WorldWideScience

Sample records for godot proactive efforts

  1. WAITING FOR GODOT - ABSURD TEATER

    OpenAIRE

    Thorup, Rasmus; Leitthof, Anneliese; Kock, Felizia; Johansson, Lars; Moustgaard, Mie; Rosenkrands, Tobias; Staalhøj, Sarah; Jeppesen, Freja

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to reassess and discuss the different interpretations of Samuel Beckett’s play Waiting for Godot, made by Martin Esslin and Michael Y. Bennett. The analytical tools needed to enable the reassessment is found in the dimensional courses of Philosophy and Scientific theory (Da: Filosofi og Videnskabsteori) and Text-analysis (Da: Tekst og Tegn) and the discussion is based on Esslin’s The Theatre of The Absurd and Bennett’s Reassessing The Theatre of The Absurd. The conclusion is...

  2. Hamaca Paraguaya: um Godot guarani?

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Fernando Mesquita de

    2011-01-01

    O presente artigo propõe estabelecer relações entre o filme Hamaca Paraguaya, dirigido por Paz Encina e a peça teatral Esperando Godot do dramaturgo irlandês Samuel Beckett. O estudo, sem o intuito de fixar vínculos comparativos, propõe uma análise das duas obras, apoiando-se em dois eixos temáticos comuns: a espera e a incomunicabilidade, pontuando reflexões entre o indivíduo e sua existência. Organização, execução e patrocínio: UNILA e Itaipu-Paraguay - Parceria: NELOOL/UFSC ...

  3. Associations between Effortful Control, Psychological Control and Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathert, Jamie; Fite, Paula J.; Gaertner, Alden E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined relations between effortful control (ones ability to focus and shift attention in an adaptive manner), psychological control (caregiver attempts to manipulate the child's internal world) and proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 69 children (54% male) ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M = 10.35, SD =…

  4. La primera escansión poética de la obra teatral Waiting for Godot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Carolina Hewitt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque Waiting for Godot, sea claramente arte dramático escrito en prosa, mi hipótesis original es que contenga pasajes con características poéticas y rítmicas. Por lo tanto, no debemos eludir la posibilidad de realizar un análisis por escansión en Godot. La originalidad en esta hipótesis ha sido confirmada recientemente por un experto a escala internacional en Beckett. Otros estudios sin embargo, han descrito facetas puramente lingüísticas de esta obra dramática, pero hasta el momento no parece haberse llevado a cabo análisis de la métrica o examen sistemático alguno a cerca de esta faceta. En este artículo, he tratado de suplir la desatención de este aspecto efectuando mi propia y original escansión en relación a la obra dramática de Waiting for Godot, en concreto de la versión en inglés, utilizando para ello el pasaje referente a las “voces muertas”(Beckett, 1977: 62 – 63. En consecuencia, describiré las conclusiones a las que he llegado después de llevar a cabo dicho análisis de esta obra teatral, por escansión poética.

  5. Proactive Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    with solving a task. They found improved ways of doing the job and identified management challenges. They shared their experience with colleagues who did not attend the Proactive Review and addressed the management challenges to the senior management. Proactive Reviews were reported 50-100 times a year....... Valid feedback from various stakeholders improved the original design of After Action Reviews into Proactive Reviews, which is helpful for local as well as global companies to learn from experience. The educational design started with personal experience that was shared with colleagues who cooperated...

  6. Proactive Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will explore how to learn from working experience through the use of an educational approach called Proactive Review. From 2005 to 2012, Proactive Review was developed and implemented in a world-class IT company based in more than 40 countries across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa....... This chapter will include some of the theoretical considerations as well as the final educational design for a Proactive Review, as exemplified in a case study from the IT company. The aim of this chapter is to provide a theoretically based and proven educational design for Lessons Learned, including...... recommendations for successful Proactive Reviews. The theory section will explore theories regarding the following two topics: first, how an organization may understand the term “learning”; and second, the starting point of learning and how an organization may maintain a learning environment. The research...

  7. Proactive Public Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services–over a short period of time...... proactive public disclosure is compatible with the Duty of Confidentiality, but incompatible with Good Public Governance. Furthermore, the analyses show that there are a number of strong organizational rationales for using proactive public disclosure, despite its apparent incompatibility with Good Public...... Governance. The article is innovative in that it combines a legal and organizational approach to analyse a new regulatory strategy within tax administration....

  8. Il Godot dimezzato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    1996-01-01

    Beckett’s characters have a very peculiar perception of reality. They live in a “limbo” between life and death, they have problems with their means of knowledge (they are deaf, mute, paralyzed, mad), they live in tiny spaces (cages, small closed rooms, beds, soil), they can’t manage to have a pla...

  9. Proactive control of proactive interference using the method of loci

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Willa S.; Oswald, Karl M.

    2014-01-01

    Proactive interferencebuilds up with exposure to multiple lists of similar items with a resulting reduction in recall. This study examined the effectiveness of using a proactive strategy of the method of loci to reduce proactive interference in a list recall paradigm of categorically similar words. While all participants reported using some form of strategy to recall list words, this study demonstrated that young adults were able to proactively use the method of loci after 25 min of instructi...

  10. Proactive control of proactive interference using the method of loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Willa S; Oswald, Karl M

    2014-01-01

    Proactive interferencebuilds up with exposure to multiple lists of similar items with a resulting reduction in recall. This study examined the effectiveness of using a proactive strategy of the method of loci to reduce proactive interference in a list recall paradigm of categorically similar words. While all participants reported using some form of strategy to recall list words, this study demonstrated that young adults were able to proactively use the method of loci after 25 min of instruction to reduce proactive interference as compared with other personal spontaneous strategies. The implications of this study are that top-down proactive strategies such as the method of loci can significantly reduce proactive interference, and that the use of image and sequence or location are especially useful in this regard.

  11. Developmental Change in Proactive Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined age-related change in proactive interference from previously learned material. The meta-analysis of 26 studies indicated that proactive interference decreased with age. The cross-sectional study found that third through sixth graders' and college students' recall was accurate on Trial 1, but became less so over Trials 2…

  12. Proactive malware detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Jonathan; Diep, Michael; Dredden, David; Mix, Matthew; Olsen, Mark; Price, Brian; Steil, Betty

    2014-06-01

    Small-to-medium sized businesses lack resources to deploy and manage high-end advanced solutions to deter sophisticated threats from well-funded adversaries, but evidence shows that these types of businesses are becoming key targets. As malicious code and network attacks become more sophisticated, classic signature-based virus and malware detection methods are less effective. To augment the current malware methods of detection, we developed a proactive approach to detect emerging malware threats using open source tools and intelligence to discover patterns and behaviors of malicious attacks and adversaries. Technical and analytical skills are combined to track adversarial behavior, methods and techniques. We established a controlled (separated domain) network to identify, monitor, and track malware behavior to increase understanding of the methods and techniques used by cyber adversaries. We created a suite of tools that observe the network and system performance looking for anomalies that may be caused by malware. The toolset collects information from open-source tools and provides meaningful indicators that the system was under or has been attacked. When malware is discovered, we analyzed and reverse engineered it to determine how it could be detected and prevented. Results have shown that with minimum resources, cost effective capabilities can be developed to detect abnormal behavior that may indicate malicious software.

  13. Proactive Self Defense in Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulkins, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    ... and standards to properly secure and defend the Global Information Grid (GIG) from cyber attacks. This paper will discuss the strategic requirements for enacting a proactive self-defense mechanism in cyberspace...

  14. Employee Participation in Non-Mandatory Professional Development--The Role of Core Proactive Motivation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Kim S.; Machin, M. Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With a focus on the self-initiated efforts of employees, this study examined a model of core proactive motivation processes for participation in non-mandatory professional development (PD) within a proactive motivation framework using the Self-Determination Theory perspective. A multi-group SEM analysis conducted across 439 academic and general…

  15. Employability Transcripts: Proactive Career Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    With high school dropout rates at about 30 percent nationwide and an anticipated severe workforce shortage as baby boomers retire, now is the time to engage future workers. Educators must encourage high school students to be proactive career planners. Today's high school students will fuel the workforce pipeline with educated, skilled workers who…

  16. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  17. Possibilities for Proactive Library Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Eric Lease

    1999-01-01

    Considers ways in which library services can be more proactive in today's networked-computer environment. Discusses how to find and use patterns of behavior, such as borrowing behavior and profiles of patrons' interests; making a CD-ROM with information describing the library's services and products; and reviving telephone reference. (LRW)

  18. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  19. Proactive Assessment for Collaboration Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L. Ju

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a government–academia–industry joint training project that produces Vietnamese midlevel technical managers. To ensure collaboration success, a proactive assessment methodology was developed as a supplement to the conventional project management practices. In the postproject feedback, the funding agencies acknowledged that the project fulfilled its contractual obligations and achieved its objectives. The implementing university was pleased as it broke ground in this type of collaboration in Taiwan. The industrial partners, however, were not so sure about the effectiveness of this collaborative training endeavor because there were many skirmishes between company supervisors and Vietnamese interns caused by the interns’ self-interested perception and expectation. Consequently, a theoretical framework for predicting internship acceptance and preventing unfavorable perceptions was proposed to strengthen the proactive assessment methodology. Collaboration research, funding agencies, academia, and industry could all benefit from this study.

  20. Proactive ecology for the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stuart Chapin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid, directional global changes that characterize the Anthropocene provide unprecedented opportunities for ecologists and other scientists to discover new paradigms that shape our understanding of the ways that the world is changing. These paradigms will likely focus more strongly on interactions, feedbacks, thresholds, and model uncertainty than on steady-state dynamics and statistical uncertainty. We advocate a shift in ecology and other disciplines to a more proactive leadership role in defining problems and possibilities in a rapidly changing world rather than being relegated to a reactive role of trying to fix the problems after the horse has left the barn. This requires not only renewed commitment by ecologists (and other citizens to a more proactive ethic of environmental citizenship but also institutional changes in education, the scientific review and funding processes, and promotion and tenure processes to encourage and celebrate those who seek to shape trajectories toward greater ecosystem and social resilience and well-being.

  1. Is Strategic Proactivity a Driver of an Environmental Strategy? Effects of Innovation and Internationalization Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Suarez-Perales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses strategic proactivity as a driving factor in the implementation of an advanced environmental strategy in a firm. Strategic proactivity is defined as a firm’s tendency to initiate voluntary changes instead of reacting to events in the environment and according to previous literature, can be interpreted as a combination of internal factors that characterise a firm’s business strategy as that of a prospector firm. In this study, we measured this through innovation, with two variables related to the firm’s entire production cycle: R&D expenditure and patents. However, we also considered two more strategic proactivity indicators: innovation proactivity and internationalisation proactivity. These two proactivity variables take into account the innovative and international actions of the firms, going beyond the actions usually taken by firms in the same sector. Using panel data methodology, we obtained results that show that firms who invest in R&D and patent their innovations achieve more advanced positions in their environmental strategies. Empirical evidence also shows that firms with a greater innovation effort throughout the production cycle (product, process, organisation and marketing than their competitors also attain more advanced positions (proactivity in environmental matters. In other words, innovation proactivity is a driver of environmental strategy. In relation to internationalization, the results also showed that firms that operate in a larger geographical area than their competitors adapt to the most demanding environmental legislation, placing them in a position of environmental leadership in their respective sectors. The inclusion of internationalization as an indicator of strategic proactivity, the measurement of proactivity variables and the correction of firms’ specific unobserved aspects are some of this paper’s contributions.

  2. Proactive Interference in Human Predictive Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Leyre; Ortega, Nuria; Matute, Helena

    2002-01-01

    The impairment in responding to a secondly trained association because of the prior training of another (i.e., proactive interference) is a well-established effect in human and animal research, and it has been demonstrated in many paradigms. However, learning theories have been concerned with proactive interference only when the competing stimuli have been presented in compound at some moment of the training phase. In this experiment we investigated the possibility of proactive interference b...

  3. EFFECTS OF PROACTIVE PERSONALITY ON POLITICAL SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin AKÇAKANAT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the proactive personality on the political skills of the administrative staff working at the university. For this purpose, Proactive Personality Scale (Claes et.al., 2005 and Political Skill Inventory (Ferris et.al.:2005 were conducted for university administrative staff. The relationship between proactive personality traits and political skills of the staff was determined through correlation and regression analysis. As a result, it has been found that proactive personality has a significant effect in explaining both its general political skill and its sub-dimensions.

  4. Proactive data mining with decision trees

    CERN Document Server

    Dahan, Haim; Rokach, Lior; Maimon, Oded

    2014-01-01

    This book explores a proactive and domain-driven method to classification tasks. This novel proactive approach to data mining not only induces a model for predicting or explaining a phenomenon, but also utilizes specific problem/domain knowledge to suggest specific actions to achieve optimal changes in the value of the target attribute. In particular, the authors suggest a specific implementation of the domain-driven proactive approach for classification trees. The book centers on the core idea of moving observations from one branch of the tree to another. It introduces a novel splitting crite

  5. ENTERPRISE PROACTIVITY AS ELEMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra López Salazar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The businessman rol must be based on stimulate a change and the development of organizations counting on abilities and features needed to achieve this. Analyze the vision and business proactivity as corporate culture variables, has a great importance for survival and competitiveness of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. This study aims to analyze the level of proactivity and vision that have 418 businessmen in the region of Celaya, and determine the relationship of these variables. Results show that there is a great aspiration of businessmen to achieve growth; however, their vision is not aligned with the level of proactivity that they use to manage their organizations.

  6. Release From Proactive Interference with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Linda F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This demonstration of release from proactive interference with young children confirms the suggestion that the technique is appropriate for the study of developmental changes in the encoding of information. (Authors/CB)

  7. Content Analysis for Proactive Protective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to outline a plan for developing and validating a Proactive Protective Intelligence approach that prevents targeted violence through the analysis and assessment of threats overtly or covertly expressed in abnormal communications to USSS protectees.

  8. Identity Building in Organisations: Proactive Capability Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2002-01-01

    Identity building in organisations is often viewed as legitimacy of value systems of the organisation. Based on empirical studies the task of this article is to argue that such a legitimacy approach risks failing in the longer perspective, if the proactive capability development is neglected....... The participatory scenario method presented in this article is one of the possible methods to enhance identity building based on proactive capability development....

  9. The value and feasibility of proactive recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) technology has definite environmental advantages over competing electricity generation technologies, and so far these advantages have driven market penetration. The PV industry follows a pro-active approach to preserve its safe and environmentally friendly nature. Industrial ecology considerations raise the issue of what to do with the PV modules at the end of their useful life. One option is recycling. This paper discusses the value of proactive recycling and compares several alternatives. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. Visual Working Memory Capacity and Proactive Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Hartshorne, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/P...

  11. Effortful echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  12. Neurogenesis-mediated forgetting minimizes proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Jonathan R; Silva Mera, Rudy; Köhler, Stefan; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2016-02-26

    Established memories may interfere with the encoding of new memories, particularly when existing and new memories overlap in content. By manipulating levels of hippocampal neurogenesis, here we show that neurogenesis regulates this form of proactive interference. Increasing hippocampal neurogenesis weakens existing memories and, in doing so, facilitates the encoding of new, conflicting (but not non-conflicting) information in mice. Conversely, decreasing neurogenesis stabilizes existing memories, and impedes the encoding of new, conflicting information. These results suggest that reduced proactive interference is an adaptive benefit of neurogenesis-induced forgetting.

  13. Analysis Influence of Proactivity Power Business, Market Orientation, and Competitive Advantage toward Marketing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Karmela Fitriani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is an empirical study on Batik SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises in Cirebon District, West Java. This study analyzes the effect of proactivity power business, market orientation, and competitive advantage towards marketing performance. The subjects of this research were 215 Batik SMEs in Cirebon District West Java. The analysis was done using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, AMOS ver. 18. The result shows that proactivity power business, market orientation, and competitive advantage give positive influence on marketing performance of  Batik SMEs. The research implication is when SME businesses focus on the effort in improving their proactivity power business and competitive advantage, it will give positive impact on marketing performance. Other research finding reveals that  the orientation of customer and orientation of competitor have some effects on marketing performance. In addition, SME businesses should know what customers want and they should be able to identify their competitors in order to improve their marketing performance.

  14. Proactive and Retroactive Effects of Negative Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan S.; Brown, Christine M.; Mosbacher, Joy L.; Dryden, W. Erich

    2006-01-01

    The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false…

  15. Using Proactive Law for Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Haapio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of law as a positive force within companies through parallel developments in Europe and the United States and a Colombian case study that illustrates how contract simplification and visualization can help bring user-friendly contracts and Proactive Law to practice.

  16. A Proactive Approach to Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of technology, it is important for each citizen to be able to make informed decisions about the technology that he or she uses. This article suggests that a proactive approach to advocating technological literacy is important in changing the greater public's misconceptions of what it means to be technologically…

  17. Coping Proactively with Middle Years Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Douglas R.

    1994-01-01

    To deal proactively with middle-years students, educators must consider four areas: development of an effective home-school team; student counseling; classroom management and discipline; and instructional strategies focused on students' personal growth and academic achievement. Teachers should use diverse approaches and materials, increase student…

  18. Young Children Proactively Remedy Unnoticed Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Human adults will sometimes help without being asked to help, including in situations in which the helpee is oblivious to the problem and thus provides no communicative or behavioral cues that intervention is necessary. Some theoretical models argue that these acts of "proactive helping" are an important and possibly human-specific form of…

  19. Preserved Proactive Interference in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Joana C.; Duarte, Elsa; Pinho, Sandra; Filipe, Carlos N.; Marques, J. Frederico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate further the functioning and structuring of the semantic system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We analyzed the performance of 19 high-functioning young adults with ASD and a group of 20 age-, verbal IQ- and education-matched individuals with the Proactive Interference (PI) Paradigm to evaluate semantic…

  20. Neural mechanisms of proactive interference-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jonides, John; Berman, Marc G

    2007-12-01

    The ability to mitigate interference from information that was previously relevant, but is no longer relevant, is central to successful cognition. Several studies have implicated left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) as a region tied to this ability, but it is unclear whether this result generalizes across different tasks. In addition, it has been suggested that left anterior prefrontal cortex (APFC) also plays a role in proactive interference-resolution although support for this claim has been limited. The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the role of these regions in resolving proactive-interference across two different tasks performed on the same subjects. Results indicate that both left VLPFC and left APFC are involved in the resolution of proactive interference across tasks. However, different functional networks related to each region suggest dissociable roles for the two regions. Additionally, regions of the posterior cingulate gyrus demonstrated unique involvement in facilitation when short- and long-term memory converged. This pattern of results serves to further specify models of proactive interference-resolution.

  1. Evaluating Mobile Proactive Context-Aware Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menegon, Davide; Mizzaro, Stefano; Nazzi, Elena

    We present the evaluation of a novel application for Web content perusal by means of context-aware mobile devices that proactively query an external search engine. To this aim, we develop a TREC-like benchmark and we use it to evaluate different strategies for automatic query construction...

  2. Plagiarism: Moving from Punitive to Proactive Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Guglielmin, Melanie; Otoo, Benedict Kojo

    2017-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be an issue in postsecondary contexts. This paper discusses how educators can take a proactive stance to prevent plagiarism and cultivate students' sense of honour and academic integrity, rather than focusing on punitive consequences after plagiarism has already occurred. Strategies include assessment design, formative…

  3. Conceptual framework for proactive crisis enterprise management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Merzlikina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in requests for recognition of the debtor insolvent, this situation actualize proactive crisis management in combination with low rehabilitation potential of the institution of bankruptcy since 2014. The crisеs in the development of enterprises are inevitable, moreover it can have positive aspects, for example, increase the company's susceptibility to progress and prevention of more serious crises, so the main objective of proactive crisis management isn`t the avoidance of crisis but optimization of the crisis process. Optimization of process involves the correlation of the costs of implementation of preventive measures and available resources to allocated resources are sufficient for implementation of all phases of proactive crisis solutions, but at the same time, the company has not incurred unreasonably high costs. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of definitions of “proactivecrisis management” and specified the content of this concept. The adoptionprocess of proactive crisis solutions should be clearly structured, so the authors highlighted and discussed in detail the process of adoption of proactivecrisis solutions, which includes 4 stages: obtaining information about the internal and external enterprise environment, the stage of processing the gathered information and taking necessary proactive crisis decisions, the implementation of the adopted decisions and control their implementation.Modern tools of proactivecrisis management are varied and take into account the specifics of modern Russian system of market relations, because they include analysis of internal and external enterprise environment, quantitative and qualitative indicators. The authors suggest to consider innovation as one of the possible instruments of preventive crisis management.

  4. Rating Methods for Proactive Recommendation on Smartwatches

    OpenAIRE

    Janosch Maier, Wolfgang Wörndl

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes possible interaction methods for using a recommender system on a smartwatch. As prerequisite, we describe interaction patterns currently used by Android Wear applications. Based on a prototype implementation the interaction methods action buttons, two button card and swipes are compared against each other. In a user study, 31 participating students were asked to rate restaurant recommendations offered in the setting of a context-aware, proactive recommender system. For eac...

  5. Creative Proactive-Concluding Theory of Motivating

    OpenAIRE

    Blašková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with necessity to change the understanding of human resource philosophy to the new philosophy: philosophy of human potential. In these intentions, it is very important to motivate human potential in the organisations. But, in the area of motivating, situation within the organisations isn't sufficient. Thereto the article gives an introductive presentation of a new theory of motivating: creative proactive-concluding theory of motivating. The theory leads the managers to utili...

  6. Proactive Recommender Systems in Automotive Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates proactive recommender systems to avoid information overload inside a car. The proposed system delivers context-adaptive items in the right situation. Explicit explanations are used to make the system comprehensible because it works without user request. To show the applicability of our system, we investigate the acceptance of the drivers. The results show that the drivers tend to accept such a system. Zur Vermeidung von Informationsüberflutung im Fahrzeug werden in...

  7. Proactive interference effects on sentence production

    OpenAIRE

    FERREIRA, VICTOR S.; FIRATO, CARLA E.

    2002-01-01

    Proactive interference refers to recall difficulties caused by prior similar memory-related processing. Information-processing approaches to sentence production predict that retrievability affects sentence form: Speakers may word sentences so that material that is difficult to retrieve is spoken later. In this experiment, speakers produced sentence structures that could include an optional that, thereby delaying the mention of a subsequent noun phrase. This subsequent noun phrase was either (...

  8. Psychophysiology of proactive and reactive relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Holterman, Leigh Ann; Breslend, Nicole L; Sullivan, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the joint effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to social and non-social stressors on proactive (i.e., goal-directed, unemotional) and reactive (i.e., emotional, impulsive) functions of relational aggression. Two hundred and forty-seven (M age =18.77years) participants completed a series of stressor tasks while their sympathetic arousal (i.e., skin conductance) and parasympathetic arousal (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were assessed. Participants also provided self-reports of their aggressive behavior. In the standardized social stressor only, physiological reactivity was related to aggression, such that respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation predicted proactive relational aggression whereas heightened skin conductance reactivity predicted reactive relational aggression. Finally, in the context of low skin conductance reactivity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation was related to heightened proactive and reactive aggression, whereas respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal was protective. Results suggest that the benefits hypothesized to accompany respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal may only occur among individuals with low "fight or flight" stress responses. Findings extend research on the physiological indicators of aggression to relational aggression, and highlight the importance of assessing functions of aggression, as well as physiological reactivity to multiple stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual working memory capacity and proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorne, Joshua K

    2008-07-23

    Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals.

  10. Visual working memory capacity and proactive interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K Hartshorne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals.

  11. The relationship between self-reported oral health, self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, A L; Dogaru, B C; Dogaru, C D; Manolescu, B

    2011-06-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude, perceived oral health and self-reported oral-health behaviours. The study sample consisted of 198 first year medical students. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic factors, behavioural variables, self-reported oral health status, proactive coping (proactive coping subscale of the Proactive Coping Inventory), procrastination (Procrastination Scale) and proactive attitude (Proactive Attitude Scale). Significant differences were found on self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude scales between participants who rated their gingival condition as very good/excellent and those who evaluated it as being poor, very poor or normal (p procrastination level among individuals who never visit their dentist and those who visit their dentist for check-up or for tooth cleaning and scaling (p = 0.001) or when treatment is needed or when in pain (p procrastination and proactive coping are important determinants of perceived oral health and self-reported oral-health behaviours.

  12. Proactiveness in entrepreneurial software firms: the executives' voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Boissin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches proactiveness in firms, considered to be one of the dimensions of the entrepreneurial orientation. Its goal is to introduce the results of an exploratory and qualitative study, which aimed to characterize the proactiveness in entrepreneurial software firms. The theory resumes the concepts of entrepreneurial firms, entrepreneurial orientation and proactiveness. The data gathering was accomplished through deeper interviews with executives from 13 software firms that stand out in terms of entrepreneurship in Rio Grande do Sul state. The results of the study demonstrate that firms are proactive and show a characterization regarding this behavior, starting from the conceptual base adopted in the present study. Among the proactiveness elements in the researched organizations, the onesrelated to environment monitoring and opportunities quest are highlighted. The study also consoliding a components’ set of proactiveness based on the theory and organizational practice reported by executives.

  13. Iterative Contracts as Proactive Law Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, René Franz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the use of proactive law in contracts illustrated by the use of a particular type of contract within the IT industry, the so-called iterative contract. This type of contract has its root in a special software development process called iterative and incre...... the potential to create more business success. However, empirical research still needs to be done in order to confirm that these types of contracts are better at securing business success than traditional contract forms....

  14. BUILDUP OF PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE IN JAPANESE KANJI LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    FUJITA, Tadashi

    1995-01-01

    The discriminative assumption on buildup of proactive interference in short-term memory predicts that when intertrial similarity of items is high, the proactive interference is built up while interlist similarity of items is low, the proactive interference is not built up. To test the discriminative assumption in Japanese Kanji learning, intertrial similarity was changed by the acoustic, the radical (as one of the figurative properties), and the radical plus semantic properties in Kanji. For ...

  15. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored.

  16. Proactive Interference in Short-Term Recognition and Recall Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Richard F.; Petrusic, William M.

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of study was to (a) compare the rate of increase of proactive interference over the first few trials under recall and recognition memory test conditions, (2) determine the effects of two types of distractors on short-term recognition, and (3) test memory after proactive interference had reached a stable level under each of three test…

  17. Proactive and Preventive Coping in Adjustment to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yiqun; Hu, Yueqin; Zhang, Yiwen

    2010-01-01

    The current study compared the relative importance of proactive coping and preventive coping in the adjustment to university life among 403 freshmen at a Chinese university and evaluated the function of proactive coping in the stress process. Participants completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory (Gan, Yang, Zhou, & Zhang, 2007), the…

  18. The summarize of the technique about proactive network security protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoxu; Li Xueying; Cao Aijuan; Yu Chuansong; Xu Rongsheng

    2003-01-01

    The proactive protection measures and the traditional passive security protection tools are complementarities each other. It also can supply the conventional network security protection system and enhance its capability of the security protection. Based upon sorts of existing network security technologies, this article analyses and summarizes the technologies, functions and the development directions of some key proactive network security protection tools. (authors)

  19. Winning community support through proactive communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelmer, R.L.; Stickley, S.; Gerestein, B.

    2006-01-01

    For over 20 years the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) has conducted remedial projects in communities across Canada. Through experience in the various social climates of Canadian communities, the LLRWMO has learned that community involvement and communications are integral to a project's overall success. The Port Hope Area Initiative is the largest project ever undertaken by the LLRWMO and all the proactive communications and consultation lessons learned from other projects have been applied in the Port Hope and Port Granby communities. The relationship of trust and credibility built over 20 years of LLRWMO operations in Port Hope provides a firm foundation for moving forward with the cleanup and long-term safe management of approximately two million cubic metres of low-level radioactive waste and contaminated soil in the Port Hope and Port Granby communities. (author)

  20. Proactive condition monitoring of low-speed machines

    CERN Document Server

    Stamboliska, Zhaklina; Moczko, Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    This book broadens readers’ understanding of proactive condition monitoring of low-speed machines in heavy industries. It focuses on why low-speed machines are different than others and how maintenance of these machines should be implemented with particular attention. The authors explain the best available monitoring techniques for various equipment and the principle of how to get proactive information from each technique. They further put forward possible strategies for application of FEM for detection of faults and technical assessment of machinery. Implementation phases are described and industrial case-studies of proactive condition monitoring are included. Proactive Condition Monitoring of Low-Speed Machines is an essential resource for engineers and technical managers across a range of industries as well as design engineers working in industrial product development. This book also: ·         Explains the practice of proactive condition monitoring and illustrates implementation phases ·   ...

  1. Equity and Excellence: Proactive Efforts in the Identification of Underrepresented Students for Gifted and Talented Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Scott J.; Engerrand, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of gifted and talented students and the accompanying fact that most identification systems result in the underrepresentation of students from African American, Hispanic, Native American, English language learning, and low-income families are two of the most discussed and hotly debated topics in the field. This article provides…

  2. Proactivity despite discouraging supervisors: The powerful role of prosocial motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, R David; Patil, Shefali V

    2018-03-26

    Although considerable research demonstrates that employees are unlikely to be proactive when they view their supervisors as discouraging this type of behavior, we challenge the assumption that this is true for all employees. Drawing on motivated information processing theory, we argue that prosocial motivation can spark employees to be proactive even when supervisors are perceived as discouraging. Specifically, prosocial motivation may weaken the negative relationship between perceived discouraging supervisor behaviors and proactivity by driving employees to bring about change to impact coworkers or the organization. Because they are less focused on self-interest and more focused on benefitting others, prosocially motivated employees are able to maintain their reason-to (felt responsibility for change) and can-do (efficacy to be proactive) motivation even when supervisors do not welcome proactivity. We test our hypotheses across three studies, using multisource data from employees and supervisors in two organizations (Studies 1a and 1b), and lagged data from employees working in a range of industries (Study 2). By identifying the mechanisms driving prosocially motivated employees to be proactive despite having supervisors who are perceived to be discouraging, we offer novel theoretical and practical insights regarding the effects of context on proactivity at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  4. Integrating Statistical Machine Learning in a Semantic Sensor Web for Proactive Monitoring and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Jude Adekunle; Moodley, Deshendran; Rens, Gavin; Adewumi, Aderemi Oluyinka

    2017-04-09

    Proactive monitoring and control of our natural and built environments is important in various application scenarios. Semantic Sensor Web technologies have been well researched and used for environmental monitoring applications to expose sensor data for analysis in order to provide responsive actions in situations of interest. While these applications provide quick response to situations, to minimize their unwanted effects, research efforts are still necessary to provide techniques that can anticipate the future to support proactive control, such that unwanted situations can be averted altogether. This study integrates a statistical machine learning based predictive model in a Semantic Sensor Web using stream reasoning. The approach is evaluated in an indoor air quality monitoring case study. A sliding window approach that employs the Multilayer Perceptron model to predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations is integrated into the proactive monitoring and control framework. Results show that the proposed approach can effectively predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations: precision of up to 0.86 and sensitivity of up to 0.85 is achieved over half hour prediction horizons, making it possible for the system to warn occupants or even to autonomously avert the predicted pollution situations within the context of Semantic Sensor Web.

  5. [Neurobiological aspects of reactive and proactive violence in antisocial personality disorder and "psychopathy"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard; Strüber, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Impulsive-reactive violent offenders show increased autonomic activity in response to negative emotional and threatening stimuli. A volume reduction and/or activity decrease of frontal brain structures associated with impulse control and the regulation of fear and anger are likewise found in combination with a fear-related hyperactivity of the amygdala. In addition, impulsive aggression is facilitated by variants of gene polymorphisms influencing the serotonergic system. Conversely, proactive-instrumental violent offender with psychopathy, who are characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse, demonstrate an autonomic hypo-responsivity as well as dysfunctions of the amygdala and of cortical regions related to empathic and social behavior. Developmentally, aggressive children exhibit temperamental differences from early childhood on that are characteristic of a developmental pathway towards either reactive or proactive violence later in life. Exposure to negative environmental factors like ineffective parenting or childhood maltreatment has been related to a heightened risk for developing reactive violence. A developmental trajectory of proactive violence, however, has been related to a mostly genetically determined callous unemotional temperament of the child that disrupts the parental socialization efforts during childhood.

  6. Integrating Statistical Machine Learning in a Semantic Sensor Web for Proactive Monitoring and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Adekunle Adeleke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proactive monitoring and control of our natural and built environments is important in various application scenarios. Semantic Sensor Web technologies have been well researched and used for environmental monitoring applications to expose sensor data for analysis in order to provide responsive actions in situations of interest. While these applications provide quick response to situations, to minimize their unwanted effects, research efforts are still necessary to provide techniques that can anticipate the future to support proactive control, such that unwanted situations can be averted altogether. This study integrates a statistical machine learning based predictive model in a Semantic Sensor Web using stream reasoning. The approach is evaluated in an indoor air quality monitoring case study. A sliding window approach that employs the Multilayer Perceptron model to predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations is integrated into the proactive monitoring and control framework. Results show that the proposed approach can effectively predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations: precision of up to 0.86 and sensitivity of up to 0.85 is achieved over half hour prediction horizons, making it possible for the system to warn occupants or even to autonomously avert the predicted pollution situations within the context of Semantic Sensor Web.

  7. Proactive personality and job performance: a social capital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeffery A

    2005-09-01

    This study of 126 employee-supervisor dyads examined a mediated model of the relationship between proactive personality and job performance. The model, informed by the social capital perspective, suggests that proactive employees reap performance benefits by means of developing social networks that provide them the resources and latitude to pursue high-level initiatives. Structural equation modeling suggested that the relationship between proactive personality and job performance is mediated by network building and initiative taking on the part of the employee. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Are proactive personalities always beneficial? Political skill as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuhua; van Emmerik, Hetty I J

    2015-05-01

    Does proactive personality always enhance job success? The authors of this study draw on socioanalytic theory of personality and organizational political perspectives to study employees' political skill in moderating the effects of proactive personality on supervisory ratings of employee task performance, helping behaviors, and learning behaviors. Multisource data from 225 subordinates and their 75 immediate supervisors reveal that proactive personality is associated negatively with supervisory evaluations when political skill is low, and the negative relationship disappears when political skill is high. Implications and future research directions are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Proactive Review – learn from experience to improve bottom line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to provide a theoretically based and proven educational design for lessons learned. Called a Proactive Review, this educational design is exemplified in a case study of a global information technology company classified as big business, where Proactive Reviews were developed...... and implemented in over 40 countries. This article explores how employees who solve a task together can learn from the experience and share this learning with relevant colleagues to improve work practices, services, and/or products. This article describes the format of Proactive Reviews, suggestions for starting...

  10. Improve Business Results by Learning from Experience in Proactive Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to provide a theoretically based and proven educational design for lessons learned. Called a Proactive Review, this educational design is exemplified in a case study of a global information technology company classified as big business, where Proactive Reviews were developed...... and implemented in over 40 countries. This article explores how employees who solve a task together can learn from the experience and share this learning with relevant colleagues to improve work practices, services, and/or products. This article describes the format of Proactive Reviews, suggestions for starting...

  11. Proactive Student Engagement with Fitness to Practise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Lo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fitness to practise (FTP is fundamental to health professional education and health service delivery, impacting on both practitioner and client wellbeing. Literature exploring FTP support policies primarily identifies retrospective student support and management. This study describes student perceptions of an innovative FTP policy which supports students and staff to proactively identify FTP management strategies prior to entering the clinical environment. Forty-nine final year physiotherapy students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of self-declaring FTP. Ordinal data from Likert scales were reported using descriptive statistics. Thematic analysis was undertaken for open text responses. The response rate was 88%. Forty-two percent of students stated that they had experienced FTP concerns during the course. Concerns included physical and mental impairment and clinical competence issues. The majority of students (80% indicated that they were “comfortable” or “very comfortable” in self-declaring FTP issues. Confidentiality, positive relationships with staff and a supportive environment enhanced likelihood of declaration. Eight students (19% met with university staff to develop management strategies and all rated these meetings as “helpful” or “very helpful.” Students had positive perceptions of self-declaring their FTP to enable early development of management strategies. This strategy successfully navigates sensitive ethicolegal issues, empowering students to take responsibility for their own FTP.

  12. Proactive learning for artificial cognitive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2010-04-01

    The Artificial Cognitive Systems (ACS) will be developed for human-like functions such as vision, auditory, inference, and behavior. Especially, computational models and artificial HW/SW systems will be devised for Proactive Learning (PL) and Self-Identity (SI). The PL model provides bilateral interactions between robot and unknown environment (people, other robots, cyberspace). For the situation awareness in unknown environment it is required to receive audiovisual signals and to accumulate knowledge. If the knowledge is not enough, the PL should improve by itself though internet and others. For human-oriented decision making it is also required for the robot to have self-identify and emotion. Finally, the developed models and system will be mounted on a robot for the human-robot co-existing society. The developed ACS will be tested against the new Turing Test for the situation awareness. The Test problems will consist of several video clips, and the performance of the ACSs will be compared against those of human with several levels of cognitive ability.

  13. Proactive Management of the Equine Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K. Gee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Across many equestrian disciplines the median competition career of a horse is relatively short. One of the major reasons for short career length is musculoskeletal injury and a consistent variable is the trainer effect. There are significant opportunities within equestrian sport for a holistic approach to horse health to attenuate musculoskeletal injury. Proactive integration of care by health professionals could provide a mechanism to attenuate injury risk and the trainer effect. However, the limited data available on current exercise regimens for sport horses restricts interpretation of how management and exercise volume could be modified to reduce injury risk. Early exercise in the juvenile horse (i.e., pre weaning has a positive effect on stimulating the musculoskeletal system and primes the horse for an athletic career. The early introduction to sport competition has also been identified to have a positive effect on career length. These data indicate that management systems reflecting the cursorial evolution of the horse may aid in attenuating loss from sport due to musculoskeletal injury.

  14. Release from Proactive Interference: Insufficiency of an Attentional Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Colin M.

    1975-01-01

    If an attentional cue affects retroactive interference, perhaps a similar mechanism underlies release from proactive interference. This study tested this hypothesis by inserting an attentional cue before the final trial in Wickens' paradigm. (Author/RK)

  15. From reactive to proactive apporach of interactive leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance a constructive approach to technological and organisational development it seems important to involve employees proactively. The chapter discribe and analyse different approaches to do that and analyse the impacts on organisational change...

  16. Proactive health consumerism: an important new tool for worksite health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara S; Cummins, Carol O; Evers, Kerry E; Prochaska, Janice M; Prochaska, James O

    2009-01-01

    Consumerism in health care has taken on the form of a major innovation among employers and health plans. Yet many of our efforts to enhance the skills and attitudes that enable consumerism have met with limited success. Proactive Health Consumerism is proposed as an approach that utilizes many of the hard-won lessons from health promotion research. Along with prerequisites that create the motivation and framework for increased health consumerism, this article provides a theory-driven example of a new tool for health promotion professionals to employ when enhancing the health consumer skills of working populations. Strategies for maximization of effectiveness and integration with supporting resources are also described.

  17. Proactive supply chain risk management approach: The case of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Supply chain risk management has become imperative. Therefore, needs for proactive supply chain risk management continuously is growing. Proactive supply chain risk management is not a great problem in developed countries. The problem is present in transition countries and underdeveloped countries. In those countries has not been built awareness about the importance of networking through supply chains and risk management within the supply chain. One of them...

  18. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yongheng; Geng Shaofeng; Li Qian

    2016-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT). Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is p...

  19. Simplified Threshold RSA with Adaptive and Proactive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almansa Guerra, Jesus Fernando; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2006-01-01

    We present the currently simplest, most efficient, optimally resilient, adaptively secure, and proactive threshold RSA scheme. A main technical contribution is a new rewinding strategy for analysing threshold signature schemes. This new rewinding strategy allows to prove adaptive security...... of a proactive threshold signature scheme which was previously assumed to be only statically secure. As a separate contribution we prove that our protocol is secure in the UC framework....

