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Sample records for goat domestication process

  1. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, Mark L.; Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including s...

  2. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  3. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Drew

    Full Text Available Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  4. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

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    Thomas E Besser

    Full Text Available Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep.In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats.M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of

  5. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep. In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats. M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of pneumonia. However

  6. Evidence for introgressive hybridization of captive markhor (Capra falconeri) with domestic goat: cautions for reintroduction.

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    Hammer, Sabine E; Schwammer, Harald M; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2008-04-01

    Markhors (Capra falconeri) are among the most endangered mammal species, and several conservation measures, including ex situ breeding, are implemented to prevent their extinction. We studied sequence diversity and differentiation of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region among C. f. heptneri and C. f. megaceros kept in four zoos in relationship to lineages of other wild and domestic goats, to assess for the first time the level of molecular distinctness and variability among those subspecies, and to check for possible introgression by related Capra taxa, such as domestic goats. Levels of differentiation between some Capra falconeri lineages and modern domestic goats were similar to levels between other wild goat species (i.e., Capra aegagrus, Capra ibex) and domestic goats. Among pure markhor lineages, paraphyly was observed for C. f. heptneri, suggesting occurrence of shared ancestral polymorphism among markhor subspecies and/or ancient or recent gene exchange between subspecies. Interestingly, 35.7% of all studied markhors from three zoos are introgressed by the domestic goat. Furthermore, despite relatively small breeding group sizes, markhors have maintained a relatively high proportion of mtDNA variation within zoo groups. In any case, the existence of markhors introgressed with domestic goat DNA in zoos should be considered when selecting markhors for ex situ breeding programs with the aim of building up a stock for later reintroduction into the wild.

  7. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

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    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  8. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

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    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  9. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; Foreyt, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumoni...

  11. DNA Metabarcoding Reveals Diet Overlap between the Endangered Walia Ibex and Domestic Goats - Implications for Conservation.

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    Berihun Gebremedhin

    Full Text Available Human population expansion and associated degradation of the habitat of many wildlife species cause loss of biodiversity and species extinctions. The small Simen Mountains National Park in Ethiopia is one of the last strongholds for the preservation of a number of afro-alpine mammals, plants and birds, and it is home to the rare endemic Walia ibex, Capra walie. The narrow distribution range of this species as well as potential competition for resources with livestock, especially with domestic goat, Capra hircus, may compromise its future survival. Based on a curated afro-alpine taxonomic reference library constructed for plant taxon identification, we investigated the diet of the Walia ibex and addressed the dietary overlap with domestic goat using DNA metabarcoding of faecal samples. Faeces of both species were collected from different localities in the National Park. We show that both species are browsers, with forbs, shrubs and trees comprising the largest proportion of their diet, supplemented by grasses. There was a considerable overlap in dietary preferences. Several of the preferred diet items of the Walia ibex (Alchemilla sp., Hypericum revolutum, Erica arborea and Rumex sp. were also among the most preferred diet items of the domestic goat. These results indicate that there is potential for competition between the two species, especially during the dry season, when resources are limited. Our findings, in combination with the expected increase in domestic herbivores, suggest that management plans should consider the potential threat posed by domestic goats to ensure future survival of the endangered Walia ibex.

  12. Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of Alpine ibex.

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    Christine Grossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex. At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2, Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8% to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection.

  13. Suppurative intracranial processes in 15 domestic ruminants

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    Antônio Carlos Lopes Câmara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to listeriosis which is relatively common in ruminants, there are three other uncommon suppurative intracranial processes (SIP identifiable in adult ungulates as brain abscess, basilar empyema and suppurative meningitis. The present paper reports the epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial, pathological and microbiological findings of 15 domestic ruminants with SIP. A total of 15 animals were selected (eight sheep, four cattle and three goats; with the definitive diagnoses of basilar empyema (n=3, brain abscess (n=1, listeriosis (n=5 and suppurative meningitis (n=6. Hematology revealed leukocytosis with inversion of the lymphocyte/ neutrophil ratio in 4 cases. In the majority of animals, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF presented light yellow coloration and cloudy aspect due to neutrophilic pleocytosis (15 - 997 leukocytes/µL. Microbiological culture of CSF or central nervous system (CNS fragments resulted on isolation of Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli and Stenotrophomonas sp. In a goat with thalamic abscess, microbiological assay was not performed, but Gram positive bacilli type bacteria were observed in histology. The diagnosis of these outbreaks was based on the association of epidemiological, clinical, pathological and bacteriological findings; reiterating that the infectious component remains an important cause of CNS disease in domestic ruminants and also shows the need for dissemination of information about the most effective preventive measures for the ranchers.

  14. Pathology of AA amyloidosis in domestic sheep and goats.

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    Ménsua, C; Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Biescas, E; Fernández, A; Murphy, C L; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A; Luján, L

    2003-01-01

    We describe the main pathologic changes in small ruminants affected by AA amyloidosis, together with the partial sequence of the protein involved. Twenty-one sheep and one goat were selected for presenting macroscopic kidney lesions compatible with systemic amyloidosis. Available tissue samples were studied by histologic, immunopathologic, and ultrastructural means. Renal lesions were characterized grossly by pale cortical surfaces with scattered, miliary, whitish-yellow foci and on cut cortical surfaces by straight, whitish-yellow striations. Gangrenous pneumonia was observed in 16 out of 21 affected sheep (76.2%), although other chronic inflammations were also observed. Amyloid was detected in all grossly affected kidneys using Congo red staining, lesions being most remarkable in glomeruli, affecting 95.5% of animals studied. Congophilic deposits were also observed in intertubular interstitium (68.2%) and medulla (57.1%). All amyloid-affected animals presented proximal convoluted tubule lesions, mostly characterized by an increase in diameter and by hyaline granular degeneration that were responsible for the macroscopic appearance of the kidney. Histologically, amyloid was also seen in blood vessels, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. All amyloid deposits demonstrated greenish-yellow birefringence with polarized light, and the antisera prepared against goat amyloid extracts specifically reacted with birefringent congophilic deposits of both sheep and goats. Ultrastructurally, these deposits were formed by masses of straight, nonbranching fibrils located predominantly in the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and in the mesangium. Partial sequence of the protein in sheep and goats indicated a high degree of homology with the previously reported sequence of sheep Serum Amyloid A.

  15. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

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    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  16. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  17. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

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    Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov

    Full Text Available Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL. Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as

  18. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

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    Danielle Darracq Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a Pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus.

  19. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

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    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  20. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

  1. Processing Food for the Domestic Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; McCormick, Dorothy; Kamau, Paul

    This paper addresses the domestically owned food-processing industry in Kenya and explores thesale of processed food products to the domestic ‘modern’ retail sector. Food processing represents astep up in the value chain compared to fresh food production and may thus, at least potentially, leadto...... economic development. In focusing on food-processing businesses and on domestic rather thanglobal market sales, this paper distinguishes itself from studies on Sub-Saharan African suppliers toglobal value chains. The potential importance of domestic ‘modern’ retail formats to Kenyan foodsuppliers...... and thus whether food processing – as opposed to fresh foodexports – retains importance for suppliers as well as for the Kenyan economy. This paper aims tocontribute knowledge to this subject on which very little research exists. Based on fieldwork, thepaper shows that a variety of entry barriers exist...

  2. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar

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    Saw Bawm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162 of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4% samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06, farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94, and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83. This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country.

  3. Molecular identification of peste des petits ruminants virus in wild goat and domestic small ruminants by real-time -PCR technique in Erbil-Iraq

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    E.P. Candlan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In July 2010 outbreak was occurred in wild goat in Barzan, Sherwin mizzen and Mergasur in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. There were over 2700 deaths (both young and adult during the period of July 2010 to October 2011. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV was suspected. This was confirmed by Real Time PCR technique using TaqMan®probes for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants. The results of Real-Time PCR for the 9 sample taken from 9 Wild goat there are 6 sample positive and 3 sample negative and 76 sample from domestic ruminants (sheep and goat 63 samples was negative for PPR. This result confirms the diagnosis domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the ‘Nigeria/75/1’ strain of PPRV.

  4. Deep insemination with sex-sorted Cashmere goat sperm processed in the presence of antioxidants.

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    Qin, Y; Yang, S; Xu, J; Xia, C; Li, X; An, L; Tian, J

    2018-02-01

    Flow cytometrically sex-sorted sperm have been widely used for improving reproductive management in the dairy industry. However, the industrial application of this technology in other domestic species is largely limited by the lower fertility after insemination. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of antioxidant supplementation during the sex-sorting and freezing process on the quality and functions of sorted sperm from Liaoning Cashmere goats. We tested the effects of antioxidant supplementation during sex-sorting and freezing process, including ascorbic acid-2-glucoside AA-2G, glutathione, melatonin and vitamin C (VC), on the quality and functions of sex-sorted fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. Based on these experiments, we performed deep insemination with sex-sorted sperm using our improved strategy, in comparison to unsorted sperm. In Experiment 1, compared with control group and other antioxidants, AA-2G supplementation significantly alleviated the degradation of motility and viability of fresh sperm after sorting and showed the highest percentage of sperm with normal morphology. In addition, AA-2G supplementation showed an evident protection against the sorting process-induced membrane and acrosome damage. In Experiment 2, AA-2G supplementation was most effective in protecting motility, while melatonin supplementation appears to facilitate the degradation of quality of frozen-thawed sex-sorted sperm. In Experiment 3, we performed deep insemination with sperm that were sorted and frozen in the presence of AA-2G and obtained a satisfying pregnancy rate comparable to that from unsorted sperm. The results showed that AA-2G supplementation efficiently protects quality and function of both fresh and frozen-thawed sex-sorted sperm of Cashmere goats, thus obtaining a satisfying pregnancy outcome. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry — a heritage meat product

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, V.; Dushyanthan, K.; Das, Arun K.

    2010-01-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a FO value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force value...

  6. Long-acting neuroleptic use for reproductive management of non-domestic ungulates using the domestic goat (Capra hircus) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Rachael B; Schook, Mandi W; Wolfe, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    Fluphenazine decanoate is a long-acting phenothiazine neuroleptic that attenuates the stress response and may be useful during intensive handling for reproductive procedures in non-domestic ungulates. However, phenothiazines are also associated with elevated serum prolactin, which can suppress fertility in some species. For this study, 10 female domestic goats were used as a model for non-domestic caprids to test effects of fluphenazine decanoate on serum cortisol and reproductive cyclicity following estrus synchronization. Two identical trials were conducted during the breeding season, employing a random crossover design. First, females underwent estrus synchronization using a 14-day treatment with progesterone (330 mg; CIDR). After 7 days of CIDR exposure, the treatment group (n = 5) received fluphenazine decanoate (1.0 mg/kg IM) and controls (n = 5) received an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline IM. At CIDR withdrawal (Day 14), animals received 125 mg cloprostenol sodium to lyse any luteal tissue and synchronize estrus. Blood was collected every 2 hr from 36 hr after CIDR withdrawal until 24 hr after standing estrus, or up to 5 days to monitor stress and reproductive hormones. Serum cortisol, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. While treatment with fluphenazine was associated with lower cortisol concentrations compared to controls (P = 0.001), 4 of the 10 treated animals experienced elevated serum prolactin, suppression of the LH surge and inhibition of ovulation. These findings suggest that long-acting neuroleptic drugs reduce the adrenal stress response, but may interfere with reproductive responses and negatively influence breeding success. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Sanitary and technologic evaluation of the rural processing of fresh goat cheese in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C

    1988-12-01

    A sanitary and technological diagnosis of the goat cheese rural process was carried out. The purpose was to obtain more information for the planning of a program aimed to the improvement of this small agroindustry. Samples of milk, curdle, dry abomasum, rennet, water and cheese of 10% of the small industries of two rural villages in two agricultural seasons, were taken. Moreover, dilutions of the utensils and goat udders were prepared. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis of mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, and detection of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase (+), Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis. Proximate chemical analysis and determinations of sodium chloride and titratible acidity in milk, cheese, dry abomasum and rennet, were carried out. Goat milk was also subjected to analysis of density. It was found that significant sanitary failures are present during th whole goat cheese process, although the highest bacteria contamination occurred at the milking, curdling and filling stages. These are characterized by excessive handling and absolute lack of hygiene. The pathogen B. melitensis was absent; therefore the causes of poisoning were attributed to the toxin produced by S. aureus and to the significant count of fecal coliforms found in the goat cheese. Even though the goats are fed under a poor feeding system, the milk presented a normal physical and chemical composition. Nevertheless, protein and fat matter losses occur during cheese preparation, as a result of handling practices and lack of process control.

  8. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  9. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S; Weiser, Glen C; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J; Keating, Kim A; Chapman, Phillip L; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack; Clarke, P Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  10. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together.

  11. Applicability of major histocompatibility complex DRB1 alleles as markers to detect vertebrate hybridization: a case study from Iberian ibex × domestic goat in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasaad Samer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization between closely related wild and domestic species is of great concern because it can alter the evolutionary integrity of the affected populations. The high allelic variability of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC loci usually excludes them from being used in studies to detect hybridization events. However, if a the parental species don’t share alleles, and b one of the parental species possesses an exceptionally low number of alleles (to facilitate analysis, then even MHC loci have the potential to detect hybrids. Results By genotyping the exon2 of the MHC class II DRB1 locus, we were able to detect hybridization between domestic goats (Capra hircus and free-ranging Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica by molecular means. Conclusions This is the first documentation of a Capra pyrenaica × Capra hircus hybridization, which presented us the opportunity to test the applicability of MHC loci as new, simple, cost-effective, and time-saving approach to detect hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives, thus adding value to MHC genes role in animal conservation and management.

  12. Coprological Assessment of Enteric Parasites in Argali Sheep ( Ovis ammon , Siberian Ibex ( Capra sibirica , and Domestic Sheep and Goats at the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Kenny

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009 (April/May the Denver Zoological Foundation in collaboration with the Mongolian Academy of Sciences conducted a fi eld coprological assessment feasibility study at the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in southeastern Mongolia. Our initial effort was directed at fi nding simple methodologies that would work consistently in the fi eld for identifying some of the enteric parasites for argali sheep ( Ovis ammon and Siberian ibex ( Capra sibirica , and then to compare these to samples from local nomad domestic fat-tailed sheep ( Ovis aries and cashmere goats ( Capra hircus . Direct fecal examination yielded less eggs than the fl otation techniques, but was still felt to be useful as a quick screening tool. From the fl otation techniques we settled on using sugar because it appeared to yield the most eggs and sugar is readily available in Mongolia. We successfully recovered Entamoeba sp., Eimeria spp., trichostrongyles, large trichostrongyle species, Trichuris ovis and Strongyloides papillosus . We are using the digital images we captured to create a fi eld guide for common enteric parasites found in wildlife and domestics ungulates found in the reserve. In the future, we plan to use the fi eld guide and the quantitative modi fi ed McMaster technique to compare parasite egg-type numbers in both wild and domestic ungulates during different seasons.

  13. Domestic violence survivors and their experiences during legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçakar, Nilgün; Yeşiltepe, Gözde; Karaman, Gökçe; Ergönen, Akça Toprak

    2016-05-01

    Many victims of domestic violence do not seek recourse to the needed medical and legal services. The aim of this study was to determine the difficulties faced by and experiences of female survivors of domestic violence during their medical and legal proceedings. We designed our study using a qualitative approach to understand the experiences of survivors during the legal process as well as their feelings and attitudes towards domestic violence through in-depth interviews. The data obtained from the participants were analyzed and synthesized using a thematic analysis procedure. Most of our participants reported different types of domestic violence, citing feelings of fear and loneliness during these experiences. They reported feeling dissatisfied with their complaints being ignored by the police and the perpetrators remaining unpunished. They complained of the complex procedures and negligence of staff in health-care centers such as hospitals, and they reported being shifted to several different places. We believe that an assessment of such female survivors in terms of specific standards set by specialists will help make improvements to the legal process. Education programs should be organized for professionals dealing with survivors of domestic violence. Special health-care services with fast proceedings must be established in health-care centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Telling the story of XX sex reversal in the goat: highlighting the sex-crossroad in domestic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannetier, M; Elzaiat, M; Thépot, D; Pailhoux, E

    2012-01-01

    The conditions for sex reversal in vertebrate species have been studied extensively and have highlighted numerous key factors involved in sex differentiation. We review here the history of the development of knowledge, referring to one example of complete female-to-male XX sex reversal associated with a polled phenotype in the goat. The results and hypotheses concerning this polled intersex syndrome (PIS) are then presented, firstly with respect to the transcriptional regulatory effects of the PIS mutation, and secondly regarding the role of the main ovarian-differentiating factor in this PIS locus, the FOXL2 gene. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  16. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Darshna B.; Kapadiya, Dharti B.; Jain, Amit Kumar; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; Darji, Vijaykumar B.; Aparnathi, Kishorkumar D.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes in Surti goat milk. Materials and Methods: Milk samples from Surti goats and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July 2013 to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Milk samples from Kankrej cows were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical characteristics such as acidity, viscosity, surface tension, specific gravity, refractive index, freezing point, and electrical conductivity. Samples were also analyzed for selected processing-related parameters such as heat coagulation time (HCT), rennet coagulation time (RCT), rate of acid production by starter culture, alcohol stability, and activity of selected enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase activity, catalase activity, proteolytic activity, and lipase activity. Results: Goat milk had the highest acidity, viscosity and surface tension, followed by cow milk and buffalo milk. However, the differences in acidity, specific gravity, surface tension, refractive index, electrical conductivity, HCT and lipase activity of three types of milk studied, viz., goat, cow, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (pmilk had the highest specific gravity, followed by those found in cow and goat milk. The viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk was significantly lower (p>0.05) than that of the buffalo milk. However, the difference in viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk and that of the cow milk was statistically non-significant. The cow milk had the highest refractive index, followed by goat and buffalo milk. The cow milk had the highest proteolytic activity and heat coagulation time (HCT), followed by those found in buffalo and goat milk. The goat milk had the lowest freezing point, lipase activity, and RCT, followed by

  17. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshna B. Prajapati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes in Surti goat milk. Materials and Methods: Milk samples from Surti goats and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July 2013 to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU, Anand. Milk samples from Kankrej cows were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical characteristics such as acidity, viscosity, surface tension, specific gravity, refractive index, freezing point, and electrical conductivity. Samples were also analyzed for selected processing-related parameters such as heat coagulation time (HCT, rennet coagulation time (RCT, rate of acid production by starter culture, alcohol stability, and activity of selected enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase activity, catalase activity, proteolytic activity, and lipase activity. Results: Goat milk had the highest acidity, viscosity and surface tension, followed by cow milk and buffalo milk. However, the differences in acidity, specific gravity, surface tension, refractive index, electrical conductivity, HCT and lipase activity of three types of milk studied, viz., goat, cow, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (p0.05 than that of the buffalo milk. However, the difference in viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk and that of the cow milk was statistically non-significant. The cow milk had the highest refractive index, followed by goat and buffalo milk. The cow milk had the highest proteolytic activity and heat coagulation time (HCT, followed by those found in buffalo and goat milk. The goat milk had the lowest freezing point, lipase activity, and RCT, followed by those found in cow and buffalo milk. The goat milk had the highest electrical conductivity, followed by those found in buffalo and cow milk. The

  18. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  19. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G

    2005-12-01

    Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  20. Bituminization process of radioactive liquid wastes by domestic bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, H.L.

    1977-11-01

    A study has been carried out of the incorporation of intermediate level wastes in bitumen. Two kinds of wastes: a) an evaporator concentrate from a PWR (containing boric acid), b) second cycle wastes from the Purex process (containing sodium salts), were satisfactorily incorporated into a mixture of straight and blown domestic bitumen, to yield a product containing 50wt% solids. The products were stable to radiation exposure of 5'8x10 8 rads. Leach rates were measured in both distilled and sea water over periods up to 200 days at 5 0 C and 25 0 C and at both 1 atm and 8 atm pressure. Results confirmed that long term storage of the products would be satisfactory

  1. Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlei Bao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-β-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164 was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice.

  2. Amino Acid Profile, Group of Functional and Molecular Weight Distribution of Goat Skin Gelatin That Produced Through Acid Process

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Said; Suharjono Triatmojo; Yuny Erwanto; Achmad Fudholi

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin is a product of hydrolysis of collagen protein from animals that are partially processed.  Gelatin used in food and non food industries.  Gelatin is produced when many import of raw skins and bones of pigs and cows.  Goat skins potential as a raw material substitution that still doubt its halal. Process production of gelatin determine the properties of gelatin. The objectives of this research were to determine amino acid profile, group of functional and molecular weight distribution o...

  3. Consumers and vegetables: effects of domestic processing on sensory and health properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.

    2014-01-01

    The quality of foods e.g. vegetables at the time of consumption depends on the post-purchase handling conditions especially by domestic processing. On the one hand, from the consumer’s perspective, domestic processing i.e. cooking improves the sensory acceptability of vegetables. On the

  4. Consumers and vegetables: effects of domestic processing on sensory and health properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.

    2014-01-01

      The quality of foods e.g. vegetables at the time of consumption depends on the post-purchase handling conditions especially by domestic processing. On the one hand, from the consumer’s perspective, domestic processing i.e. cooking improves the sensory acceptability

  5. Survey of domestication process of grass cutter ( Thryonomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reflecting that grass cutters domestication in southwestern Nigeria is possible if only, social infrastructures such as constant electricity supply, pipe borne water and good network of roads, incentives like pups, feed and funds are provided by concerned authorities. These may arouse the interest of prospective farmers to ...

  6. Activated carbon from baobab fruit shells through domestic processes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface and groundwater pollution is rampant due to poor waste management and runoff. Dry regions of the country also writhe from water scarcity which leaves communities to resort to unsafe water supplies for domestic use. It is estimated that about 90% rural households in Zimbabwe consume untreated water (Hoko, ...

  7. Consumers and vegetables: effects of domestic processing on sensory and health properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bongoni, R.

    2014-01-01

      The quality of foods e.g. vegetables at the time of consumption depends on the post-purchase handling conditions especially by domestic processing. On the one hand, from the consumer’s perspective, domestic processing i.e. cooking improves the sensory acceptability of vegetables. On the other hand, from the food technologist’s perspective, nutrients like vitamins and phytochemicals are degraded (though bioaccessibility can increase) by various processing conditions. An app...

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of Sicilian goats reveals a new mtDNA lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, M T; Ballester, M; Marmi, J; Finocchiaro, R; van Kaam, J B C H M; Portolano, B; Folch, J M

    2006-08-01

    The mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequence of 67 goats belonging to the Girgentana, Maltese and Derivata di Siria breeds was partially sequenced in order to present the first phylogenetic characterization of Sicilian goat breeds. These sequences were compared with published sequences of Indian and Pakistani domestic goats and wild goats. Mitochondrial lineage A was observed in most of the Sicilian goats. However, three Girgentana haplotypes were highly divergent from the Capra hircus clade, indicating that a new mtDNA lineage in domestic goats was found.

  9. Patterns and processes in crop domestication: an historical review and quantitative analysis of 203 global food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rachel S; DuVal, Ashley E; Jensen, Helen R

    2012-10-01

    Domesticated food crops are derived from a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of wild ancestors through artificial selection for different traits. Our understanding of domestication, however, is based upon a subset of well-studied 'model' crops, many of them from the Poaceae family. Here, we investigate domestication traits and theories using a broader range of crops. We reviewed domestication information (e.g. center of domestication, plant traits, wild ancestors, domestication dates, domestication traits, early and current uses) for 203 major and minor food crops. Compiled data were used to test classic and contemporary theories in crop domestication. Many typical features of domestication associated with model crops, including changes in ploidy level, loss of shattering, multiple origins, and domestication outside the native range, are less common within this broader dataset. In addition, there are strong spatial and temporal trends in our dataset. The overall time required to domesticate a species has decreased since the earliest domestication events. The frequencies of some domestication syndrome traits (e.g. nonshattering) have decreased over time, while others (e.g. changes to secondary metabolites) have increased. We discuss the influences of the ecological, evolutionary, cultural and technological factors that make domestication a dynamic and ongoing process. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. The Evolution of a Children's Domestic Violence Counseling Group: Stages and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E. Heather

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to illuminate the lived experiences of 4 young children between 6 and 7 years old who witnessed domestic violence while revealing the complex relationship between group process and stage development in their 18-week counseling group. Data revealed that processes occurring between and among group…

  11. Diet preferences of goats in a subtropical dry forest and implications for habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genie M. Fleming; Joseph Wunderle Jr.; David N. Ewert

    2016-01-01

    As part of an experimental study of using controlled goat grazing to manage winter habitat of the Kirtland’s warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii), an endangered Nearctic neotropical migratory bird, we evaluated diet preferences of domesticated goats within early successional subtropical dry forest in The Bahamas. We expected goats would show a low preference for two plants (...

  12. Consumer behaviour towards vegetables: a study on domestic processing of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongoni, R; Verkerk, R; Dekker, M; Steenbekkers, L P A

    2015-06-01

    Preferences for sensory properties (e.g. taste and texture) are assumed to control cooking behaviour with respect to vegetables. Conditions such as the cooking method, amount of water used and the time-temperature profile determine the nutritional quality (e.g. vitamins and phytochemicals) of cooked vegetables. Information on domestic processing and any underlying motives can be used to inform consumers about cooking vegetables that are equally liked and are nutrient-rich. Two online self-reporting questionnaires were used to identify domestic processing conditions of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households. Questions on various aspects of domestic processing and consumer motives were included. Descriptive data analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed for both vegetables, separately, to group consumers with similar motives and behaviour towards vegetables. Approximately 70% of consumers boiled vegetables, 8-9% steamed vegetables, 10-15% stir fried raw vegetables and 8-10% stir fried boiled vegetables. Mainly texture was used as a way to decide the 'doneness' of the vegetables. For both vegetables, three clusters of consumers were identified: texture-orientated, health-orientated, or taste-orientated. The texture-orientated consumers are identified as the most prevalent (56-59%) group in the present study. Statistically significant associations are found between domestic processing conditions and clusters, whereas no such association are found between demographic details and clusters. A wide variation in domestic processing of broccoli and carrots is found in the present study. Mainly sensory properties (i.e. texture and taste) determined the domestic processing conditions. The findings of the present study can be used to optimise cooking to yield vegetables that meet consumer's specific sensory preference and are higher in nutrients, and as well as to communicate with target consumer groups. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. The size of domestic cattle, sheep, goats and pigs in the Czech Neolithic and Eneolithic Periods: Temporal variations and their causes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, René

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, Junio (2016), s. 33-78 ISSN 1132-6891 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : osteometry * body mass * domestication * cross-breeding * Chalcolithic * Bos taurus * Ovis aries * Capra hircus * Sus domesticus * aurochs * wild boar * archaeozoology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  15. Socialisation Process, Power Relations and Domestic Violence: Marginal Voices of Assamese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Vauquline

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is an evil that never dies. It is an indicator of inequality, injustice and discrimination of the social system. Though there is no justification for its existence in a civilized society, then why it is so difficult to root it out? Why does it persist to exist even after the prevalence of legal provisions to combat domestic violence? The causes maybe embedded on the facts that it involves intimate relationship on the one hand and exercise of power relations on the other. These power relations put women at disadvantaged positions, which are prominently gendered in nature. Assam, a state in the north-eastern corner of India, is unique in its own distinction. It is a region with myriad communities with varied culture, ethnic and social background. Distinctive statistical differences of domestic violence exist among these communities. These variations may categorically be due to the nature of power relations in intimate relations among these communities, which is probed with the application of oral history method. An effort is made through this study to explore the societal attitudes concerning power within intimate human relations. The focus of this paper is to search for the social beliefs attached with the power relations that have been governing them or promoting them in the form of social values, customs, rituals and traditions, which are the nucleus of domestic violence in Assamese society. This study intends to investigate the power relations amongst the different communities. Oral history method is applied to probe the socialisation process of the victims of domestic violence and to analyse how it creates power relations that caters to domestic violence. It gives a deeper understanding to the gendered nature of power in intimate relations. It illustrates that power relations is created through socialisation process and is a contributing attribute to domestic violence among spouses.

  16. Bivalent vaccination against pneumonic pasteurellosis in domestic sheep and goats with modified-live in-frame lktA deletion mutants of Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert E; Hauglund, Melissa J; Maheswaran, Samuel K; Tatum, Fred M

    2013-11-01

    A temperature-sensitive shuttle vector, pBB80C, was utilized to generate in-frame deletion mutants of the leukotoxin structural gene (lktA) of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12. Culture supernatants from the mutants contained a truncated protein with an approximate molecular weight of 66 kDa which was reactive to anti-leukotoxin monoclonal antibody. No protein reactive to anti-LktA monoclonal antibody was detected at the molecular weight 100-105 kDa of native LktA. Sheep and goats vaccinated intramuscularly with a mixture of serotypes 5 and 6 mutants were resistant to virulent challenge with a mixture of the wild-type parent strains. These vaccinates responded serologically to both vaccine serotypes and exhibited markedly-reduced lung lesion volume and pulmonary infectious load compared to control animals. Control animals yielded a mixture of serotypes from lung lobes, but the proportion even within an individual animal varied widely from 95% serotype 5-95% serotype 6. Cultures recovered from liver were homogeneous, but two animals yielded serotype 5 and the other two yielded serotype 6 in pure culture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based approach for the development of a rural technology product. ... Since the project aims at technology transfer to the rural poor for generating rural livelihoods, appropriate financial models and the general sustainability issues for such an activity are briefly discussed ...

  18. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  19. Goats excel at learning and remembering a highly novel cognitive task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The computational demands of sociality (maintaining group cohesion, reducing conflict) and ecological problems (extractive foraging, memorizing resource locations) are the main drivers proposed to explain the evolution cognition. Different predictions follow, about whether animals would preferentially learn new tasks socially or not, but the prevalent view today is that intelligent species should excel at social learning. However, the predictions were originally used to explain primate cognition, and studies of species with relatively smaller brains are rare. By contrast, domestication has often led to a decrease in brain size, which could affect cognition. In domestic animals, the relaxed selection pressures compared to a wild environment could have led to reduced social and physical cognition. Goats possess several features commonly associated with advanced cognition, such as successful colonization of new environments and complex fission-fusion societies. Here, we assessed goat social and physical cognition as well as long-term memory of a complex two-step foraging task (food box cognitive challenge), in order to investigate some of the main selection pressures thought to affect the evolution of ungulate cognition. Results The majority of trained goats (9/12) successfully learned the task quickly; on average, within 12 trials. After intervals of up to 10 months, they solved the task within two minutes, indicating excellent long-term memory. The goats did not learn the task faster after observing a demonstrator than if they did not have that opportunity. This indicates that they learned through individual rather than social learning. Conclusions The individual learning abilities and long-term memory of goats highlighted in our study suggest that domestication has not affected goat physical cognition. However, these cognitive abilities contrast with the apparent lack of social learning, suggesting that relatively intelligent species do not always

  20. Goats excel at learning and remembering a highly novel cognitive task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefer, Elodie F; Haque, Samaah; Baciadonna, Luigi; McElligott, Alan G

    2014-03-26

    The computational demands of sociality (maintaining group cohesion, reducing conflict) and ecological problems (extractive foraging, memorizing resource locations) are the main drivers proposed to explain the evolution cognition. Different predictions follow, about whether animals would preferentially learn new tasks socially or not, but the prevalent view today is that intelligent species should excel at social learning. However, the predictions were originally used to explain primate cognition, and studies of species with relatively smaller brains are rare. By contrast, domestication has often led to a decrease in brain size, which could affect cognition. In domestic animals, the relaxed selection pressures compared to a wild environment could have led to reduced social and physical cognition. Goats possess several features commonly associated with advanced cognition, such as successful colonization of new environments and complex fission-fusion societies. Here, we assessed goat social and physical cognition as well as long-term memory of a complex two-step foraging task (food box cognitive challenge), in order to investigate some of the main selection pressures thought to affect the evolution of ungulate cognition. The majority of trained goats (9/12) successfully learned the task quickly; on average, within 12 trials. After intervals of up to 10 months, they solved the task within two minutes, indicating excellent long-term memory. The goats did not learn the task faster after observing a demonstrator than if they did not have that opportunity. This indicates that they learned through individual rather than social learning. The individual learning abilities and long-term memory of goats highlighted in our study suggest that domestication has not affected goat physical cognition. However, these cognitive abilities contrast with the apparent lack of social learning, suggesting that relatively intelligent species do not always preferentially learn socially. We

  1. Does Lactobacillus plantarum or ultrafiltration process improve Ca, Mg, Zn and P bioavailability from fermented goats' milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez, Rafael; Seiquer, Isabel; Ruiz-López, Maria Dolores

    2015-11-15

    Ca, Mg, Zn and P bioavailability from two experimental ultrafiltered fermented goats' milks (one of them with the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and another one without it), and fermented goats' milk samples available in the market were evaluated. Solubility, dialysability and a model combining simulated gastrointestinal digestion and mineral retention, transport and uptake by Caco-2 cells were used to assess bioavailability. The highest Ca, Mg, Zn and P bioavailability values always corresponded to the fermented milk developed by our research group, which could be explained by the effect of milk ultrafiltration. The fermented milk with L. plantarum showed higher Ca retention than the ones without the microorganism, and major Ca uptake when compared to commercial products. This fact could be attributed to a positive effect exerted by the probiotic strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An ethnographic-feminist study of Jordanian women's experiences of domestic violence and process of resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Reema; Swigart, Valerie; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Banimustafa, Radwan; Constantino, Rose E

    2013-01-01

    We interviewed 12 Jordanian women who had experienced domestic violence (DV) and were receiving assistance at the Jordanian Women's Union (JWU). Our aim was to explore the history and factors supporting attainment of freedom from DV. Narratives revealed themes of DV toward girls; forced marriage; physical, psychological, or sexual abuse before and during marriage; and escalation and enduring DV. Escaping from DV required family and JWU support. In the context of a strongly patriarchal, religious society, we observed a process of resolution by shifting cultural values and themes of empowerment, with an undercurrent of suffering blamed on inequalities in the legal process.

  3. A feasibility study on the industialization of catalytic process in connection with domestic chemical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Chung, Heung Seok; Lee, Han Soo; Park, Chang Jin; Kim, Jong Ho; Koo, Jee Hyu; Lee, Han Myeong [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    The technical and economical feasibility on the polymer catalytic process for the production of heavy water in corporating domestic hydrogen reforming plants (RHEX) were performed. It was suggested to run the RHEX process as a closed system to reduce the loss of concentrated deuterium. As a part of solution to this problem the method of recycling methane gas out of the process and of purifying the water from the hydrogen reforming process have been considered. The controlling factor affecting the unit production cost depends on the cost of polymer catalyst rather than the investment cost. If the catalyst would be produced with the suitable price, the proposed process could be quite competitive comparing with other heavy water production processes. (Author).

  4. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  5. Acurácia do exame citológico no diagnóstico de processos inflamatórios e proliferativos dos animais domésticos Accuracy of cytological exam for diagnosis of inflammatory and proliferative process in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.C. Guedes

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the importance and accuracy of cytology as a diagnostic method for proliferative and inflammatory processes in domestic animals. The cytology samples were collected by biopsy or during necropsy, using fine needle aspiration or imprint techniques in 80 dogs, 4 cats, 3 goats, 2 cows and 1 horse. Histopathology of formalin fixed tissues processed by the routine embedding paraffin technique was used as a confirmatory diagnostic test. Cytology results agreed with histopathological findings in 75 (83.3% cases. They held higher accord in round cell tumor cases. Therefore, this study shows that cytology is a valuable diagnostic method for diagnosis of proliferative process in domestic animals, especially for round cells tumors.

  6. Horny Goat Weed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, joint ...

  7. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman Times in Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE–500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip’s body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation. PMID:23690998

  8. Goat's milk: characteristics and possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božanić; Ida Drgalić

    2002-01-01

    Goat's milk today gets more and more attention. In comparison with other types of milk, the production of goat's milk increases the most. Although, the basic composition of goat's and cow's milk is very similar, goat's milk has an important dietetic and therapeutic advantages. In spite of that goat's milk is less explored. In this paper all main components of goat's milk and the somatic cells number are compared with cow's milk. Special emphasis is given on taste and therapeutic value of goat...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processing by a domestic hydrothermal microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volanti, D.P. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratorio de Ensino de Ciencias e Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Cavalcante, L.S. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: laeciosc@bol.com.br; Simoes, A.Z. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Joya, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Pizani, P.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Souza, A.G. [Laboratorio de Ensino de Ciencias e Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-14

    The synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processed in domestic hydrothermal microwave oven was presented. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman scattering (MRS) and the results confirmed the CuO flower-nanostructure as a single-phase. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to estimate the average spheres diameter while transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe the thorn of the flower-nanostructures. The mechanism of CuO flower-nanostructures formation is proposed and explained.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processing by a domestic hydrothermal microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volanti, D.P.; Keyson, D.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Joya, M.R.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.; Pizani, P.S.; Souza, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processed in domestic hydrothermal microwave oven was presented. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman scattering (MRS) and the results confirmed the CuO flower-nanostructure as a single-phase. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to estimate the average spheres diameter while transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe the thorn of the flower-nanostructures. The mechanism of CuO flower-nanostructures formation is proposed and explained

  11. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, H; Alegria, N; Mendonça, A; Botelho, A; Alves, A; Pires, I

    2014-08-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, Hélder; Alegria, Nuno; Mendonça, Álvaro; Botelho, A.; Alves, A.; Pires, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  13. Improvement in nitrogen fixation capacity could be part of the domestication process in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, N; Qi, X; Li, M-W; Xie, M; Gao, Y; Cheung, M-Y; Wong, F-L; Lam, H-M

    2016-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in soybeans is a complex process involving the interplay between the plant host and the symbiotic rhizobia. As nitrogen supply has a crucial role in growth and development, higher nitrogen fixation capacity would be important to achieve bigger plants and larger seeds, which were important selection criteria during plant domestication by humans. To test this hypothesis, we monitored the nitrogen fixation-related performance in 31 cultivated and 17 wild soybeans after inoculation with the slow-growing Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens sp. nov. USDA110 and the fast-growing Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii CCBAU45436. Our results showed that, in general, cultivated soybeans gave better performance in BNF. Electron microscopic studies indicated that there was an exceptionally high accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate bodies in bacteroids in the nodules of all wild soybeans tested, suggesting that the C/N balance in wild soybeans may not be optimized for nitrogen fixation. Furthermore, we identified new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for total ureides and total nodule fresh weight by employing a recombinant inbred population composed of descendants from a cross between a cultivated and a wild parent. Using nucleotide diversity (θπ), divergence index (Fst) and distribution of fixed single-nucleotide polymorphisms as parameters, we found that some regions in the total ureides QTL on chromosome 17 and the total nodule fresh weight QTL on chromosome 12 exhibited very low diversity among cultivated soybeans, suggesting that these were traits specially selected during the domestication and breeding process. PMID:27118154

  14. Characterisation of Lactobacilli from eweʼs and goatʼs milk for their further processing re-utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kološta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Raw ewe's and goat's milk is a good source for isolation of wild lactobacilli which are able to bring unique processing properties in development of dairy products - cheeses or fermented dairy products. 34 strains of lactobacilli were isolated, purified and identified from fermented ewe's and goat's dairy products. These products were processed without thermal treatment and without using of any commercial starters. After preliminary selection, the final collection of 5 strains was established. The strains were identified as: Lbc. plantarum (2, Lbc. paraplantarum (1, Lbc. paracasei (1 and Lbc. johnsonii (1. Except two strains, all were able to coagulate milk. After hydrolysis of lactose in milk, two strains were able to form sensorial attractive coagulate too. All of the strains were homofermentative, they produced lactic acid but they did not produce CO2. Their ability to produce diacetyl was low. They did not show strong proteolytic activity. All strains grew at 30 °C and 37 °C, however Lbc. johnsonii much slower at 30 °C than the others. Except Lbc. johnsonii, all strains tolerated 2% concentration of NaCl and even in presence of 5% concentration of NaCl their growth was inhibited only moderately. All of characterized strains can be provisionally used as starter or starter adjuncts in dairy technology, during production of cheeses or fermented milk products from pasteurised milk. These results will be used in further processing studies of isolated strains and will be supplemented with other properties e.g. safety, probiotic and antimicrobial properties.

