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Sample records for goat domestic goat

  1. Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Pramod K; Joshi, Manjunath B; Mandal, Ajoy; Laloe, D; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2008-01-01

    Background The domestic goat is one of the important livestock species of India. In the present study we assess genetic diversity of Indian goats using 17 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from their natural habitat, covering different agroclimatic zones. Results The mean number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 8.1 in Barbari to 9.7 in Jakhrana goats. The mean expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.739 in Barbari to 0.783 in Jakhrana goats. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) were statistically significant (P goat breeds. Both a phylogenetic tree and Principal Component Analysis showed the distribution of breeds in two major clusters with respect to their geographic distribution. Conclusion Our study concludes that Indian goat populations can be classified into distinct genetic groups or breeds based on the microsatellites as well as mtDNA information. PMID:18226239

  2. The antibody loci of the domestic goat (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestic goat (Capra hircus) is an important ruminant species, both as a source of antibody-based reagents for research and biomedical applications, and as an economically important animal for agriculture, particularly for developing nations that maintain most of the global goat population. Char...

  3. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, Mark L.; Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including s...

  4. Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota in Feral and Domestic Goats

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    María G. Domínguez-Bello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals have co-evolved with mutualistic microbial communities, known as the microbiota, which are essential for organ development and function. We hypothesize that modern animal husbandry practices exert an impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [tet(M, tet(S, tet(O, tet(Q and tet(W] by PCR. Feces were collected from 10 goats: 5 domestic from a farm in the main island of Puerto Rico and 5 feral from the remote dry island of Mona. There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the goats’ feces. A total of 84 PhyloChip-OTUs were different in the fecal microbiota of feral and domestic goat. Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet(O and tet(W, but domestic goats additionally carried tet(Q. Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota.

  5. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  6. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Drew

    Full Text Available Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  7. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep. PMID:28282407

  8. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

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    Thomas E Besser

    Full Text Available Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep.In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats.M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of

  9. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep. In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats. M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of pneumonia. However

  10. Evidence for introgressive hybridization of captive markhor (Capra falconeri) with domestic goat: cautions for reintroduction.

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    Hammer, Sabine E; Schwammer, Harald M; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2008-04-01

    Markhors (Capra falconeri) are among the most endangered mammal species, and several conservation measures, including ex situ breeding, are implemented to prevent their extinction. We studied sequence diversity and differentiation of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region among C. f. heptneri and C. f. megaceros kept in four zoos in relationship to lineages of other wild and domestic goats, to assess for the first time the level of molecular distinctness and variability among those subspecies, and to check for possible introgression by related Capra taxa, such as domestic goats. Levels of differentiation between some Capra falconeri lineages and modern domestic goats were similar to levels between other wild goat species (i.e., Capra aegagrus, Capra ibex) and domestic goats. Among pure markhor lineages, paraphyly was observed for C. f. heptneri, suggesting occurrence of shared ancestral polymorphism among markhor subspecies and/or ancient or recent gene exchange between subspecies. Interestingly, 35.7% of all studied markhors from three zoos are introgressed by the domestic goat. Furthermore, despite relatively small breeding group sizes, markhors have maintained a relatively high proportion of mtDNA variation within zoo groups. In any case, the existence of markhors introgressed with domestic goat DNA in zoos should be considered when selecting markhors for ex situ breeding programs with the aim of building up a stock for later reintroduction into the wild.

  11. The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Saeid; Rezaei, Hamid-Reza; Pompanon, François; Blum, Michael G. B.; Negrini, Riccardo; Naghash, Hamid-Reza; Balkız, Özge; Mashkour, Marjan; Gaggiotti, Oscar E.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Kence, Aykut; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Taberlet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of farming during the Neolithic transition, including the domestication of livestock, was a critical point in the evolution of human kind. The goat (Capra hircus) was one of the first domesticated ungulates. In this study, we compared the genetic diversity of domestic goats to that of the modern representatives of their wild ancestor, the bezoar, by analyzing 473 samples collected over the whole distribution range of the latter species. This partly confirms and significantly clarifies the goat domestication scenario already proposed by archaeological evidence. All of the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups found in current domestic goats have also been found in the bezoar. The geographic distribution of these haplogroups in the wild ancestor allowed the localization of the main domestication centers. We found no haplotype that could have been domesticated in the eastern half of the Iranian Plateau, nor further to the east. A signature of population expansion in bezoars of the C haplogroup suggests an early domestication center on the Central Iranian Plateau (Yazd and Kerman Provinces) and in the Southern Zagros (Fars Province), possibly corresponding to the management of wild flocks. However, the contribution of this center to the current domestic goat population is rather low (1.4%). We also found a second domestication center covering a large area in Eastern Anatolia, and possibly in Northern and Central Zagros. This last domestication center is the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today. This finding is consistent with archaeological data identifying Eastern Anatolia as an important domestication center. PMID:19004765

  12. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

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    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  13. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

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    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  14. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Pathology of AA amyloidosis in domestic sheep and goats.

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    Ménsua, C; Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Biescas, E; Fernández, A; Murphy, C L; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A; Luján, L

    2003-01-01

    We describe the main pathologic changes in small ruminants affected by AA amyloidosis, together with the partial sequence of the protein involved. Twenty-one sheep and one goat were selected for presenting macroscopic kidney lesions compatible with systemic amyloidosis. Available tissue samples were studied by histologic, immunopathologic, and ultrastructural means. Renal lesions were characterized grossly by pale cortical surfaces with scattered, miliary, whitish-yellow foci and on cut cortical surfaces by straight, whitish-yellow striations. Gangrenous pneumonia was observed in 16 out of 21 affected sheep (76.2%), although other chronic inflammations were also observed. Amyloid was detected in all grossly affected kidneys using Congo red staining, lesions being most remarkable in glomeruli, affecting 95.5% of animals studied. Congophilic deposits were also observed in intertubular interstitium (68.2%) and medulla (57.1%). All amyloid-affected animals presented proximal convoluted tubule lesions, mostly characterized by an increase in diameter and by hyaline granular degeneration that were responsible for the macroscopic appearance of the kidney. Histologically, amyloid was also seen in blood vessels, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. All amyloid deposits demonstrated greenish-yellow birefringence with polarized light, and the antisera prepared against goat amyloid extracts specifically reacted with birefringent congophilic deposits of both sheep and goats. Ultrastructurally, these deposits were formed by masses of straight, nonbranching fibrils located predominantly in the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and in the mesangium. Partial sequence of the protein in sheep and goats indicated a high degree of homology with the previously reported sequence of sheep Serum Amyloid A.

  16. Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of Alpine ibex.

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    Christine Grossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex. At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2, Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8% to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection.

  17. Introgression from Domestic Goat Generated Variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex of Alpine Ibex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection. PMID:24945814

  18. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus).

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    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  19. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  20. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  1. Angora goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angora goat, tables of nutritional requirements (NRC, 1981) have been derived by ..... may fall as low as 0.38%/min in diabetic cows (Kaneko,. 1989). The diagnostic ... dependent on glucose oxidation via the pentose-phosphate pathway in ...

  2. DNA Metabarcoding Reveals Diet Overlap between the Endangered Walia Ibex and Domestic Goats - Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Berihun; Flagstad, Øystein; Bekele, Afework; Chala, Desalegn; Bakkestuen, Vegar; Boessenkool, Sanne; Popp, Magnus; Gussarova, Galina; Schrøder-Nielsen, Audun; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Brochmann, Christian; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Human population expansion and associated degradation of the habitat of many wildlife species cause loss of biodiversity and species extinctions. The small Simen Mountains National Park in Ethiopia is one of the last strongholds for the preservation of a number of afro-alpine mammals, plants and birds, and it is home to the rare endemic Walia ibex, Capra walie. The narrow distribution range of this species as well as potential competition for resources with livestock, especially with domestic goat, Capra hircus, may compromise its future survival. Based on a curated afro-alpine taxonomic reference library constructed for plant taxon identification, we investigated the diet of the Walia ibex and addressed the dietary overlap with domestic goat using DNA metabarcoding of faecal samples. Faeces of both species were collected from different localities in the National Park. We show that both species are browsers, with forbs, shrubs and trees comprising the largest proportion of their diet, supplemented by grasses. There was a considerable overlap in dietary preferences. Several of the preferred diet items of the Walia ibex (Alchemilla sp., Hypericum revolutum, Erica arborea and Rumex sp.) were also among the most preferred diet items of the domestic goat. These results indicate that there is potential for competition between the two species, especially during the dry season, when resources are limited. Our findings, in combination with the expected increase in domestic herbivores, suggest that management plans should consider the potential threat posed by domestic goats to ensure future survival of the endangered Walia ibex. PMID:27416020

  3. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; Foreyt, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumoni...

  4. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  5. Gross, histologic, and computed tomographic characterization of nonpathological intrascleral cartilage and bone in the domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusler, Charlotte A; Good, Kathryn L; Maggs, David J; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Reilly, Christopher M

    2017-05-01

    To characterize grossly, histologically, and via computed tomography (CT) the appearance of intrascleral cartilage, bone, or both in domestic goats with otherwise normal eyes and to correlate this with age, sex, and breed. Sixty-eight domestic goats (89 eyes). Forty-nine formalin-fixed globes from 38 goats underwent high-resolution CT, and gross and light microscopic examination. An additional 40 eyes from 30 goats underwent light microscopy only. Age, breed, and sex of affected goats were retrieved from medical records. Considering all methods of evaluation collectively, cartilage was detected in 42% of eyes (44% of goats) and bone in 11% of eyes (12% of goats); bone was never seen without cartilage. Goats in which bone, cartilage, or both were detected ranged from 0.25 to 13 (median = 3.5) years of age, represented 11 of 12 breeds of the study population, and had a male:female ratio of 11:19. Bone was detected in the eyes of significantly more males (n = 8) than females (n = 2). No sex predilection was noted for cartilage alone. Histology revealed intrascleral chondrocyte-like cells, hyaline cartilage, and islands of lamellar bone. Some regions of bone had central, adipose-rich, marrow-like cavities. CT localized mineralized tissue as adjacent to or partially surrounding the optic nerve head. This is the first report of intrascleral bone or cartilage in a normal goat and of intrascleral bone in an otherwise normal mammal. The high prevalence of intrascleral cartilage and bone in this study suggests that this finding is normal and likely represents an adaptation in goats. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Suckling Behavior in Domestic Goats: Interaction Between Litter Size and Kid Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R; Thompson, Katerina V; Callard, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    Studies of milk allocation in polytocous species provide the opportunity to investigate the effects of offspring number and sex ratio on maternal investment. In these species maternal control over milk allocation is more difficult because physiological limits on milk production may stimulate sibling competition. This study investigated the nursing behavior of domestic goats bearing twins or singletons in an experimental situation for the first 47 days post-partum. Milk yield and composition d...

  7. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  8. Horny Goat Weed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, ...

  9. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovsky-Akhsanov, Nicole; Keating, M Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  10. Generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Domestic Goats - Capra hircus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The creation of genetically modified (GM) goats provides a powerful method for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and ensuring food safety, all of which are high priority goals for animal agriculture. However, GM goats and the GM livestock field in general have l...