  20. Proactive life extension of pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Lloyd

    1998-03-01

    place while our vessels are in service. As the inspection takes place we are able to view a real time image of detected discontinuities on a video monitor. The B-scan ultrasonic technique is allowing us to perform fast accurate examinations covering up to 95% of the surface area of each pressure vessel. Receiving data on 95% of a pressure vessel provides us with a lot of useful information. We use this data to determine the condition of each pressure vessel. Once the condition is known the vessels are classed by risk. The risk level is then managed by making decisions related to repair, operating parameters, accepting and monitoring or replacement of the equipment. Inspection schedules are set at maximum intervals and reinspection is minimized for the vessels that are not at risk. The remaining life of each pressure vessel is determined, mechanical integrity is proven and regulatory requirements are met. Abbott Laboratories is taking this proactive approach because we understand that our process equipment is a critical element for successful operation. A run to failure practice would never allow Abbott Laboratories to achieve the corporation's objective of being the world's leading health care company. Nondestructive state of the art technology and the understanding of its capabilities and limitations are key components of a proactive program for life extension of pressure vessels. 26

  1. The Differences in Normative Beliefs among Schoolchildren with Reactive, Proactive, Reactive-Proactive Aggression, and without Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Annis Lai Chu Fung

    2015-01-01

    This study is to fill up a research gap on examining the differences in normative beliefs (namely acceptance of weaknesses, acceptance of provoked aggression, and acceptance of unprovoked aggression) among different subtypes of aggressors and non-aggressors (reactive aggressors, proactive aggressors, reactive-proactive aggressors, and non-aggressors). 2,236 students (1,372 males and 864 females), aged from 11 to 18, completed a self-reported questionnaire. Results reveale...

  2. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; Cillessen, Antonius H N; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression using a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression were gathered from 266 seventh and eight grade adolescents (Mage grade 7 = 12.80, SDage  = .40). Popularity was positively correlated with proactive aggression and negatively correlated with reactive aggression, both concurrently as over time. Curvilinear trends indicated that a significant minority of low versus high popular adolescents showed both functions of aggression. Somewhat stronger effects of popularity on proactive aggression were found for boys than girls. Stably popular adolescents showed the highest levels of proactive aggression, whereas stably unpopular youth showed the highest levels of reactive aggression. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex Event Processing (CEP has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT. Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is proposed as sequential decision model. A Q-learning method is proposed for this model. The experimental evaluations show that this method works well when used to control congestion in in intelligent transportation systems.

  4. In the Nick of Time: Proactive Prevention of Obligation Violations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basin, David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a system model, an enforcement mechanism, and a policy language for the proactive enforcement of timed provisions and obligations. Our approach improves upon existing formalisms in two ways: (1) we exploit the target system's existing functionality to avert policy violations proactively...... declaratively express timed provisions and obligations as causal relationships between events, and DCR states explicitly represent pending obligations. As key technical results, we show that enforceability of DCR policies is decidable, we give a sufficient polynomial time verifiable condition for a policy...... to be enforceable, and we give an algorithm for determining from a DCR state a sequence of actions that discharge impending obligations....

  5. Social Skills Efficacy and Proactivity among Native American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Reich, Allison N.; Trotter, Michelle J.; Siewart, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses Native American urban adolescents' construal of social skills, and relationships between these skills and proactivity behaviors as identified in the Integrative Contextual Model of Career Development (Lapan, 2004). Recommendations that build upon the social skills strengths of Native American young people are included.…

  6. Assessment of proactive transmission power control for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    kotian, Roshan; Exarchakos, Georgios; Liotta, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In order to prolong lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Transmission Power Control (TPC) techniques are employed. The existing TPC schemes adjust the transmission power mostly reacting to changes at link quality between communicating nodes. Proactive TPC has been proposed in the recent past

  7. Proactive control in early and middle childhood: An ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Children experience important cognitive control improvements in the transition to school. This study examined 4–5-year-olds’ (n = 17 and 7–8-year-olds’ (n = 22 ability to proactively deploy cognitive control. Children performed a cued task-switching paradigm presenting them with a cue indicating which attribute, color or shape, they should use to sort the upcoming stimulus. Following both cue and stimulus, we analyzed two event-related potentials: the P2 and P3, positive peaks reflecting sensory and attentional components of cognitive control, respectively. Following the cue, we also analyzed a positive slow-wave, indexing working memory engagement. We predicted that on switch trials, which required switching tasks, proactive control would result in larger cue-P3 amplitudes, reflecting recognition of the need to switch, and larger slow-wave amplitudes, reflecting maintenance of the new task-sets over the post-cue delay. This pattern was observed in both age groups. At the stimulus, in switch trials, both age groups had shorter stimulus-P2 latencies, consistent with processing facilitation. These results suggest that both 4–5- and 7–8-year-olds engaged cognitive control proactively. Older children, however, demonstrated better performance and larger cue-P2 amplitudes, suggesting more effective proactive control engagement in middle childhood.

  8. Risk management plans as a tool for proactive pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, N S; Duijnhoven, R G; Straus, S M J M

    2014-01-01

    Risk Management Plans (RMPs) have become a cornerstone in the pharmacovigilance of new drugs in Europe. The RMP was introduced in 2005 to support a proactive approach in gaining knowledge on safety concerns through early planning of pharmacovigilance activities. However, the rate at which...... of uncertainties, suggests that opportunities for optimization exist while ensuring feasible and risk-proportionate pharmacovigilance planning....

  9. Inhibitory Control of Proactive Interference in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Holly A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor inhibition of prepotent responses and deficits in distractor inhibition, but relatively few studies have addressed inhibitory control of proactive interference (PI) in individuals with ADHD. Thus, the goal of the present study was to evaluate resistance to spatial…

  10. The Contribution of Encoding and Retrieval Processes to Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegl, Oliver; Pastötter, Bernhard; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive interference (PI) refers to the finding that memory for recently studied (target) material can be impaired by the prior study of other (nontarget) material. Previous accounts of PI differed in whether they attributed PI to impaired retrieval or impaired encoding. Here, we suggest an integrated encoding-retrieval account, which assigns a…

  11. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.; Schumann, T.; Dambacher, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a

  12. Transfer Failure and Proactive Interference in Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that proactive interference over a series of Brown-Peterson trials results from a combination of the subject's failure to transfer information to a permanent memory state and failure to retrieve information from permanent memory. (Editor)

  13. Release from Proactive Interference with Positive and Negative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richaro; King, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Using the release from proactive interference (RPI) task, college students (n = 40) received 4 trials comprised of 3-word triads of either positive (P) or negative (N) words. Word-triad recall served as the dependent measure, and results revealed typical buildup of PI (i.e., no significant group X trial interaction across Trials 1-3). Significant…

  14. Proactive Interference Slows Recognition by Eliminating Fast Assessments of Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ilke; McElree, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The response-signal speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) procedure was used to investigate how proactive interference (PI) affects retrieval from working memory. Participants were presented with 6-item study lists, followed immediately by a recognition probe. A variant of a release from PI design was used: All items in a list were from the same semantic…

  15. Proactive Interference and Item Similarity in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Proactive interference (PI) may influence the predictive utility of working memory span tasks. Participants in one experiment (N=70) completed Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) and multiple versions of operation span and probed recall, modified for the type of memoranda (digits or words). Changing memoranda within- or across-trials…

  16. The Role of Response Confusion in Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Richard F.; Thomas, Heather

    1975-01-01

    In two experiments using the Brown-Peterson memory paradigm, instructions to guess had small effects on recall, but sizeable effects on incidence of prior list intrustion. However, results indicate that proactive interference is primarily the result of inability to generate correct items, rather than confusion between present and previous items.…

  17. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine

  18. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  19. Relationship between Implicit Leadership and Proactive Behaviors of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinkilic-Kara, Sultan-Bilge; Zafer-Gunes, Demet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to define the school principals' implicit leadership theory and to reveal its relationship with the proactive behavior. The study is conducted in Bagcilar and Basaksehir districts in Istanbul and the target population of the research is 153 school principals working in state elementary schools, middle schools and high…

  20. Resumes as a Proactive Career Development Tool: An Innovation at Keuka College Career Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Todd

    2000-01-01

    A proactive resume can help individuals understand workplace demands and their fit with them. Development of proactive resumes focuses first on employability skills and then on skills and attributes of specific professions or careers. (SK)

  1. Testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating competing information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Testing initially learned information before presenting new information has been shown to counteract the deleterious effects of proactive interference by segregating competing sources of information. The present experiments were conducted to demonstrate that testing can also have its effects in part by integrating competing information. Variations of classic A–B, A–D paired-associate learning paradigms were employed that included two lists of word pairs and a cued-recall test. Repeated pairs appeared in both lists (A–B, A–B), control pairs appeared in List 2 only (A–B, C–D), and changed pairs appeared with the same cue in both lists but with different responses (A–B, A–D). The critical manipulation was whether pairs were tested or restudied in an interpolated phase that occurred between Lists 1 and 2. On a final cued-recall test, participants recalled List 2 responses and then indicated when they recollected that responses had earlier changed between lists. The change recollection measure indexed the extent to which competing responses were integrated during List 2. Change was recollected more often for tested than for restudied pairs. Proactive facilitation was obtained in cued recall when change was recollected, whereas proactive interference was obtained when change was not recollected. These results provide evidence that testing counteracted proactive interference in part by making List 1 responses more accessible during List 2, thus promoting integration and increasing later recollection of change. These results have theoretical implications because they show that testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating or segregating competing information. PMID:25120241

  2. Testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating competing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    Testing initially learned information before presenting new information has been shown to counteract the deleterious effects of proactive interference by segregating competing sources of information. The present experiments were conducted to demonstrate that testing can also have its effects in part by integrating competing information. Variations of classic A-B, A-D paired-associate learning paradigms were employed that included two lists of word pairs and a cued-recall test. Repeated pairs appeared in both lists (A-B, A-B), control pairs appeared in List 2 only (A-B, C-D), and changed pairs appeared with the same cue in both lists but with different responses (A-B, A-D). The critical manipulation was whether pairs were tested or restudied in an interpolated phase that occurred between Lists 1 and 2. On a final cued-recall test, participants recalled List 2 responses and then indicated when they recollected that responses had earlier changed between lists. The change recollection measure indexed the extent to which competing responses were integrated during List 2. Change was recollected more often for tested than for restudied pairs. Proactive facilitation was obtained in cued recall when change was recollected, whereas proactive interference was obtained when change was not recollected. These results provide evidence that testing counteracted proactive interference in part by making List 1 responses more accessible during List 2, thus promoting integration and increasing later recollection of change. These results have theoretical implications because they show that testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating or segregating competing information.

  3. The Role of Long-Term Memory in a Test of Visual Working Memory: Proactive Facilitation but No Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Awh, Edward; Sutterer, David W.

    2017-01-01

    We report 4 experiments examining whether associations in visual working memory are subject to proactive interference from long-term memory (LTM). Following a long-term learning phase in which participants learned the colors of 120 unique objects, a working memory (WM) test was administered in which participants recalled the precise colors of 3…

  4. Proactive personality and job performance: the role of job crafting and work engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Tims, M.; Derks, D.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the role of proactive personality in predicting work engagement and job performance. On the basis of the literature on proactive personality and the job demands-resources model, we hypothesized that employees with a proactive personality would be most likely to craft their own

  5. A Survey on Proactive, Active and Passive Fault Diagnosis Protocols for WSNs: Network Operation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Mehmood

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been the object of research focus for the past two decades, fault diagnosis in these networks has received little attention. This is an essential requirement for wireless networks, especially in WSNs, because of their ad-hoc nature, deployment requirements and resource limitations. Therefore, in this paper we survey fault diagnosis from the perspective of network operations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey from such a perspective. We survey the proactive, active and passive fault diagnosis schemes that have appeared in the literature to date, accenting their advantages and limitations of each scheme. In addition to illuminating the details of past efforts, this survey also reveals new research challenges and strengthens our understanding of the field of fault diagnosis.

  6. Estimation of inspection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; Wincek, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    An overview of IAEA inspection activities is presented, and the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of an inspection is discussed. Two models are described - an effort model and an effectiveness model. The effort model breaks the IAEA's inspection effort into components; the amount of effort required for each component is estimated; and the total effort is determined by summing the effort for each component. The effectiveness model quantifies the effectiveness of inspections in terms of probabilities of detection and quantities of material to be detected, if diverted over a specific period. The method is applied to a 200 metric ton per year low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. A description of the model plant is presented, a safeguards approach is outlined, and sampling plans are calculated. The required inspection effort is estimated and the results are compared to IAEA estimates. Some other applications of the method are discussed briefly. Examples are presented which demonstrate how the method might be useful in formulating guidelines for inspection planning and in establishing technical criteria for safeguards implementation

  7. Testing protects against proactive interference in face-name learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Szpunar, Karl K

    2011-06-01

    Learning face-name pairings at a social function becomes increasingly more difficult the more individuals one meets. This phenomenon is attributable to proactive interference--the negative influence of prior learning on subsequent learning. Recent evidence suggests that taking a memory test can alleviate proactive interference in verbal list learning paradigms. We apply this technique to face-name pair learning. Participants studied four lists of 12 face-name pairings and either attempted to name the 12 faces just studied after every list or did not. Recall attempts after every list improved learning of the fourth list by over 100%. Moreover, no reduction in learning of face-name pairings occurred from list 1 to list 4 for participants who attempted to name studied faces between lists. These results suggest that testing oneself on the names of a group of new acquaintances before moving on to the next group is an effective mnemonic technique for social functions.

  8. Motor Preparation Disrupts Proactive Control in the Stop Signal Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the stop signal task (SST we employed Bayesian modeling to compute the estimated likelihood of stop signal or P(Stop trial by trial and identified regional processes of conflict anticipation and response slowing. A higher P(Stop is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time (goRT—a form of sequential effect—and reflects proactive control of motor response. However, some individuals do not demonstrate a sequential effect despite similar go and stop success (SS rates. We posited that motor preparation may disrupt proactive control more in certain individuals than others. Specifically, the time interval between trial and go signal onset—the fore-period (FP—varies across trials and a longer FP is associated with a higher level of motor preparation and shorter goRT. Greater motor preparatory activities may disrupt proactive control. To test this hypothesis, we compared brain activations and Granger causal connectivities of 81 adults who demonstrated a sequential effect (SEQ and 35 who did not (nSEQ. SEQ and nSEQ did not differ in regional activations to conflict anticipation, motor preparation, goRT slowing or goRT speeding. In contrast, SEQ and nSEQ demonstrated different patterns of Granger causal connectivities. P(Stop and FP activations shared reciprocal influence in SEQ but FP activities Granger caused P(Stop activities unidirectionally in nSEQ, and FP activities Granger caused goRT speeding activities in nSEQ but not SEQ. These findings support the hypothesis that motor preparation disrupts proactive control in nSEQ and provide direct neural evidence for interactive go and stop processes.

  9. A proactive method for safety management in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos; Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; Santos, Isaac Antonio Luquetti dos

    2014-01-01

    Due to the modern approach to address the safety of nuclear facilities which highlights that these organizations must be able to assess and proactively manage their activities becomes increasingly important the need for instruments to evaluate working conditions. In this context, this work presents a proactive method of managing organizational safety, which has three innovative features: 1) the use of predictive indicators that provide current information on the performance of activities, allowing preventive actions and not just reactive in safety management, different from safety indicators traditionally used (reactive indicators) that are obtained after the occurrence of undesired events; 2) the adoption of resilience engineering approach in the development of indicators - indicators are based on six principles of resilience engineering: top management commitment, learning, flexibility, awareness, culture of justice and preparation for the problems; 3) the adoption of the concepts and properties of fuzzy set theory to deal with subjectivity and consistency of human trials in the evaluation of the indicators. The fuzzy theory is used primarily to map qualitative models of decision-making, and inaccurate representation methods. The results of this study aim an improvement in performance and safety in organizations. The method was applied in a radiopharmaceutical shipping sector of a nuclear facility. The results showed that the method is a good monitoring tool objectively and proactively of the working conditions of an organizational domain

  10. How to be proactive about interference: lessons from animal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S; Ma, Wei Ji

    2012-05-01

    Processes of proactive interference were explored using the pigeon as a model system of memory. This study shows that proactive interference extends back in time at least 16 trials (and as many minutes), revealing a continuum of interference and providing a framework for studying memory. Pigeons were tested in a delayed same/different task containing trial-unique pictures. On interference trials, sample pictures from previous trials reappeared as test pictures on different trials. Proactive-interference functions showed greatest interference from the most recent trial and with the longer of two delays (10 s vs. 1 s). These interference functions are accounted for by a time-estimation model based on signal detection theory. The model predicts that accuracy at test is determined solely by the ratio of the elapsed time since the offset of the current-trial sample to the elapsed time since the offset of the interfering sample. Implications for comparing memory of different species and different types of memory (e.g., familiarity vs. recollection) are discussed.

  11. Implicit proactive interference, age, and automatic versus controlled retrieval strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikier, Simay; Yang, Lixia; Hasher, Lynn

    2008-05-01

    We assessed the extent to which implicit proactive interference results from automatic versus controlled retrieval among younger and older adults. During a study phase, targets (e.g., "ALLERGY") either were or were not preceded by nontarget competitors (e.g., "ANALOGY"). After a filled interval, the participants were asked to complete word fragments, some of which cued studied words (e.g., "A_L_ _GY"). Retrieval strategies were identified by the difference in response speed between a phase containing fragments that cued only new words and a phase that included a mix of fragments cuing old and new words. Previous results were replicated: Proactive interference was found in implicit memory, and the negative effects were greater for older than for younger adults. Novel findings demonstrate two retrieval processes that contribute to interference: an automatic one that is age invariant and a controlled process that can reduce the magnitude of the automatic interference effects. The controlled process, however, is used effectively only by younger adults. This pattern of findings potentially explains age differences in susceptibility to proactive interference.

  12. Optimism and proactive coping in relation to burnout among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuhsuan; Chan, Hsin-Ju

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the three symptoms of burnout among hospital nurses and examined the buffering effects of optimism and proactive coping in relation to burnout. Nursing is a profession that can easily lead to burnout. Burnout has been one of the most investigated work outcomes in current research. Previous research has largely ignored the positive influence of individuals on job outcomes and has not tested a constructive framework that might facilitate interventions to prevent burnout. A cross-sectional survey of 314 staff nurses in general hospitals in Taiwan. Participants completed a set of questionnaires with demographic information. The findings suggested that higher levels of proactive coping behaviours and optimism were associated with lower levels of burnout. Optimism was found to have the strongest relationship with the decreased personal accomplishment of burnout. The findings of this study confirmed the importance of optimism and proactive coping in prevention of symptoms of burnout. The results of this study provided important recommendations regarding stress management interventions for health-care managers, nurses, psychologists and human resource staff in the reduction of burnout to promote mental health in an organisation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the external structures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

  14. Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudi, R. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the externalstructures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

  15. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  16. When in doubt, seize the day? Security values, prosocial values, and proactivity under ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M; Rothbard, Nancy P

    2013-09-01

    Researchers have suggested that both ambiguity and values play important roles in shaping employees' proactive behaviors, but have not theoretically or empirically integrated these factors. Drawing on theories of situational strength and values, we propose that ambiguity constitutes a weak situation that strengthens the relationship between the content of employees' values and their proactivity. A field study of 204 employees and their direct supervisors in a water treatment plant provided support for this contingency perspective. Ambiguity moderated the relationship between employees' security and prosocial values and supervisor ratings of proactivity. Under high ambiguity, security values predicted lower proactivity, whereas prosocial values predicted higher proactivity. Under low ambiguity, values were not associated with proactivity. We replicated these findings in a laboratory experiment with 232 participants in which we measured proactivity objectively as initiative taken to correct errors: Participants with strong security values were less proactive, and participants with strong prosocial values were more proactive, but only when performance expectations were ambiguous. We discuss theoretical implications for research on proactivity, values, and ambiguity and uncertainty. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Proactive Aging Among Holocaust Survivors: Striving for the Best Possible Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Barak, Adi; Lomranz, Jacob; Benyamini, Yael

    2016-10-14

    To investigate methods that older Holocaust survivors and their age peers use in order to maintain the best possible life and to examine associations between these methods and subjective well-being. Participants were 481 older Israelis (mean age 77.4 ± 6.7 years): Holocaust survivors (n = 164), postwar immigrants (n = 183), and prewar immigrants (n = 134). Measures included sociodemographics and indicators of health and well-being. Respondents were asked to answer an open-ended question: "What are the methods you use to maintain the best possible life?". Answers were coded into eight categories. Holocaust survivors were significantly less likely to mention methods coded as "Enjoyment" (32.3%) relative to postwar (43.7%) and prewar (46.2%) immigrants and significantly more likely to mention methods coded as "Maintaining good health" (39.0%) relative to postwar (27.9%) and prewar (21.6%) immigrants. Controlling for sociodemographics and health status, Holocaust survivors still differed from their peers. Aging Holocaust survivors tended to focus on more essential/fundamental needs (e.g., health), whereas their peers tended to focus on a wider range of needs (e.g., enjoyment) in their effort to maintain the best possible life. Our findings may add to the proactivity model of successful aging by suggesting that aging individuals in Israel use both proactive (e.g., health) and cognitive (e.g., accepting the present) adaptation methods, regardless of their reported history during the war. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Safety performance evaluation using proactive indicators in a selected industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Barkhordari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Quality and effectiveness of safety systems are critical factors in achieving their goals. This study was aimed to represent a method for performance evaluation of safety systems by proactive indicators using different updated models in the field of safety which will be tested in a selected industry. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Proactive indicators used in this study were: Unsafe acts rate, Safety Climate, Accident Proneness, and Near-miss incident rate. The number of in 1473 safety climate questionnaires and 543 Accident Proneness questionnaires was completed. Results: The minimum and maximum safety climate score were 56.88 and 58.2, respectively, and the minimum and maximum scores of Accident Proneness were 98.2 and 140.7, respectively. The maximum number of Near-miss incident rate were 408 and the minimum of that was 196. The maximum number of unsafe acts rate was 43.8 percent and the minimum of that was 27.2 percent. In nine dimensions of Safety climate the eighth dimension (personal perception of risk with the score of 4.07 has the lowest score and the fourth (laws and safety regulations dimension with 8.05 has the highest score. According to expert opinions, the most important indicator in the assessment of safety performance was unsafe acts rate, while near-miss incident rate was the least important one. Conclusion: The results of this survey reveal that using proactive (Prospective indicators could be an appropriate method in organizations safety performance evaluation.

  19. THE APIPHYTOTHERAPY WITH PROACTIVATOR IN THE VETERINARY DERMATOLOGY AND SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SICEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasitology, Dermatology and Surgery. The raw propolis was collected from the bee colonies belonging to the Institute of the Beekeeping Research & Development– Bucharest and the apiphytotherapeutical product based on propolis was obtained in the Apitherapy sector of the same Institute. In a first stage were obtained the antiparasite, dermatological and surgical veterinary product PROACTIVATOR based on propolis alcoholic extract and Aloe vera gel. The experiments consisted in administration of the obtained preparation in different disorders on the experimental groups as: dermatological (plagues, chemical and physical burns, parasitological (extern parasites: scabies supra infected or not and in veterinary surgery (as a protective layer applied on the sutured plague. In dermatologic disorders the effects of the PROACTIVATOR product were established by way of clinical periodical examinations until the total recover were done. In external parasites and connected disorders it was established the repellent or killing effect of the preparation on the infestation with parasites and the degree of control in the correlated infections. In skin tissue surgery it was established the cicatrising effect in sutured plagues and the anaesthesic local effect. The established of the studied preparation efficiency was similar as those used in classical treatments with synthesis products. The advantage of the utilization of PROACTIVATOR eliminates the toxic and cumulative effects

  20. From proactive personality to organizational citizenship behavior: mediating role of harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yiqun; Cheung, Fanny M

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the moderating role of interpersonal harmony in the relation of proactive personality with organizational citizenship behavior. 158 employees in Chinese state-owned companies completed the Proactive Personality Scale (Bateman & Crant, 1993), Harmony scale, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire. Proactive personality had insignificant correlation with job dedication. The correlation between interpersonal facilitation and proactive personality was significant but quite low. Results of the hierarchical regression analyses indicated that when demographic variables were controlled, Harmony had significant moderating effects on the relations of proactive behavior and job dedication/interpersonal facilitation. In the high Harmony group, the correlation between proactive personality and organizational citizenship behavior was significant; whereas in the low Harmony group, this correlation was not significant.

  1. Proactive materials aging management and multi-layered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Long term operation of NPP has been receiving a great concern based upon the plant operation experiences and progressive improvement in countermeasures and mitigations. At the same time of this LTO movement, proactive materials aging management is also receiving a great concern to realize the LTO in NPP. Recent PMDM activities in Japan as well as some international one are reviewed and a necessity of an international cooperation is emphasized in relation to reliable maintenance performance connected from the top of the organization to operators and maintenance engineers at plant sites. (author)

  2. Proactive restoration of slow-failures in optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siracusa, Domenico; Pederzolli, Federico; Salvadori, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Current optical networks, while offering outstanding reliability, still suffer from occasional failures. A resource-efficient procedure to handle these failures in un-protected scenarios is to perform restoration, i.e., to dynamically setup a backup lightpath after the primary one stops working......, which leads to traffic losses while such operation completes. In this paper we propose a technique, applicable to optical networks with centralized control, to better handle failures with slow transients. The idea is to proactively perform the backup lightpath's setup, triggered by either a fixed...

  3. Marketing-mix and technology: evolution and proactive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberemok Svetlana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to survive the marketing subjects have to be able to adapt their business-processes to the changing environmental conditions. Those who will correctly predict the direction of the economic vector and will apply adequate and proactive tools and marketing technologies will achieve the greatest success. The article presents the results of the analysis of the leading specialists in the field of marketing and management ideas concerning the transformation of the existing tools and marketing technologies and appearing of the new ones.

  4. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.

  5. A Proactive Recommendation System for Writing in the Internet Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Muñoz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available With the use of the computers, the task of writing is intertwined with the task of searching for information that can be relevant for the document that is being written, however very little research has been done to understand how the two tasks intertwine. In this paper we present an initial attempt to develop a model of writing and information seeking with computers and to develop helpful software that can improve the quality of the information searched and the written paper. Proactive Recommendation System (PRS can relieve authors from explicit searching by means of automatically searching, retrieving and recommending information relevant to the text currently being written, and therefore PRS can be helpful to writers. However it is also possible that there are some moments during writing in which presenting proactive information can be an interruption rather than a help. In our research, we have used the PRS IntelliGent™ to investigate its impact in the different stages of writing. We found that when IntelliGent™ offers relevant information the time to task completion is shorter and the quality of the written product increases compared with the control situations in which writers have to look actively for information. We discuss these findings in the context of developing models and tools that integrate searching and writing processes when using computers as the writing environment.

  6. The PROactive innovative conceptual framework on physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbels, Fabienne; de Jong, Corina; Drost, Ellen; Elberse, Janneke; Feridou, Chryssoula; Jacobs, Laura; Rabinovich, Roberto; Frei, Anja; Puhan, Milo A.; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Williams, Kate; Pinnock, Hillary; Troosters, Thierry; Karlsson, Niklas; Kulich, Karoly; Rüdell, Katja; Brindicci, Caterina; Higenbottam, Tim; Troosters, Thierry; Dobbels, Fabienne; Decramer, Marc; Tabberer, Margaret; Rabinovich, Roberto A; MacNee, William; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Polkey, Michael; Hopkinson, Nick; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Puhan, Milo; Frei, Anja; van der Molen, Thys; de Jong, Corina; de Boer, Pim; Jarrod, Ian; McBride, Paul; Kamel, Nadia; Rudell, Katja; Wilson, Frederick J.; Ivanoff, Nathalie; Kulich, Karoly; Glendenning, Alistair; Karlsson, Niklas X.; Corriol-Rohou, Solange; Nikai, Enkeleida; Erzen, Damijan

    2014-01-01

    Although physical activity is considered an important therapeutic target in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), what “physical activity” means to COPD patients and how their perspective is best measured is poorly understood. We designed a conceptual framework, guiding the development and content validation of two patient reported outcome (PRO) instruments on physical activity (PROactive PRO instruments). 116 patients from four European countries with diverse demographics and COPD phenotypes participated in three consecutive qualitative studies (63% male, age mean±sd 66±9 years, 35% Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III–IV). 23 interviews and eight focus groups (n = 54) identified the main themes and candidate items of the framework. 39 cognitive debriefings allowed the clarity of the items and instructions to be optimised. Three themes emerged, i.e. impact of COPD on amount of physical activity, symptoms experienced during physical activity, and adaptations made to facilitate physical activity. The themes were similar irrespective of country, demographic or disease characteristics. Iterative rounds of appraisal and refinement of candidate items resulted in 30 items with a daily recall period and 34 items with a 7-day recall period. For the first time, our approach provides comprehensive insight on physical activity from the COPD patients’ perspective. The PROactive PRO instruments’ content validity represents the pivotal basis for empirically based item reduction and validation. PMID:25034563

  7. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  8. Neural correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in adolescent twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M; Baker, Laura A

    2017-05-01

    Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i.e., proactive and reactive aggression) and whether they differ between males and females. Using a sample of 106 14-year-old adolescent twins, this study found that striatal enlargement was associated with both proactive and reactive aggression. We also found that volumetric alterations in several frontal regions including smaller middle frontal and larger orbitofrontal cortex were correlated with higher levels of aggression in adolescent twins. In addition, cortical thickness analysis showed that thickness alterations in many overlapping regions including middle frontal, superior frontal, and anterior cingulate cortex and temporal regions were associated with aggression in adolescent twins. Results support the involvement of fronto-limbic-striatal circuit in the etiology of aggression during adolescence. Aggr. Behav. 43:230-240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Escaping the recent past: which stimulus dimensions influence proactive interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Kimberly S; Berman, Marc G; Jonides, John; Lustig, Cindy

    2013-07-01

    Proactive interference occurs when information from the past disrupts current processing and is a major source of confusion and errors in short-term memory (STM; Wickens, Born, & Allen, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2:440-445, 1963). The present investigation examines potential boundary conditions for interference, testing the hypothesis that potential competitors must be similar along task-relevant dimensions to influence proactive interference effects. We manipulated both the type of task being completed (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and dimensions of similarity irrelevant to the current task (Experiments 4 and 5) to determine how the recent presentation of a probe item would affect the speed with which participants could reject that item. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 contrasted STM judgments, which require temporal information, with semantic and perceptual judgments, for which temporal information is irrelevant. In Experiments 4 and 5, task-irrelevant information (perceptual similarity) was manipulated within the recent probes task. We found that interference from past items affected STM task performance but did not affect performance in semantic or perceptual judgment tasks. Conversely, similarity along a nominally irrelevant perceptual dimension did not affect the magnitude of interference in STM tasks. Results are consistent with the view that items in STM are represented by noisy codes consisting of multiple dimensions and that interference occurs when items are similar to each other and, thus, compete along the dimensions relevant to target selection.

  10. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  11. The PROactive innovative conceptual framework on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbels, Fabienne; de Jong, Corina; Drost, Ellen; Elberse, Janneke; Feridou, Chryssoula; Jacobs, Laura; Rabinovich, Roberto; Frei, Anja; Puhan, Milo A; de Boer, Willem I; van der Molen, Thys; Williams, Kate; Pinnock, Hillary; Troosters, Thierry; Karlsson, Niklas; Kulich, Karoly; Rüdell, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Although physical activity is considered an important therapeutic target in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), what "physical activity" means to COPD patients and how their perspective is best measured is poorly understood. We designed a conceptual framework, guiding the development and content validation of two patient reported outcome (PRO) instruments on physical activity (PROactive PRO instruments). 116 patients from four European countries with diverse demographics and COPD phenotypes participated in three consecutive qualitative studies (63% male, age mean±sd 66±9 years, 35% Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III-IV). 23 interviews and eight focus groups (n = 54) identified the main themes and candidate items of the framework. 39 cognitive debriefings allowed the clarity of the items and instructions to be optimised. Three themes emerged, i.e. impact of COPD on amount of physical activity, symptoms experienced during physical activity, and adaptations made to facilitate physical activity. The themes were similar irrespective of country, demographic or disease characteristics. Iterative rounds of appraisal and refinement of candidate items resulted in 30 items with a daily recall period and 34 items with a 7-day recall period. For the first time, our approach provides comprehensive insight on physical activity from the COPD patients' perspective. The PROactive PRO instruments' content validity represents the pivotal basis for empirically based item reduction and validation. ©ERS 2014.

  12. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A

    1992-10-01

    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  13. Desarrollo sustentable: ¿todavía esperando a Godot?

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Roberto P.

    2015-01-01

    El artículo hace un recorrido crítico por la evolución del concepto de sostenibilidad y su aplicación en la práctica. Las condiciones internacionales de desarrollo no favorecen un crecimiento sostenible, sin embargo, cuando es el ser humano quien constituye el centro dela acción pública es posible un nuevo estilo de desarrollo sostenible desde el punto de vista ambiental, social, cultural y político. En este sentido, el autor señala que es necesaria una nueva ética de desarrollo, en la que lo...

  14. Literality and Cognitive Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacruz, Isabel; Carl, Michael; Yamada, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a notion of pause-word ratio computed using ranges of pause lengths rather than lower cutoffs for pause lengths. Standard pause-word ratios are indicators of cognitive effort during different translation modalities.The pause range version allows for the study of how different types...... remoteness. We use data from the CRITT TPR database, comparing translation and post-editing from English to Japanese and from English to Spanish, and study the interaction of pause-word ratio for short pauses ranging between 300 and 500ms with syntactic remoteness, measured by the CrossS feature, semantic...... remoteness, measured by HTra, and syntactic and semantic remoteness, measured by Literality....

  15. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  16. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  17. Validity and Reliability of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Önder, Fulya; Avci, Rasit; Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), developed to measure two dimensions of aggression which are reactive and proactive, to Turkish and test the validity and reliability of the Turkish form. The study group consisted of 278 students in four junior high schools in Adana, Turkey, and 485 students…

  18. The role of pre-treatment proactive coping skills in successful weight management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Charlotte D. W.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Kroese, Floor M.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Proactive coping encompasses future-oriented self-regulatory skills that help people prepare for future difficulties before they occur, such as planning and monitoring. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay between pre-treatment proactive coping skills and expected

  19. Cognitive and Affective Empathy as Predictors of Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective empathy as predictors of proactive and reactive aggression. This study also explored whether levels of cognitive and affective empathy differed among children who use proactive and reactive aggression. Cognitive and affective empathy were measured by the Basic Empathy Scale (Jolliffe & Farrington,…

  20. The Influence of Proactive Socialization Behaviors and Team Socialization on Individual Performance in the Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the role and the social exchange theories, this research investigated the direct and indirect antecedents of three dimensions of team performance (proficiency, adaptivity, proactivity) developed through cooperative education. The theoretical model examined how proactive socialization behaviors led to team socialization and team…

  1. Change Driven by Nature: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Proactive Personality Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bryan, Jr.; Marler, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first comprehensive review of literature examining proactive personality. The authors use career success as a broad organizing framework, meta-analyzing 313 correlations from 107 studies. Results indicate proactive personality is positively related to objective and subjective career success. Further, results indicate…

  2. Proactive environmental strategy in a supply chain context: the mediating role of investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akin, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Raaij, van E.M.; Wynstra, F.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of knowledge on the link between environmental management and supply chain management, but there is contradicting evidence on the impact of a proactive environmental strategy on environmental performance. Therefore, this paper investigates the impact of proactive

  3. Peer Relations and Peer Deviance as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression among High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Öz Soysal, Fatma Selda

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between reactive and proactive aggression and peer relations and peer deviance among high school girls. A total of 442 high school students participated in this study. Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Peer Relations Scale, and the Peer Deviance Scale were used to collect data. Results…

  4. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…

  5. Individual Differences in Digit Span, Susceptibility to Proactive Interference, and Aptitude/Achievement Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Frank N.; Cooney, John B.

    1982-01-01

    Individual differences in digit span, susceptibility to proactive interference, and various aptitude/achievement test scores were investigated in two experiments with college students. Results indicated that digit span was strongly correlated with aptitude/achievement scores, but did not indicate that susceptibility to proactive interference…

  6. Proactive Personality and Training Motivation among Older Workers: A Mediational Model of Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Ilaria; Dordoni, Paola; Piccoli, Beatrice; Bellotto, Massimo; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at examining the relationship between proactive personality and training motivation among older workers (aged over 55 years) in a context characterized by the growing ageing of the global population. First, the authors hypothesized that proactive personality predicts the motivation to learn among older workers and that…

  7. Attention! An affective approach to anticipated action : Cognitive, affective, and motivational processes underlying proactive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, I.

    2017-01-01

    Proactivity is popular: on vacancy websites, ‘proactive’ generates more hits than any other competency. Proactive individuals do not wait for instructions. They actively try to anticipate future problems and opportunities and initiate improvement in themselves and their environment. Despite

  8. Improved Academic Performance and Enhanced Employability? The Potential Double Benefit of Proactivity for Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymon, Alex; Batistic, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to proactivity theory and debate on how universities meet competing stakeholder demands in an increasingly marketized higher education environment. We explore how the interplay between the stable facet of proactive personality and the situated behaviour of personal initiative influence academic performance. We hypothesized…

  9. Linking Extroversion and Proactive Personality to Career Success: The Role of Mentoring Received and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, Daniel B.; Moake, Timothy R.; Wu, Sharon Yu-Hsien; Cheung, Yu Ha

    2017-01-01

    Although extroversion and proactive personality are related to career success, the mechanisms through which the relationships occur are unclear. Based on the contest- and sponsored-mobility processes, we examine a model linking extroversion and proactive personality to career success through the mediating effects of mentoring received and…

  10. TOXIC LEADERSHIP: A SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO SHIFT FROM REACTIVE TO PROACTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY TOXIC LEADERSHIP: A SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO SHIFT FROM REACTIVE TO PROACTIVE SOLUTIONS...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Toxic Leadership: A Systemic Approach to Shift From Reactive to Proactive Solutions 1...US military loses valuable personnel when it is too late to implement corrective action and after those toxic Toxic Leadership: A Systemic Approach

  11. Proactive outreach smoking cessation program for Chinese employees in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Suen, Yi Nam; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lau, Oi Sze; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2018-03-04

    We evaluated the first workplace intervention to help smokers quit in Hong Kong. Smoking employees (N = 642) received a 26-page self-help booklet and 15 fix SMS within 3 months and chose to receive cognitive behavioral workshop (N = 76), or face-to-face counseling (N = 11), or group health talk (N = 516), or telephone counseling (N = 39). Twenty participants were interviewed individually for their opinions about the interventions. By intention-to-treat, the overall self-reported past 7-day point prevalence quit rate was 31.0% and 32.9%, and reduction rate was 15.0% and 13.2% at 6 and 12-months, respectively. More than 20% of the unmotivated smokers at baseline (N = 399) quit in this program. Proactive outreach workplace smoking cessation programs with diverse intensity but without medications, chosen by smokers and supported by employers without further incentives, were feasible in busy working environment in Hong Kong.

  12. How a high working memory capacity can increase proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwascher, Merle A; Meiser, Thorsten

    2016-08-01

    Previous findings suggested that a high working memory capacity (WMC) is potentially associated with a higher susceptibility to proactive interference (PI) if the latter is measured under high cognitive load. To explain such a finding, we propose to consider susceptibility to PI as a net effect of individual executive processes and the intrinsic potential for PI. With the latter, we refer to the amount of information that is activated at a given time and that has the potential to exert PI subsequently. In two studies deploying generalized linear mixed models, susceptibility to PI was modeled as the decline of performance over trials of a complex span task. The results revealed that a higher WMC was associated with a higher susceptibility to PI. Moreover, the number of stimuli recalled in one trial as a proxy variable for the intrinsic potential for PI negatively affected memory performance in the subsequent trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance modeling of neighbor discovery in proactive routing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Medina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that neighbor discovery is a critical component of proactive routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks. However there is no formal study on the performance of proposed neighbor discovery mechanisms. This paper provides a detailed model of key performance metrics of neighbor discovery algorithms, such as node degree and the distribution of the distance to symmetric neighbors. The model accounts for the dynamics of neighbor discovery as well as node density, mobility, radio and interference. The paper demonstrates a method for applying these models to the evaluation of global network metrics. In particular, it describes a model of network connectivity. Validation of the models shows that the degree estimate agrees, within 5% error, with simulations for the considered scenarios. The work presented in this paper serves as a basis for the performance evaluation of remaining performance metrics of routing protocols, vital for large scale deployment of ad hoc networks.

