostatic characteristic is shared with other zoophilic Diptera such as black flies, Simulium spp., and tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, that feed on ungulates.
Diaz, F; Mangudo, C; Spinelli, G R; Gleiser, R M; Ronderos, M M
The fourth instar larva and pupa of Culicoides trilineatus Fox (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), a species considered as potential vector of the bluetongue virus in Central and South America, are described, illustrated, and photomicrographed for the first time by using binocular, phase-contrast, and scanning electron microscopy. The immatures were collected by using a siphon bottle in tree holes in Salta Province, Argentina, transported to the laboratory, and there reared to the adult's emergence. They are compared with the immatures of Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), another Neotropical species that develops in tree holes. Details on larval biology and habitat are given.
Silvio Shigueo Nihei
Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.
Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Bonacci, Teresa; Del Zingaro, Carlo Nicola Francesco; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Massimo; Leis, Marilena
We describe five cases of myiasis of domestic cats, Felis silvestris catus L. (Carnivora: Felidae), reported in 2016 in northern Italy and caused by three Diptera species: Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Calliphoridae). Three were cases of traumatic myiasis, one by S. argyrostoma and two by L. sericata, one was a case of auricular myiasis by C. vicina and one was a case of ophthalmomyiasis caused by an association of L. sericata and C. vicina. The myiasis by S. argyrostoma is the first reported case of this species in a cat, whereas the two myiases by C. vicina are the first reported cases in cats in Italy.
Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associada a Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae no Brasil Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae in Brazil
Alessandro C. Angelo
Full Text Available A new species of Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae which causes galls on Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821 is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female. The gall is characterized and some biological notes are given.
Morphological observations on the egg and first instar larva of Metacutereba apicalis (Diptera: Cuterebidae Observações morfológicas do ovo e da larva de primeiro estágio de Metacuterebra apicalis (Diptera: Cuterebridae
Antônio Cesar Rios Leite
Full Text Available Descriptions are given of the egg and first intar larvar of Metacutereba apicalis (Diptera: Cuterebridae when viewed by light and scanning electronic microscopes.O ovo e a larva de primeiro estágio de Metacuterebra apicalis (Diptera, Cuterebridae são descritos a nível de microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura.
Primeiro relato do parasitóide Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitando pupas Sarcodexia lambens Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae no Brasil First report on Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of Sarcodexia lambens Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae in Brazil
Carlos Henrique Marchiori
Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitando estágios imaturos de Sarcodexia lambens Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae em fezes humanas no Brasil. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 18,2%.This work reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing immature stages of Sarcodexia lambens Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae in human feces in Brazil. The parasitism prevalence was 18.2%.
A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) producing a low oxygen environment to increase produce shelf life may increase the radiation tolerance of insect pests receiving phytosanitary irradiation treatment on traded agricultural commodities. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an i...
Natural enemies are constantly faced with oviposition decisions that have potential fitness consequences. We investigated the oviposition behavior of the aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) when faced with multiple prey choices, i.e. plants infested with Myzus persic...
Negrobov, O. P.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Oboňa, J.
Roč. 72, č. 1 (2017), s. 70-75 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Dolichopodidae * distributions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016
Dvořák, V.; Halada, Petr; Hlaváčková, K.; Dokianakis, E.; Volf, P.
Roč. 7, č. 21 (2014), s. 1-7 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : diptera * phlebotomine sand flies * MALDI * human pathogens Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014
Oboňa, J.; Baranová, B.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Kisková, K.; Manko, P.; Slowińska, I.
Roč. 12, č. 3 (2016), article number 1894 ISSN 1809-127X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Empididae * Hemerodromiinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.biotaxa.org/cl/article/view/12.3.1894
invoeator of Dyar ( 1920 :64). CuZex (MoehZostyraxl inhibitator (in part) of Dyar (1928:317). CuZex (Mezanoeonionb inhibitator (in part) of Edwards (1932...Calif. Press, vi + 360 p., 127 pl. Dyar , H. G. 1920 . The species of Choc:roporpa, a subgenus of Cdex (Diptera, Culicidae). Inset. Inscit. Menst. 8...Diptera: Culicidae)l 239 Pazos of Male Sunthorn Sirivanakarn2 ABSTRACT. Culex (Melanoconion) invocator Pazos, originally described from Cu- ba
Identification and transcription profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus ( Diptera : Culicidae): developmental regulation and environmental response...mtDNA-encoded ND6 gene mutation.14 Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann, a nuisance species, has attracted much attention recently.9,15–20 The aim of...taeniorhynchus ( Diptera : Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...
Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...
The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...
Resumo. Registra-se pela primeira vez a presenÃ§a de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre, Brasil, a partir de frutos de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e de caramboleira (Averrhoacarambola L., aumentando o conhecimento dos registros geogrÃ¡ficos dessa mosca na AmazÃ´nia brasileira.
DNA isolation. Individual larvae or adults were ground with a strong diagnostic bands and simple patterns. Primers pro- plastic pestle in...V. (1988) Com- peninsular Malaysia and Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq parison of DNA probe and cytogenic methods for identifying field Syst 20
In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...
Oosterbroek, P.; Reusch, H.
This review of the European species of the genus Chionea (Diptera, Limoniidae), in 2 subgenera, Chionea (2 species) and Sphaeconophilus (7 species) includes an illustrated key to the species and for each species a diagnosis, type material, synonymy, discussion and details about the countries from
Psychoda surcoufi, a mothfly of compost, new to the Netherlands (Diptera: Psychodidae) Psychoda surcoufi Tonnoir, 1922 is reported as a new species for the Dutch checklist. Adults were collected in large numbers in a compost barrel from late February until April 2009, together with P. albipennis
Goodman, K.R.; Evenhuis, N.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, P. M.
Roč. 4, NOV 17 (2016), č. článku e2704. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : colonization history * Diptera * divergence dating * Dolichopodidae * evolutionary radiation * long distance dispersal * Hawaiian islands Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016
Reemer, M.; Smit, J.T.; Steenis, van W.
Changes in ranges of hoverflies in the Netherlands in the 20th century (Diptera: Syrphidae) In July 2001 the database of the Netherlands Syrphidae Recording Scheme contained approximately 200 000 records of Syrphidae. This database was used to examine changes in the hoverfly fauna of the Netherlands
Reemer, M.; Smit, J.T.
The hoverfly Cheilosia psilophthalma, a double of C. urbana new to the Netherlands (Diptera: Syrphidae) The hoverflies Cheilosia psilophthalma Becker, 1894 and C. urbana (Meigen, 1822) are very similar in their appearances. Until recently, only C. urbana had been recorded from the Netherlands, but
Surimyia, a new genus of Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) is described, based on specimens from Suriname. Surimyia is the only known genus of Syrphidae in which the katatergum (ventral part of lateral postnotal sclerite of mesonotum) lacks microtrichia. Within Microdontinae, the genus is unique in
Reemer, M.; Steenis, van J.
The sibling syrphids Eupeodes bucculatus and E. goeldlini in the Netherlands (Diptera: Syrphidae) Recently, the hoverfly Eupeodes goeldlini Mazánek, Láska & Bicˇik, 1999 has been described, a species very similar to E. bucculatus (Rondani, 1857). This paper gives the first records of E. goeldlini
Full Text Available Two new species of Meropidia Hippa & Thompson, 1983 (Diptera, Syrphidae are described, Meropidia nitida Morales, sp. n. and M. flavens Hippa & Ståhls sp. n., from Bolivia and Colombia respectively. A key to all described Meropidia species is provided.
Smit, J.T.; Dijkstra, E.G.M.
The invasive American Eastern Cherry Fruitfly Rhagoletis cingulata in the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) In 2003 the European Invertebrate Survey - Netherlands, on request of the Plant Protection Service of the Netherlands, conducted a survey of the distribution and phenology of the American
A list of two letter abbreviations for all genera and three letter abbreviations for all subgenera of mosquitoes (family Culicidae, order Diptera) is given. This information on generic-level taxa of mosquitoes is useful in reducing printed space in publications, tables and lists. The work was comp...
Oboňa, J.; Starý, J.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Papyan, L.
Roč. 2016, č. 585 (2016), s. 125-142 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Limoniidae * Pediciidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2016 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=8330
Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan
Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.
Oboňa, J.; Dvořák, L.; Haenni, J.-P.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Papyan, L.
Roč. 40, č. 1 (2017), s. 61-67 ISSN 0341-8391 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity hotspots * Armenia * Diptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2016 http://pfeil-verlag.de/publikationen/spixiana-zeitschrift-fuer-zoologie-band-40/
Silvio Shigueo Nihei
Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.Sobre o primeiro taquinídeo (Diptera, Tachinidae carregando polinários de Asclepiadoideae na Região Neotropical. Esta contribuição relata a primeira espécie neotropical de Tachinidae possivelmente associada à polinização de Asclepiadoideae: uma fêmea de Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini transportando dois polinários de Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae presos à sua probóscide. O espécime foi coletado no Paraguai, Departamento Canindeyú. O polinário é ilustrado e caracterizado. Este é o primeiro registro de antofilia para G. parviflorus e para o gênero.
Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis Thomas M. Mascari1... Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of...zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis . Methods and Findings: We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes
Yamauchi, Takeo; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sato, Yukita; Murata, Koichi
During a mosquito collection, a female of the pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), was collected by a mosquito trap baited with dry ice in Ishigaki-jima, Yaeyama Islands, Japan. This is the 1st record of P. canariensis from Yaeyama Islands.
Augusto Loureiro Henriques
Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.
Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....
Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A
Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.
Full Text Available A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758 is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837. 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.
A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera) and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758) is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837). 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.
Full Text Available Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records. The female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira, 2012 is described for the first time. Description and illustrations of the habitus, wing and terminalia of the female are provided. The distribution is extended to Bolivia and Peru.
José Antonio Batista-da-Silva
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar um caso raro de sucessão parasitária de duas espécies de larvas de moscas produtora de miíase primária, Dermatobia hominis e Cochliomyia hominivorax, em um jovem de 12 anos atendido em um hospital público no município de São Gonçalo (RJ.Human Myiases for Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae and Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel (Diptera, Calliphoridae in Parasitic SuccessionAbstract. The objective this work was to tell a rare case of parasitic succession of two species of larvae of flies producing of primary myiases, Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia hominivorax, in a 12 year-old youth assisted in an public hospital in São Gonçalo (RJ.
Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera
M. S. Couri
Full Text Available Philornis Meinert is a very interesting Muscidae (Diptera genus whose larvae are associated with a wide range of bird species. The existing description of Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952, which was reported in Argentina, so far involves only the female. During the 2000-2002 breeding seasons, we collected Philornis flies from six bird species in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. All the flies were identified as P. seguyi. Based on this material, we describe the larva, puparium, adult male, and male and female terminalia. All the host associations presented here - Mimus saturninus (Mimidae, Troglodytes aedon (Troglodytidae, Pitangus sulfuratus (Tyrannidae, Pyrocephalus rubinus (Tyrannidae, Satrapa icterophrys (Tyrannidae and Molothrus bonariensis (Icteridae in nests of M. saturninus and Troglodytes aedon - are new for P. seguyi. We also present some data on the biology of the species.Philornis Meinert é um gênero muito interessante de Muscidae (Diptera, com larvas associadas a várias espécies de aves. Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952 foi descrita da Argentina e, até o momento, apenas a descrição da fêmea e a sua associação com uma espécie de aves eram conhecidas. Durante as estações de procriação nos anos de 2000-2002, exemplares de Philornis foram coletados em seis espécies de aves na província de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Todos os exemplares foram identificados como P. seguyi. O material coletado ensejou a descrição da larva, pupário, macho adulto, e terminália do macho e da fêmea. Todas as associações com hospedeiros assinaladas - Mimus saturninus (Mimidae, Troglodytes aedon (Troglodytidae, Pitangus sulfuratus (Tyrannidae, Pyrocephalus rubinus (Tyrannidae, Satrapa icterophrys (Tyrannidae, e Molothrus bonariensis (Icteridae em ninhos de M. saturninus e Troglodytes aedon, são novas para P. seguyi. Dados sobre a biologia desta espécie também são apresentados.
Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M
The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.
Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna
To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.
Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani
Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W
Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%. The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.
Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R
The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Bŭda, Vincas; Radziute, Sandra
A field test carried out in an industrial greenhouse in Lithuania revealed the attractiveness of synthetic methyl salicylate (MeSa) towards an economically important leafmining tomato pest, Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach) (Diptera, Agromyzidae). The behavioural reaction of the flies depended very much on the simultaneous presence of both olfactory and visual stimuli. The attractiveness depended on the colour of a sticky trap: MeSa attracted significantly more flies (ca. 2.2 times) when placed in yellow traps than in aluminium foil colour ones, when catches in such traps were compared to a corresponding control. L. bryoniae is the first species within the Agromyzidae family attracted by MeSa. The attractant was attributed to kairomones, as the compound is known as a plant-produced volatile. MeSa can be an effective extra-tool for increasing the attractiveness of traps. It should be evaluated in future whether such trap/bait combination is effective for the mass trapping of L. bryoniae leafminers in greenhouses (closed area).
Edwin K. Murungi
Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.
Ricardo Pérez-de la Fuente
Full Text Available A new fossil fly species, Acartophthalmites willii sp. n. (Diptera: Acalyptratae: Opomyzoidea from Baltic amber (Eocene, 56−33.9 Ma, is described based on a male originally assigned by Hennig (1969 to A. tertiaria Hennig, 1965, who erroneously also referred to it in the same work as “A. electrica Hennig” (unavailable name. The new species, representing the third named species of the extinct genus with unclear familial relationships Acartophthalmites Hennig, 1965, is herein described and illustrated in detail, and its systematic implications and relationships are discussed. From the morphological standpoint, the new species represents an intermediate form between the two formerly described species within the genus, therefore expanding the character combination diversity in this lineage of acalyptrate flies. The genus Acartophthalmites is considered to be most closely related to Clusiidae and, therefore, it is herein tentatively classified within the superfamily Opomyzoidea. The current work takes part of an effort to review the Acartophthalmites diversity in order to gain knowledge on the morphological data from the specimens described within the genus and ultimately enable a reliable analysis of its phylogenetic relationships with other acalyptrates.
Associação forética entre larvas de Rheotanytarsus (Chironomidae, Tanytarsini e adultos de Elmidae (Coleoptera, coletados em córregos no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, Brasil Phoretic association between larvae of Rheotanytarsus and adult of Coleoptera, collected from State Park Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil
Melissa O. Segura
Full Text Available Esta nota registra a ocorrência de foresia entre larvas de Rheotanytarsus Thienemann & Bause, 1913 (Chironomidae, Tanytarsini e adultos de Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940 e Microcylloepus Hinton, 1935 (Coleoptera, Elmidae. Os exemplares foram obtidos em córregos no Parque Estadual de Campos de Jordão, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.This note reports phoresy between larvae of Rheotanytarsus Thienemann & Bause, 1913 (Chironominae, Tanytarsini and adult of Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940 and Microcylloepus Hinton, 1935 (Coleoptera, Elmidae. The specimens had been collected in streams from State Park Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil.
Ruth LM Ferreira
Full Text Available The community structure of insects, especially mosquito larvae, in water held in the fungus Aquascypha hydrophora (Berk. Reid (Stereaceae is reported. The study was done in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, 26 km east of Manaus, AM, Brazil, from September 1998 through November 1999. The most abundant entomofauna were immature Culicidae (n = 121 91.7%, followed by adult Dytiscidae (n = 3 2.3%, immature Chironomidae (n = 5 3.8% and immature Tipulidae (n = 3 2.3%. Culicidae associated with A. hydrophora comprised species of the subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae.
Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.
Liu, Jian-Hong; Xu, Jin; Li, Yong-He; Dan, Wenli; Pan, Yongzhi
Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most serious pest insects in south China and surrounding Southeast Asian countries. The family Tephritidae includes over 4257 species distributed worldwide, so the complete mitochondrial genome would be helpful for bio-identification, biogeography and phylogeny. The B. correcta genome consists of 15 936 bp. Annotation indicated that the structure and orientation of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were typical of, and similar to, the ten closely related tephritid species. The nucleotide composition shows heavily biased toward As and Ts accounting 73.2% and exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is similar to other known tephritid species and other insects. The phylogenetic tree indicated the presence of three distinct families (Tephritidae, Muscidae, Drosophilidae) in Order Diptera.
van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A
Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed.