  15. Genetic origin of goat populations in Oman revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Ali Al-Araimi

    Full Text Available The Sultanate of Oman has a complex mosaic of livestock species and production systems, but the genetic diversity, demographic history or origins of these Omani animals has not been expensively studied. Goats might constitute one of the most abundant and important domestic livestock species since the Neolithic transition. Here, we examined the genetic diversity, origin, population structure and demographic history of Omani goats. Specifically, we analyzed a 525-bp fragment of the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region from 69 Omani individuals and compared this fragment with 17 mtDNA sequences from Somalia and Yemen as well as 18 wild goat species and 1,198 previously published goat sequences from neighboring countries. The studied goat breeds show substantial diversity. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities of Omani goats were found equal to 0.983 ± 0.006 and 0.0284 ± 0.014, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses allowed us to classify Omani goats into three mtDNA haplogroups (A, B and G: haplogroup A was found to be predominant and widely distributed and accounted for 80% of all samples, and haplogroups B and G exhibited low frequencies. Phylogenetic comparisons with wild goats revealed that five of the native Omani goat populations originate from Capra aegagrus. Furthermore, most comparisons of pairwise population FST values within and between these five Omani goat breeds as well as between Omani goats and nine populations from nearby countries were not significant. These results suggest strong gene flow among goat populations caused by the extensive transport of goats and the frequent movements of human populations in ancient Arabia. The findings improve our understanding of the migration routes of modern goats from their region of domestication into southeastern Arabia and thereby shed light on human migratory and commercial networks during historical times.

  16. Biotransformation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge by Two-Stage Integrated Processes -Lsb & Ssb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahangir Alam, A. H. Molla and A. Fakhru’l-Razi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of biotransformation of domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP sludge was conducted in laboratory-scale by two-stage integrated process i.e. liquid state bioconversion (LSB and solid state bioconversion (SSB processes. The liquid wastewater sludge [4% w/w of total suspended solids (TSS] was treated by mixed filamentous fungi Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger, isolated, screened and mixed cultured in terms of their higher biodegradation potential to wastewater sludge. The biosolids was increased to about 10% w/w. Conversely, the soluble [i.e. Total dissolve solid (TDS] and insoluble substances (TSS in treated supernatant were decreased effectively in the LSB process. In the developed LSB process, 93.8 g kg-1of biosolids were enriched with fungal biomass protein and nutrients (NPK, and 98.8% of TSS, 98.2% of TDS, 97.3% of turbidity, 80.2% of soluble protein, 98.8% of reducing sugar and 92.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD in treated sludge supernatant were removed after 8 days of treatment. Specific resistance to filtration (1.39x1012 m/kg was decreased tremendously by the microbial treatment of DWTP sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The treated biosolids in DWTP sludge was considered as pretreated resource materials for composting and converted into compost by SSB process. The SSB process was evaluated for composting by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation in composting bin (CB. The process was conducted using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 and (T/P and T. harzianum and Mucor hiemalis (T/M; and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD and rice straw (RS. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent solid state bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. Significant decrease of the C/N ratio and germination index (GI were attained as well as the higher value of glucosamine was exhibited in compost; which

  17. A comparative analysis of acceptance by Japanese females and price of goat milk from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Takada, Ruriko; Nishitani, Jiro; Fujita, Masaru; Blair, Hugh T

    2010-04-01

    A sensory survey was carried out using 4 different types of whole goat milk among middle-class females to investigate consumer acceptability of goat milk and whether there is an opportunity to expand the sale of goat milk products in Japan. Four different types of whole milk powder (domestic concentrate-fed, domestic pasture-fed, USA commercially canned, and New Zealand commercially canned) were used. Fresh cow milk was served as a control. Thirty-one housewives evaluated the 5 liquid milk samples for smell, taste and overall characteristics on a scale of 1 (low) to 3 (high). Chi-square analyses were carried out to detect significant differences between the milk types in each category. The goat milk from the USA was the most preferred goat milk with respect to smell and overall evaluation. Domestic pasture-fed milk received the lowest grade in the evaluation for its 'grassy and goaty' smell. This result shows us that pasture intake affects the taste and smell of powdered milk which gives the lowest evaluation by the participants. If Japanese goat milk producers want to be successful in the domestic goat milk market and compete against goat milk products from other countries, they should improve production methods and flavor of their products.

  18. The quality of processed cheeses and cheese analogues the same brand domestic and foreign production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Bezeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Processed cheeses belong to Slovakia favorite dairy products. Processed cheeses are made from natural cheeses. In recent years the trend is to replace natural cheeses with other raw materials of non-dairy nature. The composition of the processed cheese analogues is not in many countries defined by legislation. The objective of this study was to determine and compare chemical properties (fat, dry matter, fat in dry matter, NaCl two samples of processed cheeses (C, D - Veselá krava and two samples cheese analogues (A, B - Kiri the same brand domestic and foreign production. The evaluated was taste of processed cheeses and cheese analogues, too. Chemical analysis and sensory analysis were repeated four times. The results of chemical analysis shows that all rated samples processed cheeses made on Slovakia fulfilled demands declared (dry matter and fat in dry matter as producers provided on the label. The most commonly fluctuate content of NaCl from 1 to 1.24 g.100g-1. The higher coefficient of variation in the determination of NaCl (3.88% was found in processed cheeses made in France. Processed cheese and cheese analogues made in France had not specified parameters for dry matter and fat in dry matter on the label. For production cheese analogues Kiri made in Slovakia was used different raw material than Kiri made in France. The taste of products was determined by descriptors - salty, slightly sweet, milky, buttery-creamy, fatty, sour, bitter, and unknown. The interesting that Kiri made in Slovakia had stronger milky and buttery-creamy taste than cheese analogue Kiri made in France. Significant differences were found in the slighty sweet taste of processed cheeses, the most points won processed cheese Veselá krava made in Slovakia.

  19. FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC EXPERIENCE OF INTEGRATING CLOUD COMPUTING INTO PEDAGOGICAL PROCESS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia A. Khmil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article foreign and domestic experience of integrating cloud computing into pedagogical process of higher educational establishments (H.E.E. has been generalized. It has been stated that nowadays a lot of educational services are hosted in the cloud, e.g. infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS and software as a service (SaaS. The peculiarities of implementing cloud technologies by H.E.E. in Ukraine and abroad have been singled out; the products developed by the leading IT companies for using cloud computing in higher education system, such as Microsoft for Education, Google Apps for Education and Amazon AWS Educate have been reviewed. The examples of concrete types, methods and forms of learning and research work based on cloud services have been provided.

  20. Increasing fat goat

    OpenAIRE

    Van Eekeren, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Organic goat milk is for the majority (90%) converted into cheese and exported. The protein and fat content of goat milk largely determine the cheese yield and thus the milk. Since these levels may fluctuate between 7.5 and 11 liters of goat milk are needed to produce 1 kg of cheese to make. Also gives a lower fat content, a more crumbly cheese, especially in soft cheeses. Organic goat would therefore like more opportunities to send to the levels in milk. In this BioKennis article more about ...

  1. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process of...... of the mandible. Light microscopic evaluation revealed fibrous encapsulation, a few multinuclear giant cells, little inflammatory reaction, and no osteoinduction. It was concluded that no osteoinduction took place in goats....

  2. Family ambiguity and domestic violence in Asia: Reconceptualising law and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, M.; Wieringa, S.

    2014-01-01

    The book Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia (2013; Brighton: Sussex University Press) raises pertinent questions as to why the incidence of domestic violence has remained as a continuing scourge. The Focus section in this issue of The Newsletter provides the abridged version of select

  3. Comparative transcriptome profiling of dairy goat microRNAs from dry period and peak lactation mammary gland tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuanjian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that serve as important post-transcriptional gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post-transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play important roles in many biological processes. Extensive high-throughput sequencing studies of miRNAs have been performed in several animal models. However, little is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in goat (Capra hircus, which is one of the most important agricultural animals and the oldest domesticated species raised worldwide. Goats have long been used for their milk, meat, hair (including cashmere, and skins throughout much of the world. RESULTS: In this study, two small RNA libraries were constructed based on dry period and peak lactation dairy goat mammary gland tissues and sequenced using the Illumina-Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 346 conserved and 95 novel miRNAs were identified in the dairy goat. miRNAs expression was confirmed by qRT-PCR in nine tissues and in the mammary gland during different stages of lactation. In addition, several candidate miRNAs that may be involved in mammary gland development and lactation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages of the mammary gland. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the first miRNAs profile related to the biology of the mammary gland in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lactation physiology and mammary gland development in the dairy goat.

  4. PROCESS OF GLOBAL SHOCKS TRANSMISSION TO DOMESTIC FOOD PRICE LEVEL: CASE OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakir Azmal Huda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The world experienced in dramatic price surge of food commodities since mid of 2007 to 2008. It was claimed that the crisis were being mainly for backdrop of global shocks in food and energy price. But how the shocks come to domestic market from external sources is a researchable phenomenon. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to systematically analysis of shock transmission from international to domestic market. The study analyzed the effect of global commodity market factors and domestic exchange rate development on domestic food price in Bangladesh. A bi-variants co-integration approach was applied for the analysis of shock transmission. Finally an error correction model was developed. The overall magnitudes of the pass through suggest that only 46 per cent of the total world shock pass-through in domestic economy.

  5. High-throughput sequencing analyses of XX genital ridges lacking FOXL2 reveal DMRT1 up-regulation before SOX9 expression during the sex-reversal process in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzaiat, Maëva; Jouneau, Luc; Thépot, Dominique; Klopp, Christophe; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Cabau, Cédric; André, Marjolaine; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Cribiu, Edmond-Paul; Pailhoux, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle

    2014-12-01

    FOXL2 loss of function in goats leads to the early transdifferentiation of ovaries into testes, then to the full sex reversal of XX homozygous mutants. By contrast, Foxl2 loss of function in mice induces an arrest of follicle formation after birth, followed by complete female sterility. In order to understand the molecular role of FOXL2 during ovarian differentiation in the goat species, putative FOXL2 target genes were determined at the earliest stage of gonadal sex-specific differentiation by comparing the mRNA profiles of XX gonads expressing the FOXL2 protein or not. Of these 163 deregulated genes, around two-thirds corresponded to testicular genes that were up-regulated when FOXL2 was absent, and only 19 represented female-associated genes, down-regulated in the absence of FOXL2. FOXL2 should therefore be viewed as an antitestis gene rather than as a female-promoting gene. In particular, the key testis-determining gene DMRT1 was found to be up-regulated ahead of SOX9, thus suggesting in goats that SOX9 primary up-regulation may require DMRT1. Overall, our results equated to FOXL2 being an antitestis gene, allowing us to propose an alternative model for the sex-determination process in goats that differs slightly from that demonstrated in mice. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. Domestic Violence Protective Orders: A Qualitative Examination of Judges' Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Brune, Christine; Beth Moracco, Kathryn E; Person, Cara J; Bowling, J Michael

    2015-06-17

    Approximately one in three women in the United States experience intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV is associated with long-term negative health consequences; therefore, there is a need to examine potential prevention strategies. Evidence suggests that domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs), a legal intervention that prevents contact between two parties for up to 12 months, are an effective secondary prevention tool. However, because judges have relative autonomy in granting or denying DVPOs, research is needed to examine the processes they use to guide their decisions. The aim of the study was to investigate how District Court judges decide whether to issue a DVPO. Using in-depth interviews with 20 North Carolina District Court judges, the present study addressed three research questions: (a) what factors influence judges' decisions to grant or deny a DVPO, (b) what heuristics or cognitive shortcuts potentially guide their decisions, and (c) what judges worry about when making decisions. Three themes emerged from the data analyses: (a) violent incidents must reach a certain threshold, (b) the presence of children creates competing concerns, and (c) judges worry about the negative impact their decisions may have on the lives of those involved. Recommendations for improving the DVPO issuance process are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Oligosaccharides in goat milk: structure, health effects and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskini, A; Difilippo, E

    2013-11-03

    Oligosaccharides have been widely recognized for their prebiotic and anti-infective properties. Among the different types of mammalian milk, the one of humans is the richest source of naturally derived oligosaccharides. However, their use as a basis for functional foods is hampered, due to their structural complexity, which in turn makes their re-synthesis extremely difficult. Thus, oligosaccharides from other sources have to be used. In this sense, goat milk constitutes a very appealing candidate, as it contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, while goat milk oligosaccharides show significant similarities to human milk oligosaccharides from a structural point of view. Studies on goat milk oligosaccharides are scant, and more data is required in order to provide solid clinical evidence of their beneficial effects on humans. The aim of this review is to collect and present the main research findings on goat milk oligosaccharides structure, health effects and isolation.

  8. Effect of domestic processing and cooking methods on phytic acid and polyphenol contents of pea cultivars (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, S; Khetarpaul, N; Yadav, R K

    1994-06-01

    All the pea varieties differed significantly (p pea cultivars had significantly (p pea varieties. All the domestic processing and cooking methods could reduce the contents of phytic acid and polyphenols but germination for 48 hours seemed to have a marked lowering effect on the levels of these antinutrients in peas.

  9. Energy evaluation process of electric domestic refrigerators; Proceso de evaluacion energetica de refrigeradores electrodomesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malacara Toral, Manuel; Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    A description is made of an energy evaluation study on electric domestic refrigerators carried out by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), in its strategy for diminishing the energy consumption through the design enhancement, the manufacture, the operation and the standardization of the electric appliances. In order to initiate the evaluation-standardization process, the Mexican (NOM), the American (ANSI/AHAM) and the Canadian (CAN/CSA) standards were taken as a base to harmonize the procedures and the parameters of the tests. The energy assessment demonstrated that there are significant differences among the standards encompassed by the study, therefore, recommendations were made for the harmonization of the standards. [Espanol] Se describe un estudio de evaluacion energetica sobre refrigeradores electrodomesticos realizado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) dentro de la estrategia para disminuir los consumos de energia a traves de mejoras en el diseno, la manufactura, la operacion y la normalizacion de equipos electricos. Se tomo como base las normas mexicanas (NOM), americana (ANSI/AHAM) y canadiense (CAN/CSA) para iniciar el proceso de evaluacion-normalizacion a fin de armonizar los procedimientos y parametros de las pruebas. La evaluacion energetica demostro que existen diferencias significativas entre las normas que abarco el estudio por lo que se presentan recomendaciones para la armonizacion de las normas.

  10. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC GOAT KID MEAT FROM DAIRY GOAT AND CROSSBRED MEAT GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...

  11. Effective Biological Nitrogen Removal Treatment Processes for Domestic Wastewaters with Low C/N Ratios: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Sheng-Peng; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Merkey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    treatment processes including the modified anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process, the step-feed multistage anaerobic/ oxic (A/O) process, and new reactors like the membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and the membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) can support the innovative biological nitrogen removal pathways...... effluent, the leachate of food waste, digested piggery manure, hydrolyzed molasses, biologically hydrolyzed or mechanically disintegrated sludge offer the same or better performance for nitrogen removal at reduced costs. Finally, we suggest that (1) these new processes and technologies are implemented...... at large scale for nitrogen removal from low C/N domestic wastewater, (2) further method logic are explored to introduce the Anammox pathway into domestic wastewater treatment, and (3) alternative carbon sources are explored and optimized for supporting the denitrification. With these efforts, cost...

  12. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process...

  13. Feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials fed to sheep and goats included cut forage such as grasses, weeds, herbs, forbs, trees and shrubs, lianas, crop residues, kitchen and local food processing wastes. Cut forage was fed to goats and sheep by 84.3 and 32.3% of the farmers irrespective of season. Kitchen waste was the commonest type of ...

  14. Instrumental texture and sensory evaluation of fermented dairy beverages processed with reconstituted goat whey powder and a co-culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Marcela de Souza Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lactobacillus casei BGP93 used as adjunct culture on the physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of a dairy beverage processed with goat Coalho cheese whey powder and Streptococcus thermophilus TA-40 as starter (ST-LC beverage were investigated in comparison to a control product (ST beverage without L. casei. No significant differences were observed between the ST and ST-LC trials concerning the acidification pattern throughout the fermentation process (P>0.05. Post-acidification was also not observed for both trials since their pH values were maintained stable, without significant differences during 21 days at 4 ± 1 °C. This pH stability reinforced the maintenance of firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index without significant differences between the sampling periods throughout the whole storage in both trials, and also that no significant difference was verified between the ST and ST-LC beverages in the sensory evaluation (P>0.05.

  15. Interview with Alison Goate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goate, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Alison M Goate is the Samuel & Mae S Ludwig Professor of Genetics in Psychiatry, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA). Dr Goate studied for her undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the University of Bristol (UK) and received her graduate training at Oxford University (UK). She performed postdoctoral studies with Professor Theodore Puck, Professor Louis Lim and Dr John Hardy before receiving a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to support her independent research program at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1991, Dr Goate and colleagues reported the first mutation linked to an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease, in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. The mutation was found to be linked to inherited cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In 1992, Dr Goate moved to Washington University as an Associate Professor in Genetics and Psychiatry. Dr Goate and colleagues have since identified mutations in four other genes, including two that cause Alzheimer's disease and two that cause the related dementia frontotemporal dementia. In addition to her work on dementia, Dr Goate's laboratory also studies the genetics of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Dr Goate has received numerous awards including the Potamkin Award from the American Academy of Neurology, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer's Association, the Senior Investigator Award from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, the St Louis Academy of Science Innovation Award and the Carl and Gerty Cori Faculty Achievement Award at Washington University. Dr Goate has been a member of many scientific Review Boards and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals.

  16. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Altieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS, thermal damage (IDT, protein denaturation could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials were carried out on milk concentrates from cow, goat and she-ass so as to optimize the process performance of the spray dryer, for each kind of milk, at three inlet temperatures (120, 150, 185 °C; the feed flow rate was set at 0.5 dm3/h with outlet air RH% in the range 10-40%; raw milk was concentrated using a low pressure evaporator until an average level of 23% dry matter was reached. As expected, the thermal damage of the milk powder increased as the inlet air temperature increased; the outlet powder RH% was 96-98% poorly correlated with the mass flow rate of the concentrate inlet. Moreover, the destruction kinetic of vitamin C was found highly correlated with the thermal damage to the milk powder. At 175 °C inlet air temperature the overall thermal treatment on the she-ass milk concentrate, which is very heat-sensitive due to its high lactose content, was “weak” (IDT<80 and the milk powder of “premium or extra” quality (IINS<1.25ml and lactic acid = 0.07% < 0.15% ADMI. The titratable acidity values are uncorrelated with the process air temperature but depend uniquely from the raw milk freshness.

  17. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. INFLUENCE OF BETAINE ON GOAT MILK YIELD AND BLOOD METABOLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Fernandez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is a natural occurring compound with methyl donor properties which is increasingly being used in animal feeding. Betaine, an oxidative product of choline is able to replace methionine in some physiologically important body processes. The subject of this work was to study the effect of betaine added to the diet on milk production and blood metabolites on Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.  Sixty lactating goats were selected from a commercial Murciano-Granadina goat herd (EXCAMUR S.L. located in Murcia Region (Spain. Goats were selected from a 250 goats herd, taken  into account the age, stage of lactation (2.5 as average, live weight (36 kg as average and type of birth (2 kids. Two homogenous groups of 30 goats were made and fed with 1.5 kg of compound feed and 1 kg of alfalfa hay per day and goat. Goats were fed twice a day and water was provided ad libitum. Both groups received the same diet but for the second group the diet was supplemented with 4 g∙kg-1 betaine (betaine anhydrous, Danisco Animal Nutrition. The feeds, presented in pellets, were formulated in based on recommendations of INRA (2007. The experimental period was 6 months and the experimental diets were provided 15 days before parturition. The herd was machine milked once at day. Chemical composition, milk production and blood metabolites of each goat were recorded and analyzed at the end of the trial. Variance analysis and means comparison were carried out using the general lineal model procedure and Tukey test for mean comparison. Goats fed with betaine diet had higher milk fat than goats fed control diet (4.8 vs. 5.2 % for control and betaine respectively; P

  19. Treatment of domestic sewage in a combined UASB/RBC system. Process optimization for irrigation purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tawfik Ibrahim, A.; Zeeman, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Sanders, W.T.M.; El-Gohary, F.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    A Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) was fed with raw domestic wastewater or anaerobic effluents. The experiments were conducted at increasing operational temperatures viz. 11, 20 and 30degreesC to assess the potential increase in removal efficiencies for the different COD fractions (CODtotal,

  20. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  1. Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia: Concept, Law and Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, M.; Wieringa, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    This book revisits the issue of Domestic Violence (DV) in Asia by exploring the question of family ambiguity, and interrogating DV’s relationship between concept, law and strategy. Comparative experiences in the Asian context enable an examination of the effectiveness of family regulations and laws

  2. 78 FR 31367 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...] RIN 0581-AD29 Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and... (including veal), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and... processing and slaughtering firms, 38 chicken processing firms, and 4,335 retailers. This totals 7,181 firms...

  3. INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods represented an important element of a balanced, healthy diet. They play an important role in improving the structure of the diet of the population, are a means of prevention, correction and prevention of early transition premorbid conditions and various diseases. Meat and meat products based on it can be considered as a promising raw material for functional foods. Goat has certain dietary properties and can be used in manufacturing, but the production of high-grade products from goat meat, capable of long-term storage is not well developed. The chemical composition of the new raw meat - goat meat, on the example of the longissimus muscle of back is rich in protein, moisture, ash, and low-fat compared with other types of raw meat, which lets you create based on goat meat sector wide functional meat products. Therefore investigated the possibility of using goat meat in the production technology of functional foods. Showing the prospects for the development of goat in Russia. Investigated character of autolysis goat meat electro-physical methods and histological analysis. In the process of autolysis of goat meat are changing the electrical properties of raw meat, which are correlated with the morphological characteristics. Basic autolytic changes occurring in muscle tissue in the early stages of ripening, were reduced to a small extent the political process involving varying degrees of muscle structure in the early stages. In the later stages of maturation revealed changing widespread. Revealed that autolysis has characteristic periods and develops within 12 hours, further changes are irreversible. Shows the change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat. Results of the study of dynamics of change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat show compliance with the laws of classical autolysis noted in other sources, but differ in the time period. Defined stages of autolysis in

  4. The "bringing into cultivation" phase of the plant domestication process and its contributions to in situ conservation of genetic resources in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodouhè, R; Dansi, A

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities' motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents), medicinal use (40% of respondents), income generation (20% of respondents) and cultural reasons (5% of respondents). 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers' decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  5. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vodouhè

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities’ motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents, medicinal use (40% of respondents, income generation (20% of respondents and cultural reasons (5% of respondents. 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers’ decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  6. How do external donors influence national health policy processes? Experiences of domestic policy actors in Cambodia and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Meghani, Ankita; Liverani, Marco; Roychowdhury, Imara; Parkhurst, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Although concerns have historically been raised about the influence of external donors on health policy process in recipient countries, remarkably few studies have investigated perspectives and experiences of domestic policymakers and advisers. This study examines donor influence at different stages of the health policy process (priority setting, policy formulation, policy implementation and monitoring and evaluation) in two aid-dependent LMICs, Cambodia and Pakistan. It identifies mechanisms through which asymmetries in influence between donors and domestic policy actors emerge. We conducted 24 key informant interviews-14 in Pakistan and 10 in Cambodia-with high-level decision-makers who inform or authorize health priority setting, allocate resources and/or are responsible for policy implementation, identifying three routes of influence: financial resources, technical expertise and indirect financial and political incentives. We used both inductive and deductive approaches to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that different routes of influence emerged depending on the stage of the policy process. Control of financial resources was the most commonly identified route by which donors influenced priority setting and policy implementation. Greater (perceived) technical expertise played an important role in donor influence at the policy formulation stage. Donors' power in influencing decisions, particularly during the final (monitoring and evaluation) stage of the policy process, was mediated by their ability to control indirect financial and political incentives as well as direct control of financial resources. This study thus helps unpack the nuances of donor influence over health policymaking in these settings, and can potentially indicate areas that require attention to increase the ownership of domestic actors of their countries' health policy processes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of

  7. A comparative analysis of the domestic and foreign licensing processes for power and non-power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, J. C.; Youn, Y. K.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    The System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), a small to medium sized integral type Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has been developed in Korea. Now, SMART-P, a 1/5 scaled-down of the SMART, is being developed for the purpose of demonstrating the safety and performance of SMART design. The SMART-P is a first-of-a-kind reactor which is utilized for the research and development of a power reactor. Since the licensing process of such a reactor is not clearly specified in the current Atomic Energy Act, a comparative survey and analysis of domestic and foreign licensing processes for power and non-power reactors has been carried out to develop the rationale and technical basis for establishing the licensing process of such a reactor. The domestic and foreign licensing processes of power and non-power reactors have been surveyed and compared, including those of the U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA. The general trends in nuclear reactor classification, licensing procedures, regulatory technical requirements, and other licensing requirements and regulations have been investigated. The results of this study will be used as the rationale and technical basis for establishing the licensing process of reactors at development stage such as SMART-P

  8. Human head orientation and eye visibility as indicators of attention for goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nawroth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24 significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take into account head orientation alone. In the second experiment, goats (N = 24 could choose to approach one of two experimenters, while only one was paying attention to them. Goats preferred to approach humans that oriented their body and head towards the subject, whereas head orientation alone had no effect on choice behaviour. In the third experiment, goats (N = 32 were transferred to a separate test arena and were rewarded for approaching two experimenters providing a food reward during training trials. In subsequent probe test trials, goats had to choose between the two experimenters differing in their attentional states. Like in Experiments 1 and 2, goats did not show a preference for the attentive person when the inattentive person turned her head away from the subject. In this last experiment, goats preferred to approach the attentive person compared to a person who closed their eyes or covered the whole face with a blind. However, goats showed no preference when one person covered only the eyes. Our results show that animals bred for production rather than companionship show differences in their approach and choice behaviour depending on human attentive state. However, our results contrast with previous findings regarding the use of the head orientation to attribute attention and show

  9. Engaging evaluation research: Reflecting on the process of sexual assault/domestic violence protocol evaluation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavis Morton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In keeping within the theme of CU Expo 2013, ‘Engaging Shared Worlds’, this case study examines and reflects on a complex community-university partnership which developed to conceptualise, design, conduct and communicate evaluation research on one community’s sexual assault and domestic violence protocol. As community-university partners coming together for the first time, we reflect on the purpose of our engagement, the characteristics and principles which define our partnership and our potential to teach graduate students how to undertake community-engaged scholarship. Keywords: Community-engaged research, evaluation research, complex community-university partnerships, scholarship of engagement, practice research

  10. A novel anoxic-aerobic biofilter process using new composite packing material for the treatment of rural domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L T; Han, Y

    2016-01-01

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of contaminants removal in a continuously two-stage biological process composed of an anoxic biofilter (AF) and an biological aerated filter (BAF). This novel process was developed by introducing new composite packing material (MZF) into bioreactors to treat rural domestic wastewater. A comparative study conducted by the same process with ceramsite as packing material under the same conditions showed that a MZF system with a Fe proportion in the packing material performed better in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (average 91.5%), ammonia (NH4(+)-N) removal (average 98.3%), total nitrogen (TN) removal (average 64.8%) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (average 90%). After treatment of the MZF system, the concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP in effluent were 20.3 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 11.5 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The simultaneously high efficiencies of nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal were achieved by the coupling effects of biological and chemical processes in the MZF system. The results of this study showed that the application of MZF might be a favorable choice as packing material in biofilters for treatment of rural domestic wastewater.

  11. Incipient Domestication Processes in Multicultural Contexts: A Case Study of Urban Parks in San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Betancurt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, the processes of domestication of urban landscapes have been little studied. The public green spaces in the city of Bariloche, an enclave with growing urbanization which lies within the Andino Norpatagonica Biosphere Reserve, offer an opportunity to evaluate cultural molding of the environment. We analyzed different management methods of woody species, both in situ and ex situ, in parks located in sectors with different environmental, socioeconomic, size, age and administration characteristics. Our hypotheses were: (1 Species richness will be higher for exotic plants, in accordance with global patterns of ornamental species selection. (2 Species richness and type of management practice will vary according to the kind of environment, the socioeconomic profile of the neighborhood, the age and size of the park, and type of administration (bottom-up or top-down. (3 Bottom-up park administration will lead to a different landscape than top-down administration. Thirty randomly selected parks of both local council and neighborhood administration and varying environmental and socioeconomic conditions were examined and the composition of their woody species identified. In addition, semi-structured and free interviews were carried out with those responsible for park management, both in situ (tolerance, enhancement, protection and ex situ (sowing, use of cuttings or transplanting. In accordance with our hypothesis, the processes of domestication of the urban landscape show a tendency toward an anthropized diversity of 130 species, mainly exotic in origin (72%, and principally from the Holarctic region (67%. However, multinomial logistic analysis revealed that in parks under neighborhood administration tolerance of native species is higher (13 times than in parks administrated by the local council. Species richness increases along an environmental and socioeconomic gradient, and with the age of parks, but does not vary with size. We conclude that

  12. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... chicken processing firms, and 4,335 retailers. This totals 7,181 firms that [[Page 15646

  13. Functional Analyse of GLUT1 and GLUT12 in Glucose Uptake in Goat Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qinghua; Zhu, Liqi; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Qi; Hu, Weiwei; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Glucose transport, mediated by glucose transporters, is necessary for mammary gland development and lactation. GLUT1 and GLUT12 could both be expressed in the pregnant and lactating mammary gland to participate in the glucose uptake process. In this study, the goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 genes were cloned from Saanen dairy goats and transfected into goat mammary gland epithelial cells to assess their biological functions and distributions. The results showed that both goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 had 12 p...

  14. The evolutionary origin and genetic makeup of domestic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Pablo Librado; Fages, Antoine Alphonse; Gaunitz, Charleen

    2016-01-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circ......The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude...... of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped...

  15. Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, A A; Moonen, M L; Farnir, F; Sandersen, C F; Deleuze, S; Salciccia, A; Amory, H

    2012-02-11

    Echocardiography has become a routine non-invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of the present study was to test the inter-day repeatability and to establish the reference values of two-dimensional (2D-) and time-motion (M-) mode echocardiographic variables in healthy adult Saanen goats. Six goats were investigated three times by the same observer at one-day interval using a standardised 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic protocol. The intra-observer inter-day repeatability was tested using analysis of variance, calculation of the coefficient of variation and confidence intervals. A single echocardiographic examination was performed in six other goats, and values obtained in the 12 goats were used to establish the 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult female Saanen goats. Statistical analysis revealed a good inter-day repeatability of the echocardiographic cardiac measurements. Echocardiographic reference values obtained in healthy adult Saanen goats seemed slightly higher than those reported in healthy Swedish domestic goats and were similar to those reported in healthy adult sheep.

  16. Optimization of induced crystallization reaction in a novel process of nutrients removal coupled with phosphorus recovery from domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Haiming

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus removal and recovery from domestic wastewater is urgent nowadays. A novel process of nutrients removal coupled with phosphorus recovery from domestic sewage was proposed and optimization of induced crystallization reaction was performed in this study. The results showed that 92.3% of phosphorus recovery via induced Hydroxyapatite crystallization was achieved at the optimum process parameters: reaction time of 80 min, seed crystal loads of 60 g/L, pH of 8.5, Ca/P mole ratio of 2.0 and 4.0 L/min aeration rate when the PO43--P concentration was 10 mg/L in the influent, displaying an excellent phosphorus recovery performance. Importantly, it was found that the effect of reaction temperature on induced Hydroxyapatite crystallization was slight, thus favoring practical application of phosphorus recovery method described in this study. From these results, the proposed method of induced HAP crystallization to recover phosphorus combined with nutrients removal can be an economical and effective technology, probably favoring the water pollution control and phosphate rock recycle.

  17. Fermentation optimization of goat milk with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum by Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guowei; Bao, Chunju; Chen, He; Wang, Changfeng; Yang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is only limited to the processing of goat milk powder and liquid milk, the products are mainly about milk powder and a few of them are made as milk tablet. Therefore, the study of probiotic goat milk will have great significance in the full use of goats and the development of the goat milk industry in China. The effect of fermentation temperature (35°C, 37°C, 39°C), strain ratio (1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1) and inoculum size (4%, 5%, 6%) on viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, total bacteria and sensory value during fermentation process of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum goat yogurt (AB-goat yogurt) was investigated. The optimum fermentation conditions for AB-goat yogurt were: fermentation temperature 38°C, the strain ratio 2:1:1, inoculum size 6%. Under the optimum conditions, the viable counts of B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, total bacteria and sensory value reached (4.30 ±0.11)×107  cfu/mL, (1.39 ±0.09)×108  cfu/mL, (1.82±0.06)×109  cfu/mL and 7.90 ±0.14, respectively. The fermentation temperature, the strain ratio and inoculum size had a significant effect on the fermentation of AB-goat yogurt and these results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yogurt.

  18. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  19. Goat for Azazel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The rite included in Leviticus 16 belongs to penitential rites of purification. It may be a reminiscence of antic religious medical-magic rites, practiced in multiple regions of ancient world. The rites contained the idea of substitution, “magic elimination.” Sending the goat represents rejection of anything that should not and can not exist among the people of Israel. The desert as an “infertile” place, the theological idea of separating the good from the evil as well as the ancient idea of substitution point at the theology of penance expressed in the rite of separation. The text of Leviticus 16 applies the term sa‘ir for the goat. The same term is also applied in priestly text to describe demons relating to the misshapen form of Israel religion. There is an undoubted connection with the idea of Convenant that constitutes the basic background and point of reference for the rite of Leviticus 16.

  20. Factors influencing perceptions of domestic energy information: Content, source and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcock, Neil; MacGregor, Sherilyn; Catney, Philip; Dobson, Andrew; Ormerod, Mark; Robinson, Zoe; Ross, Simon; Royston, Sarah; Marie Hall, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Reducing household energy consumption is an essential element of the UK Government's carbon reduction strategy. Whilst increased knowledge alone will not necessarily lead to tangible actions on the part of consumers, knowledge of various kinds is, we argue, still important if domestic energy usage is to be reduced. In an attempt to ‘educate’ the public, governments have typically resorted to ‘mass information’ campaigns that have been considered largely unsuccessful. Yet understanding what alternative forms of learning could be cultivated has been limited by the dearth of research that explores whether and why people consider information about energy and energy saving to be useful. By exploring this, we can move towards an understanding of how knowledge about energy saving can be better shared and communicated, enabling more meaningful learning to take place. Drawing on in-depth qualitative data with fifty-five participants, this paper highlights a range of factors that affect perceptions of energy information. It argues that these factors are not discrete, but are interlinked. A fundamentally different model of knowledge exchange is needed for more effective learning about energy saving to occur. A number of implications for policy are proposed in our conclusions. - Highlights: • A range of factors influence perceptions of energy information. These factors are interlinked. • Energy information perceived as more relevant when it could be ‘anchored’ to everyday frames of understanding. • Both qualified ‘experts’ and peers with personal experience valued as potential information sources. • ‘One-way’ information communication perceived negatively. Two-way information exchange built trust and a sense of control. • Participants’ active information assessment very different to the passive consumer assumed by knowledge-deficit model

  1. FOOD FIBRES OF THE DOMESTIC PRODUCTION FOR THE MEAT-PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The range of meat products with food fibers can be rather wide. The choice of the corresponding type of fibers or creation of a mixed product according to specific objectives allows to develop the products enriched with fibers, or products with the high content of fibers which possess pleasant taste. The right choice of fibers also gives technological and economic advantages. Concrete functional properties of polysaccharides, obviously, are connected with their spatial structure. Experience of food technologies with all evidence testifies to it. Ability to thicken water solutions are among such properties, to form jellies, to create emulsions, foams, to act as their stabilizers, to connect heavy metals, etc. Beet and wheat celluloses promote preservation of juiciness and decrease in losses at heat treatment, stabilize a good trade dress of finished products from chopped meat. Their introduction in minced products – chopped semi-finished products, pastes, canned food is most expedient. The amount of food fibers brought in compounding of products, is caused by touch properties of products and can differ for different types of food fibers. For the purpose of improvement of quality and expansion of the range of meat products studied properties of food fibers of a domestic production of ECOLIGHT native (JSC EFKO-NT. For an assessment of possibility of use of preparations in technology of meat products investigated the microbiological status and the maintenance of ions of heavy metals in objects according to requirements the SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. An inspection of harmlessness of cellulose of food fibers "ECOLIGHT native" was carried out on the Paramecium caudatum biotest culture. For definition of conditions of application of a preparation of food fibers of beet cellulose "ECOLIGHT native" investigated functional and technological and commodity properties of granules of food fibers "ECOLIGHT native", developed with their application of a

  2. Understanding sustained domestic violence identification in maternal and child health nurse care: process evaluation from a 2-year follow-up of the MOVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Leesa; Small, Rhonda; Taft, Angela

    2016-03-01

    To investigate factors contributing to the sustained domestic violence screening and support practices of Maternal and Child Health nurses 2 years after a randomized controlled trial. Domestic violence screening by healthcare professionals has been implemented in many primary care settings. Barriers to screening exist and screening rates remain low. Evidence for longer term integration of nurse screening is minimal. Trial outcomes showed sustained safety planning behaviours by intervention group nurses. Process evaluation in 2-year follow-up of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Evaluation included a repeat online nurse survey and 14 interviews (July-September 2013). Survey analysis included comparison of proportionate group difference between arms and between trial baseline and 2 year follow-up surveys. Framework analysis was used to assess qualitative data. Normalization Process Theory informed evaluation design and interpretation of results. Survey response was 77% (n = 123/160). Sustainability of nurse identification of domestic violence appeared to be due to greater nurse discussion and domestic violence disclosure by women, facilitated by use of a maternal health and well-being checklist. Over time, intervention group nurses used the maternal checklist more at specific maternal health visits and found the checklist the most helpful resource assisting their domestic violence work. Nurses' spoke of a degree of 'normalization' to domestic violence screening that will need constant investment to maintain. Sustainable domestic violence screening and support outcomes can be achieved in an environment of comprehensive, nurse designed and theory driven implementation. Continuing training, discussion and monitoring of domestic violence work is needed to retain sustainable practices. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The importance of social dialogue in the process of consolidation of domestic law with the European Union law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjanić Željko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of a social dialogue in the process of consolidation of domestic law with the European Union law is hereby analyzed through the issues of level of development of institutional tripartite dialogue, development of social dialogue as a prerequisite that is ahead for the countries in the process of joining European integration and the mode of consolidation of domestic labour law with the EU law. Social dialogue in the countries that have passed through or are still under the process of transition of legal order, is being developed according to relevant model of the EU countries, which have recognized the social dialogue as an efficient way of reaching compromise and preserving social peace. The key importance in our country is given to tripartite dialogue within the economic social council. The functioning of the economic social council of the Republika Srpska can be a model of social dialogue, and its role is to consolidate labour and social laws as well as other laws that are at stake for social partners, with the European Union law. At the same time, the subject matter of the dialogue in this council is wider then the issue of the law consolidation, and covers a number of other areas, corresponding to trends of development of social dialogue that is prevailing in the EU countries. On the contrary, the absence or flaws in institutional social dialogue regarding its functioning especially at the local level, and having in mind unfavorable circumstances regarding the employees' associations in private companies and forming of the council of employees, are a limiting factor to development of autonomous labour law, as a part of the process of consolidation. In the process of joining the EU, the request for consolidation of labour legislature with the EU law has come out, which includes the necessity of further providing legal prerequisites for social dialogue. The greatest problem in that process, apart from enactment of new labour law

  4. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  5. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can I tell if my partner is abusive? • What is the ...

  6. Genomic Analysis Suggests KITLG is Responsible for a Roan Pattern in two Pakistani Goat Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talenti, Andrea; Bertolini, Francesca; Williams, Jamie; Moaeen-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Frattini, Stefano; Coizet, Beatrice; Pagnacco, Giulio; Reecy, James; Rothschild, Max F; Crepaldi, Paola

    2018-03-16

    The roan coat color pattern is described as the presence of white hairs intermixed with pigmented hairs. This kind of pigmentation pattern has been observed in many domestic species, including the goat. The molecular mechanisms and inheritance that underlie this pattern are known for some species and the KITLG gene has been shown associated with this phenotype. To date, no research effort has been carried out to find the gene(s) that control(s) roan coat color pattern in goats. In the present study, after genotyping with the GoatSNP50 BeadChip, 35 goats that showed a roan pattern and that belonged to two Pakistan breeds (Group A) were analyzed and then compared to 740 goats of 39 Italian and Pakistan goat breeds that did not have the same coat color pattern (Group B). Runs of homozygosity-based and XP-EHH analyses were used to identify unique genomic regions potentially associated with the roan pattern. A total of 3 regions on chromosomes 5, 6, and 12 were considered unique among the group A versus group B comparisons. The A region > 1.7 Mb on chromosome 5 was the most divergent between the two groups. This region contains six genes, including the KITLG gene. Our findings support the hypothesis that the KITLG gene may be associated with the roan phenotype in goats.

  7. (GDF9) gene in Assam Hill goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assam hill goat (Capra hircus) is a prolific local goat in India. Growth differentiation factor (GDF9) gene was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of goats. The objective of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in the exonic region of GDF9 gene of Assam hill goat. Total number of 90 blood ...