  14. Release from proactive interference in rat spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William A; MacDonald, Hayden; Brown, Lyn; Macpherson, Krista

    2017-09-01

    A three-phase procedure was used to produce proactive interference (PI) in one trial on an eight-arm radial maze. Rats were forced to enter four arms for reward on an initial interference phase, to then enter the four remaining arms on a target phase, and to then choose among all eight arms on a retention test, with only the arms not visited in the target phase containing reward. Control trials involved only the target phase and the retention test. Lower accuracy was found on PI trials than on control trials, but performance on PI trials significantly exceeded chance, showing some retention of target memories. Changes in temporal and reward variables between the interference, target, and retention test phases showed release from PI, but changes in context and pattern of arm entry did not. It is suggested that the release from PI paradigm can be used to understand spatial memory encoding in rats and other species.

  15. Increased susceptibility to proactive interference in adults with dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Hachmann, Wibke M; Page, Mike P A; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings show that people with dyslexia have an impairment in serial-order memory. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that people with dyslexia have difficulties dealing with proactive interference (PI) in recognition memory. A group of 25 adults with dyslexia and a group of matched controls were subjected to a 2-back recognition task, which required participants to indicate whether an item (mis)matched the item that had been presented 2 trials before. PI was elicited using lure trials in which the item matched the item in the 3-back position instead of the targeted 2-back position. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of lure trials affected 2-back recognition performance more severely in the dyslexic group than in the control group, suggesting greater difficulty in resisting PI in dyslexia.

  16. Item-specific proactive interference in olfactory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Andrew; Miles, Christopher; Elsley, Jane; Johnson, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    We examine item-specific olfactory proactive interference (PI) effects and undertake comparisons with verbal and non-verbal visual stimuli. Using a sequential recent-probes task, we show no evidence for PI with hard-to-name odours (Experiment 1). However, verbalisable odours do exhibit PI effects (Experiment 2). These findings occur despite above chance performance and similar serial position functions across both tasks. Experiments 3 and 4 apply words and faces, respectively, to our modified procedure, and show that methodological differences cannot explain the null finding in Experiment 1. The extent to which odours exhibit analogous PI effects to that of other modalities is, we argue, contingent on the characteristics of the odours employed.

  17. Prevention Strategies Against HIV Transmission: A Proactive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Antonio J; Miles, Jovan D; Mosley, Juan F; Smith, Lillian L; Prather, April S; Gurley, Marcus M; Phan, Linh D; Everton, Emily C

    2018-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has now transformed into a manageable chronic condition. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proven efficacious at controlling the disease progression. Based on compelling evidence, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV. However, there are approximately 50 000 new cases of HIV in the United States each year. In this article, we review proactive methods to reduce the transmission of HIV, which include reinforcing patient education, gel-coated condoms that destroy HIV, HIV vaccinations, and adequately utilizing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Further development and consistent utilization of innovative prevention tools can significantly reduce the incidence of HIV infections regardless of HIV status.

  18. Cleared risks? Proactive strategies as service in Cloud Computing contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Moro-Cabero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of Cloud Computing services at organizations is an undeniable reality nowadays. Record managers must then adopt a proactive and compromised position, giving advice to users. However, as a consequence of lack of knowledge in the function and regulation of the field, the implementation of those services faces no little confrontation. This descriptive essay, supported by a relevant number of heterogeneous resources, systematizes the menaces of managing and storing information with these services. At the same time, the study establishes a set of action-strategies for both reaching and hiring agreements. The objective of the paper is, therefore, to make the professional aware of the potential of these services as assessing and controlling tools, as well as ensuring the digital continuity and the record resources preservation in the Cloud.

  19. Making things happen through challenging goals: leader proactivity, trust, and business-unit performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Craig D; Cooper, Cecily D; Wernsing, Tara S

    2013-05-01

    Building on decades of research on the proactivity of individual performers, this study integrates research on goal setting and trust in leadership to examine manager proactivity and business unit sales performance in one of the largest sales organizations in the United States. Results of a moderated-mediation model suggest that proactive senior managers establish more challenging goals for their business units (N = 50), which in turn are associated with higher sales performance. We further found that employees' trust in the manager is a critical contingency variable that facilitates the relationship between challenging sales goals and subsequent sales performance. This research contributes to growing literatures on trust in leadership and proactivity by studying their joint effects at a district-unit level of analysis while identifying district managers' tendency to set challenging goals as a process variable that helps translate their proactivity into the collective performance of their units. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Flexible and Scalable Data Fusion using Proactive, Schemaless Information Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, Patrick M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Scalable System Software Dept.

    2014-05-01

    Exascale data environments are fast approaching, driven by diverse structured and unstructured data such as system and application telemetry streams, open-source information capture, and on-demand simulation output. Storage costs having plummeted, the question is now one of converting vast stores of data to actionable information. Complicating this problem are the low degrees of awareness across domain boundaries about what potentially useful data may exist, and write-once-read- never issues (data generation/collection rates outpacing data analysis and integration rates). Increasingly, technologists and researchers need to correlate previously unrelated data sources and artifacts to produce fused data views for domain-specific purposes. New tools and approaches for creating such views from vast amounts of data are vitally important to maintaining research and operational momentum. We propose to research and develop tools and services to assist in the creation, refinement, discovery and reuse of fused data views over large, diverse collections of heterogeneously structured data. We innovate in the following ways. First, we enable and encourage end-users to introduce customized index methods selected for local benefit rather than for global interaction (flexible multi-indexing). We envision rich combinations of such views on application data: views that span backing stores with different semantics, that introduce analytic methods of indexing, and that define multiple views on individual data items. We specifically decline to build a big fused database of everything providing a centralized index over all data, or to export a rigid schema to all comers as in federated query approaches. Second, we proactively advertise these application-specific views so that they may be programmatically reused and extended (data proactivity). Through this mechanism, both changes in state (new data in existing view collected) and changes in structure (new or derived view exists) are

  1. Flexible and Scalable Data Fusion using Proactive Schemaless Information Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Exascale data environments are fast approaching, driven by diverse structured and unstructured data such as system and application telemetry streams, open-source information capture, and on-demand simulation output. Storage costs having plummeted, the question is now one of converting vast stores of data to actionable information. Complicating this problem are the low degrees of awareness across domain boundaries about what potentially useful data may exist, and write-once- read-never issues (data generation/collection rates outpacing data analysis and integration rates). Increasingly, technologists and researchers need to correlate previously unrelated data sources and artifacts to produce fused data views for domain-specific purposes. New tools and approaches for creating such views from vast amounts of data are vitally important to maintaining research and operational momentum. We propose to research and develop tools and services to assist in the creation, refinement, discovery and reuse of fused data views over large, diverse collections of heterogeneously structured data. We innovate in the following ways. First, we enable and encourage end-users to introduce customized index methods selected for local benefit rather than for global interaction (flexible multi-indexing). We envision rich combinations of such views on application data: views that span backing stores with different semantics, that introduce analytic methods of indexing, and that define multiple views on individual data items. We specifically decline to build a big fused database of everything providing a centralized index over all data, or to export a rigid schema to all comers as in federated query approaches. Second, we proactively advertise these application-specific views so that they may be programmatically reused and extended (data proactivity). Through this mechanism, both changes in state (new data in existing view collected) and changes in structure (new or derived view exists) are

  2. Flexibility in flood management design: proactive planning under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, K.; de Neufville, R.; van der Vlist, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a value-enhancing approach for proactive planning and design of long-lived flood management infrastructure given uncertain future flooding threats. Designing infrastructure that can be adapted over time is a method to safeguard the efficacy of current design decisions given future uncertainties. We explore the value of embedding "options" in a physical structure, where an option is the right but not the obligation to do something at a later date (e.g. over-dimensioning a floodwall foundation now facilitates a future height addition in response to observed increases in sea level; building extra pump bays in a drainage pumping station enables the easy addition of pumping capacity whenever increased precipitation warrants an expansion.) The proposed approach couples a simulation model that captures future climate induced changes to the hydrologic operating environment of a structure, with an economic model that estimates the lifetime economic performance of alternative investment strategies. The economic model uses Real "In" Options analysis, a type of cash flow analysis that quantifies the implicit value of options and the flexibility they provide. We demonstrate the approach using replacement planning for the multi-functional pumping station IJmuiden on the North Sea Canal in the Netherlands. The analysis models flexibility in design decisions, varying the size and specific options included in the new structure. Results indicate that the incorporation of options within the structural design has the potential to improve its economic performance, as compared to more traditional, "build it once and build it big" designs where flexibility is not an explicit design criterion. The added value resulting from the incorporation of flexibility varies with the range of future conditions considered, and the specific options examined. This approach could be applied to explore investment strategies for the design of other flood management structures, as well

  3. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  4. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  5. Why do some emerging economies proactively accelerate the adoption of renewable energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, Ruhul A.; Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the determinants of renewable energy consumption in a panel of six major emerging economies, namely Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Philippines and Turkey that are proactively accelerating the adoption of renewable energy. Using Fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS), Dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS), and Granger causality methods this paper finds that in the long-run, renewable energy consumption is significantly determined by income and pollutant emission in Brazil, China, India and Indonesia while mainly by income in Philippines and Turkey. Causal link between renewable energy and income; and between renewable energy and pollutant emission are found to be bidirectional in the short-run. These results suggest that the appropriateness of the efforts undertaken by emerging countries to reduce the carbon intensity by increasing the energy efficiency and substantially increasing the share of renewable in the overall energy mix. - Highlights: ► Fully modified ordinary least square, dynamic ordinary least square, and Granger causality methods are used. ► Income and pollutant emission determine renewable energy consumption in Brazil, China, India and Indonesia. ► While income alone determines renewable energy consumption in Philippines and Turkey. ► Bi-directional causality runs between renewable energy and income and between renewable energy and pollutant emission.

  6. Proactive pressure relief system management of life cycle and ageing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenc, J.; Ferrar, S.

    2011-01-01

    The last major power nuclear station built in North America was built when the Altair Company introduced the first microcomputer sparking the PC frenzy. It is safe to assume that there have been a great many changes since 1977 on both accounts. As the world's aging nuclear plants continue to be challenged with maintenance and replacement issues (obsolescence), as well making improvements within their facilities, proper pressure relief system management looms as a growing concern. This problem grows more acute as new engineering best practices are promulgated across industries and regulatory standards become more rigorous with much stricter enforcements. Unlike most pieces of operating equipment in a nuclear facility, pressure relief devices demand an extra level of consideration; as they form the 'last line of defense'. Combine the on-going obsolescence issue, with today's ever increasing demands for overall plant and public safety; pressure relief safety management will require increasing 'proactive' efforts to ensure safe facilities. This paper has been written to address some global pressure relief system management issues with respect the worlds aging nuclear facilities. This paper reflects findings we have discovered while conducting engineering pressure relief system audits on various nuclear power stations. It should be noted that these finding are not atypical of similar findings in pressure relief systems in the hydrocarbon processing world. (author)

  7. Recovery from Proactive Semantic Interference and MRI Volume: A Replication and Extension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Curiel, Rosie E; DeKosky, Steven; Rosselli, Monica; Bauer, Russell; Grieg-Custo, Maria; Penate, Ailyn; Li, Chunfei; Lizagarra, Gabriel; Golde, Todd; Adjouadi, Malek; Duara, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    The rise in incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has led to efforts to advance early detection of the disease during its preclinical stages. To achieve this, the field needs to develop more sensitive cognitive tests that relate to biological markers of disease pathology. Failure to recover from proactive interference (frPSI) is one such cognitive marker that is associated with volumetric reductions in the hippocampus, precuneus, and other AD-prone regions, and to amyloid load in the brain. The current study attempted to replicate and extend our previous findings that frPSI is a sensitive marker of early AD, and related to a unique pattern of volumetric loss in AD prone areas. Three different memory measures were examined relative to volumetric loss and cortical thickness among 45 participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. frPSI was uniquely associated with reduced volumes in the hippocampus (r = 0.50) precuneus (r = 0.41), and other AD prone regions, replicating previous findings. Strong associations between frPSI and lower entorhinal cortex volumes and cortical thickness (r≥0.60) and precuneus (r = 0.50) were also observed. Unique and strong associations between volumetric reductions and frPSI as observed by Loewenstein and colleagues were replicated. Together with cortical thickness findings, these results indicate that frPSI is worthy of further study as a sensitive and early cognitive marker of AD.

  8. Proactivity directed toward the team and organization : the role of leadership, commitment and role-breadth self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Karoline; Griffin, Mark A.; Rafferty, Alannah E.

    2009-01-01

    Employees' proactive behaviour is increasingly important for organizations seeking to adapt in uncertain economic environments. This study examined the link between leadership and proactive behaviour. We differentiated between organizational leadership and team leadership and proposed that transformational leadership by team leaders would enhance commitment to the team, which would predict team member proactivity. In contrast, transformational leadership by leaders of the organization would e...

  9. The Effort Paradox: Effort Is Both Costly and Valued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael; Shenhav, Amitai; Olivola, Christopher Y

    2018-04-01

    According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort's role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Are Empowered Employees More Proactive? The Contingency of How They Evaluate Their Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kui; Xing, Lu; Li, Can; Guo, Yungui

    2017-01-01

    Finding ways to enhance employee proactive behavior is a focal concern for academics and practitioners. Previous studies have found a positive association between empowering leadership and proactive behavior (Martin et al., 2013; Li et al., 2017). However, these studies lack elaboration on mechanisms and do not rule out the effect of employees' proactive personality during empirical testing. We investigate empowering leadership from individual perspective due to the variation of empowerment levels even in the same team. Our research proposes a more elaborated theoretical model that explains why, and when, empowering leadership might promote employee proactive behavior. Specifically, we examine mediating mechanisms based on social cognitive theory and propose trust in leader competency as boundary condition. Using a sample of 280 leader-follower dyads from a large state-owned Chinese company, our results revealed that (1) empowering leadership was positively related to proactive behavior, with role breadth self-efficacy acting as a mediator for this relationship; (2) employees' trust in leader competency moderated both the empowering leadership-subordinate proactive behavior relationship and the mediating effect of role breadth self-efficacy, such that the empowering leadership-subordinate proactive behavior relationship was weaker, and the mediating effect of role breadth self-efficacy was stronger, for employees with high levels of trust in leader competency.

  11. Are Empowered Employees More Proactive? The Contingency of How They Evaluate Their Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Finding ways to enhance employee proactive behavior is a focal concern for academics and practitioners. Previous studies have found a positive association between empowering leadership and proactive behavior (Martin et al., 2013; Li et al., 2017. However, these studies lack elaboration on mechanisms and do not rule out the effect of employees’ proactive personality during empirical testing. We investigate empowering leadership from individual perspective due to the variation of empowerment levels even in the same team. Our research proposes a more elaborated theoretical model that explains why, and when, empowering leadership might promote employee proactive behavior. Specifically, we examine mediating mechanisms based on social cognitive theory and propose trust in leader competency as boundary condition. Using a sample of 280 leader–follower dyads from a large state-owned Chinese company, our results revealed that (1 empowering leadership was positively related to proactive behavior, with role breadth self-efficacy acting as a mediator for this relationship; (2 employees’ trust in leader competency moderated both the empowering leadership–subordinate proactive behavior relationship and the mediating effect of role breadth self-efficacy, such that the empowering leadership–subordinate proactive behavior relationship was weaker, and the mediating effect of role breadth self-efficacy was stronger, for employees with high levels of trust in leader competency.

  12. Proactive effects of memory in young and older adults: The role of change recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory are sometimes attributed to older adults being more susceptible to proactive interference. These deficits have been explained by impaired abilities to inhibit competing information and to recollect target information. In the present article, I propose that a change recollection deficit also contributes to age differences in proactive interference. Change recollection occurs when individuals can remember how information changed across episodes, and this counteracts proactive interference by preserving the temporal order of information. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether older adults are less likely to counteract proactive interference by recollecting change. Paired-associate learning paradigms with two lists of word pairs included pairs that repeated across lists, pairs that only appeared in List 2 (control items), and pairs with cues that repeated and responses that changed across lists. Young and older adults’ abilities to detect changed pairs in List 2 and to later recollect those changes at test were measured, along with cued recall of the List 2 responses and confidence in recall performance. Change recollection produced proactive facilitation in the recall of changed pairs, whereas the failure to recollect change resulted in proactive interference. Confidence judgments were sensitive to these effects. The critical finding was that older adults recollected change less than did young adults, and this partially explained older adults’ greater susceptibility to proactive interference. These findings have theoretical implications, showing that a change recollection deficit contributes to age-related deficits in episodic memory. PMID:24710672

  13. Are Empowered Employees More Proactive? The Contingency of How They Evaluate Their Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kui; Xing, Lu; Li, Can; Guo, Yungui

    2017-01-01

    Finding ways to enhance employee proactive behavior is a focal concern for academics and practitioners. Previous studies have found a positive association between empowering leadership and proactive behavior (Martin et al., 2013; Li et al., 2017). However, these studies lack elaboration on mechanisms and do not rule out the effect of employees’ proactive personality during empirical testing. We investigate empowering leadership from individual perspective due to the variation of empowerment levels even in the same team. Our research proposes a more elaborated theoretical model that explains why, and when, empowering leadership might promote employee proactive behavior. Specifically, we examine mediating mechanisms based on social cognitive theory and propose trust in leader competency as boundary condition. Using a sample of 280 leader–follower dyads from a large state-owned Chinese company, our results revealed that (1) empowering leadership was positively related to proactive behavior, with role breadth self-efficacy acting as a mediator for this relationship; (2) employees’ trust in leader competency moderated both the empowering leadership–subordinate proactive behavior relationship and the mediating effect of role breadth self-efficacy, such that the empowering leadership–subordinate proactive behavior relationship was weaker, and the mediating effect of role breadth self-efficacy was stronger, for employees with high levels of trust in leader competency. PMID:29163249

  14. What Is Engagement? Proactivity as the Missing Link in the HEXACO Model of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Reinout E; Wawoe, Kilian W; Holtrop, Djurre

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that proactivity represents the engagement vector in the HEXACO model of personality. Questionnaire data were obtained in five studies, three of which consisted (mostly) of students: Study 1 (N = 188, Mage  = 20.0, 89.4% women), Study 3 (N = 315, Mage  = 20.4, 80.6% women), and Study 4 (N = 309 self-ratings, Mage  = 20.0, 78.3% women; N = 307 other-ratings, Mage  = 24.5, 62.2% women). Participants in the other two studies came from an ISO-certified representative community panel: Study 2 (N = 525, Mage  = 51.2, 52.0% women) and Study 5 (N = 736, Mage  = 42.2, 48.0% women). Proactive Personality and Proactivity were positively related to Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience, but only weakly related or unrelated to Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, and Agreeableness, supporting the alignment of Proactive Personality/Proactivity with the hypothesized HEXACO engagement vector. Additionally, Proactivity explained incremental variance in self-rated job performance on top of the HEXACO facets that were most closely associated with Proactive Personality/Proactivity, that is, Social Boldness (an Extraversion facet), Diligence (a Conscientiousness facet), and Creativity (an Openness to Experience facet), but not in entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship. Proactivity is the missing engagement link in the HEXACO model of personality. The results are discussed in light of higher-order factors (e.g., general factor of personality and Alpha and Beta) of personality and bandwidth-fidelity controversies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A proactive approach to sustainable management of mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The reactive strategies to manage mine tailings i.e. containment of slurries of tailings in tailings storage facilities (TSF's) and remediation of tailings solids or tailings seepage water after the decommissioning of those facilities, can be technically inefficient to eliminate environmental risks (e.g. prevent dispersion of contaminants and catastrophic dam wall failures), pose a long term economic burden for companies, governments and society after mine closure, and often fail to meet community expectations. Most preventive environmental management practices promote proactive integrated approaches to waste management whereby the source of environmental issues are identified to help make a more informed decisions. They often use life cycle assessment to find the "hot spots" of environmental burdens. This kind of approach is often based on generic data and has rarely been used for tailings. Besides, life cycle assessments are less useful for designing operations or simulating changes in the process and consequent environmental outcomes. It is evident that an integrated approach for tailings research linked to better processing options is needed. A literature review revealed that there are only few examples of integrated approaches. The aim of this project is to develop new tailings management models by streamlining orebody characterization, process optimization and rehabilitation. The approach is based on continuous fingerprinting of geochemical processes from orebody to tailings storage facility, and benchmark the success of such proactive initiatives by evidence of no impacts and no future projected impacts on receiving environments. We present an approach for developing such a framework and preliminary results from a case study where combined grinding and flotation models developed using geometallurgical data from the orebody were constructed to predict the properties of tailings produced under various processing scenarios. The modelling scenarios based on the

  16. Implications of Lateral Cerebellum in Proactive Control of Saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu, Jun; Suzuki, Tomoki W; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-06-29

    Although several lines of evidence establish the involvement of the medial and vestibular parts of the cerebellum in the adaptive control of eye movements, the role of the lateral hemisphere of the cerebellum in eye movements remains unclear. Ascending projections from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal and parietal association cortices via the thalamus are consistent with a role of these pathways in higher-order oculomotor control. In support of this, previous functional imaging studies and recent analyses in subjects with cerebellar lesions have indicated a role for the lateral cerebellum in volitional eye movements such as anti-saccades. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we recorded from single neurons in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum in monkeys performing anti-saccade/pro-saccade tasks. We found that neurons in the posterior part of the dentate nucleus showed higher firing rates during the preparation of anti-saccades compared with pro-saccades. When the animals made erroneous saccades to the visual stimuli in the anti-saccade trials, the firing rate during the preparatory period decreased. Furthermore, local inactivation of the recording sites with muscimol moderately increased the proportion of error trials, while successful anti-saccades were more variable and often had shorter latency during inactivation. Thus, our results show that neuronal activity in the cerebellar dentate nucleus causally regulates anti-saccade performance. Neuronal signals from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal cortex might modulate the proactive control signals in the corticobasal ganglia circuitry that inhibit early reactive responses and possibly optimize the speed and accuracy of anti-saccades. Although the lateral cerebellum is interconnected with the cortical eye fields via the thalamus and the pons, its role in eye movements remains unclear. We found that neurons in the caudal part of the lateral (dentate) nucleus of the cerebellum showed the increased

  17. Relationship between parenting and proactive versus reactive aggression among Chinese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shoumei; Wang, Ling; Shi, Yingjuan

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting and proactive versus reactive aggression among preschool children in China. Children (1164) from 10 kindergartens in Shanghai were rated by their parents and teachers using the Parent Behavior Inventory (PBI) and the Aggressive Behavior-Teacher's Checklist. Children had higher levels of reactive than proactive aggression, and older children and boys had higher levels of both proactive and reactive aggression. Hostile/coercive parenting style and low father education were significantly linked to aggression in children. These findings suggest that parenting style and type of aggression should be addressed when considering prevention and intervention. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Hostile Attributions in the Associations between Child Maltreatment and Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Allora; Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J.; Bortolato, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relations between child maltreatment and reactive and proactive functions of aggression, and whether hostile attribution biases partially accounted for these associations in a sample of 339 college students (mean age = 19; 51% male). Child maltreatment was associated with reactive, but not proactive, aggression, and instrumental hostile attribution biases accounted for this association. Relational hostile attributions were correlated with both reactive and proactive aggression, but did not play a role in the link between child maltreatment and reactive aggression. PMID:29386881

  19. LWR aging management using a proactive approach to control materials degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, L.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Cumblidge, S.E.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Taylor, W.B.; Hull, A.B.; Malik, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Material issues can be the limiting factor for the operation of nuclear power plants. There is growing interest in new and improved philosophies and methodologies for plant life management (PLiM), which include the migration from reliance on periodic inservice inspection to include condition-based maintenance. A further step in the development of plant management is the move from proactive responses based on ISI to become proactive, through the investigation of the potential for implementation of a proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) program and its potential impact on the management of LWRs. (author)

  20. A proactive outreach intervention that decreases readmission after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Nisha; Kim, Bradford J; Davis, Catherine H; Dewhurst, Whitney L; Samp, Leigh A; Aloia, Thomas A

    2018-04-01

    After hepatectomy, 7%-19% of patients are readmitted within 30 days, accounting for substantial cost and poor patient experience. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a proactive outreach intervention on readmissions. Consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy by a single surgeon 2012-2016 were identified in a prospectively maintained database. In August 2013 a postoperative intervention was implemented; an advanced practice provider called each patient within 72 hours of discharge. Readmission rates were compared pre- and postintervention using standard statistics. Two hundred thirty-one patients met the inclusion criteria and major hepatectomy was performed in 45.5% of patients. Although the complication rate was similar (25.0% preintervention and 19.4% postintervention, P = .324), readmissions within 30 days of operation decreased from 14.5% pre- to 6.5% postintervention (P = .046). Approximately 30% of outreach interactions required outpatient intervention. Factors associated with readmission on univariate analysis included increased operative time (P = .007), major hepatectomy (P = .012), hemi or extended hepatectomy (P = .032), second stage operation (P = .031), bile leak (P = 0.022), and any complication/modified Accordion complication ≥ 3 within 30 days (P work created by the intervention is likely offset by decreased inpatient care needs and costs. Identification of high-risk populations and application of technology are likely to lead to further improvements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Proactive Supply Chain Performance Management with Predictive Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Stefanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators. Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment.

  2. Prediction Based Proactive Thermal Virtual Machine Scheduling in Green Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinger, Supriya; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anju

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has rapidly emerged as a widely accepted computing paradigm, but the research on Cloud computing is still at an early stage. Cloud computing provides many advanced features but it still has some shortcomings such as relatively high operating cost and environmental hazards like increasing carbon footprints. These hazards can be reduced up to some extent by efficient scheduling of Cloud resources. Working temperature on which a machine is currently running can be taken as a criterion for Virtual Machine (VM) scheduling. This paper proposes a new proactive technique that considers current and maximum threshold temperature of Server Machines (SMs) before making scheduling decisions with the help of a temperature predictor, so that maximum temperature is never reached. Different workload scenarios have been taken into consideration. The results obtained show that the proposed system is better than existing systems of VM scheduling, which does not consider current temperature of nodes before making scheduling decisions. Thus, a reduction in need of cooling systems for a Cloud environment has been obtained and validated. PMID:24737962

  3. Proactive and defensive self-regulation in learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Lončarić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although self-regulation research is fragmented over several interdisciplinary areas and theories, the concept of self-regulation could represent a cohesive force for integrating different areas of psychology, such as clinical, educational, or organisational psychology. This paper focuses on self-regulation within the educational framework and elaborates the concept of self-regulated learning. Current advances in self-regulated learning research indicated that concepts, such as cognition and motivation, need to be integrated into a coherent self-regulation model. Two models that integrate cognitive and motivational constructs are described in this paper, namely the motivational and cognitive self-regulation components described by Pintrich and colleagues (e.g., Garcia & Pintrich 1994, and a six component model of self-regulated learning provided by Boekaerts (1997. These models were used to formulate new and parsimonious organisational constructs that classify self-regulation components into proactive and defensive self-regulation patterns. At the end, the applicative value of the models and the need for further research, regarding the question of specific self-regulation failures (the depressive self-regulation pattern, are being discussed.

  4. A proactive transfer policy for critical patient flow management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jaime; Ferrer, Juan-Carlos; Cataldo, Alejandro; Rojas, Luis

    2018-02-17

    Hospital emergency departments are often overcrowded, resulting in long wait times and a public perception of poor attention. Delays in transferring patients needing further treatment increases emergency department congestion, has negative impacts on their health and may increase their mortality rates. A model built around a Markov decision process is proposed to improve the efficiency of patient flows between the emergency department and other hospital units. With each day divided into time periods, the formulation estimates bed demand for the next period as the basis for determining a proactive rather than reactive transfer decision policy. Due to the high dimensionality of the optimization problem involved, an approximate dynamic programming approach is used to derive an approximation of the optimal decision policy, which indicates that a certain number of beds should be kept free in the different units as a function of the next period demand estimate. Testing the model on two instances of different sizes demonstrates that the optimal number of patient transfers between units changes when the emergency patient arrival rate for transfer to other units changes at a single unit, but remains stable if the change is proportionally the same for all units. In a simulation using real data for a hospital in Chile, significant improvements are achieved by the model in key emergency department performance indicators such as patient wait times (reduction higher than 50%), patient capacity (21% increase) and queue abandonment (from 7% down to less than 1%).

  5. Prediction Based Proactive Thermal Virtual Machine Scheduling in Green Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Kinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has rapidly emerged as a widely accepted computing paradigm, but the research on Cloud computing is still at an early stage. Cloud computing provides many advanced features but it still has some shortcomings such as relatively high operating cost and environmental hazards like increasing carbon footprints. These hazards can be reduced up to some extent by efficient scheduling of Cloud resources. Working temperature on which a machine is currently running can be taken as a criterion for Virtual Machine (VM scheduling. This paper proposes a new proactive technique that considers current and maximum threshold temperature of Server Machines (SMs before making scheduling decisions with the help of a temperature predictor, so that maximum temperature is never reached. Different workload scenarios have been taken into consideration. The results obtained show that the proposed system is better than existing systems of VM scheduling, which does not consider current temperature of nodes before making scheduling decisions. Thus, a reduction in need of cooling systems for a Cloud environment has been obtained and validated.

  6. Prediction based proactive thermal virtual machine scheduling in green clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinger, Supriya; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anju

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has rapidly emerged as a widely accepted computing paradigm, but the research on Cloud computing is still at an early stage. Cloud computing provides many advanced features but it still has some shortcomings such as relatively high operating cost and environmental hazards like increasing carbon footprints. These hazards can be reduced up to some extent by efficient scheduling of Cloud resources. Working temperature on which a machine is currently running can be taken as a criterion for Virtual Machine (VM) scheduling. This paper proposes a new proactive technique that considers current and maximum threshold temperature of Server Machines (SMs) before making scheduling decisions with the help of a temperature predictor, so that maximum temperature is never reached. Different workload scenarios have been taken into consideration. The results obtained show that the proposed system is better than existing systems of VM scheduling, which does not consider current temperature of nodes before making scheduling decisions. Thus, a reduction in need of cooling systems for a Cloud environment has been obtained and validated.

  7. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Caroline E.; Van Buren, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood. PMID:27471326

  8. Proactive aquatic ecotoxicological assessment of room-temperature ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulacki, K.J.; Chaloner, D.T.; Larson, J.H.; Costello, D.M.; Evans-White, M. A.; Docherty, K.M.; Bernot, R.J.; Brueseke, M.A.; Kulpa, C.F.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic environments are being contaminated with a myriad of anthropogenic chemicals, a problem likely to continue due to both unintentional and intentional releases. To protect valuable natural resources, novel chemicals should be shown to be environmentally safe prior to use and potential release into the environment. Such proactive assessment is currently being applied to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). Because most ILs are water-soluble, their effects are likely to manifest in aquatic ecosystems. Information on the impacts of ILs on numerous aquatic organisms, focused primarily on acute LC50 and EC50 endpoints, is now available, and trends in toxicity are emerging. Cation structure tends to influence IL toxicity more so than anion structure, and within a cation class, the length of alkyl chain substituents is positively correlated with toxicity. While the effects of ILs on several aquatic organisms have been studied, the challenge for aquatic toxicology is now to predict the effects of ILs in complex natural environments that often include diverse mixtures of organisms, abiotic conditions, and additional stressors. To make robust predictions about ILs will require coupling of ecologically realistic laboratory and field experiments with standard toxicity bioassays and models. Such assessments would likely discourage the development of especially toxic ILs while shifting focus to those that are more environmentally benign. Understanding the broader ecological effects of emerging chemicals, incorporating that information into predictive models, and conveying the conclusions to those who develop, regulate, and use those chemicals, should help avoid future environmental degradation. ?? 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  9. Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji

    In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.

  10. Effects of proactive interference on non-verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marilyn; Nee, Derek E; Nelson, Eric; Senger, Thea; Jonides, John; Malapani, Chara

    2017-02-01

    Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system responsible for actively maintaining and processing relevant information and is central to successful cognition. A process critical to WM is the resolution of proactive interference (PI), which involves suppressing memory intrusions from prior memories that are no longer relevant. Most studies that have examined resistance to PI in a process-pure fashion used verbal material. By contrast, studies using non-verbal material are scarce, and it remains unclear whether the effect of PI is domain-general or whether it applies solely to the verbal domain. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of PI in visual WM using both objects with high and low nameability. Using a Directed-Forgetting paradigm, we varied discriminability between WM items on two dimensions, one verbal (high-nameability vs. low-nameability objects) and one perceptual (colored vs. gray objects). As in previous studies using verbal material, effects of PI were found with object stimuli, even after controlling for verbal labels being used (i.e., low-nameability condition). We also found that the addition of distinctive features (color, verbal label) increased performance in rejecting intrusion probes, most likely through an increase in discriminability between content-context bindings in WM.

  11. Auditory memory in monkeys: costs and benefits of proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Proactive interference (PI) has traditionally been understood as an adverse consequence of stimulus repetition during memory tasks. Herein, we present data that emphasize costs as well as benefits of PI for monkeys performing an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task. The animals made same/different judgments for a variety of simple and complex sounds separated by a 5-s memory delay. Each session used a stimulus set that included eight sounds; thus, each sound was repeated multiple times per session for match trials and for nonmatch trials as the sample (Cue 1) or test (Cue 2) stimulus. For nonmatch trials, performance was substantially diminished when the test stimulus had been previously presented on a recent trial. However, when the sample stimulus had been recently presented, performance was significantly improved. We also observed a marginal performance benefit when stimuli for match trials had been recently presented. The costs of PI for nonmatch test stimuli were greater than the combined benefits of PI for nonmatch sample stimuli and match trials, indicating that the net influence of PI is detrimental. For all three manifestations of PI, the effects are shown to extend beyond the immediately subsequent trial. Our data suggest that PI in auditory DMTS is best understood as an enduring influence that can be both detrimental and beneficial to memory-task performance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Blocked vs. interleaved presentation and proactive interference in episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Missier, Fabio; Sassano, Alessia; Coni, Valentina; Salomonsson, Martina; Mäntylä, Timo

    2018-05-01

    Although a number of theoretical accounts of proactive interference (PI) in episodic memory have been proposed, existing empirical evidence does not support conclusively a single view yet. In two experiments we tested the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI against alternative accounts by manipulating the presentation schedule of study materials (lists blocked by category vs. interleaved). In line with the temporal discrimination theory, we observed a clear buildup of (and release from) PI in the blocked condition, in which all the lists of the same category were presented sequentially. In the interleaved condition, with alternating lists of different categories, a more gradual and smoother buildup of PI was observed. When participants were left free to choose their presentation schedule, they spontaneously adopted an interleaved schedule, resulting again in more gradual PI. After longer delays, we observed recency effects at the list level in overall recall and, in the blocked condition, PI-related effects. The overall pattern of findings agrees with the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI, complemented with categorical processing of list items, but not with alternative accounts, shedding light on the dynamics and underpinnings of PI under diverse presentation schedules and over different time scales.

  13. Proactive Supply Chain Performance Management with Predictive Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Today's business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment. PMID:25386605

  14. Proactive supply chain performance management with predictive analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Today's business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment.

  15. The Instruments of Management of the Proactive Development of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feshchur Roman V.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process and develops the conception of management of the proactive development of enterprises. The main instruments of management of enterprises’ development have been allocated on the system, process, and micro-process levels. The economic-mathematical model of formation of the optimal program of enterprise’s development has been built with reflection of interests of the most significant stakeholders and the basic types of projects which are combined in the program of development of enterprise. Taking account of the peculiarities of activity together with the objectives of industrial enterprises’ development, the following groups of projects are selected: technical and technological, providing for the change of the level of technology at the enterprise; productive, aimed at quantitative and qualitative change of production of enterprise, increase of its competitiveness; organizational, leading to changes in the organization, structure, and management of enterprise. The choice of the most acceptable private optimal program of enterprise’s development is carried out using the matrix method. According to this method, the absolute values of indicators of the socio-economic development of enterprises become relative with the subsequent transition to the definition of integral estimates for each program. It is also possible to use the methods of compromise programming that allow to obtain a Pareto-optimal solution.

  16. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Caroline E; Van Buren, Harry J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood.

  17. Proactive pavement asset management with climate change aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Adam

    2018-05-01

    Pavement Asset Management System is a systematic and objective tool to manage pavement network based on the rational, engineering and economic principles. Once implemented and mature Pavement Asset Management System serves the entire range of users starting with the maintenance engineers and ending with the decision-makers. Such a system is necessary to coordinate agency management strategy including proactive maintenance. Basic inputs in the majority of existing Pavement Asset Management System approaches comprise the actual pavement inventory with associated construction history and condition, traffic information as well as various economical parameters. Some Pavement Management System approaches include also weather aspects which is of particular importance considering ongoing climate changes. This paper presents challenges in implementing the Pavement Asset Management System for those National Road Administrations that manage their pavement assets using more traditional strategies, e.g. worse-first approach. Special considerations are given to weather-related inputs and associated analysis to demonstrate the effects of climate change in a short- and long-term range. Based on the presented examples this paper concludes that National Road Administrations should account for the weather-related factors in their Pavement Management Systems as this has a significant impact on the system outcomes from the safety and economical perspective.

  18. Relations of Proactive and Reactive Dimensions of Aggression to Overt and Covert Narcissism in Nonclinical Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Eisenberg, Nancy; Maffei, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing acknowledgement of the multidimensionality of narcissism and that different types of narcissism may relate differently to other domains of functioning. Similarly, aggression—a frequently discussed correlate of narcissism--is a heterogeneous construct. In the present study, the relations of proactive and reactive aggression with overt and covert manifestations of narcissism were examined in a sample of 674 Italian high school students (mean age = 15.5 years, SD = 2.1 years). Overt narcissism was positively related to both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression, whereas covert narcissism related only to reactive aggression. Vanity, Authority, Exhibitionism, and Exploitativeness were the components of overt narcissism related to Proactive Aggression (all remained unique correlates when controlling for Reactive Aggression), whereas Reactive Aggression was associated with the Exhibitionism, Superiority, and Entitlement subscales (only the latter was uniquely related when controlling for Proactive Aggression). PMID:19918915

  19. Post engineered nanomaterials lifespan: nanowastes classification, legislative development/implementation challenges, and proactive approaches

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 NANOLCA Symposium, "Safety issues and regulatory challenges of nanomaterials", San Sebastian, Spain, 3-4 May 2012 Post engineered nanomaterials lifespan: nanowastes classification, legislative development/implementation challenges, and proactive...

  20. Bleaching and secondary threats on the corals of Palk Bay: A survey and Proactive conservation needs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Kannapiran, E.; Manikandan, B.; ManiMurali, R.; Joseph, A.

    and altered environmental conditions warrant the proactive conservation approach guided by scientific principles. Current conservation methods in India offers physical protection to corals by entry restriction and a ban on collection of corals under wild life...

  1. The role of organizational insiders' developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomers' performance: an interactionist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Harris, T Brad; Boswell, Wendy R; Xie, Zhitao

    2011-11-01

    Drawing from an interactionist approach and feedback research, we examine the role of developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomer task performance and helping behavior. Data were collected from 2 high-tech joint-ventures within the information technology and manufacturing industries located in Shanghai, China. Results based on 151 newcomer-manager dyads showed that supervisor developmental feedback (SDF) positively related to newcomer helping behavior and that SDF and coworker developmental feedback interactively predicted newcomer task performance. We also found differential moderating effects of proactive personality: SDF more strongly related to helping behavior when proactive personality was lower; conversely, coworker developmental feedback more strongly related to helping behavior when proactive personality was higher. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Psychometric properties of the Chinese translation of the proactive personality scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese translation of the Proactive Personality Scale. Four samples were surveyed. In Sample 1 and Sample 2, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis results confirmed the unidimensional structure of the 10-item abbreviated version of the scale. In Sample 2, Proactive Personality scores were found to be positively correlated with the personality factors of Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Agreeableness, and negatively correlated with Neuroticism. In Sample 3, Proactive Personality was found to be positively related to self-efficacy and political skill. In Sample 4, demographics controlled, Proactive Personality explained significant incremental variance in the employees' self-rated career satisfaction and job performance as rated by immediate supervisors.