Full Text Available The present paper reports the preliminary results of the survey of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae in Maliuc - Mila 26 area, in 2006. A number of 1,255 mosquitoes, belonging to 14 species have beencaptured in three investigation sites. The results of the data-analysis were used for drawing up the annual dynamics of the various mosquito species from a specific location in Maliuc - Mila 26 area for the period April –September.
Marise M. O. Cabral
Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.
Mint Mohamed Lemine, Aichetou; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Hasni Ebou, Moina; Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ould Bouraya, Issa Nabiyoullahi; Brengues, Cecile; Trape, Jean-Fran?ois; Basco, Leonardo; Bogreau, Herv?; Simard, Fr?d?ric; Faye, Ousmane; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali
Although mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important disease vectors, information on their biodiversity in Mauritania is scarce and very dispersed in the literature. Data from the scientific literature gathered in the country from 1948 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Overall 51 culicid species comprising 17 Anopheles spp., 14 Aedes spp., 18 Culex spp. and two Mansonia spp. have been described in Mauritania among which Anopheles arabiensis, Aedes vexans, Culex poicilipes and Culex anten...
Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.
ecdysteroid peak in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera ). Arthropod Struct. Dev. 29: 111Ð119. Received 16 January 2005; accepted 20 January 2005. 630 JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 42, no. 4 ...horizontal transfer Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a perido- mestic mosquito species that exhibits a diurnal, bi- modal feeding pattern in...were col- lected in cups and returned to the large polystyrene/ gauze cages to emerge, mate, blood- feed , and con- tinue the rearing cycle. The colony was
Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings
Full Text Available With 312 trap-hours of sampling effort, 1554 specimens of Culicidae (Diptera were collected, using CDC and Malaise traps, in nine different locations along the Juami River, within the Juami-Japurá Ecological Station, Amazonas State, Brazil. A list of mosquito species with 54 taxa is presented, which includes three new distributional records for the state of Amazonas. The species found belong to the genera Anopheles, Aedeomyia, Aedes, Psorophora, Culex, Coquillettidia, Sabethes, Wyeomyia and Uranotaenia.
C. S. Prabhakar; Pankaj Sood; P. K. Mehta
A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi), Bactrocera tau (Walker), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B...
Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın
Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452
Valeria Alejandra Labud
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.
Márcia Souto Couri
Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.
Observation of the morphological characters in slide-mounted simuliids (Diptera, Simuliidae deteriorated by age or fungus contamination Observação morfológica de caracteres de simulídeos (Diptera, Simuliidae em lâminas deterioradas pelo tempo ou pela contaminação de fungos
Ana M.R. do Amaral
Full Text Available The homogeneity of the Simuliidae family has produced several taxonomic problems along the years. The studies of Brazilian Simulium Latreille, 1802 date from the beginning of the 20th century, with species described by Kollar, Macquart, Goeldi and Lutz. Lutz's scientific collection is a historical relic of scientific relevance, since it congregates types described from Brazil. Besides its taxonomic importance, this collection can now be used as a bio indicator. However, a lot of these slide-mounted specimens could not support the effects of time, constant handling, fungus and climatic conditions that occurred over the years. The development of a slide-mounted restoration technique had therefore become necessary for specimen preservation and observation.A homogeneidade da família Simuliidae tem resultado problemas taxonômicos ao longo dos anos. Os estudos sobre Simulium Latreille, 1802 no Brasil datam do início do século XX, com espécies descritas por Kollar, Macquart, Goeldi e Lutz. A coleção de Lutz possui relevância científica e histórica, possuindo exemplares tipo descritos do Brasil. Além da importância taxonômica, a coleção de simulídeos de Lutz pode ser usada como bioindicadora. No entanto, muitas lâminas não suportaram os efeitos do tempo, constante manuseio, presença de fungos e ação das condições climáticas ao longo dos anos. O desenvolvimento de uma técnica de restauração do material preservado em lâminas fez-se necessário para melhor preservação e observação do material.
Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae collections were made on the Pedro Peixoto Colonization Project in the State of Acre, Brazil. Four thousand, five hundred and eighty-eight (4,588 specimens were collected and fifty-three (53 species or group recognised. The occurrence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi is given special emphasis.
Jorge Alberto Salazar-Ortega
Full Text Available An updated checklist of necrophagous flies (Diptera, Calyptratae occurring in the urban area of Medellín-Colombia is presented. 27 species belonging to 4 families are reported. Data were obtained from field work and recent bibliography references.Se presenta una lista actualizada de moscas necrófagas (Diptera, Calyptratae presentes en el área urbana del municipio de Medellín. Se registran 27 especies incluidas en cuatro familias. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de recolectas en campo y referencias bibliográficas.
Full Text Available Обзор рода Cheilosia (Diptera, Syrphidae из Ирана. Хаганинья С., Казерани Ф. - На основа- нии изучения литературных данных и материалов, собранных авторами в провинции Восточный Азербайджан в 2010-2012, представлен список 14 видов Cheilosia Meigen, 1822, известных из Ира- на. Четыре из них: Cheilosia mutabilis (Fallién, 1817, C. nigripes (Meigen, 1822, C. variabilis (Panzer, 1798 и C. vulpina (Meigen, 1822, отмечены впервые для Ирана. Приведены диагностические при- знаки и сведения о распространении видов. Составлена иллюстрированная таблица для определе- ния видов Cheilosia, обитающих в Иране.
Nedeljković, Z.; Ačanski, J.; Đan, M.; Obreht-Vidaković, D.; Ricarte, A.; Vujić, A.
Integrative taxonomy tests the validity of taxa using methods additional to traditional morphology. The existence of two different morphotypes in specimens identified as Chrysotoxum vernale Loew (Diptera: Syrphidae) prompted their taxonomic study using an integrative approach that included
Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0
The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...
Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.).; Controle pos-colheita de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.)
Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza
The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)
Encontro do parasita Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae em Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae no Brasil Finding of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasite breeding in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Brazil
Carlos H Marchiori
Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de Hemencyrtus herbertii parasitando pupas de Musca domestica em fezes humanas no Brasil.This is the first report of the occurrence of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasitizing pupae of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in human feces in Brazil.
Host plants of Solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of Bactrocera(Bactrocera)latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), Version 1.0
Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. Bactrocera latifrons i...
Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep
Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...
aegypti Linnaeus in its current connotation was Dyar (H. G.) ( 1920 , Insecutor Ins&. menst. 8 : 204). Dyar’s identification of this species was not...JUL 1962 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1962 to 00-00-1962 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Culex Aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Insecta, Diptera... CULEX AEGYPTI LINNAEUS, 1762 (INSECTA, DIPTERA); PRO- POSED VALIDATION AND INTERPRETATION UNDER THE PLENARY POWERS OF THE SPECIES SO NAMED. Z.N.(S
Cruz,Ivan; Silva,Rafael Braga da; Figueiredo,Maria de Lourdes Corrêa; Penteado-Dias,Angélica Maria; Sarto,Mário César Laboissiérè Del; Nuessly,Gregg Stephen
Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskalin Brazil. Species of Euxesta (Diptera, Ulidiidae), known as silk flies or ear flies, are becoming increasingly important as maize insect pests in South America, although very little is known about them in Brazil. The larvae of some species of this genus initially damage female reproductive tissues, and then the developing kernels on the ear. As a result of feeding, fermentation and ass...
181 Tropical Biomedicine 28(1): 181–187 (2011) Research Note Updated distribution records for Anopheles vagus ( Diptera : Culicidae) in the Republic of...Anopheles vagus ( Diptera : Culicidae) in the Republic of Philippines, and considerations regarding its secondary vector roles in Southeast Asia 5a...on cows and water buffalos and was usually ranked the least attracted to humans of all the Anopheles tested (Reid, 1961, 1968; Bruce-Chwatt et al
ras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. IV. Freqfidcia mensal em armadilhas luminosas (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 80:465-482...r6giones endtmicas leishmaniasis cutbnea del Paraguay. Rev. Med. Paraguay 2:12. Gonzalez, R. B. & 1. Garcia Avila. 1981. Estudio y distribucion de la...50. 1983. Los fleb6tomos del Peru y su distribucion geographica (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae). Rev. Peru. Ent. (1981) 24:183-184. Llanos, B. Z
Full Text Available Four species of Trichomycetes belonging to the order Harpellales are here reponed for the first time for the Iberian Península: Harpellomyces eccentricus Lichtw. & S.T. Moss from Thaumalea larvae (Diptera, Thaumaleidae, Smittium culisetae Lichtw. from mosquito larvae (Diptera, Culicidae, Smittium chironomi Manier and Stachylina nana Lichtw. from midge larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae. All these species are illustrated, described and discussed.Se citan, por primera vez para la Península Ibérica, cuatro especies de Trichomycetes pertenecientes al orden Harpellales: Harpellomyces eccentricus Lichtw. & S.T. Moss en larvas de Thaumalea (Díptera, Thaumaleidae, Smittium culisetae Lichtw. en larvas de mosquito (Díptera, Culicidae, Smittium chironomi Manier y Stachylina nana Lichtw. en larvas de quironómido (Diptera, Chironomidae. Todas estas especies son descritas, ilustradas y comentadas.
First occurrence of Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae in pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in Itumbiara, Goiás State, Brazil/ Primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae em pupas de Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae coletados em plantas de milho em Itumbiara, Goiás
Márcio Cleiber Rabelo Costa
Full Text Available First occurrence of Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitizing pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in Itumbiara, Goiás. This work reports, for the first time, Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitizing pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in a maize crops in Itumbiara, GO. The prevalence was of 33,3%.Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência, de Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitando pupas de Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae em cultura de milho em Itumbiara, GO. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 33,3%.
Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Outbreaks of both BTV and SBV have affected large parts of Europe. The spread of these diseases depends largely on vector distributio...
Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza
The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)
Carlos Brisóla Marcondes
Full Text Available A check-list of new species, descriptions of other sex of previously described species, redescriptions, proposals of synonymy, and new status for species previously in synonymy or described as subspecies for american sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae, for the period 1975-1993, and not included in the revision of Martins el at. (1978, are presented.
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...
Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...
Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S
The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.
Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.
Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.
Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.
Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to
Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a destructive pest of wheat and is mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. Unfortunately, wheat resistance to Hessian fly is often lost when temperatures rise to a certain level. This study analyzed temperature sensitivity of 20 whea...
Irradiation and vapor–heating treatments are commonly used to disinfest the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae), and other pests on mango fruits before export from Thailand to foreign markets. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) used during export of mangoes create...
Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...
Lindh, J.M.; Kännaste, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Faye, I.; Borg-Karlson, A.K.
In this study, a dual-choice oviposition bioassay was used to screen responses of gravid An. gambiae toward 17 bacterial species, previously isolated from Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) midguts or oviposition sites. The 10 isolates from oviposition sites have been identified by
Goot, van der V.S.
Fluke made, during nearly forty years, a literature survey as a supplement to Aldrich’s catalogue of North American Diptera. In the course of the years the South American species were included as well. In the last years of his life FLUKE (1956—1959) assembled his catalogue of neotropical Syrphidae
Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.
Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...
The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...
Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...
House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...
All flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 X 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,348 species. These amount to more than half the number...
House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...
Gustavo Borges Ferro
Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.
Shahid, S A; Hall, R D; Haskell, N H; Merritt, R W
The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrsomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was collected in large numbers as both adults and immatures in the Knoxville, Tennessee, area during 1998 and is likely established there. The distribution of this species in the Old World, isothermal data, and its collection from mid-Michigan during 1998 suggest that it will eventually occupy most of the U.S. The forensic importance of C. rufifacies makes it probable that it will factor into an increasing number of medicolegal cases, but the expanding distribution of this species decreases its utility as a geographic indicator when postmortem movement of decedents is suspected.
where epidemics of dengue fever occur repeatedly. Bagg, C.P. 1917. from Guam). (Collection record for Reties caZopu8 (Cedes aegypt In L.O. Howard...Guam, Marianas Islands (Diptera: Culicidae). Philipp. Ent. 2(1):57-61. Aedes (Stegomyia) bwwi n.sp., p. 58; Anophdes bueaai, A. test&, and A...are identified. Aedes gt&~me?28ɠ and A. pan&n4 account for 75% of the 5,831 mosquitoes identified. Bohart, G.E. and 3.L. Gressitt. 1951. Filth
Gustavo R. SPINELLI
Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.
DA Rosa, Aline Coelho; Lessinger, Ana Cláudia; DE Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a cosmopolitan livestock pest that has caused a great negative impact on the animal production sector throughout the world. Here, we describe 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from H. irritans. The number of alleles found ranged from two to eight per locus and the expected heterozygosity from 0.1421 to 0.7702. These loci are potentially useful for the fine-scale genetic characterization of horn fly populations and provide fundamental information for pest management and planning of control programs. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Echeverry Prieto, Lena Carolina; Zapata Lesmes, Ángela Cristina; Segura, Alexandra; Bello, Felio
El propósito principal de la investigación aquí presentada fue obtener cultivos celulares primarios derivados de Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Esta mosca necrófaga es utilizada para determinar el intervalo post-mortem y en terapia larval. A partir de huevos embrionados, se realizaron explantes en diversos medios de cultivo (Grace, Schneider, MM/VP12, DMEM, Grace/L-15 y L-15), suplementados con 20% de suero fetal bovino. La esterilización del material biológico se efectuó mediante...
El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O
The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.
Poltoratskaya, N V; Pankina, T M; Istratkina, S V; Poltoratskaya, T N; Shikhin, A V
The article provides the data on the incidence of malaria in Tomsk Province since 1935 till present. The results of phenological observations of malarial mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) performed in 2005—2014 in southern Tomsk Province are given. Key dates in life of mosquitoes are determined, including the beginning of departure from wintering sites, emergence of the first preimaginal stages, departure of the first generation of imagoes, the beginning of the 54rr7yu6t' diapause. Terms of the period of possible transfer of malaria in southern Tomsk Province are retrospectively calculated.
Paloma Oliveira Vidal
Full Text Available Wing diagnostic characters for Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex nigripalpus (Diptera, Culicidae. Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex nigripalpus are mosquitoes of public health interest, which can occur sympatrically in urban and semi-urban localities. Morphological identification of these species may be difficult when specimens are not perfectly preserved. In order to suggest an alternative taxonomical diagnosis, wings of these species were comparatively characterized using geometric morphometrics. Both species could be distinguished by wing shape with accuracy rates ranging from 85-100%. Present results indicate that one can identify these species relying only on wing characters when traditional taxonomical characters are not visible.
Gustavo López V
Full Text Available Myasis are parasitic infestations of animals and humans tissues and is caused by fly larvae. This kind of infestation has Public Health importance. In the Colombian biomedical literature the reports about myiasis in humans are scarce. In this paper, we report two cases of patients with gastrointestinal myiasis where the etiologic agents involved were Ornidia obesa and Ornidia sp (Diptera: Syrphidae. The taxonomic identification of the larvae was done at the Colombian Institute of Tropical Medicine and taxonomic confirmation was done at the laboratory of medicine veterinary and Zoology of Sao Pablo University. These two cases of myiasis are of first report in Colombia
Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.
A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.
Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B
Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.
Martin N. Andersson
Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1 are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogues, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogues together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the
Leal, Susana Isabel Pilar Viegas, 1979
Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Ecologia e Gestão Ambiental). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências,2011 Coenosia attenuata Stein, 1903 (Diptera: Muscidae), espécie pertencente ao grupo “tigrina”, é reconhecida por vários autores como predador polífago de importantes pragas agrícolas, tanto no estado larvar como no estado adulto. O trabalho consistiu em ensaios de laboratório para a avaliação da eficácia desta espécie como agente de luta biológica. Comparou-se a actividade predadora de...
Antonio Cesar Rios Leite
Full Text Available The egg and the first instar larva of Dermatobia hominis were described based on observation with a scanning electron microscope.O ovo e a larva de primeiro estágio de Dermatobia hominis são descritos baseados em observações com um microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Comparações morfológicas são feitas com outras espécies de Diptera, particularmente com Cuterebridae.
André Felipe de Araujo Lira
Full Text Available Phoresy is a common dispersal behavior among pseudoscorpions. Neotropical pseudoscorpions, mainly from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, are known for their dispersal relationships with beetles and flies. Here, we report phoretic association among nymphs of Sphenochernes camponoti (Chernetidae and Fannia flies (F. pusio, F. yenhedi, and F. canicularis (Diptera, Fanniidae. Twelve flies, each carrying a young pseudoscorpion, were collected in Caatinga vegetation in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Sphenochernes camponoti is a myrmecophilous pseudoscorpion that lives in Camponotus and Acromyrmex colonies. Despite its association with ants, this pseudoscorpion uses other winged arthropods to disperse. This is the first report of phoresy by Sphenochernes camponoti.
Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.
Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders
Lílian Botelho Praça
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.
Lo Pinto, Sara; Giordani, Giorgia; Tuccia, Fabiola; Ventura, Francesco; Vanin, Stefano
The knowledge of the fauna associated with carrions and cadavers for a specific region plays a fundamental role in the estimation of the time since death in forensic cases. In the last years global warming and globalization have affected the insect species distribution. This phenomenon is affecting also the species of forensic interest associated with the cadaver decomposition. The species distribution shift, in the forensic context, has been mainly observed in Diptera of different family: Calliphoridae, Stratiomyidae and Phoridae. In the last decade the presence of the carrion feeding species, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae), was reported from forensic cases in Spain and in the last year from Italy where the species was collected from 5 bodies in different decomposition stages in the Genoa district. All the records concern indoor cases with the presence of other species belonging to the first colonization waves (e.g. Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae). Different hypothesis about the presence of the species in Italy can be suggested, but the molecular analysis and the importation records support the introduction trough commercial exchanges with Asian countries instead of a variation in the species distribution area from the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gracielle, I M S; Tidon, R; Báo, S N
The Drosophilidae family is formed by Brachycera Diptera distributed widely across different regions of the planet. It is composed of about 4000 species, 304 of which are found in Brazil. The objective of this work was to characterize morphologically the structure of the male internal reproductive apparatus and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon in four Neotropical (Drosophila cardini, D. mercatorum, D. nebulosa and D. sturtevanti) and two invasive (D. simulans and Zaprionus indianus) species of drosophilids. The structural aspect of the internal reproductive apparatus corresponds with that described for other drosophilids; however, there are differences in the size and coloration of the structures, such as the testes, in each species analyzed. The spermatozoon of these species was seen to be long and fine, presenting morphological variation. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon revealed that the morphological pattern is similar to that found in the majority of insects. The head region presents a nucleus with condensed chromatin and the acrosome positioned laterally to the nucleus. In the tail region, the axoneme presents the 9+9+2 pattern commonly described for other species of Diptera. The species presented differences regarding the shape and size of the mitochondrial derivatives. Cytochemical analysis using EPTA also revealed differences in terms of the location of the basic proteins in the mitochondrial derivates. The results obtained contribute to expanding the database for the Drosophilidae family, providing information that may contribute to intra- and inter-specific identification and supplying phylogenetic analyses. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal
Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427 = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Karine Pinto e Vairo
Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Chave pictórica para a identificação das espécies de Sarcophagidae (Diptera de potencial importância forense do sul do Brasil. Espécies da subfamília Sarcophaginae são importantes para a entomologia forense devido ao seu hábito necrófago. Este trabalho apresenta uma chave pictórica para a identificação de 22 espécies de Sarcophaginae de 10 gêneros encontradas na região sul do Brasil. São fornecidas fotografias dos principais estruturas das espécies, principalmente da terminália masculina.
Karlla Patrícia Silva
Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.
Suwanchaichinda, C.; Brattsten, L. B.
Abstract The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system. PMID:25368081
Pezzi, Marco; Scapoli, Chiara; Mamolini, Elisabetta; Leis, Marilena; Bonacci, Teresa; Whitmore, Daniel; Krčmar, Stjepan; Furini, Marica; Giannerini, Sauro; Chicca, Milvia; Cultrera, Rosario; Faucheux, Michel J
The haematophagous females of the cleg fly Haematopota pandazisi (Kröber) (Diptera: Tabanidae) are a common pest in areas inhabited by wild and domestic ungulates in southern Europe, North Africa and Anatolia. A morphological investigation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out for the first time on the antennae of females of H. pandazisi, with special attention to the type and distribution of sensilla and microtrichia. The typical brachyceran antenna is divided into three regions: the scape, the pedicel and the flagellum, which is the longest of the three and is composed of four flagellomeres. The scape and pedicel are characterized by only one type of microtrichium and chaetic sensillum, whereas five types of microtrichia and sensilla were identified on the flagellum and classified according to shape and distribution. The sensilla are of the chaetic, clavate, basiconic, trichoid and coeloconic types; the latter with either a basiconic or grooved peg inside. The results obtained in this study were compared to those found in other species in the family Tabanidae and other Diptera, with special attention to haematophagous species.
Pinto, M C; Barbieri, K; Silva, M C E; Graminha, M A S; Casanova, C; Andrade, A J; Eiras, A E
The kairomone octenol is known as attractive to hematophagous Diptera such as mosquitoes, tsetse flies, and midges. There is little evidence that traps baited with octenol are also effective in attracting phlebotomine sand flies. The present report evaluated octenol in modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps in two experiments: 1) modified CDC trap without light and 2) modified CDC trap with light. The traps were baited with octenol at concentrations of 0.5, 27, and 43 mg/h in Rincão locality, São Paulo, Brazil. Traps without octenol were used as controls. The sand fly Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (= Lutzomyia neivai) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) was the prevalent species (99.9%) in both experiments. The results of the experiments showed that traps baited with octenol at 27 and 43 mg/h caught significantly more N. neivai than control and octenol at 0.5 mg/h with and without light. This is the first report that shows that octenol itself is attractive to N. neivai and associated with light traps significantly increases the catches.
Raja M. Zuha
Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.
Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.
The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [es
Dohino, Toshiyuki; Hallman, Guy J; Grout, Timothy G; Clarke, Anthony R; Follett, Peter A; Cugala, Domingos R; Minh Tu, Duong; Murdita, Wayan; Hernandez, Emilio; Pereira, Rui; Myers, Scott W
Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003 it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent, destroying fruits and creating regulatory barriers to their export. The insect is causing new nutritional and economic losses across Africa, as well as the losses it has caused for decades in infested areas of Asia, New Guinea, and Hawaii. This new panorama represents a challenge for fruit exportation from Africa. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export quarantined commodities out of infested areas to areas where the pest does not exist and could become established. This paper describes current phytosanitary treatments against B. dorsalis and their use throughout the world, the development of new treatments based on existing research, and recommendations for further research to provide phytosanitary solutions to the problem. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J
Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dytiscidae (6) and the Noteridae (3). They were followed by Diptera (23), dominated by. Chironomidae (4) and Simuliidae (4). Within the non-insect fauna we found an important diversity in Molluscs, with several species reported for Burkina Faso (Table 1). Thus, a total of 15 taxa of gastropod composed of. Bulinidae (6) ...
Psychomyiidae, and Polycentropidae. Beetles of the family Elmidae should be present and dipterans such as the Chironomidae and Simuliidae should be common...bipunctatum* Common I Coleoptera Gyrinidae Dineutus* Common Elmidae 1Macronychus Common Neo elmi s Common Haliplidae Uncommon * Diptera S imul lid ae Cnephia
Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae Morphological abnormalities in different structures of five species of Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae
Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.Diverse morphological anomalies in five different species of Lutzomyia França (Diptera: Pychodidae are described and illustrated. These theratologies are observed in various structures important for the taxonomic identification of the species. The different individuals that belong to the species L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai and L. panamensis were captured in diverse departments in Colombia.
Parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae coletados em pupários no substrato rim bovino Parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae collected in pupae in the bovine kidney
Jean Patrick Bonani
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo, identificar as principais espécies de parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, cujas larvas foram alimentadas com rim bovino. As coletas foram realizadas durante o período de agosto de 2003 a março de 2004. Um total de 921 parasitóides foram coletados em 942 pupas dessa mosca. A prevalência natural de parasitismo foi de 97%.The study aimed at identifying the main parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. The larvae were feed on bovine kidney. Samplings were conducted from August 2003 to March 2004, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 921 parasitoids in 942 pupae fly were collected. The prevalence natural parasitism was 97%.
Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil
Carlos Henrique Marchiori
Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.
Castro, Angela; Korytkowski, Cheslavo; Ebratt, Everth; Brochero, Helena L.
Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) is a species that previously was not described formally and is regarded as an undetermined pest affecting buds of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener. This study evaluated material collected in 10 departments of Colombia where passion fruit crops constitute an important economic income. Data of geographical distribution and passion fruit crops associated with Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. are presented.
Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa
Full Text Available Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae in Brazil.
Ogo, Ndudim I.; Galindo, Ruth C.; Lastra, José M. P. de la; Fuente, José de la
Myiasis-causing larvae were extracted from dogs attending veterinary clinics in Plateau State, Nigeria and subjected to molecular analysis involving polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 28S rRNA gene of blowflies, cloning and sequencing techniques. All larvae were confirmed as Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae) after the initial morphological identification. This is the first molecular identification of any myiasis-causing fly species in Nigeria and ma...
Neelamegam Rameshkumar; Sankarappan Anbalagan; Nagarajan Kayalvizhi; Rasiravuthanahalli Kaveriyappan Govindarajan; Vimalanathan Arun Prasanna; Muthukalingan Krishnan
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of extraction methodology for the proposed DNA from the ethanol preserved black flies (Simuliidae: Diptera). Methods: This study addressed a simple and effective protocol for extraction of DNA from black flies stored in the ethanol. The sizes of larval and adult black flies ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 mm and 3 to 7 mm, respectively. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology, the DNA was extracted from the ethanol preserved sample ...
Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L.; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J.; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K.; Carter, David O.; Turner, Helen
Entomological protocols for aging blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analysing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically-important blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical me...
Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel
Bactrocera (Bactrocera) kohkongiae Leblanc (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), from the Koh Kong Province of Cambodia, is described as new. This species belongs to the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) complex. Genetic sequences (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF1α and Period) are deposited in GenBank. A haplotype network, based on the COI sequences for 21 specimens, shows high genetic diversity. New country records from Cambodia are included for 22 species.
Full Text Available A new hoverfly species, Cheilosia barbafacies Vujić & Radenković sp. n. (Diptera, Syrphidae, is described and distinguished from the closely related species C. pascuorum Becker, 1894, based on material collected from the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula. Diagnostic characteristics and an identification key for the members of the proxima group of Cheilosia s. str., including the new taxon, are provided.
and transmission. Any hamster that survived 21 d af- guinea pigs (Davis et al. 1991). ter being fed upon by a mosquito with a dissem- Serial 10-fold...AD-A259 565 Experimental Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by a Strain of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) S1 ls from...Gentilly strain of Ae. albopictus after ingestion of 1 0o. PFU of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (combined data from two infectious feeding
Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Ayala Mingol, Ildefonso; Sanchis Cabanes, Juan; Primo Millo, Jaime; Moya Sanz, Mª Del Pilar
[EN] Biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using entomopathogenic fungi is being studied as a viable control strategy. The efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)-based attractant contaminant device (ACD) to control C. capitata was evaluated in a medium-scale (40 ha) 2-yr field trial using a density of 24 ACD per ha. Results showed that this density was adequate to efficiently reduce fruitfly popula...
plified polymorphic DNA in the population genet- ics and systematics of grasshoppers . Genome 35: 569-574. Galvgo ALA, Damesceno RG 1942. Sobre urn...iynchus) albitarsis by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA -Polymerase Chain Reaction (Diptera: Culicidae) Richard C Wilkerson/+, Thomas V Caffigan, Jo...Instituto de Biologia do ExCrcito, Rua Francisco Manuel 102, 2091 l-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Species-specific Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa
Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.
Hesler, Louis S.
This study reports on the attractiveness of volatile chemicals to green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) as measured by catch on yellow sticky traps within corn [Zea mays L.?(Cyperales: Poaceae)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae)] plots. Green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in two tests in soybean plots. Follow-up testing in corn showed that catch of green lacewings was enhanced when traps were baited with eugeno...
Eizemberg, Roberto; Sabagh, Leandro Talione; Mello, Renata da Silva
Myiasis in anurans is usually caused by diptera from the Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Chloropidae, and Muscidae families. In this study, one case of cloacal myiasis and one of oral myiasis were registered in Aplastodiscus arildae, caused by Notochaeta bufonivora in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil. With this report, a new host is listed for N. bufonivora, the first case of tree-frog myiasis caused by sarcophagid flies and the first occurrence of hylid myiasis in the Neotropical area.
Borkent, Art; Brown, Brian V
A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting on-site, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to
Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico
Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.
Iannacone, José; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).; Alvariño, Lorena; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).
El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la ecotoxicidad del cartap (Bala® 50 PS) sobre ocho organismos animales no destinatarios: 1) Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca), 2) Emerita analoga (Stimpson, 1857) (Crustácea), 3) Chironomus calligraphus Goeldi, 1805 (Diptera), 4) Cyprinus carpio (Linné, 1758) (Osteichyties), 5) Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826) (Annelida), 6) Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera), 7) Trichogramma fuentesi Torre, 1980 (Hymenoptera) y 8...
"Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares
Luis M. Hernández
Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium
Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae occurs in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It is known in the Neotropical Region from fifteen species. The genus is here recorded for the first time from Costa Rica, on the basis of three species: G. auriceps Malloch, 1934; G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, 1893 and G. tropicalis Malloch, 1934. A key for the recognition of these three species is given. G. auriceps is redescribed, including the morphology of male and female terminalia and the male of G. tropicalis is described for the first time. For G. mexicana, a well-known species in the literature, only a brief diagnosis and the material examined are listed.
dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José
Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype). PMID:24715786
Denise Cristina Sant'Ana
Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of the genus Anopheles Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus striatus n. sp., preliminary designated as Anopheles CP Form, from Brazil, is here validated and described using morphological characteristics of the egg, fourth-instar larva, pupa, female and male genitalia. The species is morphologically more similar to species of the Strodei Subgroup of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus than to any other species of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus Blanchard. However, adult female that can be misidentified with Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane if the identification is mainly based on the ratio of dark and white scales of the hindtarsomere 2. In addition, the characterization of the new species includes aspects of its bionomics, and geographical distribution. The new species is known from Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais and Paraná states, in Brazil. Diagnostic characters for the identification of the species are provided.
Kotrba, M; Heß, M
In this study we describe a new kind of sperm gigantism in the stalk-eyed fly, Diasemopsis comoroensis (Diptera, Diopsidae). The sperm cells have a length of up to 1.7 mm and can be coiled into a compact 'slinky' spiral. Their ultrastructure involves a prominent electron dense central band, which runs the entire length of the sperm tail and in some regions constitutes its largest element in cross section. We propose that this organelle is either a giant centriole adjunct or a kind of accessory body derived from it, and that it takes part in coiling the sperm tail. To our knowledge, no comparable structure has been described before. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.
Full Text Available The Diptera (true flies is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.
C. S. Prabhakar
Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett, Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi, Bactrocera tau (Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.
Kevin M. O'Neill
Full Text Available The robber fly Cyrtopogon willistoni Curran was studied in SW Montana, where it was an opportunistic predator of relatively small insects from 25 families in 7 orders. The most common prey were Diptera (44% and Homoptera (21%, with Cicadellidae, Bibionidae, and Formicidae comprising 44% of the prey. The elaborate courtship behavior of males included audible airborne visual displays that made use of silvery-white combs of hairs on the males' foretarsi. While perching, the flies exhibited both lateral and dorsal basking postures, and were apparently capable of strong flight only when direct sunlight was available. I compare the foraging and courtship behaviors of C. willistoni to those of other Cyrtopogon, and their thermal responses to those of other robber flies in the same habitat.
Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.
Barnard, Donald R; Xue, Rui-De; Rotstein, Margaret A; Becnel, James J
Infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) reduced mean human host attraction and landing/probing rates in female mosquitoes by 53 and 62%, respectively, compared with rates in microsporidia-free females. Infection with E. aedis reduced the average weight of unfed female mosquitoes by 4%, caused them to imbibe 23% less blood, and to lay 30% fewer eggs than healthy females. In contrast, E. aedis-infected mosquitoes required 20% more time (>1 h) than healthy females to bite skin treated with 15% DEET. Statistically significant morbidity in E. aedis-infected females was indicated by reductions in host attraction and landing/probing responses, the mass of unfed and blood-engorged females, and fecundity, and by increased DEET repellency.