  8. THE EFFECT OF WASTEWATER OF DOMESTIC AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANT ON THE RIVER OF KARASU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmühan DANIŞ

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewaters of the slaughterhouse and meat processing plant in Erzurum city, which don't have any wastewater treatment plant is discharged to the Karasu river. The wastewater, especially occured during slaughtering and processing of meat, contained high level of COD, BOD5, total suspended solid, fat and grease and total solid. Therefore these wastewaters cause some environmental problems in the city. This paper presents the effect of wastewaters from resident area slaughterhouse, and meat processing plants on the river of Karasu. For this purpose some samples taken from eight different points around the river were analysed in order to obtain values of dissolved oxygen, BOD5, COD, total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrojen, total suspended solid, total solid, total volatile suspended solid, fat and grease, chlorides and coliform. From the results obtained, it is found out that the wastewaters from the slaughterhouse has the biggest pollutant effect in the river.

  9. Contaminant removal performances on domestic sewage using modified anoxic/anaerobic/oxic process and micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gao, Jingqing; Liu, Yifan; Xiao, Shuai; Zhang, Ruiqin; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from domestic sewage in a sequencing batch reactor with added new materials. A modified anoxic/anaerobic/oxic (MAAO) process, integrating a micro-electrolysis (ME) bed in an anoxic tank, and complex biological media (CBM) in anoxic, anaerobic and oxic tanks to treat domestic sewage, and their performances were investigated. The MAAO system was operated at controlled hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h and mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) at 75%. The results showed that the MAAO system could effectively remove COD, TN and TP with average rates of 93%, 80% and 94%, respectively, in March, and 94%, 76% and 91%, respectively, in August. In this system, TP was primarily removed from the anoxic tank regardless of the operational conditions; removal contribution ratios to TP of the anoxic tank reached 56% both in March and August, indicating that the ME bed can effectively enhance phosphorus removal. TN was primarily removed from the anoxic and anaerobic tanks; removal contribution ratios to TN of anoxic and anaerobic tanks reached 36-38% and 37-38%, respectively. The oxic tank had the highest share of COD removal (56% both in March and August) in the removal of phosphorus. The outflow concentrations of COD, TN and TP were 3-46, 7-14 and 0.3-0.5 mg/L, respectively, in March, and 26-49, 9-15 and 0.04-0.1 mg/L, respectively, in August. COD and TN removal performances indicated that the innovative materials of the ME bed and CBM can effectively enhance COD and TN removal.

  10. The domestic turn : business processing outsourcing and the growing automation of Kenyan organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, L.E.; Graham, M.

    2015-01-01

    After observing the growth of the Indian and Filipino Business Processing Outsourcing sectors, Kenyan policy-makers and managers made substantial investments in international internet infrastructure and BPO marketing campaigns. While observers continue to discuss the sector in terms of its

  11. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes as decentralized water treatment technologies to remediate domestic washing machine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexsandro Jhones; Costa, Emily Cintia Tossi de Araújo; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major concerns worldwide. In order to secure this appreciated natural resource, management and development of water treatment technologies are mandatory. One feasible alternative is the consideration of water recycling/reuse at the household scale. Here, the treatment of actual washing machine effluent by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes was considered. Electrochemical oxidation and electro-Fenton technologies can be applied as decentralized small-scale water treatment devices. Therefore, efficient decolorization and total organic abatement have been followed. The results demonstrate the promising performance of solar photoelectro-Fenton process, where complete color and organic removal was attained after 240 min of treatment under optimum conditions by applying a current density of 66.6 mA cm -2 . Thus, electrochemical technologies emerge as promising water-sustainable approaches.

  12. The adoption of domestic solar-power systems: Do consumers assess product attributes in a stepwise process?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiers, Adam; Neame, Charles; Cook, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The adoption of an innovation is partly dependent on the consumers' perception of the product attributes, starting with the 'relative advantage' a product may have over another existing product, and also include issues of compatibility, complexity, observability and trialability. Using diffusion of innovations theory as a conceptual framework, this paper describes a case study that investigated the innovation adoption process that a group of identified potential adopters of domestic solar thermal systems stated they would follow. Data was generated from the results of a postal survey to a group of 43 defined innovators and a group of 350 assumed 'early majority', pragmatic consumers. The survey results showed that while the pragmatic customers did follow the process as theorised in diffusion theory, the innovators disregarded the observability attributes of the innovation and went ahead with implementation without having seen the products beforehand. The group of innovators was also split in their opinion that 'complexity' may be a limiting factor. There were differences in the pragmatic group between certain demographic sub groups. Conclusions are drawn on how the findings may impact marketing activities

  13. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species: Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Chynoweth; Creighton M. Litton; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Steven C. Hess; Susan Cordell

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts...

  14. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  15. Fenton's peroxidation and coagulation processes for the treatment of combined industrial and domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, M I; Ali, M E M

    2006-08-25

    As a consequence of the population growth, major efforts have been made by the Egyptian government to construct new industrial areas. Tenth of Ramadan City is one of the most important industrial cities in Egypt. The wastewater generated from various industrial activities was highly contaminated with organic matters as indicated by COD (1750-3323 mg/L), TSS (900-3000 mg/L) and oil and grease (13.2-95.5 mg/L). All overall appraisals of the analytical data from the industrial wastewater indicate that pretreatment is required for all industrial sectors to achieve compliance with the Egyptian Environmental law which requires effective pretreatment of industrial wastewater prior to its discharge into public sewers. Treatability studies via conventional and Fenton processes have been investigated. The efficiency of conventional treatment methods led to 63% COD and 44% color removal by using FeCl(3) as coagulant. Various coagulant aids and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were added to 400mg/L FeCl(3) in order to enhance the removal of color. It was found that polyacrylamide polymer, bentonite and PAC increased the efficiency of the treatments where the color removal increased to 79%, by cationic polymer, 73% by anionic polymer, 84.5% by bentonite and 95% for 0.4 g/L PAC. Fenton process was investigated which under the operating conditions (pH 3.0+/-0.2, Fe(2+) dose=400 mg/L and H(2)O(2)=550 mg/L), color removal up to 100% and more than 90% of COD removal were achieved.

  16. Evaluating the feasibility of adding value to goat's milk by producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although goat milk yoghurt was preferred over cow milk yoghurt, in appearance and palatability, the differences were small. Similarly, although cow milk yoghurt had better smell and taste, the differences were also small. The study indicated that it is possible to process good quality yoghurt from goat milk using low cost ...

  17. Process analysis transit of municipal waste. Part II - Domestic provisions of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkowski Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Polish legal system referring to municipal waste management was restructured in a revolutionary way. The analysis of new provisions of law described in the article requires particular attention, taking into account their place in the entire system of dealing with waste and connections with the remaining elements of this system. At present, Polish regulations lay down the rules of conduct with all types of waste, diversifying a subjective area of responsibility. These assumptions are determined by the provisions of law that are in force in the Republic of Poland. At present, the system of legal provisions is quite complex; however, the provisions of law of the EU constitute its base (the first article. At the level of Polish law, the goals and tasks concerned with dealing with waste were set forth, which leads to tightening of the system. All actions in this respect - from propagating the selective accumulation and collection of municipal waste, keeping the established levels of recycling and recycling of packaging wastes, and limiting the mass of biodegradable waste directed at the storage - is only a beginning of the road to reduction of environmental risks. In this case, permanent monitoring of proper waste dealing in the commune, the province as well as the entire country is essential. Third part of the article will present characterization, division, classification and identification of waste, together with the aspects of logistic process of municipal waste collection and transport.

  18. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Briana L.; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that t...

  19. A novel image processing-based system for turbidity measurement in domestic and industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Darragh; Coburn, Derek; Hannon, Louise; Jones, Edward; Clifford, Eoghan; Glavin, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are continually challenged to meet both environmental regulations and reduce running costs (particularly energy and staffing costs). Improving the efficiency of operational monitoring at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) requires the development and implementation of appropriate performance metrics; particularly those that are easily measured, strongly correlate to WWTP performance, and can be easily automated, with a minimal amount of maintenance or intervention by human operators. Turbidity is the measure of the relative clarity of a fluid. It is an expression of the optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed by fine particles in suspension (rather than transmitted with no change in direction or flux level through a fluid sample). In wastewater treatment, turbidity is often used as an indicator of effluent quality, rather than an absolute performance metric, although correlations have been found between turbidity and suspended solids. Existing laboratory-based methods to measure turbidity for WWTPs, while relatively simple, require human intervention and are labour intensive. Automated systems for on-site measuring of wastewater effluent turbidity are not commonly used, while those present are largely based on submerged sensors that require regular cleaning and calibration due to fouling from particulate matter in fluids. This paper presents a novel, automated system for estimating fluid turbidity. Effluent samples are imaged such that the light absorption characteristic is highlighted as a function of fluid depth, and computer vision processing techniques are used to quantify this characteristic. Results from the proposed system were compared with results from established laboratory-based methods and were found to be comparable. Tests were conducted using both synthetic dairy wastewater and effluent from multiple WWTPs, both municipal and industrial. This system has an advantage over current methods as it

  20. Physiological and proteomic evidences that domestication process differentially modulates the immune status of juvenile Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) under chronic confinement stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douxfils, J; Mathieu, C; Mandiki, S N M; Milla, S; Henrotte, E; Wang, N; Vandecan, M; Dieu, M; Dauchot, N; Pigneur, L-M; Li, X; Rougeot, C; Mélard, C; Silvestre, F; Van Doninck, K; Raes, M; Kestemont, P

    2011-12-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of domestication process on the stress response and subsequent immune modulation in Eurasian perch juveniles (Perca fluviatilis) submitted to chronic confinement. Briefly, F1 and F4 generations were confined into small-size tanks and sampled 7 and 55 days after stocking. Cortisol and glucose levels as well as lysozyme activity and immunoglobulin level were evaluated in the serum. Spleen Somatic Index and spleen ROS production were also measured. A proteomic analysis was performed on serum sampled on day 7. Finally, both generations were genetically characterized using a microsatellite approach. Globally, results revealed that chronic confinement did not elicit a typical stress response but resulted in a prolonged immune stimulation. Proteomic results suggested that domestication process influenced the immune status of perch submitted to chronic confinement as the F1 confined fish displayed lower abundance of C3 complement component, transferrin and Apolipoprotein E. Microsatellite data showed a strong genetic drift as well as reduced genetic diversity, allelic number and heterozygosity along with domestication process. The present work is the first to report that fish under domestication can develop an immune response, assessed by a combined approach, following recurrent challenges imposed by captive environment despite a reduced genetic variation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous methane production and wastewater reuse by a membrane-based process: Evaluation with raw domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dawen; An Rui; Tao Yu; Li Jin; Li Xinxin; Ren Nanqi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a membrane-based process was applied to simultaneously reclaim methane and generate reused water from raw domestic wastewater. The system was comprised of up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed bed (UAFB), anoxic sink (AS) and aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The hydraulic retention time of UAFB (HRT U ) was gradually shortened from 8 h to 6 h, 3 h and to 1 h, while the HRT of AS and MBR kept at 8 h. It is found that HRT U of 3 h was more suitable for the balancing production of biogas and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and the VFAs served as carbon source for denitrification. The trans-membrane pressure (TMP) of the MBR kept lower than 0.04 MPa without wash or change of membrane sheet, however, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that microbes attached to the inner-surface of membrane, causing irreversible fouling after 133-day operation. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments proved that more functional bacteria and higher microbial diversity emerged at HRT U of 3 h and 1 h. Most bacteria belonged to Betaproteobacteria and were responsible for carbon and nitrogen removal.

  2. Evolution of chemical-physical parameters and rheological characteristics of Sarda and Maltese goat dry hams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Mazzette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sardinia, goat farming is a very important resource. Sarda and Maltese breed are reared mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat, while meat from adult goats is undervalued. The use of adult goat meat to obtain ripened ham will contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. The aim of the present study was to characterize Sarda and Maltese goat dry ham in order to evaluate the quality of autochthonous goat breed meat. Chemical-physical characteristics were determined dur-ing the production stages, while the rheological and colour parameters and the composition of the goat ham were determined at the end of ripening. The pH evolution during processing were similar to other cured meat products, e.g. sheep hams, even though the values were high, especially in the products from Sarda breed. The aw value regularly decreased during processing. Colour parameters (L*, a*, b* in the hams from Maltese goat breed were significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those from Sarda. The Sarda goat ham showed a significantly lower percentage of moisture (42% vs 52%, an higher protein content (44.35% vs 34.19%, while no differences were pointed out in the total fat content. Among the ham rheological properties, hardness parameters showed higher levels (13850.22±7589.92 vs 11073.99±6481.31, respectively in Sarda and Maltese hams in comparison to similar products from pork and sheep, while adhesiveness value was lower. The results show that the quality parameters of goat ripened hams are affected mainly by the charac-teristics of the goat meat, in relation on the breed and the breeding system, and, less, by the traditional technology.

  3. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters

  4. Organic Sheep and Goat Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmann, Gerold

    2007-01-01

    Organic sheep and goat farming is on the rise in Germany and the EU. Many consumers see organic farms as an example of the "intact world" of farming and rural living. Agrienvironmental schemes support conversion from conventional towards organic farming. Only few know how difficult organic sheep and goat farming is from animal welfare, ecological and economic perspective. Newcomers particularly overestimate the production and marketing potential of the field, and underestimate the associated ...

  5. New process for alleviation of membrane fouling of modified hybrid MBR system for advanced domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuo, Liu; Baozhen, Wang; Hongjun, Han; Yanping, Liu

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale hybrid membrane bioreactor using a submerged flat panel membrane was designed and applied for advanced treatment of domestic wastewater. The new process adapted to the hybrid membrane bioreactor exhibits substantial decrease in membrane fouling and much easier cleaning. In this study, the new process configurations including the addition of anoxic/anaerobic zones, the package of synthetic fibrous fabric carrier for biofilm attached growth, activated sludge recycling and modified dosage of polished diatomite with high activity and multi-functions were investigated to select the optimal operational parameters for the hybrid membrane bioreactor system. The carrier package in the aerobic zone contributed 3.65 g/L (maximum) of fixed biomass to the system, thus reducing the suspended biomass, and has decreased the membrane cleaning cycle remarkably. The operation performance at the sludge recycle rate 0, 100%, 200% and 300% showed that, the trans-membrane pressure of flat panel membrane declined sharply with the increase of sludge recycling rate within a certain range, and 200% was decided to be optimal for in the membrane bioreactor system. EPS concentration in each sludge recycling rate was 135 mg/L, 92 mg/L, 68 mg/L and 55 mg/L respectively. The addition of anoxic and anaerobic zones degraded some large molecular organic compounds, which facilitated the biodegradation and removal of organic substances in aerobic zone. The modified dosage of polished diatomite has played a major important role for both preventing of membrane from fouling and its much easier cleaning when it formed. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  6. Behaviors of intercellular materials and nutrients in biological nutrient removal process supplied with domestic wastewater and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, So-Ryong; Jeong, Hyeong-Seok; Lim, Jae-Lim; Kang, Seok-Tae; Shin, Hang-Sik; Paik, Byeong-Cheon; Youn, Jong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    A four-stage biological nutrient removal (BNR) process was operated to investigate the effect of anaerobically fermented leachate of food waste (AFLFW) as an external carbon source on nutrient removal from domestic wastewater having a low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. The BNR system that was supplemented with AFLFW showed a good performance at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 30 days, despite low temperature. With this wastewater, average removal efficiencies of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P) were 88 to 93%, 70 to 74%, and 63 to 68%, respectively. In this study, several kinds of poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) were observed in cells. These included 24% poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), 41% poly-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHV), 18% poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate (PHH), 10% poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate (PHO), 5% poly-3-hydroxydecanoate (PHD). and 2% poly-3-hydroxydodecanoate (PHDD), indicating that microorganisms could store various PHAs through the different metabolic pathways. However, breakdown of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) mechanism was observed when SRT increased from 30 to 50 days for the enhancement of nitrification. To study the effect of SRT on EBPR, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system that was supplied with glucose was operated at various SRTs of 5, 10, and 15 days. Nitrification and denitrification efficiencies increased as SRT increased. However, the content of intracellular materials such as PHAs, glycogen. and poly-P in cells decreased. From these results, it was concluded that SRT should be carefully controlled to increase nitrification activity and to maintain biological phosphorus removal activity in the BNR process.

  7. Goats display audience-dependent human-directed gazing behaviour in a problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Brett, Jemma M; McElligott, Alan G

    2016-07-01

    Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an 'unsolvable problem' task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward-facing or an away-facing person. They gazed towards the forward-facing person earlier and for longer and showed more gaze alternations and a lower latency until the first gaze alternation when the person was forward-facing. Our results provide strong evidence for audience-dependent human-directed visual orienting behaviour in a species that was domesticated primarily for production, and show similarities with the referential and intentional communicative behaviour exhibited by domestic companion animals such as dogs and horses. This indicates that domestication has a much broader impact on heterospecific communication than previously believed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Histopathological changes in naive and sensitised goats caused by Sarcoptes scabiei infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the histopathological changes in naïve and sensitised goats caused by Sarcoptes scabiei infestation. Thirty goats were allocated evenly into 5 groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 goats were sensitised once, twice and thrice, respectively; whereas groups 4 and 5 were left unsensitised or naïve. Sensitisation was done by infesting the animals with the mite, then 7 week afterwards the animals were completely cured from the mange. After the sensitisation, all, except group 5, goats were infested on both auricles each with approximately 2000 life mites. Biopsies were collected from each group at 2 day then at weekly intervals from 1 to 7 weeks following infestation. The samples were routinely processed, paraffin blocked, and tissue sections were stained with Haematoxyllin and Eosin (H & E, Giemsa, Carbol Chromatrope, and Gram’s when indicated. Lesions in the naïve goats developed progressively characterised by thick parakeratotic crusts honeycombed with tunnels containing large number of mites. Lesions in sensitised goats, which were different qualitatively to those in naïve goats, developed rapidly characterised by copious amount of serocellular exudates in and on the surface of the epidermis, and marked oedema and cell infiltrations in the dermis. Dermal infiltration by eosinophils, which was rare in naïve goats, was apparently an important feature in the sensitised goats. Lesions developed in the sensitised goats were interpreted to be the manifestation of cutaneous anaphylaxis. Resistance or protective immunity against mite reinfestation developed in the sensitised goats is supposedly attributed to this anaphylactic responses.

  9. Antibody preparation and identification of the Cashmere goat c-kit protein in the testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S C L; Luo, F H; Kong, Q F; Wu, Y J

    2014-07-02

    The c-kit protein plays a major role in the regulation of germ cell development. Its expression and distribution in rodent testes have been widely reported. However, research regarding c-kit expression in domestic animals is scarce, and the expression pattern and distribution of c-kit in germ cells have not been clearly defined. In this study, a specific antigenic region for goat c-kit was designed, and a c-kit polyclonal antibody was prepared. This antibody was then applied in a study evaluating c-kit expression in Cashmere goat tissues. A Western blot analysis showed that three forms of c-kit were expressed in goat testes: precursor, mature, and soluble c-kit. Fluorescent immunohistochemical analyses showed that c-kit was primarily expressed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of goat testes. These results not only clarify the expression and localization of c-kit in the goat testis, but also accelerate further research regarding the function of c-kit in goat spermatogenesis.

  10. LIFETIME PRODUCTION OF SLOVENIAN LOCAL GOAT BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Žan Lotrič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze lifetime production data for two Slovenian locally adapted dairy breeds: Slovenian Saanen goat (334 and Slovenian Alpine goat (1105 and for the dairy type of Dreznica goat (141 which is the only Slovenian autochthonous goat breed. Dataset included records from 54 farms. Data for does born after 2002 have been obtained from the database of the National selection program for small ruminants, collected by the ICAR standards. The contribution of farm to phenotypic variance was estimated. Data was analyzed by MIXED procedure in SAS/STAT. The results showed significant effect of breed, farm and year of culling on all traits studied, except the effect of breed on completed lactations in lifetime and number of liveborn kids. The lifetime milk yield was higher in Slovenian Alpine goat compared to Slovenian Saanen goat by 413.26±172.52 kg. The difference in lifetime protein yield between Slovenian Alpine goat and Slovenian Saanen goat amounted to 11.76±5.21 kg. Dreznica goat did not differ in lifetime milk production and protein yield compared to both intensive goat breeds. Dreznica goat yielded about 25.50±5.21 kg more fat in lifetime compared to Slovenian Saanen goat. However, compared to Slovenian Alpine goat the difference was not significant. Comparison of Slovenian Saanen goat and Slovenian Alpine goat revealed higher lifetime fat yield of Slovenian Alpine goat by 13.28±5.21 kg. The results suggested reasonably good performance and adaptation of the autochthonous breed Dreznica goat in local agro climatic conditions.

  11. Boerka Goat: A Meat Type Goat of Boer X Kacang Crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The world goat population has for three main types, namely meat goats, dairy goats and fiber goats. In Indonesia, goat meat is produced mainly the Kacang goat, a small-size type with low growth rate, but prolific. The development of new goat breed with larger mature weight and greater growth rate is important to promote and increase the goat meat production and consumption as well. The acceleration of meat goat production in Indonesia need to be stimulated due to the large potential of the international market. The healthy goat meat due to its higher polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio compared to those of beef or lambs should be more promoted to encourage the consumption rate. The Boerka goat which has been developed by mating the male Boer goat to Kacang does has good characteristics of meat goat type. The average birth weight, weaning weight, weight at 6, 9, 12, 18 months old, and mature weight of Boerka goats are greater 33 – 48% compared to those of Kacang goat. The average pre-weaning (0 – 90 days and post-weaning growth rate (3 – 12 months of Boerka in average are 39 and 46%, respectively higher than those of Kacang goats. Under intensive management system, the kidding interval is 233 days, equal to that of Kacang goat. Carcass characteristics such as carcass weight and length are greater in Boerka compared to Kacang goat. The pH and protein content of carcass are comparable, while the fat content is lower in Boerka carcass. It is important to design proper schemes for the dissemination of this Boerka goats to stakeholders. These schemes should be able to provide the Boerka goats in a sustainable pattern, so that the production, supply and quality of this crossbred goat could be maintained continuously. Several alternative schemes based on the nucleus-based breeding principles are proposed and discussed.

  12. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2010-09-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that these genetic inferences are fundamentally compatible with recent archaeological data that support a view of domestication as a geographically diffuse, gradual process. In this review, we summarize methodologies ranging from quantitative trait locus mapping to resequencing used in genetic analyses of crop evolution. We also highlight recent major insights regarding the timing and spatial patterning of crop domestication and the distinct genetic underpinnings of domestication, diversification and improvement traits. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2010-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly.

  14. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Dhanasekaran

    Full Text Available Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV. Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR. We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors

  15. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  16. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with a weapon. Sexual abuse, forcing someone to have any type of sexual ...

  17. The transfer of radionuclides into domestic animals and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    The contamination of animal products, especially milk, with radionuclides, are regarded as the important problem in the food chain, and has been one of the remarkable public concerns in Japan since the nuclear tests in 1954. The transfer of several radionuclides into domestic animals and their products is described. 131 I, 90 Sr and 137 Cs are very important as the radionuclides that transfer into domestic animals and their products. The data of the transfer of several orally administered radionuclides into milk from the references are summarized as follows: (1) 131 I transfered into milk was 5 -- 30% of dose (cow), 10 -- 40% (goat). (2) 90 Sr( 89 Sr) transfered into milk was 0.6 -- 1.9% (cow), 0.5 -- 0.6% (goat). (3) 137 Cs( 134 Cs) transfered into milk was 10 -- 13% (cow), 7.0% (goat). (4) 140 Ba- 140 La transfered into milk was 0.6% (cow), 0.1 -- 0.2% (goat). (5) 181 W transfered into milk was 0.06% (goat). (author)

  18. Zulu Goats in KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Introduction. KwaZulu Natal has a goat population of 1,000,000 goats almost all of which are in the communal areas. However, very little is known about these goats. In consultation with researchers in the Farmers Systems Research. Section at Cedara, it was established that the small-scale farmers' problems relating to ...

  19. Whole-genome sequencing of eight goat populations for the detection of selection signatures underlying production and adaptive traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Guangxian; Guo, Jiazhong; Yan, Hailong; Niu, Yiyuan; Li, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Geng, Rongqing; Lan, Xianyong; An, Xiaopeng; Tian, Xingui; Zhou, Huangkai; Song, Jiuzhou; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    The goat (Capra hircus) is one of the first farm animals that have undergone domestication and extensive natural and artificial selection by adapting to various environments, which in turn has resulted in its high level of phenotypic diversity. Here, we generated medium-coverage (9–13×) sequences from eight domesticated goat breeds, representing morphologically or geographically specific populations, to identify genomic regions representing selection signatures. We discovered ~10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each breed. By combining two approaches, ZHp and di values, we identified 22 genomic regions that may have contributed to the phenotypes in coat color patterns, body size, cashmere traits, as well as high altitude adaptation in goat populations. Candidate genes underlying strong selection signatures including coloration (ASIP, KITLG, HTT, GNA11, and OSTM1), body size (TBX15, DGCR8, CDC25A, and RDH16), cashmere traits (LHX2, FGF9, and WNT2), and hypoxia adaptation (CDK2, SOCS2, NOXA1, and ENPEP) were identified. We also identified candidate functional SNPs within selected genes that may be important for each trait. Our results demonstrated the potential of using sequence data in identifying genomic regions that are responsible for agriculturally significant phenotypes in goats, which in turn can be used in the selection of goat breeds for environmental adaptation and domestication. PMID:27941843

  20. Megaesophagus in sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Melo Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Megaesophagus is a rare disease in ruminants characterized by regurgitation of rumen contents. In this paper it was described cases of megaesophagus in two sheep and two goats on a farm in the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. All animals showed regurgitation of rumen contents and weight loss, with a clinical course of several months. At necropsy all animals presented megaesophagus. Histological examination showed segmental muscle necrosis in the esophagus and skeletal muscles. Serum samples from one sheep and one goat were negative for the presence of blue tongue antibodies by ELISA, and whole blood and muscle samples from one goat were negative for this virus by RT PCR. Epidemiological data and pathology suggested that the disease could have been caused by some toxic plant, but known plants causing segmental muscle necrosis were not observed in the areas where the disease occurred.

  1. Nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M Bandarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of 25 goats from a southern Brazilian flock developed nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy. Affected animals were younger than 1 year of age and were confined in stalls and fed a concentrate ration containing 1:6 calcium:phosphorus ratio. The remaining flock (35 goats was managed at pasture and showed no disease. Clinical signs were characterized by mandibular and maxillary enlargements, varying degrees of mouth opening and protruding tongue, dyspnea, apart of abnormalities of prehension and mastication. Affected animals had increased seric levels of phosphorus and parathormone, as well as higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Postmortem examination on three succumbed goats revealed bilateral enlargement of the maxilla and mandibula, and loose teeth, apart of multiple incomplete rib fractures in one of them. Severe diffuse proliferation of loose connective tissue surrounded the osteoid trabeculae, many of which were partially or completely non-mineralized. Mineralized osteoid trabeculae showed osteoclasts in the Howship's lacunae.

  2. Characterizing neutral genomic diversity and selection signatures in indigenous populations of Moroccan goats (Capra hircus using WGS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr eBenjelloun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of their domestication, goats (Capra hircus have evolved in a large variety of locally adapted populations in response to different human and environmental pressures. In the present era, many indigenous populations are threatened with extinction due to their substitution by cosmopolitan breeds, while they might represent highly valuable genomic resources. It is thus crucial to characterize the neutral and adaptive genetic diversity of indigenous populations. A fine characterization of whole genome variation in farm animals is now possible by using new sequencing technologies. We sequenced the complete genome at 12X coverage of 44 goats geographically representative of the three phenotypically distinct indigenous populations in Morocco. The study of mitochondrial genomes showed a high diversity exclusively restricted to the haplogroup A. The 44 nuclear genomes showed a very high diversity (24 million variants associated with low linkage disequilibrium. The overall genetic diversity was weakly structured according to geography and phenotypes. When looking for signals of positive selection in each population we identified many candidate genes, several of which gave insights into the metabolic pathways or biological processes involved in the adaptation to local conditions (e.g. panting in warm/desert conditions. This study highlights the interest of WGS data to characterize livestock genomic diversity. It illustrates the valuable genetic richness present in indigenous populations that have to be sustainably managed and may represent valuable genetic resources for the long-term preservation of the species.

  3. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO GOAT PRODUCERS IN BRAZIL – CAPRITEC EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Cândido Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Capritec is a company devoted to dissemination of technology in the form of courses, consulting, lectures and events for producers, students and technicians involved with goat production. Capritec headquarters are located in Espírito Santo do Pinhal, in the state of São Paulo, in Southeastern Brazil. In the state of São Paulo, dairy goat production is well developed. Meat goat production is more modest, but has increased steadily in recent years. The main objective of Capritec is to transfer technology a to enable interested producers, students, technicians and entrepreneurs to invest in goat production, b to give them the necessary tools to avoid business failures in these enterprises and c to contribute to the development of Brazil goat production. The company’s owners and collaborators have extensive experience with goats in the areas of animal production, reproduction and food processing. Between 2003 and 2006, 58 extension courses were offered, attended by 422 participants. The courses themes were goat production for beginners (4 courses, meat goat  production (9 courses, dairy goat production (5 courses, goat milk processing into cheese (12 courses, yoghurt, ice cream and sweets from goat milk (1 course, cosmetics from goat milk (2 courses, artificial insemination (7 courses, ultrasonography (2 courses, semen quality examination and fresh semen processing (2 courses, general handling practices (7 courses, preparation and economical evaluation of projects (6 courses, and goat health (2 courses. Courses emphasize practical hands-on activities and are taught in small groups. Women were in the minority, accounting for 23.51% of course participants, whereas men accounted for 71.49%. Between 2003 and 2006, 4 extension workshops were organized, attended by 826 participants. After each event, the participants were invited to answer a questionnaire, to mention the strengths and weaknesses of the course, and to score and give

  4. Assessment of safety and interferon gamma responses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in goat kids and milking goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano

    2016-02-10

    Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  6. Comportamento da beta-ciclodextrina adicionada ao leite de cabra submetido ao processo de desidratação por "spray-dryer" Beta-ciclodextrin's behavior added goat's milk submitted to the "spray-dryer" dehydration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. P. Diniz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o comportamento do agente encapsulante beta -ciclodextrina ( beta-CD adicionado ao leite de cabra submetido ao processo de desidratação por "spray-dryer", através de análise termogravimétrica e de cromatografia gasosa. Após a desidratação, a amostra adicionada de beta-CD apresentou um rendimento real de 10,59% com taxa de perda de 0,04% (em relação ao valor teórico esperado 10,6% ; enquanto na amostra sem adição do agente encapsulante o rendimento real foi de 9,57%, com taxa de perda de 4,27% (valor teórico esperado 10% . Através da análise termogravimétrica (TGA, verificou-se que são volatilizados 44% e 21% dos ácidos comerciais C8 e C10 , respectivamente. Os resultados cromatográficos mostraram uma perda de aproximadamente 30% dos ácidos C8 e 20% dos ácidos C10 , nas amostras de leite de cabra sem beta -CD em relação às amostras com beta-CD. Tais porcentagens estão de acordo com os valores estimados para os ácidos comerciais. Com base nos parâmetros estudados, podemos inferir que há menor perda dos ácidos graxos C8 e C10 na amostra de leite de cabra com beta-CD, provavelmente devido ao efeito encapsulante, aumentando a estabilidade térmica dos ácidos.This work evaluated the effect of the encapsulant agent beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD added the goat milk submitted to the "spray-dryer" dehydration process, through thermogravimetric analysis and gas cromatography. After dehydration, the sample added of beta-CD presented a real yield of 10,59%, with a loss rate of 0,04% (in relation to the expected theoretical value 10,6%; while in the sample without addition of the encapsulant agent the real yield was 9,57%, with a loss rate of 4,27% (expected theoretical value 10% . It was verified that the volatilization of 44% and 21% of the commercial acids C8 and C10 , respectively, through the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The cromatographic results showed losses of approximately 30% of the C8 acids and

  7. The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria: Implications For The Future. ... Both males and females owned goats but males dominated goat marketing. Women have recently become goat meat retailers. Although the prospects for large scale goat production appeared bleak, those for women producers

  8. (TNNC1) gene in goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... the protein conformation, which was viewed in the Swiss Pdb. Viewer (Schwede et al., 2003). Tissue expression analysis. Tissue expression pattern of TNNC1 was performed by fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) using goat β-actin gene as an internal expression control. The primers of β-actin (Table ...

  9. (TNNC1) gene in goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... nucleotide sequence was high and was similar in various animals ranging from 97.94 (cow) to 83.33%. (African clawed frog), and ... Key words: TroponinC1 gene, molecular cloning, structural analysis, expression, goat. INTRODUCTION ... influence on meat tenderness, in which the types of myofiber can be ...

  10. Coxiella burnetii in pregnant goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Q fever. The zoonotic impact of Q fever was recently underlined by the Dutch Q fever outbreak, which emerged from an endemic state. In this outbreak dairy goats and dairy sheep were deemed responsible for the human cases,

  11. Assessing the iron chelation capacity of goat casein digest isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialowska, A; Matia-Merino, L; Carr, A J

    2017-04-01

    We isolated goat phosphopeptides via calcium and ethanol precipitation from a caseinate digest and investigated their feasibility as an iron-fortification ingredient in nutritional foods. Goat tryptic-digested phosphopeptides could bind 54.37 ± 0.50 mg of Fe/g of protein compared with goat milk, which could bind 3.83 ± 0.01 mg of Fe/g of protein, indicating that isolation did increase iron binding. However, the >13-fold increase in iron binding was only partly explained by the increased concentration of phosphoserine-rich residues in the isolated fraction: we observed a 77% increase in serine residue content and a 5.9-fold increase in phosphorus in the goat peptide isolate compared with the starting caseinate material. We investigated the effect of potential industrial processing conditions (including heating, cooling, holding time, and processing order) on iron binding by the tryptic-digested phosphopeptides. In addition, we tested the effect of ionic strength and the addition of peptides to a milk system to understand how food formulations could affect iron binding. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. INDONESIAN EFFORTS TO CONSERVE GEMBRONG GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanatun Hasinah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gembrong goat are mainly found in eastern part of Bali Island, especially in the village of Tumbu, Karangasem. Throughout Indonesia these goats are found no more than 50 heads. This condition puts Gembrong goat in a critical status that indicates the need of emergency and quick action. The present study was carried out to assess the characteristic of this breed and to preserve it through some proposed action plan.  Information was obtained by personal observation and discussion with the leader of farmer group.  Body weight (BW and various body measurement were taken from 15 head of Gembrong goat. In general, the color of Gembrong goat body is white, or partly brown or solid brown. The average body weight is of 23.2 kg for females and 30.7 kg for males.  The averages Body length of males is 60 cm, height 58.2 cm, and 14.4 cm ear length in males, and in females body length is 56.2 cm, height 55.1 cm and ear length 14.2 cm. To preserve Gembrong goat population from extinction collaborative activities is needed, namely: (1 multiplication of existing Gembrong goat population, (2 Rescuing animal genetic material and (3 up-grading female Kacang goat with Gembrong male goat as to achieve 99% Gembrong goat genetic composition.

  13. Cupapé (Cordia dodecandra DC., Boraginaceae a fruit tree in the process of domestication in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit tree. Cordia dodecandra DC.. which is partly domesticated in the region of Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico is described from the horticultural and biological point of view. The fruit is up to 5 cm in diameter and its flesh contains 14-25%; of total lipids, 6-14%; of total protein and 5-15% of total sugars in dry mass. The fresh fruit does not have a very good flavor but cooked with sugar is very tasty. The plant shows marked variability which can be taken into consideration in the selection of better forms for vegetative propagation and breeding.

  14. Cupapé (Cordia dodecandra DC., Boraginaceae) a fruit tree in the process of domestication in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz; Maria T. Lwón; Victor M. Albores

    2014-01-01

    The fruit tree. Cordia dodecandra DC.. which is partly domesticated in the region of Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico) is described from the horticultural and biological point of view. The fruit is up to 5 cm in diameter and its flesh contains 14-25%; of total lipids, 6-14%; of total protein and 5-15% of total sugars in dry mass. The fresh fruit does not have a very good flavor but cooked with sugar is very tasty. The plant shows marked variability which can be taken into consideration in th...

  15. Core questions in domestication research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2015-03-17

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared.

  16. Storytelling and story testing in domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G; Boivin, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary...

  17. Effect of repeated adrenocorticotropic hormone administration on reproductive function and hair cortisol concentration during the estrous cycle in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Natsumi; Yamane, Hiroaki; Rahayu, Larasati Puji; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2018-04-01

    Measurement of the cortisol concentration in hair has been used as an index of chronic stress in several species including humans, wildlife and domestic animals. However, how accurately the cortisol concentration in hair reflects the changes in circulating cortisol concentrations has not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of repeated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration on the reproductive function during the estrous cycle and hair cortisol concentrations in goats. In experiment 1, goats were administered ACTH (0.625 IU/10 kg of body weight, n = 6) or saline (n = 6) intramuscularly once a day for 7 days on Day 11-17 of the estrous cycle (day 0 was the day of ovulation). In experiment 2, goats were administered ACTH (0.625 IU/10 kg of body weight, n = 6) or saline (n = 6) intramuscularly twice a day on Day 11-24 of the estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected 0, 0.5, and 6 h after first administration to determine the circulating cortisol concentrations. Hair was clipped at 0, 1, and 2 months after the start of administration. In both experiments, the plasma cortisol concentration increased at 0.5 h and returned to baseline at 6 h after ACTH administration. During the experiments, estrus was observed in most animals in ACTH and saline groups (6/6 and 4/6 in experiment 1 and 5/6 and 6/6 in experiment 2, respectively) and ovulation was observed in all goats examined. However, the number of ovulatory follicles was significantly different between the ACTH and saline groups, and the maximal diameter of ovulatory follicles tended to be different (P = .07) between the ACTH and saline groups. In experiment 1, the hair cortisol concentration was not influenced by the ACTH administration throughout the sampling period. In experiment 2, the hair cortisol concentration in the ACTH group was greater at 1 month after administration than the pre-administration value, but was not

  18. Evaluation of the process performance of a down-flow hanging sponge reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Yuma; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Banjongproo, Pathan; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Onodera, Takashi; Okadera, Tomohiro; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2017-08-24

    This study assesses the performance of an aerobic trickling filter, down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor, as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology. Also, the characteristic eukaryotic community structure in DHS reactor was investigated. Long-term operation of a DHS reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater (COD = 150-170 mg/L and BOD = 60-90 mg/L) was performed under the average ambient temperature ranged from 28°C to 31°C in Bangkok, Thailand. Throughout the evaluation period of 550 days, the DHS reactor at a hydraulic retention time of 3 h showed better performance than the existing oxidation ditch process in the removal of organic carbon (COD removal rate = 80-83% and BOD removal rate = 91%), nitrogen compounds (total nitrogen removal rate = 45-51% and NH 4 + -N removal rate = 95-98%), and low excess sludge production (0.04 gTS/gCOD removed). The clone library based on the 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequence revealed that phylogenetic diversity of 18S rRNA gene in the DHS reactor was higher than that of the present oxidation ditch process. Furthermore, the DHS reactor also demonstrated sufficient COD and NH 4 + -N removal efficiency under flow rate fluctuation conditions that simulates a small-scale treatment facility. The results show that a DHS reactor could be applied as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology in tropical regions such as Bangkok, Thailand.

  19. Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented with a diet rich in bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Teichert, Joanna; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d(-1) per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n-3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Cashmere Quality of Iranian Goat Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari-Renani, H. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the cashmere quality in different Iranian cashmere goat breeds to determine the scope for improvement of fiber quality. In April 2009 midside cashmere samples were taken from a total of 168 male and female cashmere goats of 1, 2, 3, and 4 yr of age. The goats were randomly chosen from Raeini, Birjandi, and Nadoushan breeds respectively from Kerman, South Khorasan, and Yazd provinces. Cashmere yield (CY) was determined from the percentage of weight of dehaired cashmere to w...

  1. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K

    2010-10-01

    Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Efficiency of catalytic processes for the reduction of CO and VOC emissions from wood combustion in domestic fireplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozil, Fabien; Tschamber, V.; Trouve, G. [Universite de haute Alsace - Laboratoire Gestion des Risques Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Haas, Frederic (FONDIS SA, ZI Vieux Thann, 68801 Thann Cedex France)

    2009-09-15

    Pollutant characterization of domestic fireplaces, according to two paces of functioning (normal and low-charge phase) was performed. Two catalysts supported on cordierite or metal were placed in the exhaust of two domestic fireplaces (old and new generation) in order to reduce gaseous pollutants. Active phase of catalysts is composed of noble metals (Pd, Pt) and cerium. Methane was the dominant compound of the released Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC, 80% b. v.). Products resulting from incomplete combustion (CO and other VOC) did not represent more than 6% of the initial carbon content in wood. Lower concentration of CO in the exhaust was obtained with the new generation fireplace as compared to the older one with mean concentrations of CO normalized for 13% oxygen b.v. equal to 0.12% and 0.3%, respectively. Emission of VOC is also drastically reduced for new generation fireplace. The presence of a catalyst induced a decrease of the CO and VOC emission factors during ignition and low-charge phases by factors ranging from 65% to 70%. The abatement of VOC for the old generation fireplace was better in the presence of metal as compared to cordierite, with efficiency values of 65% and 30%, respectively. The new fireplace was the one on which the addition of the cleanup implements had most impact. Besides the introduction of a catalyst, a heating system of the fume was set up below the catalyst. This heating system allowed a faster activation of the catalyst, particularly during ignition and low-charge phases. Best abatements were obtained with the heated metallic support with values close to 80% and 94% for VOC and CO respectively. (author)

  3. Rattlesnake Envenomation in Three Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dairy goats are lacking. These cases present three dairy goats presented to a veterinary referral hospital for envenomation of Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus. Treatments and clinical characteristics reported are similar to those for llamas, alpacas, and horses. These cases suggest that quick treatment in the event of a bite may have a more favorable clinical response. Existing rattlesnake bite scoring systems applicable to other species may be applicable to goats, and existing respiratory pathology may predispose goats to a less favorable outcome.