  11. Domestication process of the goat revealed by an analysis of the nearly complete mitochondrial protein-encoding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Nomura

    Full Text Available Goats (Capra hircus are one of the oldest domesticated species, and they are kept all over the world as an essential resource for meat, milk, and fiber. Although recent archeological and molecular biological studies suggested that they originated in West Asia, their domestication processes such as the timing of population expansion and the dynamics of their selection pressures are little known. With the aim of addressing these issues, the nearly complete mitochondrial protein-encoding genes were determined from East, Southeast, and South Asian populations. Our coalescent time estimations suggest that the timing of their major population expansions was in the Late Pleistocene and significantly predates the beginning of their domestication in the Neolithic era (≈10,000 years ago. The ω (ratio of non-synonymous rate/synonymous substitution rate for each lineage was also estimated. We found that the ω of the globally distributed haplogroup A which is inherited by more than 90% of goats examined, turned out to be extremely low, suggesting that they are under severe selection pressure probably due to their large population size. Conversely, the ω of the Asian-specific haplogroup B inherited by about 5% of goats was relatively high. Although recent molecular studies suggest that domestication of animals may tend to relax selective constraints, the opposite pattern observed in our goat mitochondrial genome data indicates the process of domestication is more complex than may be presently appreciated and cannot be explained only by a simple relaxation model.

  12. Eimeria minasensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in the Domestic Goat Capra hircus, from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Andréa C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria minasensis n. sp. is described in the domestic goat Capra hircus from Brazil. Oocysts ellipsoidal are 35 x 24.5 (32-37.7 x 20.9-27.9 mm. Sporocysts elongate-ellipsoid are 15.2 x 9 (12.3-18.4 x 7.8-10.2 mm, with a Stieda body at the narrow end. Oocyst wall smooth and bilayered; outer layer about 1.2 (0.8-1.6 mm and colorless; inner layer about 0.5 (0.4-0.8 mm and dark-brown. Micropyle, a mound-shaped micropylar cap 1,6 x 8,9 (0,8-2 x7-10,2 easily dislodged; one or more oocyst polar granules present. Oocyst residuum absent. Sporocyst residuum present, composed of many scattered granules. Sporozoites elongate, lying lengthwise, "head to tail" in the sporocysts; one or two refractile globules are usually visible. Sporulation time was 120 hr at 27oC, prepatent period, 19 to 20 days and patent period 15 to 25 days. Gamonts, gametes and oocysts present in cecum and colon. Prevalence was 12.8% (6/47 in goats from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  13. Experimental Model of Tuberculosis in the Domestic Goat after Endobronchial Infection with Mycobacterium caprae ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Martín, Maite; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Romera, Nadine; Escobar, Manel; Solanes, David; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Caprine tuberculosis (TB) has increased in recent years, highlighting the need to address the problem the infection poses in goats. Moreover, goats may represent a cheaper alternative for testing of prototype vaccines in large ruminants and humans. With this aim, a Mycobacterium caprae infection model has been developed in goats. Eleven 6-month-old goats were infected by the endobronchial route with 1.5 × 103 CFU, and two other goats were kept as noninfected controls. The animals were monitored for clinical and immunological parameters throughout the experiment. After 14 weeks, the goats were euthanized, and detailed postmortem analysis of lung lesions was performed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and direct observation. The respiratory lymph nodes were also evaluated and cultured for bacteriological analysis. All infected animals were positive in a single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test at 12 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) antigen-specific responses were detected from 4 weeks p.i. until the end of the experiment. The humoral response to MPB83 was especially strong at 14 weeks p.i. (13 days after SICCT boost). All infected animals presented severe TB lesions in the lungs and associated lymph nodes. M. caprae was recovered from pulmonary lymph nodes in all inoculated goats. MDCT allowed a precise quantitative measure of TB lesions. Lesions in goats induced by M. caprae appeared to be more severe than those induced in cattle by M. bovis over a similar period of time. The present work proposes a reliable new experimental animal model for a better understanding of caprine tuberculosis and future development of vaccine trials in this and other species. PMID:21880849

  14. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Darracq Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a Pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus.

  15. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawm, Saw; Maung, Wint Yi; Win, Myat Yee; Thu, May June; Chel, Hla Myet; Khaing, Tin Aye; Wai, Soe Soe; Htun, Lat Lat; Myaing, Tin Tin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Igarashi, Makoto; Katakura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162) of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4%) samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06), farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs) (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94), and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83). This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country. PMID:26904362

  16. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saw Bawm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162 of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4% samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06, farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94, and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83. This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country.

  17. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC GOAT KID MEAT FROM DAIRY GOAT AND CROSSBRED MEAT GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...

  18. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  19. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-05-15

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.

  20. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.

  1. Interview with Alison Goate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goate, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Alison M Goate is the Samuel & Mae S Ludwig Professor of Genetics in Psychiatry, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA). Dr Goate studied for her undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the University of Bristol (UK) and received her graduate training at Oxford University (UK). She performed postdoctoral studies with Professor Theodore Puck, Professor Louis Lim and Dr John Hardy before receiving a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to support her independent research program at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1991, Dr Goate and colleagues reported the first mutation linked to an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease, in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. The mutation was found to be linked to inherited cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In 1992, Dr Goate moved to Washington University as an Associate Professor in Genetics and Psychiatry. Dr Goate and colleagues have since identified mutations in four other genes, including two that cause Alzheimer's disease and two that cause the related dementia frontotemporal dementia. In addition to her work on dementia, Dr Goate's laboratory also studies the genetics of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Dr Goate has received numerous awards including the Potamkin Award from the American Academy of Neurology, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer's Association, the Senior Investigator Award from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, the St Louis Academy of Science Innovation Award and the Carl and Gerty Cori Faculty Achievement Award at Washington University. Dr Goate has been a member of many scientific Review Boards and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals.

  2. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Glioma in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.L.; Weinstock, D.; Kramer, R.W.; Bagley, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    An adult goat was examined because of behavioral changes and circling. Results of neurologic examination, CSF analysis, hematologic evaluation, and computed tomography of the brain were suggestive of an intra-axial mass. The goat was euthanatized because of worsening neurologic condition and poor prognosis. Necropsy revealed a large mass in the right cerebral hemisphere and caudal brain herniation through the foramen magnum. The mass was diagnosed as a glioma, with oligodendrocyte differentiation. Results of immunohistochemical evaluation were compatible with a malignant, poorly differentiated tumor

  4. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of...

  5. Kudzu -- Goat Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Mount

    1994-01-01

    Researchers at Tuskegee University have joined together to study the impact of grazing Angora goats on kudzu (Pueraria lobata). A pilot project funded by the Southern Forest Experiment Station of the USDA Forest Service was started in 1990. The problem was to find an environmentally acceptable way to control and eradicate kudzu in forest situations...

  6. Brock Cole's The Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

  7. Molecular identification of peste des petits ruminants virus in wild goat and domestic small ruminants by real-time -PCR technique in Erbil-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Candlan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In July 2010 outbreak was occurred in wild goat in Barzan, Sherwin mizzen and Mergasur in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. There were over 2700 deaths (both young and adult during the period of July 2010 to October 2011. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV was suspected. This was confirmed by Real Time PCR technique using TaqMan®probes for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants. The results of Real-Time PCR for the 9 sample taken from 9 Wild goat there are 6 sample positive and 3 sample negative and 76 sample from domestic ruminants (sheep and goat 63 samples was negative for PPR. This result confirms the diagnosis domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the ‘Nigeria/75/1’ strain of PPRV.

  8. Genetic Variation of Goat Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Gene and Its Implication in Goat Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpeku, Moses; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M; Imumorin, Ikhide G; Peters, Sunday O; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats' populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima's D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat IRF3

  9. Goat for Azazel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The rite included in Leviticus 16 belongs to penitential rites of purification. It may be a reminiscence of antic religious medical-magic rites, practiced in multiple regions of ancient world. The rites contained the idea of substitution, “magic elimination.” Sending the goat represents rejection of anything that should not and can not exist among the people of Israel. The desert as an “infertile” place, the theological idea of separating the good from the evil as well as the ancient idea of substitution point at the theology of penance expressed in the rite of separation. The text of Leviticus 16 applies the term sa‘ir for the goat. The same term is also applied in priestly text to describe demons relating to the misshapen form of Israel religion. There is an undoubted connection with the idea of Convenant that constitutes the basic background and point of reference for the rite of Leviticus 16.

  10. Identification of non-cerebral cyst: Zoonotic Taenia multiceps in domestic goat in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Omer Faruk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to identify the non-cerebral Taenia multiceps cyst through molecular phylogeny of the 12S rRNA gene. Materials and Methods: Eight cyst samples were collected from 385 examined slaughtered goats during October 2015-September 2016 from three slaughterhouses in Chittagong City Corporation. Cysts were removed from the thigh muscle, and scolices were collected for light microscopic examination and molecular identification. The DNA was extracted and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using 12S rRNA gene primers. Cyst samples were also preserved in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological study. Results: T. multiceps non-cerebral cyst is 2.1% prevalent in goat in this area. Under light microscopic examination, scolex was found with four suckers and a rostellum with the double crown of 32 hooks and hooklets. Molecularly, all the samples were amplified with 12S rRNA gene fragments yielded 270 base pair amplicon. Zenker's necrosis with focal to diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophil was also found around the cyst wall in histopathological examination. Conclusion: Although the non-cerebral form of the cysts produced by T. multiceps is genetically identical with the cerebral cyst, previously published data indicated that cerebral T. multiceps cyst is predominant in other parts of the world as well as in Bangladesh. This study showed that non-cerebral cyst is also prevalent in this country which is very important for public health concern. This study depicts an idea of non-cerebral form of zoonotic T. multiceps cyst which will be helpful in taenia cyst control and prevention.

  11. The Goat in the Rug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

  12. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

  13. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-12-01

    Goats ( Capra hircus ) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat's selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome.

  14. Evaluation of carcass performance of Matebele goats managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    KEYWORDS: Permanent Incisors; Carcass; Matebele Goats. INTRODUCTION ... Africa's goat population increased by ... local farmers to maximize on pricing of their goats. The ..... goats of Northern Mexico: Part 1- The effects of body weight on ...

  15. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters

  16. GOATS Image Projection Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  17. Diet preferences of goats in a subtropical dry forest and implications for habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genie M. Fleming; Joseph Wunderle Jr.; David N. Ewert

    2016-01-01

    As part of an experimental study of using controlled goat grazing to manage winter habitat of the Kirtland’s warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii), an endangered Nearctic neotropical migratory bird, we evaluated diet preferences of domesticated goats within early successional subtropical dry forest in The Bahamas. We expected goats would show a low preference for two plants (...

  18. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat’s selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome. PMID:27989103

  19. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.6 Goats. (a) In order to be eligible for export, goats shall be...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1...

  20. Nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M Bandarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of 25 goats from a southern Brazilian flock developed nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy. Affected animals were younger than 1 year of age and were confined in stalls and fed a concentrate ration containing 1:6 calcium:phosphorus ratio. The remaining flock (35 goats was managed at pasture and showed no disease. Clinical signs were characterized by mandibular and maxillary enlargements, varying degrees of mouth opening and protruding tongue, dyspnea, apart of abnormalities of prehension and mastication. Affected animals had increased seric levels of phosphorus and parathormone, as well as higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Postmortem examination on three succumbed goats revealed bilateral enlargement of the maxilla and mandibula, and loose teeth, apart of multiple incomplete rib fractures in one of them. Severe diffuse proliferation of loose connective tissue surrounded the osteoid trabeculae, many of which were partially or completely non-mineralized. Mineralized osteoid trabeculae showed osteoclasts in the Howship's lacunae.