Background Phylogenetic analyses provide a framework for examining the evolution of morphological and molecular diversity, interpreting patterns in biogeography, and achieving a stable classification. The generic and suprageneric relationships within mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are poorly resolved, making these subjects difficult to address. Results We carried out maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood, including Bayesian, analyses on a data set consisting of six nuclear genes and 80 morphological characters to assess their ability to resolve relationships among 25 genera. We also estimated divergence times based on sequence data and fossil calibration points, using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. Strong support was recovered for the basal position and monophyly of the subfamily Anophelinae and the tribes Aedini and Sabethini of subfamily Culicinae. Divergence times for major culicid lineages date to the early Cretaceous. Conclusions Deeper relationships within the family remain poorly resolved, suggesting the need for additional taxonomic sampling. Our results support the notion of rapid radiations early in the diversification of mosquitoes. PMID:20028549
Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J
From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study.
Guilherme S. SCHÜHLI
Full Text Available A survey of the Muscid (Diptera fauna of the Mbaracayú forest is presented. The forest is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve located in Cuenca Alta del Río Jejuí, Canindeyú department, eastern Paraguay. The paper constitutes the first Muscid survey for Paraguay and contributes for the main priorities of the Paraguayan Plan Estratégico del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas. The specimens were sampled in five different biomes within the park area during 1996. The sampling method employed continuous sampling with malaise traps. The survey accounted for 22 genera and 52 species, comprising four genera (Dolichophaonia Carvalho, Haematobia Le Peletier, Sarcopromusca Townsend, and Stomoxys Geoffroy and 21 species not yet registered for Paraguay. The results included sampled specimens information including biome, date and taxonomic position.
Winterton, Shaun L
The Australasian spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are reviewed, with all eight currently recognized genera diagnosed and figured. The panopine genus Panops Lamarck, 1804 from Australia and Indonesia is revised with four new species described, increasing the total number of species in the genus to nine: Panops aurumsp. n., Panops danielsisp. n., Panops jadesp. n. and Panops schlingerisp. n. Five species of Panops are redescribed: Panops austrae Neboiss, 1971, Panops baudini Lamarck, 1804, Panops boharti (Schlinger, 1959), comb. n., Panops conspicuus (Brunetti, 1926) and Panops grossi (Neboiss, 1971), comb. n. The monotypic genera Neopanops Schlinger, 1959 and Panocalda Neboiss, 1971 are synonymized with Panops. Keys to genera of Australasian Acroceridae and species of Panops, Helle Osten Sacken, 1896 and Australasian Pterodontia Gray, 1832 are included.
Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes
The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.
Ohler, Bonnie J; Guédot, Christelle; Zack, Richard S; Landolt, Peter J
Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I. germanica flowers elicited attraction of T. glabra to the flowers. This study suggests that I. pallida flowers may attract T. glabra males to aggregate because they release the known attractant, methyl anthranilate, whereas I. germanica flowers may not be attractive because they do not release methyl anthranilate. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Julia J. Mlynarek
Full Text Available We review the taxonomy and ecology of Chloropidae (Diptera associated with pitcher plants (Sarraceniaceae in North America. Tricimba wheeleri Mlynarek sp.n. is described from the pitchers of Sarracenia alata Alph.Wood and S. leucophylla Raf. in the southeastern United States (Alabama, Mississippi. Aphanotrigonum darlingtoniae (Jones associated with Darlingtonia californica Torr. in northern California is redescribed, including the first description of male genitalic characters. A lectotype is designated for A. darlingtoniae. Published records of other species of Tricimba Lioy in pitcher plants in North America are considered accidental or facultative occurrences; published records of Aphanotrigonum Duda as pitcher plant associates in eastern North America are probably errors in identification.
Full Text Available Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae is a forensically important blow fly species presented in many countries. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. Morphological features of all stages based on observing under a light microscope were described and demonstrated in order to use for identification purpose. Moreover, development time in each stage was given. The developmental time of H. ligurriens to complete metamorphosis; from egg, larva, pupa to adult, took 270.71 h for 1 cycle of development. The results from this study may be useful not only for application in forensic investigation, but also for study in its biology in the future.
WERMELINGER E. D.
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate, in laboratory, the development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae, vectors of leishmaniasis in Brazil, in the following diets: industrialized food for rabbits, dogs, hamsters and aquarium fishes, besides liver powder, cooked lettuce, wheat germ, beer yeast, oat, wheat bran and a diet denominated aged food. Except wheat bran for L. intermedia, all diets provided adequate development for both species, which showed that any of them can be used in laboratory insectaries for these insects. L. intermedia showed better development with most nutritious diets and both species presented better development with aged food. Fungi as an additional nutrient source for L. intermedia and L. longipalpis is suggested.
Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes
The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.
Full Text Available Se describen los estadios inmaduros de Lu. walkeri (Newstead, 1914 (Diptera: Psychodidae. El huevo y la larva son similares a los de Lu. bahiensis, Lu. lenti y Lu. migonei. La pupa muestra una más grande similitud con la de Lu. lenti, particularmente en la desigual longitud de las cerdas del par 10. El aspecto general de la larva corresponde a una especie que, de acuerdo a Hanson (1968, sus larvas permanecen por debajo del substrato de su comida en los cultivos o colonias de laboratorio y probablemente también sucede lo mismo en su habitat natural. Infortunadamente, los estadios inmaduros no han sido encontrados en condiciones naturales. Las descripciones se basan en material de una colonia de Lu. walkeri que se mantiene en el Laboratorio de Entomología del Instituto Nacional de Salud de Bogotá, Colombia, S.A.
Grant T McQuate
Full Text Available Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae, is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives” which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae, of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa . Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported.
Full Text Available Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants. In this study, we examined the interactions between myrmecophilous aphids, their ant-guards and a predatory syrphid species, Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Larvae of this predator were found in the colonies of three aphid species: Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and Toxoptera sp., which were tended by eight ant species, especially Camponotus. Hoverfly larvae managed to infiltrate the aphid colonies and consume nymphs. Predator larvae exhibited inconspicuous movements and were not detected by ants which were commonly observed touching and antennating the larvae they come into contact. These results suggest that behavioral and chemical cues are involved in the infiltration and on the successful predation of syrphids upon aphids.
Full Text Available The circadian changes in morphology of the first visual neuropil or lamina of Diptera represents an example of the neuronal plasticity controlled by the circadian clock (circadian plasticity. It is observed in terminals of the compound eye photoreceptor cells, the peripheral oscillators expressing the clock genes. However, it has been found also in their postsynaptic partners, the L1 and L2 monopolar cells, in which the activity of the clock genes have not yet been detected. The circadian input that the L1 and L2 receive seems to originate not only from the retina photoreceptors and from the circadian pacemaker neurons located in the brain, but also from the glial cells that express the clock genes and thus contain circadian oscillators. This paper summarizes the morphological and biochemical rhythms in glia of the optic lobe, shows how they contribute to circadian plasticity, and discusses how glial clocks may modulate circadian rhythms in the lamina.
Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena
In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India, Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal, Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand; Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania, Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya; Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates astrictus sp. n. (Kenya, Syllegomydas (Notobates heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda, Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe. Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates dispar (Loew, 1852, which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species.
Renkema, Justin M; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Hallett, Rebecca H
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a recent invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Europe. Carpophagous larvae render fruit unmarketable and may promote secondary rot-causing organisms. To monitor spread and develop programs to time application of controls, further work is needed to optimize trap design and trapping protocols for adult D. suzukii. We compared commercial traps and developed a new, easy-to-use plastic jar trap that performed well compared with other designs. For some trap types, increasing the entry area led to increased D. suzukii captures and improved selectivity for D. suzukii when populations were low. However, progressive entry area enlargement had diminishing returns, particularly for commercial traps. Unlike previous studies, we found putting holes in trap lids under a close-fitting cover improved captures compared with holes on sides of traps. Also, red and black traps outperformed yellow and clear traps when traps of all colors were positioned 10-15 cm apart above crop foliage. In smaller traps, attractant surface area and entry area, but not other trap features (e.g., headspace volume), appeared to affect D. suzukii captures. In the new, plastic jar trap, tripling attractant volume (360 vs 120 ml) and weekly attractant replacement resulted in the highest D. suzukii captures, but in the larger commercial trap these measures only increased by-catch of large-bodied Diptera. Overall, the plastic jar trap with large entry area is affordable, durable, and can hold high attractant volumes to maximize D. suzukii capture and selectivity. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.
Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly species was unexpectedly detected in Tephri traps baited with the three-component female-biased attractant BioLure that is regularly used for monitoring the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Montenegro. Brief visual inspection identified the new species as the spotted wing drosophila D. suzukii. The pest was first recorded in several localities on the Montenegrin seacoast around Boka Kotor Bay. After the finding, all Drosophila specimens were collected from traps for further laboratory observation. A quick follow-up monitoring of other Tephri traps was carried out within the next few days on the rest of the seacoast (localities from Tivat to Ulcinj. Additionally, Tephri traps were set up around Lake Skadar and in the city of Podgorica, as well as on fresh fruit markets in Podgorica. The results of this preliminary study showed that D. suzukii was present in all surveyed locations and adults were captured until late December. Both sexes were found in traps with BioLure. Our data show that D. suzukii is present in southern parts of Montenegro and there is a serious threat of its further spreading, particularly towards northern parts of the country where the main raspberry and blueberry production is placed. The results also show that Tephri traps baited with BioLure can be used for detection and monitoring of spotted wing drosophila.
Vinícius Soares Sturza
Full Text Available First record of larvae of Allograpta exotica Wiedemann (Diptera, Syrphidae preying on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae in watermelon in Brazil. Brazil is one of the largest world producers of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thumb. Mansf. and Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae is among the most important pest on this crop. Larvae of Allograpta exotica Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Syrphidae were found preying on A. gossypii in watermelon crop, in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, what represents the first report of this tritrophic association in Brazil.
Full Text Available During the annual fly survey at Doi Nang Kaew in Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province of Thailand in 2011, Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (Diptera: Calliphoridae were collected for the first time in Thailand. They are the rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini. Prior to this finding, fifteen species of Isomyia and two species of Sumatria were recorded from Thailand. Therefore, 96 blow fly species have been found in this country. These new locality records of both flies are very important for further research on their biology and ecology in Thailand.
Spacek, J.; Koza, V.; Havlicek, V.
There are 2 saprobiology monitoring profiles and 1 faunictic research profile on Orlice river, 5 saprobiology monitoring profiles and 2 faunictic research profile on Divoka Orlice river, 4 saprobiology monitoring profiles on Ticha Orlice river. It was collected 255 taxons of macrozoobentos on long therm research in years 1996-2002. Number of taxons: Turbellaria 3, Oligochaeta 13, Nematomorpha 1, Hirudinea 4, Gastropoda 6, Bivalvia 4, Malacostraca 3, Hydracarina 1, Odonata 4, Ephemeroptera 42, Plecoptera 28, Heteroptera 1, Megaloptera 2, Coleoptera 6, Trichoptera 70, Diptera 16, Diptera - Chironomidae 40, Diptera - Simuliidae 11. On locality Blesno - Orlice was discovered very rare plecoptera species Agnetina elegantula (KLAPALEK, 1905), on locality Chocen - Ticha Orlice was discovered rare chironomidae species Symposiocladius lignicola (KIEFFER, 1915). (authors)
Identification of the species of the Cheilosia variabilis group (Diptera, Syrphidae) from the Balkan Peninsula using wing geometric morphometrics, with the revision of status of C. melanopa redi Vujic, 1996
Francuski, Lj.; Vujic, A.; Kovacevic, A.; Ludoski, J.; Milankov, V.
The present study investigates phenotypic differentiation patterns among four species of the Cheilosia variabilis group (Diptera, Syrphidae) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric approach. Herein, wing geometric morphometrics established species boundaries that confirm C. melanopa and C.
S132 Journal of Vector Ecology March 2011 Oral treatment of rodents with insecticides for control of sand flies ( Diptera : Psychodidae) and the...insecticides for control of sand flies ( Diptera : Psychodidae) and the fluorescent tracer technique (FTT) as a tool to evaluate potential sand fly control... attractiveness of different sugar baits to sand flies. DISCUSSION Survival of sand fly larvae was greatly reduced when they were fed feces of
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive, polyphagous fruit fly that attacks soft-skinned fruits. Originally from Asia, D. suzukii has successfully invaded the United States as well as European and South American countries. Currently, calendar-based insecticide applicat...
Michael W. Gates; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Michael E. Schauff
Pediobius chylizae, spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described as new and illustrated. This parasitoid has been reared from the puparia of Chyliza apicalis Loew (Diptera: Psilidae) collected from under the bark of ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus spp.) dying after attack by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleptera: Buprestidae), an invasive...
Contarinia geonomae Gagné, new species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from galls found on the infructescences of Geonoma cuneata (Arecaceae) in Costa Rica. The galls are cylindrical in shape and develop concurrently with or instead of the spherical fruit. The larval chamber is located at the...
Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the Oriental fruit fly, is regulated through the Plant Protection Act of 2000 (7 U.S.C. 7701-7772) and relevant Parts and Subparts of the Code of Federal Regulations (7 CFR – Agriculture). Presented herein is a compre...
Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas; Hudson, William G.
The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology of the se...
Chavez, A. Orozco , E.G. Loyola and A. Martinez-Palomo. 1992b. Scanning election microscopic observations ofAnopheles albimanus (Diptera; Culicidae) eggs...source (Blak-ray Lampl\\ model UVL-56, UVP, San Gabriel , CAl, floor, walls and ceiling ofhuts were carefully inspected for position and numbers ofmarked
Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate animal behavior related to succession on ephemeral resources is critical for elucidating food web dynamics and nutrient recycling. Blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonization and utilization of vertebrate carrion serve as a model for such studies, as the...
Many countries operate trapping programs to detect invasions of pestiferous fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Surveillance relies heavily on traps baited with male lures, which, while powerful, have limited effectiveness, because (i) they are sex-specific and (ii) males of some species do no...
The Diptera are a group of insects with only a single pair of wings (forewings), and are considered monophyletic (originating from a common ancestor). The flight muscle in Diptera has features not observed in other insects, such as the long Pro-Ala-rich peptide associated with tropomyosin, not with troponin-I as in other insects, and the formation of a superlattice by myosin filaments analogous to that in vertebrate skeletal muscle. Here we describe X-ray diffraction patterns from the flight muscle of a mosquito, Toxorhynchites towadensis (Culicidae), belonging to a primitive group of Diptera. The diffraction pattern indicates that myosin filaments in the flight muscle of this species do not form a superlattice. X-ray diffraction also shows meridional reflections that are not observed in other dipterans, but are present in the patterns from bumblebee (Hymenoptera) flight muscle. These observations suggest that the superlattice structure evolved after the common ancestor of Diptera had diverged from other insects. The flight muscle of mosquito may retain primitive structural features that are shared by Hymenoptera.
Sabethes) carriLLoi sp. n. de Venezuela. Bo!. Dir. Malariol. Saneamiento Ambiental 18:199- 204. Ward, RA 1984. Second supplement to "A catalog of the mosquitoes of the world" (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 16:227- 270.
Temperate fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) have narrow host ranges relative to those of tropical fruit flies, suggesting they will not attack or are incapable of developing in most novel fruit. Here we tested the hypothesis that apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Wals...
Kent, Alida D.; Dos Santos, Thiago V.; Gangadin, Anielkoemar; Samjhawan, Ashok; Mans, Dennis R. A.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.
Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.)
Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker
Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP) is provided, with information on 30 type specimens (including 14 primary types) of 17 Neotropical species.
The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...
Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...
Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...
Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence
Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...
Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...
Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...
José Roberto Pujol-Luz
Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae A cronologia e as mudanças morfológicas que ocorrem durante o desenvolvimento intra-pupal de Chrysomya albiceps são descritos com base em 254 espécimes criados em laboratório. As larvas foram obtidas a partir os ovos postos por uma única fêmea. As pré-pupas foram separadas de acordo com a redução do comprimento larval, o grau de pigmentação e esclerotização da cutícula, depois da formação das pupas, 10 indivíduos foram fixados em solução de Carnoy e conservados em etanol
Leblanc, Luc; Rubinoff, Daniel; Vargas, Roger I
Synthetic male lures are commonly used to monitor and mass trap pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). However, there has been much dispute as to the nontarget impacts of such lures on beneficial and native insects. To evaluate nontarget attraction effects, traps baited with Cue-Lure and methyl eugenol were maintained and emptied weekly in a range of native and non-native forest and commercial orchard and backyard sites on Hawaii and Maui Islands. Lure trap captures were compared against those from unbaited control traps and traps artificially baited with decaying fruit flies to mimic the effect of accumulation of dead trapped target flies in male lure traps. Cue-Lure did not attract nontargets, and methyl eugenol attracted low but significant numbers of five species of flower-associated insects (honey bees, syrphid flies, nitidulid beetles, and endemic crambid moths) and two endemic Hawaiian species of sciarids (Diptera) and mirids (Hemiptera). Saprophagous nontargets, mostly Diptera, were abundant and diverse in traps baited with decaying flies and in male lure traps where accumulation of dead flies occurred but not in male lure traps with few or no fruit fly captures. Most of the previously published records of attraction to methyl eugenol are shown to actually be secondary attraction to decaying fruit flies. Endemic nontargets were collected in native and adjacent forest, but almost exclusively invasive species were attracted to traps placed in non-native habitats. Attraction of flower-associated species may be minimized if methyl eugenol traps are placed in trees after flowering season in orchards.