  4. Diversity and distribution of ticks from domestic ruminants in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaja, Mayssaa Fawaz; Tempesta, Maria; Bayan, Ali; Vesco, Gesualdo; Vesco, Gesualdo; Greco, Grazia; Torina, Alessandra; Blanda, Valeria; La Russa, Francesco; Scimeca, Salvatore; Ezzedine, Mohamad; Mortada, Hussein; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Mortada, Mohamad

    2017-06-30

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are ectoparasites infesting livestock in every geographic area in the world and they are vectors of several viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens to animals and humans worldwide. A deep knowledge of the geographical distribution of these arthropods would have a key role in the control of tick-borne diseases. Few data are available about tick presence in domestic ruminants in Lebanon. The study aimed at providing an analysis of tick presence and distribution in Lebanon. Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep, and goats farms distributed in 6 Lebanese provinces between June and September 2014. A total of 272 adult hard ticks were randomly collected from domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) located at 37 Lebanese farms, distributed among 30 villages. Ticks belonged to 4 Ixodidae genera: Rhipicephalus (72.4%), Haemaphysalis (11.4%), Dermacentor (8.1%), and Hyalomma (8.1%). They included the following species: Rhipicephalus annulatus (50.7%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (18.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum (8.1%), Haemaphylasis punctata (11.4%), Dermacentor marginatus (8.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.5%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.4%). Rhipicephalus turanicus and H. anatolicum were found on cattle, sheep, and goats, R. annulatus on cattle and sheep, R. sanguineus, D. marginatus and Hea. punctata on sheep and goats, while R. bursa was collected only on sheep. Tick species involved in pathogen transmission were found and some of the identi ed species were recorded in Lebanon for the rst time.

  5. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  7. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-08-06

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Peripheral and placental immune responses in goats after primoinfection with Neospora caninum at early, mid and late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Horcajo, Pilar; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Romão, Elton Amorim; Álvarez-García, Gema; Mesquita, Emanuela Polimeni de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2017-08-15

    Neospora caninum can cause reproductive failure in goats. However, the pathogenesis of neosporosis in this domestic species remains largely unknown. We recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection by N. caninum in pregnant goats is highly dependent on the time of gestation, during which infection occurs. In the present study, we examined the peripheral and placental immune responses in these groups of goats infected with 10 6 tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at early (G1, at day 40 of gestation, dg), mid (G2, 90 dg) and late (G3, 120 dg) gestation, together with a group of non-infected goats as a control group (G4). Seroconversion was observed as early as day 10 post-infection (pi) in all goats from G1 that aborted earlier (10-11 pi). The remaining infected goats had seroconverted by day 14 pi. Similar IFN-γ kinetic profiles were found in sera from goats in G1 and G2 with a significant increase in the IFN-γ levels on days 7 and 10 pi. This increase was not observed in G3. A similar pattern of placental cytokine expression was found in all infected groups. IFN-γ and IL-4 showed the highest increase, followed by a weaker up-regulation in TNF-α and IL-10. The lowest up-regulation was observed for IL-12 expression. In summary, this study provides information regarding the dynamics of immune responses and their relationship with the outcome of N. caninum infection in goats during gestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallographic studies of galectin-11 from domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Dhanasekaran; Littler, Dene; Shahine, Adam; Troy, Sally; Johnson, Matthew; Rossjohn, Jamie; Piedrafita, David; Beddoe, Travis

    2015-08-01

    Galectins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that translate glycan recognition into cellular effects. Galectin-11 is a unique member of the galectin family that is only expressed in ruminants such as sheep, goat and cattle and that plays a critical role in several important biological processes, such as reproduction and parasite-mediated innate immune responses. Currently, these two areas are of major importance for the sustainability of ruminant livestock production. Despite the emerging biological significance of galectin-11, no structural information is available. It is expected that structural studies will unravel the functional mechanisms of galectin-11 activity. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of the ruminant-specific galectin-11 from domestic sheep and the collection of X-ray data to 2.0 Å resolution are reported.

  10. Generation of Arbas Cashmere Goat Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Through Fibroblast Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Dapeng; Liu, Pengxia; Gao, Jing; Jin, Muzi; Xu, Teng; Zuo, Yongchun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-08-01

    Various factors affect the process of obtaining stable Arbas cashmere goat embryonic stem cells (ESCs), for example, the difficulty in isolating cells at the appropriate stage of embryonic development, the in vitro culture environment, and passage methods. With the emergence of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, it has become possible to use specific genes to induce somatic cell differentiation in PSCs. We transferred OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC, and KLF4 into Arbas cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts, then induced and cultured them using a drug-inducible system to obtain Arbas goat iPSCs that morphologically resembled mouse iPSCs. After identification, the obtained goat iPSCs expressed ESC markers, had a normal karyotype, could differentiate into embryoid bodies in vitro, and could differentiate into three germ layer cell types and form teratomas in vivo. We used microarray gene expression profile analysis to elucidate the reprogramming process. Our results provide the experimental basis for establishing cashmere goat iPSC lines and for future in-depth studies on molecular mechanism of cashmere goat somatic cell reprogramming.

  11. Detection of selection signatures of population-specific genomic regions selected during domestication process in Jinhua pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengcao; Chen, Jiucheng; Wang, Zhen; Pan, Yuchun; Wang, Qishan; Xu, Ningying; Wang, Zhengguang

    2016-12-01

    Chinese pigs have been undergoing both natural and artificial selection for thousands of years. Jinhua pigs are of great importance, as they can be a valuable model for exploring the genetic mechanisms linked to meat quality and other traits such as disease resistance, reproduction and production. The purpose of this study was to identify distinctive footprints of selection between Jinhua pigs and other breeds utilizing genome-wide SNP data. Genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing was implemented in order to perform cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity to reveal strong signatures of selection for those economically important traits. This work was performed at a 2% genome level, which comprised 152 006 SNPs genotyped in a total of 517 individuals. Population-specific footprints of selective sweeps were searched for in the genome of Jinhua pigs using six native breeds and three European breeds as reference groups. Several candidate genes associated with meat quality, health and reproduction, such as GH1, CRHR2, TRAF4 and CCK, were found to be overlapping with the significantly positive outliers. Additionally, the results revealed that some genomic regions associated with meat quality, immune response and reproduction in Jinhua pigs have evolved directionally under domestication and subsequent selections. The identified genes and biological pathways in Jinhua pigs showed different selection patterns in comparison with the Chinese and European breeds. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Exploring germplasm diversity to understand the domestication process in Cicer spp. using SNP and DArT markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Roorkiwal

    Full Text Available To estimate genetic diversity within and between 10 interfertile Cicer species (94 genotypes from the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pool, we analysed 5,257 DArT markers and 651 KASPar SNP markers. Based on successful allele calling in the tertiary gene pool, 2,763 DArT and 624 SNP markers that are polymorphic between genotypes from the gene pools were analyzed further. STRUCTURE analyses were consistent with 3 cultivated populations, representing kabuli, desi and pea-shaped seed types, with substantial admixture among these groups, while two wild populations were observed using DArT markers. AMOVA was used to partition variance among hierarchical sets of landraces and wild species at both the geographical and species level, with 61% of the variation found between species, and 39% within species. Molecular variance among the wild species was high (39% compared to the variation present in cultivated material (10%. Observed heterozygosity was higher in wild species than the cultivated species for each linkage group. Our results support the Fertile Crescent both as the center of domestication and diversification of chickpea. The collection used in the present study covers all the three regions of historical chickpea cultivation, with the highest diversity in the Fertile Crescent region. Shared alleles between different gene pools suggest the possibility of gene flow among these species or incomplete lineage sorting and could indicate complicated patterns of divergence and fusion of wild chickpea taxa in the past.

  13. Detection of selection signatures for ear carriage in Maltese goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Talenti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection and breeding practices in goats have led to the fixation of several traits. This is probably due to the standardization of several peculiar morphological characteristics that have always been one of the major exclusion criteria of individuals from selection. Among these, ear carriage is one of the most ancient and considered a signature of domestication in several species, such as the dog, pig, sheep and goat (Boyko et al., 2010. The availability of improved genomic analyses tools for goats may provide useful information on genes involved in this trait. By studying, for example, the homozygosity decay of haplotypes (contiguous length of alleles such information can be detected. In the current study, we focused on the Maltese goat, a breed showing floppy ears, in comparison with other Italian breeds using a goat medium density SNP chip (Nicoloso et al., 2015. A total 48,767 SNP markers for 369 animals belonging to 16 breeds or populations were analyzed. Genotypes were imputed within population excluding markers without known position on the current genome assembly (ARS1, Bickhart et al., 2017. Population analysis using MDS, ADMIXTURE and fastSTRUCTURE confirmed the good differentiation among the populations. Integrated Haplotype Score (iHS, Sabeti et al., 2007 was performed for each population, comparing the regions detected on the Maltese breed with the others considered to detect genes that may be involved into shaping  ear morphology. These results may provide new insights into ear carriage phenotype by detecting genes that play a pivotal role in shaping the goat phenotypic diversity. Acknowledgement The research was funded by INNOVAGEN project.

  14. Genetic diversity of five goat breeds in China based on microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... The genetic diversity of five goat breeds in China was surveyed using 15 microsatellites. The five goat breeds included Tangshan dairy goat (TSD), Liaoning cashmere goat (LNC), Nanjiang yellow goat (NJY),. Chengde polled goat (CDP) and Leizhou black goat (LZB). The mean polymorphism information ...

  15. Embryo transfer using cryopreserved Boer goat blastocysts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of embryo cryopreservation techniques on the survivability of embryos and fertility following transfer to Boer goat does. The oestrous cycles of 27 mature recipients Boer goat does were synchronised using controlled internal drug release dispensers (CIDR's) for 16 days. At CIDR ...

  16. Preferences for sheep or goats in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to explore farmers’ preferences for sheep or goats based on feeding practices, animal and flock performances and economic benefits of sheep and goats in different agro-ecological zones in Central Java, Indonesia. In total, 150 smallholder farmers were selected from three

  17. Bacteriological investigation of sheep and goats milk for brucellosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 418 sheep and goats milk samples were examined culturally. Investigation revealed a 34.75 per cent and 15.88 per cent rate of infection in goats and sheep by milk ring test. Of 277 sheep and 141 goats milk samples examined culturally, brucellae were isolated from four sheep and six goats giving a total of ten ...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  19. Antibodies against sand flies saliva in domestic animals from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Košťálová, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to test sera of domestic animals from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in north and northwest Ethiopia for antibodies against presumed vector P. orientalis salivary glands and to clarify behavior of the sand fly and the role of domestic animals in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. Specific IgG antibodies against P. orientalis saliva were tested in dogs, cattle, goats, sheep and donkeys. Above the cut-off value there was 76 % analyzed dogs, 15 % cat...

  20. The Effect of Heating and Postfermentation on Lactoferrin of Fresh and Kefir Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Kustiawan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determinated of lactoferrin profile in goat milk and kefir. The samples were collected from whey raw milk, pasteurized and kefir. Lactoferrin profile in this study consisted of concentration and molecule weight of lactoferrin. Goat lactoferrin was isolated from whey by fractionation on sephadex     G-100 column, it was eluted at 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Characterization of goat lactoferrin by electrophoretic SDS-PAGE techniques detected molecule weight of goat lactoferrin that the isolate of the fractions from fractionation on sephadex G-100 column. Result of the research  showed that pasteurization during storage after fermentation process were influenced by concentration of lactoferrin significant (P<0.05. The molecule weights of lactoferrin in goat milk and kefir were estimated at 84 kDa and 80 kDa. The average concentration of goat lactoferrin at 1.915 mg/ml (without pasteurized, 1.579 mg/ml (pasteurized at 65oC, 0.954 mg/ml (pasteurized at 73oC and 0.322 mg/ml (pasteurized at 83oC. The average concentration of goat lactoferrin in kefir during storage at 0.663 mg/ml (0 day, 0.448 mg/ml (3  day, 0.249 mg/ml (6 day, 0.142 mg/ml (9 day dan 0.048 mg/ml (12 day.  Pasteurization at temperature 65oC 30’’ can defend concentration of lactoferrin higher than temperature 73oC 15’’  and temperature 83oC 2’’. Concentration of lactoferrin in kefir were defended until 12 day storage.   Keywords : Lactoferrin, goat milks, kefir

  1. Polyamines in goat's colostrum and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoszaj, T; Ryniewicz, Z; Motyl, T

    1997-09-01

    The concentration and secretion of putrescine (PTR), spermidine (SPD), and spermine (SPM) was examined in colostrum and milk of 60 dairy goats (Polish White and German Brown) during 90 days of lactation. It has been found that milk polyamine pattern is related to breed, age, offspring number, lactation period, milking time, and individual goat-to-goat variations. The mean level of PTR and SPD was significantly higher, whereas SPM level was significantly lower in German Brown than Polish White goats. These differences were maintained during whole observation period (90 days after parturition). Elder goats, bearing two and three kids, secreted colostrum with a higher concentration of PTR and a lower concentration of SPD than young goats having one kid. There was a highly significant positive relationship between the age or litter total weight and PTR concentration in colostrum of Polish White goats. In contrast to PTR, the SPD level was negatively correlated with the age or litter total weight. The daily secretion of PTR, SPD, and SPM progressively increased from the 1st to 90th day of lactation. It was dependent on the increase of milk secretion rate, which could be illustrated by the highly significant correlation between daily milk yield and secretion of SPD in milk of German Brown and Polish White goats. The concentration of SPD in milk sampled in the evening was usually higher than in that from morning milking, however, significant only in the case of German Brown goats. In general, goat's colostrum and milk are rich in polyamines, which the total concentration is the highest when compared to milk of other mammals examined so far (e.g., human, rat, sow, and cow).

  2. PROFIL ASAM LEMAK DAN ASAM AMINO SUSU KAMBING SEGAR DAN TERFERMENTASI [Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Profile of Fresh and Fermented Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Erna Kustyawati*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the composition of fatty acids and amino acids in fresh and fermented goa-milk. The milk was in oculated with 4% (v/v of L. casei and fermented at 37°C for 48 h. Analysis of fatty acids of fresh and fermented goat and cow’s milk was done by HPLC method, where as amino acid composition was analyzed by GC method. Twenty five semi-trained panelists evaluated the sensory characteristics of fermented milk. Results showed that the fermentation process changed fatty acid profile in goat milk. The saturated fatty acids found in fermented goat-milk were lauric, misristic, and palmitic acid while the unsaturated fatty acids were oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid. The total amount of saturated fatty acid of fermented goat-milk was higher while unsaturated fatty acid was lower than those in fresh goat milk. The aroma of goaty flavor, strong and musky or “prengus”, was slightly detected in fermented goat milk. Linoleic acid was not detected in fermented goat milk and therefore it was less susceptible from oxidativedeterioration. On the other hand, the fermentation process did not change the profile of amino acids in goat milk. Fermented dairy product made from whole goat milkand cow’s milk was accepted by the panelist as it hadslightly sour taste, yellowish color, and slightly goaty flavor, yet it had high amount of saturated fatty acids.

  3. Mediterranean shrub diversity and its effect on food intake in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šarić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean ecosystem offers a variety of shrubs that were over long periods of time involved in the evolution of complex plant-animal interactions. Biochemical components of these plants enter different metabolic pathways after digestion and absorption, resulting in development of dietary preferences in browsing animals. Herbivores in general were found to perform better when grazing in a mixed plant community composed of diverse species, and show preferential feeding behaviours for mixed vs single species diet. Our findings demonstrate an asymptotic relationship among Mediterranean shrubs species diversity and their voluntary intake by goats. Shrub biomass intake showed linear increase when number of different shrubs in diet increased from one to three. However, goats did not further increase intake when the number of shrub species increased from four to eight. As the number of shrub species offered increased, goats exhibited more preferential feeding behaviour for Quercus pubescens, Fraxinus ornus, Rubus heteromorphus and Arbutus unedo and decreased the intake of Hedera helix, Juniperus oxycedrus and Helichrysum italicum. This asymptotic relationship indicates that the maintenance of plant species richness in Mediterranean shrublands can overall benefit domestic goat farming, goat’s productive performance, and the conservation of plant biodiversity.

  4. Conversion of Goat Fibroblasts into Lineage-Specific Cells Using a Direct Reprogramming Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjie; Yu, Tong; Lei, Lei; Duan, Anqin; Ma, Xiaoling; Wang, Huayan

    2017-05-01

    Direct reprogramming is an efficient strategy to convert one cell type to another. In this study, due to the failure of maintaining the undifferentiated state of goat embryotic stem- and induced pluripotent stem-like cells in vitro, we explored an alternative way to directly convert goat fibroblasts to lineage-specific cells. The 'Yamanaka factors' was ectopically expressed in fibroblasts for a short term to situate cells in a metastable state. By culturing with lineage-specific media for 1-2 weeks, the cardiomyocyte-like cells and neurocyte-like cells were generated and confirmed by the quantitative RT-PCR and immunocytochemical staining. The metastable-state cells could also be converted into oocyte-like cells (OLCs) after culturing in media with retinoic acid (RA) and bovine follicular fluid (bFF) for 2-3 weeks. The generated OLCs were surrounded by cumulus granulosa cell-like cells and formed a structure resembling goat cumulus-oocyte complex from ovaries. This primary follicular structure could be developed further in oocyte mature medium and expressed germ cell-specific markers. In addition, we found that the induction efficiency was higher and OLC cell size was bigger in bFF than in RA treatment. Altogether, the direct reprogramming of goat fibroblasts into lineage-specific cells can facilitate stem cell research in domestic animals. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. BUILDING LEADERSHIP CAPACITY OF AN EMERGING GOAT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Nye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leadership development has been a primary objective of Extension educators directing Ohio Meat Goat Task Force efforts. Producer members have been instrumental in the formation of the Ohio Meat Goat Marketing Alliance. This group has developed by-laws and articles of incorporation for the purpose of promoting and marketing commercial meat goat producers in Ohio. Nationwide market centers have been accessed through the establishment of graded pool sales. Cooperation between producer networks, industry, and the Department of Agriculture were responsible for establishing a certified livestock grader position. Producers have enhanced the effectiveness of their efforts by partnering with agencies such as the Ohio Cooperative Development Center, Somalia and East African Organization, Jewish Family Services and Institute for Social and Economic Development. Extension educators have developed the Ohio Meat Goat Production and Budgeting Fact Sheet as a guide for establishing this value added enterprise. Extension has designed and conducted regional workshops, seminars, and on-farm tours to transfer knowledge to over 2100 participants. Education, production, and marketing topics are discussed in the Buckeye Meat Goat Newsletter. The website http://www.ohiomarketgoat.com has been developed to enhance the exchange of production and marketing information. The task force has received $63,000 in Research and Extension grants to conduct on going feasibility studies of ethnic markets, Ohio’s processing infrastructure, and development of farmer/consumer cooperatives. On-farm meat goat research encompasses breed comparisons, forage utilization, and developing benchmark data. Progress continues in the ability to market fresh and safe chevon products directly to emerging ethnic and faith based consumer populations to capture the most value. This task force is taking a unique approach to building industry infrastructure by utilizing a social approach

  6. Cashmere Quality of Iranian Goat Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Ansari-Renani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the cashmere quality in different Iranian cashmere goat breeds to determine the scope for improvement of fiber quality. In April 2009 midside cashmere samples were taken from a total of 168 male and female cashmere goats of 1, 2, 3, and 4 yr of age. The goats were randomly chosen from Raeini, Birjandi, and Nadoushan breeds respectively from Kerman, South Khorasan, and Yazd provinces. Cashmere yield (CY was determined from the percentage of weight of dehaired cashmere to weight of shorn fibre. Cashmere fiber diameter was analyzed using a projection microscope instrument. A general linear model including sex and age as fixed effects and breed as random effect was used to analyze the data and measure the relationships between different cashmere characteristics and fleece attributes. The overall means ± standard deviations were for cashmere yield (CY 51.4%±1.5%, mean fiber diameter (MFD 18.7±0.2 µm, coefficient of variation of fiber diameter (CVFD 19.1%±0.3% and staple length (SL 42.8±1.6 mm. One year old goats had finer cashmere than older goats. CVFD were higher in males and CY and SL were higher in young animals. Iranian cashmere goat breeds have an excellent SL but are relatively coarse. Given the differences between goats there seems to be substantial scope to improve the commercial value of cashmere.

  7. Study of the infestation rate of the kidney and spleen of domestic ruminants by Linguatula serrata nymphs in Urmia slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rasouli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in kidneys and spleens of 800 domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in different sexes, ages and seasons was investigated. First, the kidneys and spleens were examined macroscopically. Then, a digestion method was also applied. Infestation rate in the spleen of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were %0/5, %0, %0/5 and %1/5 respectively. No infestation was found in the kidneys. The results of this study shows that the infestation of domestic ruminants to Linguatula serrat nymphs in different sexes and ages were not significant. Also the infestation rate in different seasons was not significant.

  8. Milk drink with goat milk and goat serum is alternative for exploitation of pulp umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkarthe Guerra Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance and intention to purchase two dairy beverages formulations prepared with fermented umbus, goat serum and goat milk in order to add greater economic value to the three raw materials. The treatments consisted of the variation in serum concentrations goat (28,5% and 44% and goat milk (44% and 28,5%, respectively. The pulp has previously been analyzed and showed 15,21mg/100g of ascorbic acid. The fermented dairy beverages showed microbiological characteristics within the established by the legislation. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 for color attributes, flavor and consistency of both, however, the flavor attributes and global acceptance have been significantly affected. The formulation with 28,5% of goat serum and 44% goat milk had the best average from 10 days, and acceptances up to 25 days of storage.

  9. Metabolism of technetium in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.

    1983-01-01

    The yield of 99 Tc from nuclear fission is in the order of magnitude of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs yields. The metabolic pathways of this nuclide with its physical half life of 2.1 x 10 5 yr have, therefore, to be investigated for radioecological assessments; especially with respect to the wide spread application of sup(99m)Tc in nuclear medical diagnosis. Experiments with goats show that sup(99m)Tc given orally as pertechnetate is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Excretion in milk is more than 10 times lower than that of radioiodine. The Tc-content of muscular tissues is also low and seems to be of minor importance for the pathway of this element via meat of grazing animals to man. Finally, urinary excretion of Tc in man is 20-100 times higher than in goats. Therefore, the estimation of radiation burden due to Tc-isotopes from extrapolation of radioiodine data is very conservative. (author)

  10. Brucellae through the food chain: the role of sheep, goats and springbok (Antidorcus marsupialis) as sources of human infections in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, K; Bishi, A; Tjipura-Zaire, G; Eberle, G; Hemberger, Y; Hoffman, L C; Dziva, F

    2011-12-01

    A confirmed case of human brucellosis motivated an investigation into the potential source of infection in Namibia. Since domestic animals are principal sources of Brucella infection in humans, 1692 serum samples were screened from sheep, goats and cattle from 4 presumably at-risk farms and 900 springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) serum samples from 29 mixed farming units for Brucella antibodies by the Rose-Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases confirmed by complement fixation test (CFT). To assess the prevalence of human brucellosis, 137 abattoir employees were tested for Brucella antibodies using the standard tube agglutination test (STAT) and by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cattle and sheep from all 4 farms were negative by RBT and CFT but 2 of the 4 farms (Ba and C) had 26/42 and 12/285 seropositive goats, respectively. Post mortem examination of seropositive goats revealed no gross pathological lesions typical of brucellosis except enlarged mesenteric and iliac lymph nodes seen in a single buck. Culture for brucellae from organs of seropositive animals was negative. None of the wildlife sera tested positive by either RBT or CFT. Interviews revealed that besides the case that prompted the investigation, a family and another person from other farms with confirmed brucellosis shared a common history of consumption of unpasteurised goat milk, home-made goat cheese and coffee with raw milk and prior contact with goats, suggesting goats as the likely source of infection. All 137 abattoir employees tested negative by STAT, but 3 were positive by ELISA. The 3 abattoir workers were clinically normal and lacked historical connections with clinical cases. Although goats are often associated with B. melitensis, these studies could not explicitly implicate this species owing to cross-reactivity with B. abortus, which can also infect goats. Nevertheless, these data reinforce the need for a better National Control Programme for brucellosis in Namibia.

  11. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atxaerandio Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks, 626 beef cattle (46 herds and 115 goats (11 herds. Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT to detect recent infections. Results ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 ± 2.0% than in goats (8.7 ± 5.9% and beef cattle (6.7 ± 2.0%. Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence ≥ 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Conclusions Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

  12. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Astobiza, Ianire; Barandika, Jesús F; Hurtado, Ana; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Juste, Ramón A; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2010-01-20

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks), 626 beef cattle (46 herds) and 115 goats (11 herds). Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT) to detect recent infections. ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 +/- 2.0%) than in goats (8.7 +/- 5.9%) and beef cattle (6.7 +/- 2.0%). Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence >or= 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

  13. SUSTAINABILITY OF BIODIVERSITY BY VALORIZATION OF SARDA BREED GOAT DRY HAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Melillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat farming is a very important resource, expecially in marginal and unlikely exploitable Mediterranean areas. They are extensively reared, mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat. The meat from adult goats instead is not profitable, because of its very low commercial value. The transformation of the Sarda goat (native breed meat in ripened products (ham would contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. In the present study, in order to characterize the Sarda breed goat dry ham, five batches (L1–L5, processed in a traditional plant, were analyzed. The chemical-physical characteristics were determined in the following stages: fresh ham (MP, after salting (S, after drying (E and at the end of ripening (P. The microbiological parameters were determined in MP and in P. The dynamics of pH during processing were similar to those of cured meat products (in P: 6.58±0.26. The aw value decreased during the processing up to 0.79±0.03. Regarding the microbiological parameters, in P the coagulase negative Staphylococci were the prevalent flora (4.38±1.08 Log10 cfu/g, followed by the Lactic acid bacteria (2.46±1.00. The Moulds and Yeasts were not constant and the presence of pathogens was not highlighted.

  14. Functional analyse of GLUT1 and GLUT12 in glucose uptake in goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Yu

    Full Text Available Glucose transport, mediated by glucose transporters, is necessary for mammary gland development and lactation. GLUT1 and GLUT12 could both be expressed in the pregnant and lactating mammary gland to participate in the glucose uptake process. In this study, the goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 genes were cloned from Saanen dairy goats and transfected into goat mammary gland epithelial cells to assess their biological functions and distributions. The results showed that both goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 had 12 predicted membrane-spanning helices. Goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 each influenced the mRNA expression of the other transporter and increased the glucose consumption and lactose yield in GLUT1- and GLUT12-transfected goat mammary gland epithelial cells, respectively. The overexpression of GLUT1 or GLUT12 also increased the expression of amino acid transporters SLC1A5, SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 and affected genes expressions in GMGE cells. Using immunofluorescence staining, GLUT1 was detected throughout the cytoplasm and localized to the Golgi apparatus around the nuclear membrane, whereas GLUT12 was mainly distributed in the perinuclear region and cytoplasm. This study contributes to the understanding of how GLUT1 and GLUT12 cooperate in the incorporation of nutrient uptake into mammary gland epithelial cells and the promotion of milk synthesis in the goat mammary gland during lactation.

  15. Frequency of the serological reactivity against the caprine arthritis encephalitis lentivirus gp135 in children who consume goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoro-Cruz, Emiliano; Feria-Romero, Iris Angelica; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Hernández-González, Rafael; Silva-García, Raúl; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro

    2009-04-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a retrovirus belonging to the lentivirus genus that also includes the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CAEV may be transmitted to humans by goat milk consumption. It has been suggested that CAEV may also be involved in the immunological protection process against HIV, but this has not been demonstrated. Here we identified serological reactivity against CAEV gp135 in children who consumed goat milk. Thirty sera samples from children (males between 6 and 16 years of age) who regularly consumed goat milk and a negative control of 30 serum samples from children (males between 6 and 12 years) with no previous contact with goats or goat dairy products were used. All sera were tested by Western blot against CAEV antigens. There were 18/30 serum samples from goat milk consumers that were reactive to CAEV gp135, and one reacted against gp50 simultaneously; none of the 30 serum samples from nonconsumers of goat dairy products reacted to viral proteins. These results showed that the positive response to gp135 may be the result of a repetitive stimulation without viral replication or the result of CAEV replication in humans. CAEV gp135 is codified by the env gene located on the viral particle surface as well as gp50. Moreover, there are similarities between CAEV gp135 and HIV-1 gp120, so there is a possibility that CAEV replicates in humans and may participate in immunological cross-phenomena, but this should be further studied.

  16. Síntese e processamento de cerâmicas em forno de microondas doméstico Synthesis and ceramics processing by domestic microwave oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Keyson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de microondas no processamento e obtenção de materiais tem adquirido nos últimos anos crescente interesse por parte de diversas áreas do conhecimento como a química e a engenharia de materiais. Neste sentido, aparatos especialmente projetados têm começado a ser descritos na literatura como reatores e câmaras de processamento a microondas visando aplicação na pesquisa e na indústria. Em particular o uso de fornos de microondas domésticos em atividades científicas tem se mostrado de interesse dado uma série de novas aplicações, simplicidade e baixo custo. O presente trabalho reporta um dispositivo desenvolvido a partir de um forno de microondas doméstico, capaz de efetuar sínteses e processamentos de sólidos mesmo quando os materiais envolvidos não possuem susceptibilidade as microondas. O novo dispositivo tem sido utilizado com sucesso na síntese de óxidos metálicos e, em especial na sinterização e ordenamento de redes cristalinas de filmes finos.The use of microwaves in the processing and attainment of materials has acquired in the last years increasing interest on the part of diverse areas of the knowledge as the chemistry and the engineering of materials. In this direction, especially apparatuses have started to be described in literature as reactors and chambers of processing the microwaves aiming at application in the research and the industry. In particular the use of domestic ovens of microwaves in scientific activities it has if shown of it interests given a series of new applications, simplicity and low cost. The present work reports a device developed from an domestic microwave oven adapted, capable to effect syntheses and solid processing exactly when the involved materials do not possess susceptibility the microwaves. The new device has been used successfully in the metallic oxide synthesis and, in special in the sintering and order of crystalline lattice of thin films.

  17. O trabalho infantil doméstico e o processo de escolarização Domestic child labour and the scholarship process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Pereira Alberto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho versa sobre uma pesquisa na qual se buscou verificar a relação entre o Trabalho Infantil Doméstico e o processo de escolarização. Participaram 100 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, na faixa compreendida entre os 07 e 18 anos de idade. Utilizaram-se dois instrumentos: o primeiro identificava se a criança ou o adolescente eram trabalhadores, e o segundo constituía-se um instrumento composto de questões abertas e fechadas. Para análise, utilizou-se a Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin, a Estatística Descritiva e o software SPSS. Os resultados revelaram que 80,0% dos participantes apresentavam repetência escolar e 85,0% defasagem escolar; que o maior motivo da repetência era a dificuldade com a estrutura escolar. Conclui-se, então, que há implicações do trabalho executado no processo de escolarização, sendo a relação entre trabalho doméstico e processo de escolarização de influência mútua.The paper reports on a research that aimed to verify the relation between domestic child labour and the scholarship process. The research had the participation of 100 subjects from both sexes, with ages between 07 and 18 years old. It was used two instruments: the first identified if the child or the adolescent were workers, and the second was a questionnaire composed by open and closed questions. To analyse data, it was used analysis of contents of Bardin, Descriptive Statistical and the software SPSS. Results reveal that 80,0% of the subjects have repeated at school, and 85,0% have low scholar performance; and the biggest reason for repetition was the difficulty with scholar structure. It is concluded, then, that there are implications of the work executed in scholarship process and the relation between domestic labour and scholarship process influence one another.

  18. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  19. Achieving nitrite accumulation in a continuous system treating low-strength domestic wastewater: switchover from batch start-up to continuous operation with process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Jianhua; Horn, Harald; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Shuying

    2012-04-01

    Although biological nitrogen removal via nitrite is recognized as one of the cost-effective and sustainable biological nitrogen removal processes, nitrite accumulation has proven difficult to achieve in continuous processes treating low-strength nitrogenous wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite was achieved and maintained in a lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating real domestic wastewater. During the start-up period, sludge with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) but no nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was obtained by batch operation with aeration time control. The nitrifying sludge with the dominance of AOB was then directly switched into continuous operation. It was demonstrated that partial nitrification to nitrite in the continuous system could be repeatedly and reliably achieved using this start-up strategy. The ratio of dissolved oxygen to ammonium loading rate (DO/ALR) was critical to maintain high ammonium removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation ratio. Over 85% of nitrite accumulation ratio and more than 95% of ammonium removal efficiency were achieved at DO/ALR ratios in an optimal range of 4.0-6.0 mg O(2)/g N d, even under the disturbances of ammonium loading rate. Microbial population shift was investigated, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that AOB were the dominant nitrifying bacteria over NOB when stable partial nitrification was established.

  20. Effectiveness of a hybrid process combining electro-coagulation and electro-oxidation for the treatment of domestic wastewaters using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghrir, Rimeh; Drogui, Patrick; Zaviska, François

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a two-stage process combining electro-coagulation (EC) and electro-oxidation (EO) was studied for the treatment of domestic wastewater (DWW) loaded with organic matter. The process was firstly evaluated in terms of its capability of simultaneously producing an oxidant and a coagulant agents using aluminum (Al) (or iron (Fe)) as bipolar and sacrificial electrodes, whereas graphite (Gr) electrodes were used as monopolar electrodes. Relatively high concentrations of chlorine (9.6 mg/min A) and Al (20-40 mg Al/L) or Fe (40-60 mg Fe/L) were produced. Subsequently, the factorial and central composite design methodologies were successively employed to define the optimal operating conditions for total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from DWW. Current intensity and treatment time were found to be very meaningful for chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of these two main factors was around 90% on the investigated response, whereas the type of sacrificial electrode and the other interaction effects represent only 10%. The treatment using aluminum electrode and a current intensity imposed of 0.7 A during 39 min was found to be the optimal conditions in terms of cost/effectiveness. Under these conditions, 78% of COD removal can be obtained for a total cost of 0.78 US $/m(3).

  1. The Removal of Turbidity and TSS of the Domestic Wastewater by Coagulation-Flocculation Process Involving Oyster Mushroom as Biocoagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardede, Astrid; Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief; Purwono

    2018-02-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) can be utilized as biocoagulant since it has chitin cell wall. Chitin has characteristics of bioactivity, biodegradability, absorption and could bind the metal ions. In this study, Oyster Mushroom is micronized and mixed with wastewater to treat turbidity and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) using coagulation-flocculation process employed jartest method. Various doses of Oyster mushroom, 600 mg/l, 1000 mg/l, and 2000 mg/l were tested in several rapid mixing rates which were 100 rpm, 125 rpm, and 150 rpm for 3 minutes followed by 12 minutes of slow mixing at 45 rpm. The mixture then was settled for 60 minutes with pH level maintained at 6-8. The result showed that the Oyster mushroom biocoagulant was able to remove 84% of turbidity and 90% of TSS. These reductions were achieved with biocoagulant dose of 600 mg/ L at 150 rpm mixing rate.

  2. Effect of body weight of goats and lactation order on the growth rate of kids in the suckling period

    OpenAIRE

    Žujović, M.; Memiši, N.; Bogdanović, V.; Tomić, Z.; Maksimović, N.; Bijelić, Z.; Marinkov, G.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of milk yield by lactation, by order, and mother's body weight on growth rate of kids of the domestic Balkan goat. Daily weight gains of 376 single kids (168 male and 208 female), in three monthly intervals, and their final body weight at 90 days of age were established. Variability of analyzed traits was presented using descriptive statistics parameters, and differences of growth traits for weight gain of ...

  3. From crop domestication to super-domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.

  4. Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in cashmere goat skin by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Liu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small RNAs that play significant roles in regulating the expression of the post-transcriptional skin and hair follicle gene. In recent years, extensive studies on these microRNAs have been carried out in mammals such as mice, rats, pigs and cattle. By comparison, the number of microRNAs that have been identified in goats is relatively low; and in particular, the miRNAs associated with the processes of skin and hair follicle development remain largely unknown. In this study, areas of skin where the cashmere grows in anagen were sampled. A total of 10,943,292 reads were obtained using Solexa sequencing, a high-throughput sequencing technology. From 10,644,467 reads, we identified 3,381 distinct reads and after applying the classification statistics we obtained 316 miRNAs. Among them, using conservative identification, we found that 68 miRNAs (55 of these are confirmed to match known sheep and goat miRNAs in miRBase are conserved in goat and have been reported in NCBI; the remaining 248 miRNA were conserved in other species but have not been reported in goat. Furthermore, we identified 22 novel miRNAs. Both the known and novel miRNAs were confirmed by a second sequencing using the same method as was used in the first. This study confirmed the authenticity of 316 known miRNAs and the discovery of 22 novel miRNAs in goat. We found that the miRNAs that were co-expressed in goat and sheep were located in the same region of the respective chromosomes and may play an essential role in skin and follicle development. Identificaton of novel miRNAs resulted in significant enrichment of the repertoire of goat miRNAs.

  5. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has

  6. quality and consumer acceptability of goat milk with respect to goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    An on-station study was carried out at KALRO-Kitale on Kenyan Alpine,. Toggenburg and Saanen goat breeds, during their first and second lactation stages. The quality of milk from farmers' goats in Trans Nzoia County was also determined. There were significant differences in yield and quality of milk from different breeds.

  7. Quality and consumer acceptability of goat milk with respect to goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of information on the quality of goat milk in Kenya and the belief that the milk has an undesirable “goaty” flavour, have been major impediments to its wider utilisation and commercialisation. The objective of the study was to determine nutrient composition of goat milk from different breeds in Kenya, and assess ...

  8. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and

  9. Integrated real-time control strategy in multi-tank A2O process for biological nutrient removal treating real domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Abualhail

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrated real-time anaerobic–anoxic/oxic (A2O operated with multi-tank called IMT–A2O process was designed and operated with fluctuating influent loads for biological nutrient removal for treating real domestic wastewater. IMT–A2O process, a “phased isolation tank” technology, varies both aeration pattern and flow path in a continuous flow multi-tank system to force fluctuation of organic and nutrient concentrations in process reactors. Using an eight-phase cycle, desired biochemical transformations, are accomplished at different times in the same tank. On-line sensors (pH, ORP, and DO were used as real-time control parameters to adjust the duration of each operational phase in the IMT–A2O process. The control system is an algorithm that automatically adjusts the cycle length to the influent wastewater characteristics according to the end points. It was found that on-line sensor values of pH, ORP, and DO were somehow related with the dynamic behaviors of nutrient concentrations in IMT–A2O. The algorithm acts in the reaction phases of the IMT–A2O cycle using ORP and pH break points of tank one to distinguish the end of denitrification and the beginning of phosphorus release, pH break point of tank two to control the end of denitrification and beginning of phosphorus release and a sudden increase in DO pattern, pH break point and ORP to control phosphorus uptake and the end of the nitrification process. Although the fluctuations in raw wastewater concentration are extreme; an influent with a low C/N ratio is deficient in organic carbon, and a low carbon source level can limit the overall biological denitrification process, the average removal efficiencies achieved for COD, ammonia–nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were not less than 76.11%, 87.78%, 76.45% and 83.75%, respectively, using the integrated real-time control strategy. The integrated IMT–A2O exhibited a better performance in nutrient removal than the

  10. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load, chemical and sensory properties of the goat meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Zeinou, R.

    2010-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the quality characteristics and to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 4, and 6 kGy) of Jabaly Syrian goat meat on microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics during storage at 4 degree centigrade (1, 3, 4, and 5 weeks). Irradiation was effective in reducing the microbial load and increasing the shelf-life of goat meat. The radiation doses required to reduce the microorganisms by 90 percent (D10) in goat meat were 294 and 400 Gy for the Salmonella and E. coli, respectively. The main fatty acids identified from the goat meat were oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids. No significant differences were observed in moisture, crud protein, crud fat, ash, pH value, fatty acids, total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen, and sensory properties (texture, flavor, color, and taste) of the radiation processing and non-irradiated goat meat. Lipid peroxidation measured in term of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) on irradiation and chilled storage increased. (Author)

  12. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with balanoposthitis in a Boer goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine®24 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit.