  1. GOATS - Orbitology Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the

  2. Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trauma crânio-encefálico contuso (TCEC é freqüentemente seguido pela amnésia pós-traumática (APT, caracterizada como um estado transitório de confusão e desorientação. Sua duração tem sido utilizada para quantificar a gravidade do TCEC e prever distúrbios nas funções cognitivas, assim como para antever as alterações na capacidade funcional das vítimas pós-trauma. O Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT é o primeiro instrumento sistematizado criado e o mais amplamente utilizado para avaliar a APT. Este artigo apresenta esse instrumento, as bases conceituais para seu desenvolvimento e a adaptação e validação do GOAT para cultura brasileira. Além disso, descreve sua aplicação e comenta as restrições do seu uso. Resultados de pesquisas realizadas em nosso meio contribuíram para as evidências sobre a validade do GOAT. Também apontaram os indicadores do momento pós-trauma em que o GOAT deve ser aplicado e destacaram as dificuldades no uso desse instrumento.El trauma cráneo-encefálico contuso (TCEC es frecuentemente seguido por la amnesia pos-traumática (APT, caracterizada como un estado transitorio de confusión y desorientación. Su duración ha sido utilizada para cuantificar la severidad del TCEC y prever alteraciones en las funciones cognitivas, tanto como para antever las dificultades en la capacidad funcional de las víctimas pos-trauma. El Galveston Orientation Amnésia Test (GOAT es la primera encuesta sistematizada que fue creada y el mas ampliamente utilizada para evaluar la APT. Esta publicación presenta esta encuesta, las bases conceptuales para su desarrollo y la adaptación y validación del GOAT para la cultura brasileña. Además, describe su aplicación y limitaciones en el uso. Resultados de pesquisas brasileñas contribuyeron para las evidencias sobre la validad del GOAT. También apuntaron los indicadores del momento pos-trauma en que el GOAT debe ser aplicado y destacaron las dificultades

  3. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and milk products, with the highest percentage coming from respondents who consume goat milk only on certain occasions. In general, the study indicated that goat meat is well cherished, while milk from goats is unpopular in the state. Since goat milk is known ...

  4. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, H; Alegria, N; Mendonça, A; Botelho, A; Alves, A; Pires, I

    2014-08-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, Hélder; Alegria, Nuno; Mendonça, Álvaro; Botelho, A.; Alves, A.; Pires, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  6. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  7. INDONESIAN EFFORTS TO CONSERVE GEMBRONG GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanatun Hasinah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gembrong goat are mainly found in eastern part of Bali Island, especially in the village of Tumbu, Karangasem. Throughout Indonesia these goats are found no more than 50 heads. This condition puts Gembrong goat in a critical status that indicates the need of emergency and quick action. The present study was carried out to assess the characteristic of this breed and to preserve it through some proposed action plan.  Information was obtained by personal observation and discussion with the leader of farmer group.  Body weight (BW and various body measurement were taken from 15 head of Gembrong goat. In general, the color of Gembrong goat body is white, or partly brown or solid brown. The average body weight is of 23.2 kg for females and 30.7 kg for males.  The averages Body length of males is 60 cm, height 58.2 cm, and 14.4 cm ear length in males, and in females body length is 56.2 cm, height 55.1 cm and ear length 14.2 cm. To preserve Gembrong goat population from extinction collaborative activities is needed, namely: (1 multiplication of existing Gembrong goat population, (2 Rescuing animal genetic material and (3 up-grading female Kacang goat with Gembrong male goat as to achieve 99% Gembrong goat genetic composition.

  8. The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique genetic ... The feral goats from Tankwa Karoo National Park in the Northern Cape, South Africa, ... Park and former Tankwa goats, now kept on a private farm were genotyped, ...

  9. quality and consumer acceptability of goat milk with respect to goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed under ... farmers' goats in Trans Nzoia County was also determined. ..... Consumer acceptability (panelists scores*) of goat milk products in the north rift region in Kenya.

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    a Mpalang, Rosette Kabwang; Boreux, Raphaël; Melin, Pierrette; Akir Ni Bitiang, Khang'Mate; Daube, Georges; De Mol, Patrick

    2014-02-13

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). A total of 644 samples, including 177 goat meat, 86 goat stomachs, 139 ready to eat (RTE) goat skewers, and 242 goat faecal samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using polymerase chain reaction. Overall, Campylobacter spp. were found in 34.6% of the examined samples. C. jejuni was isolated in 10.1% and C. coli in 26.7% of samples. Only 2.2% of all samples were positive for both species. There was a significant association between the prevalence of C. coli and the type of sample (p goat meat, goat stomachs, RTE goat skewers, and goat faecal samples, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence observed in the rainy season (16.7%) and the dry season (20.0%). Moreover, the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in slaughter sites, open-air markets, warehouses, and semi-open-air markets was 28.2%, 34.2%, 35.4%, and 42.9%, respectively. Statistically, there was no influence of the sample collection site on the frequency of isolation of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). This study shows that, considering the relatively high prevalence of this pathogen, live goat and goat meat are major sources of human and environmental contamination by Campylobacter spp. in Lubumbashi.

  11. Genetic origin of goat populations in Oman revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, Osman Mahgoub; Costa, Vânia; Neira, Agusto Luzuriaga; Al-Atiyat, Raed Mahmoud; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2017-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman has a complex mosaic of livestock species and production systems, but the genetic diversity, demographic history or origins of these Omani animals has not been expensively studied. Goats might constitute one of the most abundant and important domestic livestock species since the Neolithic transition. Here, we examined the genetic diversity, origin, population structure and demographic history of Omani goats. Specifically, we analyzed a 525-bp fragment of the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region from 69 Omani individuals and compared this fragment with 17 mtDNA sequences from Somalia and Yemen as well as 18 wild goat species and 1,198 previously published goat sequences from neighboring countries. The studied goat breeds show substantial diversity. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities of Omani goats were found equal to 0.983 ± 0.006 and 0.0284 ± 0.014, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses allowed us to classify Omani goats into three mtDNA haplogroups (A, B and G): haplogroup A was found to be predominant and widely distributed and accounted for 80% of all samples, and haplogroups B and G exhibited low frequencies. Phylogenetic comparisons with wild goats revealed that five of the native Omani goat populations originate from Capra aegagrus. Furthermore, most comparisons of pairwise population FST values within and between these five Omani goat breeds as well as between Omani goats and nine populations from nearby countries were not significant. These results suggest strong gene flow among goat populations caused by the extensive transport of goats and the frequent movements of human populations in ancient Arabia. The findings improve our understanding of the migration routes of modern goats from their region of domestication into southeastern Arabia and thereby shed light on human migratory and commercial networks during historical times. PMID:29281717

  12. Genetic origin of goat populations in Oman revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araimi, Nasser Ali; Gaafar, Osman Mahgoub; Costa, Vânia; Neira, Agusto Luzuriaga; Al-Atiyat, Raed Mahmoud; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2017-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman has a complex mosaic of livestock species and production systems, but the genetic diversity, demographic history or origins of these Omani animals has not been expensively studied. Goats might constitute one of the most abundant and important domestic livestock species since the Neolithic transition. Here, we examined the genetic diversity, origin, population structure and demographic history of Omani goats. Specifically, we analyzed a 525-bp fragment of the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region from 69 Omani individuals and compared this fragment with 17 mtDNA sequences from Somalia and Yemen as well as 18 wild goat species and 1,198 previously published goat sequences from neighboring countries. The studied goat breeds show substantial diversity. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities of Omani goats were found equal to 0.983 ± 0.006 and 0.0284 ± 0.014, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses allowed us to classify Omani goats into three mtDNA haplogroups (A, B and G): haplogroup A was found to be predominant and widely distributed and accounted for 80% of all samples, and haplogroups B and G exhibited low frequencies. Phylogenetic comparisons with wild goats revealed that five of the native Omani goat populations originate from Capra aegagrus. Furthermore, most comparisons of pairwise population FST values within and between these five Omani goat breeds as well as between Omani goats and nine populations from nearby countries were not significant. These results suggest strong gene flow among goat populations caused by the extensive transport of goats and the frequent movements of human populations in ancient Arabia. The findings improve our understanding of the migration routes of modern goats from their region of domestication into southeastern Arabia and thereby shed light on human migratory and commercial networks during historical times.

  13. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  14. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  15. Shared bacterial and viral respiratory agents in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack C.; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  16. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  18. Capturing goats: documenting two hundred years of mitochondrial DNA diversity among goat populations from Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Lara M; Teasdale, Matthew D; Carolan, Seán; Enright, Ruth; Werner, Raymond; Bradley, Daniel G; Finlay, Emma K; Mattiangeli, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    The domestic goat ( Capra hircus ) plays a key role in global agriculture, being especially prized in regions of marginal pasture. However, the advent of industrialized breeding has seen a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within commercial populations, while high extinction rates among feral herds have further depleted the reservoir of genetic variation available. Here, we present the first survey of whole mitochondrial genomic variation among the modern and historical goat populations of Britain and Ireland using a combination of mtDNA enrichment and high throughput sequencing. Fifteen historical taxidermy samples, representing the indigenous 'Old Goat' populations of the islands, were sequenced alongside five modern Irish dairy goats and four feral samples from endangered populations in western Ireland. Phylogenetic and network analyses of European mitochondrial variation revealed distinct groupings dominated by historical British and Irish samples, which demonstrate a degree of maternal genetic structure between the goats of insular and continental Europe. Several Irish modern feral samples also fall within these clusters, suggesting continuity between these dwindling populations and the ancestral 'Old Goats' of Ireland and Britain. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Embryo transfer using cryopreserved Boer goat blastocysts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of embryo cryopreservation techniques on the survivability of embryos and fertility following transfer to Boer goat does. The oestrous cycles of 27 mature recipients Boer goat does were synchronised using controlled internal drug release dispensers (CIDR's) for 16 days. At CIDR ...

  20. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax of small East African goats as a reference for clinical use. Radiography of the thorax was performed under general anaesthesia in 10 healthy small East African goats. Right lateral (RL), left lateral (LL), dorsoventral (DV) and ventrodorsal ...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  2. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market | Asheim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A goat's meat production system based on suckling cashmere goats might also be ... The demand for goat's meat is high when sold at equal price of lamb's meat, but ... It is concluded that goat farmers should be paid a premium when keeping ...

  3. A comparative analysis of acceptance by Japanese females and price of goat milk from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Takada, Ruriko; Nishitani, Jiro; Fujita, Masaru; Blair, Hugh T

    2010-04-01

    A sensory survey was carried out using 4 different types of whole goat milk among middle-class females to investigate consumer acceptability of goat milk and whether there is an opportunity to expand the sale of goat milk products in Japan. Four different types of whole milk powder (domestic concentrate-fed, domestic pasture-fed, USA commercially canned, and New Zealand commercially canned) were used. Fresh cow milk was served as a control. Thirty-one housewives evaluated the 5 liquid milk samples for smell, taste and overall characteristics on a scale of 1 (low) to 3 (high). Chi-square analyses were carried out to detect significant differences between the milk types in each category. The goat milk from the USA was the most preferred goat milk with respect to smell and overall evaluation. Domestic pasture-fed milk received the lowest grade in the evaluation for its 'grassy and goaty' smell. This result shows us that pasture intake affects the taste and smell of powdered milk which gives the lowest evaluation by the participants. If Japanese goat milk producers want to be successful in the domestic goat milk market and compete against goat milk products from other countries, they should improve production methods and flavor of their products.

  4. Milk drink with goat milk and goat serum is alternative for exploitation of pulp umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkarthe Guerra Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance and intention to purchase two dairy beverages formulations prepared with fermented umbus, goat serum and goat milk in order to add greater economic value to the three raw materials. The treatments consisted of the variation in serum concentrations goat (28,5% and 44% and goat milk (44% and 28,5%, respectively. The pulp has previously been analyzed and showed 15,21mg/100g of ascorbic acid. The fermented dairy beverages showed microbiological characteristics within the established by the legislation. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 for color attributes, flavor and consistency of both, however, the flavor attributes and global acceptance have been significantly affected. The formulation with 28,5% of goat serum and 44% goat milk had the best average from 10 days, and acceptances up to 25 days of storage.