Julio A. Genaro
Full Text Available S. signata es una de las avispas de la arena más frecuentemente observada en los cayos y las costas de Cuba. Las hembras construyen los nidos en la arena y los abastecen con moscas, para alimentar a la descendencia. Se describe la conducta de dos especies: Liohippelates n. sp. circa collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae y Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae para penetrar al interior de los nidos de S. signata. Las observaciones se efectuaron durante 1989 hasta 1991, en playa Caimito, sur de la provincia de La Habana, Cuba. Liohippelates cleptoparasitó el 100% de los nidos. Sus larvas necrófagas se alimentaron de los restos de las presas dejadas por la larva de S. signata, sin afectarla. Sólo en un caso la larva mostró signos de mortalidad, porque además del número alto de cleptoparásitos inmaduros, habían 53 moscas adultas alimentándose de los fluidos corporales de las presas. Hexacola sp. fue un parasitoide de las larvas de Liohippelates, en el interior de las celdillas. A pesar del elevado cleptoparasitismo, la población del esfécido se mantuvo elevada durante los años de observación.Stictia signata is one of the most frequently observed sand wasps in the Cuban keys and coasts. Females build their nests in the sand and supply them with flies to feed offspring. Here, I describe the behavior of two species, Liohippelates n. sp. near collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae and Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae, which enter the nests of S. signata. The observations were carried out from 1989 through 1991 in Caimito beach, Southern Havana province, Cuba. Liohippelates inhabited 100% of the nests. Its necrofagous larvae fed on the remnants of prey left by the larva of S. signata, without affecting the larva. Only in one case did the larva show signs of mortality because, apart from the high number of immature cleptoparasites, there were 53 adult flies feeding on prey body fluids. Hexacola sp. parasitized the larvae of Liohippelates within the
Clariza Samayoa, Ana; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28ºC (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28ºC (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), ﬁnite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R 0 ), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d -1 ), 1.0759 (d -1 ), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars. La mosca soldado negro, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), fue alimentada en una dieta artificial (salvado de trigo y alimento para pollos) en el laboratorio a 28ºC (estados inmaduros) y en un invernadero a 28ºC (adultos). Los datos fueron recopilados y analizados en base a la tabla de vida de ambos sexos, edad y etapa. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (r), tasa finita de crecimiento (λ), la tasa neta de reproducción (R 0 ) y el tiempo medio generacional (T) fueron 0.0759 (d), 1.0759 (d), 68.225 crías, y 55.635 (d), respectivamente. El valor reproductivo máximo de las hembras se produjo a los 54 días. Sólo 6 de las 21 hembras fueron capaces de poner huevos con éxito. El número de huevos por hembra varió de 236 a un máximo de 1088 huevos. Hemos demostrado que cuando han sido criados en una dieta artificial, las larvas de H. illucens durante el primer instar son más susceptibles a perecer que los instares posteriores. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo
Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological
Full Text Available New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, M. thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, M. monstera Maximova, 2002, M. uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002.
Jakovlev, Jevgeni; Salmela, Jukka; Polevoi, Alexei; Penttinen, Jouni; Vartija, Noora-Annukka
New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomyashewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomyathula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemiatrifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosiagracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfeliakrivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophilabiformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilamonstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilauschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichontapalustris Maximova, 2002.
Ndudim I. Ogo
Full Text Available Myiasis-causing larvae were extracted from dogs attending veterinary clinics in Plateau State, Nigeria and subjected to molecular analysis involving polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 28S rRNA gene of blowflies, cloning and sequencing techniques. All larvae were confirmed as Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae after the initial morphological identification. This is the first molecular identification of any myiasis-causing fly species in Nigeria and may serve as a reliable alternative to morphological identification where samples are not well preserved or difficult to identify to species level.
Galindo Cuervo, Aleidy Maritza
Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridade) es una mosca copronecrófaga, de gran importancia a nivel médico, veterinario, forense y ecológico por su papel en procesos de descomposición. En insectos diurnos, la visión al igual que el olfato es fundamental para ubicarse espacialmente. En este trabajo se evaluó bajo condiciones de laboratorio la respuesta de los ojos compuestos y la atracción que ejercen diferentes longitudes de onda sobre L. sericata a nivel comportamental y electrofisiológico. ...
Vieira, E M
The occurrence and prevalence of Metacuterebra apicalis (Diptera: Cuterebridae) in natural populations of Oryzomys subflavus, Bolomys lasiurus, and Thalpomys cerradensis (Rodentia: Muridae) from August 1990 to July 1992 in the cerrado, a common savanna-like vegetation type of central Brazil, are reported. An increase in bot infection in the 3 rodent species between October 1991 and July 1992 without correlation to precipitation was detected. The prevalence was lower than in neotropical forest formations. Mean intensity was 1.3 bots (range 1-2) for T. cerradensis and 1 bot for B. lasiurus and O. subflavus. This is the first record of T. cerradensis as host of bot flies.
Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.
Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [es
Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Mead, Daniel G
Biting flies have been suggested as mechanical vectors of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey Virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) in livestock populations during epidemic outbreaks in the western United States. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to determine whether biting flies could mechanically transmit VSNJV to livestock by using a black fly, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt (Diptera: Simuliidae), domestic swine, Sus scrofa L., model. Black flies mechanically transmitted VSNJV to a naive host after interrupted feeding on a vesicular lesion on a previously infected host. Transmission resulted in clinical disease in the naïve host. This is the first demonstration of mechanical transmission of VSNJV to livestock by insects.
Abstract. Diptera species, especially flies, has shown potential as bioindicators for environmental changes. There are different methods to capture these animals, including traps with food baits. In this study, we assess the efficiency of traps for catching flies using bait of cane sugar molasses, analyzing the ecological parameters: abundance, species richness and species composition of flies during different periods of exposure of the traps in the field: 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Species richness and abundance showed significant change with respect to exposure time in the field, with stabilization after 48h, and species composition differed between the first and the other days.
Carlos Henrique Marchiori
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é relatar a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Gnathopleura quadridentata (Wharton (Hymenoptera: Braconidae como inimigo natural de Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. Para coleta dos insetos foi utilizado como isca fezes humanas. Obtiveram-se 50 pupas de S. lambens, das quais 28 emergiram parasitóides pertencentes à espécie G. quadridentata. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 56,0%. Esta nota relata a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide G. quadridentata em pupas de S. lambens no Brasil.
Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E
The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.
Trari, Bouchra; Dakki, Mohamed; Harbach, Ralph E
An updated checklist of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) recorded in Morocco from 1916 to 2016 is provided, including synonyms and synonymous usage for each species. Forty-three species belonging to seven genera are recorded so far: Anopheles (9), Aedes (12) Coquillettidia (2), Culex (12), Culiseta (5), Orthopodomyia (1) and Uranotaenia (2). Traditional and equivalent names in the polyphyletic concept of Aedes are provided for the aedine species. The historical importance and current potential threat of mosquitoes to human health in Morocco is reviewed. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Distribucion geografica de Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae, vector de la batonellosis humana en el Peru Geographical distribution of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae vector of human bartonellosis in Peru
Abraham G. Caceres
Full Text Available Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae, vector natural de la verruga peruana o enfermedad de Carrión es una especie propia del Perú. Su distribución geográfica esta entre los paralelos 5º y 13º25' de latitud Sur, se encuentra en los valles Occidentales e Interandinos de los Andes. La distribución altitudinal de Lu. verrucarum en los diversos valles es variable; asi: Occidentales, desde 1100 hasta 2980 msnm e Interandinos, de 1200 a 3200 msnm. En ciertas áreas verrucógenas no hay correlación entre la presencia de Lu. verrucarum y la enfermedad de Carrión lo que suguiere la existencia de vectores secundarios.Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae; the natural vector of Bartonella bacilliformis, agent of human bartonellosis (peruvian verruga or Carrion's disease, is a native specie of Peru; its geographic distribution occurres between latitudes 5º and 13º 25' South: in the Occidental and Interandean valleys of the Andean. The altitudinal distribution of Lu. verrucarum in the different valleys is as follows: Occidental between 1100 and 2980 m sea level and Interandean from 1200 to 3200 m sea level. Some discrepancies between the distribution of Carrion's disease and Lu. verrucarum suggest the existence of secondary vectors in certain areas where Lu. verrucarum is not present
Full Text Available Una nueva especie de Trichomyia Haliday (Diptera, Psychodidae de Los Montes de María, Colombia. Trichomyia colosensis n. sp. es descrita e ilustrada a partir de ejemplares machos recolectados con una trampa modificada CDC en la Reserva Forestal Protectora Serranía de Coraza y Montes de María, sobre la Costa Caribe Colombiana. Hasta la fecha están registradas dos especies de Trichomyia en el Caribe colombiano, T. brevitarsa (Rapp, 1945 y T. colosensis n. sp.A new species of Trichomyia Haliday (Diptera, Psychodidae from Los Montes de María, Colombia. Trichomyia colosensis n. sp. is described and illustrated from male specimens collected with a modified CDC light trap in the Reserva Forestal Protectora Serranía de Coraza y Montes de María, on the Caribbean Coast of Colombia. To date, two species of Trichomyia have been reported from the Colombian Caribbean, T. brevitarsa (Rapp, 1945 and T. colosensis n. sp.
Occurrence of Microcerella halli (Engel (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in snake carrion in southeastern Brazil Ocorrência de Microcerella halli (Engel (Diptera, Sarcophagidae em uma Carcaça de Cobra no Sudeste Brasileiro
Thiago de C. Moretti
Full Text Available The occurrence of 27 second-instar larvae of the flesh fly Microcerella halli (Engel, 1931 (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in a carcass of a snake usually called as Urutu, Bothrops alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae is reported. The snake was kept in captivity in a snake farm in Morungaba, São Paulo state, Brazil. Descriptions of reptile carcass colonization by insects and general biological data of this flesh fly are scarce and this necrophagic behavior is described for the first time in literature.A ocorrência de 27 larvas de segundo estádio do sarcofagídeo Microcerella halli (Engel, 1931 (Diptera, Sarcophagidae em uma carcaça de urutu Bothrops alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae é relatada. A cobra era mantida em cativeiro em um serpentário no município de Morungaba, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrições de colonização de carcaças de répteis por insetos e dados gerais da biologia deste sarcofagídeo são escassos, e este comportamento necrófago é descrito pela primeira vez na literatura.
Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae em Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera:Hippoboscidae on Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Full Text Available Registro de Pseudolynchia canariensis em dois gaviões caranguejeiros de vida livre atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Fundação RioZoo. Os dezenoves exemplares coletados foram identificados no Laboratório de Diptera da Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. O encontro de P. canariensis fora do hospedeiro natural (Columba livia, representa uma contribuição aos estudos da família Hippoboscidae, visto que não há registros sobre aves nativas do continente americano parasitadas por P. canariensis.The record of Pseudolynchia canariensis on two Rufous Crab-Hawk in situ taken care of the Hospital Veterinarian of the RioZoo Foundation. The nineteen collected specimens had been identified in the Laboratory of Diptera, Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The findings of P canariensis out natural hosty (Columba livia it represents a contribution to the studies of the family Hippoboscidae considering that it does not have records about native birds of the american continent parasitized by P canariensis.
Scala, A; Solinas, G; Citterio, C V; Kramer, L H; Genchi, C
Oestrosis, the nasal myiasis of sheep and goats, is caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis L. 1758 (Diptera, Oestridae) that develop from the first to the third stage larva in the nasal cavities and frontal sinuses of affected animals. The authors report the results of an epidemiological study of oestrosis of sheep in Sardinia, Italy. Heads of 6-month to 10-year-old Sardinian sheep (n=566) from 124 free-ranging flocks were examined for the presence and location O. ovis larvae from December 1996 to November 1997. Larvae were collected, counted, and larval stages were identified. O. ovis larvae were found in 100% of examined flocks and in 91% (514/566) of examined sheep. The monthly prevalence ranged from 69% in May to 100% in July. First stage larvae were found in 82% (463) of all heads examined, second stage larvae in 65% (367) and third stage larvae in 10% (56). The majority of sheep harboured first stage larvae, with prevalences of over 80% throughout most of the study period. The prevalence of O. ovis found in this study of Sardinian sheep is the highest reported in the Mediterranean area. The high percentage of first stage larvae found throughout the entire study period may be due to a brief period of decreased rate of larval maturation, in particular in December 1996 (96%) and January-October 1997 (94%). Third stage larvae were consistently present, often however, with extremely low prevalences compared to total larval burden.
Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki
Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.
Full Text Available Introducción. Las miasis hospitalarias son entidades con una importancia manifiesta en salud pública. La documentación de este tipo de casos es escasa en la literatura biomédica regional y mundial. Objetivo. Informar un caso de miasis hospitalaria en Costa Rica, donde el agente etiológico implicado fue Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Este caso de miasis hospitalaria figura como el primer informe para Latinoamérica asociado con este agente etiológico. Presentación del caso. Una paciente de 91 años de edad, con signos de inmunosupresión, afectación grave de la función pulmonar y asistencia respiratoria mecánica, presentó larvas en ambas fosas nasales al séptimo día después del ingreso hospitalario. Varios ejemplares fueron recolectados y procesados para su identificación. La identificación taxonómica de los ejemplares recolectados estableció que la especie de los muscomorfos correspondía a L. cuprina. Conclusión. El presente constituye el primer caso de miasis hospitalaria por L. cuprina en la literatura biomédica de Costa Rica y el primero registrado en Latinoamérica. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.690
Virgilio, M; Delatte, H; Backeljau, T; De Meyer, M
The macrogeographic population structure of the agricultural pest Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated in order to identify the geographic origin of the species and reconstruct its range expansion. Individuals of B. cucurbitae were collected from 25 worldwide-distributed localities (n = 570) and genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. The Bayesian clustering reveals that B. cucurbitae can be subdivided into five main groups corresponding to populations from (i) the African continent, (ii) La Réunion, (iii) Central Asia, (iv) East Asia and (v) Hawaii. The proportions of inter-regional assignments and the higher values of genetic diversity in populations from Pakistan, India and Bangladesh suggest that B. cucurbitae originated in Central Asia and expanded its range to East Asia and Hawaii on one hand and to Africa and the islands of the Indian Ocean on the other. A number of outliers (10-19 specimens according to different clustering algorithms) show high levels of admixture (Q > 0.70) with populations from different regions and reveal complex patterns of inter-regional gene flow. Anthropogenic transport is the most plausible promoter of this large-scale dispersal. The introduction of individuals from geographically distant sources did not have a relevant role in the most recent African invasions, which originated from the expansion of local populations. These results could provide a useful background to better evaluate invasion risks and establish priorities for the management of this cosmopolitan agricultural pest.
Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki
In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.
Michaelakis, Antonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Koliopoulos, George; Giatropoulos, Athanasios; Polissiou, Moschos G
The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (enantiomers of alpha- and beta-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). The chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Citrus essential oils contained in high proportion limonene and in lower quantities p-menthane molecules and pinenes. The insecticidal action of these essential oils and enantiomers of their pinenes on mosquito larvae was evaluated. Plant essential oils exhibited strong toxicity against larvae with the LC(50) values ranging from 30.1 (lemon) to 51.5 mg/L (orange) depending on Citrus species and their composition. Finally, the LC(50) value of pinenes ranging from 36.53 to 66.52 mg/L indicated an enantioselective toxicity only for the beta-pinene enantiomer.
Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D
We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight.