  13. Evaluation of cashmere production of the meat producing Boer goat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available the cashmere production of the experimental Boer goat flock at the Adelaide Experimental Station. The results shown that initiating a cashmere industry with pure Boer goats does not seem to be viable option...

  14. Mycoplasma conjunctivae in domestic small ruminants from high mountain habitats in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a clinical condition affecting eyes of domestic and wild Caprinae worldwide, and Mycoplasma conjunctivae is considered the primary causative agent of IKC in sheep, goats and wild Caprinae. Domestic ruminants from high mountain habitats share grazing areas with wild mountain ungulates, such as chamois (Rupicapra spp.), Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), and domestic sheep seem to act as M. conjunctivae reservoir. In this study, the presence of M. conjunctivae in domestic sheep and goats from the two main mountain ranges of Northern Spain, the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains, has been investigated. Results Eye swabs were obtained from 439 domestic small ruminants selected from flocks that seasonally graze in alpine meadows during three consecutive years (2011-2012-2013). Seventy-nine out of the 378 domestic sheep (20.9%) tested positive to a M. conjunctivae specific real time-PCR (rt-PCR) in at least one eye, whereas all the 61 sampled domestic goats were negative. Statistically significant higher prevalence and higher proportion of infected flocks (P < 0.001) was observed in the Pyrenees (25.7%; 12 flocks out of 13), where M. conjunctivae is widespread and probably endemic in domestic sheep, than in the Cantabrian Mountains (7.8%; one flock out of six). Twenty-five sheep (three from the Pyrenees and 22 from the Cantabrian Mountains) which showed clinical signs consistent with infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) were negative by rt-PCR. In contrast, 62 out of the 71 (87.3%) M. conjunctivae-positive sheep from the Pyrenees and the eight positive sheep from the Cantabrian Mountains were asymptomatic. Conclusions This study provides rt-PCR-based evidences of M. conjunctivae maintenance in domestic sheep, as well as a relationship between prevalence in domestic sheep and previously reported M. conjunctivae and IKC in wild ruminants. Domestic goats do not seem to play an

  15. Improving characteristics of goat milk yogurt drink fortified by mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana Lin.) extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawanti, J. M. W.; Rinawidiastuti; Arifin, H. D.; Zulfanita

    2018-01-01

    Peranakan Etawah (PE) milk is highly nutritive goaty flavour make it not preferable by consumer. Processing of yogurt drink made PE goat milk enhances palatability. Goat yogurt drink can be supplemented high antioxidantive activity by mangosteen rind extract. Comletely Randomized Design (CRD) was throughout the research with different concentrations of mangosteen rind extract (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% (v/v). The organoleptic analysis showed the significant enhancement by fortification with mangosteen rind extract. The highest antioxidant activity was shown on the yogurt drink 4% v/v of mangosteen extract. In conclusion, the fortification of mangosteen rind extract was enhanced of characteristics of yogurt drink.

  16. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaughtering animals as the most merciful by causing the least pain. Many participants noted they had no way of knowing where the animal  came from and this held tremendous concerns relative to the feeding of animal by-products, use of hormones, and adulteration with pork. These trust concerns led to decisions about where to purchase their meat with 72% purchasing from a Moslem owned retail store. Only 13% purchased from a large grocery and 8% direct from a farmer.   Participants indicated their consumption patterns according to weekly, seasonal, and holiday use in addition to variations according to their personal geographic origin. The average meat purchase was 23 pounds with an average occurrence of 12.5 times per annum.  Purchasing trends indicated that 78% prefer lean over marbled cuts. Nearly 86% prefer fresh over frozen goat meat and nearly a third responded that they would pay more for fresh. Intact males were preferred by 42% of the respondents. Preferences for meat goat cuts were: Leg (71%, Chops (42%, Shoulder (24%, Breast (7%. Nearly a third indicated they also want the kidneys, heart, or head. Demographic shifts in the United States indicate that there are almost 53 million people who have a preference for goat meat. There are 2.4 million goats in the US according to the 2007 Agricultural Statistics. Based on consumption trends of this study, goat demand exceeds inventory by 160%. Meat goat consumer trends are changing regarding

  17. Reproductive Effeciency of an Indigenous Irabian Goat ( Capra Hircus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that goat can tolerate harsh conditions; however there are little information about its reproduction functions such as testis histomorphometry and efficiency of sertoli cells. This study aimed to estimate germ cell types and number per sertoli cell of an indigenous Iranian goat (Lori goat). Semen was collected ...

  18. Reproduction performance of Saanen goats raised under extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to determine some reproductive characteristics and kids' growth characteristics of Saanen goats raised at Suleyman Demirel University Sheep and Goat Testing Facility. The animal materials of this research consisted of 91 female goats in different ages. Estrous cycle length, first mating age, ...

  19. Behavioural responses of four goat genotypes to successive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goats were randomly assigned to four pen groups with each pen having three goats of the same breed among the 12 goats in each pen. Immediately after blood and faecal collection, behavioural measurements through vocalization scoring (VS), pen scoring (PS), crush scoring (CS), flight speed (FS) and flight time (FT) ...

  20. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate...

  1. Characteristics of rural goat production and marketing in Kumi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Characteristics of rural goat production and marketing in Kumi and Lira districts, Uganda ... requirements for the household. The rural areas offer .... of cattle were lost. On that background, the goats became increasingly used in marriages. Marketing. Most people in the two districts sell goats in local markets for cash; a few ...

  2. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    isation for Animal Health (OIE) does not consider Turkey, free of scrapie disease in accordance with their ... A total of 356 unrelated healthy goats of 2–5 years old were randomly sampled from 10 breeds (for details, see ..... polymorphic variants in the susceptibility of goats to oral infec- tion with Goat-BSE. J. Infect. Dis. 212 ...

  3. Optimum stocking rate for goat production on improved highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four stocking rates (SR; 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 goats ha-1) on goat performance and herbage productivity were examined on the perennial pastures. The experiment was applied by grazing 65 six-months old Chinese Yunling black goat wethers for two years. Significant year × SR interactions were observed on ...

  4. Gastrointestinal Nematodes and Body Condition Scores of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of 210 trade goats slaughtered in Nsukka area of Enugu state and their effects on body conditions was studied between May and August, 2011. The body condition of each goat were determined and scored on a scale of 1 – 5. Faecal samples were then collected from the goats before ...

  5. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  6. Cameroon native goat populations' genetic diversity and maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitochondrial diversity of native goat populations was high (Hd = 69, with haplotype diversity = 0.9945) indicating a rich genetic diversity with 5 clades. The Cameroon goat populations belong to Haplogroup A, the most abundant in the world. Based on the previous migratory scenarios, the Cameroon native goats may have ...

  7. Goat breeding structure and repeatability of litter size in smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and sixteen (116) does from 22 randomly selected smallholder herds in Kano and environs were surveyed to evaluate the goat breeding herd structure and to estimate the repeatability of litter size. The study revealed that the average herd size of smallholder goats in the study area is 15.5 goats. The average ...

  8. Optimum stocking rate for goat production on improved highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    The effects of four stocking rates (SR; 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 goats ha-1) on goat performance and herbage productivity were examined on the perennial pastures. The experiment was applied by grazing 65 six- months old Chinese Yunling black goat wethers for two years. Significant year × SR interactions were observed on ...

  9. Incidence and Pattern of Pneumonia in Goats Slaughtered at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of pneumonia, in slaughtered goats in Kumasi abattoir, Ghana. One thousand three hundred and fifty lungs of goats; (1,012 Sahelian and 338 West Africa Dwarf goats (WAD) lungs) of different ages (less than a year to above 4 years) were used in this study.

  10. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment. ...

  11. THE RUMINANT EFFECT OF VEGETAL LECITHIN AT SHEEP AND GOATS

    OpenAIRE

    H. SĂRĂNDAN; ANA PIVODĂ; D. DRÎNCEANU; ANA SAUER; OLGA RADA; LILIANA CĂRPINIŞAN; CLAUDIA SALA; S. VOIA; C. LUCA

    2009-01-01

    In the extraction process of the vegetable soy oils and sun-flower oils results in large quantities a waste that contains approximately 45% fat from which 58% is lecithin. This waste called “dreg” creates problems of environment pollution because we didn’t find a use for it. We tested this waste in the food of small ruminants, at sheep and goat, watching the ruminant effect and the apparent digestibility of the nutritive substances in the food. The tested doses of “dregs” were of 100 g and 20...

  12. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  13. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2013-09-04

    Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3000 and 10000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced genetic diversity relative to the wild ancestor across the genome, and severely reduced diversity for genes targeted by domestication. The question that remains is whether reduction in genetic diversity has affected crop production today. A case study in maize ( Zea mays ) demonstrates the application of understanding relationships between genetic diversity and phenotypic diversity in the wild ancestor and the domesticate. As an outcrossing species, maize has tremendous genetic variation. The complementary combination of genome-wide association mapping (GWAS) approaches, large HapMap data sets, and germplasm resources is leading to important discoveries of the relationship between genetic diversity and phenotypic variation and the impact of domestication on trait variation.

  15. Crop domestication and its impact on naturally selected trophic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yolanda H.; Gols, Rieta; Benrey, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Crop domestication is the process of artificially selecting plants to increase their suitability to human requirements: taste, yield, storage, and cultivation practices. There is increasing evidence that crop domestication can profoundly alter interactions among plants, herbivores, and their

  16. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  17. Nasal Oestrosis in a Jamunapari goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, D N; Sudhakar, N R; Maurya, P S; Manjunathachar, H V; Sahu, Shivani; Pawde, A M

    2014-12-01

    Oestrus ovis is a well-known parasite of the nasal cavities and adjoining sinuses in sheep and goats. A 3-year-old female Jamunapari goat was presented with a history of anorexia, weight loss, in-coordinated movements, nasal discharge since 10 days and two nasal bots expelled during sneezing 3 days back. Upon clinical examination the animal was dull, dysphonic, unsteady gait and having blocked nostrils with thick mucoid discharge along with an increased respiratory rate. Parasitiological examination revealed it as an O. ovis (nasal bots). The occurrence of nasal bots in a goat and its successful therapeutic management and public health significance have been reported and discussed in the present communication.

  18. Clinical evaluation of ethanolic extract of curcumin (Curcuma longa on wound healing in Black Bengal goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Haris Miah

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Ethanol treated turmeric enhances wound healing process in goats. This result could help the veterinarian and the researchers to consider herbal product especially ethanolic extract of turmeric for the treatment and better healing of surgical wounds with minimal complications. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 181-186

  19. Activating the expression of human K-rasG12D stimulates oncogenic transformation in transgenic goat fetal fibroblast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Gong

    Full Text Available Humane use of preclinical large animal cancer models plays a critical role in understanding cancer biology and developing therapeutic treatments. Among the large animal candidates, goats have great potentials as sustainable sources for large animal cancer model development. Goats are easier to handle and cheaper to raise. The genome of the goats has been sequenced recently. It has been known that goats develop skin, adrenal cortex, breast and other types of cancers. Technically, goats are subject to somatic cell nuclear transfer more efficiently and exhibit better viability through the cloning process. Towards the development of a goat cancer model, we created a transgenic goat fetal fibroblast (GFF cell as the donor cell for SCNT. Human mutated K-ras (hK-rasG12D was chosen as the transgene, as it is present in 20% of cancers. Both hK-rasG12D and a herpes simplex viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk reporter genes, flanked by a pair of LoxP sites, were knocked in the GFF endogenous K-ras locus through homologous recombination. Following Cre-mediated activation (with a 95% activation efficiency, hK-rasG12D and HSV1-tk were expressed in the transgenic GFF cells, evidently through the presence of corresponding mRNAs, and confirmed by HSV1-tk protein function assay. The hK-rasG12D expressing GFF cells exhibited enhanced proliferation rates and an anchorage-independent growth behavior. They were able to initiate tumor growth in athymic nude mice. In conclusion, after activating hK-rasG12D gene expression, hK-rasG12D transgenic GFF cells were transformed into tumorgenesis cells. Transgenic goats via SCNT using the above-motioned cells as the donor cells have been established.

  20. Prevalence and Molecular Diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica in Sheep and Goats in Different Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Shahzad*, Khalid Mehmood1, Rashid Munir2, Waqar Aslam, Muhammad Ijaz1, Rashid Ahmad, Mohammad Sarwar Khan1 and Ahmad Jawad Sabir1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in Lohi sheep and Beetal goats in Okara, Sahiwal and Lahore districts of Punjab province. A total of 800 samples including 200 fecal and 200 bile, each from Lohi sheep and Beetal goats were collected and processed for microscopic examination of Fasciola eggs as well as its confirmation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Of the fecal samples, 3.5 and 2% samples whereas from bile samples, 6.5 and 4% bile samples from sheep and goats were found microscopically positive for Fasciola hepatica, respectively. By PCR, 4.5 and 3.5% fecal samples and 8.5 and 5% bile samples from sheep and goats, respectively were confirmed for F. hepatica. Statistically sheep and goats species were found equally likely acquiring the F. hepatica diagnosed by either source of material (fecal and bile samples similarly fecal and bile samples were equally likely showing fasciolosis in either of sheep and goats.

  1. MicroRNAs synergistically regulate milk fat synthesis in mammary gland epithelial cells of dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianzi; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Liping; Zhu, Jiangjiang

    2013-01-01

    Synergistic regulation among microRNAs (miRNAs) is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the complex molecular regulatory networks in goats. Goat milk fat synthesis is driven by a gene network that involves many biological processes in the mammary gland. These biological processes are affected by several miRNAs rather than a single miRNA. Therefore, identifying synergistic miRNAs is necessary to further understand the functions of miRNAs and the metabolism of goat milk fat synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, we assessed the expression of 11 miRNAs that have the potential to regulate milk fat synthesis in the goat mammary gland. Six of these miRNAs exhibited expression during the lactation cycle. Additionally, we also found that prolactin, the key hormone that regulates lactation, promotes the expression of four miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-27b, miR-103, and miR-200a). Further functional analysis showed that overexpression of all four miRNAs by using recombinant adenovirus in goat mammary gland epithelial cells can affect gene mRNA expression associated with milk fat synthesis. Specifically, elevated miR-200a expression suppressed the mRNA expression of genes involved in fat droplet formation. To analyze the synergistic regulation among these four miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-27b, miR-103, and miR-200a), we used the Pearson correlation coefficient to evaluate the correlation between their expression levels in 30 lactating goats. As a result, we found a strong correlation and mutual regulation between three miRNA pairs (miR-23a and miR-27b, miR-103 and miR-200a, miR-27b and miR-200a). This study provides the first experimental evidence that miRNA expression is synergistically regulated in the goat mammary gland and has identified the potential biological role of miRNAs in goat milk fat synthesis. The identification of synergistic miRNAs is a crucial step for further understanding the molecular network of milk fat synthesis at a system-wide level.

  2. Nasal Oestrosis in a Jamunapari goat

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, D. N.; Sudhakar, N. R.; Maurya, P. S.; Manjunathachar, H. V.; Sahu, Shivani; Pawde, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Oestrus ovis is a well-known parasite of the nasal cavities and adjoining sinuses in sheep and goats. A 3-year-old female Jamunapari goat was presented with a history of anorexia, weight loss, in-coordinated movements, nasal discharge since 10 days and two nasal bots expelled during sneezing 3 days back. Upon clinical examination the animal was dull, dysphonic, unsteady gait and having blocked nostrils with thick mucoid discharge along with an increased respiratory rate. Parasitiological exam...

  3. Judgement bias in goats (Capra hircus: investigating the effects of human grooming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Baciadonna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9 was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min. During training, the control group (n = 10 did not experience any direct interaction with the experimenter, but was kept unconstrained next to him for the same period of time. After successful completion of the training, the responses (latency time of the two groups to reach ambiguous locations situated between the two reference locations (i.e., rewarded/non-rewarded were compared over two days of testing. There was not a positive bias effect after the animals had been groomed. In a second experiment, 10 goats were tested to investigate whether grooming induced changes in physiological activation (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability. Heart rate increased when goats were groomed compared to the baseline condition, when the same goats did not receive any contact with the experimenter. Also, subjects did not move away from the experimenter, suggesting that the grooming was positively accepted. The very good care and the regular positive contacts that goats received from humans at the study site could potentially account for the results obtained. Good husbandry outcomes are influenced by animals’ perception of the events and this is based on current circumstances, past experiences and individual variables. Taking into account animals’ individual characteristics and identifying effective strategies to induce positive emotions could increase the understanding and

  4. Big Animal Cloning Using Transgenic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Case Study of Goat Transgenic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Using of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could improve production traits and disease resistance by improving the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. However, robust ESCs have not been established from domestic ungulates. In the present study, we generated goat induced pluripotent stem cells (giPSCs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat induced pluripotent stem cells (tgiPSCs) from dairy goat fibroblasts (gFs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat fibroblasts (tgFs), respectively, using lentiviruses that contained hOCT4, hSOX2, hMYC, and hKLF4 without chemical compounds. The giPSCs and tgiPSCs expressed endogenous pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, and NANOG. Moreover, they were able to maintain a normal karyotype and differentiate into derivatives from all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Using SCNT, tgFs and tgiPSCs were used as donor cells to produce embryos, which were named tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. The fusion rates and cleavage rates had no significant differences between tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. However, the expression of IGF-2, which is an important gene associated with embryonic development, was significantly lower in tgiPSC-Embryos than in tgF-Embryos and was not significantly different from vivo-Embryos.

  5. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.

  6. Cryptic Diversity of Malassezia pachydermatis from Healthy and Diseased Domestic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Laura; Castellá, Gemma; Cabañes, F Javier

    2016-10-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal cutaneous microbiota of wild and domestic carnivores. However, under certain conditions this yeast can overproliferate and cause several diseases in its host, mainly otitis and dermatitis in dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular characterization of M. pachydermatis isolates from healthy and diseased domestic animals, in order to assess the molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationship within this species. The large subunit (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal RNA, chitin synthase 2 (CHS2) and β-tubulin genes from sixteen strains isolated from dogs, cats, a goat, a pig and a horse were sequenced. A different number of types of sequences were identified for each target gene, including some types described for the first time. Five sequence types were characterized for the LSU, eleven for the ITS region, nine for CHS2 and eight for β-tubulin. A multilocus analysis was performed including the four genes, and the resulting phylogenetic tree revealed fifteen genotypes. Genotypes were distributed in two well-supported clades. One clade comprised strains isolated from different domestic animals and a strongly supported cluster constituted by strains isolated from cats. The second clade included strains isolated mainly from dogs and an outlier strain isolated from a horse. No apparent association could be observed between the health status of the animal hosts and concrete strains. The multilocus phylogenetic analysis is a useful tool to assess the intraspecific variation within this species and could help understand the ecology, epidemiology and speciation process of M. pachydermatis.

  7. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( milk of goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( milk were not changed ( > 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without affecting production; this recommendation satisfies the minimum requirements of the industry and preserves the organoleptic characteristics of the milk and its acceptability for human consumption. In addition, buriti oil replacing ground corn by up to 4.5% DM in the diet of lactating goats decrease medium-chain SFA which are hypercholesterolemic and increase the concentrations of the C18:19, CLA and DFA in goat milk fat, helping to protect against cardiovascular disease.

  8. Domestication process of two Solanum section Lasiocarpa species among Amerindians in the Upper Orinoco, Venezuela, with special focus on Piaroa Indians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Marcucci, R.; Tornadore, N.; Paoletti, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Two semi-cultivated Solanum species (S. sessiliflorum Dunal and S. stramonifolium Jacq.) are utilized by the Amazonian Indians of the Upper Orinoco Basin in Venezuela. The manner in which they have become partially domesticated by the Piaroas and other native tribes of this rain forest region is

  9. From Crop Domestication to Super-domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, D. A.; Bal?zs, E.; Heslop-Harrison, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disc...

  10. DESIGNING STUDY FOR A FAMILY FARM WITH 600 GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PĂDEANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the hilly and plains area of Banat region, goat rearing for milk production haschances to become a profitable business. After Romania integration into the EUmarket there will be no quotas for goat milk and meat production. Also, importantlow-production arable land areas (over 3 million hectares will be laying fallow inthe next years, spectacularly increasing the fodder area for ruminants. There a fewgoat family farms having an efficient technological flow and with possibilities toprocess the milk in Romania. In this paper the bases are laid down for projecting afarm with 600 indigenous goats, to be exploited in an intensive system andgenetically improved with Sannen or French Alpine he-goats. The followingreproduction indices were planned for the 600 goats: goats in estrus per season96%, fecundity 95%, goats that keep the pregnancy 98%, kidding goats 90%,prolificacy 170%, and birth rate 152 kids for 100 dam goats. The total populationafter weaning the kids is 600 goats, 24 he-goats, and 173 reproduction female kids.For feeding this population 66.8 ha are required out of which 43.1 ha with grassespasture, 2.1 ha alfalfa, 10.2 ha corn, 4.2 ha barley, and 6.6 ha oats. Goats arehoused in 4 shelters, in 12 group pens of 48 heads. Goats will be fed year-round withgrass haylage, oats straw and concentrate mixtures. This farm will produce 2250 Hlmilk per year (mechanical milking, 150 reproduction female kids for selling at 8-9months of age, 500 fattening kids, and 120 culled goats sold for meat. The annuallyestimated gross income will be 34000 EUR.

  11. Nested-PCR assay for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infection in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; He, Chuan-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Fu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhu, Chuan-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ping; Tong, Lai-Bao; Zhou, De-Bao; Zha, Li; Hong, Yang; Jin, Ya-Mei; Lin, Jiao-Jiao

    2017-04-13

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a common zoonosis. Domestic animals are the primary source of infection and play an important role in disease transmission. The prevalence and infectivity of this disease in domestic animals in China have significantly decreased and, for this reason, diagnostics with a higher sensitivity have become increasingly necessary. It was reported that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods could be used to detect schistosome infection in humans and animals and presented a high sensitivity and specificity. The present study aimed to develop a PCR-based method for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infection in domestic animals. A specific nested-PCR assay was developed to detect S. japonicum infection in domestic animals via amplification of a 231-bp DNA fragment of retrotransposon SjR2. The developed assay was first used in sera and dry blood filter paper (DBFP) from goats and buffaloes at different time points of infection. Then, 78 DBFPs from 39 artificially-infected bovines at 14 and 28 days post-infection and 42 DBFPs from schistosome-negative bovines from the city of Huangshan in the Anhui province were used to evaluate the diagnostic validity. Furthermore, this assay was used to detect S. japonicum infection in domestic animals in Dongzhi and Wangjiang counties. The expected PCR product was detected in eggs and adult worms of S. japonicum and blood samples from S. japonicum-infected goats and water buffaloes, but not from Fasciola and Haemonchus contortus worms. The nested-PCR assay could detect the target S. japonicum DNA in DBFPs from goats and buffaloes after day 3 post-infection. The sensitivity in buffaloes at 14 and 28 days post-infection was 92.30% (36/39) and 100% (39/39), respectively. The specificity was 97.60% (41/42). The positivity rates in Dongzhi and Wangjiang counties were 6.00% and 8.00% in bovines and 22.00% and 16.67% in goats, respectively. The positivity rates in goats in both counties were higher than those

  12. Genetic Differentiation of Chinese Indigenous Meat Goats Ascertained Using Microsatellite Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Ling

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat, explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats.

  13. Serologic and virologic investigations into pestivirus infection in wild and domestic ruminants in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, I; Rosell, R; Cabezón, O; Beneria, M; Mentaberre, G; Casas, E; Hurtado, A; López-Olvera, J R; Lavín, S

    2009-08-01

    An outbreak of disease associated to a border disease virus was described in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in Spain in 2002. Sera and/or spleen samples from 57 mouflon, 15 red deer, 21 roe deer, 3 fallow deer, 55 sheep, 32 cattle, and 68 goats sharing the chamois habitat were studied. An antibody ELISA test yielded an inconclusive result in 2 mouflon and positive results in 5 goat sera. Comparative virus neutralization tests were performed on the 2 inconclusive mouflons, 3 of the 5 seropositive goats, 55 sheep and 32 cattle, using 6 pestivirus strains. Positive results were obtained in 1 mouflon, 2 goats, 69% of sheep and 78% of cattle. Virological investigations performed with an antigen ELISA test yielded negative results in 21 goats and 39 mouflons, the result in 1 mouflon being inconclusive. PCR performed on 12 goats and the inconclusive mouflon gave negative results. These results suggested that it is unlikely that chamois BDV is infecting wild and domestic ruminants.

  14. Stable isotopes as indicators of sources and processes influencing nitrate distributions in dairy monitoring wells and domestic supply wells in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. B.; Harter, T.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Esser, B. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Holstege, D.; Lockhart, K.; Applegate, O.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrate concentrations above the 10 mg/L NO3-N maximum contaminant level (MCL) have been found in many wells throughout the Central Valley, California. This area contains many possible anthropogenic nitrate sources including current and historic agriculture, private septic systems, municipal waste water, and confined animal feeding operations (primarily dairies). In order to better understand the potential contributions of dairy manure derived nitrate to both shallow and deep groundwater, we used a combined chemical, stable isotope, and age-dating approach for water samples collected from a network of shallow groundwater monitoring wells located on seven different dairies, and from a survey of approximately 200 deeper domestic supply wells (used for drinking water and dairy operations). Groundwater from shallow monitoring wells and deep supply wells was collected in two geographic regions. In the northern region, the lower San Joaquin Valley, the water table is shallow (2- 5 m below surface) and therefore considered highly vulnerable to contamination, while in the southern region, the Tulare Lake Basin, the water table is much deeper (20 - 30 m). Mean δ15N of nitrate in dairy monitoring wells in both the north and south regions was significantly higher than the mean δ15N measured in the deeper supply wells, and also showed greater variability. Mean δ15N and δ18O values measured in the deep supply wells were not significantly different between the north and south regions. Mean nitrate concentrations, δ15N, and δ18O were significantly higher in the northern (lower San Joaquin Valley) monitoring wells in comparison to the southern (Tulare Lake Basin) monitoring wells. Nitrate isotope measurements indicated that many of the northern monitoring wells had consistently high contributions of manure-derived nitrate to the shallow groundwater during the 16 month study. Monitoring wells located in relatively new dairies in the south region showed little evidence of

  15. Mediterranean breeds of cattle, sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  16. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will test improved cassava and sweet potato varieties to increase production, improve household nutrition, and develop optimal feeding strategies for goats. Research will focus on environmental impacts, marketing opportunities, and disease control — while examining ways to enhance women's participation in ...

  17. Artificial insemination of Argora goat does with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with fresh or deep-frozen semen. The results achieved were. 76,7o/o;90oh and 34,804 respectively. Although a signif icanily lower kidding percentage was obtained when frozen semen was used, these results warrant further investigation of techni- ques for freezing goat semen. S. Af r. J. Anim. Sci. 1983, 13: 134 - 135.

  18. Cryopreservation of South African indigenous goat semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... motility rates of South African indigenous goats. Reduction in the sperm cell motility after freeze/thawing is still a problem and requires further research on the diluents and techniques that give protection to sperm cells during cryopreservation. Key words: Cryopreservation, semen characteristics, indigenous ...

  19. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Collier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.

  20. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  1. Vertebral Subluxation Repair in a Pet Goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannarone, Sara; Bellezza, Enrico; Moens, Yves P; Larenza Menzies, Paula

    2017-01-01

    To describe the perioperative management, including surgery, anesthesia, metabolic derangements, and physiotherapy, in a goat referred for paraparesis secondary to a road traffic accident. Case report. 2-year-old mixed breed dwarf 44 kg female pet goat. Clinical examination showed symptoms of early compensatory stages of shock, paraparesis with hyperextension of the thoracic limbs, pain on palpation of the thoracolumbar spine, increased patellar reflexes of both pelvic limbs without superficial sensitivity, but preserved deep pain sensation. These signs suggested a spinal cord injury with upper motor neuron syndrome and an anatomic localization between the third thoracic and third lumbar vertebrae. Radiographic examination revealed a thoracolumbar vertebral subluxation. Vertebral stabilization was achieved with the application of pins in the vertebral bodies stabilized by an interconnecting bridge of polymethylmethacrylate, a technique commonly adopted in companion animals. Surgery and recovery from anesthesia were uneventful, but 3 days later ruminal atony and subsequent bloating occurred. This was associated with metabolic derangements (metabolic alkalosis), decreased mentation, and marked tachypnea that responded to medical treatment. From day 3 post-surgery, the goat underwent physiotherapy with manual and active exercises during the rehabilitation period of 21 days duration. The injury in this goat was successfully managed using vertebral stabilization similar to that used in dogs and cats. Extensive postoperative physiotherapeutic support contributed to the complete recovery of the animal. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Use of human lysozyme transgenic goat milk in cheese making: effects on lactic acid bacteria performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfen, E C; Mills, D A; Maga, E A

    2007-09-01

    Genetically engineered goats expressing elevated levels of the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme in their milk were developed to improve udder health, product shelf life, and consumer well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lysozyme on the development of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) throughout the cheese-making process. Raw and pasteurized milk from 7 lysozyme transgenic goats and 7 breed-, age-, and parity-matched nontransgenic controls was transformed into cheeses by using industry methods, and their microbiological load was evaluated. The numbers of colony-forming units of LAB were determined for raw and pasteurized goat milk, whey, and curd at d 2 and at d 6 or 7 of production. Selective plating media were used to enumerate lactococcal species separately from total LAB. Although differences in the mean number of colony-forming units between transgenic and control samples in raw milk, whey, and cheese curd were non-significant for both total LAB and lactococcal species from d 2 of production, a significant decrease was observed in both types of LAB among d 6 transgenic raw milk cheese samples. In pasteurized milk trials, a significant decrease in LAB was observed only in the raw milk of transgenic animals. These results indicate that lysozyme transgenic goat milk is not detrimental to LAB growth during the cheese-making process.

  3. Characterization of goat milk and potentially symbiotic non-fat yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernanda Paz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining prebiotics and probiotic microorganisms improve quality in the formulation of foods. In this paper, the characteristics of goat milk and symbiotic yogurt were studied. Raw goat milk was analyzed and the skimming process was optimized. For the formulation of a potentially non-fat symbiotic yogurt made with skimmed goat milk, inulin, gelatin, sugar, and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnoshus. Chemical characteristics, acceptability, and viability of lactic acid bacteria and probiotic culture were assessed. The protein and fat content of the raw milk was 2.90 and 3.56 g/100 mL, respectively. The optimum skimming process was obtained at 9,800 rpm and 4 °C for 15 minutes. The product formulated had a protein and fat content of 4.04 to 0.04 g/100 mL, good sensory properties, and acceptability of 95%. The lactic bacteria count was 9 × 10(7 CFU mL- 1, and probiotic culture count was higher than 1 × 10(6 CFU mL- 1, which guarantees their effect and capacity to survive in the digestive tract and spread in the intestine. The yogurt was stable during the 21 days of storage. Therefore, this study shows that goat milk yogurt is an adequate delivery vehicle of the probiotic culture L. casei and inulin.

  4. Intake and ingestive behavior of goats on marandu-grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernando de Oliveira Macedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Marandu-grass (Brachiaria brizantha pasture height (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm on the canopy structural traits and grazing behavior and forageingestion process by goats. Six goats were used to evaluate behavior during grazing, and four were used to evaluate the ingestion process - all goats were Anglo-Nubian. The adopted experimental design was completely randomized, with two replicates in space and two replicates in time. Increase in the canopy height resulted in an increase in the masses of forage, leaves, stem, and dead material and tiller density, and reduction in leaf/stem ratio. Grazing time increased and idle time reduced as the canopy height was elevated. The correlation between canopy height and bite depth was positive and linear (r = 0.99. The mass of consumed forage, the intake rate, and the bite mass were higher at 60 cm. The correlation between pasture height and bite rate was negative, whereas the correlation between pasture height and the time per bite was positive. On Marandu-grass pastures, the greatest efficiency in forage harvesting by goats occurs at a canopy height of 60 cm.

  5. Sequence-Based Appraisal of the Genes Encoding Neck and Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Conglutinin in Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra and Goat (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Barik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conglutinin, a collagenous C-type lectin, acts as soluble pattern recognition receptor (PRR in recognition of pathogens. In the present study, genes encoding neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD of conglutinin in goat and blackbuck were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The obtained 488 bp ORFs encoding NCRD were submitted to NCBI with accession numbers KC505182 and KC505183. Both nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were analysed with sequences of other ruminants retrieved from NCBI GenBank using DNAstar and Megalign5.2 software. Sequence analysis revealed maximum similarity of blackbuck sequence with wild ruminants like nilgai and buffalo, whereas goat sequence displayed maximum similarity with sheep sequence at both nucleotide and amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated clear divergence of wild ruminants from the domestic ruminants in separate clusters. The predicted secondary structures of NCRD protein in goat and blackbuck using SWISSMODEL ProtParam online software were found to possess 6 beta-sheets and 3 alpha-helices which are identical to the result obtained in case of sheep, cattle, buffalo, and nilgai. However, quaternary structure in goat, sheep, and cattle was found to differ from that of buffalo, nilgai, and blackbuck, suggesting a probable variation in the efficiency of antimicrobial activity among wild and domestic ruminants.

  6. Coccidiosis in goats in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudela, B; Boková, A

    1998-04-30

    An observational study was conducted to determine coccidial infections in goats of 13 farms in the Czech Republic. The prevalence of oocysts of Eimeria species in kids (less than 3 months old), weaned but not served goats (from 3 months to 1 year), and adult goats (1 year or more) was determined. Nine Eimeria species were identified in fecal samples by Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The overall prevalence of Eimeria oocysts in fecal specimens was 92.2%. Eimeria arloingi was the most common species with an overall prevalence of 84%, followed by E. hirci (63%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (56%). Other species present were E. christenseni (55%), E. alijevi (36%), E. caprina (25%), E. aspheronica (12%), E. capriovina (6%) and E. jolchijevi (2%). Two or more Eimeria species were detected in 88% of the samples. The most prevalent species in kids was E. arloingi, while in weaned but not served and adult goats E. ninakohlyakimovae was the most frequently found. The number of oocysts excreted was generally lower in adult goats (2567.3+/-12678 OPG), whereas higher number oocyst per gram of feces (OPG) were found in kids (18565+/-24888 OPG). Clinical coccidiosis was detected in two farms, and E. arloingi and E. ninakohlyakimovae were implicated as its cause. Disease was observed in kids 2 to 4 weeks after weaning and watery feces with clumps of mucus, and color changes from brown to yellow or dark tarry, weight loss, and dehydration were the most conspicuous clinical signs. At necropsy, macroscopic changes included mucosal hemorrhages and whitish nodular polyps in the jejunum were found. Histopathological changes were characterized by local hypertrophy and hyperplasia of intestinal villi, villus blunting and inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria. Numerous developmental stages of the parasites were observed in enterocytes and lacteals of intestinal villi.

  7. Domestic violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  8. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  9. Prevalence of β-lactamase genes in domestic washing machines and dishwashers and the impact of laundering processes on antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, L; Frontzek, A; Melhus, Å; Bockmühl, D P

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of β-lactamase genes in domestic washing machines and dishwashers, and the decontamination efficacy of laundering. For the first investigation, swab samples from washing machines (n = 29) and dishwashers (n = 24) were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR to detect genes encoding β-lactamases. To test the impact of laundering on resistant bacteria, cotton test swatches were artificially contaminated with susceptible and resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus within a second investigation. They were washed in a domestic washing machine with or without activated oxygen bleach (AOB)-containing detergent at 20-50°C. β-Lactamase genes (most commonly of the AmpC- and OXA-type) were detected in 79% of the washing machines and in 96% of the dishwashers and Pseudomonadaceae dominated the microbiota. The level of bacterial reduction after laundering was ≥80% for all Ps. aeruginosa and Kl. pneumoniae strains, while it was only 37-61% for the methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus outbreak strain. In general, the reduction was tendentially higher for susceptible bacteria than for the resistant outbreak strains, especially for Staph. aureus. β-Lactamase genes seem to be frequently present in domestic appliances and may pose a potential risk for cross-contamination and horizontal transfer of genes encoding resistance against clinically important β-lactams. In general, higher temperatures and the use of AOB can improve the reduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including Staph. aureus which appears to be less susceptible to the decontamination effect of laundering. Data on the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the domestic environment are limited. This study suggests that β-lactamase genes in washing machines and dishwashers are frequent, and that antibiotic-resistant strains are generally more resistant to the used washing conditions. © 2017 The Society for

  10. Detection, identification, and differentiation of sheep pox virus and goat pox virus from clinical cases in Giza Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mahmoud

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To isolate, identify, and differentiate Capripoxviruses (CaPV (sheep pox virus and goat pox virus infections by egg inoculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR (RPO30 in clinically affected animals in Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 scab samples were collected from clinically suspected field cases of sheep pox and goat pox. These samples were collected during (2014-2015 during different outbreaks of sheep pox and goat pox from Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. The samples were subjected to egg inoculation, TEM, and (RPO30 gene-based PCR. By using the egg inoculation: Previously prepared 37 scab samples (n=23 sheep and n=14 goats were inoculated on the chorioallantoic membrane of specific pathogen free (SPF embryonated chicken eggs (12 days old age. In the presence of the suitable percentage of humidity and candling, the inoculated eggs were incubated at 37°C. By using the TEM: Samples showed positive pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membranes, were fixed in glutaraldehyde, then processed and sectioned for TEM. Using the (RPO30 gene-based PCR assay, 30 of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats were screened. Results: Using the egg inoculation, a characteristic pock lesions for poxviruses were seen in 30/37 (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats (81.08%. Using the TEM, examination of the positive samples after egg inoculation revealed positive result in 23/30 (n=15 sheep and n=8 goats (76.66%. The positive results represented by the presence of negatively stained oval-shape virus particles. Using the (RPO30 gene-based PCR assay, out of 30 total of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats were screened, 27 (90% samples (n=17 sheep and n=10 goats were positive. The given band sizes of sheep and goats were 172 and 152 bp, respectively. Conclusion: PCR assay

  11. The Prospect of Using Complete Feed in Goat Production: A Review on its Utility and Physical Form and Animal Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Complete feed is a strategic feeding system that has been widely adopted by the dairy cattle industry, but it has been rarely practised in goat enterprises. The prospect of using complete feed for goat production could be considered from two aspects, namely 1 its relevancy to the goat metabolic requirement, and 2 its potential as an effective means for maximal utilization of crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts as alternative feeds. Metabolically, the higher energy requirement and the lower gut capacity of goats due to its relatively smaller body size make this animal more adapted to feedstuffs with denser nutrient contents as typified by the complete feed. As complete feed is characteristically dry, it has potential to cause hypovolemia and induce later a lower feed consumption when fed to goats. But, this event occurs only during the initial meal and the condition returns to the normal state thereafter. Total saliva secretion tend to decrease by consuming dry feed which can cause parakeratosis, laminitis or acidosis. However, these metabolic disorder could be prevented by formulating complete feed with optimal roughage/concentrate ratio. Review from literatures showed that, when used in complete feed, the inclusion rate of several low palatability crop residues or agro-industrial ranged from 15 to 60%. The roughage/concentrate ratio was in the range of 0.25 to 3.0. Some physical characteristics are important for effective complete feed such as the particle size of roughage, the content of physically effective fibre and the form of the complete feed. Complete feed processed into pellet generally resulted in better performances. The ME and CP content of complete feed used ranged from 1800 to 2800 kcal/kg DM and from 15 to 20%, respectively. The rate of feed intake by goats receiving complete feed ranged from 2.0 to 4.9% BW, the ADG ranged from 40 to 145 g, FCR ranged from 5.2 to 13.0 and DM digestibility ranged from 62 to 81%. These

  12. Association of Vitamin E with Rapid Thawing on Goat Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandy Mauro Penitente-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control, BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100 μM. Semen was packaged into 0.25 mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (−155°C during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (−196°C. Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20 μL aliquot of thawed semen to 1 mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm·Kg−1 followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C. Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P>0.05. Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P<0.05. Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process.

  13. THE RUMINANT EFFECT OF VEGETAL LECITHIN AT SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction process of the vegetable soy oils and sun-flower oils results in large quantities a waste that contains approximately 45% fat from which 58% is lecithin. This waste called “dreg” creates problems of environment pollution because we didn’t find a use for it. We tested this waste in the food of small ruminants, at sheep and goat, watching the ruminant effect and the apparent digestibility of the nutritive substances in the food. The tested doses of “dregs” were of 100 g and 200 g per day. The food supplementation in sheep and goats with dregs up to 7% fat in the dry substance of the ration has favourable and proportional effects with the dose of fat on the digestibility of the nutritive substances from the food. The growth of ruminant bacteria is favoured at the 100 g dose of dregs but is depressed at the 200 g dose of dregs. On the ruminant protozoa the supplementation with fat from dregs leads to the reducing of the number of protozoa and even at defaunation. It is possible that the fat from the dregs to be a source of YATP and to protect the alimentary proteins of the degrading with proteolytic enzymes and therefore to make the protein ruminant by-pass.