  5. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Machado Ribeiro da Silva

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88% and E. arloingi (85%, followed by E. alijevi (63% and E. caprovina(63%. The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  6. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  7. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF GOAT MILK CASEIN

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Ahmed Salem; Elsayed Ibrahim Elagamy; Fatma Salama; Nagwa Hussein Abosoliman

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding of goat and cow milk caseins on the body weight gain, body organs, erythrocytic & leukocytic counts and their parameters, plasma lipid profile, liver enzyme activities, renal function and plasma proteins of rats over a period of 45 days was studied. Feeding of goat or cow milk caseins had no significant effect on the parameters studied (P≤0.05) between rats fed either milk. However, rats fed on goat milk casein showed a significant increase in high density lipoproteins...

  8. GOAT MILK PRODUCTION UNDER ORGANIC FARMING STANDARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Hartmut Rahmann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has emerged from its niche. This holds true for organic goat milk, yoghurt and cheese as well. Particularly in the EU many dairy goat farms have converted or want to convert towards organic farming to profit from the positive image and the good prices for milk (+100% in Western Europe and Alpine regions. High performance dairy goats demand excellent feedstuffs, a sound environment and top management. It was not clear how organic farming can fulfil these demands. The restrictive factors influencing the productivity of the animals in organic farming are as follows: limited concentrate feeding (

  9. Applicability of major histocompatibility complex DRB1 alleles as markers to detect vertebrate hybridization: a case study from Iberian ibex × domestic goat in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasaad Samer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization between closely related wild and domestic species is of great concern because it can alter the evolutionary integrity of the affected populations. The high allelic variability of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC loci usually excludes them from being used in studies to detect hybridization events. However, if a the parental species don’t share alleles, and b one of the parental species possesses an exceptionally low number of alleles (to facilitate analysis, then even MHC loci have the potential to detect hybrids. Results By genotyping the exon2 of the MHC class II DRB1 locus, we were able to detect hybridization between domestic goats (Capra hircus and free-ranging Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica by molecular means. Conclusions This is the first documentation of a Capra pyrenaica × Capra hircus hybridization, which presented us the opportunity to test the applicability of MHC loci as new, simple, cost-effective, and time-saving approach to detect hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives, thus adding value to MHC genes role in animal conservation and management.

  10. Coprological Assessment of Enteric Parasites in Argali Sheep ( Ovis ammon , Siberian Ibex ( Capra sibirica , and Domestic Sheep and Goats at the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Kenny

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009 (April/May the Denver Zoological Foundation in collaboration with the Mongolian Academy of Sciences conducted a fi eld coprological assessment feasibility study at the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in southeastern Mongolia. Our initial effort was directed at fi nding simple methodologies that would work consistently in the fi eld for identifying some of the enteric parasites for argali sheep ( Ovis ammon and Siberian ibex ( Capra sibirica , and then to compare these to samples from local nomad domestic fat-tailed sheep ( Ovis aries and cashmere goats ( Capra hircus . Direct fecal examination yielded less eggs than the fl otation techniques, but was still felt to be useful as a quick screening tool. From the fl otation techniques we settled on using sugar because it appeared to yield the most eggs and sugar is readily available in Mongolia. We successfully recovered Entamoeba sp., Eimeria spp., trichostrongyles, large trichostrongyle species, Trichuris ovis and Strongyloides papillosus . We are using the digital images we captured to create a fi eld guide for common enteric parasites found in wildlife and domestics ungulates found in the reserve. In the future, we plan to use the fi eld guide and the quantitative modi fi ed McMaster technique to compare parasite egg-type numbers in both wild and domestic ungulates during different seasons.

  11. Gambaran Darah Kambing Gembrong, Kambing Peranakan Etawah, dan Kambing Kacang di Bali (BLOOD ILLUSTRATION OF GEMBRONG GOAT, ETAWAH CROSSBRED GOAT AND KACANG GOAT IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There were three kinds of goat developed in Bali since a long time ago i.e. Gembrong goat, EtawahCrossbred goat, and Kacang goat. Gembrong goat is nearly disappearingrecently due to decrease of itspopulation from year to year. The Gembrong goat has very interesting performance, funny, and this speciesis Balinese native goats. The objective of thisexperiment was to know the blood illustration among thethree speciesof the Balinese native goatwhere in the future it can be used as a guide to develop each ofthem. The experiment was used nine adults goats namely three adult male Gembrong goats, three adultmale Etawah Crossbred goats, and three adult male Kacang Goats respectively. The animal fed dailygreen feed grows around them and additional rice bran. Blood samples of the animals were collected forabout10-15 mL each with venoject, and then was kept in a cooler box and subsequently sent to the ProdiaClinic Laboratory at Denpasar. The results of the experiment showed that blood illustration of the threekinds of goat was not significantly different (P > 0.05 except the triglyseride.

  12. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Fisher; Richard Stock; David A. Mangione; Larry A. Nye

    2009-01-01

    Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaught...

  13. Chromium downregulates the expression of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 1 gene in lipogenic tissues of domestic goats: a potential strategy for meat quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpanah, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Zali, Abolfazl; Moradi-Shahrebabak, Hossein; Mousapour, Hojatollah

    2014-06-15

    Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 1 (ACC1) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of Acetyl CoA to form Malonyl CoA, the key intermediate metabolite in fatty acid synthesis. In this study, the mRNA expression of the ACC1 gene was evaluated in four different tissues (liver, visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and longissimus muscle) of the domestic goat (Capra hircus) kids feeding on four different levels of trivalent chromium (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5mg/day) as food supplementation. RT-qPCR technique was used for expression analyses and heat shock protein 90 gene (HSP-90) was considered as reference gene for data normalization. Our results revealed that 1.5mg/day chromium significantly reduced the expression of the ACC1 gene in liver, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat tissues, but not in longissimus muscles (Pmeat quality in domestic animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and

  15. Vaccination against Louping Ill Virus Protects Goats from Experimental Challenge with Spanish Goat Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, L M; Casais, R; García Marín, J F; Dalton, K P; Royo, L J; Del Cerro, A; Gayo, E; Dagleish, M P; Alberdi, P; Juste, R A; de la Fuente, J; Balseiro, A

    2017-05-01

    Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) is a recently described member of the genus Flavivirus belonging to the tick-borne encephalitis group of viruses, and is closely related to louping ill virus (LIV). Naturally acquired disease in goats results in severe, acute encephalitis and 100% mortality. Eighteen goats were challenged subcutaneously with SGEV; nine were vaccinated previously against LIV and nine were not. None of the vaccinated goats showed any clinical signs of disease or histological lesions, but all of the non-vaccinated goats developed pyrexia and 5/9 developed neurological clinical signs, primarily tremors in the neck and ataxia. All non-vaccinated animals developed histological lesions restricted to the central nervous system and consistent with a lymphocytic meningomyeloencephalitis. Vaccinated goats had significantly (P goats throughout the experiment, but increased rapidly and were significantly (P goats against LIV confers highly effective protection against SGEV; this is probably mediated by IgG and prevents an increase in viral RNA load in serum such that vaccinated animals would not be an effective reservoir of the virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on N-Amino, Protein and Total Glucose of Etawah Crossbreed Goat and Boer Crossbreed Goat Meat Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly; Aris Sri Widati; Vina Rahmadani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the difference between Etawah crossbreed goat meat sauce and Boer crossbreed goat meat sauce evaluated on N-amino, protein, and total glucose.The material used in the research were meat sauce from Etawah crossbreed goat and Boer crossbreed goat. The result showed that the different species of goat statistically gave  no significant  effect (P>0.05) on N-amino, protein and total glucose of goat meat sauce. Boer crossbreed meat sauce tend higher than Etawah cro...

  17. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  18. Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio

    2010-07-28

    The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid.

  19. Growth and performance of indigenous and crossbred goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    breed is the most predominant in the country particularly in. Teso and Lango ... goats are the smallest in body size with average adult body. Uganda Journal of ... from crossbreeding indigenous breeds with exotic goats under different agro-.

  20. Antimicrobial residues screening in pigs and goats slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... Samples of tissues/organs from pigs and goats slaughtered at the Nsukka. Municipal abattoir .... Pig and goat farming are the major food producing livestock farming in ... Northern part of Nigeria and locally reared West African.

  1. Prevalence of Strongyle ova in Goats and comparative studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-01-16

    Jan 16, 2018 ... Keywords: Goats, Strongyle ova, Faecal Culture Techniques, Prevalence,. The Nigerian goat ... km located in the North eastern corner of Nigeria ... teaching and research farm, Maiduguri metropolitan ... West African Dwarf. 5.

  2. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience from Borno State. ... The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, drawing experience from Borno State. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  3. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Afar,Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat ... the region favors the pastoral livestock production system. ..... yellow color on carcass, in ... Foroda/Surota/ Bronchopnemonia fever, coughing, nostrils.

  4. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiejina, Samuel N.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Fakae, Barineme B.

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria’s humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  5. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. © S.N. Chiejina et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of goat pox viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P; Jaisree, S; Balakrishnan, S; Senthilkumar, K; Mahaprabhu, R; Mishra, A; Maity, B; Ghosh, T K; Karmakar, A P

    2018-02-01

    Goat pox disease outbreaks were observed in different places affecting Black Bengal Goats in West Bengal (WB) and Tellicherry, Vembur and non-descriptive breeds in Tamil Nadu (TN) causing severe lesions and mortality up to 30%. Clinical specimens from all the outbreaks were screened by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed the diseases as Goat Pox. Virus isolation in Vero cell line was done with randomly selected ten samples, cytopathic effects (CPE) characterized by syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed after several blind passages. Nucleotide sequence of complete p32 gene using randomly selected two isolates and three clinical specimens revealed presence of Goat pox virus (GTPV)-specific signature residues in all the sequences. Phylogenetic analysis using the present five sequences along with GenBank data of GTPV complete p32 gene sequences showed all the GTPV sequences cluster together except Pellor strain (NC004003) and FZ Chinese strain (KC951854). The five sequences either from WB or TN cluster more closely with GTPV isolates of Maharashtra state that were responsible for cross species outbreak of pox disease in both sheep (KF468759) and goats (KF468762) in India during the year 2010. All the Indian goat pox viruses, including the Mukteswar strain, isolated in 1946 and sequence reported in 2004 clustered together with the GTPVs causing the recent outbreaks. It was observed that GTPVs caused similar clinical manifestation irrespective of their geographical locations and breed characteristics, no variation observed among the Indian isolates based on p32 gene over the period of seventy years and disease outbreaks could not be observed or reported in vaccinated goats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Reproductive Effeciency of an Indigenous Irabian Goat ( Capra Hircus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that goat can tolerate harsh conditions; however there are little information about its reproduction functions such as testis histomorphometry and efficiency of sertoli cells. This study aimed to estimate germ cell types and number per sertoli cell of an indigenous Iranian goat (Lori goat). Semen was collected ...

  8. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  9. The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf goat is indigenous to Southeastern Nigeria and is raised by many families under small·scale and intensive management systems. Results showed that the average households kept 6 goats, but that expansion was limited by hour and feed procurement problems. Both males and females owned goats ...

  10. Optimum stocking rate for goat production on improved highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four stocking rates (SR; 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 goats ha-1) on goat performance and herbage productivity were examined on the perennial pastures. The experiment was applied by grazing 65 six-months old Chinese Yunling black goat wethers for two years. Significant year × SR interactions were observed on ...

  11. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met......, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark....

  12. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have...

  13. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United States...

  14. Behavioural responses of four goat genotypes to successive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eared, Nguni and Boer goats and their crosses were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm, South Africa for eight weeks. The goats were randomly assigned to four pen groups with each pen having three goats of the same breed among the 12 ...

  15. Incidence and Pattern of Pneumonia in Goats Slaughtered at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of pneumonia, in slaughtered goats in Kumasi abattoir, Ghana. One thousand three hundred and fifty lungs of goats; (1,012 Sahelian and 338 West Africa Dwarf goats (WAD) lungs) of different ages (less than a year to above 4 years) were used in this study.