Rasgado, Milton A; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Toledo, Jorge
We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of male and female Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of bitter orange fruit, Citrus aurantium L. In field cage tests, the number of A. ludens caught in Multilure traps baited with mature green bitter orange fruit was significantly higher than the number captured in traps baited with ripe yellow bitter orange fruit and control (unbaited traps). Both sexes were more attracted to mature green bitter orange fruit extracts than to controls in both flight tunnel and field cage assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the mature green bitter orange fruit volatiles identified 10 different compounds. Limonene was the most abundant volatile compound, followed by an unknown compound, tentatively identified as trans-ocimene. Linalool, beta-pinene, and methyl salicylate were found in lower proportions. Both sexes of A. ludens evoked higher antennal response to linalool, methyl salicylate, and to a blend of these four components in comparison with limonene, and beta-pinene. In flight tunnel, both sexes were more attracted and landed more often on spheres baited with the four-component blend compared with control spheres. In field cage tests, Multilure traps baited with the four-component blend captured significantly more A. ludens flies than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein or control traps.
Tillman, P Glynn
Susceptibility of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), and its endoparasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) to acetamiprid, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam was compared in residual and oral toxicity tests. In the residual toxicity test, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, and oxamyl were highly toxic to N. viridula. Thiamethoxam was moderately toxic to these insects. Each of the four insecticides was highly toxic to T. pennipes after prolonged tarsal contact with dried residues of these chemicals. In the oral toxicity test, where N. viridula fed on food covered with insecticide residues, none of the insecticides were toxic to adults of this stink bug, but acetamiprid, dicrotophos, and thiamethoxam were moderately toxic to the nymphs. In the oral toxicity test, where N. viridula fed on a gel-food containing insecticides, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam were highly toxic to this stink bug. In an oral toxicity test using contaminated sugar water, all of the insecticides were highly toxic to T. pennipes. Because insecticides were as toxic, or more toxic, to T. pennipes than to N. viridula, it is extremely important to conserve this parasitoid by applying these insecticides for control of southern green stink bugs only when the pest reaches economic threshold.
Cook, Melissa A; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Roitberg, Bernard D
Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aiton) (Ericales: Ericaceae), and highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) (Ericales: Ericaceae), in North America. In British Columbia, Canada, D. oxycoccana was first found on highbush blueberry in 1991 and then on cranberry seven years later. Because many cranberry and highbush blueberry farms are adjacent to one another, we hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. Cranberry and highbush blueberry differ in phenology, and adaptation to these different phenologies may result in host races or cryptic species on these two crops. We recognized the alternative hypothesis that D. oxycoccana had arrived as immature stages with cranberry vines imported from another region of North America. During spring and summer, we recorded the phenology of D. oxycoccana and the development of plant shoots from three cranberry and three highbush blueberry farms to determine whether the opportunity exists for successful movement of D. oxycoccana between the two crops. Our results show that D. oxycoccana from cranberry and highbush blueberry overlap in phenology for much of the season, indicating a high potential for movement and gene flow. However, differences were seen in number of larvae per shoot, location of pupae, and heat unit accumulation during larval development suggesting that instead there may be the potential for host race or cryptic species formation.
Shi, Caihua; Yang, Fengshan; Zhu, Xun; Du, Erxia; Yang, Yuting; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun
The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga.
Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando
Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [es
Costa-Lima, T C; Geremias, L D; Parra, J R P
We studied a population of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) identified by morphological and molecular techniques from the semiarid region of the Brazilian northeast. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on the survival and reproductive parameters of L. sativae in cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) (Fabales: Fabaceae) was evaluated. We used temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C (50 +/- 10% RH) and relative humidity values of 30, 50, 70, and 90 +/- 10% (25 +/- 1 degrees C) under a 14 L:10 D photoperiod. Adult longevity decreased as temperature and relative humidity increased and was greater, in general, for females. The preoviposition and oviposition periods also decreased as temperature increased, whereas relative humidity only caused reductions in the oviposition period at higher levels. Fecundity was similar in the range from 18 to 30 degrees C but decreased at 32 degrees C with respect to relative humidity; the best performances of L. sativae occurred at lower levels. The pattern of oviposition rate changed with temperature and relative humidity. Regardless of temperature and relative humidity, L. sativae laid between 75 and 92% of its eggs on the adaxial surface of the cowpea leaves. This information will be highly useful to design a leafminer production system aimed at the multiplication of natural enemies, as well as for pest management in the field.
Eunice A. Bianchi Galati
Full Text Available Description of Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from interandean areas of Peru and Equador. Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp., probable vector of human bartonellosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, is described and illustrated. This species presents strong affinity with L. serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949 but they can be distinguished by variance analysis of four male characteristics and only one female characteristic. In the variance analysis, populations of L. serrana, of Amazonian areas of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, the coast of Equador and other areas of Brazil were studied. The synonymy of Lutzomyia guayasi (Rodriguez and L. serrana was corroborated.Descreve-se Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta, sp.n., provável vetora de bartonelose e leishmaniose tegumentar, de ocorrência em vales interandinos no Peru e Equador e que apresenta estreita afinidade com L. serrana (Damasceno e Arouck. A separação de ambas foi possível, por meio de análise de variância de alguns caracteres do macho e apenas um da fêmea. Na análise de variância, foram estudadas populações de L. serrana da região amazônica do Brasil, Peru e Bolívia; costa do Equador; região atlântica e outras áreas do Brasil. Corrobora-se a sinonímia de Phlebotomus guayasi Rodríguez com L. serrana.
Barrera, R.; Kluchinsky, T.; Lewis, M.; Claborn, D. M.
Funnel traps are often used to sample for the presence of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in subterranean aquatic habitats. These traps are generally ≥15 cm in diameter, making them impractical for use in subterranean sites that have narrow (10-cm) access ports, such as those in standard-sized septic tanks. Recent research indicates septic tanks may be important habitats for Ae. aegypti in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. To sample mosquito larval populations in these sites, a miniaturized funnel trap was necessary. This project describes the use of a smaller funnel trap for sampling larval populations. The effects of larval instar (third and fourth) and population density on trap efficacy also are examined. The trap detected larval presence 83% of the time at a larval density of 0.011 larvae per cm2 and 100% of the time at densities ≥0.022 larvae per cm2. There was a significant trend of increasing percentage of recaptured larvae with higher larval population densities. Although the miniaturized funnel trap is less sensitive at detecting larval presence in low population densities, it may be useful for sampling aquatic environments with restricted access or shallow water, particularly in domestic septic tanks. PMID:21175077
Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.
Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231
Piwczyński, Marcin; Pape, Thomas; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Sikora, Marcin; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Szpila, Krzysztof
Miltogramminae is one of the phylogenetically most poorly studied taxa of the species-rich family Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Most species are kleptoparasites in nests of solitary aculeate wasps and bees, although parasitoids and saprophagous species are also known, and the ancestral miltogrammine life habit remains unsettled. Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic tree consisting of 58 representatives of Miltogramminae, reconstructed using sequence data from three mitochondrial (COI, cytB, ND4) and one nuclear (Ef-1α) genes. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that: (1) Miltogramminae are sister to Paramacronychiinae, (2) Miltogramminae can be divided into the "lower miltogrammines" containing two clades of mainly saprophages and a clade of "higher miltogrammines" with mainly kleptoparasitic species, (3) only three genera turn out to be non-monophyletic: Miltogramma, Senotainia and Pterella and (4) the genus Sarcotachina, which traditionally has been considered as belonging to the Paramacronychiinae, is placed in one of the clades of "lower miltogrammines". Ancestral state reconstruction of larval feeding strategy and five larval characters reveals that the ancestor of Miltogramminae was likely a saprophage retaining plesiomorphic oral ridges and a cephaloskeleton with sclerotized dorsal bridge. Synapomorphies like large pseudocephalic sensory organs and well-developed cuticular sculpture suggest that the ancestral first instar larva actively searched for a buried food supply. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flissak, J C; Moura, M O
Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is an endemic blow fly species of forensic importance in South America, and whose duration of pupal development is about 70% of the total immature development time. Therefore, morphological changes during this stage, if refined, may provide greater accuracy and reliability in the calculation of minimum postmortem interval. Considering the importance of this species, the main objective of this work was to identify and describe temporal intrapuparial morphological changes of S. chlorogaster. The development of S. chlorogaster reared on an artificial diet and at two constant temperatures (20 and 25ºC) was monitored. Every 8 h until the end of the pupal stage, 10 pupae were killed, fixed, and had their external morphology described and photographed. Of the 29 morphological characteristics described, 13 are potentially informative for estimating the age of S. chlorogaster. In general, body shape (presence or absence of tagmatization), general coloration, visible presence of the mouth hook (portion of the mandible), thoracic appendages, change in eye color, and bristle formation are the most useful characteristics for determining specific age. The results presented here make it possible to estimate the postmortem interval of a corpse using intrapuparial morphological characters, expanding one's ability to estimate postmortem interval.
Pennington, Marcus J; Rothman, Jason A; Jones, Michael B; McFrederick, Quinn S; Gan, Jay; Trumble, John T
Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae). Larvae were reared on artificial diets spiked with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Female flies showed no oviposition preference for treated or untreated diets. Larvae exposed to caffeine in diets showed increased mortality, and larvae fed antibiotics and hormones showed signs of slowed development, especially in females. The normal sex ratio observed in M. scalaris from control diets was affected by exposure to caffeine and pharmaceutical mixture treatments. There was an overall effect of treatment on the flies' microbial communities; notably, caffeine fed insects displayed higher microbial variability. Eight bacterial families accounted for approximately 95% of the total microbes in diet and insects. Our results suggest that CECs at environmentally relevant concentrations can affect the biology and microbial communities of an insect of ecological and medical importance.
Beji, Marwa; Rhim, Adel; Roiz, David; Bouattour, Ali
The Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) includes the most widespread mosquito species in the world. Members of this complex are the primary enzootic and epidemic vectors of the West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus) in several countries. The two recognized forms of Cx. pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758) - pipiens and molestus - exhibit behavioral and physiological differences. Natural populations of Cx. pipiens were investigated in several sites in Tunisia to evaluate the ecophysiological and molecular characteristics of their forms. The analysis showed the sympatric presence of Cx. pipiens forms and hybrids in all studied sites. Of all the tested larvae of Cx. pipiens, 33.5% were identified as pipiens, 30.8% were identified as molestus, and 35.6% were identified as hybrids. The molestus and hybrid forms were positively correlated with urban habitats and belowground sites while the pipiens form was positively correlated with rural habitats and aboveground sites. Autogeny was expressed in all types of habitats and breeding sites. By contrast with the microsatellite CQ11, the two molecular markers, ace-2 and cytb, did not allow differentiation between the Cx. pipiens forms. Our study shows the ubiquitous distribution and the plasticity of the different forms of Cx. pipiens in a wide range of ecological conditions. It suggests that the behavioral traits assigned to the forms of Cx. pipiens seem to be more flexible than previously assumed. Our analysis also proves that the microsatellite CQ11 remains an efficient tool for distinguishing between Cx. pipiens forms.
Blosser, Erik M; Stenn, Tanise; Acevedo, Carolina; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D
Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Dyar, 1918) is a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species found throughout much of tropical America, including southern Florida. Relatively few reports are available regarding the ecology of Cx. iolambdis, despite its widespread distribution and putative involvement in transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To quantify habitat and host utilization, adults of Cx. iolambdis were sampled from resting shelters at a field site in Vero Beach, Florida, over a 12-month period. Culex iolambdis (1109 males, 3072 females) constituted more than half (56.76%) of all mosquitoes sampled (24 species) and was active year-round. Unfed females and gravid females of Cx. iolambdis were significantly more abundant in mangrove habitat, while males and blood-fed females were not. PCR-based bloodmeal analysis of 305 females revealed that Cx. iolambdis has very wide host breadth, feeding on birds (37.0% overall), reptiles (26.6%), amphibians (23.3%) and mammals (13.1%). Green heron (Butorides virescens), Southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephala) and American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) were the most commonly fed upon hosts. Bloodmeals from different host classes varied significantly with season, suggesting that Cx. iolambdis may play a role in the amplification and epidemic transmission of zoonotic arboviruses affecting human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sukantamala, Jedsada; Sing, Kong-Wah; Jaturas, Narong; Polseela, Raxsina; Wilson, John-James
Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes have been used for the identification of sandflies in Thailand. We collected sandflies using CDC light trap from four tourist caves in Northern Thailand. Female sandflies were provisionally sorted into 13 morphospecies and 19 unidentified specimens. DNA was extracted from the thorax and legs of sandflies and the DNA barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase I mtDNA amplified and sequenced. The specimens were sorted into 22 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on the 145 DNA barcodes, which is significantly more than the morphospecies. Several of the taxa thought to be present in multiple caves, based on morphospecies sorting, split into cave-specific MOTU which likely represent cryptic species. Several MOTU reported in an earlier study from Wihan Cave, Thailand, were also found in these caves. This supports the use of DNA barcodes to investigate species diversity of sandflies and their useful role in surveillance of sandflies in Thailand.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the activity of spiromesifen against the most abundant and investigated mosquito species, Culiseta longiareolata Aitken, 1954 (Diptera, Culicidae. Methods: Culiseta longiareolata larvae were collected from untreated areas located at TÃ©bessa (Northeast Algeria. A commercial formulation of spiromesifen (OberonÂ® 240 SC was tested at different concentrations ranging between 238 and 1428Â Î¼g/L on newly molted fourth-instar larvae under standard laboratory conditions according to Word Health Organization recommendations. The effects were examined on the mortality, the morphometric measurements, two biomarkers (catalase and malondialdehyde, and the biochemical composition of larvae, respectively. Results: The compound exhibited insecticidal activity. Moreover, it disturbed growth and several morphological aberrations were observed. It also affected body volume, biomarkers and contents of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. A marked effect on lipids and malondialdehyde was noted, confirming its primary mode of action on lipid synthesis. Conclusions: Spiromesifen appears less potent than other insecticides tested such as the insect growth disruptors. Keywords: Culiseta longiareolata, Spiromesifen, Toxicity, Biochemical composition, Biomarkers
Sánchez-Galván, I R; Ferrer, J; Galante, E; Marcos-García, M A
Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollows in Mediterranean forests depend on a combination of physical characteristics and interactions occurring between community member species. Despite the need to preserve these organisms, little is known about their interrelationships, in particular those relationships between saproxylic insects and microbiota occurring in these microhabitats. In tree hollows of Quercus rotundifolia Lamark that hold water and contain dead leaves, abundant microbial populations can be found. Developing on them are the larvae of Mallota dusmeti Andréu, 1926 (Diptera: Syrphidae), a vulnerable species (IUCN category: Marcos-García and Quinto 2011). This study provides the first data on the microbiota living inside the gut of the larvae of M. dusmeti, as well as the microbiota in the hollow where these larvae develop. Bacteria were identified by amplification and partial sequencing of the V1-V3 regions and the complete nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes. We found eight species of bacteria living in tree hollows and three species in the gut of M. dusmeti larvae: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus toyonensis, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The filter-feeding mechanism characteristic of M. dusmeti larvae is selective in enabling ingestion of bacteria only above 2.1 µm in diameter. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L
Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.
Doud, C W; Taylor, D B; Zurek, L
Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas were evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May through 20 October 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May through 18 November 2010 (25 wk). In total, 11,349 muscoid flies were collected emerging from the biosolid cake. Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) and house flies (Musca domestica (L.)), represented 80 and 18% of the muscoid flies, respectively. An estimated 550 stable flies and 220 house flies per square-meter of surface area developed in the biosolid cake annually producing 450,000 stable flies and 175,000 house flies. Stable fly emergence was seasonally bimodal with a primary peak in mid-July and a secondary peak in late August. House fly emergence peaked with the first stable fly emergence peak and then declined gradually for the remainder of the year. House flies tended to emerge from the biosolid cake sooner after its deposition than did stable flies. In addition, house fly emergence was concentrated around midsummer whereas stable fly emergence began earlier in the spring and continued later into the fall. Biosolid age and temperature were the most important parameters affecting emergence for house flies and stable flies, whereas precipitation was not important for either species. This study highlights the importance of biosolid cake as a larval developmental habitat for stable flies and house flies.