  14. Major gene mutations and domestication of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    1989-01-01

    From the approximately 200,000 species of flowering plants known, only about 200 have been domesticated. The process has taken place in many regions over long periods. At present there is great interest in domesticating new species and developing new uses for existing ones in order to supply needed food, industrial raw materials, etc. It is proposed that major gene mutations were important in domestication; many key characters distinguishing cultivated from related wild species are controlled by one or very few major genes. The deliberate effort to domesticate new species requires at least the following: identification of needs and potential sources, establishment of suitable niches, choice of taxa to be domesticated, specification of the desired traits and key characters to be modified, as well as the potential role of induced mutations. (author). 14 refs

  15. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  16. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  17. Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-16

    Over the past 30years there has been a growing interest to unravel the dynamic framework of the milk proteome, and now that available technology is mature enough to enable techniques of protein fractionation and identification, this process is on-going. Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek animals is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In the present study we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, in depth, the proteome of whey from all pure-breed Greek sheep and goats. A mean of >500 protein groups were identified in whey from each breed of each animal species, reporting for the first time the proteome dataset of this precious biological material. Given its high nutritional value, the protein properties exposed herein will govern future steps in optimizing characteristics and features of sheep and goat milk products. In the present study we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, in depth, the proteome of milk from all pure-breed Greek sheep and goats. A mean of >500 protein groups were identified in milk whey from each breed of each animal species, reporting for the first time the proteome dataset of this precious biological material. Given its high nutritional value, the protein properties exposed herein will govern future steps in optimizing characteristics and features of sheep and goat milk products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MiR-183 regulates milk fat metabolism via MST1 in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Shi, HuaiPing; Sun, Shuang; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Hou, Yu; Loor, Juan J

    2018-03-10

    The nutritional value of goat milk largely depends on its fatty acid content and composition. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules 18-25nt in length that regulate gene expression and play crucial roles in several biological processes, including fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between differentially expressed miRNAs in goat mammary tissue and the fatty acid composition of goat milk by using Pearson correlations. Results revealed that levels of miR-183 were highly and positively correlated with the fatty acid content in the milk. In addition, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-183 inhibits milk fat metabolism and inhibition of miR-183 promotes milk fat metabolism. Using Western blot, we demonstrate that MST1, one of the major elements of the Hippo signaling pathway, is a target of miR-183. Immunofluorescence assays revealed that miR-183 targets MST1 in the cytoplasm. In summary, data indicate that miR-183 inhibits the metabolism of milk fat by targeting the MST1 gene in the cytoplasm in goat mammary epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a fermented goats' milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus: in vivo study of health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva, Susana; Nuñez, Martha; Villena, Julio; Ramón, Adriana; Font, Graciela; Alvarez, Susana

    2011-10-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, a strain of goats' milk origin, is able to stimulate mucosal immunity and protect immunocompetent mice from intestinal and respiratory infections. In this work we developed and characterized a fermented goats' milk containing L. rhamnosus CRL1505, and we demonstrated in a model of immunosuppression in mice that the final dairy product preserves the immunomodulatory properties of the strain. L. rhamnosus CRL1505 survived the manufacturing process of fermented milk and maintained a viability of 10(6) cfu g(-1) during storage. The fermented goats' milk was accepted by 90.48% of the panelists and was considered as having an acid taste and pleasant aroma. We also demonstrated that the developed product, used as a supplement during the repletion of immunocompromised malnourished mice, was effective in accelerating the recovery of clinical parameters altered by malnutrition and to induce increased resistance against intestinal and respiratory infections. Goats' milk fermented with L. rhamnosus CRL1505 could be manufactured as an alternative probiotic dairy product since this new food has the ability to stimulate the common mucosal immune system and to improve defenses against respiratory and intestinal infections. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Hair follicle transcriptome profiles during the transition from anagen to catagen in Cashmere goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y X; Wu, R B; Qiao, X; Zhang, Y J; Wang, R J; Su, R; Wu, J H; Dong, Y; Li, J Q

    2015-12-22

    Previous molecular genetic studies of the goat hair life cycle have focused primarily on a limited number of genes and proteins. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in hair follicle cycle regulation, Illumina sequencing technology was used to catalog differential gene expression profiles in the hair growth cycle (anagen to catagen) of goat, comparing the primary hair follicle with the secondary hair follicle. There were 13,769 and 12,240 unigenes assembled from the reads obtained from primary hair follicle and secondary hair follicle, respectively. Genes encoding keratin proteins and keratin-associated proteins were the most highly expressed. A total of 5899 genes were differentially expressed in anagen vs catagen primary hair follicles, with 532 genes up-regulated and 5367 genes down-regulated. A total of 5208 genes were differentially expressed in anagen vs catagen secondary hair follicle, including 545 genes that were up-regulated and 4663 genes that were down-regulated. Numerous hair growth genes are expressed in the goat hair follicle, of which 73 genes showed co-up-regulation in both hair follicles during the anagen stage. Many of these up-regulated genes, such as STC2, VEGFR, and ROR2, are known to be transfactors in the process of cell differentiation and in the cell cycle. The differential gene expression profiles between primary hair follicles and secondary hair follicles obtained provide a foundation for future studies examining the network of gene expression controlling hair growth cycle in Cashmere goat.

  1. Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio

    2010-07-28

    The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid.

  2. Domestic kraudfandinh: problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Mihalchuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The description kraudfandinh as an innovative tool to attract private investment in promising business projects as a special type of financing over the Internet. Powered its classification and kraud lists of successful projects, clearly illustrated by comparison of the normal business process to create a product and a similar process using kraudfandinh, given the differences between them and the main advantages. Based on the summaries of the literature and current practices of foreign companies and kraud platforms, defined the prospects of its application by domestic enterprises in various industries, proved its positive impact on the economy of Ukraine. The main problem of the use of this instrument in the domestic business, according to national circumstances, given their explanations. Described the prospects for its implementation at Ukrainian enterprises in terms of economic instability. The characteristic of the first Ukrainian kraudfandinh platforms by their future prospects in this direction

  3. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner prescribed in § 135.110 for ice cream, and complies with all the provisions of § 135.110, except that the...

  4. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Minervini

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ. The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel, domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults, possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.

  5. Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian autochthonous population, using molecular markers. Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria Teresa Sardina, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Baldassare Portolano ...

  6. Respiratory depression by stable xenon in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies with stable xenon have recently become practical. Xenon pharmacology is thus a more than academic interest. The authors studied the respiratory response of three trained goats to a mixture of 70% xenon, 30% oxygen. The relatively high xenon concentration was used because of the animals' resistance to anesthetic effects. Two other goats were treated with equivalent anesthetic concentration of nitrous oxide and halothane. The xenon-treated animals showed respiratory depression, in contrast to the stimulating effects observed with halothane and nitrous oxide. Elevation of PaCO/sub 2/ was significant and would substantially increase cRBF. Their findings emphasize the need to monitor ventilation and respond appropriately if necessary

  7. Multivariate factor analysis of Girgentana goat milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giaccone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the several variables that contribute to defining milk quality is difficult due to the high degree of  correlation among them. In this case, one of the best methods of statistical processing is factor analysis, which belongs  to the multivariate groups; for our study this particular statistical approach was employed.  A total of 1485 individual goat milk samples from 117 Girgentana goats, were collected fortnightly from January to July,  and analysed for physical and chemical composition, and clotting properties. Milk pH and tritable acidity were within the  normal range for fresh goat milk. Morning milk yield resulted 704 ± 323 g with 3.93 ± 1.23% and 3.48±0.38% for fat  and protein percentages, respectively. The milk urea content was 43.70 ± 8.28 mg/dl. The clotting ability of Girgentana  milk was quite good, with a renneting time equal to 16.96 ± 3.08 minutes, a rate of curd formation of 2.01 ± 1.63 min-  utes and a curd firmness of 25.08 ± 7.67 millimetres.  Factor analysis was performed by applying axis orthogonal rotation (rotation type VARIMAX; the analysis grouped the  milk components into three latent or common factors. The first, which explained 51.2% of the total covariance, was  defined as “slow milks”, because it was linked to r and pH. The second latent factor, which explained 36.2% of the total  covariance, was defined as “milk yield”, because it is positively correlated to the morning milk yield and to the urea con-  tent, whilst negatively correlated to the fat percentage. The third latent factor, which explained 12.6% of the total covari-  ance, was defined as “curd firmness,” because it is linked to protein percentage, a30 and titatrable acidity. With the aim  of evaluating the influence of environmental effects (stage of kidding, parity and type of kidding, factor scores were anal-  ysed with the mixed linear model. Results showed significant effects of the season of

  8. Domestication and Genetics of Papaya: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of plant species used by humans for different purposes, but mainly as food, originated and domesticated in the Mesoamerican region. Papaya (Carica papaya is the third most cultivated tropical crop worldwide, and it has been hypothesized that Mesoamerica is the most likely center of its origin and domestication. In support of it, many wild populations of papaya occur throughout Mesoamerica and hence represent the gene pool of genetic variability for further evolution and future crop management. Despite its importance, a dearth of information exists regarding the status of wild populations of papaya, as compared to the extent of knowledge, and interest, on domesticated varieties. We review the evidence on the extant wild populations of papaya, as well as its origin and distribution. Also, we synthetize what is known on the domestication history of the species, including the domestication syndrome that distinguishes wild and domesticated papayas. Moreover, we make an account of the use of genetic markers to assess genetic diversity of wild and domesticated papaya, and discuss the importance of papaya as the first species with a transgenic cultivar to be released for human consumption, and one that has its complete genome sequenced. Evidence from different disciplines strongly suggest that papaya originated and was domesticated in Mesoamerica, and that wild populations in the region possess, still, high genetic diversity compared to the domesticated papaya. Finally, we outline papaya as an excellent model species for genomic studies that will help gain insight into the domestication process and improvement of papaya and other tropical crops.

  9. Genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed, a native to north temperate western Himalayan region of India, was carried out for the purpose of breed characterization and assessing existing intra-population genetic diversity. Materials and Methods: Totally, 75 blood samples procured at random from genetically unrelated animals of two sexes and different age groups and true to breed type were collected from different locations in the breeding tract of these goats in Himachal Pradesh, of which only 51 samples with desired quantity and quality were subjected to further processing for DNA isolation. The multi-locus genotype data were generated on 51 Gaddi goats sampled across different regions of the breeding tract in Himachal Pradesh using 15 FAO recommended goat specific microsatellite markers, which gave amplification and observed and effective number of alleles, gene frequency, observed and expected heterozygosity were estimated through PopGene software (1.3.1. Results: A total of 135 distinct alleles were observed with mean observed and effective number of alleles as 9.0000±0.82 and 6.5874±0.56 respectively across all 15 studied loci. The maximum (15 alleles were contributed by loci DRBP1 and P19/DYA and the least (5 by SRCRSP5. The mean heterozygosity was observed to be 0.8347±0.01 ranging from 0.7584 (SRCRSP5 to 0.9156 (P19-DYA across all loci. The mean observed (HO and expected (HE heterozygosities across all loci were 0.7484±0.02 and 0.8431±0.01 respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC value ranged from 0.7148 (SRCPS5 to 0.909 (P19-DYA with mean PIC of 0.8105±0.01 in the present study. The average heterozygosity was observed to be 0.8347±0.01 ranging from 0.7584 (SRCRSP5 to 0.9156 P19 (DYA across all loci. Conclusion: Microsatellite analysis revealed high level of polymorphism across studied microsatellite markers and informativeness of the markers for genetic diversity analysis studies in

  10. Dee Harley: Harley Farms Goat Dairy

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    In the village of Pescadero, forty-five minutes’ drive north of Santa Cruz, Dee Harley runs San Mateo County’s only active dairy. Harley and her staff care for a herd of more than 200 American Alpine goats, crafting the animals’ milk into sought-after cheeses (chevre, feta, ricotta, and fromage blanc) that have consistently garnered awards at national and international competitions. An increasingly popular agritourism destination for denizens of the San Francisco and Monterey Bay Areas, Harle...

  11. Cryopreservation of South African indigenous goat semen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen was thereafter cryopreserved in straws using liquid nitrogen. Data were analysed using Stata® V10 software. South African indigenous goats had total sperm cell motility rate of 83.1%, progressive sperm cell motility of 49.3% and non-progressive sperm cell motility of 33.9%. Moreover, acidic semen pH of 6.4 and ...

  12. Effect of urea-molasses block supplementation on grazing weaner goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Waruiru

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of feeding urea-molasses blocks (UMB on growth and gastrointestinal (GI nematode parasitism of weaner goats grazing the same pasture was investigated on a farm in Nyandarua District, Kenya. Thirty female Small East African goat kids at an average age of 5 months were initially treated with albendazole orally (5 mg kg-1 body mass and randomly assigned into one of two groups: group I were fed UMB prepared using a cold process and group II kids (controls received no block supplementation (NBS. The UMB were given in the evening when the animals returned from grazing and were consumed during the night at a rate of 95.0 g head-1 day-1. Supplementation was undertaken for 3 consecutive months from July to September 2001 and January to March 2002. Body mass of the kids and faecal egg counts were measured monthly and larval cultures were performed on positive faecal samples of kids of each group. Five goats from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and total counts and identification of worms at the end of June 2002. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were found in cumulative mass gains of kids in group I from September compared with those in group II. On termination of the study kids in group I had gained an average of (+ SD 20.4 ± 1.4 kg while those in group II had gained 11.8 + 1.1 kg. From January 2002, faecal egg counts of the kids in the UMB group differed significantly (P < 0.05 from those of the NBS group and at slaughter, the mean (+ SD worm counts for the UMB group was 482 + 299 while that of the NBS group was 1 302 + 410. In all the goats, Haemonchus contortus was the predominant nematode recovered. These results indicate that UMB had significant effects in the control of GI nematode parasitism and enhanced growth of the young goats.

  13. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria grown in goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Jivka; Moncheva, Penka; Ivanova, Iskra

    2014-11-02

    We examined 62 strains and 21 trade starter cultures from the collection of LB Bulgaricum PLC for proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grown in goat milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of caseins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin by LAB, using the o -phthaldialdehyde (OPA) spectrophotometric assay and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteolysis targeted mainly caseins, especially β-casein. Whey proteins were proteolyzed, essentially β-lactoglobulin. The proteolytic activity of Lactococcus lactis l598, Streptococcus thermophilus t3D1, Dt1, Lactobacillus lactis 1043 and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus b38, b122 and b24 was notably high. The proteolysis process gave rise to medium-sized peptide populations. Most of the examined strains showed antimicrobial activity against some food pathogens, such as Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella cholere enteridis , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeria innocua and Enterobacter aerogenes . The most active producers of antimicrobial-active peptides were strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus , which are of practical importance. The starter cultures containing the examined species showed high proteolytic and antimicrobial activity in skimmed goat milk. The greatest antimicrobial activity of the cultures was detected against E. aerogenes . The obtained results demonstrated the significant proteolytic potential of the examined strains in goat milk and their potential for application in the production of dairy products from goat's milk. The present results could be considered as the first data on the proteolytic capacity of strains and starter cultures in goat milk for the purposes of trade interest of LB Bulgaricum PLC.

  14. A survey of seropositivity to antigen B, an immunodiagnostic antigen for human cystic echinococcosis, in domestic animals in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchuluun, B; Sako, Y; Khatanbaatar, I; Bayarmaa, B; Lkhagvatseren, S; Battsetseg, G; Yanagida, T; Itoh, S; Temuulen, D; Budke, C M; Ito, A; Batsukh, Z

    2014-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is well known to be an important zoonotic disease and national disease due to the traditional nomadic life style in Mongolia. The present study was carried out to obtain data on the seropositivity to antigen B, in domestic livestock, goats, sheep and cattle, in each province of Mongolia. The seropositivity to antigen B varied by province and ranged from 0% to 25.0% in goats, 0% to 12.5% in sheep, and 0% to 13.3% in cattle. In total, 9.2% of goats, 3.6% of sheep and 5.9% of cattle in Mongolia showed seropositivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Bioactive Peptides of Fermented Goat Milk as a Sources of Antioxidant as a Therapeutic Natural Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Chanif; Untari, Handayu; Cendrakasih Padaga, Masdiana

    2018-01-01

    The increasing of functional food is rising in line with public awareness for healthy food consumption. Provision of functional food source is developed through enhanced bioactive that has a regulatory function for body. Bioactive peptides in milk is known have variety of beneficial function of the body such as immunomodulator, immunostimulatory, anti-hypertension, anti-hyper cholesterol, as well as a variety of other beneficial function. The aim of this study is to obtain fermentation methods to product functional dairy product contain bioactive peptides and beneficial of fermented goat milk. The result of this study showed that goat milk fermented using 3 % commercial starter able to produce the best yoghurt than using local yoghurt starter. Analysis of protein content showed that the fermentation processing increased the amount of protein in goat milk sample. Using SDS-PAGE showed that the breakdown of protein into fraction of fermented goat milk greater than unfermented goat milk. The result of fractional protein was analyzed by LC MS/MS and showed that there were three kind bioactive sequences of bioactive peptides. Each of which consist of 16 amino acids that safely protected from gastrointestinal animal model that fed by dietary treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Plant domestication through an ecological lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Rubén; Osborne, Colin P; Turcotte, Martin M; Violle, Cyrille

    2015-08-01

    Our understanding of domestication comes largely from archeology and genetics. Here, we advocate using current ecological theory and methodologies to provide novel insights into the causes and limitations of evolution under cultivation, as well as into the wider ecological impacts of domestication. We discuss the importance of natural selection under cultivation, that is, the forces promoting differences in Darwinian fitness between plants in crop populations and of constraints, that is, limitations of diverse nature that, given values for trait X, shorten the range of variation of trait Y, during the domestication process. Throughout this opinion paper, we highlight how ecology can yield insight into the effects of domestication on plant traits, on crop feedback over ecological processes, and on how species interactions develop in croplands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Focal Adhesion Kinase Directly Interacts with TSC2 Through Its FAT Domain and Regulates Cell Proliferation in Cashmere Goat Fetal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu; Bao, Wenlei; Yang, Jiaofu; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Dongsheng; Liang, Yan; Li, Shuyu; Wang, Yanfeng; Feng, Xue; Hao, Huifang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that senses a variety of extracellular signals, such as growth factors and integrins, to control the process of cell proliferation and metabolism. We cloned three goat FAK transcript variants (KM655805, KM658268, and KM658269) that encode 1052, 1006, and 962 amino-acid residue proteins. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the putative FAK protein contains an FERM domain, a PTK domain, two Proline-rich regions, and a focal adhesion-targeting (FAT) domain. All the three transcript variants of FAK were detected in seven different goat tissues, and variant 1 had the most accumulation whereas variant 2 and variant 3 had lower accumulation. Treatment of goat fetal fibroblasts (GFbs) with a specific FAK inhibitor, TAE226, inhibited cell proliferation (p Cashmere goat tissues and its products participate in the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and cell proliferation through a direct interaction with TSC2 in GFBs.

  18. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According to the Dutch Drinking Water Act the drinking water temperature may not exceed the 25 °C threshold at point-of-use level. This paper provides a mathematical approach to model the heating of drinking...

  19. Unraveling the genetic history of the European wild goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, I.; Ersmark, E.; Samaniego, J. A.; Galindo-Pellicena, M. A.; Crégut-Bonnoure, E.; Bolívar, H.; Gómez-Olivencia, A.; Rios-Garaizar, J.; Garate, D.; Dalén, L.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Valdiosera, C. E.

    2018-04-01

    The population history of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex has been closely related to that of humans since the Palaeolithic. Current molecular and paleontological studies differ substantially on the phylogenetic origin of the European wild goats, possibly due the loss of genetic variation through time. We investigated the phylogenetic relationship between the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica) including different Iberian wild goat subspecies by applying ancient DNA techniques combined with Next Generation Sequencing technologies. We analysed the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial genome in 33 ancient and modern European wild goats from Spain and France together with publicly available genetic information of modern wild goats. This work uncovers for the first time ancient genetic information of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex, spanning a time range of approximately 40,000 years to the present. Our results suggest genetic continuity between ancient and modern populations and indicate a monophyletic origin of the Alpine ibex and the Iberian wild goat when compared to other Capra species. The monophyly of both species is in agreement with other molecular studies based only on modern populations, therefore supporting one-wave migration of wild goats into Western Europe followed by possible allopatric speciation. We observe three major clades of wild goats in Western Europe: Capra ibex, Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica and the group containing the subspecies Capra pyrenaica hispanica and Capra pyrenaica victoriae. This genetic structure recognizes the distinctiveness of the bucardo (C. p. pyrenaica) from the rest of Iberian wild goats and thus supports the idea that this group is an Evolutionary Significant Unit. The divergence time estimated here indicates an almost contemporaneous split between the three clades around 50,000-90,000 years BP.

  20. Characterization of local goat breeds using RAP-DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.

  1. SELECTING ANGORA GOATS TO CONSUME MORE JUNIPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Lupton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This research project was initiated in 2003 to develop a more effective tool for biological management of invading juniper species on rangelands through herbivory by Angora goats.  After we had established that juniper consumption in free-ranging goats has a genetic component (heritability = 13%, male and female goats were bred selectively for above- (high and below-average (low juniper consumption that was estimated by fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Divergent lines are being produced to facilitate the identification of physiological mechanisms that permit some goats to consume considerably more juniper than others as a regular component of their diet.  Because diet is known to affect growth and fiber production, another objective of the project is to establish the effects of the selection protocol on body weights, fleece weights, and fiber characteristics.  Mature females (age > 1.5 yr and kids were maintained on rangeland and shorn twice a year.  Extreme high- and low-consuming yearling males (10 of each per year were evaluated annually in a central performance test.  The selection protocol resulted in average EBV for percentage juniper consumption of 3.9 and -0.4 (P 0.1 in body weight, mohair production and properties between high and low consumers.  However, the adult data for the extreme males indicated that high consuming males have lower body weights than low consumers (53.8 vs. 57.9 kg, P = 0.01. Differences in body weight and several mohair production and quality traits have also been detected in the mature females but at this early stage of the selection program, no substantial differences have been observed and certainly none that would have an economic impact for producers.  Ultimately, we expect to demonstrate that the high-consuming line controls juniper more effectively than either the low-consuming line or unselected Angora goats.  Subsequently, we plan to release high juniper

  2. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  3. A method for quantifying mixed goat cashmere and sheep wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wan; Bai, Li; Ji, Ming; Yang, Xue

    2011-05-20

    Cashmere is a high-priced commodity in the world market. For financial gains, various interested parties often adulterate cashmere with cheap sheep wool. Here, we describe a method that can quickly extract mitochondrial DNA from natural or processed animal hair. We further designed two sets of TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and probes that can react specifically to goat and sheep mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Using TaqMan PCR, we can not only distinguish between cashmere and wool but also quantify their contents in a cashmere/wool mixture. The method can be applied directly to examine the quality of cashmere products in the world markets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Composition of Ileal Bacterial Community in Grazing Goats Varies across Non-rumination, Transition and Rumination Stages of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jinzhen; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Wang, Min; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a crucial action in neonatal development, host health and productivity. We hypothesized that the ileal microbiome shifted as goats matured, and this colonization process would be associated with host fermentation capacity. To this end, 18 Liuyang black grazing goats were randomly slaughtered at d 0, 7, 28, 42, and 70. Ileal microbiota was profiled by Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, and fermentation capacity [volatile fatty acid, activities of amylase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and xylanase] was determined using digesta sample. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that each age group harbored its distinct bacteria. Total bacteria copy number and most alpha diversity indexes increased (P grazing goats assemble into distinct communities throughout development, and might participate in the improvement of host fermentation capacity.

  5. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  6. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  7. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  8. Facility Process Conditional Suspension in Domestic Violence Cases Against Women From The Change of Maria Da Penha Law : Why an Alternative Less Rigorous Based Reconciliation to face this evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Haydée Porto de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the conditional studies the conditional suspension of the penal process. This institute consist in the suspension of the procedural course by judicial decision for a certain period, provided accused, with the agreement of his defender, accept to fulfil some conditions, due to proposal from the public prosecutor if there are requirements established in the law and after finished the probation period, the process is archived. It shows that Brazilian Court Supreme forbidden application of this institute to domestic violence against the woman cases in 2012. However, it defends that is important create a law establishing that is possible apply the conditional suspension of the process to this cases as an option to the formal punishment, when the victim is living with the accused or she is her friend, with the monitoring of the aggressor for considerable period, when his reeducation will be observed.

  9. The Formulation of Binding Agent Concentration on Raw Restructured Goat Meat Trimming Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Mastuti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of raw materials and formulation method would affect the quality of the processed meat product. Therefore, a research on the processing method to produce a raw structured product should be conducted. The research was testing a single factor comprises of following parameters: control (without binding agent; 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% sodium alginat and 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% carragenan, respectively. The results showed that the goat meat trimming could be used as raw materials in the production of the best restructured meat using 0.5% carragenan. This raw restructured meat produced had a loss weight of 1.67%, pH value  7.89, WHC  48.345, and moisture content  75.20%.   Keywords : sodium alginat, carragenan, raw restructured goat meat trimming.

  10. An individual-based model simulating goat response variability and long-term herd performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puillet, L; Martin, O; Sauvant, D; Tichit, M

    2010-12-01

    Finding ways of increasing the efficiency of production systems is a key issue of sustainability. System efficiency is based on long-term individual efficiency, which is highly variable and management driven. To study the effects of management on herd and individual efficiency, we developed the model simulation of goat herd management (SIGHMA). This dynamic model is individual-based and represents the interactions between technical operations (relative to replacement, reproduction and feeding) and individual biological processes (performance dynamics based on energy partitioning and production potential). It simulates outputs at both herd and goat levels over 20 years. A farmer's production project (i.e. a targeted milk production pattern) is represented by configuring the herd into female groups reflecting the organisation of kidding periods. Each group is managed by discrete events applying decision rules to simulate the carrying out of technical operations. The animal level is represented by a set of individual goat models. Each model simulates a goat's biological dynamics through its productive life. It integrates the variability of biological responses driven by genetic scaling parameters (milk production potential and mature body weight), by the regulations of energy partitioning among physiological functions and by responses to diet energy defined by the feeding strategy. A sensitivity analysis shows that herd efficiency was mainly affected by feeding management and to a lesser extent by the herd production potential. The same effects were observed on herd milk feed costs with an even lower difference between production potential and feeding management. SIGHMA was used in a virtual experiment to observe the effects of feeding strategies on herd and individual performances. We found that overfeeding led to a herd production increase and a feed cost decrease. However, this apparent increase in efficiency at the herd level (as feed cost decreased) was related

  11. Effects on milk production in F1 crossbred of Alpine goat breed (♂ and Albanian goat breed (♀

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Hajno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.

  12. Domestic cooked cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The research results of sensory properties, chemical and microbiological quality of domestic cooked cheese, which is produced around Bjelovar region, are presented in this paper.Domestic cooked cheese is Croatian autochthonous cheese produced in wider north-western region of Croatia (Bilogora, Lika, Banovina, Gorski Kotar and around Zagreb, and therefore should be registered as Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. Sensory properties, chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on 16 samples (7 non-smoked and 9 smoked cheeses. All cheese samples were produced according to tradition. Significant unevenness was determined in sensory, chemical and microbiological quality. Domestic cooked cheese can be classified as soft cheese according to dry matter content, and as semi-hard cheese according to water content in non fat cheese matter. According to fat content in dry matter, domestic cooked cheese can be classified as fat cheese. Standardization elements are proposed.

  13. Identifying Presidents' Domestic Agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Steven A.

    1983-01-01

    To ascertain the degree to which presidential rhetoric establishes the public agenda, presidential policy statements from 1953 through 1979 across six areas of domestic policy were examined. Results indicate that presidents exerted varied leadership in advocating their agendas. (RM)

  14. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  15. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAMLOLA

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared under intensive and semi-intensive production .... oxidative stress biomarkers in WAD goats raised in both intensive and semi-intensive production systems. Materials and Methods ... The site is located in the rain forest vegetation zone of ...

  16. A genetic polymorphism and its genetic effects on goat myogenin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... higher than those of BB genotype goats for three growth traits, in the order of AA > AB > BB. These results suggest that the myogenin genotype has some effects on partial growth traits of goat, and selecting the individuals with A allele could be favorable to the birth weight, 1-month body weight and.

  17. The responses of three nigerian indigenous goat breeds to primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses of three Nigerian breeds of goat; Red Sokoto (RS), West African Dwarf (WAD) and Sahel White (SW) were investigated following primary and secondary experimental infections ... On day 42 post infection, (n=12) goats, (4 per breed) of the infected animals were humanely euthanized and worm count determined.

  18. Reproductive Losses in Female Goats | Falade | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive Losses in Female Goats. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Abstract. Retrospective surveys carried out in two divisions, Ibarapa and Badeku in Oyo State of Nigeria revealed that abortion, stillbirths, dystokias and perinatal deaths accounted for reproductive losses in goats between 1971 and 1974.

  19. Bridging gender gaps with dairy goats and root crops | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 mars 2014 ... dairy goats and root crops. Introducing dairy goats in semi-arid regions of Tanzania has led to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, as well as an increase in household milk consumption. In these trials led by Canadian and Tanzanian researchers, cassava and sweet potato ...

  20. Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in ...

  1. Prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in goats slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... Tuberculosis in goat and sheep is caused by members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex predominantly. Mycobacterium bovis and. Mycobacterium caprae (Crawshaw et al., 2008) and in some cases by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (Cadmus et al., 2009). In goats, the disease normally spread through ...

  2. Occurrence of oestrus in the Boer goat doe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The natural occurrence of ocstrus in Boer goat does rvas rccorded for the period 1980 - 191t2. Although periods of complete anoesrrus were neve r clbserved. it would appear that the doe is seasonall,v polyestrttus. with an extcnded brecding season. Thc pattern of thc seasonal occur- rcnce of se xual activitv in thc Bclcr goat ...

  3. Diurnal Fluctuations in Rectal Temperature of Sahel Goats During ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were performed on 10 adult Sahel goats with the aim of determining their diurnal temperature fluctuations during the hot dry season. The rectal temperatures (RT) were recorded with a standard clinical thermometer every hour from 06:00 to 19:00 hours. The RT of goats rose gradually from its minimum value of ...

  4. Research update: finishing lambs and meat goat kids on pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...

  5. Impacts of intervention objectives in goat production within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this research were to study goat production in the rural areas of South Africa and to explore the impact of intervention objectives, namely an increase in kidding percentage and a decrease in kid losses (mortalities, theft and predation) on goat production in subsistence farming systems. A personal interview ...

  6. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of vitamin E supplementation in tris-egg yolk extender on sperm parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was determined. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of ... of WAD goat bucks during cryopreservation. Keywords: Antioxidants, bucks, freezing, oxidative stress, sperm ...

  7. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this section: (1) Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2) Goats intended for importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided that such... accordance with § 93.405(b)(2)(ii); (3) Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand...

  8. Genetics similarity among four breeds of goat in Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogeny analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was performed for studying genetic variation in four Saudi Arabia goat breeds, namely: Harri, Ardi, Habsi and Masri. Six goats from Harri breed, four each from both Ardi and Habsi breeds and five from Masri breed were used for the experiment.

  9. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, drawing experience from Borno State. It specifically identified the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents; examined the market structure and performance of Sahelian goat; determined the influence of some socio-economic characteristics on ...

  10. Primarity and biometric indices of native goats in western Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goats are well integrally part of communities' livelihoods in both rural and urban regions in Cameroon. Our study intended to contribute to genetic characterization of native goats populations found in one of the highest populated region based on morphometric indices as developed by Lauvergne and COGNOSAG ...

  11. Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) and to buy other foodstuffs (27%). The majority of ... It would appear that future expansion of goat farming in this area is severely constrained by labour constraints and the fact that goat meat ranked lowest on the scale of eating preferences.

  12. Evaluation of carcass performance of Matebele goats managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    scale goat production which supply the informal market is the unavailability of records to determine the age of animals for .... This indicates probably that the lean carcass can be obtained when goats have less than four .... differences in production systems (i.e. range vs. intensive) (Johnson and Mc Gowan, 1998). The DP for.

  13. Anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Pekelder, J.J.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after

  14. An assessment of the mineral status of goats under smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from 40 goats, kept under smallholder grazing conditions on natural veld at Sanyati to ascertain their calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, selenium, zinc, copper and cobalt status. The goats were deficient in phophorus throughout the year, marginally deficient in magnesium and copper in ...

  15. Coat pigmentation effects in West African Dwarf goats: live weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although coat pigmentation had no significant effect on all the body dimensions studied except leg length, it was observed that the white and or tan goats had the largest frame size on the average followed by the brown (Bbl) goats. They however, had shorter legs when compared with either 1he brown or black goals.

  16. Transcervical embryo recovery in Saanen goats | Lima-Verde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the embryo recovery rate using the transcervical technique in Saanen goats raised in the tropics, 20 donors were submitted to an oestrus synchronisation treatment using intravaginal progestagen sponges for 11 days. On the ninth day of treatment, goats received intramuscular injections of 50 µg ...

  17. Response of Sahel goats tp homologous PPR vaccine (Capripestovax

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Sahel goats to homologous PPR vaccine (CapripestovaxR) under field conditions was investigated in Maiduguri, using virus neutralization test and haematology. The study showed that the Sahel goats seroconverted with geometric mean titres (GMT) of 18.5 and 130 on day zero and 28 days post ...

  18. Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Saudi goat breeds using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... morphological features, such as Zaraibi, Baladi,. Sinawi or Bedouin ... study of the kind. The aim of this study is attempt to identify the genetic variations within and between Barki, Zaraibi. Egyptian goats and Ardi Saudi goats based on ..... well as for formulating effective conservation strategies for genetic ...

  19. Smallholder goat farmers' market participation in Choma District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increases in demand for animal products smallholder goat producers have an opportunity to improve their livelihoods by increased market access and market participation. Thus this study was carried out to identify the live goat chain actors, their role, linkages, power relations and practices in the supply chain; ...

  20. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    Susceptibility to 'scrapie' disease in goats is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein (PRNP) gene. The aim of ... [Meydan H., Pehlivan E., Özkan M. M., Yildiz M. A. and Goldmann W. 2017 Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds. ... Anatolia and contribute to the livelihood of resource-poor.

  1. Performance of West African Dwarf Goats fed maize stover based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme additive (containing cellulase, xylanase and beta glucanase) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility parameters of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed total mixed ration in the dry season. A total of sixteen (16) WAD goats were ...

  2. Growth and performance of indigenous and crossbred goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    the farmer communities and organizations as an alternative way of improving the low output of meat and milk among the indigenous goats. However, information on the performance of crossbred progeny arising from crossbreeding indigenous breeds with exotic goats under different agro- ecological conditions and farming ...

  3. Maternal and offspring production parameters of Damascus goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal and offspring production parameters of Damascus goats raised under Sudan conditions. AA Hassabo, WM Anna'eem, SOA Ni'ma. Abstract. This study was intended to highlight the production performance parameters of the Damascus breed of goats under Sudan conditions and their interrelations. Forty does ...

  4. Physiological and haematological indices of two Nigerian goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing an indigenous or exotic breed to unfamiliar environment paves way for livestock improvement. This study examined the physiological and haematological indices of 24Red Sokoto (RS) and West African Dwarf (WAD) goats reared under uniform condition in Ilorin, to determine adaptability of RS goats over a ...

  5. Bridging gender gaps with dairy goats and root crops

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    to a balanced diet and improving their nutritional status. For example, women are making goat milk yoghurt, which is consumed with staple foods. During the first lactation, farmers have been able to earn US$160 from milk sales from two dairy goats. However, it is anticipated that this income will increase as production ...

  6. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the study revealed significant (p<0.01) differences in the consumption pattern of meat and milk products produced from goats. However, among the various meat products tsire was most preferred, followed by balangu to other meat products. Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and ...

  7. Dietary overlap between Boer goats and indigenous browsers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The winter diet of free ranging Boer goats in Valley Bushveld, KwaZulu-Natal, was determined by direct observations and compared with the diet of indigenous browsers (kudu, eland, giraffe, black rhinoceros) in order to determine which browsers are most compatible with goats for ensuring more efficient use of savanna ...

  8. The Prevalence Of Trypanosome Infection In Trade Cattle, Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... affect infection rates. Although the prevalence rate of trypanosomiasis in cattle, goats and sheep appeared low compared with the previous works, natural trypanosomiasis remains economically importance in cattle, goats and sheep in Nigeria. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 10 (1) 2009: pp.

  9. Milk production of West African Dwarf goats in the Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitner, J; Njie, M; Corr, N; Dempfle, L

    2006-04-01

    Goats are important in the low-input systems of West Africa and their main importance lies in their role for income and saving. In addition, it is known that milk offtake for home consumption is also important. In order to obtain information about the real importance of milk offtake, a recording scheme was operated in 27 villages in the Central River Division of The Gambia from July 1998 until January 2000. Detailed information was obtained from about 1500 kiddings. In the recording scheme, any sheep being milked as well as the goats of the International Trypanotolerance Centre nucleus flock were also recorded. In the villages, 36% of all lactations were used for milk offtake, but the fraction milked was lower for the first two lactations. The average length of lactation was 127 days and the average daily milk offtake was 0.18 L. Goats are milked once a day and the residual milk is left for the kids. Milking starts about one week after parturition and stops when the goat becomes pregnant or the kid(s) die or the goat is drying off. The repeatability of the 90-day milk offtake was 0.24 +/- 0.09. Sixty-five percent of goat owner were women and a large fraction of goat owners also owned cattle. Goat milk was used exclusively for home consumption. It is concluded that in breeding and extension work more attention should be given to aspects of milk production.

  10. A 100-Year Review: Advances in goat milk research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephanie; Mora García, María Bárbara

    2017-12-01

    In the century of research chronicled between 1917 and 2017, dairy goats have gone from simply serving as surrogates to cows to serving as transgenic carriers of human enzymes. Goat milk has been an important part of human nutrition for millennia, in part because of the greater similarity of goat milk to human milk, softer curd formation, higher proportion of small milk fat globules, and different allergenic properties compared with cow milk; however, key nutritional deficiencies limit its suitability for infants. Great attention has been given not only to protein differences between goat and cow milk, but also to fat and enzyme differences, and their effect on the physical and sensory properties of goat milk and milk products. Physiological differences between the species necessitate different techniques for analysis of somatic cell counts, which are naturally higher in goat milk. The high value of goat milk throughout the world has generated a need for a variety of techniques to detect adulteration of goat milk products with cow milk. Advances in all of these areas have been largely documented in the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), and this review summarizes such advances. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenotypic features of Cameroon native goats under traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goats were kept for meat (household consumption or sales on hooves). Our findings show the tendency of smallholder goat farmers to maintain genetic diversity, based on visible polymorphisms for different purposes. Further investigations will help to understand the rationale and widely management strategies applicable ...

  12. Status and implementation of reproductive technologies in goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However cloning and transgenesis, are two techniques that will begin to have a commercial application, because goats can be used as bioreactors to produce milk with specific proteins to develop drugs. The objective of this study was to establish and describe in a general way the use of these techniques in goats, ...

  13. Genetics similarity among four breeds of goat in Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Phylogeny analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was performed for studying genetic variation in four Saudi Arabia goat breeds, namely: Harri, Ardi, Habsi and Masri. Six goats from Harri breed, four each from both Ardi and Habsi breeds and five from Masri breed were used.

  14. Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...

  15. Factors influencing forage preference of bushbuck and boer goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on a study conducted to investigate whether bushbuck and boer goats, when given a choice of equally available plants, base their selection on a common set of criteria. Illustrates with tables and a graph. Keywords: Boer goats; Bushbuck; Capra hircus; Chemical analyses; Data analyses; Diet selection; Forages; ...

  16. Antimicrobial residues screening in pigs and goats slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of tissues/organs from pigs and goats slaughtered at the Nsukka Municipal abattoir, Southeast, Nigeria were screened for the presence of antimicrobial residues. Samples collected from the muscles, liver and kidney of 40 slaughtered pigs and 40 slaughtered goats were analysed for antimicrobial residues using ...

  17. Consumer sensory evaluation of meat from South African goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of genotype and supplementary feeding on sensory scores of chevon from different indigenous goat genotypes prepared using different thermal treatments. 48 6-month-old Xhosa lop-eared (XLE), Nguni (NGN), Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) and Boer (BOR) castrated goats ...

  18. Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural. Karoo pasture. 2. Nitrogen. P.J.L.Zeeman, P.G. Marais and M.J. Coetsee. Research Institute of the Karoo Region, Middelburg, Cape. The nitrogen (N) content of material selected by cattle, Boer goats,. Dorper and Merino sheep on natural Karoo pasture was ...