  16. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaughtering animals as the most merciful by causing the least pain. Many participants noted they had no way of knowing where the animal  came from and this held tremendous concerns relative to the feeding of animal by-products, use of hormones, and adulteration with pork. These trust concerns led to decisions about where to purchase their meat with 72% purchasing from a Moslem owned retail store. Only 13% purchased from a large grocery and 8% direct from a farmer.   Participants indicated their consumption patterns according to weekly, seasonal, and holiday use in addition to variations according to their personal geographic origin. The average meat purchase was 23 pounds with an average occurrence of 12.5 times per annum.  Purchasing trends indicated that 78% prefer lean over marbled cuts. Nearly 86% prefer fresh over frozen goat meat and nearly a third responded that they would pay more for fresh. Intact males were preferred by 42% of the respondents. Preferences for meat goat cuts were: Leg (71%, Chops (42%, Shoulder (24%, Breast (7%. Nearly a third indicated they also want the kidneys, heart, or head. Demographic shifts in the United States indicate that there are almost 53 million people who have a preference for goat meat. There are 2.4 million goats in the US according to the 2007 Agricultural Statistics. Based on consumption trends of this study, goat demand exceeds inventory by 160%. Meat goat consumer trends are changing regarding

  17. Demand Potential for Goat Meat in Southern States: Empirical Evidence from a Multi-State Goat Meat Consumer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Mack C.; Liu, Xuanli

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted in 11 Southeastern states elicits consumers' demand and preferences for various goat meat products. The data permit examination of goat meat demand of ethnic populations and the diversity among the states surveyed. The study uses five econometric models to examine the current demand, potential demand, and demand related to season and occasions on the goat meat market. Our analysis suggests that there exist a substantial demand for goat meat and the potential increase in the...

  18. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  19. Goat Meat Consumer Preferences: Implications for Goat Meat Marketing in Metropolitan Nashville, Tennessee Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanem, Enefiok; Mafuyai-Ekanem, Mary; Tagegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra; Favors, Delicia

    2013-01-01

    Goat meat has become an increasingly good source of protein for meat eaters in the global marketplace. Goat meat constitutes about 63% of all red meat consumed worldwide. It is the main source of animal protein in many North African, Middle Eastern nations, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and other tropical regions. This notwithstanding, goat meat is yet to take such prominence in the U.S. diet. Despite the acknowledgement of the meat as lean, tasty and less fatty than other meats (USDA 2001),...

  20. Educational Possibilities of Keeping Goats in Elementary Schools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human–goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats’ inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development. PMID:28083538

  1. Capturing goats: documenting two hundred years of mitochondrial DNA diversity among goat populations from Britain and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Seán; Enright, Ruth; Werner, Raymond; Bradley, Daniel G.; Finlay, Emma K.; Mattiangeli, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The domestic goat (Capra hircus) plays a key role in global agriculture, being especially prized in regions of marginal pasture. However, the advent of industrialized breeding has seen a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within commercial populations, while high extinction rates among feral herds have further depleted the reservoir of genetic variation available. Here, we present the first survey of whole mitochondrial genomic variation among the modern and historical goat populations of Britain and Ireland using a combination of mtDNA enrichment and high throughput sequencing. Fifteen historical taxidermy samples, representing the indigenous ‘Old Goat’ populations of the islands, were sequenced alongside five modern Irish dairy goats and four feral samples from endangered populations in western Ireland. Phylogenetic and network analyses of European mitochondrial variation revealed distinct groupings dominated by historical British and Irish samples, which demonstrate a degree of maternal genetic structure between the goats of insular and continental Europe. Several Irish modern feral samples also fall within these clusters, suggesting continuity between these dwindling populations and the ancestral ‘Old Goats’ of Ireland and Britain. PMID:28250207

  2. An economic analysis of communal goat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebel, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Webb, E C

    2004-03-01

    The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scale communal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of North West Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In South Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different scenarios to

  3. An economic analysis of communal goat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Sebei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis. Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scalecommunal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of NorthWest Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In south Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different

  4. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m-2). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m-2, we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m-2, and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m-2 (55 and 45 resp min-1) and 1000 W m-2 (120 and 95 resp min-1, respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm-2 is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the

  5. PRODUCTIVITY COMPARISON BETWEEN BOER AND KACANG GOAT DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Elieser

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the productivity of Boer and Kacang goats dam was carried out for 2 years atResearch Institute for Goat Production, Sungei Putih-North Sumatera. The materials used were goatsowned by the institute. The parameters observed were total birth and weaning weights of kid, litter size,parity of dam, pre-weaning mortality and kidding interval. The rate of reproduction and productivity ofthe dam were estimated using Amir and Knipscheer methods and were statistically analyzed usingGeneral Linear Model. The results showed that the total birth and weaning weight of Boer goats werehigher (P<0.05 than that of Kacang goats, while litter size of Boer goats were higher (P<0.05 than thatof Kacang goats. The pre-weaning mortality of Boer goat 15.1 ± 6.02% was lower than that ofKacang. The kidding interval of Boer goats was higher (P<0.05 than that of Kacang. Parity of dam hadsignificant effect on all production traits (P<0.05 except for pre-weaning mortality. Dam reproductionrate of Boer (1.81 was higher than that of Kacang (1.78, while productivity of Boer goat (37.12kg/head/year was higher than that of Kacang (18.12. It can be concluded that the reproductivity ofBoer and Kacang goats were similar, however the productivity of Boer goat had better than Kacang.

  6. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.

  7. Zootechnical Performances of Goats in Niger: Comparative Study of the Maradi Russet Goat with the Black-Coat Goat in Maradi Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Marichatou

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was not only to contribute to the knowledge of the Maradi russet goat, but also to compare some of its parameters (reproduction, adult weight, measurements, growth with those of the black goat. Retrospective oral surveys were carried out on three groups of black, and russet goats, in which 106 goats gave birth 3 or 4 times, 97 of them twice and 87 were primiparous. Seven measurements as well as adult weights were recorded in 125 russet, and black females of 4 years ± 3 months of age. Weight changes in 38 black, and russet kids were monitored from birth to three months of age in village conditions. Data statistical analysis on both coat-type groups showed, overall, similar results in village conditions. Nevertheless, prolificacy in russet goats was systematically higher than that in black goats regardless of parity.

  8. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without affecting production; this recommendation satisfies the minimum requirements of the industry and preserves the organoleptic characteristics of the milk and its acceptability for human consumption. In addition, buriti oil replacing ground corn by up to 4.5% DM in the diet of lactating goats decrease medium-chain SFA which are hypercholesterolemic and increase the concentrations of the C18:19, CLA and DFA in goat milk fat, helping to protect against cardiovascular disease.

  9. DESIGNING STUDY FOR A FAMILY FARM WITH 600 GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PĂDEANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the hilly and plains area of Banat region, goat rearing for milk production haschances to become a profitable business. After Romania integration into the EUmarket there will be no quotas for goat milk and meat production. Also, importantlow-production arable land areas (over 3 million hectares will be laying fallow inthe next years, spectacularly increasing the fodder area for ruminants. There a fewgoat family farms having an efficient technological flow and with possibilities toprocess the milk in Romania. In this paper the bases are laid down for projecting afarm with 600 indigenous goats, to be exploited in an intensive system andgenetically improved with Sannen or French Alpine he-goats. The followingreproduction indices were planned for the 600 goats: goats in estrus per season96%, fecundity 95%, goats that keep the pregnancy 98%, kidding goats 90%,prolificacy 170%, and birth rate 152 kids for 100 dam goats. The total populationafter weaning the kids is 600 goats, 24 he-goats, and 173 reproduction female kids.For feeding this population 66.8 ha are required out of which 43.1 ha with grassespasture, 2.1 ha alfalfa, 10.2 ha corn, 4.2 ha barley, and 6.6 ha oats. Goats arehoused in 4 shelters, in 12 group pens of 48 heads. Goats will be fed year-round withgrass haylage, oats straw and concentrate mixtures. This farm will produce 2250 Hlmilk per year (mechanical milking, 150 reproduction female kids for selling at 8-9months of age, 500 fattening kids, and 120 culled goats sold for meat. The annuallyestimated gross income will be 34000 EUR.

  10. Genetic differentiation of chinese indigenous meat goats ascertained using microsatellite information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y H; Zhang, X D; Yao, N; Ding, J P; Chen, H Q; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Y H; Ren, C H; Ma, Y H; Zhang, X R

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats.

  11. Socio-economic and cultural functions of goats in Niger Delta of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that goat keeping was not popular in the study area because the people did not cherish goat meat; they see goats as destructive, dirty, and often associated with witchcraft. Forty-six percent of the respondents practised free range, and 18 per cent confined their goats. Goats were, however, found to be widely ...

  12. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Collier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.

  13. Artificial insemination of Argora goat does with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with fresh or deep-frozen semen. The results achieved were. 76,7o/o;90oh and 34,804 respectively. Although a signif icanily lower kidding percentage was obtained when frozen semen was used, these results warrant further investigation of techni- ques for freezing goat semen. S. Af r. J. Anim. Sci. 1983, 13: 134 - 135.

  14. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  15. Plasma progesterone levels following breeding in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.C.; Arora, R.C.; Pahwa, G.S.; Batra, S.K.; Pandey, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Progesterone concentration in the peripheral blood plasma of ten lactating goats of mixed breeds following breeding were determined by radioimmunoassay to diagnose early pregnancy. The mean concentration was very low (0.25 +- 0.15 ng/ml) on the day of oestrus and reached at peak level on day 13 (1.30 +- 0.07 ng/ml) and on day 19 (2.77 +- 1.18 ng/ml) in non-pregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The level sharply declined on day 19 (0.40 +- 0.07 ng/ml) of oestrous cycle in non-pregnant goats. However, the level remained below 1.5 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15 and 17 and 3 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23 in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The progesterone concentration continued to increase to 2.94 +- 0.70, 4.42 +- 0.92 and 6.2 +- 0.61 ng/ml on day 45, 60 and 75 of gestation, respectively. (auth.)

  16. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics around Estrus in Beetal and Teddy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Riaz, Nasim Ahmad* and Muhammad Rizwan Yousuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher fecundity rate over Beetal goats, it is assumed that Teddy goats have higher ovarian activity. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that ovarian follicular population i.e. number of small (2-4 mm, medium (>4-6 mm and large follicles (>6 mm, size of the ovulatory follicle, and ovulation rate (No. of CL/No of ovulated goats, using transrectal ultrasonography are different between Beetal and Teddy goats of Pakistani origin. Beetal (n=6 and Teddy (n=8 does were synchronized using double PGF2a injections 10 d apart and were scanned on Days -2, 0 (estrus and +2. The onset of estrus was assessed by aproned bucks. Mean number of small follicles were higher (P<0.05 in Beetal goats, compared to Teddy goats, on days -2, estrus and +2. The ovulatory follicle diameter, and ovulation rate were found non-significant between Beetal and Teddy goats. It is concluded that Beetal goats have greater population of small follicles around estrus compared to Teddy goats. Future studies can be based on the follicle recruitment and atretic factors in Beetal goats to enhance the production.