  3. What it takes to get proactive: An integrative multilevel model of the antecedents of personal initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying; Liao, Hui; Raub, Steffen; Han, Joo Hun

    2016-05-01

    Building upon and extending Parker, Bindl, and Strauss's (2010) theory of proactive motivation, we develop an integrated, multilevel model to examine how contextual factors shape employees' proactive motivational states and, through these proactive motivational states, influence their personal initiative behavior. Using data from a sample of hotels collected from 3 sources and over 2 time periods, we show that establishment-level initiative-enhancing human resource management (HRM) systems were positively related to departmental initiative climate, which was positively related to employee personal initiative through employee role-breadth self-efficacy. Further, department-level empowering leadership was positively related to initiative climate only when initiative-enhancing HRM systems were low. These findings offer interesting implications for research on personal initiative and for the management of employee proactivity in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Proactive Interference and Directed Forgetting in Short-Term Motor Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwitz, Leslie

    1974-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the effect of instructions to forget prior motor learning and the results were relevant to the understanding of short-term motor memory (STMM) proactive interference (PI). (Author/RK)

  5. Proactive Interference and Its Release in Short-Term Memory of Mildly Retarded Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, William J.; Borkowski, John G.

    1977-01-01

    Release from proactive interference in mildly retarded adolescents due to taxonomic shifts and rest periods prior to the final, critical-word triad was investigated with 40 educable mentally handicapped persons 18 years old. (Author/MH)

  6. Connecting HRM and Change Management: The Importance of Proactivity and Vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); P.M. Kruyen; D. Vijverberg (Dominique); T. Voesenek (Tessa)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ __Purpose__: Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it

  7. Probing a Proactive Home: Challenges in Researching and Designing Everyday Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a 3-year interdisciplinary study, this article presents an approach in which proactive information technology was introduced into homes, and discusses the derived design principles from a human-centered perspective. The application of proactive computing in homes will face particularly sensitive conditions, as familiar and reliable household elements remain strongly preferred. Since there is considerable resistance towards the increase of information technology in homes, both the calm system behaviors and the degree of variety in aesthetic designs will play major roles in the acceptance of proactive technology. If proactive technology will be an embedded part of a home’s structures and furniture, it needs to blend with the normal, cozy standards of a real living environment and aim to enhance the homeyness or the key social and aesthetic qualities of homes.

  8. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Cima, M.J.; Arntz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the

  9. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. General Conformity Training Module 2.5: Proactive Role for Federal Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Module 2.5 explains how taking a proactive role will allow a federal agency to more effectively participate in newly promulgated programs under the General Conformity Regulations, such as the emission reduction credits and the emission budgets programs.

  11. Contrasting neural effects of aging on proactive and reactive response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, Mirjam; Zandbelt, Bram; Wegman, Joost; Rest, van de O.; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct forms of response inhibition may underlie observed deficits in response inhibition in aging. We assessed whether age-related neurocognitive impairments in response inhibition reflect deficient reactive inhibition (outright stopping) or also deficient proactive inhibition

  12. Motivational Antecedents of Preventive Proactivity in Late Life: Linking Future Orientation and Exercise1

    OpenAIRE

    Kahana, Eva; Kahana, Boaz; Zhang, Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Future orientation is considered as a motivational antecedent of late-life proactivity. In a panel study of 453 old-old adults, we linked future orientation to exercise, a key component of late-life proactivity. Findings based on hierarchical linear modeling reveal that future orientation at baseline predicts changes in exercise during the subsequent four years. Whereas exercise behavior generally declined over time, future orientation and female gender were associated with smaller decline. T...

  13. Piloting proactive marketing to recruit disadvantaged adults to a community-wide obesity prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Eggins, Dianne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Wiggers, John

    2015-03-30

    Population-wide obesity prevention and treatment programs are fundamental to addressing the increasing overweight and obesity rates in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Innovative recruitment strategies, including proactive marketing strategies, are needed to ensure such programs have universal reach and target vulnerable populations. This study aimed to determine the success of proactive recruitment to Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) and to assess whether the recruitment strategy influenced participants' outcomes. Sociodemographic information was collected from all GHS participants who joined the service between February 2009 and August 2013, and anthropometric information regarding behavioural risk factors was collected from all GHS coaching participants at baseline and six months. Data were analysed according to the participants' referral source (self-referral and secondary referral versus proactive recruitment). Participants recruited through proactive marketing were more likely to be male, aged 50 years or older, have high school education, not be in paid employment and be from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic advantage. The risk factor profile of coaching participants recruited through proactive marketing did not vary significantly from those recruited via other mechanisms, although they were less likely to be obese and less likely to have a higher 'at risk' waist circumference measurement. Proactively recruited coaching participants reported significant improvements from baseline to six months (consistent with improvements made by participants recruited through other strategies), although they were significantly more likely to withdraw from coaching before they completed the six-month program.Proactive marketing facilitated use of an obesity prevention service; similar services may have greater reach if proactive marketing recruitment strategies are used. These strategies could be encouraged to assist

  14. THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF PROACTIVE MARKET ORIENTATION CAPABILITY IN ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION AND SERVICE INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    CANTALEANO, KAREN RAPHAELE; RODRIGUES, GRAZIELA PERRETTO; MARTINS, TOMAS SPARANO

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this article is to verify the mediating effect of a proactive market orientation capability in the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and service innovation in micro and small companies in the food-away from home sector. We analyzed the mediating effect of a marketing capability (proactive market capability) because, according to Morgan et al. (2009), a capability is an ability developed from a strategic orientation, and capabilities and or...

  15. Getting ready to use control: Advances in the measurement of young children's use of proactive control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Doebel

    Full Text Available A key developmental transition in executive function is in the temporal dynamics of its engagement: children shift from reactively calling to mind task-relevant information as needed, to being able to proactively maintain information across time in anticipation of upcoming demands. This transition is important for understanding individual differences and developmental changes in executive function; however, methods targeting its assessment are limited. We tested the possibility that Track-It, a paradigm developed to measure selective sustained attention, also indexes proactive control. In this task children must track a target shape as it moves unpredictably among moving distractors, and identify where it disappears, which may require proactively maintaining information about the target or goal. In two experiments (5-6 year-olds, Ns = 33, 64, children's performance on Track-It predicted proactive control across two established paradigms. These findings suggest Track-It measures proactive control in children. Theoretical possibilities regarding how proactive control and selective sustained attention may be related are also discussed.

  16. The Influence of Neurocognitive Functioning on Proactive Coping Behaviors in Adults With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Shameka L; Fazeli, Pariya L; D Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E

    2016-10-01

    Although many can appreciate the life-sustaining benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy, some adults with HIV continue to have difficulty managing physical, neurocognitive, and everyday stressors. Fortunately, some adults with HIV are able to use accumulated resources (e.g., social networks) to help them engage in proactive coping behaviors such as planning and problem solving. Others, however, manage their stressors by engaging in avoidant coping, isolating themselves, or ruminating about the negative aspects of their situation. Perhaps, the capacity to engage in proactive coping may be influenced by damage to the frontal-striatal-thalamo circuitry, a region of the brain responsible for executive functioning and often compromised in adults with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. This study examined potential neurocognitive influences on proactive coping behaviors in adults with HIV (N = 98). Participants were administered a series of neurocognitive and psychosocial measures to determine if neurocognitive functioning and other factors that have been associated with coping in other populations, such as spirituality/religiosity, influenced proactive coping behaviors. Multiple regression analysis revealed that spirituality/religiosity (p = .002), rather than neurocognitive functioning (Useful Field of View, p = .277; Trails A, p = .701; Trails B, p = .365; Wechsler Memory Scale-III Digit Span, p = .864), was a significant predictor of proactive coping. Interventions to address spirituality/religiosity needs of adults with HIV may possibly facilitate proactive coping behaviors and improve mood, both of which are important for healthy neurocognitive functioning.

  17. Proactive Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Financial Performance: Evidence from Chinese Energy Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concerns about environmental issues and the advancement of China’s “going global” strategy, a new issue-proactive corporate social responsibility has emerged. Proactive corporate environmental responsibility refers to business actions that go beyond regulatory requirements for supporting sustainable environmental development. This study examines the role of proactive corporate environmental responsibility on corporate financial performance in the Chinese energy industry by the multi-variables regression analysis of panel data. Using data of 264 firm-year observations from 2009–2014 in the energy industry, the results showed that Proactive corporate environmental responsibility has a positive effect on corporate financial performance passing the endogeneity test. The results also demonstrate that private ownership has stronger promotion on the relationship between proactive corporate environmental responsibility and corporate financial performance. This study helps to increase the body of knowledge about proactive corporate environmental responsibility of the emerging economy, provides insights into the corporate environmental responsibility practice, and government environmental regulation and policy.

  18. Pro-active Behaviour in Context of Team Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Pilař

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Employees are considered to be the main source of creativity, innovation, change and development of the enterprise, which can be considered as key success factors. However, if the company climate does not encourage employee activity, development may slow or stagnate. This article focuses on the possibility of prediction of personal initiative and employee silence based on quantification of the team climate. Relationships between constructs (1 “Team climate” and (2 “Pro-active Behaviour” are evaluated on the basis of Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis. All factors of the construct “Team climate”: (T1 Future olrientation, (T2 Peer support of change, (T3 Team Vision and (T4 Regular Contact, have a significant impact on the factors of the construct “Pro-active Behaviour”: (P1 Initiative and a negative impact on (P2 Defence silence. No statistically significant effect in relation to the factors (P3 Loyalty and (P4 Stagnation was identified. The effects, in relation to the initiative of the employees were identified in the interval r = |0.305| − |0.488|. The factor of Defence silence of employees effects “Team climate” factors in the interval r = |0.329| − |0.550|. In both cases this concerns medium dependence. The research results can be used to quantify the quality of team climate in order to enhance the individuals’ long-term initiative and organisational effectiveness. This knowledge serves managers as the basis for leadership and development of pro-active behaviour of team members.

  19. The cost of proactive interference is constant across presentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Siddique, Aneela

    2016-10-01

    Proactive interference (PI) severely constrains how many items people can remember. For example, Endress and Potter (2014a) presented participants with sequences of everyday objects at 250ms/picture, followed by a yes/no recognition test. They manipulated PI by either using new images on every trial in the unique condition (thus minimizing PI among items), or by re-using images from a limited pool for all trials in the repeated condition (thus maximizing PI among items). In the low-PI unique condition, the probability of remembering an item was essentially independent of the number of memory items, showing no clear memory limitations; more traditional working memory-like memory limitations appeared only in the high-PI repeated condition. Here, we ask whether the effects of PI are modulated by the availability of long-term memory (LTM) and verbal resources. Participants viewed sequences of 21 images, followed by a yes/no recognition test. Items were presented either quickly (250ms/image) or sufficiently slowly (1500ms/image) to produce LTM representations, either with or without verbal suppression. Across conditions, participants performed better in the unique than in the repeated condition, and better for slow than for fast presentations. In contrast, verbal suppression impaired performance only with slow presentations. The relative cost of PI was remarkably constant across conditions: relative to the unique condition, performance in the repeated condition was about 15% lower in all conditions. The cost of PI thus seems to be a function of the relative strength or recency of target items and interfering items, but relatively insensitive to other experimental manipulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Event-based proactive interference in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkar, Deepna T; Wright, Anthony A

    2016-10-01

    Three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were tested in a same/different memory task for proactive interference (PI) from prior trials. PI occurs when a previous sample stimulus appears as a test stimulus on a later trial, does not match the current sample stimulus, and the wrong response "same" is made. Trial-unique pictures (scenes, objects, animals, etc.) were used on most trials, except on trials where the test stimulus matched potentially interfering sample stimulus from a prior trial (1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 trials prior). Greater interference occurred when fewer trials separated interference and test. PI functions showed a continuum of interference. Delays between sample and test stimuli and intertrial intervals were manipulated to test how PI might vary as a function of elapsed time. Contrary to a similar study with pigeons, these time manipulations had no discernable effect on the monkey's PI, as shown by compete overlap of PI functions with no statistical differences or interactions. These results suggested that interference was strictly based upon the number of intervening events (trials with other pictures) without regard to elapsed time. The monkeys' apparent event-based interference was further supported by retesting with a novel set of 1,024 pictures. PI from novel pictures 1 or 2 trials prior was greater than from familiar pictures, a familiar set of 1,024 pictures. Moreover, when potentially interfering novel stimuli were 16 trials prior, performance accuracy was actually greater than accuracy on baseline trials (no interference), suggesting that remembering stimuli from 16 trials prior was a cue that this stimulus was not the sample stimulus on the current trial-a somewhat surprising conclusion particularly given monkeys.

  1. A Proactive Approach to Penicillin Allergy Testing in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin R; Tarver, Scott A; Alvarez, Kristin S; Tran, Trang; Khan, David A

    Penicillin allergy testing is underutilized in inpatients despite its potential to immediately impact antibiotic treatment. Although most tested patients are able to tolerate penicillin, limited availability and awareness of this tool leads to the use of costly and harmful substitutes. We established an inpatient service at a large academic hospital to identify and test patients with a history of penicillin allergy with the goals of removing inaccurate diagnoses, reducing the use of beta-lactam alternatives, and educating patients and clinicians about the procedure. Eligible inpatients were flagged daily through the electronic medical record and prioritized via a specialized algorithm. A trained clinical pharmacist performed penicillin skin tests and challenges preemptively or by provider request. Clinical characteristics and antibiotic use were analyzed in tested patients. A total of 1203 applicable charts were detected by our system leading to 252 direct evaluations over 18 months. Overall, 228 subjects (90.5%) had their penicillin allergy removed. Of these, 223 were cleared via testing and 5 by discovery of prior penicillin tolerance. Among patients testing negative, 85 (38%) subsequently received beta-lactams, preventing 504 inpatient days and 648 outpatient days on alternative agents. Penicillin allergy testing using a physician-pharmacist team model effectively removes reported allergies in hospitalized patients. The electronic medical record is a valuable asset for locating and stratifying individuals who benefit most from intervention. Proactive testing substantially reduces unnecessary inpatient and outpatient use of beta-lactam alternatives that may otherwise go unaddressed. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relevant dimensions for proactive environmental assessment of urban mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alberto Soria Lara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A reduction of negative environmental impacts in urban transportation (air pollution, energy consumption, etc. is thought to be crucial in promoting sustainable development outcomes in cities, however evidence shows that this objective is hardly achieved in practice. In the case of urban transport planning, the transition to sustainability requests that its performance must be assessed. This has originated important challenges for the academia in providing efficient assessment tools. As a response to these challenges, sustainability assessment has become a rapidly developing area associated with the family of impact assessment tools ((e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment. In recent years, many countries have conferred to sustainability assessment, and specifically to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, an important and decisive role into their planning systems. The effectiveness of the traditional methods for evaluating urban transport plans/interventions (e.g. EIA, EAE, Cost-Benefit Analysis is contested as strongly argued by several academics. A key problem is that these methods currently focus too much on identifying environmental impacts that might happen rather than on finding ways of preventing them from happening. They are used reactively rather than proactively. Underlying this is the belief that traditional evaluation methods have difficulty guiding improvements in urban transport plans and projects in decision-making and their capacity to support technical decisions becomes limited. First, this is a consequence of the fact that the environmental assessment (EA process mainly includes EA-makers and they are not integrated enough in the transport planning process. Second, the used methods not always are the most suitable to identify ways of preventing potential impacts with respect to the particular nature of urban transportation. In seeking to answer these problems, the paper presents a strategy

  3. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  4. Maximizing reservoir exposure with proactive well placement in high geological complexity field of Venezuelan Orinoco Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Luis; Leon, Maryesther; Meunier, Antoine [Schlumberger, Caracas (Venezuela); Lara, Manuel; Herrera, Yoanna; Granado, Miguel [Petrolera Indovenezolana S.A. (PIV), El Tigre (Venezuela)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, Petrolera Indovenezolana S.A. (PIV), a joint venture between Corporacion Venezolana del Petroleo (CVP) and the Indian company ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL), started planning for two horizontal wells in the Norte Zuata (San Cristobal) field in the Orinoco belt of eastern Venezuela. The focus for this campaign was to evaluate the productivity of horizontal wells in thin sands and avoid areas of complex geology because of the high uncertainty in the structural behavior, applying technology that provided absolute control of the drilling process into the Oficina formation. Within the Oficina formation, thin sand reservoirs with variations in thickness and dip, geologically facies changes and sub seismic faults presented the main challenge to geosteering a horizontal well. Because the project faced high geological uncertainties, a pilot hole was drilled as the first stage in the first well to verify the structural levels and the continuity of the sand bodies. To achieve the above challenges, the combination of a rotary steerable system (RSS) 'point-the-bit' and a deep azimuthal electromagnetic resistivity tool (DAEMR) was used. The measurements provided accurate information to the well-placement engineers for proactive decisions in real time, mitigating the possible loss of the target by these geologic uncertainties. High-quality and valuable data for real time geological model update were the expected results obtained from the effort made by PIV in the Norte Zuata (San Cristobal) field, and the data showed the oil-producing potential of one of the main reservoir (Sand F,G). This application of high-tier technologies demonstrated that drilling and data measurements can be improved and optimized to yield added value for reservoir development and 100% net to gross (NTG) targets. This reduces operational cost, makes it possible to drill in the right place the first time, and pushes forward the limit of the achievable in terms of reservoir exposure. (author)

  5. ERP Correlates of Proactive and Reactive Cognitive Control in Treatment-Naïve Adult ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether treatment naïve adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 33; 19 female differed from healthy controls (n = 31; 17 female in behavioral performance, event-related potential (ERP indices of preparatory attention (CueP3 and late CNV, and reactive response control (Go P3, NoGo N2, and NoGo P3 derived from a visual cued Go/NoGo task. On several critical measures, Cue P3, late CNV, and NoGo N2, there were no significant differences between the groups. This indicated normal preparatory processes and conflict monitoring in ADHD patients. However, the patients had attenuated Go P3 and NoGoP3 amplitudes relative to controls, suggesting reduced allocation of attentional resources to processes involved in response control. The patients also had a higher rate of Go signal omission errors, but no other performance decrements compared with controls. Reduced Go P3 and NoGo P3 amplitudes were associated with poorer task performance, particularly in the ADHD group. Notably, the ERPs were not associated with self-reported mood or anxiety. The results provide electrophysiological evidence for reduced effortful engagement of attentional resources to both Go and NoGo signals when reactive response control is needed. The absence of group differences in ERP components indexing proactive control points to impairments in specific aspects of cognitive processes in an untreated adult ADHD cohort. The associations between ERPs and task performance provided additional support for the altered electrophysiological responses.

  6. Materials ageing degradation programme in japan and proactive ageing management in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, T.

    2013-01-01

    Predictive and preventive maintenance technologies are increasingly of importance for the long term operation (LTO) of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants. In order for the realization LTO to be successful, it is essential that aging degradation phenomena should be properly managed by using adequate maintenance programs based on foreseeing the aging phenomena and evaluating their rates of development, where Nuclear Power Plants can be continued to operate beyond the original design life depending upon the regulatory authority rules. In combination with Periodic Safety Review (PSR) and adequate maintenance program, a plant life can be extended to 60 years or more. Plant Life Management (PLiM) is based upon various maintenance program as well as systematic safety review updated based upon the state of the art of science and technology. One of the potential life time limiting issue would be materials ageing degradation and therefore an extensive efforts have been paid world-widely. In 2007, NISA launched a national program on Enhanced Ageing Management Program and 4 nationwide clusters were formed to carry out the national program where materials ageing degradation was one of the major topics. In addition to these degradation modes, one important activities in this program is proactive materials degradation management directed by the author which is a kind of the extension program of NRC PMDA program based upon more fundamental approach by a systematic elicitation by the experts nominated from all over the world. NISA program can be divided into two phases, one is from fiscal years (FY) 2006 - 2010 and the other FY 2011. Later phase is focusing more on System Safety due to Fukushima NPP accident. The main objectives of the Phase I is to evaluate potential and complex degradation phenomena and their mechanisms in order to identify future risks of component aging in nuclear power plants. The following items are of particular concern in this phase: (a) investigation of

  7. The use of a proactive dissemination strategy to optimize reach of an internet-delivered computer tailored lifestyle intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    intervention, the employed proactive dissemination strategy succeeded in ensuring relatively high levels of reach. Reach among at-risk individuals (e.g. low socioeconomic status and unhealthy lifestyle) was modest. It is therefore essential to further optimize reach by putting additional effort into increasing interest in the lifestyle intervention among at-risk individuals and to encourage them to actually use the intervention. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register (NTR1786) and Medical Ethics Committee of Maastricht University and the University Hospital Maastricht (NL2723506809/MEC0903016). PMID:23914991

  8. The use of a proactive dissemination strategy to optimize reach of an internet-delivered computer tailored lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Francine; Schulz, Daniela N; Pouwels, Loes H L; de Vries, Hein; van Osch, Liesbeth A D M

    2013-08-05

    The use of reactive strategies to disseminate effective Internet-delivered lifestyle interventions restricts their level of reach within the target population. This stresses the need to invest in proactive strategies to offer these interventions to the target population. The present study used a proactive strategy to increase reach of an Internet-delivered multi component computer tailored intervention, by embedding the intervention in an existing online health monitoring system of the Regional Public Health Services in the Netherlands. The research population consisted of Dutch adults who were invited to participate in the Adult Health Monitor (N = 96,388) offered by the Regional Public Health Services. This Monitor consisted of an online or a written questionnaire. A prospective design was used to determine levels of reach, by focusing on actual participation in the lifestyle intervention. Furthermore, adequacy of reach among the target group was assessed by composing detailed profiles of intervention users. Participants' characteristics, like demographics, behavioral and mental health status and quality of life, were included in the model as predictors. A total of 41,155 (43%) people participated in the Adult Health Monitor, of which 41% (n = 16,940) filled out the online version. More than half of the online participants indicated their interest (n = 9169; 54%) in the computer tailored intervention and 5168 participants (31%) actually participated in the Internet-delivered computer tailored intervention. Males, older respondents and individuals with a higher educational degree were significantly more likely to participate in the intervention. Furthermore, results indicated that especially participants with a relatively healthier lifestyle and a healthy BMI were likely to participate. With one out of three online Adult Health Monitor participants actually participating in the computer tailored lifestyle intervention, the employed proactive

  9. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tony Y.

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  10. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  11. Incorporating risk communication into highly pathogenic avian influenza preparedness and response efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Shauna J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Sampedro, Fernando; Snider, Tim; Goldsmith, Timothy; Hueston, William D; Lauer, Dale C; Halvorson, David A

    2012-12-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in the United States will initiate a federal emergency response effort that will consist of disease control and eradication efforts, including quarantine and movement control measures. These movement control measures will not only apply to live animals but also to animal products. However, with current egg industry "just-in-time" production practices, limited storage is available to hold eggs. As a result, stop movement orders can have significant unintended negative consequences, including severe disruptions to the food supply chain. Because stakeholders' perceptions of risk vary, waiting to initiate communication efforts until an HPAI event occurs can hinder disease control efforts, including the willingness of producers to comply with the response, and also can affect consumers' demand for the product. A public-private-academic partnership was formed to assess actual risks involved in the movement of egg industry products during an HPAI event through product specific, proactive risk assessments. The risk analysis process engaged a broad representation of stakeholders and promoted effective risk management and communication strategies before an HPAI outbreak event. This multidisciplinary team used the risk assessments in the development of the United States Department of Agriculture, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Secure Egg Supply Plan, a comprehensive response plan that strives to maintain continuity of business. The collaborative approach that was used demonstrates how a proactive risk communication strategy that involves many different stakeholders can be valuable in the development of a foreign animal disease response plan and build working relationships, trust, and understanding.

  12. ENHANCED PROACTIVE PLANNING APPROACH: A CRUCIAL TO AN IMPROVED WORKERS’ SAFETY IN WESTERN NIGERIA SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O. ADEYEMI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated managements’ proactive planning approach (PPA to enhance safety among workers in South-western Nigeria small scale industry (SSI. The main objective was to rate the managements’ efforts at eliminating risk among their employees. By worker participatory and psychological survey approach, three tools were used; workplace observation (visual, management safety culture (questionnaire and managers interviews (oral. The survey included 200 workers, 120 supervisors and 80 managers, in 82 SSI. Four steps to a safety proactive action plans (PAP, (looking for clues, prioritization of identified potential hazard, making improvements to eliminate the risk and follow up, were rated by employees on a scale from 0 to 5. Paired t-test was used to appraise the significant difference between the managers’ mean scores rated by the supervisors and other workers. 77.1% of workers and 64.2% supervisors rated their managers as either “not done at all” or “poorly done”. Workers’ scores for managers PPA had statistically significantly lower ratings (mean=1.09, SEM = 0.22 compared to that of the supervisors rating (mean= 1.55, SEM = 0.32, with t (14 = -1.185, p = 0.784. There is a closed poor performance perception gaps, of managers’ PPA, of the two groups of employees. It can be concluded that safety is not emphasized, by managers of SSI, as overriding priority and this may have contributed to high reported injuries among their workforce. Courses to enhance managements’ understanding for inclusion of safety among the leading priorities becomes necessary. This will reduce work-related risks and promotes occupational safety and health among the group of workers.

  13. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. When does transformational leadership enhance employee proactive behavior? The role of autonomy and role breadth self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, Deanne N; Belschak, Frank D

    2012-01-01

    Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior (personal initiative in Study 1 and prosocial proactive behavior in Study 2). As expected, a 3-way interaction qualifies these main effects: In situations of high autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals high (but not low) on self-efficacy. Vice versa, in situations low on job autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals low (but not high) on self-efficacy. This pattern is found both for self-ratings and peer-ratings of employees' proactive behavior in Study 1 and for supervisor ratings of such behavior in Study 2.

  15. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...... populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...

  16. Impact of ageing on problem size and proactive interference in arithmetic facts solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambeau, Kim; De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Gevers, Wim

    2018-02-01

    Arithmetic facts (AFs) are required when solving problems such as "3 × 4" and refer to calculations for which the correct answer is retrieved from memory. Currently, two important effects that modulate the performance in AFs have been highlighted: the problem size effect and the proactive interference effect. The aim of this study is to investigate possible age-related changes of the problem size effect and the proactive interference effect in AF solving. To this end, the performance of young and older adults was compared in a multiplication production task. Furthermore, an independent measure of proactive interference was assessed to further define the architecture underlying this effect in multiplication solving. The results indicate that both young and older adults were sensitive to the effects of interference and of the problem size. That is, both interference and problem size affected performance negatively: the time needed to solve a multiplication problem increases as the level of interference and the size of the problem increase. Regarding the effect of ageing, the problem size effect remains constant with age, indicating a preserved AF network in older adults. Interestingly, sensitivity to proactive interference in multiplication solving was less pronounced in older than in younger adults suggesting that part of the proactive interference has been overcome with age.

  17. The role of self-serving cognitive distortions in reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostermeijer, Sanne; Smeets, Kirsten C; Jansen, Lucres M C; Jambroes, Tijs; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Scheepers, Floor E; Buitelaar, Jan K; Popma, Arne

    2017-12-01

    Aggression is often divided into reactive and proactive forms. Reactive aggression is typically thought to encompass 'blaming others' and 'assuming the worst', while proactive aggression relates to 'self-centeredness' and 'minimising/mislabelling'. Our aim was to evaluate relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and cognitive distortions and to test whether changes in these cognitions relate to changes in aggression. A total of 151 adolescents (60% boys; mean age 15.05 years, standard deviation 1.28) were enrolled in an evidence-based intervention to reduce aggression. Due to attrition and anomalous responses, the post-intervention sample involved 80 adolescents. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between cognitive distortions and aggression. Blaming others was related to reactive aggression before the intervention, while all cognitive distortions were related to proactive aggression both pre- and post-intervention. Changes in reactive aggression were uniquely predicted by blaming others, while changes in proactive aggression were predicted by changes in cognitive distortions overall. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show a relationship between changes in cognitive distortions and changes in aggression. Treatment of reactive aggression may benefit from focusing primarily on reducing cognitive distortions involving misattribution of blame to others. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Mechanisms and neuronal networks involved in reactive and proactive cognitive control of interference in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlbacher, Kerstin; Kraft, Antje; Kehrer, Stefanie; Brandt, Stephan A

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive control can be reactive or proactive in nature. Reactive control mechanisms, which support the resolution of interference, start after its onset. Conversely, proactive control involves the anticipation and prevention of interference prior to its occurrence. The interrelation of both types of cognitive control is currently under debate: Are they mediated by different neuronal networks? Or are there neuronal structures that have the potential to act in a proactive as well as in a reactive manner? This review illustrates the way in which integrating knowledge gathered from behavioral studies, functional imaging, and human electroencephalography proves useful in answering these questions. We focus on studies that investigate interference resolution at the level of working memory representations. In summary, different mechanisms are instrumental in supporting reactive and proactive control. Distinct neuronal networks are involved, though some brain regions, especially pre-SMA, possess functions that are relevant to both control modes. Therefore, activation of these brain areas could be observed in reactive, as well as proactive control, but at different times during information processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep and memory consolidation: motor performance and proactive interference effects in sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borragán, Guillermo; Urbain, Charline; Schmitz, Rémy; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    That post-training sleep supports the consolidation of sequential motor skills remains debated. Performance improvement and sensitivity to proactive interference are both putative measures of long-term memory consolidation. We tested sleep-dependent memory consolidation for visuo-motor sequence learning using a proactive interference paradigm. Thirty-three young adults were trained on sequence A on Day 1, then had Regular Sleep (RS) or were Sleep Deprived (SD) on the night after learning. After two recovery nights, they were tested on the same sequence A, then had to learn a novel, potentially competing sequence B. We hypothesized that proactive interference effects on sequence B due to the prior learning of sequence A would be higher in the RS condition, considering that proactive interference is an indirect marker of the robustness of sequence A, which should be better consolidated over post-training sleep. Results highlighted sleep-dependent improvement for sequence A, with faster RTs overnight for RS participants only. Moreover, the beneficial impact of sleep was specific to the consolidation of motor but not sequential skills. Proactive interference effects on learning a new material at Day 4 were similar between RS and SD participants. These results suggest that post-training sleep contributes to optimizing motor but not sequential components of performance in visuo-motor sequence learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  1. Civilian Joint Task Force’ (CJTF – A Community Security Option: A Comprehensive and Proactive Approach of Reducing Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Bamidele

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Boko Haram uprising in 2009, the Nigerian government has employed various strategies as counter-terrorism measures to stem the atrocities of the group. These strategies include amnesty negotiations, implementation of emergency law in the northeast, increase in security spending to the deployment of military force. In the midst of these security measures, the civilian Joint Task Force (JTF emerged, first as a community effort, and later as a joint effort with the security forces to help fight Boko Haram. The civilian JTF has helped recover towns and villages from Boko Haram, rescued women in the northeast and helped identify Boko Haram members shielded by some local people. Although doubts have been expressed in some quatres that the civilian JTF could transform into ethnic militias, the Boko Haram security threat neutralized by the group indicates an untapped security potential in Nigerian communities. However, one approach that has yet to be pursued is community security option. Community security option is a model built around proactive citizen-driven communal response. This article explains the role of civilian JTF and how civilian JTF can be used to investigate terrorism in Nigeria. This article will contribute to the discourse on the imperative of African-inspired mechanisms to solving African security problems.

  2. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Drews, Christopher; Lantow, Birger

    2018-01-01

    Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation re...

  3. Use of volunteers' information to support proactive inspection of hydraulic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes Arevalo, Juliette; Sterlacchini, Simone; Bogaard, Thom; Frigerio, Simone; Junier, Sandra; Schenato, Luca; van den Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Proactive management is particularly important to deal with the increasing occurrence of hydro-meteorological hazards in mountain areas were threats are often caused by multiple and sudden onset hazards such as debris flows. Citizen volunteers can be involved in supporting technicians on inspecting the structures' functional status. Such collaborative effort between managing organizations and local volunteers becomes more important under limited resources. To consider volunteers' information in support of proactive inspection of hydraulic structures, we developed a methodology applicable in day-to-day risk management. At first, in collaboration with technicians-in-charge, a data collection approach was developed for first level or pre-screening visual inspections that can be performed by volunteers. Methods comprise of a data collection exercise, an inspection forms and a learning session based on existent procedures in the FVG region and neighbouring regions. To systematically evaluate the individual inspection reports, we designed a support method by means of a multi-criteria method with fuzzy terms. The method allows the technicians-in-charge to categorize the reports in one of three levels, each corresponding with a course of action. To facilitate the evaluation of inspection reports, we transformed the decision support method into a prototype Web-GIS application. The design process of the Web-GIS framework followed a user-centred approach. The conceptual design incorporates four modules for managing the inspection reports: 1) Registered users, 2) Inspection planning; 3) Available reports and 4) Evaluation of reports. The development of the prototype focused on the evaluation module and was implemented based on standard and interoperable open source tools. Finally, we organized a workshop with technicians in the study area to test the decision support method and get insights about the usefulness of the Web-GIS framework. Participants that took part of the

  4. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  5. PROACTIVE APPROACH TO THE INCIDENT AND PROBLEM MANAGEMENT IN COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran Strahonja

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Proactive approach to communication network maintenance has the capability of enhancing the integrity and reliability of communication networks, as well as of reducing maintenance costs and overall number of incidents. This paper presents approaches to problem and incident prevention with the help of root-cause analysis, aligning that with the goal to foresee software performance. Implementation of proactive approach requires recognition of enterprise's current level of maintenance better insights into available approaches and tools, as well as their comparison, interoperability, integration and further development. The approach we are proposing and elaborating in this paper lies on the construction of a metamodel of the problem management of information technology, particularly the proactive problem management. The metamodel is derived from the original ITIL specification and presented in an object-oriented fashion by using structure (class diagrams conform to UML notation. Based on current research, appropriate metrics based on the concept of Key Performance Indicators is suggested.

  6. The role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: a relational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Liang, Jian; Crant, J Michael

    2010-03-01

    Drawing from a relational approach, the authors conceptualize the quality of leader-member exchange as a mediator and procedural justice climate as a contextual moderator for understanding the role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. Data from a sample of 200 Chinese employees within 54 work groups were used to examine the hypothesized models. Results show that having a proactive personality was associated with employees establishing a high-quality exchange relationship with their supervisors; in turn, the quality of leader-member exchange was associated with greater job satisfaction and more organizational citizenship behaviors. Additionally, the relationship between proactive personality and organizational citizenship behavior was positively moderated by procedural justice climate within the group. Implications for management theory and practice are discussed. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Differential development of retroactive and proactive interference during post-learning wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawn, Timothy P; Nusbaum, Howard C; Margoliash, Daniel

    2018-07-01

    Newly encoded, labile memories are prone to disruption during post-learning wakefulness. Here we examine the contributions of retroactive and proactive interference to daytime forgetting on an auditory classification task in a songbird. While both types of interference impair performance, they do not develop concurrently. The retroactive interference of task-B on task-A developed during the learning of task-B, whereas the proactive interference of task-A on task-B emerged during subsequent waking retention. These different time courses indicate an asymmetry in the emergence of retroactive and proactive interference and suggest a mechanistic framework for how different types of interference between new memories develop. © 2018 Brawn et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Using decision analysis to support proactive management of emerging infectious wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2017-01-01

    Despite calls for improved responses to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, management is seldom considered until a disease has been detected in affected populations. Reactive approaches may limit the potential for control and increase total response costs. An alternative, proactive management framework can identify immediate actions that reduce future impacts even before a disease is detected, and plan subsequent actions that are conditional on disease emergence. We identify four main obstacles to developing proactive management strategies for the newly discovered salamander pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Given that uncertainty is a hallmark of wildlife disease management and that associated decisions are often complicated by multiple competing objectives, we advocate using decision analysis to create and evaluate trade-offs between proactive (pre-emergence) and reactive (post-emergence) management options. Policy makers and natural resource agency personnel can apply principles from decision analysis to improve strategies for countering emerging infectious diseases.

  9. Environmental Proactivity and Environmental and Economic Performance: Evidence from the Winery Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Barba-Sánchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability in the winery sector is receiving increased attention from governments, environmental groups, and consumers. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the degree of proactivity of a firm’s environmental strategies and its business performance. The novelty of this research work lies in its definition of business performance, which includes business environmental performance in terms of reducing the firm’s environmental impacts and eco-efficiency in the use of resources such as water, energy, and raw materials, in addition to its economic performance. A model is proposed and tested using a sample of 312 Spanish wineries. Data were analysed using partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM. The fitness and robustness of the structural model proved adequate. The results indicate positive correlation of environmental proactivity with economic and environmental performance. Although environmental proactivity improves business performance, it has a greater impact on reducing environmental impacts and improving eco-efficiency.

  10. The proactive approach--is it worthwhile? A prospective controlled ergonomic intervention study in office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laestadius, Jasminka Goldoni; Ye, Jian; Cai, Xiaodong; Ross, Sandra; Dimberg, Lennart; Klekner, Meg

    2009-10-01

    Does proactive ergonomics program enhance office worker health and productivity? The investigation was conducted in connection with the move of 1500 office staff to a building with improved ergonomics. It was focused on associations between workstation features, working postures, musculoskeletal pain symptoms, and eye strain before and 18 months after implementation of a proactive ergonomic program. The outcomes were compared between the intervention and a similar reference group. Associations between improvement of postures and less musculoskeletal pain and eye strain were confirmed. A cross association between several features and postures and improved symptoms was noted, along with improved productivity. The study suggests that a proactive program adhering to the OSHA recommendations needs to include an individual workstation assessment to be effective in reducing symptoms and increasing productivity.

  11. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  12. Enhanced conditioned eyeblink response acquisition and proactive interference in anxiety vulnerable individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Holloway

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning, proactive interference may arise from experience with the conditioned stimulus (CS, the unconditional stimulus (US, or both, prior to their paired presentations. Interest in the application of proactive interference has extended to clinical populations as either a risk factor for disorders or as a secondary sign. Although the current literature is dense with comparisons of stimulus pre-exposure effects in animals, such comparisons are lacking in human subjects. As such, interpretation of proactive interference over studies as well as its generalization and utility in clinical research is limited. The present study was designed to assess eyeblink response acquisition after equal numbers of CS, US, and explicitly unpaired CS and US pre-exposures, as well as to evaluate how anxiety vulnerability might modulate proactive interference. In the current study, anxiety vulnerability was assessed using the State/Trait Anxiety Inventories as well as the adult and retrospective measures of behavioural inhibition (AMBI and RMBI, respectively. Participants were exposed to 1 of 4 possible pre-exposure contingencies: 30 CS, 30 US, 30 CS and 30 US explicitly unpaired pre-exposures, or context pre-exposure, immediately prior to standard delay training. Robust proactive interference was evident in all pre-exposure groups relative to context pre-exposure, independent of anxiety classification, with CR acquisition attenuated at similar rates. In addition, trait anxious individuals were found to have enhanced overall acquisition as well as greater proactive interference relative to non-vulnerable individuals. The findings suggest that anxiety vulnerable individuals learn implicit associations faster, an effect which persists after the introduction of new stimulus contingencies. This effect is not due to enhanced sensitivity to the US. Such differences would have implications for the development of anxiety psychopathology within a learning

  13. Enhanced conditioned eyeblink response acquisition and proactive interference in anxiety vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jacqueline L; Trivedi, Payal; Myers, Catherine E; Servatius, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    In classical conditioning, proactive interference may arise from experience with the conditioned stimulus (CS), the unconditional stimulus (US), or both, prior to their paired presentations. Interest in the application of proactive interference has extended to clinical populations as either a risk factor for disorders or as a secondary sign. Although the current literature is dense with comparisons of stimulus pre-exposure effects in animals, such comparisons are lacking in human subjects. As such, interpretation of proactive interference over studies as well as its generalization and utility in clinical research is limited. The present study was designed to assess eyeblink response acquisition after equal numbers of CS, US, and explicitly unpaired CS and US pre-exposures, as well as to evaluate how anxiety vulnerability might modulate proactive interference. In the current study, anxiety vulnerability was assessed using the State/Trait Anxiety Inventories as well as the adult and retrospective measures of behavioral inhibition (AMBI and RMBI, respectively). Participants were exposed to 1 of 4 possible pre-exposure contingencies: 30 CS, 30 US, 30 CS, and 30 US explicitly unpaired pre-exposures, or Context pre-exposure, immediately prior to standard delay training. Robust proactive interference was evident in all pre-exposure groups relative to Context pre-exposure, independent of anxiety classification, with CR acquisition attenuated at similar rates. In addition, trait anxious individuals were found to have enhanced overall acquisition as well as greater proactive interference relative to non-vulnerable individuals. The findings suggest that anxiety vulnerable individuals learn implicit associations faster, an effect which persists after the introduction of new stimulus contingencies. This effect is not due to enhanced sensitivity to the US. Such differences would have implications for the development of anxiety psychopathology within a learning framework.