  19. Ultrastructural changes in goat interspecies and intraspecies reconstructed early embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Yong; Gheng, Lizi; Zhang, Meiling

    2008-01-01

    The low efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer may be related to the ultrastructural deviations of reconstructed embryos. The present study investigated ultrastructural differences between in vivo-produced and cloned goat embryos, including intra- and interspecies embryos. Goat ear fibroblas...

  20. Prion Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Native Goat Breeds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    genetic risk for both classical and atypical scrapie (Meydan et al. 2012, 2013a, 2013b), this is the first study to PRNP genotype all Turkish native goat breeds. A total of seventeen different PrPC protein sequences were deduced from the DNA sequences amongst which the wildtype PrPC is the most common in Turkish goats ...

  1. Adjacent segment degeneration: observations in a goat spinal fusion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, R.J.W.; Helder, M.N.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Bank, R.A.; Everts, V.; Smit, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. The adjacent discs of 13 goats, originally used in a lumbar spinal fusion model study, were analyzed for symptoms of intervertebral disc degeneration by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), macroscopy, and histology. These goats were followed for 6 months and the results were

  2. Adjacent segment degeneration: observations in a goat spinal fusion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Roel J. W.; Helder, Macro N.; Wuisman, Paul I. J. M.; Bank, Ruud A.; Everts, Vincent E.; Smit, Theo H.

    2008-01-01

    The adjacent discs of 13 goats, originally used in a lumbar spinal fusion model study, were analyzed for symptoms of intervertebral disc degeneration by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), macroscopy, and histology. These goats were followed for 6 months and the results were compared with 6

  3. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    Susceptibility to 'scrapie' disease in goats is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein (PRNP) gene. The aim of ... [Meydan H., Pehlivan E., Özkan M. M., Yildiz M. A. and Goldmann W. 2017 Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds. .... C. PCR products were resolved by electrophoresis on 2%.

  4. Suitability of Norwegian short-tail lambs, Norwegian dairy goats and Cashmere goats for meat production - Carcass, meat, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, D E; Eik, L O; Thomassen, M S; Sørheim, O; Dnøy, T

    2008-11-01

    Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb meat had 4 % lower (PCashmere goats had higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (PCashmere goats scored highest (PCashmere goats, meats from them are nutritionally comparable to that from Norwegian goats. However, the higher proportion of SFA in Norwegian lambs and Cashmere goats may increase hardness of fat and being easily solidified upon cooling, may influence meat palatability.

  5. Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA in the Brazilian Canindé goat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N M V; Pimenta Filho, E C; Arandas, J K G; Gomes Filho, M A; Ferreira, E; Del Cerro, I; Fonseca, C; Ribeiro, M N

    2017-05-18

    The success of the geographical distribution of goat populations around the world is a consequence of the adaptive potential of these breeds. Several relevant traits to the success of the species in colonizing different ecosystems (and use by man) evolved before domestication. These features were relevant for the selection of different breeds. Each breed represents a genetic heritage that may be unique and essential for maintaining the species. The objective of this study was to catalog the mtDNA haplotypes of the Brazilian autochthonous Canindé goat breed and to characterize the genetic diversity observed in subpopulations by sequencing a 481-bp fragment corresponding to the first portion of the control region in 178 individuals from 10 herds, sampled in six Brazilian states. The global population displays a total of 29 haplotypes and 56 polymorphic sites. About one-third (10) of the haplotypes were common to all subpopulations while the remaining (19) were exclusive to a single subpopulation. The population exhibited high average haplotype diversity (0.82), with maximum and minimum values of 0.90 and 0.56 in individual subpopulations, respectively. In contrast, nucleotide diversity was 0.014, with maximum and minimum values of 0.020 and 0.004, respectively. The spatial analysis of molecular variance did not detect structure within the Canindé goat breed, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that 88.4% of the variation observed in the population was due to differences among individuals in the same subpopulation. Only 11.4% of the genetic variation referred to differences among subpopulations. About one-third (33.1%) of the individuals within population shared the same haplotype, which may be due not only to the breed developing from a small number of matrilines. The Brazilian autochthonous Canindé breed was classified as haplogroup A, a haplotype predominant in the Europe region.

  6. Effects of two commercial meat tenderizers on different cuts of goat\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    palatability as well as preparation methods, carcass grade and meat price. Generally meat tenderness is indicated by age and species of the animal that indicate minimum cross linking of collagen and actomyosin effect in the muscles. In an attempt to increase goat's meat consumption in Namibia, two commercial meat ...

  7. Hygienic quality of goat's milk cheese produced in rural household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of small-scale goat breeders produce goat's milk cheese that is sold on markets. In this study we determined the chemical composition and microbiological quality of goat's milk cheese samples. It has been found that the chemical composition of the samples were not standardised. Water content varied from 42,20 to 51,20 %, milk fat content in dry matter from 32,85 to 50,28%, while acidity varied from 15,08 to 39,36 ºSH. Only two samples (20% met the microbiological standards. In 2 samples Escherichia coli in the quantities larger than 102/g was found, whereas in all 8 samples yeasts and moulds were found in quantities larger than 102/g. The results of our study have shown that the hygienic conditions of goat's milk cheese production are often inadequate. Also, the hygienic conditions of goat keeping and milking hygiene are questionable.

  8. Hematological values of creole goats in two reproductive physiological states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Evelyn Guzmán Medina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the hematological values of creole goats in two reproductive physiological states in the Agricultural Experimental Center – Virú of the National University of Trujillo. It was performed the blood analysis of 24 goats of 3-4 years old, was made for this, two samplings, with one month of difference between the two. Were evaluated the erythrocyte series, leukocyte and corpuscular constants. For data analysis was used descriptive statistics and Student t test. The results of the first sampling of blood for pregnant and non-pregnant goats were showing significant statistically differences (p 0.05; however, was there appearance of tables anemic in all goats. It concludes that hematological values of native goats vary according to their reproductive physiological states.

  9. The ratio of domestic and wild animals at Neolithic sites in Vojvodina (Serbia

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    Radmanović Darko P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the vertebrate fauna research from 10 Neolithic archaeological sites in Vojvodina (Serbia, two of which belong to Kőrös culture, 7 to Starčevo culture, and one to Vinča culture, the proportional contribution of domestic and wild animals was analysed. These sites were approximately dated between 6000 and 3200 BC. The smallest proportion of domestic animals was recorded at the sites of Golokut-Vizić and Nosa Biserna Obala, while the biggest one at the sites of Prosine-Pećinci, Zlatara-Ruma and Kudoš-Šašinci. A small proportion of domestic animals at Nosa Biserna Obala shows that the animal husbandry was only just at the beginning, and a high proportion of wild animals testifies about the importance of hunting in economy. These are the characteristics of settlements of Kőrös culture, where goats and sheep dominate among domestic animals. Low proportion of domestic and high proportion of wild animals were recorded at the site of Golokut which, like most of the described sites in this paper, belongs to the Middle Neolithic; this is not characteristic for Starčevo culture and it testifies that hunting was much more important than animal husbandry. What is characteristic for settlements of Starčevo culture is the domination of oxen in the total vertebrate fauna and among domestic animals. At the site of Donja Branjevina-Deronje, the settlement which belongs to Starčevo culture as well, goats and sheep have the biggest proportional contribution. The only analysed set­tlement in this paper which belongs to the Early Neolithic (Vinča culture is Gomolava - Hrtkovci where domestic animals dominate, oxen being the most numerous ones.

  10. [Mycoses in domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M E; Blanco, J L

    2000-03-01

    In the present paper we will present a general view of the main mycoses affecting domestic animals. In the dog, we show the importance of the dermatophytoses, increased by its zoonosic character and the problem of the false negatives in the traditional microbiological culture. Under the general term of systemic mycoses we include a series of conditions considered usually as aspergillosis, bat with more and more fungal species implicated as possible etiological agents. In addition, fungi, especially yeasts, are being implicated in canine otitis; in our laboratory 86 % of canine chronic otitis involve a yeast etiology, alone or in collaboration with bacteria. In the cat, dermatophytes are more common than in the dog, and are the main source of infection in man, with the description of a high percentage of healthy carrier animals. Cryptococcosis is a severe disease, usually secondary to other process, especially feline immunodeficiency. In cows we refer to fungal abortion, with three main fungi implicated: Aspergillus, Candida and Zygomycetes. In some areas of our country the percentage of fungal abortion is around 10 %. A consequence of the multiple use of antibiotics in mastitis is selection of yeasts, especially those included in the genera Candida and Cryptococcus. Bovine dermatophytoses is an extensively disseminated disease in our country, with a commercial specific vaccine available. In small ruminants, Cryptococcus causes severe pneumonic processes that could be confused clinically with other conditions. An additional important question is the description of isolation of this fungus from tree leaves. In poultry, aspergillosis is a known and controlled disease, but with more importance in captive wild birds with an ecological value. In horses, we emphasize the lung infections by different fungi, specially Pneumocystis carinii, and arthritis by yeasts as consequence of wound contamination or surgery.

  11. Carcass and meat quality of Boer and indigenous goats of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pamela

    2017-09-28

    Sep 28, 2017 ... Abstract. This study was conducted to evaluate the carcass and meat quality of Boer goats and unimproved indigenous goats of South Africa, under delayed chilling conditions. Ten goats per breed were used for the study. The goats were slaughtered according to standard abattoir procedures. The dressed ...

  12. A report on the metabolism of iron in goats artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpuse, W.G.; Yumul, B.Y.; Anden, A.

    1976-03-01

    The determination of iron metabolism in goats artificially infected with N. contortus using tracer method has been conducted. Radioferric chloride ( 59 Fe) was given orally and intravenously and the distribution and utilization in goats were determined. Results showed that anemic goats have a higher absorption rate compared to non-anemic goats. Of all the organs examined the bone marrow showed the highest activity

  13. Goats and/or cattle on Mopani veld. | C.H. | African Journal of Range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... control woody plants. A cattle:goat ratio of less than 1:2 should be applied if the goats are to attain optimum production. Keywords: animal performance; basal cover; boer goats; browse; cattle; control; goats; grass; grasses; growth; messina research station; mopani veld; performance; production; south africa; woody plants ...

  14. Use of goats in poverty alleviation and potential effects on the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Henriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    to this paper, financed by DanChurchAid, the solution to the dilemma between the very efficient and useful goats for the poor people and the potential very destructive goats for the environment is found in intelligent management of the goats and not in preventing poor people to keep goats. Education...

  15. Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    marketing of goats was high taxation. Majority of goat ... of women and youths in the goat production and marketing sector, and promote commercialisation ..... Table 7. Percentage of households for various categories of total income and cost of goat production in Teso region. Category. Production income. Production cost.

  16. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  17. Milk yield of some goat breeds in Croatia

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    Boro Mioč

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, goats are primarily bred for meat production. However, for the past twenty years the interest in goat milk production was based on imported breeds such as Alpine-French, Saanen and German Improved Fawn goat. The purpose of this paper is to establish litter size of the principal goat breeds in Croatia and the indicators related to milk yield and chemical composition. The largest average litter size has been determined on the German Improved Fawn (1.72, then with the Boer (1.54, the Saanen (1.53 and the Croatian coloured goat (1.51, while the Alpine-French goat was the smallest (1.31. The longest lactation period (259 days has been determined on the Alpine-French goat, while the largest milk yield during lactation (724.4 kg and the largest milk fat yield (20.16 kg and protein yield (18.64 kg have been determined on the Saanen goat. However, it has been established that the Alpine-French goat milk has the highest average fat content (3.55 %, while the German Improved Fawn’s milk has the highest protein content (3.23 %. The Saanen goat had the longest milking period (222 days and the shortest suckling period (32 days, while the Alpine-French and the German Improved Fawn had the longest suckling period (51 and 45 days, respectively. The lowest quantity of milk during the suckling period (102.97 kg, i.e. 14 % was suckled by Saanen kids, while the Alpine-French (122.08 kg, i.e. 22 % and the German Improved Fawn kids suckled the greatest quantity (116.31 kg, i.e. 22 %.

  18. Major proteins of the goat milk fat globule membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebo, C; Caillat, H; Bouvier, F; Martin, P

    2010-03-01

    Fat is present in milk as droplets of triglycerides surrounded by a complex membrane derived from the mammary epithelial cell called milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Although numerous studies have been published on human or bovine MFGM proteins, to date few studies exist on MFGM proteins from goat milk. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the protein composition of the goat MFGM. Milk fat globule membrane proteins from goat milk were separated by 6% and 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and were Coomassie or periodic acid-Schiff stained. Most of MFGM proteins [mucin-1, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin (MFG EGF-8, MFG-E8), and adipophilin] already described in cow milk were identified in goat milk using peptide mass fingerprinting. In addition, lectin staining provided a preliminary characterization of carbohydrate structures occurring on MFGM proteins from goat milk depending on alpha(S1)-casein genotype and lactation stage. We provide here first evidence of the presence of O-glycans on fatty acid synthase and xanthine oxidase from goat milk. A prominent difference between the cow and the goat species was demonstrated for lactadherin. Indeed, whereas 2 polypeptide chains were easily identified by peptide mass fingerprinting matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis within bovine MFGM proteins, lactadherin from goat milk consisted of a single polypeptide chain. Another striking observation was the presence of caseins associated with MFGM preparations from goat milk, whereas virtually no caseins were found in MFGM extracts from bovine milk. Taken together, these observations strongly support the existence of a singular secretion mode previously hypothesized in the goat.

  19. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites....... The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12...

  20. Prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    A 2-year abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, abundance and seasonal incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) nematodes and trematodes (flukes) of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of eastern Ethiopia. During May 2003 to April 2005, viscera including liver, lungs and GI tracts were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at 4 abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga in eastern Ethiopia. All animals were raised in the farming areas located within the community boundaries for each town. Collected materials were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University for immediate processing. Thirteen species belonging to 9 genera of GI nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, Nematodirus filicollis, N. spathiger Oesopha-gostomum columbianum, O. venulosum, Strongyloides papillosus, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Trichuris ovis, Cooperia curticei and Chabertia ovina), and 4 species belonging to 3 genera of trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, Paramphistomum {Calicohoron} microbothrium and Dicrocoelium dendriticum) were recorded in both sheep and goats. All animals in this investigation were infected with multiple species to varying degrees. The mean burdens of adult nematodes were generally moderate in both sheep and goats and showed patterns of seasonal abundance that corresponded with the bi-modal annual rainfall pattern, with highest burdens around the middle of the rainy season. In both sheep and goats there were significant differences in the mean worm burdens and abundance of the different nematode species between the four geographic locations, with worm burdens in the Haramaya and Harar areas greater than those observed in the Dire Dawa and Jijiga locations. Similar seasonal variations were also observed in the prevalence of flukes. But there were no significant differences in the prevalence of each fluke species between the

  1. A review of sheep pox and goat pox: perspective of their control and eradication in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Mirzaie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep pox and goat pox (SGP of small ruminants are most severing pox diseases of domestic animals, and they have a very important role in agricultural economy. Thereby, SGP are included in the notifiable diseases of Office International des Epizooties (OIE. Time and place distributions of these diseases are relatively stable worldwide. Transportation of infected animals could spread these viruses to the new areas. In most countries in which capripox are enzootic, vaccination and bio-security are the only two main control measures. SGP control programs have been commenced about 50 years ago in Iran, and there is a good situation for eradication of it. In this review, readers can find latest information in some essential aspects of etiology, distribution, transmission, and control of the diseases. Besides, current situation of the disease in Iran has been described, which perhaps are similar to the other endemic areas in the world.

  2. Organic matter humification in vermifiltration process for domestic sewage sludge treatment by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Limin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2013-10-15

    Performance of a conventional biofilter (BF) and two vermifilters (VFs, different heights) containing earthworms was investigated for domestic sewage sludge (DWS) treatment. Humic-acid like (HAL) fraction isolated from the influent sludge (IS) and effluent sludge of BF (ESBF) and VFs (ESVFs) were determined the elemental and functional composition, and structural characteristics using various analytical approaches. Results showed that performance of DWS treatment in the VFs was preferable to that in the BF. With respect to IS-HAL and ESBF-HAL, ESVFs-HAL had low C, H and N contents and C/O ratio, and high O, carboxyl and phenolic OH group contents, and C/N, C/H and E4/E6 ratios, and large molecular weight. The excitation-emission (Ex/Em) matrix spectra revealed that an additional peak was found at Ex/Em wavelength pairs of 345/435 nm in ESVFs-HAL. Further, Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that vermifiltration led to the loss of aliphatic materials and carbohydrates, and the enrichment of carbonyl and phenolic OH groups in HAL fractions. Additionally, the increase in VF height seemed to accelerate humification degree of organic matter in the effluent sludge. In summary, vermifiltration is alternate technology for transformation of organic matter into humic substances, and thus improves quality of DWS as soil organic fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence of scrapie transmission to sheep via goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timm; Thorne, Leigh; Simmons, Hugh A; Hawkins, Steve A C; Simmons, Marion M; González, Lorenzo

    2016-09-17

    Previous studies confirmed that classical scrapie can be transmitted via milk in sheep. The current study aimed to investigate whether scrapie can also be transmitted via goat milk using in vivo (new-born lambs fed milk from scrapie-affected goats due to the unavailability of goat kids from guaranteed scrapie-free herds) and in vitro methods (serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification [sPMCA] on milk samples). In an initial pilot study, new-born lambs of two different prion protein gene (PRNP) genotypes (six VRQ/VRQ and five ARQ/ARQ) were orally challenged with 5 g brain homogenate from two scrapie-affected goats to determine susceptibility of sheep to goat scrapie. All sheep challenged with goat scrapie brain became infected based on the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated PrP (PrP(sc)) in lymphoid tissue, with an ARQ/ARQ sheep being the first to succumb. Subsequent feeding of milk to eight pairs of new-born ARQ/ARQ lambs, with each pair receiving milk from a different scrapie-affected goat, resulted in scrapie in the six pairs that received the largest volume of milk (38-87 litres per lamb), whereas two pairs fed 8-9 litres per lamb, and an environmental control group raised on sheep milk from healthy ewes, did not show evidence of infection when culled at up to 1882 days of age. Infection in those 12 milk recipients occurred regardless of the clinical status, PrP(sc) distribution, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection status and PRNP polymorphisms at codon 142 (II or IM) of the donor goats, but survival time was influenced by PRNP polymorphisms at codon 141. Serial PMCA applied to a total of 32 milk samples (four each from the eight donor goats collected throughout lactation) detected PrP(sc) in one sample each from two goats. The scrapie agent was present in the milk from infected goats and was able to transmit to susceptible species even at early preclinical stage of infection, when PrP(sc) was undetectable in the brain of the

  4. Domestic animals as potential reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in sleeping sickness foci in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njiokou F.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An explanation of the endemic nature and/or the resurgence of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT in the historic foci in West and Central Africa may be the existence of an animal reservoir. In some HAT foci, pigs were found infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the implication of the other domestic animals was not quite evaluated. This study aims to determine the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in domestic animal species (goat, sheep, pig and dog commonly found in the four active HAT foci in Cameroon (Bipindi, Fontem, Campo and Doumé. Blood samples were collected from 307 pigs, 264 goats, 267 sheep and 37 dogs and used for parasitological (QBC, immunological (LiTat 1.3 CATT and molecular (PCR analyses. QBC detected trypanosomes in 3.88 % domestic animals while 22.7 % were sero-positive with LiTat 1.3 CATT tests. Of the 875 animals analysed, 174 (19.88 % harboured T. brucei s.l. DNA, found in each of the four types of animal and in the four localities. The infection rate significantly differed among the animal species (p < 0.0001 and localities (p < 0.0001. The PCR also revealed T. b. gambiense group 1 DNA in 27 (3.08 % domestic animals. The specific infection rates were as follows: sheep (6.74 %, goats (3.08 %, pigs (0.32 % and dogs (0 %. T. b. gambiense was found in 8 (3.92 % animals from Bipindi, 15 (4.83 % from Campo, 4 (2.59 % from Fontem-Center and none from Doumé. The infection rates significantly differed between the localities, and correlated with the intensity of HAT transmission in the foci.

  5. Identification and Function Prediction of Novel MicroRNAs in Laoshan Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Ji

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous small RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation by directing degradation of mRNAs or facilitating repression of target gene translation. In this study, three small RNA cDNA libraries from the mammary gland tissues of Laoshan dairy goats (Capra hircus were constructed and sequenced, individually. Through Solexa high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we obtained 50 presumptive novel miRNAs candidates, and 55,448 putative target genes were predicted. GO annotations and KEGG pathway analyses showed the majority of target genes were involved in various biological processes and metabolic pathways. Our results discovered more information about the regulation network between miRNAs and mRNAs and paved a foundation for the molecular genetics of mammary gland development in goats.

  6. Empowerment and programs designed to address domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturirangan, Aarati

    2008-12-01

    Programs designed to address domestic violence often name empowerment of women as a major program goal. However, programs do not necessarily define what empowerment for survivors of domestic violence entails. This review examines the literature on empowerment, including characteristics of an empowerment process and critiques of empowerment. Diversity of goals for empowerment and differences in access to resources for women experiencing domestic violence are explored as two major factors that should inform program development. Recommendations are offered for developing programs to address domestic violence that support women engaged in an empowerment process.

  7. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  9. Genetic characterisation of CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Tortorici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to influence technological and nutritional milk properties. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences of β-casein exon 7, showed the presence of C, C1, and A strong alleles, and 0' null allele, with frequencies of 0.597, 0.326, 0.023, and 0.054, respectively. Seven genotypic classes were found in Girgentana goat breed and the most frequent genotype was CC1 (0.423 followed by CC (0.326, C1C1 (0.110, and C0' (0.096. No AA nor 0'0' homozygous individuals were found. The presence of strong alleles at CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed could be useful for the production of milk with high protein content and good cheese-making properties. Moreover, food business operators should consider the possibility of reviving interest in Girgentana goat milk using weak and null genotypes at CSN2 locus to make peculiar food products, such as drinking milk.

  10. Follicle characteristics of non-woolly Indian goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, G L; Somvanshi, R; Biswas, J C

    1990-03-01

    Skin follicular studies of four non-woolly Indian goat breeds are reported. The number of primary follicles ranged from 2 to 14 mm-2 with an overall mean of 6.40 +/- 0.22. Secondary follicles per mm2 ranged from 1 to 23 with an overall mean of 9.48 +/- 0.55. The secondary/primary follicle ratios (S/P) for Black Bengal, Jamnapari, Barbari and Sirohi goats were 1.57 +/- 0.21, 1.15 +/- 0.16, 1.61 +/- 0.21 and 2.04 +/- 0.21, respectively, with an overall mean of 1.59 +/- 0.99. The corresponding values for the total follicles per mm2 for the four breeds were 16.83 +/- 1.39, 15.86 +/- 1.08, 17.66 +/- 1.41 and 13.19 +/- 1.41 with an overall mean of 15.88 +/- 0.66. Per cent primaries were lowest in Sirohi and highest in Jamnapari goats. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between breeds for the number of primary follicles and S/P ratio. Sex differences and the interaction between breed x sex were not significant for any of the follicle traits studied. On the basis of follicle characteristics the non-woolly short-haired goats offer a reasonable scope for crossing with fibre goats, and Sirohi goats possibly have better skin quality for leather conversion than other goat breeds studied.

  11. Monitoring the fibrolytic potential of microbial ecosystems from domestic and wild ruminants browsing tanniferous forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nokwethemba Nqobile Philile Msimango

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the rumen microbiome has been reported to synthesize a rich source of symbiotic enzymes (exocellulase, endocellulase, hemicellulase and cellobiase, the digestion of tropical C4 grasses and browses by ruminants is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to unveil potential fibrolytic microbial ecosystems from giraffe, kudu, impala and consortia (A1 [giraffe + kudu], A2 [giraffe + impala], A3 [kudu + impala], and A4 [giraffe + kudu + impala] browsing tanniferous plants, which can be used to improve forage utilization in domesticated goat. Crude protein enzyme extracts (CPZ from fresh faecal samples were precipitated by 60% ammonium sulphate and assayed for exocellulase, endocellulase and hemicellulase by incubating with crystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan at 38 °C with optimum pH of 5.5 to 6.5 for 1, 2, and 48 h, respectively. Enzyme specific activities were defined as μg of reducing sugar/mg CPZ. In vitro fermentation study was done by transferring 33 mL of fresh faecal inoculum into 67 mL of salivary buffer containing 1 g Acacia sieberiana and incubating for 72 h at 38 °C. Apparent degradability (APDeg, true degradability (TD, neutral detergent fibre degradability (NDFdeg, acid detergent fibre degradability (ADFdeg, microbial yield (MY, metabolizable energy (ME and total gas emitted (Gas were measured. Exocellulase activities were higher (P < 0.05 in all wild animals and consortia than those in goat except for A4. Minimal differences in hemicellulase activities (P < 0.05 were observed among goat and wild animals and consortia, while endocellulase activity was generally higher (P < 0.05 in goat than that in the rest of the systems. Apart from A3, TDeg, NDFdeg and ADFdeg were higher (P < 0.05 in all microbial ecosystems from wild animals and consortia than those in goat. Apparent degradability, MY and ME also varied (P < 0.05 among these systems. Giraffe, Kudu and A3 produced lower (P

  12. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from domestic and wild mammals in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosef, O; Gondrosen, B; Kapperud, G; Underdal, B

    1983-10-01

    A total of 1,262 domestic and wild mammals from Norway were surveyed for fecal carriage of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Of the five species of domestic mammals examined, the highest isolation rate was recorded among swine (100.0%), followed by sheep (8.1%) and cows (0.8%). No strains were recovered from horses or goats. Among wild mammals, C. jejuni was isolated from 1 of 23 hares, and no isolated were obtained from three species of cervids and three species of rodents. Of the 133 Campylobacter strains isolated, 114 were classified as C. coli, 18 were C. jejuni biotype 1, and 1 belonged to C. jejuni biotype 2. All 114 strains from swine were C. coli. Milk samples from 113 domestic animals with clinically diagnosed mastitis (106 cows, 5 sheep, 1 horse, and 1 pig) were negative for campylobacters.

  13. Dermatophilus congolensis infection in goats in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msami, H M; Khaschabi, D; Schöpf, K; Kapaga, A M; Shibahara, T

    2001-10-01

    When goats in Eastern Tanzania were screened for skin diseases, Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from the skin lesions in 8 of 484 animals examined. In one severely affected case, the disease was also characterized by histological studies (Gram stain, Giemsa stain and routine HE studies) and electron microscopy. The histological picture was characterized by hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, folliculitis and an inflammatory cellular reaction involving the epidermis. Gram stain and Giemsa stain revealed longitudinal and transverse branching filaments in the deeper layers of the epidermis. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated D. congolensis in various morphological forms, ranging from filamentous to tuber-shaped structures, mixed with numerous coccoid bodies of variable size. In some instances, the organisms were geometrically arranged in parallel rows of beading and were present in and among the degenerated epithelial cells. Several host cells showed degenerative changes. Ticks present on the goats were Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Boophilus sp. The clinical signs, pathological lesions, diagnosis, epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease are discussed.

  14. Delayed excretion of 3-methylhistidine in goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.L.; Barnes, D.M.; Calvert, C.C.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) as an index of muscle protein degradation in dairy goats. The criterion for validation was the rapid and quantitative excretion of radiolabeled 3MH. Three adult dry does and four bucks were confined to metabolism cages and injected with 5 ml of L-3-(/sup 14/C)methylhistidine dihydrochloride (4 microCi/mL) diluted in normal saline. The does' urine was collected from catheters and the bucks' urine from stainless steel separators protected with fecal collection bags. The daily urine samples were analyzed for labeled amino acid. Urinary recovery of radioactivity from all does was less than 33% after 3 d and was proceeding at less than 5% d. After 9 d, total recovery was less than 50% of total dose for the does. Elimination rates were slightly higher and more variable for the yearling bucks (25-63% after 4 d). On the basis of these data, 3MH does not appear to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in either male or female dairy goats.

  15. Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberlet, P; Valentini, A; Rezaei, H R; Naderi, S; Pompanon, F; Negrini, R; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2008-01-01

    For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic characteristics, and reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced. This corresponded to a strong fragmentation of the initial populations. A few decades ago, the selection pressures were increased again in order to further improve productivity, without enough emphasis on the preservation of the overall genetic diversity. The efficiency of modern selection methods successfully increased the production, but with a dramatic loss of genetic variability. Many industrial breeds now suffer from inbreeding, with effective population sizes falling below 50. With the development of these industrial breeds came economic pressure on farmers to abandon their traditional breeds, and many of these have recently become extinct as a result. This means that genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. It is therefore important to take measures that promote a sustainable management of these genetic resources; first, by in situ preservation of endangered breeds; second, by using selection programmes to restore the genetic diversity of industrial breeds; and finally, by protecting the wild relatives that might provide useful genetic resources.

  16. Domestic violence in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, J

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, domestic violence in Japan referred to children's physical and emotional violence against their parents. However, in recent years, the general public's awareness of and actions toward other types of domestic violence, especially violence against women and children, has increased. Following a brief description of filial violence and elderly abuse, both spousal abuse and child abuse are discussed in terms of their prevalence and cultural and historical backgrounds. The article concludes with current and future challenges in the intervention of violence, particularly against women and children, in the Japanese family.

  17. How People Domesticated Amazonian Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Levis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For millennia, Amazonian peoples have managed forest resources, modifying the natural environment in subtle and persistent ways. Legacies of past human occupation are striking near archaeological sites, yet we still lack a clear picture of how human management practices resulted in the domestication of Amazonian forests. The general view is that domesticated forests are recognizable by the presence of forest patches dominated by one or a few useful species favored by long-term human activities. Here, we used three complementary approaches to understand the long-term domestication of Amazonian forests. First, we compiled information from the literature about how indigenous and traditional Amazonian peoples manage forest resources to promote useful plant species that are mainly used as food resources. Then, we developed an interdisciplinary conceptual model of how interactions between these management practices across space and time may form domesticated forests. Finally, we collected field data from 30 contemporary villages located on and near archaeological sites, along four major Amazonian rivers, to compare with the management practices synthesized in our conceptual model. We identified eight distinct categories of management practices that contribute to form forest patches of useful plants: (1 removal of non-useful plants, (2 protection of useful plants, (3 attraction of non-human animal dispersers, (4 transportation of useful plants, (5 selection of phenotypes, (6 fire management, (7 planting of useful plants, and (8 soil improvement. Our conceptual model, when ethnographically projected into the past, reveals how the interaction of these multiple management practices interferes with natural ecological processes, resulting in the domestication of Amazonian forest patches dominated by useful species. Our model suggests that management practices became more frequent as human population increased during the Holocene. In the field, we found that

  18. Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Peach Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and

  19. Reflections on Supplier Entry Barriers to Domestic Retail Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Kamau, Paul; McCormick, Dorothy

    This paper examines challenges for Kenyan food processing firms in the ‘modern’ domestic supermarket sector, and thereby distinguishes itself from an increasing number of studies that have explored developing country suppliers in global value chains (GVCs). The paper also differs by focusing on f...... these businesses must meet for domestic supermarkets increasingly mimic those often stressed in the export sector. Consequently, domestic supermarkets are often considered out of reach even by larger Kenyan food processors....

  20. Time, Domesticity and Print Culture in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Maria

    In this innovative study, Damkjær shows that nineteenth-century texts gave domesticity not just a spatial, but also a temporal dimension. Novels by Dickens and Gaskell, as well as periodicals, cookery books and albums, all showed domesticity as a process. Damkjær argues that texts’ material form...... – serialised, fragmented or reappropriated – had a profound influence on their representation of domestic time....

  1. Factors associated with milk urea concentrations in Girgentana goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Scatassa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,481 milk samples of 166 Girgentana goats, taken along the entire lactation, were utilised to evaluate the effect of non nutritional factors on milk urea (MU. Parity, stage of lactation and month of sampling significantly influenced MU, while no effect was found for born kids number. The first kidding goats produced lower MU than multiparous goats. Trend of MU was similar to milk production course with a peak found at 60 DIM. The different MU levels between several months of production are often linked to pasture chemical variations.

  2. Development of conditioned taste aversion to Mascagnia rigida in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa,Raquel Ribeiro; Silva,Idalécio Pacífico da; Soto-Blanco,Benito

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether goats could be averted from consuming Mascagnia rigida, a toxic plant found in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Fourteen male goats not previously familiarized to M. rigida were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: control (treated with 5.5mL water orally by a drenching gun) and lithium group (treated with 100mg LiCl/kg body weight orally by a drenching gun). For conditioning, goats were allowed to feed on M. rigida leaves for 1...

  3. Drug laws and regulations for sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajt, Virginia R

    2011-03-01

    This article reviews laws and regulations related to drug use in sheep and goats, with special reference to the United States. The discussion includes drug licensing procedures, legalities of extralabel drug use, withdrawal time estimation, and residues in sheep and goat tissues; it refers also to regulations related to organic production, dairy production, and compounding. Canadian and European regulations are mentioned. Veterinarians working with sheep and goats must be familiar with regulations governing use of drugs, to prevent legal action, fulfill their fiduciary responsibility to producers, and help protect and provide for a wholesome and safe food supply. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MiR130b-Regulation of PPARγ Coactivator- 1α Suppresses Fat Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Luo, Jun; Ma, LiuAn; Wang, Hui; Cao, WenTing; Xu, HuiFei; Zhu, JiangJiang; Sun, YuTing; Li, Jun; Yao, DaWei; Kang, Kang; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    Fat metabolism is a complicated process regulated by a series of factors. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of negative regulator of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes; including fat metabolism. Although there have been some researches indicating that miRNAs could influence the milk fat metabolism through targeting some factors, little is known about the effect of miRNAs on goat milk fat metabolism. Here we utilized an improved miRNA detection assay, S-Poly-(T), to profile the expression of miRNAs in the goat mammary gland in different periods, and found that miR-130b was abundantly and differentially expressed in goat mammary gland. Additionally, overexpressing miR-130b impaired adipogenesis while inhibiting miR-130b enhanced adipogenesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. Utilizing 3'-UTR assay and Western Blot analusis, the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC1α), a major regulator of fat metabolism, was demonstrated to be a potential target of miR-130b. Interestingly, miR-130b potently repressed PGC1α expression by targeting both the PGC1α mRNA coding and 3' untranslated regions. These findings have some insight of miR-130b in mediating adipocyte differentiation by repressing PGC1α expression and this contributes to further understanding about the functional significance of miRNAs in milk fat synthesis.

  5. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF KANAMYCIN IN DOMESTIC RUMINANT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, Z. IQBAL AND B. ASLAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Species dependent geonetical differences in renal clearance and urinary excretion of kanamycin were investigated in adult female buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats. The drug was administered as a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg b.wt. Blood and urine samples were collected at various time intervals after drug administration. The plasma and urine concentrations of the drug were determined using the microbiological assay. The mean (± SE values for endogenous creatinine clearance (an index of glomerular filtration rate were 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.07, 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.98 ± 0.13 ml/min.kg in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats, respectively. Experiments regarding kidney handling of kanamycin in these ruminant species revealed respective values of renal clearance as 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.04 ml/min.kg. Besides glomerular filtration, kanamycin was reabsorbed from the renal tubules of all ruminant species and actively secreted into the renal tubules of buffaloes and goats. The cumulative percentages of intravenous dose of kanamycin excreted through urine during 12 hours in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats were 4.31 ± 0.37, 2.53 ± 0.30, 11.0 ± 1.04 and 15.8 ± 2.22, respectively. This species variation in the percentage of urinary excretion in these domestic ruminants coincides with their respective glomerular filtration rates, being the highest in goats, lowest in cows and intermediate in sheep and buffaloes.

  6. Treatment of food waste recycling wastewater using anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor for biogas production in mainstream treatment process of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeongmi; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W; Park, Chanhyuk

    2017-10-15

    A bench-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) equipped with submerged flat-sheet ceramic membranes was operated at mesophilic conditions (30-35 °C) treating domestic wastewater (DWW) supplemented with food wasterecycling wastewater (FRW) to increase the organic loading rate (OLR) for better biogas production. Coupling ceramic membrane filtration with AnMBR treatment provides an alternative strategy for high organic wastewater treatment at short hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the potential benefits of membrane fouling because they have a high hydrophilicity and more robust at extreme conditions. The anaerobic ceramic MBR (AnCMBR) treating mixture of actual FRW with DWW (with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,115 mg/L) was studied to evaluate the treatment performance in terms of organic matter removal and methane production. COD removal during actual FRW with DWW operation averaged 98.3 ± 1.0% corresponding to an average methane production of 0.21 ± 0.1 L CH 4 /g COD removed . Biogas sparging, relaxation and permeate back-flushing were concurrently employed to manage membrane fouling. A flux greater than 9.2 L m -2  h -1 (LMH) was maintained at 13 h HRT for approximately 200 days without chemical cleaning at an OLR of 2.95 kg COD m -3  d -1 . On day 100, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gel beads were added into the AnCMBR to alleviate the membrane fouling, suggesting that their mechanical scouring effect contributed positively in reducing the fouling index (FI). Although these bio-carriers might accelerate the breaking up of bio-flocs, which released a higher amount of soluble microbial products (SMP), a 95.4% SMP rejection was achieved. Although the retention efficiency of dissolved organic carbons (DOC) was 91.4% across the ceramic membrane, a meaningful interpretation of organic carbon detection (OCD) fingerprints was conducted to better understand the ceramic membrane performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Structure of the goat psi beta y beta-globin pseudogene. Analysis of goat pseudogene evolutionary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, S G; Moshirfar, M

    1989-09-20

    The 12-member beta-globin gene locus of the goat contains three beta(adult)-type pseudogenes, one in each of three four-gene subsets of the locus. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of psi beta y, the pseudogene present in the most downstream four-gene subset, which also contains the functional fetal gene, beta F. psi beta y contains, throughout its length, numerous incapacitating mutations in common with the previously sequenced goat psi beta x and psi beta z pseudogenes consistent with the model that all were descended from a common pseudogene ancestor which became defective prior to the expansion of the beta-globin locus in the goat lineage. Evolutionary analysis of the psi beta y sequence in comparison to psi beta x and psi beta z provides evidence that nucleotide substitutions were fixed in a random manner within these pseudogenes with respect to polarity, coding versus non-coding regions, and replacement sites versus silent sites. However, substitutions appear to have accumulated asymmetrically between different pseudogenes in a manner that provides evidence for partial gene conversion. Moreover, the presence of deletions in goat psi beta y, which are also observed in the cow pseudogene psi 2, but not in the cow psi 1 pseudogene, indicate that goat psi beta y and cow psi 2 are orthologous but cow psi 1 actually arose prior to the goat/cow divergence. The authentic goat orthologue to cow psi 1 temporarily existed in the goat lineage but was deleted, probably prior to the divergence of goats and sheep.

  8. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou

    2010-01-01

    as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...

  9. Genetic aspects of domestication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, Johannes A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335; Felius, M.

    2015-01-01

    The available data on the domestication and history of cattle are summarized in this chapter, including the appearance of phenotypes that today are the subject of genetic research. Focus is given on taurine cattle spread over the old world, zebus around the equator, large taurines during classical

  10. Challenging Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Chris

    2002-01-01

    In Britain, a Women's Aid program offers practical support and assistance to abused women. Survivors of domestic abuse can benefit from the opportunity afforded by an objective appraisal of the social context of their personal experiences, facilitated by trained volunteers. (JOW)

  11. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  12. MiR-103 Controls Milk Fat Accumulation in Goat (Capra hircus) Mammary Gland during Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianzi; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Wei; Gou, Deming

    2013-01-01

    Milk is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals including humans. The nutritional value of milk is mainly attributable to fats and proteins fractions. In comparison to cow milk, goat milk contains greater amounts of total fat, including much higher levels of the beneficial unsaturated fatty acids. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a well-defined group of small RNAs containing about 22 nucleotides (nt), participate in various metabolic processes across species. However, little is known regarding the role of miRNAs in regulating goat milk composition. In the present study, we performed high-throughput sequencing to identify mammary gland-enriched miRNAs in lactating goats. We identified 30 highly expressed miRNAs in the mammary gland, including miR-103. Further studies revealed that miR-103 expression correlates with the lactation. Further functional analysis showed that over-expression of miR-103 in mammary gland epithelial cells increases transcription of genes associated with milk fat synthesis, resulting in an up-regulation of fat droplet formation, triglyceride accumulation, and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. This study provides new insight into the functions of miR-103, as well as the molecular mechanisms that regulate milk fat synthesis. PMID:24244462

  13. Evaluating mountain goat dairy systems for conversion to the organic model, using a multicriteria method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Y; Nahed, J; Ruiz, F A; Sánchez-Muñoz, J B; Ruiz-Rojas, J L; Castel, J M

    2012-04-01

    Organic farming conserves natural resources, promotes biodiversity, guarantees animal welfare and obtains healthy products from raw materials through natural processes. In order to evaluate possibilities of increasing organic animal production, this study proposes a farm-scale multicriteria method for assessing the conversion of dairy goat systems to the organic model. In addition, a case study in the Northern Sierra of Seville, southern Spain, is analysed. A consensus of expert opinions and a field survey are used to validate a list of potential indicators and issues for assessing the conversion, which consider not only the European Community regulations for organic livestock farming, but also agroecological principles. As a result, the method includes 56 variables integrated in nine indicators: Nutritional management, Sustainable pasture management, Soil fertility and contamination, Weed and pest control, Disease prevention, Breeds and reproduction, Animal welfare, Food safety and Marketing and management. The nine indicators are finally integrated in a global index named OLPI (Organic Livestock Proximity Index). Application of the method to a case study with 24 goat farms reveals an OLPI value of 46.5% for dairy goat farms located in mountain areas of southern Spain. The aspects that differ most from the agroecological model include soil management, animal nutrition and product marketing. Results of the case study indicate that the proposed method is easy to implement and is useful for quantifying the approximation of conventional farms to an organic model.