Flores, Micah; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K
The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a forensically important fly often encountered on human and other vertebrate remains in temperate and tropic regions throughout the world including Australia, Asia, Central America and North America. C. rufifacies was reared under controlled laboratory conditions on three muscle types (i.e., porcine, equine and canine) at three temperatures (i.e., 20.8, 24.8 and 28.3°C). Rate of larval weight gain across time was statistically significant between muscle types (P≤0.0001) and approaching significance across time between temperatures (P=0.0511). This research represents the first development study for C. rufifacies from central Texas, USA and the first study to examine the impact of tissue type on its development. Furthermore, these data, when compared to those available in the literature, indicate developmental differences that could be due to genetic differences in populations or possibly methods employed during the studies. Caution should be emphasized when applying development data for this species from one region to forensic investigations in other ecoregions as such differences in development based on tissue fed upon by larvae, population genetics, and methodologies used in the studies could represent error in estimating the time of colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.
Grella, Maicon D; Savino, André G; Paulo, Daniel F; Mendes, Felipe M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana M L; Queiroz, Margareth M C; Thyssen, Patricia J; Linhares, Arício X
Species identification is an essential step in the progress and completion of work in several areas of biological knowledge, but it is not a simple process. Due to the close phylogenetic relationship of certain species, morphological characters are not always sufficiently distinguishable. As a result, it is necessary to combine several methods of analysis that contribute to a distinct categorization of taxa. This study aimed to raise diagnostic characters, both morphological and molecular, for the correct identification of species of the genus Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) recorded in the New World, which has continuously generated discussion about its taxonomic position over the last century. A clear example of this situation was the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Brazilian territory in 2012. However, the morphological polymorphism and genetic variability of Chrysomya albiceps studied here show that both species (C. rufifacies and C. albiceps) share very similar character states, leading to misidentification and subsequent registration error of species present in our territory. This conclusion is demonstrated by the authors, based on a review of the material deposited in major scientific collections in Brazil and subsequent molecular and phylogenetic analysis of these samples. Additionally, we have proposed a new taxonomic key to separate the species of Chrysomya found on the American continent, taking into account a larger number of characters beyond those available in current literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R
The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.
Sontigun, Narin; Sanit, Sangob; Wannasan, Anchalee; Sukontason, Kom; Amendt, Jens; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are distinctive in their morphological features and are often used for species identification. The aim of this work was to investigate the male genitalia of blow flies of medical and forensic importance from Thailand at the ultrastructural level, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flies in two subfamilies were examined: Chrysomyinae [Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton] and Luciliinae [Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot), Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia papuensis Macquart, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), and Lucilia sinensis Aubertin]. Particular attention was paid to the main distinguishing features such as the shapes of the cercus and the surstylus, and the complex structure of the distiphallus. The differentiation of the male genitalia of these species at the SEM level is discussed and compared to the conditions in closely related species such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). A key for the identification of 14 blow fly species based on male genitalia is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grant T. Mcquate
Full Text Available Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett, and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel. In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges ( Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck and Clementine tangerines ( C. reticulata L. var. Clementine, but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae , including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed.
Irby, William S
Abstract Flies in the family Corethrellidae Edwards 1932 (Diptera) are known to be attracted to the mating calls of male frogs. For the first time, the hosts of corethrellids were identified to species by analyzing bloodmeals taken from resting female flies. A portion of the cytochrome b gene was amplified and sequenced from blood-engorged flies using vertebrate-specific primers. The flies were collected over 6 yr at two locations in the southeastern United States from resting boxes and natural resting sites (rodent burrows). Potential host abundance focused on frog surveillance, and estimation relied on visual encounters, passive trapping (artificial refugia), and call surveys. This study confirms that corethrellids take blood from tree frogs (Hylidae); however, it was found that true frogs (Lithobates Fitzinger 1843 (Ranidae: Anura) sp.) were the principal host selected by Corethrella brakeleyi (Coquillett 1902) (~73% of identified bloodmeals). These preliminary data suggest that host selection of Corethrella Freeman 1962 sp. is not necessarily correlated with host calling abundance. PMID:29117370
Full Text Available The immature stages of hoverflies of the subfamily Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae develop in ant nests, as predators of the ant brood. The present paper reviews published and unpublished records of associations of Microdontinae with ants, in order to discuss the following questions. (1 Are all Microdontinae associated with ants? (2 Are Microdontinae associated with all ants? (3 Are particular clades of Microdontinae associated with particular clades of ants? (4 Are Microdontinae associated with other insects? A total number of 109 associations between the groups are evaluated, relating to 43 species of Microdontinae belonging to 14 genera, and to at least 69 species of ants belonging to 24 genera and five subfamilies. The taxa of Microdontinae found in association with ants occur scattered throughout their phylogenetic tree. One of the supposedly most basal taxa (Mixogaster is associated with ants, suggesting that associations with ants evolved early in the history of the subfamily and have remained a predominant feature of their lifestyle. Among ants, associations with Microdontinae are known from subfamilies Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae. These subfamilies comprise more than 95% of all ant species. Interestingly, no associations are known with “dorylomorph” ants (army ants and relatives.
Johnson, Gregory; Panella, Nicholas; Hale, Kristina; Komar, Nicholas
Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), an economically important pest of livestock and humans, were observed parasitizing prefledged American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), in a pelican breeding colony in northeastern Montana where die-offs attributed to West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) have occurred since 2002. Engorged and unengorged flies were collected off nine moribund chicks. Of 29 blood-engorged flies testing positive for vertebrate DNA, all 29 contained pelican DNA. Virus isolation was performed on 60 pools (1,176 flies) of unengorged flies using Vero cell plaque assay. Eighteen pools were positive for WNV for an estimated infection rate of 18.0 per 1,000 flies. Fifty-four percent (36/67) of abdomens from blood-engorged flies tested positive for WNV. Pelican viremia levels from the blood-engorged fly abdomens revealed that at least one of the ill pelicans circulated a viremia capable of infecting Culex mosquito vectors. Stable flies may be involved in WNV transmission within the pelican breeding colony by serving as either a mechanical vector or as a source for oral infection if ingested by predators.
Bruna Carolina Druzian Salinas
Full Text Available The insect Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Caliphoridae causes primary cutaneous myiasis, and the use of traps is an alternative to monitor this fly in the field. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a low-cost trap for collecting C. hominivorax in the field. Three experiments were conducted, with six replications, in the experimental field of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Agropecuária Oeste, in Ponta Porã, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Traps were developed using two-liter polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles cut in half, with 30 grams of bovine liver and water covering 90 % of the liver mass placed in the bottom half, using the upper half as a cover funnel to keep the captured flies in the bottom half. The experiments consisted of evaluations of different opening diameter of the trap entrance (3, 4, 6 and 7 mm with traps installed at 1.16 m from the ground (Experiment 1, heights of installation of the traps (0.00, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20, 1.60 and 2.00 m from the ground (Experiment 2 and bottle colors (yellow, blue, white, green, red and transparent (Experiment 3. The collected data were subjected to Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. The ideal traps for collecting C. hominivorax in the field were those with opening diameter of 6 mm, height installation of 1.20 m from the ground, using transparent PET bottles.
Daniel S Albeny
Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Different methods have been used to control A. aegypti, including chemical and biological tools. However, chemical control can lead to a subsequent increase in the mosquitoes' insecticide resistance, and biological control represents an important method as an alternative to insecticide usage. Larvae from the Toxorhynchites genus (Diptera: Culicidae are predators of other mosquitoes and represent a potential natural biocontrol agent of A. aegypti larvae. In the present work, A. aegypti larval survival was studied in the presence of the neotropical Toxorhynchites violaceus (Wiedemann, 1821 fourth instar larvae. Toxorhynchites violaceus consumption of A. aegypti increased during the 192 hours of the experiment and was more marked in the intervals between 96 and 120 hours and between 168 and 192 hours, when the A. aegypti survival reached 0%. During the fourth instar, T. violaceus increased its predation on A. aegypti larvae, possibly in order to increase its nutrient storage prior to pupation. Otherwise, low prey consumption can lead to a nutritional deficit for the larvae, delaying the adult's sexual development and reducing its egg production. Here we show that A. aegypti survival can be reduced by the T. violaceus fourth larvae predation under laboratory conditions
Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; de Oliveira, Luis Claudio Motta; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Morone, Fernanda; Lorosa, Elias Seixas
Blood-feeding sources of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the eastern region of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina were analyzed by precipitin technique. One hundred fifty-four female mosquitoes collected by CDC traps in the Navegantes municipality 13-15 February 2005 reacted to one or more of eight antisera, including chicken, dog, goat, sheep, horse, opossum, human and rodent antisera. One hundred thirty-seven specimens (89%) reacted to only one source, and 17 (11%) specimens reacted to two sources. Among the 137 specimens reacting to only one source, reactions to rodent (50.4%), sheep (5.8%), chicken (5.1%), goat (5.1%), dog (2.2%), horse (3.6%), and human (3.6%) antisera were observed. The analyzed species demonstrated a high degree of opportunistic feeding behavior in relation to host preference. Results are compared with results from similar studies, and the low proportion of reactions to human antisera is discussed.
Oyarzún, M P; Li, A Y; Figueroa, C C
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), was introduced to Chile in the beginning of the 1990s. Since its introduction, farmers have controlled this pest almost exclusively with insecticides. To understand the consequences of different control strategies on the development of insecticide resistance and their persistence, a field survey was conducted at eight farms in the south of Chile to characterize insecticide resistance in field populations and resistance mechanisms. Horn fly samples were assayed to determine levels of resistance to pyrethroids and diazinon, genotyped for kdr and HialphaE7 mutations, and tested for general esterase activity. All field populations, including ones that were not treated with insecticides for the past 5 yr, showed high levels of cypermethrin resistance and high frequencies of the kdr mutation. None of the fly populations demonstrated resistance to diazinon and the HialphaE7 mutation was not detected in any of the fly samples. Esterase activities in all populations were comparable to those found in the susceptible reference strain. The findings of high frequencies of homozygous resistant and heterozygous individuals both in insecticide treated horn fly populations and in the untreated fly populations suggests complex interactions among field populations of the horn fly in Chile.
Guerrero, F D; Dowd, S E; Nene, V M; Foil, L D
We used an expressed sequence tag approach to initiate a study of the genome of the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Two normalized cDNA libraries were synthesized from RNA isolated from embryos and first instars from a field population of horn flies. Approximately 10,000 clones were sequenced from both the 5' and 3' directions. Sequence data from each library was assembled into a database of tentative consensus sequences (TCs) and singletons and used to search public protein databases and annotate the sequences. Additionally, the sequences from both the egg and larval libraries were combined into a single database consisting of 16,702 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) assembling into 2886 TCs and 1,522 singleton entries. Several sequences were identified that may have roles in the horn fly's resistance to insecticides. The availability of this database will facilitate the design of microarray and other experiments to study horn fly gene expression on a larger scale than previously possible. This would include studies designed to investigate metabolic-based insecticide resistance, identify novel antigens for vaccine-based control approaches, and discover new proteins to serve as targets for new pesticide development.
José Roberto Pujol-Luz
Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.
Ferraz, Adriana C P; Dallavecchia, Daniele L; Silva, Débora C; Figueiredo, Adriana L; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Aguiar, Valéria M
We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Lee-Sum; Choi, In-Ho; Lee, Yeon-Suk; Shin, Sang-Chul
Plant essential oils from 21 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua Dufour (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Acorus gramineus Solander, Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, and Zanthoxylum piperitum De Candolle at 25 microg/ml air. S. tenuifolia oil showed the most potent insecticidal activity among the plant essential oils. At 12.5 microg/ml air concentration, S. tenuifolia oil caused 96.6% mortality, but mortality decreased to 60% at 3.125 microg/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of three major compounds from S. tenuifolia oil. These three compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Pulegone was the most toxic, followed by menthone and limonene with LC50 values of 1.21, 6.03, and 15.42 microg/ml, respectively. LC50 of dichlorvos was 8.13 microg/ml. Effects of S. tenuifolia and its components on growth of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer also were investigated.
Barbosa, Taciano Moura; Carmo, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues; Silva, Leonardo Pereira; Sales, Raissa Guerra; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias
Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera. A strong overlap in the composition of the assemblages across the six beaches was observed, with only a few species being restricted to one type of beach. The flesh flies Dexosarcophaga carvalhoi (Lopes), Peckia intermutans (Walker), and Titanogrypa larvicida (Lopes) occurred exclusively in beaches under low anthropogenic impact. Species with strong medical and veterinary importance such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) occurred even in beaches under low human presence. The invasive species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Calliphoridae) were dominant in all beaches, which exposes the vulnerability of sandy beaches to exotic species. Our data imply that sarcosaprophagous flies can be used as early biological indicators to suggest urbanization in coastal environments. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline
Abstract A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB’s Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://184.108.40.206:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr PMID:26692809
Bambaradeniya, Y Tharindu B; Karunaratne, W A Inoka P; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Goonerathne, Induwara; Kotakadeniya, Rasika B
Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann; Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a facultative ecto-parasitic fly, distributed throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world. This blow fly species is of medical, veterinary, and forensic importance due to it being used in maggot debridement therapy (MDT), a causative agent of myiasis, and a decomposer of vertebrate carrion. The current study examined the combined effects of temperature and tissue type on the development of L. cuprina. Specimens were reared on three tissue types; swine muscle, swine liver, and bovine muscle at 20°C, 25°C, 27°C, and 38°C. The optimum condition for L. cuprina development was for immatures reared on bovine muscle (287.4 h) followed by those reared on swine muscle (288.0 h) and swine liver (288.4 h) at 27°C. The minimum temperature threshold of L. cuprina was deduced to be 14°C. No significant differences in larval width and length over time were determined for the tissue type. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A
The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa
Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD 50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD 90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD 95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD 50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD 90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD 95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei , comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei , hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.
Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Odiere, M.; Bayoh, M. N.; Gimnig, J.; Vulule, J.; Irungu, L.; Walker, E.
Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them. PMID:17294916
Costa, Marilza S.; Cossolin, Jamile F. S.; Pereira, Mônica J. B.; Sant’Ana, Antônio E. G.; Lima, Milena D.; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José Eduardo
Acetogenins are secondary metabolites exclusively produced by Annonaceae, which have antitumor, cytotoxic, and pesticide activities. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal and cytotoxic effect of squamocin from Annona squamosa on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) midgut. The compound was solubilized in 2% Tween 20 at 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 ppm. The assay was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, each with 20 third-instar larvae. Larval mortality was assessed every hour until total mortality, and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. Cellular damage was evaluated every 30 min in groups comprising five larvae subjected to squamocin at 50 and 100 ppm for 240 min. The total larval mortality occurred after 360 min following application of 50, 80, and 100 ppm squamocin, and 600 min after applying other concentrations with LC50 at 6.4 ppm. Both 50 and 100 ppm of squamocin showed cytotoxic activity in the midgut epithelium of A. aegypti after 240 min with 50 ppm resulting in midgut cells with light cytoplasm containing small vacuoles, whereas at 100 ppm were found cells with cytoplasm highly vacuolated, damaged apical surface and cell protrusion toward the gut lumen. In conclusion, squamocin has the potential to control A. aegypti. PMID:24674934
Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Blosser, Erik M
Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga) is a tropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) found throughout most of the American Tropics, from eastern Mexico through Argentina, including several Caribbean islands. Larvae are typically associated with bodies of water with dense growths of aquatic vegetation, particularly Pistia stratiotes L., water lettuce. Adult females feed predominantly on the blood of birds and seek hosts in forest canopies. Aedeomyia squamipennis is considered an important vector of Gamboa virus and avian malaria, and is also suspected of transmitting Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Collections from Florida City, FL, near the southern tip of the Florida peninsula, yielded larvae, adult males, and females of Ad. squamipennis, constituting a new genus and species record for Florida and the United States. The widespread availability of larval habitat and suitable hosts in Florida will likely lead to expansion of Ad. squamipennis in Florida, and perhaps into neighboring states. In South America, Ad. squamipennis is found as far south as Buenos Aires, Argentina, at ∼35° S latitude, which is equivalent in N latitude to coastal North Carolina. The northern limit of expansion of Ad. squamipennis in North America will likely be limited by winter temperatures and availability of larval habitat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mauricio Batistella Pasini
Resumo. Este trabalho faz menção ao primeiro registro de Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae encontrado na zona rural do município de Agudo, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os adultos da mosca foram encontrados primeiramente em frutos de ameixa (Prunus salicina Lindl posteriormente em figos maduros (Ficus carica L. em dois pomares. No primeiro pomar cerca de 80% dos figos coletados apresentaram ataque de Z. indianus e, no segundo pomar 50% dos figos da cv. “Pingo de mel” e 80% da variedade “Roxo de Valinhos” foram infestados. No período correspondente a emergência dos adultos, coletou-se um total de 1364 indivíduos. Os figos da cv “Roxo de Valinhos” apresentaram maior emergência de adultos. Além de estar presente em restos culturais de figo, Z. indianus foi visualizada sobrevoando restos culturais de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., Cucumis melo L., Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. e Vitis vinifera L., associada a outros drosofilídeos. Ressalta-se que medidas de monitoramento e controle da praga deverão ser adotadas no município para garantir figos de alta qualidade e sadios.