  17. Field evaluation of the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine against tuberculosis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Enric; Arrieta-Villegas, Claudia; Grasa, Miriam; Mercader, Irene; Domingo, Mariano; Pérez de Val, Bernat

    2017-08-17

    Control of animal tuberculosis (TB) through vaccination has emerged as a long-term strategy to complement test and slaughter control strategy. A pilot trial under field conditions was conducted in a goat herd with high TB prevalence to assess the efficacy of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Twenty-three goat kids vaccinated with BCG and other 22 unvaccinated control kids were euthanized at 18 months post-vaccination. Gross pathological and histopathological examination of target tissues was performed for detection of tuberculous lesions and assessment of vaccine efficacy. Mycobacterial culture and DNA detection were used to confirm Mycobacterium caprae infection. Vaccination significantly reduced the number of animals with TB lesions compared to unvaccinated controls (35% and 77%, respectively; P goats can significantly reduce the TB lesion rates in high disease exposure conditions, indicating that vaccination could contribute to the control of TB in domestic goats.

  18. Physiological adaptation to the humid tropics with special reference to the West African Dwarf (WAD) goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daramola, J O; Adeloye, A A

    2009-10-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are widely distributed in the subhumid and humid zones of Africa but are particularly associated with less favourable environments. Adaptive features such as feeding behaviour, efficiency of feed use and disease tolerance enable WAD goats to thrive on natural resources left untouched by other domestic ruminants. In marginal environments this goat remains the only domestic species that is able to survive. Among its physiological features small body size and low metabolic requirements are important traits that enable the animal to minimize its requirements in area or season where food sources are limited in quality and quantity. Specialized feeding behaviour and an efficient digestive system enable the animal to maximize food intake. Coat colour plays an important role in the evolved adaptation of this goat type. Reproductive fitness as manifested by prolific breeding is a major factor of adaptation. Defence mechanisms against infectious agents enable this type to thrive well in the hot humid tropics. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of these physiological functions of WAD goat are discussed. An understanding of these mechanisms could result in the development of improved techniques for enhancing goat productivity in humid environments.

  19. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feiyan; Yu, Wenhai; Yang, Chenchen; Wang, Jue; Li, Yunlong; Li, Yi; Huang, Fen

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide, primarily transmitted by fecal-oral route. Zoonotic transmission of HEV from HEV-infected pigs (pork) or cows (milk) to human or non-human primate has been confirmed, but the risk of HEV in goat is still rarely assessed. In the present study, stool, blood, tissues, and milk of goat were collected for HEV infection investigation from Dali City of Yunnan Province in China, where raw mutton and goat milk are traditionally consumed. Surprisingly, a high prevalence of HEV infection in goat was found. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HEV isolates from goat belong to genotype 4 and subtype 4h, and shared a high similarity homology (>99.6%) with HEV isolated from human, swine, and cows in the same area. Results suggested that goats are a previously unrecognized HEV host. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Dig into the Past Mitochondrial Diversity of Corsican Goats Reveals the Influence of Secular Herding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sandrine; Fernández, Helena; Cucchi, Thomas; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Casabianca, François; Istria, Daniel; Pompanon, François; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hänni, Catherine; Taberlet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The goat (Capra hircus) is one of the earliest domesticated species ca. 10,500 years ago in the Middle-East where its wild ancestor, the bezoar (Capra aegagrus), still occurs. During the Neolithic dispersal, the domestic goat was then introduced in Europe, including the main Mediterranean islands. Islands are interesting models as they maintain traces of ancient colonization, historical exchanges or of peculiar systems of husbandry. Here, we compare the mitochondrial genetic diversity of both medieval and extant goats in the Island of Corsica that presents an original and ancient model of breeding with free-ranging animals. We amplified a fragment of the Control Region for 21 medieval and 28 current goats. Most of them belonged to the A haplogroup, the most worldwide spread and frequent today, but the C haplogroup is also detected at low frequency in the current population. Present Corsican goats appeared more similar to medieval goats than to other European goat populations. Moreover, 16 out of the 26 haplotypes observed were endemic to Corsica and the inferred demographic history suggests that the population has remained constant since the Middle Ages. Implications of these results on management and conservation of endangered Corsican goats currently decimated by a disease are addressed. PMID:22299033

  1. Measurement of the 234U/238U activity ratios in the organs and internal tissues of a domestic goat kid (Capra aegagrus hircus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesco De Santis; Massimo Esposito

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios (ARs) in various internal tissues and organs of a goat kid with the ingested 234 U/ 238 U AR to assess isotopic fractionation. The results obtained from soft tissues (i.e., the kidneys, liver, lung, and bladder) that undergo indirect assimilation of uranium from the feed through the bloodstream suggest an increase in the 234 U/ 238 U AR. In contrast, the intestine, bones and feces had the same AR values as the feed. Finally, we broadly assess uranium transfer from the feed to the animal based on the concentration ratio and the feed transfer coefficient. (author)

  2. Observation of physiological changes after Detomidine administration in Pateri goat

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Tunio; Shamasuddin Bughio; Jam Kashif Sahito; Muhammad Ghiasuddin Shah; Mahdi Ebrahimi; Shazia Parveen Tunio

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physiological effects of detomidine on Pateri goats. A total of six female Pateri goats were randomly treated with three different dose rates of Detomidine at 40 μg, 50 μg and 60 μg/kg body weights. The effects of Detomidine on respiratory and heart rate, rectal temperature and serum glucose level were investigated. Following detomidine intravenous administration in goats, it produced dose dependent effect on physiological parameters. Respirato...

  3. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process...... of the mandible. Light microscopic evaluation revealed fibrous encapsulation, a few multinuclear giant cells, little inflammatory reaction, and no osteoinduction. It was concluded that no osteoinduction took place in goats....

  4. Reproduction performance of Saanen goats raised under extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... and 150.1 day, respectively, while 2-5 age kidding rate, infertility and litter size were 81 and 81.3%, 11.5 and 0.09% ... Female goats. 27. -. 64. -. Goats in estrous. 25. 92.6. 60. 93.7. Kidding rate. 24. 81. 58. 81.3. Infertility rate. 3. 11.5. 6. 0.09. The goat's single birth. 22. 77.3. 57 .... adequate nutrition for twins.

  5. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella . Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis , the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen.

  6. Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian autochthonous population, using molecular markers. Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria Teresa Sardina, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Baldassare Portolano ...

  7. A new polymorphism in goat β-lactoglobulin promoter region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Graziano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An individual variability in β-lactoglobulin content has been previously observed in Girgentana goat milk by HPLC analysis. To identify eventual mutations affecting the transcription level of the gene, the prooter region was characterized in goats showing an anomalous phenotype, consisting in a reduced content of β-lactoglobulin respect to α-lactoalbumine. A single nucleotide substitution not previously reported has been detected. A PCR-RFLP procedure was developed for fast detection of the mutation in different goat breeds: Girgentana, Garganica, Sarda, Alpine, Montefalcone and Saanen. The Montefalcone goat showed the highest frequency of the mutation, confirming one more the peculiarity of this breed.

  8. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  9. Assessment of safety and interferon gamma responses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in goat kids and milking goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano

    2016-02-10

    Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Policy or poverty trap? Attitude of goat farmers towards the conservation rule on goat rearing in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study objectives were to gather feedback and opinions of goat farmers on the Forest and Nature Conservation Rule on goat rearing in Bhutan and identify field constraints arising from the conservation rule. Focus group and individual farmer survey methods were employed, and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 180 goat farmers of six districts. All respondents were aware of the conservation rule. Majority of respondents knew goats as a threat to forest and crops. The vast majority of respondents felt that the conservation rule is not relevant in modern times, and all respondents felt the need to revise the rule. The main problem faced by farmers was difficulty in maintaining their goat numbers to four. The other problems faced were frequent conflicts with Forest personnel and restricted opportunities to earn more income. While the expected changes in the conservation rule included provisions to allow a farmer to rear more number of goats under stall-fed conditions, the additional rule suggested by farmers was allowing goats to browse freely in the forest. Majority of farmers reared goats under stall-fed conditions. The most common practice of managing goat populations was selling goats to fellow farmers. Despite the constraints, a majority of farmers expressed their willingness to continue goat rearing in the future, mainly to generate more income. The study findings suggest revision of the rule on goat rearing, with strong consideration of the needs of the modern farming system and growing economic demands. In revising the rule, the study recommends balanced representation from stakeholders and technical experts from both forest and livestock disciplines.

  11. An economic analysis of communal goat production

    OpenAIRE

    P.J. Sebei; C.M.E. McCrindle; E.C. Webb

    2004-01-01

    The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scalecommunal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of NorthWest Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small...

  12. Effect of sunflower cake supplementation on meat quality of indigenous goat genotypes of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xazela, N M; Chimonyo, M; Muchenje, V; Marume, U

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four castrated goat genotypes and sunflower cake supplementation on goat meat quality was determined. Supplemented Boer (BOR) and Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) goats had significantly higher (Pgoats had higher pH24 (Pgoats. For each genotype, the sunflower cake supplemented and non-supplemented goats had similar a* values, except for the XLE goats. In the XLE goats, the a* values were lower in the sunflower cake supplemented goats. Sunflower cake supplemented BOR goats had higher L*values than their non-supplemented counterparts (Pgoats also had higher b* values as compared to their non-supplemented counterparts. In comparison with the Boer goat, the XLE and NGN goats had lower CDM, L* and WBF values but generally had higher CL and a* values. Sunflower cake supplementation improved meat quality attributes of the goats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of a commercial probiotic supplement in meat goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N C; Cazac, D; Rude, B J; Jackson-O'Brien, D; Parveen, S

    2009-02-01

    Sixty-three Boer crossbred goats were used in 5 separate experiments (Exp. 1 to 5) to evaluate the effects of a commercial probiotic supplement on growth performance (Exp. 1 to 4), diet digestibility (Exp. 5), carcass traits (Exp. 3), and fecal bacterial populations (Exp. 4). Goats were either fed a commercially pelleted concentrate diet and supplemented with a commercial probiotic (PRO) that had shown anecdotal positive effects on goat growth and performance according to local goat producers, or they remained as controls. The dose of PRO used was within the labeled dose for sheep for all studies. For Exp. 1, goat BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 7 d for 56 d. For Exp. 2 to 4, BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 14 d. The first day of supplementation was considered d 0. Carcass traits were also collected at slaughter on d 57 for Exp. 3, and fecal samples were collected every 14 d for microbial culture for Exp. 4. For Exp. 5, which was a digestibility trial that lasted for 10 d, animals were placed in metabolic pens for collection of feces and orts. Growth performance of goats was not affected by probiotic supplementation, with the exception of performance in Exp. 2, in which ADG and G:F were improved (P goats compared with control goats on d 56 only (treatment x day interaction; P goats and 0.11 +/- 0.02 kg/d for control goats for ADG and 0.17 +/- 0.02 for PRO goats and 0.10 +/- 0.02 for control goats for G:F. Carcass weights and weights of fabricated cuts (shoulder, loin, leg, rack, shank, and total parts) as well as carcass length, leg circumference, loin eye area, and backfat were not influenced by PRO supplementation. Apparent digestibilities of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, and GE (on a DM basis) were similar for the PRO and control treatments. Fecal culture analysis of Escherichia coli and coliforms, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations were not influenced by the PRO treatment. Overall, although the PRO

  14. INFLUENCE OF BETAINE ON GOAT MILK YIELD AND BLOOD METABOLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Fernandez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is a natural occurring compound with methyl donor properties which is increasingly being used in animal feeding. Betaine, an oxidative product of choline is able to replace methionine in some physiologically important body processes. The subject of this work was to study the effect of betaine added to the diet on milk production and blood metabolites on Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.  Sixty lactating goats were selected from a commercial Murciano-Granadina goat herd (EXCAMUR S.L. located in Murcia Region (Spain. Goats were selected from a 250 goats herd, taken  into account the age, stage of lactation (2.5 as average, live weight (36 kg as average and type of birth (2 kids. Two homogenous groups of 30 goats were made and fed with 1.5 kg of compound feed and 1 kg of alfalfa hay per day and goat. Goats were fed twice a day and water was provided ad libitum. Both groups received the same diet but for the second group the diet was supplemented with 4 g∙kg-1 betaine (betaine anhydrous, Danisco Animal Nutrition. The feeds, presented in pellets, were formulated in based on recommendations of INRA (2007. The experimental period was 6 months and the experimental diets were provided 15 days before parturition. The herd was machine milked once at day. Chemical composition, milk production and blood metabolites of each goat were recorded and analyzed at the end of the trial. Variance analysis and means comparison were carried out using the general lineal model procedure and Tukey test for mean comparison. Goats fed with betaine diet had higher milk fat than goats fed control diet (4.8 vs. 5.2 % for control and betaine respectively; P

  15. Unraveling the genetic history of the European wild goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, I.; Ersmark, E.; Samaniego, J. A.; Galindo-Pellicena, M. A.; Crégut-Bonnoure, E.; Bolívar, H.; Gómez-Olivencia, A.; Rios-Garaizar, J.; Garate, D.; Dalén, L.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Valdiosera, C. E.