  14. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  15. LINKING ADMINISTRATORS ROLES IN CAREER PROGRAMS TO PROACTIVE BEHAVIOR AS A DETERMINANT OF EMPLOYEES PROMOTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the relationship between administrators roles in career programs, proactive behavior and employees promotion opportunities. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from employees who work in an established private oil and gas firm in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model analysis demonstrate that the ability of administrators to plan and managecareer programs have strongly invoked employees proactive behavior. As a result, this situation may lead to an enhance employees promotion opportunities in the organizational sample. Further, this study offers discussion, implications and conclusion.

  16. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  17. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  18. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  19. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Drews

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation regarding the technical aspects of BPMS migration. The framework provides questions for BPMS comparison and an effort evaluation schema. The applicability of the framework is evaluated based on a simplified BPMS migration scenario.

  20. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  1. The critical roles of task conflict and job autonomy in the relationship between proactive personalities and innovative employee behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; de Reuver, R. S.M.; Rispens, Sonja; Ufkes, Elze G.

    2016-01-01

    We examine why and when proactive personality is beneficial for innovative behavior at work. Based on a survey among 166 employees working in 35 departments of a large municipality in the Netherlands we show that an increase in task conflicts explains the positive relation between a proactive

  2. The Critical Roles of Task Conflict and Job Autonomy in the Relationship Between Proactive Personalities and Innovative Employee Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; de Reuver, Renee S.M.; Rispens, Sonja; Ufkes, Elze Gooitzen

    2016-01-01

    We examine why and when proactive personality is beneficial for innovative behavior at work. Based on a survey among 166 employees working in 35 departments of a large municipality in the Netherlands we show that an increase in task conflicts explains the positive relation between a proactive

  3. Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Florell, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates-only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette.

  4. Does affective theory of mind contribute to proactive aggression in boys with conduct problems and psychopathic tendencies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillespie, S.; Kongerslev, Mickey; Sharp, Carla

    2018-01-01

    Adolescent psychopathic tendencies are associated with phenotypic increases in proactive aggression. However, the extent to which an understanding of others’ affective mental states, or affective theory of mind (ToM), contributes to proactive aggression remains unknown. We examined how performance...

  5. Proactive Goal Generation and Innovative Work Behavior: The Moderating Role of Affective Commitment, Production Ownership and Leader Support for Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Francesco; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Odoardi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Building on goal-regulation theory, we develop and test the hypothesis that proactive goal generation fosters individual innovative work behavior. Consistent with a resource-based perspective, we further examine two-three-way interactions to assess whether the link between proactive goal generation and innovative behavior is jointly moderated by…

  6. When does transformational leadership enhance employee proactive behavior? The role of autonomy and role breadth self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.

    2012-01-01

    Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior

  7. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  8. Role Breadth Self-Efficacy and Foci of Proactive Behavior: Moderating Role of Collective, Relational, and Individual Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pin-Chyuan; Han, Ming-Chuan; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interactive effect of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) and the three levels of self-concept (collective, relational, and individual) in predicting of different foci of proactive behaviors. Results from 259 matched responses from an airline company in Taiwan showed that RBSE had a positive effect on (1) pro-organizational proactive behavior among those with higher collective self-concept, (2) pro-supervisor proactive behavior among those with higher relational self-concept, and (3) pro-self proactive behavior among those with higher individual self-concept. Our findings provide insights into the moderating role of different levels of self-concept on RBSE-proactive behavior process in terms of specific targets or beneficiaries. Further implications for organizational research and practice are discussed.

  9. Developing an Educational Workshop on Teen Depression and Suicide: A Proactive Community Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Ebba W.; Shulman, Donald A.; Gajary, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    An educational workshop was developed in Monroe County, New York on teen depression and suicide. The workshop used a proactive, preventive-educational approach, including both primary and secondary prevention modalities, directly available to teens, parents, and youth professionals. The program subsequently developed new partnerships between…

  10. Some effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retriactive interference in short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.; Sanders, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is reported on the effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retroactive interference (PI, RI) in short term memory. To avoid confounding between cognitive and acoustic similarity, the materials - i.e. words and digits - were matched with respect to vowel pattern. Effects of

  11. Integrating statistical machine learning in a semantic sensor web for proactive monitoring and control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adeleke, Jude Adekunle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available in an indoor air quality monitoring case study. A sliding window approach that employs the Multilayer Perceptron model to predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations is integrated into the proactive monitoring and control framework. Results show...

  12. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  13. Improving Student Retention through Evidence Based Proactive Systems at the Open University (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Graham; Regan, Peter; Simpson, Ormond

    2007-01-01

    The Open University has been undertaking an extended initiative to improve student retention through enhanced support for at-risk students. This initiative has evolved through a series of stages from ad hoc small scale local interventions relying largely on tutors and student self-referral, to an institution-wide pro-active system implemented by…

  14. The associations between parenting styles and proactive and reactive aggression in Hong Kong children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Fung, Annis Lai Chu

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that reactive and proactive aggression may be differentially related to family contextual (e.g. parenting practices) factors. However, the existing research has focused largely on children and adolescents from Western countries, and no study has examined the parenting-aggression association using a parenting style measure sensitive to Asian culture. In this study parenting styles (i.e. warmth, control and guan/training) and proactive and reactive aggression were assessed in a large sample of school children in Hong Kong, China (N = 4,175, mean age = 11.75). We found that: (a) both low warmth (in boys only) and guan (i.e. high expectation and close supervision, in both boys and girls) were associated with elevated parent-reported proactive aggression, (b) high restrictive control (i.e. dominating and rejecting) was associated with high reactive aggression (in both boys and girls) based on parent- or child-report data, and with high proactive aggression (in boys only) based on parent-report data, and (c) guan was also positively associated with parent-reported reactive aggression. Findings provide more information about the Parenting Inventory using a large Asian sample, and extend existing research on familial correlates of different types of aggression. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

  16. The research of Proactive Coping Behavior of Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija A. Yaroslavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the patterns of using proactive coping and adherences to it's different types in patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases. Participants of the study (N=180 were 30 to 60 years old. The Proactive Coping Inventory was used to assess the patients' psychological status. According to the results of the study patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases use dif-ferent types of proactive coping behavior while solving problematic and stressful situations. The research revealed that patients with bronchial asthma don't have the skills of independent decision making, definition of objectives, considering of options in solving conflicts or other inconvenient situations sufficiently developed. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are less satisfied with the emotional support that they receive from their relatives and closest people, it's harder for them to reveal their feelings and emotions than for those who suffer from bronchial asthma and healthy ones. The results of the study may be useful in developing educational systems of proactive coping behavior skills for patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases for their health and well-being support.

  17. Interrelations between Principals' Risk of Burnout Profiles and Proactive Self-Regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Lotta; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    School leadership is a demanding job. Those involved in school leadership have shown to experience high levels of work stress that may, if prolonged, result in burnout. The purpose of this study was to examine school leaders' risks of burnout in terms of work stress and burnout symptoms, and their relationship with proactive self-regulation…

  18. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis Functioning in Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) reactivity and proactive and reactive aggression in pre-pubertal children. After a 30-min controlled base line period, 73 7-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental tasks designed to…

  19. Individual differences in the use of proactive coping strategies by middle-aged and older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, C.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of proactive coping refers to the process of screening one’s environment for future stressors and undertaking attempts to prevent them. As of yet, few empirical studies have been conducted in relation to this promising concept. The aim of the present study was to identify the personal

  20. The Price of Fame: The Impact of Stimulus Familiarity on Proactive Interference Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution…

  1. Personality, Freshmen Proactive Social Behavior, and College Transition: Predictors beyond Academic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Cullen, Kristin L.; Yao, Xiang; Li, Yixuan

    2013-01-01

    When transitioning to college freshmen must behave proactively in order to strive for success in their collegiate careers and their future life. Past research has mainly focused on the academic strategies of freshmen when investigating the predictors of successful college transition and has paid little attention to students' social strategies. The…

  2. Walking the Walk: The Moderating Role of Proactive Parenting on Adolescents' Value-Congruent Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Harper, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study longitudinally examined adolescents' internalization of values in four domains (drug use, prosocial, school, friends), and how these values were differentially related to behaviors (delinquency, prosocial behavior, school engagement, and deviant peer association) as a function of proactive parenting. Participants included 335…

  3. Abnormal proactive and reactive cognitive control during conflict processing in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; De Paepe, Annick; Aarts, Kristien; Otte, Georges; Van Dorpe, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    According to the Dual Mechanisms of Control framework, cognitive control consists of two complementary components: proactive control refers to anticipatory maintenance of goal-relevant information, whereas reactive control acts as a correction mechanism that is activated when a conflict occurs. Possibly, the well-known diminished inhibitory control in response to negative stimuli in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients stems from a breakdown in proactive control, and/or anomalies in reactive cognitive control. In our study, MDD patients specifically showed increased response latencies when actively inhibiting a dominant response to a sad compared with a happy face. This condition was associated with a longer duration of a dominant ERP topography (800-900 ms poststimulus onset) and a stronger activity in the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting abnormal reactive control when inhibiting attention to a negative stimulus. Moreover, MDD patients showed abnormalities in proactive cognitive control when preparing for the upcoming imperative stimulus (abnormal modulation of the contingent negative variation component), accompanied by more activity in brain regions belonging to the default mode network. All together, deficits to inhibit attention to negative information in MDD might originate from an abnormal use of both proactive resources and reactive control processes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Memory Consequences of Looking Back to Notice Change: Retroactive and Proactive Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Kelley, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments contrasted recollection of change with differentiation as means of avoiding retroactive interference and proactive interference. We manipulated the extent to which participants looked back to notice change between pairs of cues and targets (A-B, A-D) and measured the effects on later cued recall of either the first or second…

  5. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  6. What Is Engagement? Proactivity as the Missing Link in the HEXACO Model of Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Reinout Everhard; Wawoe, Kilian W.; Holtrop, Djurre

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that proactivity represents the engagement vector in the HEXACO model of personality. Questionnaire data were obtained in five studies, three of which consisted (mostly) of students: Study 1 (N = 188, Mage = 20.0, 89.4% women), Study 3 (N = 315, Mage = 20.4, 80.6% women),

  7. Effects of proactive and prosocial behavior on critical incidents of Lima schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon A. Holguin Alvarez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the theoretical approaches of proactive and prosocial behavior of Covey (1996, Xifra (2009 and Roche-Olivar (2004, with the objective of analyzing the significant differences in the decrease of critical incidents in public school students And private schools in the district of San Juan de Lurigancho, for which two experimental workshops with quasiexperimental methodology were applied in three groups of 1st and 2nd high school students (G. Exp. (Proactivity = 17; G. Exp. Prosociality = 15; G. Control = 16; A behavior observation log and the PANIC instrument of Monereo and Monte (2011 were used. The results indicate significant differences with better effects in the workshop of proactive behavior (Hrp = 16.59, p <.05; A comparison of the verbal violence dimension in which better effects were obtained by the prosocial behavior workshop (Hrp = 14.12, p <.05; Finally, the limitations were that students in the proactivity workshop slowed down their critical incidents by demonstrating excessive personalism, and for later studies, it is suggested to work the above mentioned workshops, including assaulted students.

  8. Student Teachers' Proactive Strategies and Experienced Learning Environment for Reducing Study-Related Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Sanna; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to gain a better understanding of the interrelation and the development of student teachers' proactive coping strategies, i.e., self-regulative and co-regulative strategies, perceived learning environment and study-related burnout. Longitudinal data were utilized with three annual measurements during bachelor studies. Altogether,…

  9. Development of the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive (C-SHARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas some scales exist for assessing aggression in typically developing children, they do not give a detailed analysis, and none is available for populations with developmental disabilities (DD). Parents of 365 children with DD completed the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive (C-SHARP), which surveys the severity…

  10. Burnout, Depression and Proactive Coping in Underground Coal Miners in Serbia - Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Saška

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining is unsurprisingly considered a high-risk occupation because it involves continuous hard labour under highly demanding and stressful conditions. Many of these work stressors can impair individuals’ well-being in both a physiological and psychological sense. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms and to evaluate aspects of proactive coping among underground coal miners in Serbia. The study involved 46 male underground coal miners. Burnout was measured with the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and level of proactive coping was measured with the Proactive Coping Inventory. The results showed a low level of burnout syndrome among the underground coal miners (12.46±4.879. Depression was slightly above the minimum (1.2±2.094, and the majority of the participants had no symptoms of depression (93.5%. Overall, the underground coal miners’ ability to proactively cope with work stress was very good (42.17±6.567. This is in contrast to the findings of the few previous international studies and is a good basis for further research using a larger sample in Serbia.

  11. Setting priorities for the proactive management of longterm challenges and opportunities in Asset Life Cycle Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, Richard Jacob; Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan; van Diepen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Asset Life Cycle Management concerns the effective management of physical assets over their complete lifetimes, typically lasting decades. Therefore, a large number and a wide variety of challenges and opportunities may need to be dealt with proactively, using limited resources. Therefore, we

  12. Interactive Links between Theory of Mind, Peer Victimization, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind and reactive and proactive aggression, respectively, as well as the moderating role of peer victimization in this context. The 574 participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of twins. Theory of mind was assessed before school entry, when participants were 5 years old. Reactive and…

  13. Proactive palliative care for patients with COPD (PROLONG): a pragmatic cluster controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duenk, R.G.; Verhagen, C.A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Mierlo, P. van; Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Collard, S.M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Engels, Y.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of proactive palliative care on the well-being of these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial

  14. Agent-based Simulation of Reactive, Pro-active, and Social Animal Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Mira, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active and social behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and

  15. The Genetic and Environmental Covariation among Psychopathic Personality Traits, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the genetic and environmental covariance between psychopathic personality traits with reactive and proactive aggression in 9- to 10-year-old twins (N = 1,219). Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997), while aggressive behaviors were assessed using the…

  16. Social Information Processing, Moral Reasoning, and Emotion Attributions: Relations with Adolescents' Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenio, William F.; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated.…

  17. Newcomer adjustment: Examining the role of managers' perception of newcomer proactive behavior during organizational socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Allison M; Nifadkar, Sushil S; Bauer, Talya N; Erdogan, Berrin

    2017-06-01

    Separate streams of organizational socialization research have recognized the importance of (a) newcomer proactivity and (b) manager support in facilitating newcomer adjustment. However, extant research has largely focused on the newcomers' experience, leaving the perspectives of managers during socialization relatively unexplored-a theoretical gap that has implications both for newcomer adjustment and manager-newcomer interactions that may serve as a basis for future relationship development. Drawing from the "interlocked" employee behavior argument of Weick (1979), we propose that managers' perception of newcomers' proactive behaviors are associated with concordant manager behaviors, which, in turn, support newcomer adjustment. Further, we investigate a cognitive mechanism-managers' evaluation of newcomers' commitment to adjust-which we expect underlies the proposed relationship between newcomers' proactive behaviors and managers' supportive behaviors. Using a time-lagged, 4-phase data collection of a sample of new software engineers in India and their managers, we were able to test our hypothesized model as well as rule out alternative explanations via multilevel structural equation modeling. Results broadly supported our model even after controlling for manager-newcomer social exchange relationship, proactive personalities of both newcomers and managers, and potential effects of coworker information providing. The implications of our findings for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Presentation Modality and Proactive Interference in Children's Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Joan Delahanty

    This study examined the role of visual and auditory presentation in memory encoding processes of 80 second-grade children, using the release-from-proactive-interference short-term memory (STM) paradigm. Words were presented over three trials within one of the presentation modes and one taxonomic category, followed by a fourth trial in which the…

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial Considering Varied Exercises for Reducing Proactive Memory Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Frith

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of exercise on proactive memory interference. Study 1 (n = 88 employed a 15-min treadmill walking protocol, while Study 2 (n = 88 included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. Each study included four distinct groups, in which groups of 22 participants each were randomly assigned to: (a exercise before memory encoding, (b a control group with no exercise, (c exercise during memory encoding, and (d exercise after memory encoding (i.e., during memory consolidation. We used the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT to assess proactive memory interference. In both studies, the group that exercised prior to memory encoding recalled the most words from list B (distractor list of the RAVLT, though group differences were not statistically significant for Study 1 (walking exercise (p = 0.521 or Study 2 (high-intensity exercise (p = 0.068. In this sample of young adults, high intensity exercise prior to memory encoding showed a non-significant tendency to attenuate impairments in recall attributable to proactive memory interference. Thus, future work with larger samples is needed to clarify potential beneficial effects of exercise for reducing proactive memory interference.

  20. Increased Sensitivity to Proactive and Retroactive Interference in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanseeuw, Bernard J.; Seron, Xavier; Ivanoiu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased sensitivity to proactive (PI) and retroactive (RI) interference has been observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). PI and RI are often explained as being the result of a response competition mechanism. However, patients with aMCI are supposed to suffer mostly from encoding deficits. We hypothesized that in aMCI…

  1. The Ranschburg Effect: Tests of the Guessing-Bias and Proactive Interference Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael F.; Schwartz, Marian

    1977-01-01

    The guessing-bias and proactive interference hypotheses of the Ranschburg Effect were investigated by giving three groups different instructions as to guessing during recall. Results failed to support the prediction that the effect should be reduced or eliminated on shift trials. Neither hypothesis received significant support. (CHK)

  2. A Release from Proactive Interference Analysis of Gender Schema Encoding for Occupations in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, D.W.; Gregory-Domingue, A.; Rice, K.; Tone, K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender schema encoding (activation of gender stereotypes) in the absence deliberate purposes relating to people (stereotype application). A release from proactive interference short-term-memory task was used. College (Experiment 1) and sixth-grade (Experiment 2) participants were asked to retain item identity and…

  3. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity relates to weak resistance to proactive interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, Jorien; Wessel, Ineke; Raes, Filip

    Background and objectives: Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS), experiencing intrusive memories, and rumination appear to be risk factors for depression and depressive relapse. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a weak resistance to proactive interference (PI)

  4. When Does a Good Working Memory Counteract Proactive Interference? Surprising Evidence from a Probe Recognition Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    It is often proposed that individuals with high working memory span overcome proactive interference (PI) from previous trials, saving working memory for task-relevant items. We examined this hypothesis in word-list probe recognition. We found no difference in PI related to span. Instead, ex-Gaussian analysis of reaction time showed speed…

  5. Are precues effective in proactively controlling taboo interference during speech production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine K; Abrams, Lise; Hsi, Lisa R; Watkins, Emily C

    2018-02-07

    This research investigated whether precues engage proactive control to reduce emotional interference during speech production. A picture-word interference task required participants to name target pictures accompanied by taboo, negative, or neutral distractors. Proactive control was manipulated by presenting precues that signalled the type of distractor that would appear on the next trial. Experiment 1 included one block of trials with precues and one without, whereas Experiment 2 mixed precued and uncued trials. Consistent with previous research, picture naming was slowed in both experiments when distractors were taboo or negative compared to neutral, with the greatest slowing effect when distractors were taboo. Evidence that precues engaged proactive control to reduce interference from taboo (but not negative) distractors was found in Experiment 1. In contrast, mixing precued trials in Experiment 2 resulted in no taboo cueing benefit. These results suggest that item-level proactive control can be engaged under certain conditions to reduce taboo interference during speech production, findings that help to refine a role for cognitive control of distraction during speech production.

  6. Proactive and reactive control depends on emotional valence: a Stroop study with emotional expressions and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Bhoomika Rastogi; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Nehabala, Yagyima; Nigam, Richa

    2018-03-01

    We examined proactive and reactive control effects in the context of task-relevant happy, sad, and angry facial expressions on a face-word Stroop task. Participants identified the emotion expressed by a face that contained a congruent or incongruent emotional word (happy/sad/angry). Proactive control effects were measured in terms of the reduction in Stroop interference (difference between incongruent and congruent trials) as a function of previous trial emotion and previous trial congruence. Reactive control effects were measured in terms of the reduction in Stroop interference as a function of current trial emotion and previous trial congruence. Previous trial negative emotions exert greater influence on proactive control than the positive emotion. Sad faces in the previous trial resulted in greater reduction in the Stroop interference for happy faces in the current trial. However, current trial angry faces showed stronger adaptation effects compared to happy faces. Thus, both proactive and reactive control mechanisms are dependent on emotional valence of task-relevant stimuli.

  7. Does Proactive Interference Play a Significant Role in Visual Working Memory Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is an online memory buffer that is typically assumed to be immune to source memory confusions. Accordingly, the few studies that have investigated the role of proactive interference (PI) in VWM tasks found only a modest PI effect at best. In contrast, a recent study has found a substantial PI effect in that performance…

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial Considering Varied Exercises for Reducing Proactive Memory Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-06-11

    We evaluated the effects of exercise on proactive memory interference. Study 1 ( n = 88) employed a 15-min treadmill walking protocol, while Study 2 ( n = 88) included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. Each study included four distinct groups, in which groups of 22 participants each were randomly assigned to: (a) exercise before memory encoding, (b) a control group with no exercise, (c) exercise during memory encoding, and (d) exercise after memory encoding (i.e., during memory consolidation). We used the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to assess proactive memory interference. In both studies, the group that exercised prior to memory encoding recalled the most words from list B (distractor list) of the RAVLT, though group differences were not statistically significant for Study 1 (walking exercise) ( p = 0.521) or Study 2 (high-intensity exercise) ( p = 0.068). In this sample of young adults, high intensity exercise prior to memory encoding showed a non-significant tendency to attenuate impairments in recall attributable to proactive memory interference. Thus, future work with larger samples is needed to clarify potential beneficial effects of exercise for reducing proactive memory interference.

  9. The Effect of Aging on the Dynamics of Reactive and Proactive Cognitive Control of Response Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Zhang, Baoqiang; Wang, Baoxi; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Zhujing

    2016-01-01

    A prime-target interference task was used to investigate the effects of cognitive aging on reactive and proactive control after eliminating frequency confounds and feature repetitions from the cognitive control measures. We used distributional analyses to explore the dynamics of the two control functions by distinguishing the strength of incorrect response capture and the efficiency of suppression control. For reactive control, within-trial conflict control and between-trial conflict adaption were analyzed. The statistical analysis showed that there were no reliable between-trial conflict adaption effects for either young or older adults. For within-trial conflict control, the results revealed that older adults showed larger interference effects on mean RT and mean accuracy. Distributional analyses showed that the decline mainly stemmed from inefficient suppression rather than from stronger incorrect responses. For proactive control, older adults showed comparable proactive conflict resolution to young adults on mean RT and mean accuracy. Distributional analyses showed that older adults were as effective as younger adults in adjusting their responses based on congruency proportion information to minimize automatic response capture and actively suppress the direct response activation. The results suggest that older adults were less proficient at suppressing interference after conflict was detected but can anticipate and prevent inference in response to congruency proportion manipulation. These results challenge earlier views that older adults have selective deficits in proactive control but intact reactive control.

  10. Electrophysiological correlates of proactive interference in the 'Recent Probes' verbal working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, John X; Wu, Renhua; Kong, Lingyue; Weng, Xuchu; Du, Yingchun

    2010-06-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study examined the temporal dynamics of proactive interference in working memory using a recent probes task. Participants memorized and retained a target set of four letters over a short retention interval. They then responded to a recognition probe by judging whether it was from the memory set. ERP waveforms elicited by positive probes compared to those from negative probes showed positive shifts in a fronto-central early N2 component and a parietal late positive component (LPC). The LPC was identified as the electrophysiological signature of proactive interference, as it differentiated between two types of negative probes defined based on whether they were recently encountered. These results indicate that the proactive interference we observed arises from a mismatch between familiarity and contextual information during recognition memory. When considered together with related studies in the literature, the results also suggest that there are different forms of proactive interference associated with different neural correlates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. "Testing during Study Insulates against the Buildup of Proactive Interference": Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpunar, Karl K.; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Roedigger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Reports an error in "Testing during study insulates against the buildup of proactive interference" by Karl K. Szpunar, Kathleen B. McDermott and Henry L. Roediger III ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Nov], Vol 34[6], 1392-1399). Incorrect figures were printed due to an error in the…

  12. The effect of aging on the dynamics of reactive and proactive cognitive control of response interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A prime-target interference task was used to investigate the effects of cognitive aging on reactive and proactive control in which frequency confounds and feature repetitions were eliminated from the cognitive control measures. We used distributional analyses to explore the dynamics of the two control functions by distinguishing the strength of incorrect response capture and the efficiency of suppression control. For reactive control, within-trial conflict control and between-trial conflict adaption were analyzed. The statistical analysis showed that there were no reliable between-trial conflict adaption effects for both young and older adults. For within-trial conflict control, the results revealed that older adults showed larger interference effects on mean RT and mean accuracy. Distributional analyses showed that the decline mainly stemmed from inefficient suppression rather than from stronger incorrect responses. For proactive control, older adults showed comparable proactive conflict resolution than young adults on mean RT and mean accuracy. Distributional analyses showed older adults were as effective as younger adults in adjusting their responses to minimize automatic response capture and actively suppress the direct response activation based on congruency proportion information. The results suggest that older adults were less proficient at suppressing interference after conflict was detected but can anticipate and prevent inference in response to congruency proportion manipulation. The results challenge earlier views that older adults have selective deficits in proactive control but are spared in reactive control.

  13. Proactive Interference & Language Change in Hearing Adult Students of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Harry W.; Kreske, Catherine M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that found, contrary to previous reports, that a strong, symmetrical release from proactive interference (PI) is the normal outcome for switches between American Sign Language (ASL) signs and English words and with switches between Manual and English alphabet characters. Subjects were college students enrolled in their first ASL…

  14. Developmental Change in Proactive Interference across the Life Span: Evidence from Two Working Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V.; Rahm, Benjamin; Unterrainer, Josef M.; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) as the ability to temporarily maintain and manipulate various kinds of information is known to be affected by proactive interference (PI) from previously relevant contents, but studies on developmental changes in the susceptibility to PI are scarce. In the present study, we investigated life span development of item-specific…

  15. Benefits of a hungry mind: When hungry, exposure to food facilitates proactive interference resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Thomas; Sachse, Pierre; Martini, Markus; Furtner, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Hunger is an everyday motivational state, which biases cognition to detect food. Although evidence exists on how hunger affects basic attentional and mnemonic processes, less is known about how motivational drive for food modulates higher cognition. We aimed to investigate the effects of food deprivation on proactive interference resolution, in the presence and absence of food. Normal-weight participants performed a recency probes paradigm providing an experimental block with food and object stimuli as well as a control block with object stimuli only, in a fasted and a sated state. Results showed that the interaction of shifts in nutritional state with the perception of food cues evoked an altered resolution of proactive interference. Satiety led to impaired performance, whereas a hungry state resulted in strengthened resistance to proactive interference and lying in between, the control block presenting neutral objects remained unaffected by nutritional state manipulation. Additionally, a further increase in proactive interference resolution occurred when the conflicting probe depicted food compared to non-food objects. We conclude that when exposed to food, hunger initiates biased competition of active memory representations in favor of prioritized source information at cost of familiar, but irrelevant information. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of an arousal-biased competition in working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Focusing the Search: Proactive and Retroactive Interference and the Dynamics of Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Targeting information in long-term memory is an important cognitive ability, but one that is not well understood. In this study, 4 experiments were conducted to examine the influence of proactive and retroactive interference on memory targeting. Participants were given either 1 or 2 lists and asked to recall List 1, List 2, or in some cases both…

  17. The Critical Role of Retrieval Processes in Release from Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.; Kliegl, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Proactive interference (PI) refers to the finding that memory for recently studied (target) information can be vastly impaired by the previous study of other (nontarget) information. PI can be reduced in a number of ways, for instance, by directed forgetting of the prior nontarget information, the testing of the prior nontarget information, or an…

  18. Reactive and Proactive Interference Control in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Anne G.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Marsman, Maarten; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2017-01-01

    As a large heterogeneity is observed across studies on interference control in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research may benefit from the use of a cognitive framework that models specific processes underlying reactive and proactive control of interference. Reactive control refers to the expression and suppression of responses and proactive…

  19. Separating intentional inhibition of prepotent responses and resistance to proactive interference in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Xavier; Van der Linden, Martial; Brevers, Damien; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Hanak, Catherine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity is a hallmark of addictive behaviors. Addicts' weakened inhibition of irrelevant prepotent responses is commonly thought to explain this association. However, inhibition is not a unitary mechanism. This study investigated the efficiency of overcoming competition due to irrelevant responses (i.e., inhibition of a prepotent response) and overcoming competition in memory (i.e., resistance to proactive interference) in sober and recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals. Three cognitive tasks assessing the inhibition of a prepotent response (Hayling task, anti-saccade task and Stroop task) and two tasks tapping into the capacity to resist proactive interference (cued recall, Brown-Peterson variant) were administered to 30 non-amnesic recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals and 30 matched healthy participants without alcohol dependency. In addition, possible confounds such as verbal updating in working memory was assessed. Alcohol-dependent subjects performed worse than healthy participants on the three cognitive tasks assessing the inhibition of irrelevant prepotent responses but group performance was similar in the tasks assessing overcoming proactive interference in memory, updating of working memory and abstract reasoning. These findings suggest that alcohol-dependence is mainly associated with impaired capacity to intentionally suppress irrelevant prepotent response information. Control of proactive interference from memory is preserved. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Connecting HRM and change management: the importance of proactivity and vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.; Kruyen, P.M.; Vijverberg, D.M.; Voesenek, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it is still unclear how

  1. Connecting HRM and Change Management: The Importance of Proactivity and Vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); P.M. Kruyen; D. Vijverberg (Dominique); T. Voesenek (Tessa)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it is still unclear how

  2. Connecting HRM and Change Management: The Importance of Proactivity and Vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.; Kruyen, P.M.; Vijverberg, D.; Voesenek, T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it is still unclear how organizations

  3. Using Proactivity, Time Discounting, and the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Predictors of Retirement Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Barbara; Loe, David; Hesketh, Beryl

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a model to identify the predictors of retirement planning based on an extension of the theory of planned behavior ([TPB], Ajzen, 1991) that included individual differences in proactivity and time discounting. The results showed that personal attitudes, sense of control, social influence, and stable traits have a…

  4. Adaptive versus proactive behavior in service recovery: The role of self-managing teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.; Ruyter, de J.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we develop a conceptual model of adaptive versus proactive recovery behavior by self-managing teams (SMTs) in service recovery operations. To empirically test the conceptual model a combination of bank employee, customer, and archival data is collected. The results demonstrate

  5. Proactive behaviour may lead to failure in virtual project-based collaborative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Hertzum, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that proactive behaviour, caused by high engagement and motivation of the learners, may lead to failure of collaborative learning. By examining empirical data from real-world text-only virtual negotiations between dispersed participants engaged in project-based collaborative...

  6. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  7. Transformational Leadership and Proactive Work Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model Including Work Engagement and Job Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of work engagement as an affective–motivational mechanism through which transformational leadership may relate to proactive behaviour. In line with a resource-based approach (Hobfoll, 1989), we hypothesize that employees only invest resources provided through work

  8. Organizational Socialization of Women in the Italian Army: Learning Processes and Proactive Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Milena; Lombardi, Luigi; Fraccaroli, Franco; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Zaniboni, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the organizational socialization of women soldiers in the Italian Army. Design/methodology/approach: Following an interactionist interpretation of socialization, a model was tested to determine the influence of organizational socialization tactics, proactive behaviours, supervisor support on organizational…

  9. FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS FOR PROACTIVE DRIVING LICENCE (ACCORDING TO INSTRUCTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatoeli Ducheva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the system "man - environment - motor vehicle", the driver and his training are the main factors to overcome the negative trends of increasing the number of victims and injured in traffic accidents. The proactivity of the driver is associated with high levels of global purpose of drivers' training - with the strategic level, which includes personal characteristics, ambitions, values and choices of behaviour models. In the presented report we analyze the results of a survey conducted during the courses of periodic training of instructors from around the country in which were switched on the question for ranking the elements of the proactive driving according to the experience and perception of the trainers. Were analyzed the results obtained from 403 respondents from different size and geography settlements. We assume that all eleven components that we included and their arrangement in order of importance reflect the mind-set and attitudes of learners to proactive driving and correct actions which ensure personal and safety of other participants are manifestations of tolerance. We can conclude that at the forefront of arranging of the components of proactive driving, the respondents emphasize on those, that increase the traffic safety (manoeuvre planning, forecasting, but underestimate the knowledge of prior knowledge of the risk factors that increases the probability of road accidents.

  10. A Proactive and Responsive Bio-Psychosocial Approach to Managing Challenging Behaviour in Mainstream Primary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lorraine O. B.; Senior, Joyce

    2018-01-01

    Research in the area of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and teacher's struggle to respond to challenging behaviour in mainstream classrooms, has consistently highlighted the need for proventative and responsive approaches within a continuum of support. This study aims to, firstly, investigate what proactive and reactive strategies…

  11. Responsive and Proactive Stakeholder Orientation in Public Universities: Antecedents and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Casablancas-Segura, Carme; Llonch, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study, based on institutional theory, dynamic capabilities, and stakeholder theory, investigates the relationships between the antecedents of responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation and their consequences in the public university context. The results obtained mainly stress that the mimetic effect of copying successful university…

  12. Do Early Difficult Temperament and Harsh Parenting Differentially Predict Reactive and Proactive Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward Dylan; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the links between difficult temperament (i.e., negative emotionality) and harsh parental discipline during toddlerhood, and reactive and proactive aggression in kindergarten. These links were assessed on a longitudinal population-based study of 1516 boys and girls followed longitudinally from the age of 17…

  13. Pro-active data breach detection: examining accuracy and applicability on personal information detected

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available breaches but does not provide a clear indication of the level of personal information available on the internet since only reported incidents are taken into account. The possibility of pro-active automated breach detection has previously been discussed as a...

  14. Criteria to assess the quality of the Dutch Informal Pro-active Approach Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marseille, A.T.; de Graaf, K.J.; Dragos, D.C.; Lafarge, F.

    2012-01-01

    If citizens in the Netherlands do not agree with a decision of a public authority, they can submit a written objection. The Informal Pro-active Approach Model (or “informal approach”) provides an alternative for the traditional conflict resolution procedures. This informal approach has led to a

  15. Career competencies and job crafting: How proactive employees influence their well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, J.; Tims, M.; Akkermans, J.; Khapova, S.N.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Bakker, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to bring together job design and career theory in the examination of how proactive employees optimize their well-being (i.e. job satisfaction and perceived health) through job crafting and career competencies. This study offers an integrated account of the

  16. Age-Related Decrease in Stress Responsiveness and Proactive Coping in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hee-Jin; Song, Minah; Kim, Young Ki; Bae, Jae Ryong; Cha, Seung-Yun; Bae, Ji Young; Kim, Yeongmin; You, Minsu; Lee, Younpyo; Shim, Jieun; Maeng, Sungho

    2018-01-01

    Coping is a strategic approach to dealing with stressful situations. Those who use proactive coping strategies tend to accept changes and act before changes are expected. In contrast, those who use reactive coping are less flexible and more likely to act in response to changes. However, little research has assessed how coping style changes with age. This study investigated age-related changes in coping strategies and stress responsiveness and the influence of age on the processing of conditioned fear memory in 2-, 12- and 23-month-old male mice. Coping strategy was measured by comparing the escape latency in an active avoidance test and by comparing responses to a shock prod. The results showed that proactivity in coping response gradually decreased with age. Stress responsiveness, measured by stress-induced concentration of corticosterone, was also highest in 2-month-old mice and decreased with age. Consolidation of fear memory was highest in 12-month-old mice and was negatively correlated with the degree of stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping. Fear extinction did not differ among age groups and was not correlated with stress responsiveness or the proactivity of coping. However, the maintenance of extinct fear memory, which was best in 2-month-old mice and worst in 12-month-old mice, was negatively correlated with stress responsiveness but not with coping style. Age-dependent changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and its regulatory co-chaperones, which are accepted mechanisms for stress hormone stimulation, were measured in the hippocampus. The expression of GR was increased at 12 months compared to other age groups. There were no differences in Hsp70 and BAG1 expression by age. These results can be summarized as follows: (1) stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping decreased with age class; (2) consolidation of fear memory was negatively correlated with both stress responsiveness and proactivity; however, maintenance of

  17. A Proactive Aging/Asset Management Model to Optimize Equipment Maintenance Resources Over Plant Lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Theodore A.; Perdue, Robert K.; Woodcock, Joel; Elder, G. Gary

    2002-01-01

    Experience has shown that proactive aging/asset management can best be defined as an ongoing process. Station goals directly supported by such a process include reducing Unplanned Capability Loss Factor and gaining the optimum value from maintenance and aging management budgets. An effective aging/asset management process must meet evolving and sometimes conflicting requirements for efficient and reliable nuclear power plant operation. The process should identify most likely contributors before they fail, and develop cost-effective contingencies. Current trends indicate the need for focused tools that give quantitative input to decision-making. Opposing goals, such as increasing availability while optimizing aging management budgets, must be balanced. Recognizing the importance of experience in reducing the uncertainty inherent in predicting equipment degradation rates, nuclear industry demographics suggest the need to capture existing expert knowledge in a usable form. The Proactive Aging/Asset Management Process has been developed to address these needs. The proactive approach is a process supported by tools. The process identifies goals and develops criteria - including safety, costs, and power production - that are used to prioritize systems and equipment across the plant. The process then draws upon tools to most effectively meet the plant's goals. The Proactive Aging/Asset Management Model TM is one software-enabled tool designed for mathematical optimization. Results assist a plant in developing a plant-wide plan of aging management activities. This paper describes the proactive aging/asset management process and provides an overview of the methodology that has been incorporated in a model to perform a plant-wide optimization of aging management activities. (authors)

  18. Can enriching emotional intelligence improve medical students’ proactivity and adaptability during OB/GYN clerkships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseh, Stephanie H.; Chen, Xiaodong P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to examine our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence through resident coaches could improve third-year medical students’ adaptability and proactivity on the Obstetrics and Gynecology clerkship. Methods An observational pilot study was conducted in a teaching hospital. Fourteen 3rd year medical students from two cohorts of clerkships were randomly divided into two groups, and equally assigned to trained resident coaches and untrained resident coaches. Data was collected through onsite naturalistic observation of students’ adaptability and proactivity in clinical settings using a checklist with a 4-point Likert scale (1=poor to 4=excellent). Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the differences between these two groups. Results A total of 280 data points were collected through onsite observations conducted by investigators. All (n=14) students’ adaptability and proactivity performance significantly improved from an average of 3.04 to 3.45 (p=0.014) over 6-week clerkship. Overall, students with trained resident coaches adapted significantly faster and were more proactive in the obstetrics and gynecology clinical setting than the students with untrained coaches (3.31 vs. 3.24, p=0.019). Conclusions Findings from our pilot study supported our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence knowledge through resident coaches was able to help medical students adapt into obstetrics and gynecology clinical settings faster and become more proactive in learning. Clerkship programs can incorporate the concept of a resident coach in their curriculum to help bridge medical students into clinical settings and to help them engage in self-directed learning throughout the rotation. PMID:26708233

  19. Can enriching emotional intelligence improve medical students' proactivity and adaptability during OB/GYN clerkships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseh, Stephanie H; Chen, Xiaodong P; Johnson, Natasha R

    2015-12-26

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence through resident coaches could improve third-year medical students' adaptability and proactivity on the Obstetrics and Gynecology clerkship. An observational pilot study was conducted in a teaching hospital. Fourteen 3rd year medical students from two cohorts of clerkships were randomly divided into two groups, and equally assigned to trained resident coaches and untrained resident coaches. Data was collected through onsite naturalistic observation of students' adaptability and proactivity in clinical settings using a checklist with a 4-point Likert scale (1=poor to 4=excellent). Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the differences between these two groups. A total of 280 data points were collected through onsite observations conducted by investigators. All (n=14) students' adaptability and proactivity performance significantly improved from an average of 3.04 to 3.45 (p=0.014) over 6-week clerkship. Overall, students with trained resident coaches adapted significantly faster and were more proactive in the obstetrics and gynecology clinical setting than the students with untrained coaches (3.31 vs. 3.24, p=0.019). Findings from our pilot study supported our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence knowledge through resident coaches was able to help medical students adapt into obstetrics and gynecology clinical settings faster and become more proactive in learning. Clerkship programs can incorporate the concept of a resident coach in their curriculum to help bridge medical students into clinical settings and to help them engage in self-directed learning throughout the rotation.