João Antonio C. Zequi
Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.
J. S. Carneiro
Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.
Full Text Available The Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae comprises a number of different sub-groups and species complexes. In this study we focus on resolving the taxonomic status of the entity previously identified as M. cinereus B, here identified as M. atratus species complex. We used an integrative approach based on morphological descriptions, combined with supporting characters that were obtained from molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as well as from geometric morphometry of wing and surstylus shapes and environmental niche comparisons. All applied data and methods distinguished and supported three morphologically cryptic species: M. atratus stat. nov., M. virgatus sp. nov. and M. balkanicus sp. nov., which constitute the M. atratus species complex. We present an identification key for the sub-groups and species complexes of the M. aureus species group occurring in Europe, describe the taxa and discuss the utility of the applied methods for species delimitation. The estimated divergence times for the species splits of these taxa coincide with the Pleistocene Günz-Mindel interglaciation and the Great interglaciation (between the Ris and Mindel glacial periods.
Full Text Available The Palaearctic species of the Cheilosia caerulescens group (Diptera: Syrphidae are revised in this work. The species group belongs to the genus Cheilosia subgenus Taeniocheilosia Oldenberg. One new species is described from north Caucasus, Cheilosia (Taeniocheilosia circassica sp. n. Cheilosia primulae Hering is established as a junior synonym of Cheilosia laeviventris Loew. Four lectotype designations are made. The species of the Cheilosia caerulescens group are redescribed and illustrated, and a table of diagnostic characters and an identification key to species are provided. MtDNA COI barcodes were generated for several specimens of C. (T. caerulescens Meigen and other Cheilosia (Taeniocheilosia and Cheilosia s. str. taxa. Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses did not place the morphologically similar C. hercyniae Loew in the C. caerulescens group but among other Cheilosia (Taeniocheilosia taxa. The following eight taxa are included in the Cheilosia (T. caerulescens group of species: Cheilosia armeniaca Stackelberg, 1960, C. caerulescens caerulescens (Meigen, 1822, C. caerulescens calculosa Skufjin, 1977, C. circassica sp. n., C. herculana Brădescu, 1982, C. kerteszi Szilády, 1938, C. laeviventris Loew, 1857, and C. venosa Loew, 1857.
Robacker, David C; Massa, Michelle J; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bartelt, Robert J
An attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was developed from a commercial product called Sabor Uva containing processed Concord grape juice. The principal volatile components of Sabor Uva aroma were identified and an aqueous mixture of 15 components that was gas chromatographically similar to Sabor Uva was prepared. This mixture was equivalent to Sabor Uva in attractiveness by using wind-tunnel bioassays. After deleting chemicals that did not contribute to attractiveness, and increasing the concentrations of the remaining chemicals, the final attractant contained propylene glycol (90,000 ppm, vol/vol), acetic acid (4500), methyl anthranilate (1800), ethyl 2-methylpropionate (670), and one or both of the esters ethyl 3-methylbutyrate (44) and 2-methylbutyl propionate (44), in aqueous solution. This mixture was approximately 1.8X as attractive as Sabor Uva by indirect comparison. Deletion of propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, or ethyl 2-methylpropionate from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. Deletion of either of the other two esters seemed to diminish attractiveness although effects were not statistically significant. Deletion of water from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. We conclude that propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, water, and at least one or as many as all three of the methyl-branched esters are essential for complete attractiveness.
Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J
We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (attractant for D. suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits.
Lorenz, Amanda R; Walker, Edward D; Kaufman, Michael G
Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues.
Emmert, Susan Y.; Tindall, Kelly; Ding, Hongjian; Boetel, Mark A.; Rajabaskar, D.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.
Male-biased aggregations of sugar beet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder) (Diptera: Ulidiidae), flies were observed on utility poles near sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. [Chenopodiaceae]) fields in southern Idaho; this contrasts with the approximately equal sex ratio typically observed within fields. Peak observation of mating pairs coincided with peak diurnal abundance of flies. Volatiles released by individual male and female flies were sampled from 08:00 to 24:00 hours in the laboratory using solid-phase microextraction and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Eleven compounds were uniquely detected from males. Three of these compounds (2-undecanol, 2-decanol, and sec-nonyl acetate) were detected in greater quantities during 12:00–24:00 hours than during 08:00–12:00 hours. The remaining eight compounds uniquely detected from males did not exhibit temporal trends in release. Both sexes produced 2-nonanol, but males produced substantially higher (ca. 80-fold) concentrations of this compound than females, again peaking after 12:00 hours. The temporal synchrony among male aggregation behavior, peak mating rates, and release of certain volatile compounds by males suggest that T. myopaeformis flies exhibit lekking behavior and produce an associated pheromone. Field assays using synthetic blends of the putative aggregation pheromone showed evidence of attraction in both females and males. PMID:28423428
Hackenberger, Branimir K; Jarić, Davorka; Krcmar, Stjepan
The pattern of horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) distribution and correlations among biodiversity, abundance, abiotic factors, and altitude were determined along a two-sided altitudinal transect. The sampling was carried out on five 3-d periods during tabanid seasonal activity. Linen canopy traps with 1-octen-3-ol as an attractant were used at 20 sampling sites along the transect. The results showed that the qualitative composition of tabanid species can be distinguished by altitude and, especially, between southeastern and northwestern mountain slopes. The peaks of horse fly species richness and abundance were indicated at middle elevations of both slopes, where horse fly distributional groups were overlapping and most rare and infrequent species were sampled. All expected species were sampled according to species accumulation curve. The canonical correlation analysis separated species and sampling sites into three clusters; two were positively correlated with the temperature and the wind but differed in sensitivity toward them, and the third cluster was correlated with the humidity. The horse fly distribution was nonhomogenous, and the distributional patterns were only partially determined by altitude and vegetation. The determining environmental variables were different for each slope: temperature and wind for the southern slope (Mediterranean climatic zone) and humidity for the northern slope (continental climatic zone).
Jang, Eric B; Casana-Giner, Victor; Oliver, James E
Field-trapping evaluations of the new male attractant, formic acid 4-(3-oxobutyl) phenyl ester (raspberry ketone formate [RKF]) were conducted in Hawaii with wild populations of melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine its activity in the field and to evaluate new plastic matrix formulations. All tests were compared with the standard melon fly attractant 4-(4-acetoxyphenyl) -2-butanone (cuelure [CL]), which is the attractant of choice for detection programs aimed at melon fly and other cuelure-responding Bactrocera fruit flies. Results of these tests over a range of doses on cotton wicks showed that at a 1-g dose raspberry ketone formate was 1.5-2 times more attractive compared with cuelure for up to 11 wk in the field. Lower doses applied on cotton wicks were less active, presumably due to hydrolysis of RKF to raspberry ketone. Raspberry ketone formate embedded in a plastic plug formulation also was field tested, and it was shown to be more attractive to male melon fly compared with cuelure. The use of this new attractant in control and detection programs is discussed.
González, Ricardo; Toledo, Jorge; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Virgen, Armando; Santiesteban, Antonio; Malo, Edi A
The behavioral and electrophysiological responses of nonirradiated male and female Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Oerst. (Rutaceae), volatiles were investigated. Females flew upwind and landed more often on fruit than on artificial fruit in wind tunnel bioassays. Males flew upwind (but not landed) more frequently on fruit than on artificial fruit. Porapak Q volatile extracts of white sapote also elicited upwind flight and landing on artificial fruit for both sexes. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of white sapote extracts revealed that antennae of both sexes responded to eight compounds. Two peaks were unidentified because they did not separate from the solvent. Subsequent peaks were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as styrene, myrcene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool in a proportion of 50: 21: 0.5: 27: 1.5, respectively. Eight peaks were tentatively identified as beta-trans-ocimene. The number of A. ludens captured in multilure traps baited with the synthetic white sapote blend was higher than the flies captured by the multilure unbaited traps (control) in field cages. However, the number of flies captured by traps baited with the white sapote blend was not different from that of flies captured by traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Using standard chemical ecology techniques, we found potential attractants from wild sapote fruit for monitoring and management of A. ludens population.
Gouinguené, Sandrine P; Städler, Erich
The choice of a suitable oviposition site by female insects is essential for survival of their progeny. Both olfactory and contact cues of the oviposition site may mediate this choice. The polyphagous Delia platura (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), a severe agricultural pest of numerous crops, lays eggs in the soil close to germinating seeds. Maggots feed upon the cotyledons. Only little is known about the cues guiding oviposition behavior. In this study, the effects of both olfactory and contact cues of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on oviposition of D. platura females were tested. Egg deposition on germinated beans was preferred to egg deposition on ungerminated beans or on beans in different postgerminating developmental stages. Olfactory cues of germinating beans alone stimulated female flies to lay eggs. Additional contact cues of germinating beans seemed to enhance the response, but the difference was not significant. Surface extracts of germinating beans sprayed on surrogate beans showed that both polar and nonpolar substances stimulated oviposition of D. platura flies. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection recordings of head space samples of germinating beans showed positive response of females to different compounds. We conclude that olfaction plays a major role when D. platura females are searching for oviposition sites. Volatile compounds released from germinating beans such as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 1-hepten-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and 3-octanone should be considered as key compounds that mediate oviposition behavior. The use of different sensory modalities by closely related species of Delia is discussed.
Mohr, Rachel M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K
As the most common primary colonizer of carrion, adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) play an important role in initiating arthropod-mediated breakdown of soft tissue; however, their timing is highly variable. This variability complicates the estimation of precolonization intervals or periods of insect activity by forensic entomologists. In this study, the size of the adult blow fly on swine carcasses was compared with various environmental conditions including time of day, temperature, wind speed, and light levels. Four trials were conducted: two in August and September 2008, one in January 2009, and one in February-March 2010. Of the measured variables, time of day was the only consistent factor explaining the population size of blow fly on a carcass, although precipitation and high winds affected winter-active Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Male flies were also collected, suggesting that carcasses may play additional roles in adult blow fly ecology beyond that of a simple oviposition site. For both sexes of flies, a strong diel pattern of behavior emerged, which could be useful in estimating precolonization intervals by considering the environmental conditions at a scene, and thus forensic entomologists may be better able to estimate the likelihood of adult activity at a carcass.
Fernando Mc KAY
Full Text Available Inspecciones de campo realizadas sobre Parkinsonia aculeata L. en el Norte-centro de Argentina entre 2008 y 2011 revelaron la presencia del mosquito agallícola Neolasioptera aculeatae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. La presencia de las agallas de N. aculeatae está restringida a la distribución norte de P. aculeata. La disección de agallas recolectadas a lo largo del año, reveló la presencia de larvas y/o pupas en distintos estados fenológicos de P. aculeata. La emergencia de adultos de N. aculeatae tuvo lugar 13 a 34 días desde la recolección en el campo y se extendió por un período promedio de 22 días. Entre once especies de leguminosas inspeccionadas en el campo, adultos de N. aculeatae emergieron únicamente de agallas recolectadas sobre P. aculeata. Los atributos biológicos y el restringido conjunto de plantas hospederas utilizadas en el campo, hacen de N. aculeatae un agente promisorio para el control biológico de P. aculeata.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae. Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald individuals vary considerably in size and color of the reflections of the scales on their thorax, abdomen, antepronotal lobes and occiput. The goal of this study was to investigate and to characterize the differences in the color of the scales among preserved specimens and to analyze the differences in the microstructures of the scales that cover their bodies using near-infrared spectroscopy, and to evaluate whether the latter is efficient in distinguishing the populations. A total of 201 adult females were analyzed for the characterization of color patterns. In addition, absorbance spectra and scanning electron microscope images were obtained from them. As a result of color analysis, two variations were identified, one represented by specimens with yellow or green scales and the other with blue or purple scales. The same two variations were corroborated using NIRS. Analysis of the microstructure of the scales lining the mesonotum, occiput and antepronotal lobes resulted in the same variations. The three methodologies, near-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and coloration of the reflections of the scales revealed two variations within Sa. albiprivus.
Full Text Available The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae. In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I. boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I. intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I. intricata and D. (I. esbeni (Nielsen. The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I. intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia.
Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P
Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss.
Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich
An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.
Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.
Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, José Hilário Tavares da; Inacio, Cássio Lázaro Silva; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson) (Diptera: Psychodidae) can act as an important vector of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis This study presents the results of collections carried out in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in a Conservation Unit of Rio Grande do Norte state. Collections occurred over 12 consecutive months using Shannon and CDC traps. A total of 777 sand flies from eight species were collected: Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead), Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes), Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), Lutzomyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira), Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), and Lutzomyia abonnenci (Floch & Chassignet). Lutzomyia wellcomei was the most abundant species using the Shannon trap (97%) and L. walkeri in the CDC trap (81%). It is important to note the abundance of L. wellcomei in Shannon trap collections, which favors the capture of anthropophilic species. Lutzomyia wellcomei was only present in months where rainfall was above 100 mm, confirming it as a species adapted to wetter months. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas; Bahia-Nascimento, Ana Cristina; Pinto, Luciana Conceição; Leal, Cynthia de Sousa; Secundino, Nágila Francinete Costa; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci
The specific aims of this work were to examine the antennal sensilla of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) adults and to characterize their typology and topography, with special attention to olfactory sensilla. The surfaces of the antennal segments of Lu. longipalpis males and females were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lu. longipalpis used in the current study were obtained from a colony originating from Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Microtrichiae and 11 subtypes of sensilla were observed and characterized according to the following categories: five subtypes of trichoid sensilla (short, medium, long blunt-tipped, long pointed-tipped, and apical), two coeloconic sensilla (grooved and praying hands), and campaniform, chaetic, basiconic, and squamiform sensilla. SEM analyses showed few differences between males and females in the typology, topography, and quantity of antennal sensilla described. The current study is the first to identify several categories of antennal sensilla of the genus Lutzomyia and their distribution patterns. The identification of these sensillar types may be important in planning future electrophysiological studies to develop alternative measures of control and monitoring of Lu. longipalpis.
Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G
Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C
Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control.
Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge
Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Julio Marcos Melges Walder
Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.
Ballman, Elissa S; Collins, Judith A; Drummond, Francis A
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in North America, including wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine. Despite its presence in the continental United States for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. Here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in Maine's wild blueberry fields. Experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation depth to understand D. suzukii's predation vulnerability. Predation rates in the field of fully-exposed, caged, and buried pupae were measured. Pitfall traps were deployed to identify the potential predator assemblage, and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how many pupae were consumed by commonly occurring ground beetle species (Carabidae) and field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister). The most commonly collected predators were ants, ground beetles, harvestmen, and field crickets. Significantly more pupae were found to occur in the soil compared to blueberry fruit, with most pupae in the top 0.5 cm layer of soil. Pupal predation rates in the field were high, with higher rates of predation on exposed pupae compared to buried pupae. Laboratory studies revealed that ground beetles and field crickets are likely predators of D. suzukii pupae. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Evangelista, L G; Leite, A C R
Salivary glands of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.) (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae were studied under light and electron microscopy. The salivary glands of second (L2) and third instars (L3) are similar and consist of pairs of translucent tubules. The individual efferent ducts unite to form a single deferent duct, which inserts dorsally into the cephalopharingeal skeleton. Each gland has a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounded by basement membrane and connective tissue. The cellular plasma membrane is enfolded at its base, forming a labyrinthine area. The cell surface is linked to the basement membrane (BM) by hemidesmosomes and to adjacent cells by septet junctions and desmosomes. Irregular channels with several vesicles occur between the cytoplasm and BM. Golgi complex, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and myelin figures are usually present in the cells. The nucleus is large, with diffuse chromatin. The connective tissue circling the BM contains collagen fibrils, muscle fibers and tracheal tubes. Lined cuticle encloses the efferent and deferent ductal cells, which have few, widely dispersed mitochondria, free ribosomes, microtubules, and a large nucleus with diffuse chromatin.