    2018-04-01

    The population history of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex has been closely related to that of humans since the Palaeolithic. Current molecular and paleontological studies differ substantially on the phylogenetic origin of the European wild goats, possibly due the loss of genetic variation through time. We investigated the phylogenetic relationship between the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica) including different Iberian wild goat subspecies by applying ancient DNA techniques combined with Next Generation Sequencing technologies. We analysed the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial genome in 33 ancient and modern European wild goats from Spain and France together with publicly available genetic information of modern wild goats. This work uncovers for the first time ancient genetic information of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex, spanning a time range of approximately 40,000 years to the present. Our results suggest genetic continuity between ancient and modern populations and indicate a monophyletic origin of the Alpine ibex and the Iberian wild goat when compared to other Capra species. The monophyly of both species is in agreement with other molecular studies based only on modern populations, therefore supporting one-wave migration of wild goats into Western Europe followed by possible allopatric speciation. We observe three major clades of wild goats in Western Europe: Capra ibex, Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica and the group containing the subspecies Capra pyrenaica hispanica and Capra pyrenaica victoriae. This genetic structure recognizes the distinctiveness of the bucardo (C. p. pyrenaica) from the rest of Iberian wild goats and thus supports the idea that this group is an Evolutionary Significant Unit. The divergence time estimated here indicates an almost contemporaneous split between the three clades around 50,000-90,000 years BP.

  16. Characterization of local goat breeds using RAP-DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.

  17. A mitochondrial analysis reveals distinct founder effect signatures in Canarian and Balearic goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Manunza, A; Jordana, J; Capote, J; Pons, A; Pais, J; Delgado, T; Atoche, P; Cabrera, B; Martínez, A; Landi, V; Delgado, J V; Argüello, A; Vidal, O; Lalueza-Fox, C; Ramírez, O; Amills, M

    2015-08-01

    In the course of human migrations, domestic animals often have been translocated to islands with the aim of assuring food availability. These founder events are expected to leave a genetic footprint that may be recognised nowadays. Herewith, we have examined the mitochondrial diversity of goat populations living in the Canarian and Balearic archipelagos. Median-joining network analysis produced very distinct network topologies for these two populations. Indeed, a majority of Canarian goats shared a single ancestral haplotype that segregated in all sampled islands, suggesting a single founder effect followed by a stepping-stone pattern of diffusion. This haplotype also was present in samples collected from archaeological assemblies at Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, making evident its widespread distribution in ancient times. In stark contrast, goats from Majorca and Ibiza did not share any mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating the occurrence of two independent founder events. Furthermore, in Majorcan goats, we detected the segregation of the mitochondrial G haplogroup that has only been identified in goats from Egypt, Iran and Turkey. This finding suggests the translocation of Asian and/or African goats to Majorca, possibly as a consequence of the Phoenician and Carthaginian colonisations of this island. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. SELECTING ANGORA GOATS TO CONSUME MORE JUNIPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Lupton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This research project was initiated in 2003 to develop a more effective tool for biological management of invading juniper species on rangelands through herbivory by Angora goats.  After we had established that juniper consumption in free-ranging goats has a genetic component (heritability = 13%, male and female goats were bred selectively for above- (high and below-average (low juniper consumption that was estimated by fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Divergent lines are being produced to facilitate the identification of physiological mechanisms that permit some goats to consume considerably more juniper than others as a regular component of their diet.  Because diet is known to affect growth and fiber production, another objective of the project is to establish the effects of the selection protocol on body weights, fleece weights, and fiber characteristics.  Mature females (age > 1.5 yr and kids were maintained on rangeland and shorn twice a year.  Extreme high- and low-consuming yearling males (10 of each per year were evaluated annually in a central performance test.  The selection protocol resulted in average EBV for percentage juniper consumption of 3.9 and -0.4 (P 0.1 in body weight, mohair production and properties between high and low consumers.  However, the adult data for the extreme males indicated that high consuming males have lower body weights than low consumers (53.8 vs. 57.9 kg, P = 0.01. Differences in body weight and several mohair production and quality traits have also been detected in the mature females but at this early stage of the selection program, no substantial differences have been observed and certainly none that would have an economic impact for producers.  Ultimately, we expect to demonstrate that the high-consuming line controls juniper more effectively than either the low-consuming line or unselected Angora goats.  Subsequently, we plan to release high juniper

  19. Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2010-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly.

  20. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  1. Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural. Karoo pasture. 2. Nitrogen. P.J.L.Zeeman, P.G. Marais and M.J. Coetsee. Research Institute of the Karoo Region, Middelburg, Cape. The nitrogen (N) content of material selected by cattle, Boer goats,. Dorper and Merino sheep on natural Karoo pasture was ...

  2. Prion Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Native Goat Breeds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    In these diseases, a neuronal glycoprotein known as prion protein PrPC ... sheep or goats in Turkey, but the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) does not .... Turkish goat breeds was approximately 6.3%, which is a low starting point for ...

  3. Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...

  4. Feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the aid of questionnaires, farm visits and personal interviews, to determine the feed and feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat producers in the area. Materials fed to sheep and goats included cut forage such as grasses, weeds, herbs, forbs, trees and shrubs, lianas, crop ...

  5. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (pgoat meat does not cause increased blood pressure, rather the large amount of salt used in the preparation of goat meat dishes is responsible for the increase in blood pressure.

  6. Physiological and haematological indices of two Nigerian goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing an indigenous or exotic breed to unfamiliar environment paves way for livestock improvement. This study examined the physiological and haematological indices of 24Red Sokoto (RS) and West African Dwarf (WAD) goats reared under uniform condition in Ilorin, to determine adaptability of RS goats over a ...

  7. Effects of Genotypes on Economic Traits in Chinese Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. P. Yue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268 and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440 breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats and daily milk yield (202 goats were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05. The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05.

  8. The responses of three nigerian indigenous goat breeds to primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses of three Nigerian breeds of goat; Red Sokoto (RS), West African Dwarf (WAD) and Sahel White (SW) were investigated following primary and secondary experimental infections ... On day 42 post infection, (n=12) goats, (4 per breed) of the infected animals were humanely euthanized and worm count determined.

  9. Anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Pekelder, J.J.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after

  10. Coat pigmentation effects in West African Dwarf goats: live weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although coat pigmentation had no significant effect on all the body dimensions studied except leg length, it was observed that the white and or tan goats had the largest frame size on the average followed by the brown (Bbl) goats. They however, had shorter legs when compared with either 1he brown or black goals.

  11. Transcervical embryo recovery in Saanen goats | Lima-Verde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the embryo recovery rate using the transcervical technique in Saanen goats raised in the tropics, 20 donors were submitted to an oestrus synchronisation treatment using intravaginal progestagen sponges for 11 days. On the ninth day of treatment, goats received intramuscular injections of 50 µg ...

  12. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of vitamin E supplementation in tris-egg yolk extender on sperm parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was determined. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of ... of WAD goat bucks during cryopreservation. Keywords: Antioxidants, bucks, freezing, oxidative stress, sperm ...

  13. Primarity and biometric indices of native goats in western Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goats are well integrally part of communities' livelihoods in both rural and urban regions in Cameroon. Our study intended to contribute to genetic characterization of native goats populations found in one of the highest populated region based on morphometric indices as developed by Lauvergne and COGNOSAG ...

  14. Smallholder goat farmers' market participation in Choma District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increases in demand for animal products smallholder goat producers have an opportunity to improve their livelihoods by increased market access and market participation. Thus this study was carried out to identify the live goat chain actors, their role, linkages, power relations and practices in the supply chain; ...

  15. Performance of West African Dwarf Goats fed maize stover based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme additive (containing cellulase, xylanase and beta glucanase) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility parameters of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed total mixed ration in the dry season. A total of sixteen (16) WAD goats were ...

  16. Dairy goat demography and Q fever infection dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Courcoul, Aurélie; Klinkenberg, Don; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta; Nielen, Mirjam

    2013-04-26

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems.

  17. Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in ...

  18. A genetic polymorphism and its genetic effects on goat myogenin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... higher than those of BB genotype goats for three growth traits, in the order of AA > AB > BB. These results suggest that the myogenin genotype has some effects on partial growth traits of goat, and selecting the individuals with A allele could be favorable to the birth weight, 1-month body weight and.

  19. Prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in goats slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... Tuberculosis in goat and sheep is caused by members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex predominantly. Mycobacterium bovis and. Mycobacterium caprae (Crawshaw et al., 2008) and in some cases by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (Cadmus et al., 2009). In goats, the disease normally spread through ...

  20. The GOAT Effect's Impact upon Educational R and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems…

  1. Cardiac fiber orientation in goat measured with Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, L.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.; Nicolaij, K.; Arts, M.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    We therefore hypothesize that fiber reorientation could be a local adaptive mechanism by which the strain distribution across the cardiac wall is homogenized. To test this hypothesis we measured fiber orientation in normal goat hearts and in goat hearts in which the mechanical load was locally

  2. Dataset: Multi Sensor-Orientation Movement Data of Goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Jacob Wilhelm

    2018-01-01

    This is a labeled dataset. Motion data were collected from six sensor nodes that were fixed with different orientations to a collar around the neck of goats. These six sensor nodes simultaneously, with different orientations, recorded various activities performed by the goat. We recorded the

  3. Goats on alpine grazing: study on metabolic and hematologic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gaviraghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summering on alpine pastures from June to October has long been the traditional management of goat flocks in the mountain areas of Lombardy. At present most of the 50.000 goats farmed in Lombardy are still summered, even though only a few thousands - belonging to local breed - are regularly milked. For these goats summering appears to be fundamental not only to allow milk production but also to restore body reserves. The increasing interest in commercial goat milk production in Lombardy involves mainly intensive farming with zero or minimum grazing. However, semi-extensive goat milk production, including summering, could respond to social and environmental goals (Citterio et al., 2002 being able to exploit some economic opportunities...

  4. Forage selection by teddy goats versus sheep on thal ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasra, A.W.; Hanjra, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing behaviours of Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were studied on rangelands of ThaI. Bite count method was used to determine the dietary composition of both animal species. The overall preference of Teddy goats was higher for Khabble grass (Cynodon dactylon), which was 40.57% of the total number of bite made on different plant species during the study period (March-July). Teddy goats utilized a wide range of browsing plant species like Wan (Salvadora oleoides), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Babil (Acacia jacquemontii), Jandi (Prosopis spicigera) etc. Browsing species were major component (>50%) of goat diets dur- ing March through June. Whereas Thalli sheep had been consistent in their heavy use of Khabble grass (overall 89.27%). Browsing plant species were not an important component of their diets. Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were competitive for Khabble grass particularly at its vegetative growth stage. (author)

  5. Evaluation of MAP-specific peptides following vaccination of goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybeck, Kari; Sjurseth, Siri K.; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    species or 2) selected based on “experience”. Peptides predicted to bind bovine MHC II by in silico analysis were included in further studies, resulting in two panels 1) genome-based and 2) selected. Initially, two groups of 15 healthy goats were vaccinated with one of the two panels (50 µg/peptide in CAF......01 adjuvant/CAF04 for boosting). Four MAP-infected goats were also vaccinated. In a second vaccination trail, groups of 8 healthy goat kids were vaccinated with genome-based peptides, selected peptides or selected peptides linked together in a recombinant protein (20 µg/peptide or 50 µg protein...... peptides. IFN-γ responses in healthy goats after the first vaccination were low, but testing of T cell lines from MAP-infected goats identified peptides inducing strong proliferative responses. Peptides for a second vaccination were selected by combining results from this study with a parallel cattle study...