  20. The need for integration of drought monitoring tools for proactive food security management in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Haile, M.; Senay, G.; Wardlow, B.D.; Knutson, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the impact of drought and famine remains a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa despite ongoing drought relief assistance in recent decades. This is because drought and famine are primarily addressed through a crisis management approach when a disaster occurs, rather than stressing preparedness and risk management. Moreover, drought planning and food security efforts have been hampered by a lack of integrated drought monitoring tools, inadequate early warning systems (EWS), and insufficient information flow within and between levels of government in many sub-Saharan countries. The integration of existing drought monitoring tools for sub-Saharan Africa is essential for improving food security systems to reduce the impacts of drought and famine on society in this region. A proactive approach emphasizing integration requires the collective use of multiple tools, which can be used to detect trends in food availability and provide early indicators at local, national, and regional scales on the likely occurrence of food crises. In addition, improving the ability to monitor and disseminate critical drought-related information using available modern technologies (e.g., satellites, computers, and modern communication techniques) may help trigger timely and appropriate preventive responses and, ultimately, contribute to food security and sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa. ?? 2008 United Nations.

  1. Proactive interference does not meaningfully distort visual working memory capacity estimates in the canonical change detection task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Han eLin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The change detection task has become a standard method for estimating the storage capacity of visual working memory. Most researchers assume that this task isolates the properties of an active short-term storage system that can be dissociated from long-term memory systems. However, long-term memory storage may influence performance on this task. In particular, memory traces from previous trials may create proactive interference that sometimes leads to errors, thereby reducing estimated capacity. Consequently, the capacity of visual working memory may be higher than is usually thought, and correlations between capacity and other measures of cognition may reflect individual differences in proactive interference rather than individual differences in the capacity of the short-term storage system. Indeed, previous research has shown that change detection performance can be influenced by proactive interference under some conditions. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the canonical version of the change detection task—in which the to-be-remembered information consists of simple, briefly presented features—is influenced by proactive interference. Two experiments were conducted using methods that ordinarily produce substantial evidence of proactive interference, but no proactive interference was observed. Thus, the canonical version of the change detection task can be used to assess visual working memory capacity with no meaningful influence of proactive interference.

  2. Proactive interference does not meaningfully distort visual working memory capacity estimates in the canonical change detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Han; Luck, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    The change detection task has become a standard method for estimating the storage capacity of visual working memory. Most researchers assume that this task isolates the properties of an active short-term storage system that can be dissociated from long-term memory systems. However, long-term memory storage may influence performance on this task. In particular, memory traces from previous trials may create proactive interference that sometimes leads to errors, thereby reducing estimated capacity. Consequently, the capacity of visual working memory may be higher than is usually thought, and correlations between capacity and other measures of cognition may reflect individual differences in proactive interference rather than individual differences in the capacity of the short-term storage system. Indeed, previous research has shown that change detection performance can be influenced by proactive interference under some conditions. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the canonical version of the change detection task - in which the to-be-remembered information consists of simple, briefly presented features - is influenced by proactive interference. Two experiments were conducted using methods that ordinarily produce substantial evidence of proactive interference, but no proactive interference was observed. Thus, the canonical version of the change detection task can be used to assess visual working memory capacity with no meaningful influence of proactive interference.

  3. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  4. Advanced text and video analytics for proactive decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Turek, Matt; Tunison, Paul; Porter, Reed; Thomas, Steve; Gintautas, Vadas; Shargo, Peter; Lin, Jessica; Li, Qingzhe; Gao, Yifeng; Li, Xiaosheng; Mittu, Ranjeev; Rosé, Carolyn Penstein; Maki, Keith; Bogart, Chris; Choudhari, Samrihdi Shree

    2017-05-01

    Today's warfighters operate in a highly dynamic and uncertain world, and face many competing demands. Asymmetric warfare and the new focus on small, agile forces has altered the framework by which time critical information is digested and acted upon by decision makers. Finding and integrating decision-relevant information is increasingly difficult in data-dense environments. In this new information environment, agile data algorithms, machine learning software, and threat alert mechanisms must be developed to automatically create alerts and drive quick response. Yet these advanced technologies must be balanced with awareness of the underlying context to accurately interpret machine-processed indicators and warnings and recommendations. One promising approach to this challenge brings together information retrieval strategies from text, video, and imagery. In this paper, we describe a technology demonstration that represents two years of tri-service research seeking to meld text and video for enhanced content awareness. The demonstration used multisource data to find an intelligence solution to a problem using a common dataset. Three technology highlights from this effort include 1) Incorporation of external sources of context into imagery normalcy modeling and anomaly detection capabilities, 2) Automated discovery and monitoring of targeted users from social media text, regardless of language, and 3) The concurrent use of text and imagery to characterize behaviour using the concept of kinematic and text motifs to detect novel and anomalous patterns. Our demonstration provided a technology baseline for exploiting heterogeneous data sources to deliver timely and accurate synopses of data that contribute to a dynamic and comprehensive worldview.

  5. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  6. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  7. Exploring Relationships among Proactiveness, Risk-Taking and Innovation Output in Family and Non-Family Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, Justin B.; Pohjola, Mikko; Kraus, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    In an empirical investigation of 532 Finnish firms, and using the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) literature to frame our arguments, we demonstrate that relationships among proactivity, risk-taking and innovation output differ in family and non-family firms. Specifically, we find evidence...... that risk-taking does not affect innovation output in family firms, whereas in non-family firms, innovation output is increased through risk-taking. Also, proactive family firms influence their innovation output more positively than proactive non-family firms do. This study adds important new insights...... to the growing knowledge of EO, which are discussed in the following for both academic and business audiences....

  8. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    -and-death decision-making in the patient's medical records is required. We suggest that a template be implemented in the prehospital medical records describing the basis for any ethical decisions. This template should contain information regarding the persons involved in the deliberations and notes on ethical......BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical...

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Proactive Tobacco Treatment among Smokers with and without Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Anne C; Clothier, Barbara A; Japuntich, Sandra J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Hammett, Patrick; Burgess, Diana J; Joseph, Anne M; Fu, Steven S

    2018-03-01

    Adults with chronic lower respiratory disease differ in their barriers to smoking cessation but also suffer from tobacco-related health concerns, which may motivate quit attempts. Few studies have examined differences in tobacco treatment response between smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. We examined the effectiveness of a proactive outreach program for cessation among smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. Subgroup analysis of the Veterans Victory over Tobacco Study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of proactive outreach and the choice of tobacco treatments compared with usual care. Smokers identified via the electronic medical record were proactively offered phone-based counseling and care coordination to receive medication from their Veterans Affairs providers or in-person care. We compared the response among those with and without an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis of a chronic lower respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). We used stratification by propensity scores to adjust for imbalanced covariates between groups with and without chronic lower respiratory disease within each treatment arm, using complete case analysis accounting for the stratified sampling by site. The study participants were predominantly older, white, male smokers. Overall, 19.6% had chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 3,307 had outcome data with the following assignments to the intervention: proactive care: n = 1,272 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 301 with chronic lower respiratory disease; usual care: n = 1,387 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 347 with chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 1,888 had both complete baseline and outcome data and were included in the primary analysis. In unadjusted analyses (n = 3,307), among individuals with

  10. How do new ventures in MNC ecosystems proactively overcome interfirm asymmetries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameen Prashantham

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several contemporary large multinational corporations (MNCs have developed interfirm ecosystems that are likely to attract a heterogeneous set of actors, including new ventures. New ventures are asymmetric vis-à-vis the focal MNC in terms of organisational size, structure and power which could be an impediment to the development of social capital between these sets of firms. And yet MNCs are potentially a source of novel information, opportunities and ideas. An interesting question to consider therefore is how new ventures overcome interfirm asymmetries to develop and leverage social capital with large MNCs. Our synthesis of the academic literature suggests that some new ventures are more adept than others at partnering with MNCs because they are more proactive in forming and leveraging interfirm ties with large MNCs. Insightful observations of four panellists shed light on how startups’ proactive behaviours can be vitally important in forming, consolidating and extending relationships with large MNCs.

  11. Online Learning for Master Students and Their Organisation of Employment in Proactive Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses an online community of master’s students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. One assignment for the students was to initiate and facilitate an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisations where they were employed....... The study explores the interplay between the students’ learning activities at work and in their master study. By using an online discussion forum on Google groups, they reflected on their experimentation with Proactive Review in their professional organisation in order to learn from the experience and find...... solutions to the problems they identified. Our research question is: How do students learn from experience in two contexts, namely as master students and professionals at work? We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community. Our contribution to research shows how students...

  12. The Design and Implementation of Multiterminal Based Proactive Information Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixiong Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development of various communication terminal devices has greatly promoted people’s daily life, while information using efficiency with these devices decreases rapidly due to the information overload. To solve this problem, a multiterminal based proactive information delivery system (MPIDS is designed and implemented in this paper. Firstly, users’ interests are computed comprehensively from the historical data, taking full consideration of users’ behaviors when visiting web pages. Secondly, a proactive information monitor service is introduced to monitor users’ data requirements and their interest changes, with which, user data are pushed to their online device automatically according to the strategies. Finally, a data self-adapter is given to encode and transform the data according to users’ online parameters and a series of data self-adaptive strategies. The experimental results show that MPIDS provides richly featured, secure, and robust personalized functions, reduces the running cost, and promotes the end-user experience and business efficiency.

  13. Exploration of Barriers in Achieving Proactive Environmental Strategies in a Natural Rubber Industry : A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifa Arum Kusumastuti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the evolving of environmental issues over time, the development of environmental management approaches in industries began to shift to the prevention of pollution to reduce environmental impact. However, in practice, many obstacles encountered during the environmental management change to be more proactive. This study aims to explore the barriers of achieving the proactive environmental strategy in a rubber processing industry. Used a case study approach in a natural rubber processing factory, the data was collected through interviews with experts and sources as well as observation in the field. This study shows main barriers that faced by the company consist of financial issue, human resources, communities’ pressure, technological change and communication with environmental experts. The results of this study suggest conducting cooperation with research institutions or environmental experts especially for skills that cannot be controlled by the manager or employees in the company. 

  14. Relations of children's proactive and reactive assertiveness to peer acceptance: moderating effects of social interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Jong

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies on the social outcome of assertiveness reported mixed findings, failing to support the assumption that assertiveness promotes peer acceptance. In an attempt to provide explanations for the inconsistencies in prior findings, this study proposed making a distinction between proactive and reactive assertiveness and examined the moderating effects of social interest. A total of 441 fifth and sixth graders (232 boys, 209 girls; M age = 10.6 yr., SD = 0.6) participated in the study. Results indicated that proactive assertiveness was positively related to peer acceptance regardless of social interest. By contrast, reactive assertiveness was positively related to peer acceptance but only when social interest is high. When social interest is low, it was negatively associated with peer acceptance.

  15. Directed forgetting and aging: the role of retrieval processes, processing speed, and proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogge, Michaël; Adam, Stéphane; Collette, Fabienne

    2008-07-01

    The directed forgetting effect obtained with the item method is supposed to depend on both selective rehearsal of to-be-remembered (TBR) items and attentional inhibition of to-be-forgotten (TBF) items. In this study, we investigated the locus of the directed forgetting deficit in older adults by exploring the influence of recollection and familiarity-based retrieval processes on age-related differences in directed forgetting. Moreover, we explored the influence of processing speed, short-term memory capacity, thought suppression tendencies, and sensitivity to proactive interference on performance. The results indicated that older adults' directed forgetting difficulties are due to decreased recollection of TBR items, associated with increased automatic retrieval of TBF items. Moreover, processing speed and proactive interference appeared to be responsible for the decreased recall of TBR items.

  16. Modelling a critical infrastructure-driven spatial database for proactive disaster management: A developing country context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Baloye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding and institutionalisation of the seamless link between urban critical infrastructure and disaster management has greatly helped the developed world to establish effective disaster management processes. However, this link is conspicuously missing in developing countries, where disaster management has been more reactive than proactive. The consequence of this is typified in poor response time and uncoordinated ways in which disasters and emergency situations are handled. As is the case with many Nigerian cities, the challenges of urban development in the city of Abeokuta have limited the effectiveness of disaster and emergency first responders and managers. Using geospatial techniques, the study attempted to design and deploy a spatial database running a web-based information system to track the characteristics and distribution of critical infrastructure for effective use during disaster and emergencies, with the purpose of proactively improving disaster and emergency management processes in Abeokuta. Keywords: Disaster Management; Emergency; Critical Infrastructure; Geospatial Database; Developing Countries; Nigeria

  17. Potential benefits of employee portals in public administrations: implementation and proactive behaviour towards the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Marcos Pérez-Feijoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is the determination of the advantages achieved through the implementation of an employee portal, both for the government and for the users of the portal. We proposed an adaptation of the Huang, Jin and Yang (2004 model, based on the organizational support theory (Eisenberger et al., 1986. This theory predicts a proactive behaviour of employees wheter they perceive a support of the organization. In this case, the trigger for that perception is the satisfaction derived by the benefits to personnel provided by an employee portal. Through an empirical study, conducted among public school teachers, we have found evidence of the perception of organizational support among public employees when the portal is deployes. However we haven´t found a link between that support and a proactive behaviour towards the organization.

  18. Smart Contracting: A Multidisciplinary and Proactive Approach for the EU Digital Single Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solarte-Vásquez María Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart contracting (SC is a proactive proposal to operationalize the relational contract theory for the upgrade and improvement of legally relevant exchange. The dynamic institutional environment of the European Union (EU is a suitable framework for this proposal. SC addresses the interests of the business management, law and information technology practices with a perspective of influence in digital exchange, communication processes and other human and human-machine interactions. This position paper restates the advantages of the concept by highlighting the practical transition pathway SC offers to moderate the growing haste towards the embeddedness of exchange in automated and distributed models. This theoretical contribution supports the systematization of the proactive and legal design research field, and explains the characterization, operationalization and specification of the SC concept.

  19. An intrusion prevention system as a proactive security mechanism in network infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulanović Nenad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A properly configured firewall is a good starting point in securing a computer network. However, complex network environments that involve higher number of participants and endpoints require better security infrastructure. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, proposed as a solution to perimeter defense, have many open problems and it is clear that better solutions must be found. Due to many unsolved problems associated with IDS, Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS are introduced. The main idea in IPS is to be proactive. This paper gives an insight of Cobrador Bouncer IPS implementation. System architecture is given and three different Bouncer IPS deployment modes are presented. The Bouncer IPS as a proactive honeypot is also discussed.

  20. Task conflict and proactive control: A computational theory of the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Davelaar, Eddy J; Henik, Avishai; Goldfarb, Liat; Usher, Marius

    2018-01-01

    The Stroop task is a central experimental paradigm used to probe cognitive control by measuring the ability of participants to selectively attend to task-relevant information and inhibit automatic task-irrelevant responses. Research has revealed variability in both experimental manipulations and individual differences. Here, we focus on a particular source of Stroop variability, the reverse-facilitation (RF; faster responses to nonword neutral stimuli than to congruent stimuli), which has recently been suggested as a signature of task conflict. We first review the literature that shows RF variability in the Stroop task, both with regard to experimental manipulations and to individual differences. We suggest that task conflict variability can be understood as resulting from the degree of proactive control that subjects recruit in advance of the Stroop stimulus. When the proactive control is high, task conflict does not arise (or is resolved very quickly), resulting in regular Stroop facilitation. When proactive control is low, task conflict emerges, leading to a slow-down in congruent and incongruent (but not in neutral) trials and thus to Stroop RF. To support this suggestion, we present a computational model of the Stroop task, which includes the resolution of task conflict and its modulation by proactive control. Results show that our model (a) accounts for the variability in Stroop-RF reported in the experimental literature, and (b) solves a challenge to previous Stroop models-their ability to account for reaction time distributional properties. Finally, we discuss theoretical implications to Stroop measures and control deficits observed in some psychopathologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Replacing nuclear staff: The proactively work at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupak, M.O.; Rogero, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to bring the actual situation of Nuclear Education and Training in Brazil. Accordingly, this paper overviewed the situation of the educational matter on Latin America, especially in Brazil, in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of its superior education system. Mainly this paper pointed out for the replacing of nuclear staff and the proactive work of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). (author)

  2. Proactive educational reforms in South Korea: Schools for Improvement and multicultural education

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This paper discusses the educational issues and societal changes that have led to proactive reforms in the education system of South Korea. Korean pupils achieve high academic levels, but there have been some criticisms relating to sociocultural issues. In addition, Korea is being transformed into a multicultural society. Here we consider two examples of Korea’s educational interventions, introduced in response to contextual demands and societal changes: firstly, the Schools for...

  3. The effects of trait impulsivity on proactive and reactive interference control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Chen, Yan; Chen, Antao; Zhang, Fenghua; Xu, Fuming; Wang, Baoxi

    2018-02-01

    The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore whether self-reported trait impulsivity in healthy individuals might be differentially related to proactive and reactive interference control. Participants with high and low impulsivity (HI and LI, respectively) performed a modified version of the prime-target interference task. Proactive interference control was induced in the mostly incongruent (MI) context and reactive interference control was induced in the mostly congruent (MC) context. Although the behavioral data revealed no difference between HI and LI individuals in terms of the interference effects (incongruent - congruent) under both contexts, the ERP results showed that impulsivity has a different influence on the interference effects under different task contexts. In the MC context, the interference effects on the medial frontal negativity (MFN) and the negative sustained potential (N-SP) were greater, while that on the positive sustained potential (P-SP) were smaller in the HI compared to those in the LI group. This suggests that high levels of impulsivity might be associated with a reduced efficiency of the processes supporting reactive control to resolve interference when interference is not expected. In contrast, the three ERP indices (MFN, P-SP, and N-SP) of interference processing in the MI context were insensitive to variations in impulsivity. This suggests that HI individuals might be as effective as LI individuals in recruiting proactive control for sustained active maintenance of task goals to anticipate and prevent interference throughout the experimental blocks where interference occurs frequently. In conclusion, these results indicate that impulsivity has a more negative influence on reactive interference control than on proactive interference control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Revealing past memories: proactive interference and ketamine-induced memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrobak, James J; Hinman, James R; Sabolek, Helen R

    2008-04-23

    Memories of events that occur often are sensitive to interference from memories of similar events. Proactive interference plays an important and often unexamined role in memory testing for spatially and temporally unique events ("episodes"). Ketamine (NMDA receptor antagonist) treatment in humans and other mammals induces a constellation of cognitive deficits, including impairments in working and episodic memory. We examined the effects of the ketamine (2.5-100 mg/kg) on the acquisition, retrieval, and retention of memory in a delayed-match-to-place radial water maze task that can be used to assess proactive interference. Ketamine (2.5-25 mg/kg, i.p.) given 20 min before the sample trial, impaired encoding. The first errors made during the test trial were predominantly to arms located spatially adjacent to the goal arm, suggesting an established albeit weakened representation. Ketamine (25-100 mg/kg) given immediately after the sample trial had no effect on retention. Ketamine given before the test trial impaired retrieval. First errors under the influence of ketamine were predominantly to the goal location of the previous session. Thus, ketamine treatment promoted proactive interference. These memory deficits were not state dependent, because ketamine treatment at both encoding and retrieval only increased the number of errors during the test session. These data demonstrate the competing influence of distinct memory representations during the performance of a memory task in the rat. Furthermore, they demonstrate the subtle disruptive effects of the NMDA antagonist ketamine on both encoding and retrieval. Specifically, ketamine treatment disrupted retrieval by promoting proactive interference from previous episodic representations.

  5. Japan's shift to a proactive defense architecture: Challenges faced by industry, government, and society

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hoyoon

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As a result of the changing security environment in the Asia-Pacific, Japan is shifting to a more proactive defense policy, as outlined in the National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG). This thesis investigates the challenges faced by Japan's industry, government, and society in meeting the NDPG objectives. To do this, this thesis probes the following problem areas: difficulties with indigenous production of weapons systems, inability...

  6. Replacing nuclear staff: The proactive work at IPEN/CNEN-SP-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupak, M.O.; Rogero, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to bring out the actual situation of Nuclear Education and Training in Brazil. Accordingly, this paper overviews the situation of educational matters in Latin America, especially in Brazil, in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of its superior education system. Mainly, this paper points out the replacing of nuclear staff and the proactive work of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). (author)

  7. Can enriching emotional intelligence improve medical students? proactivity and adaptability during OB/GYN clerkships?

    OpenAIRE

    Guseh, Stephanie H.; Chen, Xiaodong P.; Johnson, Natasha R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence through resident coaches could improve third-year medical students’ adaptability and proactivity on the Obstetrics and Gynecology clerkship. Methods: An observational pilot study was conducted in a teaching hospital. Fourteen 3rd year medical students from two cohorts of clerkships were randomly divided into two groups, and equally assigned to trained resident coaches and ...

  8. The fierce urgency of now: a proactive, pervasive content awareness tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Collins, Linn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Information awareness is distinct from explicit infonnation seeking, such as searching. We describe an information awareness tool that supports text composition by providing awareness of relevant content and references proactively and non-intrusively. As a user composes text, the tool automatically searches mUltiple sources, retrieves results, and displays links to the results. The tool has been implemented using Web 2.0 and Digital Library 2.0 technologies, and is flexible and highly configurable.

  9. Effectiveness of Chinese Martial Arts and Philosophy to Reduce Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis Lai Chu; Lee, Toney Ka Hung

    2018-04-10

    This study examined the effectiveness of Chinese martial arts in reducing reactive and proactive aggressive behavior among schoolchildren with a cluster-randomized trial. A screening questionnaire was completed by 3511 schoolchildren of Grades 2 to 5 from 13 sites in Hong Kong. We shortlisted 298 children who scored z ≥ 1 on the total score of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in their respective sites to participate in the experiment. They were divided into 31 clusters that were blinded and randomly assigned to one of the 4 conditions: skills only, philosophy only, skills and philosophy, and physical fitness (placebo). Subjects were assessed at baseline, posttraining, and 6 months after training using aggression scales. Results from the linear mixed model indicated that the time × training interaction effects were significant for aggressive behavior (reactive and proactive), delinquent behavior, anxiety/depression, and attention problems. Although all measures declined in all conditions over time, only the skills-and-philosophy condition showed a significant reduction at posttraining and/or 6-month follow-up compared with the placebo. The results provided a theoretical proof for the relationship between aggression and sport involvement combined with children's moral reasoning. This study gives practical implications to intervention that solely playing sports or teaching moral lessons is not effective enough for high-risk schoolchildren with aggressive behavior. However, combined traditional Chinese martial arts skills and moral philosophy training could be considered in the school curriculum to reduce school violence and facilitate creation of harmonious schools.

  10. Effective Proactive and Reactive Defense Strategies against Malicious Attacks in a Virtualized Honeynet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Yeong-Sung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization plays an important role in the recent trend of cloud computing. It allows the administrator to manage and allocate hardware resources flexibly. However, it also causes some security issues. This is a critical problem for service providers, who simultaneously strive to defend against malicious attackers while providing legitimate users with high quality service. In this paper, the attack-defense scenario is formulated as a mathematical model where the defender applies both proactive and reactive defense mechanisms against attackers with different attack strategies. In order to simulate real-world conditions, the attackers are assumed to have incomplete information and imperfect knowledge of the target network. This raises the difficulty of solving the model greatly, by turning the problem nondeterministic. After examining the experiment results, effective proactive and reactive defense strategies are proposed. This paper finds that a proactive defense strategy is suitable for dealing with aggressive attackers under “winner takes all” circumstances, while a reactive defense strategy works better in defending against less aggressive attackers under “fight to win or die” circumstances.

  11. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Polkey, Michael I.; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagaña, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A.; Karlsson, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD. Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised, two-way cross-over, multicentre study using PROactive draft questionnaires (daily and clinical visit versions) and two activity monitors. Item reduction followed an iterative process including classical and Rasch model analyses, and input from patients and clinical experts. 236 COPD patients from five European centres were included. Results indicated the concept of physical activity in COPD had two domains, labelled “amount” and “difficulty”. After item reduction, the daily PROactive instrument comprised nine items and the clinical visit contained 14. Both demonstrated good model fit (person separation index >0.7). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the bidimensional structure. Both instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α>0.8), test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.9) and exhibited moderate-to-high correlations (r>0.6) with related constructs and very low correlations (r<0.3) with unrelated constructs, providing evidence for construct validity. Daily and clinical visit “PROactive physical activity in COPD” instruments are hybrid tools combining a short patient-reported outcome questionnaire and two activity monitor variables which provide simple, valid and reliable measures of physical activity in COPD patients. PMID:26022965

  12. Capturing deaths not informed to the Ministry of Health: proactive search of deaths in Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Lima, Raquel Barbosa de; Rabello, Dácio de Lyra; Escalante, Juan José Cortez

    2017-01-01

    The proactive search of deaths is a strategy for capturing events that were not informed to the Mortality Information System of Ministry of Health. Its importance to reduce underreporting of deaths and to evaluate the operation of the information system is widely known. To describe the methodology and main findings of the Proactive Search of Deaths, 2013, establishing the contribution of different information sources. The research was carried out in 79 Brazilian municipalities. We investigated several official and unofficial sources of information about deaths of municipality residents. Every information source investigated and all cases found in each source were typed in an on-line panel. The second stage of the research was the confirmation of cases to verify information of year and residence and to complete missing information. For all confirmed cases, we estimated the completeness of death registration and correction factors according to the adequacy level of mortality information. We found 2,265 deaths that were not informed to the Mortality Information System. From those, 49.3% were found in unofficial sources, cemeteries and funeral homes. In some rural municipalities, precarious burial conditions were found in cemeteries in the middle of the forest and no registration of the deceased. Correction factors were inversely associated to the adequacy level of mortality information. The findings confirm the association between level of information adequacy and completeness of death registration, and indicate that the application of the proactive search is an effective method to capture deaths not informed to the Ministry of Health.

  13. The inhibition of proactive interference among adults with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive control plays a pivotal role in the mechanism of addictive behavior. The aim of the study was to evaluate the deficit in inhibition of proactive interference of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) using a directed forgetting task among young adults. A total of 64 participants with IGD and 69 controls were recruited on a university campus. They completed the directed forgetting task for online gaming words and neutral words. The results demonstrated that the IGD group had a poorer performance on the directed forgetting task, and this represented a deficit in inhibition of proactive interference. They also had a higher tendency to remember online gaming words rather than neutral words in comparison with the control group. This demonstrated memory bias toward online gaming words. These results suggested that more attention should be paid to deficits in inhibition of proactive interference and memory bias toward gaming content when treating subjects with IGD. Furthermore, it is essential and practical to prevent exposure to online gaming-related cues when endeavoring to control online gaming behavior. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Testing complex animal cognition: Concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A

    2018-01-01

    This article describes an approach for assessing and comparing complex cognition in rhesus monkeys and pigeons by training them in a sequence of synergistic tasks, each yielding a whole function for enhanced comparisons. These species were trained in similar same/different tasks with expanding training sets (8, 16, 32, 64, 128 … 1024 pictures) followed by novel-stimulus transfer eventually resulting in full abstract-concept learning. Concept-learning functions revealed better rhesus transfer throughout and full concept learning at the 128 set, versus pigeons at the 256 set. They were then tested in delayed same/different tasks for proactive interference by inserting occasional tests within trial-unique sessions where the test stimulus matched a previous sample stimulus (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 trials prior). Proactive-interference functions revealed time-based interference for pigeons (1, 10 s delays), but event-based interference for rhesus (no effect of 1, 10, 20 s delays). They were then tested in list-memory tasks by expanding the sample to four samples in trial-unique sessions (minimizing proactive interference). The four-item, list-memory functions revealed strong recency memory at short delays, gradually changing to strong primacy memory at long delays over 30 s for rhesus, and 10 s for pigeons. Other species comparisons and future directions are discussed. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Proactive Management of Materials Degradation - A Review of Principles and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Taylor, Theodore T.

    2008-08-28

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has undertaken a program to lay the technical foundation for defining proactive actions so that future degradation of materials in light water reactors (LWRs) is limited and, thereby, does not diminish either the integrity of important LWR components or the safety of operating plants. This technical letter report was prepared by staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the NRC Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program and relies heavily on work that was completed by Dr. Joseph Muscara and documented in NUREG/CR-6923. This report concisely explains the basic principles of PMMD and its relationship to prognostics, provides a review of programs related to PMMD being conducted worldwide, and provides an assessment of the technical gaps in PMMD and prognostics that need to be addressed. This technical letter report is timely because the majority of the U.S. reactor fleet is applying for license renewal, and many plants are also applying for increases in power rating. Both of these changes could increase the likelihood of materials degradation and underline, therefore, the interest in proactive management in the future.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Moving Small-Cell Network with Proactive Cache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid growth in mobile traffic, mobile network operators (MNOs are considering the deployment of moving small-cells (mSCs. mSC is a user-centric network which provides voice and data services during mobility. mSC can receive and forward data traffic via wireless backhaul and sidehaul links. In addition, due to the predictive nature of users demand, mSCs can proactively cache the predicted contents in off-peak-traffic periods. Due to these characteristics, MNOs consider mSCs as a cost-efficient solution to not only enhance the system capacity but also provide guaranteed quality of service (QoS requirements to moving user equipment (UE in peak-traffic periods. In this paper, we conduct extensive system level simulations to analyze the performance of mSCs with varying cache size and content popularity and their effect on wireless backhaul load. The performance evaluation confirms that the QoS of moving small-cell UE (mSUE notably improves by using mSCs together with proactive caching. We also show that the effective use of proactive cache significantly reduces the wireless backhaul load and increases the overall network capacity.

  17. Proactive Public Disclosure: A new regulatory strategy for creating tax compliance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boll Karen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services-over a short period of time-were informed about businesses’ lack of value-added tax (VAT registration. Our approach to the case is twofold: First, the article lays out a legal analysis of the disclosure practice, and second, the article presents an organizational analysis of why the practice was initiated. The analyses show that using proactive public disclosure is compatible with the Duty of Confidentiality, but incompatible with Good Public Governance. Furthermore, the analyses show that there are a number of strong organizational rationales for using proactive public disclosure, despite its apparent incompatibility with Good Public Governance. The article is innovative in that it combines a legal and organizational approach to analyse a new regulatory strategy within tax administration.

  18. An empirical study on the driving mechanism of proactive corporate environmental management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbing; Liu, Beibei; Shishime, Tomohiro; Yu, Qinqin; Bi, Jun; Fujitsuka, Tetsuro

    2010-08-01

    Environmentalism in China is under transformation from the traditional command and control model to emphasize the advantages of economic tools and encourage the participation of the public. Firms are much more aware of the importance of environmental issues, and some of them have practiced environmental activities beyond compliance. In order to help understand the driving mechanism of proactive corporate environmental behaviors from the firm's perspective, this paper identifies the drivers affecting the proactive environmental management level (EML(p)) based on the institutional theory, and gives an empirical study on the firms based in Changshu city of Jiangsu Province, China. The usable data, collected from the 117 valid respondents in a questionnaire survey, indicates that EML(p) is still moderately low currently. Less than 10% of the samples are practicing all the six categorized types of voluntary environmental activities. The econometric exercise confirms a significantly positive effect of the externally mimetic pressure on EML(p), which may attribute to a higher sensitivity of Chinese companies to the market factors. However, the roles of the general public and industrial associations are not significant, showing the marginal power of selected normative pressures. Regarding internal factors, firms, which view environmental issues as opportunities and often arrange internal environmental training, are more likely to adopt proactive environmental activities. More concerns from the general public like neighborhood communities and mass media shall be addressed to enhance the normative power to improve EML(p) in China from the future perspective. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proactive Routing Mutation Against Stealthy Distributed Denial of Service Attacks – Metrics, Modeling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Qi; Al-Shaer, Ehab; Chatterjee, Samrat; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2018-04-01

    The Infrastructure Distributed Denial of Service (IDDoS) attacks continue to be one of the most devastating challenges facing cyber systems. The new generation of IDDoS attacks exploit the inherent weakness of cyber infrastructure including deterministic nature of routes, skew distribution of flows, and Internet ossification to discover the network critical links and launch highly stealthy flooding attacks that are not observable at the victim end. In this paper, first, we propose a new metric to quantitatively measure the potential susceptibility of any arbitrary target server or domain to stealthy IDDoS attacks, and es- timate the impact of such susceptibility on enterprises. Second, we develop a proactive route mutation technique to minimize the susceptibility to these attacks by dynamically changing the flow paths periodically to invalidate the adversary knowledge about the network and avoid targeted critical links. Our proposed approach actively changes these network paths while satisfying security and qualify of service requirements. We present an integrated approach of proactive route mutation that combines both infrastructure-based mutation that is based on reconfiguration of switches and routers, and middle-box approach that uses an overlay of end-point proxies to construct a virtual network path free of critical links to reach a destination. We implemented the proactive path mutation technique on a Software Defined Network using the OpendDaylight controller to demonstrate a feasible deployment of this approach. Our evaluation validates the correctness, effectiveness, and scalability of the proposed approaches.

  20. Managing the risks of proactivity: A multilevel study of initiative and performance in the middle management context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, L.; Stam, W.; Takeuchi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on theories of behavioral decision making and situational strength, we developed and tested a multilevel model that explains how the performance outcomes of personal initiative tendency depend on the extent of alignment between organizational control mechanisms and proactive individuals'

  1. Goal orientation and work role performance: predicting adaptive and proactive work role performance through self-leadership strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Quinteiro, Pedro; Curral, Luís Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between goal orientation, self-leadership dimensions, and adaptive and proactive work role performances. The authors hypothesize that learning orientation, in contrast to performance orientation, positively predicts proactive and adaptive work role performances and that this relationship is mediated by self-leadership behavior-focused strategies. It is posited that self-leadership natural reward strategies and thought pattern strategies are expected to moderate this relationship. Workers (N = 108) from a software company participated in this study. As expected, learning orientation did predict adaptive and proactive work role performance. Moreover, in the relationship between learning orientation and proactive work role performance through self-leadership behavior-focused strategies, a moderated mediation effect was found for self-leadership natural reward and thought pattern strategies. In the end, the authors discuss the results and implications are discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  2. Proactive, Reactive, and Romantic Relational Aggression in Adulthood: Measurement, Predictive Validity, Gender Differences, and Association with Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Nelson, David A.; Crick, Nicki R.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a recently introduced adult self-report of relational aggression are presented. Specifically, the predictive utility of proactive and reactive peer-directed relational aggression, as well as romantic relational aggression, are explored in a large (N = 1387) study of adults. The measure had adequate reliability and validity and the subscales demonstrated unique predictive abilities for a number of dependent variables. In particular, reactive but not proactive rel...

  3. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

    2012-03-01

    The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation safety infrastructure in developing countries: a proactive approach for integrated and continuous improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabit, Khammar

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (the Agency) is authorized, by its statute, to establish or adopt safety standards for the protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property, and to provide for their application to its own operations as well as to operations under its control or supervision. The Agency has been assisting, since the mid 1960 's, its Member States through mainly its Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) to improve their national radiation safety infrastructures. However up to the early nineties, assistance was specific and mostly ad hoc and did not systematically utilize an integrated and harmonized approach to achieving effective and sustainable national radiation safety infrastructures in Member States. An unprecedented and integrated international cooperative effort was launched by the Agency in 1994 to establish and/or upgrade the national radiation safety infrastructure in more than 90 countries within the framework of its TCP through the so-called Model project on upgrading radiation protection infrastructure. In this project proactive co-operation with Member States was used in striving towards achieving an effective and sustainable radiation safety infrastructure, compatible with the International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources (the BSS) and related standards. Extension to include compatibility with the guidance of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources occurred towards the end of the Model Project in December 2004, and with the more recent ensuing follow up projects that started in 2005. The Model Project started with 5 countries in 1994 and finished with 91 countries in 2004. Up to the end of 2007 more than one hundred Member States had been participating in follow up projects covering six themes - namely: legislative and regulatory infrastructure; occupational radiation protection; radiation protection in

  5. Schema benefit vs. proactive interference: Contradicting behavioral outcomes and coexisting neural patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Noga; Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Lerner, Yulia; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Ash, Elissa L

    2017-09-01

    Prior knowledge can either assist or hinder the ability to learn new information. These contradicting behavioral outcomes, referred to as schema benefit and proactive interference respectively, have been studied separately. Here we examined whether the known neural correlates of each process coexist, and how they are influenced by attentional loading and aging. To this end we used an fMRI task that affected both processes simultaneously by presenting pairs of related short movies in succession. The first movie of each pair provided context for the second movie, which could evoke schema benefit and/or proactive interference. Inclusion of an easy or hard secondary task performed during encoding of the movies, as well as testing both younger (22-35y) and older (65-79y) adults, allowed examining the effect of attentional load and older age on the neural patterns associated with context. Analyses focused on three predefined regions and examined how their inter-subject correlation (inter-SC) and functional connectivity (FC) with the hippocampi changed between the first and second movie. The results in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) matched and expanded previous findings: higher inter-SC and lower FC were observed during the second compared to the first movie; yet the differentiation between the first and second movies in these regions was attenuated under high attentional load, pointing to dependency on attentional resources. Instead, at high load there was a significant context effect in the FC of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and greater FC in the second movie was related to greater proactive interference. Further, older adults showed context effect in the PCC and vlPFC. Intriguingly, older adults with inter-SC mPFC patterns similar to younger adults exhibited schema benefit in our task, while those with inter-SC PCC patterns similar to younger adults showed proactive interference in an independent task. The

  6. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  7. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  8. Establishing an ethical climate in support of research integrity: efforts and activities of the American Sociological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iutcovich, Joyce M; Kennedy, John M; Levine, Felice J

    2003-04-01

    The article provides an overview of the recent efforts and activities of the American Sociological Association (ASA) to keep its Code of Ethics visible and relevant to its membership. The development process and challenges associated with the most recent revision of the ASA's code are reviewed, the current education and support activities are described, and other strategies for taking a proactive and leadership role in establishing an ethical climate are proposed. In conclusion, while the ASA has made significant progress in this area, it recognizes that a lot of work remains.

  9. Working memory in schizophrenia: behavioral and neural evidence for reduced susceptibility to item-specific proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaller, Christoph P; Loosli, Sandra V; Rahm, Benjamin; Gössel, Astrid; Schieting, Stephan; Hornig, Tobias; Hennig, Jürgen; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Weiller, Cornelius; Katzev, Michael

    2014-09-15

    Susceptibility to item-specific proactive interference (PI) contributes to interindividual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and complex cognition relying on WM. Although WM deficits are a well-recognized impairment in schizophrenia, the underlying pathophysiological effects on specific WM control functions, such as the ability to resist item-specific PI, remain unknown. Moreover, opposing hypotheses on increased versus reduced PI susceptibility in schizophrenia are both justifiable by the extant literature. To provide first insights into the behavioral and neural correlates of PI-related WM control in schizophrenia, a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment was conducted in a sample of 20 patients and 20 well-matched control subjects. Demands on item-specific PI were experimentally manipulated in a recent-probes task (three runs, 64 trials each) requiring subjects to encode and maintain a set of four target items per trial. Compared with healthy control subjects, schizophrenia patients showed a significantly reduced PI susceptibility in both accuracy and latency measures. Notably, reduced PI susceptibility in schizophrenia was not associated with overall WM impairments and thus constituted an independent phenomenon. In addition, PI-related activations in inferior frontal gyrus and anterior insula, typically assumed to support PI resistance, were reduced in schizophrenia, thus ruling out increased neural efforts as a potential cause of the patients' reduced PI susceptibility. The present study provides first evidence for a diminished vulnerability of schizophrenia patients to item-specific PI, which is presumably a consequence of the patients' more efficient clearing of previously relevant WM traces and the accordingly reduced likelihood for item-specific PI to occur. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proactive Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Many organizations today require continuous development and effective learning processes to meet the challenges of globalization and digitalization. In this seven-year study, we investigate a learning practice as an integrated part of work in a global IT company on their way to act more...