  14. Sensory Characterization and Consumer Preference Mapping of Fresh Sausages Manufactured with Goat and Sheep Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Kátia; Rodrigues, Sandra; Oliveira, António Filipe; Leite, Ana; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this study was the sensory characterization, by a taste and a consumers' panel, of fresh sausages from 140 culled goats and 140 culled ewes. Species and type of preparation effects were studied. All data were previously analyzed by analysis of variance. Taste panel data were analyzed by a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Consumers' panel data were analyzed by Preference Mapping. The 1st 2 factors explained 88.22% of total variation in GPA. Different sausages samples were perfectly differentiated by assessors. Goat sausages have been considered harder, more fibrous, and less juicy than sheep sausages. The panelists observed that sheep sausages without paprika had greater intensity of flavor, tasted spicy, and had an off-odor, while goat sausages with paprika were considered sweeter. Consumers' panel did not show any preference for the different types of sausages. This means that all types of sausages can have market opportunity. The present study was a result of a project in co-promotion between 2 breeder associations, an industry unit and a research center. Results indicated that the meat from animals out of quality commercial brands could be useful as processed meat in a product with consumer acceptability. Also these new meat products brought diversity to meat industry to reach new markets and originating 2 new meat brands recorded at INPI (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial—Natl. Industrial Property Inst.) with the numbers of 489664 and 489662 of National Brands of sheep and goat meat, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Study Regarding Goat Milk Composition and the Growth Rate in Kids of Carpatina Goat Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Voia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the fat and protein content from goat colostrum and milk at weaning the kids. Also, the growth rate of kids was determined during the 50 days of milk feeding period. The experiment was carried out on 8 Carpatina breed goats with their twin male/female couple kids (n=16. Fat and protein content is significant higher (p<0,001 by 8.12 and 13.2 percentage points, respectively compared to normal goat milk. Body weight at birth was on average 2.72 kg for females and 2.89 kg for males. At the end of experimental period, body weight of males was 2.15 kg higher compared to females. Average daily gain during the milk feeding period was 41.97 g/day significantly higher (p<0.001 in males (168.85 g/day than in females (126.88 g/day.

  16. Gamma ray irradiated goat milk: comparative sensorial analysis with pasteurized goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Maria Sylvia de C.C. do Amaral; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Marta H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Goat milk consumption has increased in the last years, due to its better digestibility and for constituting a good alternative to cow milk for intolerant people. Brazil has over 10 millions goats, mainly in the Northeast area. Considering that it is very important to increase the shelf-life for this product, this work was done to test the gamma-radiation as a preservation method, evaluating acceptability by sensorial analysis compared with pasteurized milk. The goat milk was bought in the Animal Production Department/ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, and irradiated with 3,5 kGy in the Food Irradiation Laboratory/CENA/USP, using a cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammabeam-650, from Nordion, Canada. After irradiation, the samples were maintained under refrigeration at 5 deg C and submitted to sensorial analysis at 1 st , 7 th and 15 th days by 30 untrained tasters. The results indicated, by Tukey test, a significant preference for the pasteurized milk in comparison to the irradiated one, because a hard caprine flavor was developed by the irradiation. (author)

  17. Y-chromosomal variation of local goat breeds of Turkey close to the domestication centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cinar Kul, B; Bilgen, N; Lenstra, J A; Korkmaz Agaoglu, O; Akyuz, B; Ertugrul, O

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in chromosome Y are enabling researchers to identify paternal lineages, which are informative for introgressions and migrations. In this study, the male-specific region markers, sex-determining region-Y (SRY), amelogenin (AMELY) and zinc finger (ZFY) were analysed in seven Turkish

  18. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  19. Rhodococcus equi Infections in Goats: Characterization of Virulence Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranahan, Lauren W; Plumlee, Quinci D; Lawhon, Sara D; Cohen, Noah D; Bryan, Laura K

    2018-03-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an uncommon cause of systemic pyogranulomatous infections in goats with macroscopic similarities to caseous lymphadenitis caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Caprine cases have previously been reported to be caused by avirulent R. equi strains. Six cases of R. equi infection in goats yielding 8 R. equi isolates were identified from 2000 to 2017. Lesions varied from bronchopneumonia, vertebral and humeral osteomyelitis, and subcutaneous abscesses, to disseminated infection involving the lungs, lymph nodes, and multiple visceral organs. Isolates of R. equi from infected goats were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for R. equi virulence-associated plasmid ( vap) genes. Seven of 8 isolates carried the VapN plasmid, originally characterized in bovine isolates, while 1 isolate lacked virulence plasmids and was classified as avirulent. The VapN plasmid has not been described in isolates cultured from goats.

  20. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  1. Biochemical and hematological profile of different breeds of goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and hematological profile of different breeds of goat maintained under intensive production system. Samira Ahmed Mohammed, Mohammed Abdur Razzaque, Anaam E. Omar, Sheeba Albert, Waleed M. Al-Gallaf ...

  2. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu......The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met...... the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were...

  3. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in a goat: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker-Birck Mareike

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes the results of clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examination of a 16-year-old goat with extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax. Case presentation The lead clinical signs were abnormal condition and demeanour, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and dilated jugular veins. Ultrasonographic examination of the thorax revealed a precardial mass, measuring 16.4 by 11.4 by 14.2 cm. Computed tomographic examination showed dorsocaudal displacement of the trachea, heart and lungs to the right. A tentative diagnosis of mediastinal or pleural neoplasia was made, and the goat was euthanased and necropsied. A definitive diagnosis was based on histological examination of the mass. Conclusions To our knowledge, this case report is the first description of extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in goats and serves to broaden the diagnostic spectrum of thoracic diseases in this species. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in goats with thoracic tumours.

  4. Dietary overlap between Boer goats and indigenous browsers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly preferred species were Capparis sepiaria, Phyllanthus verrucosus and Scolopia zeyheri, while Rhoicissus tridentata, Calpurnia aurea, Acacia ataxacantha, Euclea natalensis, Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Hippobromus paucifolia were strongly avoided. Goats fed between ground level and 1m, ...

  5. PREVALENCE OF FASCIOLA HEPATICA IN GOATS AROUND MULTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, U. MUNIR, C. S. HAYAT AND M. H. LASHARI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Faecal Samples of 80 goats belonging to Nachi and Teddy breeds were collected bimonthly from areas around Multan, Pakistan. The overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in goats and relationship between body weight, age, breed of the host and also effect of parasite on the litter size of the host were studied. The overall prevalence of F. hepatica was 28.75%. Infection of parasite was more prevalent in Teddy than in Nachi goats (42.10 VS 16.67%; P45 kg, the difference was significant (p36 months. The prevalence was significantly different (P<0.05 in different age groups. It was concluded that the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in goats was significantly affected by the breed age, and body weight of the animal. However, it had no effects on the litter size.

  6. Blood profiles of indigenous Pedi goats fed varying levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    david

    2016-12-01

    , especially during the long dry season (Brown et al., 2016). There is insufficient plant biomass to support the production of goats in this period, resulting in poor reproductive performance and slow attainment of market weight.

  7. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YOUR RIGHTS Domestic Violence CONOZCA SUS DERECHOS La violencia doméstica For immediate help call National Domestic Violence ... different. Abuse can include: • physical attacks, including forced sexual relations • verbal abuse or harassment, including disre- spectful ...

  8. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait.

  9. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPARγ transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Complex tritrophic interactions in response to crop domestication: predictions from the wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.H.; Gols, R.; Stratton, C.A.; Brevik, K.A.; Benrey, B.

    2015-01-01

    Crop domestication is the process of artificially selecting plants to increase their suitability to human tastes and cultivated growing conditions. There is increasing evidence that crop domestication can profoundly alter interactions among plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies. However,

  11. An encyclopedia on domestic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This book describes the footprint of domestic electrification with domestic energy and the role of electrification, basic knowledge on domestic electrification, the basic things electric equipment in domestic, materials, part and making, demand of electricity, electrification and life, various electric equipment in the kitchen, rationalization of house chore, environment and hygiene like electric iron, electric stove, electric mat and dining wagon, beauty treatment and health, refinement and entertainment and lighting in houses.

  12. Milk production of Tswana goats fed diets containing different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to characterize the milk yield of the Tswana goat of Botswana. Twenty-one Tswana goat does were allocated to one of three diets formulated to provide energy for maintenance and a milk yield of either 1.5 kg/d, 1.0 kg/d or 0.5 kg/d. Intake, milk yield and kid growth rate was monitored for 14 ...

  13. Aberrant infestation of goat mandibles with Oestrus ovis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Sharma, R L; Sharma, C S

    2010-01-01

    Nasal oestrosis is primarily an infestation of sheep. However, a non descript goat, aged three years was presented in lateral recumbency with clinical history of sneezing fits, laboured breathing, eroded mandibular lesions and bilaterally housing nasal bots therein. The first ever occurrence of nasal bots in an aberrant location (mandibles) in a goat, its therapeutic management and public health significance have been documented and discussed.

  14. Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats | Otsyina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical manifestations due to presence of plastic bags in the rumen of goats were studied. Sixteen (16) one year old male (castrate) small East African goats with an average weight of 24.5kg were used for the study. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 4 animals each (n=4). Three of the groups had, 129g, 258g and ...

  15. Development of a goat fermented milk with probiotics starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Hernández-Monzón; Ariagne Torres-Herrera; Cira Duarte-Garcia; Diómedes Rodríguez-Villacis

    2016-01-01

    The goat milk for their multiple properties nutraceutical and for the high yield of their derived products, it represents an interesting commercial alternative for the elaboration of special fermented milk. At the present time the probiotics starter culture for their proven properties are used thoroughly in the elaboration of fermented milk. Keeping in mind these antecedents this work had as objective to develop a fermented milk of goat with characteristic probiotics, good acceptability and a...

  16. Metabolism of 181W - labeled sodium tungstate in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, L.; Figueiras, H.D.; Jones, B.E.V.; Myamoto, S.

    1977-11-01

    Radiotungsten was given as Na 2 181 WO 4 orally to 4 goats and intravenously to 3 goats. Blood, milk, urine and faeces were collected regularly during an 8-day period. Thereafter the animals were slaughtered and different tissues were taken for analyses of 181 W. The data obtained suggest that radiotungsten is unlikely to be a significant environmental pollutant source for man, as far as its concentration in milk and meat are concerned

  17. Comparism of xanthine oxidase activities in cow and goat milks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activities of xanthine oxidase were studied in cow and goat milks. The optimum temperature and pH values were 10 oC and 7.5; and 20 oC and 7.2 – 7.4 for cow and goat milk samples respectively. The substrate effect on xanthine oxidase from both milk samples followed the popular Michealis Menten's (Km) equation.

  18. Cell kinetic and radiosensitivity of PHA stimulated goat lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuyst, B.; Rosenthal, M.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining method has been used to study the cell kinetic of goat peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin and to assess their radiosensitivity. At 48 h, the standardized culture time employed for human lymphocytes, 71% of the goat lymphocytes are in first mitosis, 23% are in second mitosis and 5% in third. Irradiation with 200 rads X-rays induces an average of 24,5 dicentric chromosomes per hundred cells in first mitosis [fr

  19. Experimental Solanum incanum L. poisoning in goats | Thaiyah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the toxicity of unripe fruits of S. incanum L in goats. Dried unripe fruits of S. incanum L, were orally fed to goats at a dose rate of 0 (group1), 0.75 (group 2), 1.5 (group 3) and 2.25 (group 4) g/Kg /day for 9 weeks. Clinical signs were observed daily while blood with and without ...

  20. Effect of goat breed on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food

  1. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk.

  2. Osteoporose em caprinos Osteoporosis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.A study of cases of osteoporosis in goats diagnosed in the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, was performed. The epidemiology, clinicopathological changes and possible pathogenetic mechanisms were determined and discussed. Five goats, females, mixed breed, with six months to six years of age were affected. The goats were kept on natural pasture without supplemental feed and under

  3. Cyolane residues in milk of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.; Fakhr, I.M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Consecutive feeding of lactating goats with 14 C-alkyl labelled cyolane for 5 days at dietary levels 8 and 16 ppm resulted in the appearance of measurable insecticide residues in milk (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). The residue levels were markedly reduced after a withdrawal period of 7 days. Analysis of urine and milk residues showed the presence of similar metabolites in addition to the parent compound. The major part of the residue consisted of mono-, diethyl phosphate and 2 hydrophilic unknown metabolites. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to about 50% after 24 hours whereas the plasma enzyme was only slightly affected. The animals remained symptom-free during the experimental period. (author)

  4. Handbook for Domestic Violence Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Springfield.

    This handbook provides guidance for women in Illinois who are victims of domestic violence and spouse abuse. It consists of facts about domestic violence, a survival sheet telling what to do before, during, and after incidents of domestic violence, and advice on seeking emergency assistance and shelter. It then provides advice and resources on…

  5. Use of Awamori-pressed Lees and Tofu Lees as Feed Ingredients for Growing Female Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuki Nagamine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Okinawan Awamori is produced by fermenting steamed indica rice with black mold, yeast, and water. Awamori-pressed lees is a by-product of the Awamori production process. Tofu lees is a by-product of the Tofu production process. This research consisted of two experiments conducted to elucidate whether or not dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a mixed feed ingredient for raising female goats. In experiment 1, digestion trials were conducted to ascertain the nutritive values of dried Awamori-pressed lees and dried Tofu lees for goats. The digestible crude protein (DCP and total digestible nutrients (TDN contents of dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees were 22.5%, 22.5% (DCP, and 87.2%, 94.4% (TDN respectively. In experiment 2, 18 female goats (Japanese Saanen×Nubian, three months old, body weight 15.4±0.53 kg were divided into three groups of six animals (control feed group (CFG, Awamori-pressed lees mixed feed group (AMFG, Tofu lees mixed feed group (TMFG. The CFG control used feed containing 20% soybean meal as the main protein source, while the AMFG and TMFG treatments used feed mixed with 20% dried Awamori-pressed lees or dried Tofu lees. The groups were fed mixed feed (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in body weight twice a day (10:00, 16:00. The klein grass hay and water was given ad libitum. The hay intake was measured at 08:00 and 16:00. Body weight and size measurements were taken once a month. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal. The DCP and TDN intakes in AMFG and TMFG showed no significant difference to the CFG. Cumulative measurements of growth in body weight, withers height, chest depth, chest girth, and hip width over the 10 mo period in the AMFG and TMFG were similar to the CFG. By contrast, cumulative growth in body length and hip height in the AMFG and TMFG tended to be larger than the CFG. Cumulative growth in chest width in the AMFG was

  6. Archaeological data reveal slow rates of evolution during plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, Michael D; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2011-01-01

    Domestication is an evolutionary process of species divergence in which morphological and physiological changes result from the cultivation/tending of plant or animal species by a mutualistic partner, most prominently humans. Darwin used domestication as an analogy to evolution by natural selection although there is strong debate on whether this process of species evolution by human association is an appropriate model for evolutionary study. There is a presumption that selection under domestication is strong and most models assume rapid evolution of cultivated species. Using archaeological data for 11 species from 60 archaeological sites, we measure rates of evolution in two plant domestication traits--nonshattering and grain/seed size increase. Contrary to previous assumptions, we find the rates of phenotypic evolution during domestication are slow, and significantly lower or comparable to those observed among wild species subjected to natural selection. Our study indicates that the magnitudes of the rates of evolution during the domestication process, including the strength of selection, may be similar to those measured for wild species. This suggests that domestication may be driven by unconscious selection pressures similar to that observed for natural selection, and the study of the domestication process may indeed prove to be a valid model for the study of evolutionary change. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Time, Domesticity and Print Culture in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Maria

    In this innovative study, Damkjær shows that nineteenth-century texts gave domesticity not just a spatial, but also a temporal dimension. Novels by Dickens and Gaskell, as well as periodicals, cookery books and albums, all showed domesticity as a process. Damkjær argues that texts’ material form...

  8. Why victims of domestic violence retract from the criminal justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2008/9 MOSAIC,1 with the assistance of the Gender, Health & Justice Research Unit (UCT), embarked on research that sought to identify the factors that contribute to domestic violence victims withdrawing from the legal process before they finalise protection orders (POs) applied for under the Domestic. Violence Act ...

  9. The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis): Over 1000 years of domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivated strawberry of South America, Fragaria chiloensis, has a long history. At least two native peoples, the Mapuche and the Picunche began the domestication process. While white- and red-fruited forms were domesticated, the white form was preferred as the red-fruited types are not mention...

  10. development of a dual purpose refrigeration system for domestic use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    process. This paper is aimed at the design and construction of a dual purpose domestic refrigeration system, that can simultaneously function as a .... domestic kitchen. His work had a 3 valve control system that was manually operated and his condensing unit was kept indoors. This arrangement is counterproductive, as the ...

  11. Design feasibility of an intermittent domestic energy store

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahat, M.A. [Jordan Univ. of Sceince and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Babus`Haq, R.F.; O`Callaghan, P.W.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1995-09-01

    In recent years, energy storage has been recognised as a potentially significant means by which primary energy consumption can be reduced in domestic, commercial and industrial processes. An intermittent domestic thermochemical heat pump, with a 5 kW{sub e} electric power output when employed as an energy store, is proposed. Different design options have been considered and their economic feasibilities evaluated. (author)

  12. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  13. Improving Milk Quality for Dairy Goat Farm Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cyrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate factors affecting goat’s milk quality, consumer’s satisfaction to goat’s milk, and technical responses associated with goat’s milk quality. Three farms having more than 100 dairy goats were purposively selected for the study. Thirty consumers were determined by using judgement sampling techniques to assess the satisfaction of consumer to goat’s milk quality. Data were analyzed by using fishbone diagram and House of Quality matrix. The study revealed that milk quality produced by dairy goat farms met the standard quality of milk composition namely; specific gravity, total solid, fat, protein, and total solid non-fat. The main factors affecting goat milk quantity and quality were the quality of does, pregnancy status, number of kids per birth, shape and size of the udder, lactation length, and the health status of the goat. The attributes of goat’s milk that were able to achieve customer’s satisfaction targets were nutritional content, packaging size, and goat milk color. Technical responses that were major concern in ensuring goat’s milk quality included goat breed quality and health conditions, skills and performances of farmers and employees, feed quality, farm equipment hygiene and completeness, cleanliness, and hygiene of livestock housing and environment. Technical response on livestock health condition was the first priority to be improved.

  14. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation.

  15. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE DOMESTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domestic wastewater treatment plant of 500m3/day capacity had an efficient treatment capability. All parameters, except, lead and chromium met DPR standard. However chromium met the FMENV Standard. The outlet wastewater after the treatment process also met the Federal Ministry of Environment Standard.

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimmer Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on

  18. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  19. The Formulation of Binding Agent Concentration on Raw Restructured Goat Meat Trimming Product

    OpenAIRE

    Rini Mastuti

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of raw materials and formulation method would affect the quality of the processed meat product. Therefore, a research on the processing method to produce a raw structured product should be conducted. The research was testing a single factor comprises of following parameters: control (without) binding agent; 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% sodium alginat and 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% carragenan, respectively. The results showed that the goat meat trimming could be used as raw materials in the pr...

  20. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed.

  1. Domestic wastes: assault course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, C.; Bergey, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the management of domestic waste, some incoherencies persist. The tax on waste is always 20.6% instead of 5.5% for water or transport. The price of buying back electric power by Electricite de France is too low according to the appreciation of the cogeneration club. Regarding to the sell of stream to industrial, stream buyers are not always reliable, no enough guarantee are given by them to allow to cogeneration club to invest. (N.C.)

  2. Pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and PK-PD integration of ceftiofur after a single intravenous, subcutaneous and subcutaneous-LA administration in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Varón, Emilio; Cárceles-García, Carlos; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Cárceles-Rodríguez, Carlos M

    2016-10-13

    Bacterial pneumonia in goats is usually caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Another important infection disease in lactating goats is intramammary infection producing mastitis, usually associated with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. However, treatment of bacterial pneumonia in goats not affected by mastitis problems should be restricted to antimicrobials with scant penetration to milk in order to avoid long withdrawal times. Ceftiofur is a third-generation cephalosporin antimicrobial with activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria encountered by domestic animals. The objectives of the present study were to establish the serum concentration-time profile for ceftiofur in lactating goats after intravenous, subcutaneous and a SC-long-acting ceftiofur formulation; to determine ceftiofur penetration into milk; to determine in vitro and ex vivo activity of ceftiofur establishing MIC, MBC, MPC and time-kill profiles against field strains of M. haemolytica and finally to calculate the main surrogate markers of efficacy. The pharmacokinetics studies revealed an optimal PK properties for the SC-LA formulation tested. Ceftiofur was well absorbed following SC and SC-LA administration, with absolute bioavailabilities (F) of 85.16 and 84.43 %, respectively. After ceftiofur analysis from milk samples, no concentrations were found at any sampling time. The MIC, MBC and MPC data of ceftiofur against five M. haemolytica strains isolated from goats affected by pneumonia were tested showing excelent sensitivity of ceftiofur against this pathogen. For PK-PD analysis, ratios were calculated suggesting a high level of bacterial kill against the five strains of M. haemolytica tested. The systemic ceftiofur exposure achieved in lactating goats following IV, SC and especially with the SC-LA administration is consistent with the predicted PK-PD ratios needed for a positive therapeutic outcome for M. haemolytica

  3. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-12-08

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats.

  4. A Study on the regulation improvement through the analysis of domestic and international categorization and licensing process for large particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Da-Yeong; Jeon, Yeo-Ryeong; Kim, Yong-Min [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Hee-Seock [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many foreign countries use separate criteria and regulation procedure according to the categorization of accelerators. In Korea, nuclear and radiation related facilities are divided into 4 groups: 1) Nuclear Reactor and related facilities, 2) Nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear material facilities, 3) Disposal and transport, 4) Radioisotope and radiation generating devices related facilities. All accelerator facilities are categorized as group 4 regardless of their size and type. For facilities that belong to group 1 and 2, Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment Report(REIR) and Preliminary Decommissioning Plan Report(PDPR) should be submitted in construction licensing stage, but there are no rules about above documents for large particle accelerator facilities. Facilities that belong to 4) RI and RG, only two documents of Radiation Safety Report(RSR) and Safety Control Regulation(SCR) are submitted in licensing stage. Because there is no detailed guidelines according to facilities type, properties of each facility are not considered in preparation and licensing process. If we set up the categorization of accelerator facilities, we can expect the effective and safe construction and operation of the large accelerator facilities on the licensing and operation process. Similarly to other counties' criteria, 50 MeV of particle energy could be used as energy band of large particle accelerator. According to categorization, it is necessary to adopt graded licensing stages and separated safety documents. In case of large particle accelerators, it is appropriate to divide the licensing stages to construction and operation. We currently submit PDPR in case of reactor and related facilities, nuclear fuel cycle, and nuclear material facilities. Depending on the energy of particle accelerators, it is necessary to prepare the decontamination and decommissioning for the decrease of current and future burden from radioactive waste. From the arrangement of separated guidelines on

  5. Effect of Domestic Processing Methods on Dry Matter, Total Sugar, Phenolics and Mineral Composition in Different Developmental Stages of Parkia roxburghii G. (Don. Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekendra Singh SALAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkia roxburghii is considered delicious in the Northeastern part of India, especially in the state of Manipur. Though it is widely used, information about the biochemical composition and its changes, after processing, is hardly available. In the present experiment, effect of processing methods on dry matter, soluble sugar, phenolics and mineral composition in different developmental stages of P. roxburghii pods were studied. Total soluble sugar (TSS, total phenols (TP, and orthodihydric phenols (ODHP were determined as per the methods of Morris (1948, Bray and Thorpe (1954 and Mahadevan and Sridhar (1986. Sodium (Na, potassium (K, sulphur (S and phosphorus (P were estimated as per the procedures of Tandon (1993. Calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, copper (Cu and cobalt (Co were analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Processing methods reduced dry matter, soluble sugar and phenolics in all the stages of the pod. TP and ODHP lost up to the extent of 72.78% in tender stage due to ordinary cooking, while higher loss of ODHP recorded in immature stage of the pod due to pressure cooking. Ca, Mg, K and Zn in different stages were found to be affected significantly by different methods of cooking, while no such changes were observed in case of S, P, Fe, Mn and Cu. The level of iron amongst the micro minerals is appreciably high recording up to 51.0 mg/100 g in the immature stage of the pod. As iron, zinc and manganese are antioxidant micronutrients, their higher presence in P. roxburghii might be of some nutritional importance.

  6. Enhancing the Feed Capacity of Horticulture Agro-Ecosystem Through Technology for Goat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of feed and their efficiency of use throughout the year represent the most important constraint affecting the productivity of animals in any agro-ecosystems. Beside being the largest contributor to the total production cost, logistically feeds need to be available on a daily basis across the animal’s life time. In order to be competitive, goat production system must be directed toward the optimum utilization of inconventional feedstuffs such as crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. The horticulture crops provide various crop-residues and by products from the processing of its main products. These biomass are potential feedstuffs that could be used to support the production of goats. The processing of passion fruits (Passiflora edulis yield by products such as fruit shells and seeds. These products are good energy and protein sources for growing goats. Oriental radish (Raphanus sativus by-products composed by damaged root parts and culls have high digestible energy and low ether extract content, but have very high moisture content. The pineapple by-products composed by the peel and bagasse of the fruit could be used as energy source for goats. Other horticulture by-products or residues such as citrus pulp, abandoned citrus fruit, forages from Ipomea batatas are of great potential as feeds for goat production. Preserving technology like ensiling could be implemented in utilising those biomass categorized as wet by-products such as pineapple and oriental radish by-products. The technology of complete feed is an effective means in utilizing some of those products with relatively low palatability or to increase its inclusion level in diets. Introducing shade-tolerant forage species as intercrops such as Stenotaphrum secundatum, Brachiaria humidicola and Arachis pintoi in the citrus plantation should increase feed capacity of the area. The multi-purpose trees such as Indigofera sp. and Calliandra calothyrsus both are

  7. Design and development of sustainable remediation process for mitigation of fluoride contamination in ground water and field application for domestic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwala, Poonam; Andey, Subhash; Nagarnaik, Pranav; Ghosh, Sarika Pimpalkar; Pal, Prashant; Deshmukh, Prashant; Labhasetwar, Pawan

    2014-08-01

    Decentralised household chemo defluoridation unit (CDU) was developed and designed based on a combination of coagulation and sorption processes. Chemo-defluoridation process was optimised to reduce use of chemicals and increase acceptability among beneficiaries without affecting palatability of water. Chemical dose optimization undertaken in the laboratory using jar test revealed the optimum calcium salt to initial fluoride ratio of 60 for fluoride removal. Performance of CDU was evaluated in the laboratory for removal efficiency, water quality parameters, filter bed cleaning cycle and desorption of fluoride. CDU evaluation in the laboratory with spiked water (5 mg/L) and field water (~4.2 mg/L) revealed treated water fluoride concentration of less than 1mg/L. Seventy five CDUs were installed in households at Sakhara Village, Yavatmal District in Maharashtra State of India. Monthly monitoring of CDUs for one year indicated reduction of the raw water fluoride concentration from around 4 mg/L to less than 1mg/L. Post implementation survey after regular consumption of treated drinking water by the users for one year indicated user satisfaction and technological sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Traceability of Functional Bioactive Compounds in Fresh and Pasteurized Milk Obtained from Goats Fed with Orange Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simona Chiş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traceability is the ability to identify and trace the history, distribution, location, and application of products, parts, and materials. A traceability system records and follows the trail as products, parts, and materials come from suppliers and are processed and ultimately distributed as end products (Prache et al, 2002. In this work, were studied the bioactive compounds (total vitamin C, ascorbic acid, total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamin A and vitamin E and antioxidant activity of goat fresh milk and pasteurized one. The goats were fed with a standard diet (control diet and then with a diet that incorporates orange pulp. The control diet (CD corresponded with a standard ration (a ration wich provide the energetic and proteic values, daily food for milking animals. From that ration, the Department of Animal Science, from Politechnic University of Valencia replaced the different proportions of the ingredients for incorporating orange pulp diet (OPD. The results of the present study show that the citrus pulp silage mixture used can be fed to goats without any negative effects on the performance of the animals. Results of this study indicate that citrus pulp silage can replace part of the conventional ration of goats, thus lowering the cost of production. The first aim of this study was to compare the two types of goat diets: a standard diet and a diet with orange pulp, by analyzing the bioactive compounds in fresh and pasteurized milk. The results demonstrate that all the bioactive compounds are bigger in the orange pulp diet than in the control diet. The second objective of this study was to analyze the bioavailability and traceability of bioactive compounds in fresh milk. 

  9. Hydrolysis characteristics of bovine milk fat and monoacid triglycerides mediated by pregastric lipase from goats and kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, D T; MacKenzie, A D; O'Connor, C J; Turner, K W

    1997-10-01

    Commercial extracts from oro-pharyngeal tissues of goats and kids have been used as the source of pregastric lipase and have been processed to yield partially purified samples of the primary pregastric lipase. The activity of these lipases against tributyrylglycerol has been determined over a range of pH and temperatures. Optimum pH conditions for pregastric lipase ranged from pH 5.6 to 6.5 for goats and from pH 5.5 to 6.2 for kids, respectively; the optimum temperature ranged from 43 to 60 degrees C. Optima for kid lipase extended slightly below pH 5.5 and higher than 60 degrees C; which were the limits of the test conditions. The enzymes were also used as catalysts for the hydrolysis of monoacid triglycerides (C4:0 to C12:0) at 40 degrees C and pH 6.5; activity was maximum against tributyrylglycerol (C4:0). Values for the Michaelis-Menten constant, increased as carbon chain length of the carboxylic moiety on the triglycerides increased, but values were identical for pregastric lipases of both goats and kids. Anhydrous milk fat was hydrolyzed by the commercial extracts of pregastric lipases of goats and kids, and the resulting profiles for free fatty acids were very similar to one another and to the corresponding profile for a commercial sample of Parmesan cheese. There appear to be no significant differences in activity between the enzyme preparations from goats and kids.

  10. Scrapie diagnosis in a goat and four Santa Inês sheep from the same herd in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scrapie is a fatal and progressive transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE of natural occurrence in sheep and goats. The suspicion of scrapie may be based on clinical signs; however, the detection of pathological features of the prionic protein (PrP in target tissues is necessary to diagnose the disease. The presence of an abnormal protein form (PrPSc in lymphoreticular and nervous tissues is an important characteristic in diagnosis. This paper reports a case of scrapie in a flock of 55 Suffolk crossbred sheep, 19 Santa Inês sheep and 21 goats in the Mato Grosso state, midwestern Brazil. The animals were euthanized after the confirmation of a scrapie case with clinical signs in a Suffolk sheep in the same farm. Samples of brainstem at the level of the obex and lymphoid issues like palatine tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes, third eyelid fixed in formalin 10% were processed for histological examination. Histological examination with hematoxylin and eosin did not show any microscopic changes in samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC examination to detect anti-prion PrPSc was performed in lymphoid tissues. Scrapie diagnosis was confirmed based on IHC positive results for PrPSc in lymphoid tissues of a crossbreed goat and four Santa Inês sheep, without any clinical scrapie signs. IHC showed positive staining in at least three lymphoid germinal centers in goat mesenteric lymph node, palatine tonsil, and third eyelid samples. The mesenteric lymph node, and tonsil samples of all sheep showed positive immunostaining, and only one sheep showed positive staining in lymphoid follicles in the third eyelid. Scrapie diagnosis using IHC in fixed samples of lymphoreticular tissue is technically feasible to detect the disease in both goats and sheep, as a form of pre-clinical diagnosis. The results indicate that the herd was infected by a sheep coming from another herd where scrapie had been diagnosed before.

  11. The use of serological tests in combination with the intradermal tuberculin test maximizes the detection of tuberculosis infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, Javier; Roy, Álvaro; Infantes-Lorenzo, José Antonio; González, Isabel; Venteo, Ángel; Romero, Beatriz; Grau, Anna; Mínguez, Olga; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2018-05-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in goats is based mainly on the single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and CIT) tests and, exceptionally, on the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay, however they are not perfect in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, various serological assays that provide a potential cost-effective approach for the control of TB are also available or under development, and a variety of results have been reported regarding the ability of these tests to detect infected animals, particularly in the early stages of infection. In the present study, SIT/CIT and IFN-γ tests and three different serological assays were evaluated during two consecutive herd testing events in a recently infected caprine herd (n = 447) with a high prevalence of infection in order to evaluate their performance and provide field data with which to improve the TB control programs in this species. The proportion of infected animals that tested positive among all the infected goats (T+/I+ value) in the last herd testing event ranged from 26.2% (IC95%; 19.3-34.5) to 85.7% (IC95%; 78.5-90.7) using cell-based diagnostic tests. The SIT/SCIT tests detected more infected goats than the IFN-γ test, regardless of the interpretation criteria. The T+/I+ value of serology was 83.2 (IC95%; 75.2-89), although it increased significantly (P < 0.05) when using samples collected 15 days after the intradermal test (100%, IC95%; 97-100). In general, a parallel interpretation of intradermal tests with serology maximized the detection of infected goats. These results demonstrate that serological tests are valuable diagnostic tools to maximize the detection of TB infected goats, even in recent outbreaks, accelerating the eradication process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of α s1-casein (CSN1S1) and κ-casein (CSN3) genotypes on milk coagulation properties in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; Ares, José Luis; Carrizosa, Juan; Urrutia, Baltasar; Baena, Francisca; Jordana, Jordi; Badaoui, Bouabid; Sànchez, Armand; Angiolillo, Antonella; Amills, Marcel; Serradilla, Juan Manuel

    2011-02-01

    The effects of the caprine α s1-casein (CSN1S1) polymorphisms on milk quality and cheese yield have been widely studied in French and Italian goat breeds. Much less is known about the consequences of κ-casein (CSN3) genotype on the technological and coagulation properties of goat milk. In the current study, we have performed an association analysis between polymorphisms at the goat CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes and milk coagulation (rennet coagulation time, curdling rate and curd firmness) and technological (time to cutting of curd and cheese yield) properties. In this analysis, we have included 193 records from 74 Murciano-Granadina goats (with genotypes constituted by different combinations of alleles B, E and F of the gene CSN1S1 and alleles A and B of the gene CSN3) distributed in three herds, which were collected bimonthly during a whole lactation. Data analysis, using a linear mixed model for repeated observations, revealed significant associations between CSN1S1 genotypes and the rate of the curdling process. In this way, milk from EE goats had a significantly higher curdling rate than milk from BB individuals (PAB, P<0·05) but not on cheese yield. No interaction between the CSN1S1 and CSN3 genotypes was observed.

  13. Laryngeal Neuropathy in Adult Goats With Copper Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, R F A; Almeida, V M; Neto, J E; Nascimento, C W A; Medeiros, G X; Medeiros, R M T; Riet-Correa, F; Mendonça, F S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the cause of a neurological syndrome characterized by stridor in adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency. The main clinical signs consisted of apathy, emaciation, pale mucous membranes, mucous nasal discharge, dyspnea, severe achromotrichia, diffuse alopecia, torpor, ataxia, and stridor. When the goats were forced to move, the stridor increased. In a herd of 194 Toggenburg goats, 10 adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency were removed from the herd and divided into 2 groups: group 1, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck with stridor, and group 2, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck without stridor. Group 3, used as a control, consisted of 5 adult goats from another flock without any clinical signs of disease. The mean serum copper concentrations were 1.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L in group 1, 8.1 ± 1.1 μmol/L in group 2, and 11.3 ± 2.2 μmol/L in group 3. The mean serum iron concentrations were 42.3 ± 14.2 μmol/L in group 1, 39.1 ± 8.2 μmol/L in group 2, and 20.6 ± 6.1 μmol/L in group 3. The main histological lesions in goats from group 1 were axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves and atrophy of the muscles of vocal folds and of the dorsal cricoarytenoid and right and left cricothyroid muscles. Goats with ataxia had neuronal degeneration and necrosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells and of the cranial cervical ganglion. We concluded that the stridor was caused by axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves due to the severe copper deficiency.

  14. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  15. Interactions between gastrointestinal parasitism and pneumonia in Nigerian goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Mosunmola T; Morenikeji, Olajumoke A; Emikpe, Benjamin O; Jarikre, Theophilus A

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the burden and interactions between parasitism and pneumonia in Nigerian goats. A total of 430 goats were examined for gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites by faecal analysis using sedimentation by gravity, Modified Winconsin sugar floatation method, McMaster egg counting techniques and for lung consolidation, pathology and morphometry of pneumonia were evaluated by standard techniques. The results from the faecal examination revealed the presence of nine (9) gastrointestinal parasites namely Eimeria , Trichuris , Oesophagostomum, Strongyloides, Moniezia, Haemonchus , Bunostomum , Trichostrongylus , and Nematodirus species and at an overall high prevalence of 74% . Eimeria species was found to have the highest prevalence of 26% for single infection, while co-infection of Eimeria and Trichuris species 21% was highest amongst other parasites, and of the breeds of goats examined for GIT parasites, the Red Sokoto (RS) breed had the highest infection rate 37%. The results from the lungs analysis showed 59% prevalence with the highest consolidation in RS (48.2%), followed by WAD (34.2%). The age of the goats was key in the infection rate of both parasites and pneumonia, which was seen to be highest in younger goats, with a significant (2.10 ± 0.4 × 10 3 ) GI parasite burden in >1-2 years group. The prevalence of GIT infection with lung consolidation in the goats, was observed to influence their Body condition scores (BCS) ( p  parasites and pneumonia in Nigerian goats. There was a strong correlation (+0.243, p  = 0.00) of occurrence of gastrointestinal parasitism and pneumonia in this study. Possibility of combined prophylactic measures should be considered in the nearest future.

  16. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  17. Income analysis of goat farmers on the farmers group in district of Serdang Bedagai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, J. N.; Hasnudi; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    The farmers group are expected to reduce the production cost of goat breeding and improve the income of farmers which impact on the welfare of goat farmers. This research aim to analyze the factors that influence the income of farmers group, in sub-district Dolok Masihul Pegajahan, and Dolok Merawan, Serdang Bedagai. The method used is survey method with 90 respondents. Data was analysed by multiple linear regression. The result showed, simultaneously goat cost, sale price of goat, fixed cost and variable cost had significant effect on income of goat farmers. Partially, goat cost, variable cost and sale price of goat had significant effect on income of goat farmers, while fixed cost had no significant effect.

  18. Microsatellite analysis revealed genetic diversity and population structure among Chinese cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P

    2011-08-01

    Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 International Society for Animal Genetics.

  19. Progress in the uitilization and promotion of South African indigenous goats for cashmere production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braun, AL

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available . Utilization of the fibres as an addition source of income would make the goat flocks more profitable Cashmere production is labour intensive and ideally suited for farmers with small number of goats Supports rural and economic development...

  20. Increased Morbidity and Mortality in Domestic Animals Eating Dropped and Bitten Fruit in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, John J; Hegde, Sonia; Sazzad, Hossain M S; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hossain, M Jahangir; Epstein, Jonathan H; Daszak, Peter; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P

    2016-03-01

    We used data on feeding practices and domestic animal health gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to identify any association between grazing dropped fruit found on the ground or owners directly feeding bat- or bird-bitten fruit and animal health. We compared mortality and morbidity in domestic animals using a mixed effects model controlling for village clustering, herd size, and proxy measures of household wealth. Thirty percent of household heads reported that their animals grazed on dropped fruit and 20% reported that they actively fed bitten fruit to their domestic herds. Household heads allowing their cattle to graze on dropped fruit were more likely to report an illness within their herd (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.31). Household heads directly feeding goats bitten fruit were more likely to report illness (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.57) and deaths (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.4). Reporting of illnesses and deaths among goats rose as the frequency of feeding bitten fruit increased. One possible explanation for this finding is the transmission of bat pathogens to domestic animals via bitten fruit consumption.