  11. Neural mechanisms of proactive and reactive cognitive control in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-09-01

    Social anxiety--the fear of social embarrassment and negative evaluation by others--ranks among people's worst fears, and it is often thought to impair task performance. We investigated the neurocognitive processes through which trait social anxiety relates to task performance, proposing a model of the joint contributions of reactive control, theoretically associated with conflict monitoring and activity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and proactive control, theoretically associated with top-down regulation and activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Participants varying in their degree of trait social anxiety completed the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Task-related left dlPFC activity was indexed by relative left prefrontal EEG (inverse alpha), and conflict-related dACC activity was indexed by the N2r component of the event-related potential. Stronger activity in both regions predicted better response control, and greater social anxiety was associated with worse response control. Furthermore, for all participants, greater left prefrontal EEG activity predicted better behavioral control, but for high social anxiety participants only, greater N2r responses also predicted behavioral control. This pattern suggests that low social anxiety individuals engaged a proactive control process, driven by dlPFC activity, whereas high social anxiety individuals relied additionally on a reactive control process, driven by conflict-related dACC activity. These findings support a model of control that involves different patterns of interplay between proactive and reactive strategies and may help to explain self-regulatory impairments in social anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proactive infection control measures to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Tai, Josepha Wai-Ming; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; So, Simon Yung-Chun; Ng, Wing-Chun; Hung, Ivan Fan-Ngan; Leung, Sally Sau-Man; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Chan, Felix Hon-Wai; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-10-01

    The study describes a proactive infection control approach to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and tests if this approach is effective for controlling multiple-drug resistant organisms in a nonendemic setting. In response to the increasing prevalence of VRE in Hong Kong since 2011, we adopted a multifaceted assertive approach in our health care network. This included active surveillance culture, extensive contact tracing, directly observed hand hygiene in conscious patients before they received meals and medications, stringent hand hygiene and environmental cleanliness, and an immediate feedback antimicrobial stewardship program. We report the occurrence of VRE outbreaks in our hospital after institution of these measures and compared with the concurrent occurrence in other public hospitals in Hong Kong. Between July 1, 2011 and November 13, 2013, VRE was identified in 0.32% (50/15,851) of admission episodes by active surveillance culture. The risk of VRE carriage was three times higher in patients with a history of hospitalization outside our hospital networks in the past 3 months (0.56% vs. 0.17%; p = 0.001) compared with those who were not. Extensive contact tracing involving 3277 patient episodes was performed in the investigation for the 25 VRE index patients upon whom implementation of contact precautions was delayed (more than 48 hours of hospitalization). One episode of VRE outbreak was identified in our hospital network, compared with the 77 VRE outbreaks reported in the other hospital networks (controls) without these proactive infection control measures. Our multifaceted assertive proactive infection control approach can minimize the nosocomial transmission and outbreak of VRE in a nonendemic area. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Effects of Age on Short-Term Memory Loss due to Proactive Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Alisha Berkauzer

    2011-01-01

    This project focused on how proactive interference affects the short-term memory of people based on their age. The goal was to find the prime age for learning information and storing it in one's memory. Seven people from ages fifteen to forty were tested individually, using a set color pattern, in order to see how well each individual could remember the different color patterns as difficulty of the pattern increased. The obtained data was fitted by the polynomial regression. The “fitted...

  14. Evaluation of Proactive Management Issues Associated with Materials Aging in Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, T.; Takeda, Y.; Kuniya, J.

    2012-01-01

    A Proactive Materials Degradation Management (PMDM) project has been carried out at the Fracture Research Institute (FRI), Tohoku University for 4 years, as a part of a Nuclear Industries Safety Agency (NISA) project that was formed in 2007 to define an Aging Management Program that addresses unexpected structural material failures in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Such a program required, therefore, the development of a life prediction capability for specific combinations of degradation modes, structural materials, and reactor components. In this paper, the research subjects needed to predict quantitatively aging degradation phenomena in LWR structural materials are introduced. (author)

  15. Real-Time Trading Strategies of Proactive DISCO with Heterogeneous DG Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to obtain the optimal trading strategies between the proactive distribution company (PDISCO), heterogeneous distributed generation owners (DGOs) and wholesale market in a real-time trading framework. In this framework, the PDISCO’s decisions cover the power...... procurements from DGOs and the transactions within the real-time market. A one-leader multi-follower-type bilevel model is proposed to embody the PDISCO-DGO gaming structure. The upper-level (UL) problem is to maximize the PDISCO’s profit, while the lower-level (LL) problem indicates the profit maximization...... the effectiveness and scalability of the proposed model....

  16. Exploring moderating effects of proactivity on the relationship between market information and innovation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Ahlin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance, the relationship between market information and innovation performance has seldom been investigated in SMEs, much less in multiple-country settings. Given the limited body of knowledge on this important topic, the question of why some entrepreneurs use market information better than others for the purpose of innovation has yet to be addressed. In this study we propose that entrepreneur’s proactivity influences the effectiveness of market information in the innovation process. We propose a conceptual model and test it on SMEs from the United States and Slovenia. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these results for entrepreneurship theory and practice.

  17. Network Structure, Diversity, and Proactive Resilience Building: a Response to Tompkins and Adger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Newman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Although community social networks can build resilience, and thus, aid adaptation to unexpected environmental change (Tomkins and Adger 2004, not all social networks are created equal. Networks composed of a diversity of "bridging" links to a diverse web of resources and "bonding" links that build trust strengthen a community's ability to adapt to change, but networks composed only of "bonding" links can impose constraining social norms and foster group homophily, reducing resilience. Diversity fosters the resilience needed to adapt to unexpected change, and can also enlarge the ability to proactively make collective decisions that optimize future options.

  18. Proactive Support of Internet Browsing when Searching for Relevant Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend.

  19. Predicting memory performance under conditions of proactive interference: immediate and delayed judgments of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N

    2011-07-01

    Four experiments examined the monitoring accuracy of immediate and delayed judgments of learning (JOLs) under conditions of proactive interference (PI). PI was produced using paired-associate learning tasks that conformed to variations of classic A-B, A-D paradigms. Results revealed that the relative monitoring accuracy of interference items was better for delayed than for immediate JOLs. However, delayed JOLs were overconfident for interference items, but not for items devoid of interference. Intrusions retrieved prior to delayed JOLs produced inflated predictions of performance. These results show that delayed JOLs enhance monitoring accuracy in PI situations, except when intrusions are mistaken for target responses.

  20. [Complaints about bureaucracy in health care? Time for a proactive medical profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Raimond W M

    2010-01-01

    Health care is in profound transition, its organization changing from being service-oriented to outcomes-oriented. Doctors are complaining of too much bureaucracy. However, the increasing complexity of healthcare demands rationalization, standardization and optimization of processes. At the same time, the practice of medicine is increasingly politicized. If doctors are the key to healthcare reform, how then are they to be motivated? It is imperative that they become more proactive and engage in leadership. They are the first to ensure that the main goals of medicine remain evidence-based prevention and cure of disease. Passivity will create opportunity for bureaucracy.

  1. Proactive and reactive effects of vigorous exercise on learning and vocabulary comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Andrea S

    2013-06-01

    College students (N = 90) were randomly assigned to participate in vigorous, moderate or no physical exercise and vocabulary recall and comprehension learning activities under varying conditions to assess whether or not increased intensities of exercise, performed either before a vocabulary recall and comprehension learning activity (i.e., proactive effect) or after a vocabulary recall and comprehension learning activity (i.e., reactive effect), would improve vocabulary recall and comprehension. The results demonstrated that performing exercise at a vigorous intensity before or after rehearsing for a vocabulary comprehension test improved test results.

  2. Real-Time Procurement Strategies of a Proactive Distribution Company with Aggregator-Based Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    and inelastic demand components. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is proposed to derive the procurement strategies, i.e., the upper-level problem intends to maximize the profit of the proactive distribution company, while the lower-level expresses the profit maximization per rational aggregator....... The proposed model is then transformed into a solvable mathematical program with equilibrium constraints through a primal-dual approach. A modified 33-bus distribution network is utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model....

  3. A Proactive Complex Event Processing Method for Large-Scale Transportation Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongheng; Cao, Kening

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a new way to improve the transportation system. The key issue is how to process the numerous events generated by IoT. In this paper, a proactive complex event processing method is proposed for large-scale transportation IoT. Based on a multilayered adaptive dynamic Bayesian model, a Bayesian network structure learning algorithm using search-and-score is proposed to support accurate predictive analytics. A parallel Markov decision processes model is design...

  4. Navigational Traffic Conflict Technique: A Proactive Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Collision Risks in Port Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Chin, Hoong Chor

    Navigational safety analysis relying on collision statistics is often hampered because of the low number of observations. A promising alternative approach that overcomes this problem is proposed in this paper. By analyzing critical vessel interactions this approach proactively measures collision risk in port waters. The proposed method is illustrated for quantitative measurement of collision risks in Singapore port fairways, and validated by examining correlations between the measured risks with those perceived by pilots. This method is an ethically appealing alternative to the collision-based analysis for fast, reliable and effective safety assessment, thus possessing great potential for managing collision risks in port waters.

  5. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  6. Callous-unemotional traits, proactive aggression, and treatment outcomes of aggressive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blader, Joseph C; Pliszka, Steven R; Kafantaris, Vivian; Foley, Carmel A; Crowell, Judith A; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Sauder, Colin L; Margulies, David M; Sinha, Christa; Sverd, Jeffrey; Matthews, Thomas L; Bailey, Brigitte Y; Daviss, W Burleson

    2013-12-01

    Stimulant treatment improves impulse control among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Decreased aggression often accompanies stimulant pharmacotherapy, suggesting that impulsiveness is integral to aggressive behavior in these children. However, children with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits and proactive aggression may benefit less from ADHD pharmacotherapy, because their aggressive behavior seems more purposeful and deliberate. This study's objective was to determine whether pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression affect treatment outcomes among aggressive children with ADHD receiving stimulant monotherapy. We implemented a stimulant optimization protocol with 160 children 6 to 13 years of age (mean [SD] age of 9.31 [2.02] years; 78.75% male) with ADHD, oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, and significant aggressive behavior. Family-focused behavioral intervention was provided concurrently. The primary outcome was the Retrospective Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Aggression Scale, also completed by parents, measured CU traits and proactive aggression, respectively. Analyses examined moderating effects of CU traits and proactive aggression on outcomes. In all, 82 children (51%) experienced remission of aggressive behavior. Neither CU traits nor proactive aggression predicted remission (CU traits: odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.11; proactive aggression, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.86-1.29). Children whose overall aggression remitted showed decreases in CU traits (effect size = -0.379, 95% CI = -0.60 to -0.16) and proactive aggression (effect size = -0.463, 95% CI = -0.69 to -0.23). Findings suggest that pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression do not forecast worse outcomes for aggressive children with ADHD receiving optimized stimulant pharmacotherapy. With such treatment, CU traits and proactive aggression may decline alongside other behavioral improvements

  7. Context-dependent switching between proactive and reactive working memory control mechanisms in the right inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Petter; Persson, Jonas

    2012-11-15

    A critical feature of higher cognitive functioning is the capacity to flexibly tailor information processing and behaviors to current situational demands. Recent neurocognitive models have been postulated to account for the dynamic nature of human executive processing by invoking two dissociable cognitive control modes, proactive and reactive control. These may involve partially overlapping, but temporally distinct neural implementation in the prefrontal cortex. Prior brain imaging studies exploring proactive control have mainly used tasks requiring only information about single-items to be retained over unfilled delays. Whether proactive control can also be utilized to facilitate performance in more complex working memory tasks, in which concurrent processing of intervening items and updating is mandatory during contextual cue maintenance remains an open question. To examine this issue and to elucidate the extent to which overlapping neural substrates underlie proactive and reactive control we used fMRI and a modified verbal 3-back paradigm with embedded cues predictive of high-interference trials. This task requires context information to be retained over multiple intervening trials. We found that performance improved with item-specific cues predicting forthcoming lures despite increased working memory load. Temporal dynamics of activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus suggest flexible switching between proactive and reactive control in a context-dependent fashion, with greater sustained responses elicited in the 3-back task involving context maintenance of cue information and greater transient responses elicited in the 3-back task absent of cues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Traditional test administration and proactive interference undermine visual-spatial working memory performance in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A; Wilkins, Leanne K; Lyons, Kathleen M; Yang, Lixia; Christensen, Bruce K

    2018-05-31

    Introduction Working-memory (WM) is a core cognitive deficit among individuals with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). However, the underlying cognitive mechanisms of this deficit are less known. This study applies a modified version of the Corsi Block Test to investigate the role of proactive interference in visuospatial WM (VSWM) impairment in SSD. Methods Healthy and SSD participants completed a modified version of the Corsi Block Test involving both high (typical ascending set size from 4 to 7 items) and low (descending set size from 7 to 4 items) proactive interference conditions. Results The results confirmed that the SSD group performed worse overall relative to a healthy comparison group. More importantly, the SSD group demonstrated greater VSWM scores under low (Descending) versus high (Ascending) proactive interference; this pattern is opposite to that of healthy participants. Conclusions This differential pattern of performance supports that proactive interference associated with the traditional administration format contributes to VSWM impairment in SSD. Further research investigating associated neurocognitive mechanisms and the contribution of proactive interference across other domains of cognition in SSD is warranted.

  9. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the predictive values of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and of hostile interpretation bias, which is the tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli in a hostile manner, were studied. The sample consisted of n = 37 male adult patients with mixed diagnoses and n = 29 male nonpatients that responded to vignettes and pictures of ambiguous situations, using both open and closed answer formats. ASPD was assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II disorders (SCID-II), and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) measured RA and PA. Results showed that although both RA and PA types were predicted by ASPD traits, RA was additionally predicted by a hostile interpretation bias. These findings suggest that reducing hostile bias is a promising avenue for clinical treatment of ASPD-patients high in RA.

  10. Proactive Review som læringsrum for online-ledere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    . Kapitlet undersøger, hvordan online lederen kan lære af erfaringer skabt i hans/hendes online team. Kapitlet tager udgangspunkt i Engeströms virksomhedsteori og Proactive Review som praksisser for, hvordan ledere konkret kan lære sammen med deres team (Kolbæk 2011). Kapitlet udvikler en model for lederens...... læring på basis af ovenstående teorier. Da læring og kommunikation i teamet foregår online, er det nærliggende at benytte netnografi som metodisk tilgang. Kapitlet undersøger online lederens læringsrum i en global IT virksomhed, hvor Proactive Reviews er implementeret i flere end 40 lande......, at medarbejdere og ledere opholder sig i forskellige lande, og at de kun sjældent eller måske aldrig mødes fysisk, men altid samarbejder og kommunikerer online. Kapitlet kalder det online teams og online ledelse. Dette kapitel fokuserer på lederens læring i et læringsrum, hvor ledelse og samarbejde foregår online...

  11. Corporate governance and proactive environmental management in Novo Hamburgo and neighbouring cities, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Naime

    Full Text Available This study compiled data on environmental auditing and voluntary certification of environment-friendly businesses of the Commercial and Industrial Association of Novo Hamburgo, Campo Bom and Estância Velha and analysed them according to classical environmental management principles: sustainable development and corporate governance. It assessed the level of application of the concepts of corporate governance to everyday business in companies and organisations and estimated how the interconnection and vertical permeability of these concepts might help to make bureaucratic environmental management systemic, proactive and evaluative, changes that may add great value to the operations evaluated. Results showed that, when analysing only audited items not directly defined in legislation, no significant changes were identified. The inclusion of more advanced indices may promote the transition from bureaucratic management, which meets regulated environmental standards only satisfactorily, into proactive and systemic environmental management, which adds value to companies and helps to perpetuate them. Audited and analysed data did not reveal actions that depend on the internal redistribution of power and the interconnection or verticality of attitudes that may materialize concepts of corporate governance.

  12. Proactive prevention in occupational safety and health: how to identify tomorrow's prevention priorities and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Angelika; Flaspöler, Eva; Reinert, Dietmar

    2018-04-17

    Global trends such as digitalisation, globalisation and demographic change are changing workplaces, and accordingly occupational safety and health (OSH) needs. To better prepare for the future and to foster proactive prevention, the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV) established an OSH risk observatory (RO OSH). The RO OSH relies on an online survey and calls upon the expertise of labour inspectors. 398 labour inspectors participated in the first RO OSH enquiry. They rated developments with regard to their sector-specific relevance for OSH in the near future. The RO OSH also provides ideas for preventive measures that can be implemented by the German Social Accident Insurance Institutions. Work intensity, demographic aspects, and digitalisation play a major role for most or all sectors. However, familiar OSH issues such as musculoskeletal strain and noise also continue to be of major importance and require further consideration and specific solutions in prevention. For the DGUV, training and consulting bear great potential for proactive prevention in the above priority areas, e.g. by fostering a prevention culture and supporting companies in (psychosocial) risk assessment (also for mobile work). For instance, concepts for increasing physical activity at sedentary workplaces, and data security require continued research.

  13. Improving computer security for authentication of users: influence of proactive password restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W; Lien, Mei-Ching; Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Schultz, E Eugene; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2002-05-01

    Entering a username-password combination is a widely used procedure for identification and authentication in computer systems. However, it is a notoriously weak method, in that the passwords adopted by many users are easy to crack. In an attempt to improve security, proactive password checking may be used, in which passwords must meet several criteria to be more resistant to cracking. In two experiments, we examined the influence of proactive password restrictions on the time that it took to generate an acceptable password and to use it subsequently to long in. The required length was a minimum of five characters in Experiment 1 and eight characters in Experiment 2. In both experiments, one condition had only the length restriction, and the other had additional restrictions. The additional restrictions greatly increased the time it took to generate the password but had only a small effect on the time it took to use it subsequently to long in. For the five-character passwords, 75% were cracked when no other restrictions were imposed, and this was reduced to 33% with the additional restrictions. For the eight-character passwords, 17% were cracked with no other restrictions, and 12.5% with restrictions. The results indicate that increasing the minimum character length reduces crackability and increases security, regardless of whether additional restrictions are imposed.

  14. Stroop proactive control and task conflict are modulated by concurrent working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai; Davelaar, Eddy J; Usher, Marius

    2015-06-01

    Performance on the Stroop task reflects two types of conflict-informational (between the incongruent word and font color) and task (between the contextually relevant color-naming task and the irrelevant, but automatic, word-reading task). According to the dual mechanisms of control theory (DMC; Braver, 2012), variability in Stroop performance can result from variability in the deployment of a proactive task-demand control mechanism. Previous research has shown that when proactive control (PC) is diminished, both increased Stroop interference and a reversed Stroop facilitation (RF) are observed. Although the current DMC model accounts for the former effect, it does not predict the observed RF, which is considered to be behavioral evidence for task conflict in the Stroop task. Here we expanded the DMC model to account for Stroop RF. Assuming that a concurrent working memory (WM) task reduces PC, we predicted both increased interference and an RF. Nineteen participants performed a standard Stroop task combined with a concurrent n-back task, which was aimed at reducing available WM resources, and thus overloading PC. Although the results indicated common Stroop interference and facilitation in the low-load condition (zero-back), in the high-load condition (two-back), both increased Stroop interference and RF were observed, consistent with the model's prediction. These findings indicate that PC is modulated by concurrent WM load and serves as a common control mechanism for both informational and task Stroop conflicts.

  15. Proactive strategies for regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer: implications for optimal patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Gazala; Moss, Rebecca A; Braiteh, Fadi; Saltzman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Regorafenib is a broad-spectrum oral multikinase inhibitor that targets several angiogenic, oncogenic, and stromal receptor tyrosine kinases that support the tumor microenvironment. Results from the pivotal Phase III Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Treated with Regorafenib or Placebo After Failure of Standard Therapy (CORRECT) trial showed that the addition of regorafenib to best supportive care resulted in a significant improvement in median overall survival and progression-free survival compared with placebo plus best supportive care in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) following all available approved therapies. Thus, regorafenib is the first oral multikinase inhibitor indicated for mCRC; it currently has approval in the USA, EU, Japan, Canada, and Singapore for the treatment of mCRC patients who have been previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin-, and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, and, if the tumor is KRAS wild-type, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. In this review, we highlight regorafenib’s mechanism of action, present key efficacy data from the CORRECT trial, and discuss how to proactively manage common adverse events (eg, hand-foot skin reaction, hypertension, oral mucositis, diarrhea, and fatigue) experienced by patients receiving regorafenib. Increased awareness of potential adverse events associated with regorafenib and the implementation of proactive strategies to prevent, monitor, and manage these events early in the course of treatment will be instrumental in ensuring optimal patient management and continuation of regorafenib therapy

  16. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consolidation through the looking-glass: sleep-dependent proactive interference on visuomotor adaptation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Charline; Houyoux, Emeline; Albouy, Geneviève; Peigneux, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    Although a beneficial role of post-training sleep for declarative memory has been consistently evidenced in children, as in adults, available data suggest that procedural memory consolidation does not benefit from sleep in children. However, besides the absence of performance gains in children, sleep-dependent plasticity processes involved in procedural memory consolidation might be expressed through differential interference effects on the learning of novel but related procedural material. To test this hypothesis, 32 10-12-year-old children were trained on a motor rotation adaptation task. After either a sleep or a wake period, they were first retested on the same rotation applied at learning, thus assessing offline sleep-dependent changes in performance, then on the opposite (unlearned) rotation to assess sleep-dependent modulations in proactive interference coming from the consolidated visuomotor memory trace. Results show that children gradually improve performance over the learning session, showing effective adaptation to the imposed rotation. In line with previous findings, no sleep-dependent changes in performance were observed for the learned rotation. However, presentation of the opposite, unlearned deviation elicited significantly higher interference effects after post-training sleep than wakefulness in children. Considering that a definite feature of procedural motor memory and skill acquisition is the implementation of highly automatized motor behaviour, thus lacking flexibility, our results suggest a better integration and/or automation or motor adaptation skills after post-training sleep, eventually resulting in higher proactive interference effects on untrained material. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Modeling age differences in effects of pair repetition and proactive interference using a single parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joseph D W; Overman, Amy A

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we apply the REM model (Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997) to age differences in associative memory. Using Criss and Shiffrin's (2005) associative version of REM, we show that in a task with pairs repeated across 2 study lists, older adults' reduced benefit of pair repetition can be produced by a general reduction in the diagnosticity of information stored in memory. This reduction can be modeled similarly well by reducing the overall distinctiveness of memory features, or by reducing the accuracy of memory encoding. We report a new experiment in which pairs are repeated across 3 study lists and extend the model accordingly. Finally, we extend the model to previously reported data using the same task paradigm, in which the use of a high-association strategy introduced proactive interference effects in young adults but not older adults. Reducing the diagnosticity of information in memory also reduces the proactive interference effect. Taken together, the modeling and empirical results reported here are consistent with the claim that some age differences that appear to be specific to associative information can be produced via general degradation of information stored in memory. The REM model provides a useful framework for examining age differences in memory as well as harmonizing seemingly conflicting prior modeling approaches for the associative deficit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  20. Corporate governance and proactive environmental management in Novo Hamburgo and neighbouring cities, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naime, R; Spilki, F R; Nascimento, C A

    2015-05-01

    This study compiled data on environmental auditing and voluntary certification of environment-friendly businesses of the Commercial and Industrial Association of Novo Hamburgo, Campo Bom and Estância Velha and analysed them according to classical environmental management principles: sustainable development and corporate governance. It assessed the level of application of the concepts of corporate governance to everyday business in companies and organisations and estimated how the interconnection and vertical permeability of these concepts might help to make bureaucratic environmental management systemic, proactive and evaluative, changes that may add great value to the operations evaluated. Results showed that, when analysing only audited items not directly defined in legislation, no significant changes were identified. The inclusion of more advanced indices may promote the transition from bureaucratic management, which meets regulated environmental standards only satisfactorily, into proactive and systemic environmental management, which adds value to companies and helps to perpetuate them. Audited and analysed data did not reveal actions that depend on the internal redistribution of power and the interconnection or verticality of attitudes that may materialize concepts of corporate governance.

  1. Proactive vs. reactive learning on buildings response and earthquake risks, in schools of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela DOBRE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years, many specific activities of earthquake education and preparedness were initiated and supported in Romania by drafting materials for citizens, students, professors etc. (Georgescu et al., 2004, 2006. The education, training and information on earthquake disaster potential are important factors to mitigate the earthquake effects. Such activities, however, need time to be developed and may take different forms of presentation in order to capture the attention, to increase interest, to develop skills and attitudes in order to induce a proper behavior towards safety preparedness. It shall also be based on the accumulation of concerns and knowledge, which are, in principle, a consequence of the motivation, but which depend on the methods applied and actions taken for efficient earthquake preparedness, assessed and updated following actual earthquakes (Masuda, Midorikawa, Miki and Ohmachi, 1988. We are now at a crossroad and the proactive attitude and behavior (anticipative and participative needs to be extended in learning, within institutional framework, but correlated with the usual targets of schools and teenagers proactive issue (ROEDUSEIS-NET; Page and Page, 2003, by encouraging students in activities closer to earthquake engineering.

  2. African American patients' attitudes toward proactive health behaviors after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Gourley, Dick R; Gourley, Greta A; Faris, Richard J; Womeodu, Robin J; Yang, Jun; Likens, Carol C

    2010-05-01

    Previous research on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has not focused exclusively on the African American population. The purpose of this study was to explore African Americans' attitudes toward proactive health behaviors following exposure to DTCA of atorvastatin calcium (Lipitor, Pfizer Inc). One-hundred fifty African American patients participated in the study. Participants' functional health literacy and health locus of control were assessed. The participants were asked to view a DTCA of Lipitor, followed by face-to-face interviews. After watching the DTCA of Lipitor, 89.4% of participants agreed that they would talk to their physician about their cholesterol, 88.6% agreed that they would ask their physician to test their cholesterol level, and 47.3% agreed that they would ask their physician to write them a prescription for Lipitor. Those who had a history of high cholesterol were more likely to agree to ask their physician to test their cholesterol levels. Low household income, having public health insurance, and prior experience with taking Lipitor were significant positive predictors of patients agreeing to ask their physician to write a prescription of the advertised drug. African American patients showed favorable attitudes toward proactive health behaviors after exposure to DTCA of Lipitor.

  3. Swedish legal scholarship concerning protection of vulnerable groups: Therapeutic and proactive dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Moa Kindström; Leviner, Pernilla; Kaldal, Anna; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the legal theoretical problems that arise in connection with the societal ambition of protecting vulnerable groups. One of the central difficulties in legislation with proactive and therapeutic ambitions arises from the link between law and philosophy of science, i.e., the relationship between facts and norms. It is shown that Therapeutic Jurisprudence differs in several aspects from Swedish legal scholarship that follows Scandinavian Legal Realism. It is also demonstrated that Therapeutic Jurisprudence has several similarities with the so-called Proactive Approach. This paper suggests that Therapeutic Jurisprudence may serve as a useful legal theoretical perspective in Swedish legal scholarship, especially when studying complex and vague regulations with a future focus. Two examples from Swedish legislation are examined: (a) Laws regulating compulsory care of abused or neglected children, and (b) laws related to the mentally ill. This paper illustrates the complexity in these acts, and poses the question of whether the regulations serve their purpose of providing adequate care for and protection of those in need. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proactive palliative care for patients with COPD (PROLONG: a pragmatic cluster controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenk RG

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RG Duenk,1 C Verhagen,1 EM Bronkhorst,2 PJWB van Mierlo,3,4 MEAC Broeders,5 SM Collard,6 PNR Dekhuijzen,7 KCP Vissers,1 Y Heijdra,7,* Y Engels1,* 1Department of Anesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Medicine, 2Department of Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 3Department of Supportive and Palliative Medicine, 4Department of Geriatric Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, 5Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 6Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort, 7Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and aim: Patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of proactive palliative care on the well-being of these patients.Trial registration: This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, NTR4037.Patients and methods: A pragmatic cluster controlled trial (quasi-experimental design was performed with hospitals as cluster (three intervention and three control and a pretrial assessment was performed. Hospitals were selected for the intervention group based on the presence of a specialized palliative care team (SPCT. To control for confounders, a pretrial assessment was performed in which hospitals were compared on baseline characteristics. Patients with COPD with poor prognosis were recruited during hospitalization for acute exacerbation. All patients received usual care while patients in the intervention group received additional proactive palliative care in monthly meetings with an SPCT. Our primary outcome was change in quality of life score after 3 months, which was measured using the St George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. Secondary outcomes were, among others, quality of life at 6, 9 and 12 months; readmissions: survival; and having made

  5. The Critical Roles of Task Conflict and Job Autonomy in the Relationship Between Proactive Personalities and Innovative Employee Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Ellen; de Reuver, Renee S M; Rispens, Sonja; Ufkes, Elze G

    2016-09-01

    We examine why and when proactive personality is beneficial for innovative behavior at work. Based on a survey among 166 employees working in 35 departments of a large municipality in the Netherlands we show that an increase in task conflicts explains the positive relation between a proactive personality and innovative employee behavior. This process is moderated by job autonomy in such a way that the relationship between proactive personality and task conflict is particularly strong under low compared with high autonomy. The present research contributes to the discussion on the potential benefits of task conflict for change processes and highlights the importance of examining the interplay between personality and work context for understanding innovation practices.

  6. The Critical Roles of Task Conflict and Job Autonomy in the Relationship Between Proactive Personalities and Innovative Employee Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Ellen; de Reuver, Renee S.M.; Rispens, Sonja; Ufkes, Elze G.

    2016-01-01

    We examine why and when proactive personality is beneficial for innovative behavior at work. Based on a survey among 166 employees working in 35 departments of a large municipality in the Netherlands we show that an increase in task conflicts explains the positive relation between a proactive personality and innovative employee behavior. This process is moderated by job autonomy in such a way that the relationship between proactive personality and task conflict is particularly strong under low compared with high autonomy. The present research contributes to the discussion on the potential benefits of task conflict for change processes and highlights the importance of examining the interplay between personality and work context for understanding innovation practices. PMID:27536008

  7. The Ability–Motivation–Opportunity Framework for Team Innovation: Efficacy Beliefs, Proactive Personalities, Supportive Supervision and Team Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Krapež Trošt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on ability–motivation–opportunity theoretical framework, the study explores the interplay among team members’ proactive personalities (abilities, collective efficacy (motivation, and supportive supervision (opportunity, and their interaction in predicting team innovation. Multi-level study of 249 employees nested within 64 teams from one German and three Slovenian hi-tech companies showed that collective efficacy was positively related to team innovation. However, the effect of collective efficacy on team innovation was weaker when high levels of supportive supervision and proactivity moderated this relationship. When teams perceived lower levels of collective efficacy, team proactivity, and supportive supervision were more important for achieving higher levels of team innovation as they were when teams perceived lower levels of motivation. We discuss theoretical and practical implications

  8. Drilling Deeper into tooth brushing skills: Is proactive interference an under-recognized factor in oral hygiene behavior change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Kumar, Madan; Mohandoss, Anusa Arunachalam; Vernon, Lance T

    2015-09-01

    Proper tooth brushing is a seemingly simple motor activity that can promote oral health. Applying health theories, such as the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model, Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Integrated Health Coaching (IHC), may help optimize tooth brushing technique in those with suboptimal skills. Some motor activities, including tooth brushing, may over time become rote and unconscious actions, such that an existing habit can inhibit new learning, i.e., exert proactive interference on learning the new skill. Proactive interference may impede the acquisition of new tooth brushing skills; thus, in this report, we: (1) Review how the habit of tooth brushing is formed; (2) Postulate how proactive interference could impede the establishment of proper tooth brushing retraining; (3) Discuss the merits of this hypothesis; and (4) Provide guidance for future work in this topic within the context of an approach to behavior change that integrates IMB, MI and IHC methodology.

  9. Pocket money and child effort at school

    OpenAIRE

    François-Charles Wolff; Christine Barnet-Verzat

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the provision of parental pocket and the level of effort undertaken by the child at school. Under altruism, an increased amount of parental transfer should reduce the child's effort. Our empirical analysis is based on a French data set including about 1,400 parent-child pairs. We find that children do not undertake less effort when their parents are more generous.

  10. Incentive Design and Mis-Allocated Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Schnedler, Wendelin

    2013-01-01

    Incentives often distort behavior: they induce agents to exert effort but this effort is not employed optimally. This paper proposes a theory of incentive design allowing for such distorted behavior. At the heart of the theory is a trade-off between getting the agent to exert effort and ensuring that this effort is used well. The theory covers various moral-hazard models, ranging from traditional single-task to multi-task models. It also provides -for the first time- a formalization and proof...

  11. Proactive control for solar energy exploitation: A german high-inertia building case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailidis, Iakovos T.; Baldi, Simone; Pichler, Martin F.; Kosmatopoulos, Elias B.; Santiago, Juan R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar gains exploitation by utilizing large glass facades and concrete core thermal energy storing capacity. • Efficient Building Energy Management in a well-insulated modern building construction. • Energy consumption reduction by maintaining user comfort. • High inertia large scale office building test case, located in Germany. - Abstract: Energy efficient passive designs and constructions have been extensively studied in the last decades as a way to improve the ability of a building to store thermal energy, increase its thermal mass, increase passive insulation and reduce heat losses. However, many studies show that passive thermal designs alone are not enough to fully exploit the potential for energy efficiency in buildings: in fact, harmonizing the active elements for indoor thermal comfort with the passive design of the building can lead to further improvements in both energy efficiency and comfort. These improvements can be achieved via the design of appropriate Building Optimization and Control (BOC) systems, a task which is more complex in high-inertia buildings than in conventional ones. This is because high thermal mass implies a high memory, so that wrong control decisions will have negative repercussions over long time horizons. The design of proactive control strategies with the capability of acting in advance of a future situation, rather than just reacting to current conditions, is of crucial importance for a full exploitation of the capabilities of a high-inertia building. This paper applies a simulation-assisted control methodology to a high-inertia building in Kassel, Germany. A simulation model of the building is used to proactively optimize, using both current and future information about the external weather condition and the building state, a combined criterion composed of the energy consumption and the thermal comfort index. Both extensive simulation as well as real-life experiments performed during the unstable German

  12. Proactive aggression in early school-aged children with externalizing behavior problems: A longitudinal study on the influence of empathy in response to distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Peter K; Verhulp, Esmee E; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Matthys, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The course of proactive aggressive behavior may be affected by empathy in response to sadness and distress of others. The aim of the current study is to examine empathy in response to sadness and distress and its relation to proactive and reactive aggression in a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems. At baseline (T1) and 12 months later (T2), parents and teachers of 104 six- and seven-year-old children completed the Instrument for Reactive and Proactive Aggression. At T1, parents and teachers also reported empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Findings show that low levels of parent-reported empathy at baseline were specifically associated with high parent-reported proactive aggression but not with reactive aggression. Similarly, low teacher-reported empathy was specifically related to high teacher-reported proactive aggression. Furthermore, high parent-reported but not teacher-reported empathy at baseline was associated with low proactive aggression at 12 months after controlling for proactive aggression at baseline. The conclusions support the notion that in the study of the course of aggression in clinical groups, the distinction between proactive and reactive aggression as well as the study of empathy in response to distress is relevant for a better understanding and might be taken into account in the development of future interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Barriers to Mathematics Achievement in Brunei Secondary School Students: Insights into the Roles of Mathematics Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Proactive Coping, and Test Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Malai Hayati Sheikh; Shahrill, Masitah; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The cross-sectional field survey examined the roles of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping, and test stress in mathematics achievement among 204 (151 females) randomly selected Year 8-10 Brunei secondary school students. The negative dimensions of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, and proactive coping correlated negatively with…

  14. Captive-rearing of Gunnison sage-grouse from egg collection to adulthood to foster proactive conservation and recovery of a conservation-reliant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) are distributed across southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, United States. Their distribution has decreased over the past century and the species has been listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reduced genetic diversity, small population size, and isolation may affect Gunnison sage-grouse population persistence. Population augmentation can be used to counteract or mitigate these issues, but traditional translocation efforts have yielded mixed, and mostly unsuccessful, results. Captive-rearing is a viable, although much debated, conservation approach to bolster wild conservation-reliant species. Although there have been captive-rearing efforts with greater sage-grouse (C. urophasianus), to date, no information exists about captive-rearing methods for Gunnison sage-grouse. Therefore, we investigated techniques for egg collection, artificial incubation, hatch, and captive-rearing of chicks, juveniles, subadults, and adults for Gunnison sage-grouse. In 2009 we established a captive flock that produced viable eggs. From 2009-2011, we collected and artificially incubated 206 Gunnison sage-grouse eggs from 23 wild and 14 captive females. Our hatchability was 90%. Wild-produced eggs were heavier than captive-produced eggs and lost mass similarly during incubation. We produced 148 chicks in captivity and fed them a variety of food sources (e.g. invertebrates to commercial chow). Bacterial infections were the primary cause of chick mortality, but we successfully reduced the overall mortality rate during the course of our study. Conservationists and managers should consider the utility in developing a captive-rearing program or creating a captive population as part of a proactive conservation effort for the conservation-reliant Gunnison sage-grouse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The "proactive" model of learning: Integrative framework for model-free and model-based reinforcement learning utilizing the associative learning-based proactive brain concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsuga, Judit; Biro, Klara; Papp, Csaba; Tajti, Gabor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) is a powerful concept underlying forms of associative learning governed by the use of a scalar reward signal, with learning taking place if expectations are violated. RL may be assessed using model-based and model-free approaches. Model-based reinforcement learning involves the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The model-free system involves the pedunculopontine-tegmental nucleus (PPTgN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventral striatum (VS). Based on the functional connectivity of VS, model-free and model based RL systems center on the VS that by integrating model-free signals (received as reward prediction error) and model-based reward related input computes value. Using the concept of reinforcement learning agent we propose that the VS serves as the value function component of the RL agent. Regarding the model utilized for model-based computations we turned to the proactive brain concept, which offers an ubiquitous function for the default network based on its great functional overlap with contextual associative areas. Hence, by means of the default network the brain continuously organizes its environment into context frames enabling the formulation of analogy-based association that are turned into predictions of what to expect. The OFC integrates reward-related information into context frames upon computing reward expectation by compiling stimulus-reward and context-reward information offered by the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore we suggest that the integration of model-based expectations regarding reward into the value signal is further supported by the efferent of the OFC that reach structures canonical for model-free learning (e.g., the PPTgN, VTA, and VS). (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  17. Interests, Effort, Achievement and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, L.

    1984-01-01

    Relationships between interest in natural sciences and technology and perceived ability, success, and invested effort were studied in Swedish secondary school students. Interests were accounted for by logical orientation and practical value. Interests and grades were strongly correlated, but correlations between interests and effort and vocational…

  18. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  19. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  20. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  1. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  2. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  3. [Foetal therapy for Down syndrome: a pro-active ethical reflection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wert, G M W R; Dondorp, W J

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal screening for Down syndrome has to date focused on facilitating the informed choice to continue or not with a pregnancy. The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for Down syndrome does potentially offer the option to apply foetal neurocognitive therapy for Down syndrome (FTDS). Current research in animal models looks promising and therefore a proactive ethical reflection in relation to clinical trials is urgently needed. This discussion includes an exploration of the ethical aspects of FTDS. There seem to be no convincing a priori objections on the basis of the social model of disability. Arguments in terms of (respect for) autonomy, wellbeing and justice seem to in principle support such therapy. Still, both the conditions for sound clinical trials and the implications of possible effective therapy for current prenatal screening need further scrutiny.

  4. The Effects of Age on Short-Term Memory Loss due to Proactive Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisha Berkauzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project focused on how proactive interference affects the short-term memory of people based on their age. The goal was to find the prime age for learning information and storing it in one's memory. Seven people from ages fifteen to forty were tested individually, using a set color pattern, in order to see how well each individual could remember the different color patterns as difficulty of the pattern increased. The obtained data was fitted by the polynomial regression. The “fitted” curve shows that as age increases, the individual's performance in memorizing the more difficult patterns decreases. Also, the peaked level of memory performance was found to be 24 for our experimental data.

  5. Locally targeted ecosynthesis: a proactive in situ search for extant life on other worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Fairén, Alberto G; Davila, Alfonso

    2013-07-01

    The Viking landers conducted the only life-detection mission outside Earth nearly 40 years ago. We believe it is time to resume this proactive search for life and propose a new approach based on Locally Targeted Ecosynthesis (LoTE) missions: the engineering of local habitable hotspots on planetary surfaces to reveal any subdued biosphere and enhance the expression of its biological activity. LoTE missions are based on a minimum set of assumptions about life, namely, the need for liquid solvents, energy sources, and nutrients, and the limits imposed by UV and ionizing radiation. The most promising destinations for LoTE missions are Mars and Saturn's moon Titan. We describe two LoTE mission concepts that would enhance the unique environmental conditions on Mars and Titan to reveal a subdued biosphere easily detectable with conventional instruments by supplying biologically essential yet critically limited compounds and by engineering local habitable conditions.

  6. A negative association between video game experience and proactive cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    Some evidence demonstrates that video game experience has a beneficial effect on visuospatial cognition. In contrast, other evidence indicates that video game experience may be negatively related to cognitive control. In this study we examined the specificity of the influence of video game experience on cognitive control. Participants with high and low video game experience performed the Stroop task while event-related brain potentials were recorded. The behavioral data revealed no difference between high and low gamers for the Stroop interference effect and a reduction in the conflict adaptation effect in high gamers. The amplitude of the medial frontal negativity and a frontal slow wave was attenuated in high gamers, and there was no effect of gaming status on the conflict slow potential. These data lead to the suggestion that video game experience has a negative influence on proactive, but not reactive, cognitive control.

  7. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity as predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Carmen Pérez Fuentes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive and types of expression (physical/relational. A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain aged 13 to 18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism. This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct.

  8. Sensation-Seeking and Impulsivity as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Molero Jurado, Maria del Mar; Carrión Martínez, José J.; Mercader Rubio, Isabel; Gázquez, José J.

    2016-01-01

    In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive) and types of expression (physical/relational). A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain) aged 13–18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition) and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism). This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct. PMID:27729883

  9. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  10. Formalisation of a new prognosis model for supporting proactive maintenance implementation on industrial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Alexandre; Suhner, Marie-Christine; Iung, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the maintenance function has increased because of its role in keeping and improving system availability and safety, as well as product quality. To support this role, the maintenance concept has undergone several major developments that have led to proactive considerations mainly based on a prognosis process, which normally allows selection of the best maintenance action to be carried out. This paper proposes the deployment and experimentation of a prognosis process within an e-maintenance architecture. The deployment follows a methodology based on the combination of both a probabilistic approach for modelling the degradation mechanism and of an event one for dynamical degradation monitoring. The feasibility and benefits of this new prognosis process is investigated with an experiment using a manufacturing TELMA (TELe-MAintenance) platform supporting the unwinding of metal bobbins

  11. Environmental management throughout the mining cycle: a proactive and integrated approach - 5288

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, E.; Rayot, V.; Descostes, M.; Luquet de Saint Germain, V.; Recoche, G.

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities such as mining generate environmental impacts. The purpose of AREVA Mines is to avoid and/or to minimize them as much as possible in order to improve its integration into its environment. In this article AREVA environmental strategy is illustrated by 3 case studies: -) project and exploration works in Mongolia, -) the post-mining remediation in Mongolia and Kazakhstan, and -) the closing of the Bellezane (France) site. In conclusion, AREVA environmental strategy for its mining activities is: -) assuming a proactive approach to prevent potential risks and impacts on environment, -) developing a scientific and detailed knowledge of the impacts on environment and implementing appropriate mitigation measures, -) monitoring the environment at the earliest stages of the mining cycle, -) investing in research and development to improve our practices, and -) taking into account the concerns and the knowledge of our stakeholders, and the social and cultural aspects directly linked to the site environment

  12. Stopping the past from intruding the present: Social anxiety disorder and proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Harry T A; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquín

    2016-04-30

    It has recently been suggested that social anxiety disorder (SAD) entails a deficit in downregulating unwanted (even non-threatening) memories. In the present study we test this hypothesis by comparing a sample of young adults diagnosed with SAD and healthy controls in their ability to resist proactive interference in a working memory task. Where participants performed similarly in the control condition of the memory task, participants with SAD were more susceptible to interference in the experimental condition than the healthy controls. This finding is in line with previous studies that show anxiety to be associated with impoverished executive control and, specifically, suggests that SAD entails a reduced ability to get rid of interfering memories. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How does susceptibility to proactive interference relate to speech recognition in aided and unaided conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rachel J; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2015-01-01

    Proactive interference (PI) is the capacity to resist interference to the acquisition of new memories from information stored in the long-term memory. Previous research has shown that PI correlates significantly with the speech-in-noise recognition scores of younger adults with normal hearing. In this study, we report the results of an experiment designed to investigate the extent to which tests of visual PI relate to the speech-in-noise recognition scores of older adults with hearing loss, in aided and unaided conditions. The results suggest that measures of PI correlate significantly with speech-in-noise recognition only in the unaided condition. Furthermore the relation between PI and speech-in-noise recognition differs to that observed in younger listeners without hearing loss. The findings suggest that the relation between PI tests and the speech-in-noise recognition scores of older adults with hearing loss relates to capability of the test to index cognitive flexibility.

  14. Type-specific proactive interference in patients with semantic and phonological STM deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lara; Olson, Andrew; Humphreys, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Prior neuropsychological evidence suggests that semantic and phonological components of short-term memory (STM) are functionally and neurologically distinct. The current paper examines proactive interference (PI) from semantic and phonological information in two STM-impaired patients, DS (semantic STM deficit) and AK (phonological STM deficit). In Experiment 1 probe recognition tasks with open and closed sets of stimuli were used. Phonological PI was assessed using nonword items, and semantic and phonological PI was assessed using words. In Experiment 2 phonological and semantic PI was elicited by an item recognition probe test with stimuli that bore phonological and semantic relations to the probes. The data suggested heightened phonological PI for the semantic STM patient, and exaggerated effects of semantic PI in the phonological STM case. The findings are consistent with an account of extremely rapid decay of activated type-specific representations in cases of severely impaired phonological and semantic STM.

  15. White matter pathways critical for language are also critical for resolving proactive interference in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kathleen Ries

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background White matter pathways connecting brain regions involved in language processing in the left prefrontal (PFC and temporal cortices have been found to play a critical role in language comprehension (Turken and Dronkers, 2011. Among the frontal brain regions associated with language processing, the left inferior frontal gyrus (lIFG has also been strongly associated with resolving proactive interference in working memory (Jonides and Nee, 2006. Here we investigated whether the white matter pathways connecting the lIFG to the left temporal lobe found to be important in language comprehension were also critical for resolving proactive interference in working memory. Methods We tested 4 patients with left PFC damage involving the lIFG, 5 with left temporal damage and 6 age-matched controls. Critically, 2 left PFC patients and 1 left temporal patient had lesions involving a complete disconnection between the lIFG and the left temporal cortex and the remaining patients had partial disconnection only. Performance was assessed using the Recent Probes test (Monsell, 1978: 4 visually-presented letters are followed by a probe: one central letter. The task was to decide whether or not the probe was part of the immediately preceding set of letters. Whether or not the probe was also part of the previous trial and elicited a positive or negative response was then manipulated and created recent negative (RN and recent positive trials, respectively. RN trials generated interference in trial n compared to non-recent negative (NN trials. Behavioral results were reported using error rates as the dependent variable. Results When the groups were separated based on which cortical lobe was damaged, there was a significant main interference effect (F(1,12=24.94, p <.001, where RN trials were associated with worse performance than NN trials, and a main effect of group (F(2,12=4.65, p <.05, where performance was worse for patients than for controls, but there was

  16. Proactive information provision for reducing social construct risk of nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Takahashi, Makoto; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Shiraishi, Natsuki; Yagi, Ekou

    2006-01-01

    Outlines of, and the empirical observations from, an action research project aiming at improvement of relationship between nuclear community and the public have been reported in this paper. Ultimate goal of the project is effective reduction of social construct risk of nuclear power plants. As an initial approach to the goal, a proactive information provision scheme has been designed based on the knowledge acquired during our previous attempt of public communication named repetitive dialogue forum. The information contents consistent with the actual need of local citizens has been derived from the previous experiences and provided in the present project. Although the project is in its incipient stage, the observations are informative enough to develop the project further to attain the ultimate purpose of reducing the social construct component of technological risk of nuclear facilities. (author)

  17. Traffic-Adaptive Proactive Sp ectrum Handoff Strategy for Graded Secondary Users in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; SONG Tiecheng; WU Ming; BAO Xu; GUO Jie; HU Jing

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet diff erent delay require-ments of various communication services in Cognitive ra-dio (CR) networks, Secondary users (SUs) are divided into two classes according to the priority of accessing to spec-trum in this paper. Based on the proactive spectrum hand-off scheme, the Preemptive resume priority (PRP) M/G/1 queueing is used to characterize multiple spectrum hand-off s under two diff erent spectrum handoff strategies. The traffic-adaptive spectrum handoff strategy is proposed for graded SUs so as to minimize the average cumulative hand-off delay. Simulation results not only verify that our theo-retical analysis is valid, but also show that the strategy we proposed can reduce the average cumulative handoff delay evidently. The eff ect of service rate on the proposed spec-trum switching point and the admissible access region are provided.

  18. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidekazu, Yoshikawa; Ming, Yang; Zhijian, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented......) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R&D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium...... as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipments of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human...

  19. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

    2012-06-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  20. Towards a Proactive Risk Mitigation Strategy at La Fossa Volcano, Vulcano Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biass, S.; Gregg, C. E.; Frischknecht, C.; Falcone, J. L.; Lestuzzi, P.; di Traglia, F.; Rosi, M.; Bonadonna, C.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive risk assessment framework was built to develop proactive risk reduction measures for Vulcano Island, Italy. This framework includes identification of eruption scenarios; probabilistic hazard assessment, quantification of hazard impacts on the built environment, accessibility assessment on the island and risk perception study. Vulcano, a 21 km2 island with two primary communities host to 900 permanent residents and up to 10,000 visitors during summer, shows a strong dependency on the mainland for basic needs (water, energy) and relies on a ~2 month tourism season for its economy. The recent stratigraphy reveals a dominance of vulcanian and subplinian eruptions, producing a range of hazards acting at different time scales. We developed new methods to probabilistically quantify the hazard related to ballistics, lahars and tephra for all eruption styles. We also elaborated field- and GIS- based methods to assess the physical vulnerability of the built environment and created dynamic models of accessibility. Results outline the difference of hazard between short and long-lasting eruptions. A subplinian eruption has a 50% probability of impacting ~30% of the buildings within days after the eruption, but the year-long damage resulting from a long-lasting vulcanian eruption is similar if tephra is not removed from rooftops. Similarly, a subplinian eruption results in a volume of 7x105 m3 of material potentially remobilized into lahars soon after the eruption. Similar volumes are expected for a vulcanian activity over years, increasing the hazard of small lahars. Preferential lahar paths affect critical infrastructures lacking redundancy, such as the road network, communications systems, the island's only gas station, and access to the island's two evacuation ports. Such results from hazard, physical and systemic vulnerability help establish proactive volcanic risk mitigation strategies and may be applicable in other island settings.

  1. Neurophysiological processes and functional neuroanatomical structures underlying proactive effects of emotional conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, Marie Luise; Chmielewski, Witold; Beste, Christian

    2018-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relation of cognitive and emotional processes as evidenced by emotional conflict monitoring processes. In the cognitive domain, proactive effects of conflicts have widely been studied; i.e. effects of conflicts in the n-1 trial on trial n. Yet, the neurophysiological processes and associated functional neuroanatomical structures underlying such proactive effects during emotional conflicts have not been investigated. This is done in the current study combining EEG recordings with signal decomposition methods and source localization approaches. We show that an emotional conflict in the n-1 trial differentially influences processing of positive and negative emotions in trial n, but not the processing of conflicts in trial n. The dual competition framework stresses the importance of dissociable 'perceptual' and 'response selection' or cognitive control levels for interactive effects of cognition and emotion. Only once these coding levels were isolated in the neurophysiological data, processes explaining the behavioral effects were detectable. The data show that there is not only a close correspondence between theoretical propositions of the dual competition framework and neurophysiological processes. Rather, processing levels conceptualized in the framework operate in overlapping time windows, but are implemented via distinct functional neuroanatomical structures; the precuneus (BA31) and the insula (BA13). It seems that decoding of information in the precuneus, as well as the integration of information during response selection in the insula is more difficult when confronted with angry facial emotions whenever cognitive control resources have been highly taxed by previous conflicts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proactive recruitment of cancer patients’ social networks into a smoking cessation trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Lori A.; Fish, Laura J.; Peterson, Bercedis L.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Garst, Jennifer; Lyna, Pauline; Molner, Stephanie; Bepler, Gerold; Kelley, Mike; Keefe, Francis J.; McBride, Colleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background This report describes the characteristics associated with successful enrollment of smokers in the social networks (i.e., family and close friends) of patients with lung cancer into a smoking cessation intervention. Methods Lung cancer patients from four clinical sites were asked to complete a survey enumerating their family members and close friends who smoke, and provide permission to contact these potential participants. Family members and close friends identified as smokers were interviewed and offered participation in a smoking cessation intervention. Repeated measures logistic regression model examined characteristics associated with enrollment. Results A total of 1,062 eligible lung cancer patients were identified and 516 patients consented and completed the survey. These patients identified 1,325 potentially eligible family and close friends. Of these, 496 consented and enrolled in the smoking cessation program. Network enrollment was highest among patients who were white and had late-stage disease. Social network members enrolled were most likely to be female, a birth family, immediate family, or close friend, and live in close geographic proximity to the patient. Conclusions Proactive recruitment of smokers in the social networks of lung cancer patients is challenging. In this study, the majority of family members and friends declined to participate. Enlisting immediate female family members and friends, who live close to the patient as agents to proactively recruit other network members into smoking cessation trials could be used to extend reach of cessation interventions to patients’ social networks. Moreover, further consideration should be given to the appropriate timing of approaching network smokers to consider cessation. PMID:21382509

  4. Proactive strategies for regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer: implications for optimal patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gazala Khan,1 Rebecca A Moss,2 Fadi Braiteh,3,4 Marc Saltzman5 1Department of Hematology and Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; 3US Oncology Research, Las Vegas, NV, USA; 4Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA; 5Innovative Medical Research of South Florida, Inc, Aventura, FL, USA Abstract: Regorafenib is a broad-spectrum oral multikinase inhibitor that targets several angiogenic, oncogenic, and stromal receptor tyrosine kinases that support the tumor microenvironment. Results from the pivotal Phase III Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Treated with Regorafenib or Placebo After Failure of Standard Therapy (CORRECT trial showed that the addition of regorafenib to best supportive care resulted in a significant improvement in median overall survival and progression-free survival compared with placebo plus best supportive care in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC following all available approved therapies. Thus, regorafenib is the first oral multikinase inhibitor indicated for mCRC; it currently has approval in the USA, EU, Japan, Canada, and Singapore for the treatment of mCRC patients who have been previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin-, and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, and, if the tumor is KRAS wild-type, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. In this review, we highlight regorafenib's mechanism of action, present key efficacy data from the CORRECT trial, and discuss how to proactively manage common adverse events (eg, hand-foot skin reaction, hypertension, oral mucositis, diarrhea, and fatigue experienced by patients receiving regorafenib. Increased awareness of potential adverse events associated with regorafenib and the implementation of proactive strategies to prevent, monitor, and manage these

  5. Influence of healthcare institution managers' proactive approach to communication activities on patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vinka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Over the recent years customer satisfaction program as a tool for patient satisfaction has been recognized as an important issue in healthcare services. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore an influence of healthcare institution managers' approach and attitudes to marketing and public relations activities (communication activities, in the context of implementation of customer satisfaction programs, on patient satisfaction. Methods. The study was conducted among managers from different state-owned healthcare institutions (healthcare centers, clinics, hospitals in Serbia. The structured questionnaire form, comprising both open and closed questions, was used as a main research tool. The total number of sent questionnaires was 120; 56 questionnaires were sent back, while 49 of them were valid. Results. It was shown that 42.9% of healthcare institutions apply proactive media approach, and that 35.7% of the organizations have a person who, besides his/her basic engagements, performs activities connected with marketing and public relations. Using Chi-square likelihood ratio test it is confirmed that these activities have a significant role in supporting customer satisfaction program implementation (p < 0.05. The results showed that in 69.4% cases, positive attitude of healthcare institutions managers toward marketing and public relations activities had positive influence on patient satisfaction (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Managers in healthcare sector in Serbia who used proactive approach toward media and who had already institutionalized communication activities with external stakeholders have a positive attitude to implementation of customer satisfaction program. Furthermore, managers' attitude toward communication activities has influence on patient satisfaction.

  6. Variability in proactive and reactive cognitive control processes across the adult lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frini eKarayanidis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Task-switching paradigms produce a highly consistent age-related increase in mixing cost (longer RT on repeat trials in mixed-task than single task blocks but a less consistent age effect on switch cost (longer RT on switch than repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We use two approaches to examine the adult lifespan trajectory of control processes contributing to mixing cost and switch cost: latent variables derived from an evidence accumulation model of choice, and event-related potentials (ERP that temporally differentiate proactive (cue-driven and reactive (target-driven control processes. Under highly practiced and prepared task conditions, ageing was associated with increasing RT mixing cost but reducing RT switch cost. Both effects were largely due to the same cause: an age effect for mixed-repeat trials. In terms of latent variables, increasing age was associated with slower non-decision processes, slower rate of evidence accumulation about the target, and higher response criterion. Age effects on mixing costs were evident only on response criterion, the amount of evidence required to trigger a decision, whereas age effects on switch cost were present for all three latent variables. ERPs showed age-related increases in preparation for mixed-repeat trials, anticipatory attention, and post-target interference. Cue-locked ERPs that are linked to proactive control were associated with early emergence of age differences in response criterion. These results are consistent with age effects on strategic processes controlling decision caution. Consistent with an age-related decline in cognitive flexibility, younger adults flexibly adjusted response criterion from trial-to-trial on mixed-task blocks, whereas older adults maintained a high criterion for all trials.

  7. Comparing cognition by integrating concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2018-06-01

    This article describes an approach for training a variety of species to learn the abstract concept of same/different, which in turn forms the basis for testing proactive interference and list memory. The stimulus set for concept-learning training was progressively doubled from 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 . . . to 1,024 different pictures with novel-stimulus transfer following learning. All species fully learned the same/different abstract concept: capuchin and rhesus monkeys learned more readily than pigeons; nutcrackers and magpies were at least equivalent to monkeys and transferred somewhat better following initial training sets. A similar task using the 1,024-picture set plus delays was used to test proactive interference on occasional trials. Pigeons revealed greater interference with 10-s than with 1-s delays, whereas delay time had no effect on rhesus monkeys, suggesting that the monkeys' interference was event based. This same single-item same/different task was expanded to a 4-item list memory task to test animal list memory. Humans were tested similarly with lists of kaleidoscope pictures. Delays between the list and test were manipulated, resulting in strong initial recency effects (i.e., strong 4th-item memory) at short delays and changing to a strong primacy effect (i.e., strong 1st-item memory) at long delays (pigeons 0-s to 10-s delays; monkeys 0-s to 30-s delays; humans 0-s to 100-s delays). Results and findings are discussed in terms of these species' cognition and memory comparisons, evolutionary implications, and future directions for testing other species in these synergistically related tasks.

  8. A framework for the integration of environmental legitimacy, accountability and proactivity (ELAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alrazi, B.; Villiers, C de; Staden, C. van [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    There are various environmental problems facing the world today. These include global warming, ozone depletion, species extinction, overgrazing, soil erosion and contamination, dumping of radioactive waste, oil spills, exploitation of natural resources, landfill and open burning. Public concern over the quality of the environment has seen that this issue is increasingly being addressed by the mass media. Likewise, numerous environmental treaties at the international level have been signed over the past two decades, including the Kyoto Protocol (in 1997), the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992, superseded by the Kyoto Protocol), the Montreal Protocol (1989), the Nitrogen Oxide Protocol (1988), the China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (1986) and the Sulphur Emission Reduction Protocol (1985). Hence, this is a common perception that corporations' activities are to be blamed, albeit not entirely, for the existing and future environmental problems. In the pursuit of profit maximization, corporations sometimes take options that are detrimental to the natural environment. As stakeholders are becoming more aware of the various environmental problems, these have caused them to demand more corporate environmental responsibility. In a similar vein, various concepts have emerged in the extant literature to describe corporate environmental behaviors. The include inter alia environmental legitimacy, environmental accountability and environmental proactivity. Despite this proliferation, none of the previous studies made an attempt to discuss how these concepts are similar and/or dissimilar, let alone to integrate them in a single framework and put them in a unified, meaningful context. This study intends to fill in this gap. The objective of this paper is threefold. Firstly, to develop a framework which incorporates three conceptually distinct but interrelated dimensions namely, environmental legitimacy, environmental accountability and

  9. Behavioral phenotype relates to physiological differences in immunological and stress responsiveness in reactive and proactive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, Elizabeth A; Navara, Kristen J

    2018-05-15

    It has now been demonstrated in many species that individuals display substantial variation in coping styles, generally separating into two major behavioral phenotypes that appear to be linked to the degree of physiological stress responsiveness. Laying hens are perfect examples of these dichotomous phenotypes; white laying hens are reactive, flighty, and exhibit large hormonal and behavioral responses to both acute and chronic stress, while brown laying hens are proactive, exploratory, and exhibit low hormonal and behavioral responses to stress. Given the linkages between stress physiology and many other body systems, we hypothesized that behavioral phenotype would correspond to additional physiological responses beyond the stress response, in this case, immunological responses. Because corticosterone is widely known to be immunosuppressive, we predicted that the reactive white hens would show more dampened immune responses than the proactive brown hens due to their exposure to higher levels of corticosterone throughout life. To assess immune function in white and brown hens, we compared febrile responses, corticosterone elevations, feed consumption, and egg production that occurred in response an injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline, inflammatory responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) injection in the toe web, innate phagocytic activity in whole blood, and antibody responses to an injection of Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBCs). Contrary to our predictions, white hens had significantly greater swelling of the toe web in response to PHA and showed a greater inhibition of feeding and reproductive output in response to LPS. These results indicated that reactive individuals are more reactive in both stress and immunological responsiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive Impairments in Occupational Burnout – Error Processing and Its Indices of Reactive and Proactive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Golonka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presented study refers to cognitive aspects of burnout as the effects of long-term work-related stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate electrophysiological correlates of burnout to explain the mechanisms of the core burnout symptoms: exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The analyzed error-related electrophysiological markers shed light on impaired cognitive mechanisms and the specific changes in information-processing in burnout. In the EEG study design (N = 80, two components of error-related potential (ERP, error-related negativity (ERN, and error positivity (Pe, were analyzed. In the non-clinical burnout group (N = 40, a significant increase in ERN amplitude and a decrease in Pe amplitude were observed compared to controls (N = 40. Enhanced error detection, indexed by increased ERN amplitude, and diminished response monitoring, indexed by decreased Pe amplitude, reveal emerging cognitive problems in the non-clinical burnout group. Cognitive impairments in burnout subjects relate to both reactive and unconscious (ERN and proactive and conscious (Pe aspects of error processing. The results indicate a stronger ‘reactive control mode’ that can deplete resources for proactive control and the ability to actively maintain goals. The analysis refers to error processing and specific task demands, thus should not be extended to cognitive processes in general. The characteristics of ERP patterns in burnout resemble psychophysiological indexes of anxiety (increased ERN and depressive symptoms (decreased Pe, showing to some extent an overlapping effect of burnout and related symptoms and disorders. The results support the scarce existing data on the psychobiological nature of burnout, while extending and specifying its cognitive characteristics.

  11. Pro-active approaches to the identification of emerging risks in the food chain: Retrospective case studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Kleter, G.A.; Kreft, F.; Leeuwen, van P.; Waalwijk, C.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    In this report six case studies are carried out on food-safety and animal-health crises that have occurred in the recent past. The aim is to learn from these cases if and how the identification of emerging food-safety (and animal-health) risks can be improved by adopting a (more) pro-active approach

  12. A simultaneous modulation of reactive and proactive inhibition processes by anodal tDCS on the right inferior frontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Cunillera

    Full Text Available Proactive and reactive inhibitory processes are a fundamental part of executive functions, allowing a person to stop inappropriate responses when necessary and to adjust performance in in a long term in accordance to the goals of a task. In the current study, we manipulate, in a single task, both reactive and proactive inhibition mechanisms, and we investigate the within-subjects effect of increasing, by means of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, the involvement of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC. Our results show a simultaneous enhancement of these two cognitive mechanisms when modulating the neural activity of rIFC. Thus, the application of anodal tDCS increased reaction times on Go trials, indicating a possible increase in proactive inhibition. Concurrently, the stop-signal reaction time, as a covert index of the inhibitory process, was reduced, demonstrating an improvement in reactive inhibition. In summary, the current pattern of results validates the engagement of the rIFC in these two forms of inhibitory processes, proactive and reactive inhibition and it provides evidence that both processes can operate concurrently in the brain.

  13. Proactive safety management in health care : towards a broader view of risk analysis, error recovery, and safety culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, M.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Medical errors occur frequently. The harm and additional costs associated with those errors ask for effective safety management. According to the objective of minimal patient harm, safety management in health care should be proactive; that is, risks should be anticipated and reduced before patients

  14. Proactive, reactive, and romantic relational aggression in adulthood: measurement, predictive validity, gender differences, and association with Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M; Nelson, David A; Crick, Nicki R; Coccaro, Emil F

    2010-04-01

    The psychometric properties of a recently introduced adult self-report of relational aggression are presented. Specifically, the predictive utility of proactive and reactive peer-directed relational aggression, as well as romantic relational aggression, are explored in a large (N=1387) study of adults. The measure had adequate reliability and validity and the subscales demonstrated unique predictive abilities for a number of dependent variables. In particular, reactive but not proactive relational aggression was uniquely associated with history of abuse, hostile attribution biases, and feelings of distress regarding relational provocation situations. Reactive relational aggression was also more strongly related to anger and hostility than proactive aggression. In addition, relational aggression in the context of romantic relationships was uniquely related to anger, hostility, impulsivity, history of abuse, hostile attribution biases, and emotional sensitivity to relational provocations, even when controlling for peer-directed relational aggression. Gender differences in overall levels of relational aggression were not observed; however, males were most likely to engage in peer-directed proactive and reactive relational aggression whereas females were most likely to engage in romantic relational aggression. In a second study (N=150), relational aggression was higher in a sample of adults with Intermittent Explosive Disorder than in a sample of healthy controls or psychiatric controls. The findings highlight the importance of assessing subtypes of relational aggression in adult samples. Ways in which this measure may extend research in psychology and psychiatry are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reactive and Proactive Subtypes of Relational and Physical Aggression in Middle Childhood: Links to Concurrent and Longitudinal Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2010-01-01

    Peer aggression in children is a serious issue that school psychologists often encounter on a daily basis. To develop a better understanding of aggression, it is important to look at specific subtypes of aggression and how they are related to adjustment difficulties. Past research has examined the links between reactive and proactive physical…

  16. Feeling Vital after a Good Night's Sleep: The Interplay of Energetic Resources and Self-efficacy for Daily Proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Belschak, F.D.; Den Hartog, D.N.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of daily vitality as an energy-based mechanism through which sleep quantity and quality relate to proactive behavior. In addition, we propose that daily self-efficacy forms a contingency condition in that self-efficacy facilitates the translation of vitality

  17. Hot-headed or cold-blooded? Towards a clear distinction between reactive and proactive aggression in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, J.D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The current dissertation touches on the distinction between reactive and proactive aggression. Reactive aggression is a reaction to a presumed threat which is associated with anger. This type of aggression is driven by frustration and anger and is instigated by provocation. The function of this kind

  18. The Role of Test Expectancy in the Build-Up of Proactive Interference in Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Gilmore, Adrian W.; Szpunar, Karl K.; McDermott, Kathleen B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that interpolated testing in a multiple list paradigm protects against proactive interference by sustaining test expectancy during encoding. In both experiments, recall on the last of 5 word lists was compared between 4 conditions: a tested group who had taken tests on all previous lists, an untested group who had not…

  19. The effect of Parkinson's disease on the dynamics of on-line and proactive cognitive control during action selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wylie, S.A.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Bashore, T.R.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Processing irrelevant visual information sometimes activates incorrect response impulses. The engagement of cognitive control mechanisms to suppress these impulses and make proactive adjustments to reduce the future impact of incorrect impulses may rely on the integrity of frontal-basal ganglia

  20. Delayed Release from Proactive Interference with Meaningful Material: How Much Do We Remember After Reading Brief Prose Passages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Gary B.; Robbins, Donald

    1977-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted, investigating the buildup of and the release from proactive interference, in which the stimulus materials were brief prose passages about specific topics. Each passage was followed by a multiple-choice test, and then a final test on all the passages read was given. Implications of the data for standardized tests…

  1. A cross-sectional pilot study of student's proactive behavior in midwifery education : Validation of a developed questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestdagh, Eveline; Timmermans, Olaf; Colin, Pieter J; Van Rompaey, Bart

    OBJECTIVES: Midwifery students face major challenges in adapting quickly and effectively to different clinical settings. Proactive behavior, triggered by various individual and/or contextual antecedents, could be a significant added value to cope with these challenges. DESIGN: A cross-sectional

  2. The role of organizational context in fostering employee proactive behavior: : Interplay between HR system configurations and relational climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batistic, S.; Cerne, Matej; Kaše, R.; Zupic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Emphasizing the role of the organizational context and adopting a multilevel approach, we propose that the interplay between HR system configurations and relational climates has a cross-level effect on employee proactive behavior. Using a sample of 211 employees in 25 companies, we show that the

  3. Creating a Safe Space: A Case Study of Complex Trauma and a Call for Proactive Comprehensive Psychoeducational Assessments and Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    This article advocates for proactive, dynamic and comprehensive psycho-educational assessments for children and young people who have a history of complex trauma, because of its known effects on development and learning. A case study is shared of a young woman with a history of complex trauma because of exposure to parental neglect, multiple…

  4. A proactive alarm reduction method and its human factors validation test for a main control room for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Suh, Sang-moon; Kim, Sa-kil; Suh, Yong-suk; Park, Je-yun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A proactive alarm reduction method improves effectiveness on the alarm reduction. ► The method suppresses alarms based on the ECA rules and facts for the alarm reduction under an alarm flood situation. ► The alarm reduction logics are supplemented to a high hit ratio of the reduction logics during on-line operations. ► The method is validated by human factors validation test based on regulatory requirements. -- Abstract: Conventional alarm systems tend to overwhelm operators during a transient because of a large number of nearly simultaneous annunciator activations with varying degrees of relevance to operator tasks. Thus alarm processing techniques have developed to support operators in coping with the volume of alarms, to identify which alarms are significant, and to reduce the need for operators to infer the plant conditions. This paper proposes a proactive alarm reduction method for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) whereby based on the contents of the past operating effects alarm reduction is carried out during the next transient. We designed and implemented the proactive alarm reduction system and constructed the environment for the human factors validation test. Also, eight subjects actually working in a nuclear power plant (NPP) tested the practical effectiveness of the proposed proactive alarm reduction method according to the procedure of human factors validation test under a dynamic simulation of a partial scope for an NPP.

  5. Development of a Proactive Care Program (U-CARE) to Preserve Physical Functioning of Frail Older People in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, N.; Ten Dam, V.H.; Drubbel, I.; Numans, M.E.; De Wit, N.J.; Schuurmans, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Care for older patients in primary care is currently reactive, fragmented, and time consuming. An innovative structured and proactive primary care program (U-CARE) has been developed to preserve physical functioning and enhance quality of life of frail older people. This study describes in

  6. Beyond good intentions: the role of proactive coping in achieving sustained behavioural change in the context of diabetes management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoolen, B.J.; Ridder, D. de; Bensing, J.; Gorter, K.; Rutten, G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a brief self-management intervention to support patients recently diagnosed with type-2 diabetes to achieve sustained improvements in their self-care behaviours. Based on proactive coping, the intervention emphasizes the crucial role of anticipation and

  7. Contribution of Reactive and Proactive Control to Children's Working Memory Performance: Insight from Item Recall Durations in Response Sequence Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas; James, Tiffany D.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    The present study addressed whether developmental improvement in working memory span task performance relies upon a growing ability to proactively plan response sequences during childhood. Two hundred thirteen children completed a working memory span task in which they used a touchscreen to reproduce orally presented sequences of animal names.…

  8. Visual cues and listening effort: individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and 2 presentation modalities (audio only [AO] and auditory-visual [AV]). Signal-to-noise ratios were adjusted to provide matched speech recognition across audio-only and AV noise conditions. Also measured were subjective perceptions of listening effort and 2 predictive variables: (a) lipreading ability and (b) WMC. Objective and subjective results indicated that listening effort increased in the presence of noise, but on average the addition of visual cues did not significantly affect the magnitude of listening effort. Although there was substantial individual variability, on average participants who were better lipreaders or had larger WMCs demonstrated reduced listening effort in noise in AV conditions. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that integrating auditory and visual cues requires cognitive resources in some participants. The data indicate that low lipreading ability or low WMC is associated with relatively effortful integration of auditory and visual information in noise.

  9. Enhanced eyeblink conditioning in behaviorally inhibited individuals is disrupted by proactive interference following US alone pre-exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Todd Allen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety vulnerable individuals exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as well as enhanced proactive interference from CS or US alone pre-exposures (Holloway et al., 2012. US alone pre-exposures disrupt subsequent CR acquisition to CS-US paired trials as compared to context pre-exposure controls. While Holloway et al., (2012 reported enhanced acquisition in high trait anxiety individuals in the context condition, anxiety vulnerability effects were not reported for the US alone pre-exposure group. It appears from the published data that there were no differences between high and low anxiety individuals in the US alone condition. In the work reported here, we sought to extend the findings of enhanced proactive interference with US alone pre-exposures to determine if the enhanced conditioning was disrupted by proactive interference procedures. We also were interested in the spontaneous eyeblinks during the pre-exposure phase of training. We categorized individuals as anxiety vulnerability or non-vulnerable individuals based scores on the Adult Measure of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI. Sixty six participants received 60 trials consisting of 30 US alone or context alone pre-exposures followed by 30 CS-US trials. US alone pre-exposures not only disrupted CR acquisition overall, but behaviorally inhibited (BI individuals exhibited enhanced proactive interference as compared to non-inhibited (NI individuals. In addition, US alone pre-exposures disrupted the enhanced acquisition observed in BI individuals as compared to NI individuals following context alone pre-exposures. Differences were also found in rates of spontaneous eyeblinks between BI and NI individuals during context pre-exposure. Our findings will be discussed in the light of the neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning as well as possible factors such as hypervigilance in the amygdala and hippocampal systems, and possible learned helplessness. Applications of these findings of

  10. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  11. US effort on HTS power transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, S., E-mail: shirish.pmehta@spx.com [Waukesha Electric Systems, 400 S. Praire Avenue, Waukesha, WI 53186 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Fault Current Limiting HTS Transformer development program plan is presented. Benefits of FCL HTS Transformers for power delivery system. Independent program review process is described. Transformer specifications, site requirement described. Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification

  12. US effort on HTS power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.

    2011-01-01

    Fault Current Limiting HTS Transformer development program plan is presented. Benefits of FCL HTS Transformers for power delivery system. Independent program review process is described. Transformer specifications, site requirement described. Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification

  13. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  14. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  15. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  16. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  17. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  18. Proactive enrollment of parents to tobacco quitlines in pediatric practices is associated with greater quitline use: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. Drehmer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every U.S. state has a free telephone quitline that tobacco users can access to receive cessation assistance, yet referral rates for parents in the pediatric setting remain low. This study evaluates, within pediatric offices, the impact of proactive enrollment of parents to quitlines compared to provider suggestion to use the quitline and identifies other factors associated with parental quitline use. Methods As part of a cluster randomized controlled trial (Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure, research assistants completed post-visit exit interviews with parents in 20 practices in 16 states. Parents’ quitline use was assessed at a 12-month follow-up interview. A multivariable analysis was conducted for quitline use at 12 months using a logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations to account for provider clustering. Self-reported cessation rates were also compared among quitline users based on the type of referral they received at their child’s doctor’s office. Results Of the 1980 parents enrolled in the study, 1355 (68 % completed a 12-month telephone interview and of those 139 (10 % reported talking with a quitline (15 % intervention versus 6 % control; p < .0001. Parents who were Hispanic (aOR 2.12 (1.22, 3.70, black (aOR 1.57 (1.14, 2.16, planned to quit smoking in the next 30 days (aOR 2.32 (1.47, 3.64, and had attended an intervention practice (aOR 2.37 (1.31, 4.29 were more likely to have talked with a quitline. Parents who only received a suggestion from a healthcare provider to use the quitline (aOR 0.45 (0.23, 0.90 and those who were not enrolled and did not receive a suggestion (aOR 0.33 (0.17, 0.64 were less likely to talk with a quitline than those who were enrolled in the quitline during the baseline visit. Self-reported cessation rates among quitline users were similar regardless of being proactively enrolled (19 %, receiving only a suggestion (25 %, or

  19. Innovation management based on proactive engagement of customers: A case study on LEGO Group. Part I: Innovation Management at Lego Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, G.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    Customers' proactive engagement in the innovation process represents a business priority for companies which adopt the open innovation business model. In such a context, it is of outmost importance for companies to use the online environment and social media, in order to create an interactive and open dialogue with customers and other important external stakeholders, achieving to gather creative solutions and innovative ideas by involving them in the process of co-creating value. Thus, the current paper is based on a case study approach, which aims to highlight the open innovation business model of the LEGO Group, one of the most successful and active company in engaging customers in submitting ideas and creative solutions for developing new products and new technologies, through online platforms. The study then proceeds to analyze the innovation management at LEGO Group, emphasizing the most important elements regarding the management team, the success and failures, the evolution of the LEGO products focusing on the innovation efforts of the company, its mission, vision, and values, emphasizing the innovation terms which guide the actions and objectives of the LEGO Group. Also, the research based on the case study approach, outlines the most important policies and strategies of the company, the organizational structure consisting of flat structures which facilitate the orientation of the team management on the innovation process and the proactive involvement of consumers and other external stakeholders in product development, highlighting also the most important activities developed by the management team in exploring the new opportunities which may occur on the market, involving customers in sharing their ideas at festivals, participating to discussions of adult fans on web-based platforms and establishing partnerships with the external stakeholders in order to create value. Moreover, the paper is focused on identifying the company's concerns regarding the

  20. Neonatal Perirhinal Lesions in Rhesus Macaques Alter Performance on Working Memory Tasks with High Proactive Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alison R; Nadji, Ryhan; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    The lateral prefrontal cortex is known for its contribution to working memory (WM) processes in both humans and animals. Yet, recent studies indicate that the prefrontal cortex is part of a broader network of interconnected brain areas involved in WM. Within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, the perirhinal cortex, which has extensive direct interactions with the lateral and orbital prefrontal cortex, is required to form active/flexible representations of familiar objects. However, its participation in WM processes has not be fully explored. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of neonatal perirhinal lesions on maintenance and monitoring WM processes. As adults, animals with neonatal perirhinal lesions and their matched controls were tested in three object-based (non-spatial) WM tasks that tapped different WM processing domains, e.g., maintenance only (Session-unique Delayed-nonmatching-to Sample, SU-DNMS), and maintenance and monitoring (Object-Self-Order, OBJ-SO; Serial Order Memory Task, SOMT). Neonatal perirhinal lesions transiently impaired the acquisition of SU-DNMS at a short (5 s) delay, but not when re-tested with a longer delay (30 s). The same neonatal lesions severely impacted acquisition of OBJ-SO task, and the impairment was characterized by a sharp increase in perseverative errors. By contrast, neonatal perirhinal lesion spared the ability to monitor the temporal order of items in WM as measured by the SOMT. Contrary to the SU-DNMS and OBJ-SO, which re-use the same stimuli across trials and thus produce proactive interference, the SOMT uses novel objects on each trial and is devoid of interference. Therefore, the impairment of monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions on SU-DNMS and OBJ-SO tasks is likely to be caused by an inability to solve working memory tasks with high proactive interference. The sparing of performance on the SOMT demonstrates that neonatal perirhinal lesions do not alter working memory processes per se but