  6. Reasons for U.S. Producer Selection of a Goat Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Brittany; Nyaupane, Narayan; Gillispie, Jeffrey; McMillan, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses 14 possible reasons why meat goat producers selected to engage in meat goat production, with results having implications for research, extension, and teaching efforts. A survey of meat goat producers was conducted. Reasons for entering meat goat production were assessed and analyzed using ordered probit models.

  7. A report on the metabolism of iron in goats artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpuse, W.G.; Yumul, B.Y.; Anden, A.

    1976-03-01

    The determination of iron metabolism in goats artificially infected with N. contortus using tracer method has been conducted. Radioferric chloride ( 59 Fe) was given orally and intravenously and the distribution and utilization in goats were determined. Results showed that anemic goats have a higher absorption rate compared to non-anemic goats. Of all the organs examined the bone marrow showed the highest activity

  8. Use of goats in poverty alleviation and potential effects on the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Henriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    to this paper, financed by DanChurchAid, the solution to the dilemma between the very efficient and useful goats for the poor people and the potential very destructive goats for the environment is found in intelligent management of the goats and not in preventing poor people to keep goats. Education...

  9. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  10. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  11. Improvement of goat TSE discriminative diagnosis and susceptibility based assessment of BSE infectivity in goat milk and meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In light of the known ability of the BSE agent to cross the animal/human species barrier, the evidence establishing the presence of BSE in goat is especially alarming, as it represents a potential risk of food-born contamination to human consumers of goat milk and meat products. The main objective

  12. INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods represented an important element of a balanced, healthy diet. They play an important role in improving the structure of the diet of the population, are a means of prevention, correction and prevention of early transition premorbid conditions and various diseases. Meat and meat products based on it can be considered as a promising raw material for functional foods. Goat has certain dietary properties and can be used in manufacturing, but the production of high-grade products from goat meat, capable of long-term storage is not well developed. The chemical composition of the new raw meat - goat meat, on the example of the longissimus muscle of back is rich in protein, moisture, ash, and low-fat compared with other types of raw meat, which lets you create based on goat meat sector wide functional meat products. Therefore investigated the possibility of using goat meat in the production technology of functional foods. Showing the prospects for the development of goat in Russia. Investigated character of autolysis goat meat electro-physical methods and histological analysis. In the process of autolysis of goat meat are changing the electrical properties of raw meat, which are correlated with the morphological characteristics. Basic autolytic changes occurring in muscle tissue in the early stages of ripening, were reduced to a small extent the political process involving varying degrees of muscle structure in the early stages. In the later stages of maturation revealed changing widespread. Revealed that autolysis has characteristic periods and develops within 12 hours, further changes are irreversible. Shows the change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat. Results of the study of dynamics of change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat show compliance with the laws of classical autolysis noted in other sources, but differ in the time period. Defined stages of autolysis in

  13. Milk yield of some goat breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, goats are primarily bred for meat production. However, for the past twenty years the interest in goat milk production was based on imported breeds such as Alpine-French, Saanen and German Improved Fawn goat. The purpose of this paper is to establish litter size of the principal goat breeds in Croatia and the indicators related to milk yield and chemical composition. The largest average litter size has been determined on the German Improved Fawn (1.72, then with the Boer (1.54, the Saanen (1.53 and the Croatian coloured goat (1.51, while the Alpine-French goat was the smallest (1.31. The longest lactation period (259 days has been determined on the Alpine-French goat, while the largest milk yield during lactation (724.4 kg and the largest milk fat yield (20.16 kg and protein yield (18.64 kg have been determined on the Saanen goat. However, it has been established that the Alpine-French goat milk has the highest average fat content (3.55 %, while the German Improved Fawn’s milk has the highest protein content (3.23 %. The Saanen goat had the longest milking period (222 days and the shortest suckling period (32 days, while the Alpine-French and the German Improved Fawn had the longest suckling period (51 and 45 days, respectively. The lowest quantity of milk during the suckling period (102.97 kg, i.e. 14 % was suckled by Saanen kids, while the Alpine-French (122.08 kg, i.e. 22 % and the German Improved Fawn kids suckled the greatest quantity (116.31 kg, i.e. 22 %.

  14. Viral articular deformations in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Périe, P.; Maillard, R.; Polack, B.; Millemann, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A goat belonging to an animal aid association was presented for bilateral deformation of the tarsus and carpus and signs of high-grade pain. ELISA serology was positive for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus. Radiography revealed marked osseous remodelling of the tarsus. The blood fibrinogen concentration was very elevated. On infected commercial farms, it is recommended that both seropositive animals and their offspring are culled when the level of infected is low, or to separate the kids from the mothers at an early age. In this case, palliative treatment was prescribed based on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and articular puncture-lavages [it

  15. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Hidayat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research were : 1 to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2 to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3 to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4 to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performed to conduct this research. Farming model chosen in this research was partial and average aggregate. Cobb-Douglas function were chosen to predict functional relationship. Result stated from this research were : 1 goat farming has a significant contribution in integrated farming system, 2 integrated farming (goat and paddy, goat and fish, and goat, fish and paddy in Banyumas district was economically efficient. 3 partially, factor affecting production level in goat farming was number of goat owned (P<0.01, factor affecting paddy production were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, TSP application (P<0.05 and man power (P<0.10. Furthermore, factor affecting fish farming were feed, breed and number of land owned (P<0.01; 4 aggregately, factor affecting integrated farming I were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, feed and number of land owned (P<0.01, number of goat owned (P<0.10 integrated farming II, where as in integrated farming III were number of paddy land area and breed (P<0.01 also number of goat owned (P<0.10; 5 integrated farming III (goat, paddy and fish farming gave the highest profit, which gave Rp 6.219.283,81 with relatively high efficiency. Therefore, goat farming could be an alternative solution to be developed in integrated farming and could be combined with other farming activities such as paddy and fish farming. (Animal Production 9(2: 105-110 (2007 Key Words : Goat, income, economic efficiency, survey, contribution

  16. Evidence of scrapie transmission to sheep via goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timm; Thorne, Leigh; Simmons, Hugh A; Hawkins, Steve A C; Simmons, Marion M; González, Lorenzo

    2016-09-17

    Previous studies confirmed that classical scrapie can be transmitted via milk in sheep. The current study aimed to investigate whether scrapie can also be transmitted via goat milk using in vivo (new-born lambs fed milk from scrapie-affected goats due to the unavailability of goat kids from guaranteed scrapie-free herds) and in vitro methods (serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification [sPMCA] on milk samples). In an initial pilot study, new-born lambs of two different prion protein gene (PRNP) genotypes (six VRQ/VRQ and five ARQ/ARQ) were orally challenged with 5 g brain homogenate from two scrapie-affected goats to determine susceptibility of sheep to goat scrapie. All sheep challenged with goat scrapie brain became infected based on the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated PrP (PrP(sc)) in lymphoid tissue, with an ARQ/ARQ sheep being the first to succumb. Subsequent feeding of milk to eight pairs of new-born ARQ/ARQ lambs, with each pair receiving milk from a different scrapie-affected goat, resulted in scrapie in the six pairs that received the largest volume of milk (38-87 litres per lamb), whereas two pairs fed 8-9 litres per lamb, and an environmental control group raised on sheep milk from healthy ewes, did not show evidence of infection when culled at up to 1882 days of age. Infection in those 12 milk recipients occurred regardless of the clinical status, PrP(sc) distribution, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection status and PRNP polymorphisms at codon 142 (II or IM) of the donor goats, but survival time was influenced by PRNP polymorphisms at codon 141. Serial PMCA applied to a total of 32 milk samples (four each from the eight donor goats collected throughout lactation) detected PrP(sc) in one sample each from two goats. The scrapie agent was present in the milk from infected goats and was able to transmit to susceptible species even at early preclinical stage of infection, when PrP(sc) was undetectable in the brain of the

  17. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species: Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Chynoweth; Creighton M. Litton; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Steven C. Hess; Susan Cordell

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts...

  18. Genetic characterisation of CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Tortorici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to influence technological and nutritional milk properties. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences of β-casein exon 7, showed the presence of C, C1, and A strong alleles, and 0' null allele, with frequencies of 0.597, 0.326, 0.023, and 0.054, respectively. Seven genotypic classes were found in Girgentana goat breed and the most frequent genotype was CC1 (0.423 followed by CC (0.326, C1C1 (0.110, and C0' (0.096. No AA nor 0'0' homozygous individuals were found. The presence of strong alleles at CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed could be useful for the production of milk with high protein content and good cheese-making properties. Moreover, food business operators should consider the possibility of reviving interest in Girgentana goat milk using weak and null genotypes at CSN2 locus to make peculiar food products, such as drinking milk.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  20. Intoxication of goats by Plumbago scandens in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, R M; Barbosa, R C; Lima, E F; Simões, S V; Riet-Correa, F

    2001-06-01

    In the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil, goat mortality occurred with the ingestion of Plumbago scandens. The fresh plant was then given experimentally to 4 goats at 5, 10, 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. Depression, anorexia, salivation with foamy saliva, bellowing, bruxism, humpbacked posture, bloat, ruminal atony, continuous lateral head movements, tachycardia, dyspnea and dark brown to black urine were observed in the goats given 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. The goats receiving 5 or 10 g/kg bw had less severe signs. The goat dosed with 25 g/kg bw died after 18-20 h. All others recovered in 3-9 d. At necropsy of the high dose goat, the main lesions were dark violet to black discoloration of the mucosa of the tongue, esophagus, reticulum and ventral sac of the rumen, and gelatinous edema in the visceral ruminal peritoneum. Histologically the reticulum and ventral rumen sac had diffuse epithelial necrosis and severe edema and neutrophilic infiltration of the submucosa. Separation of the ruminal epithelium from the submucosa was observed. Epithelial degeneration and necrosis was also seen in the omasum, esophagus and tongue. Reproduction of the disease with clinical signs similar to those observed by the farmer in the spontaneously affected goats suggests that the clinical mortality was caused by ingestion of Plumbago scandens.

  1. Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation.

  2. Characterization of goat inner cell mass derived cells in double kinase inhibition condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qiang; Xi, Qihui; Liu, Xiaokun; Meng, Kai; Zhao, Xiaoe; Ma, Baohua

    2017-01-01

    The identification of small molecular inhibitors, which were reported to promote the derivation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), provides a potential strategy for the derivation of domesticated ungulate ESCs. In present study, goat inner cell mass (ICM) derived cells in the double inhibition (2i) condition, in which, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAP2K) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) were inhibited by PD0325901 and BIO respectively, were characterized. The results showed that goat ICM derived cells in 2i medium adding leukaemia inhibitor factor (LIF) possessed a mouse ES-like morphology. But these cells had much compromised proliferation capacity, resulting in difficulty in expansion. In 2i alone medium, goat ICM derived cells possessed primate ES-like morphology. These cells expressed pluripotent markers and could differentiate into derivatives of three germ layers in vitro. However, these cells could not be proliferated in long-term (persisted for 15 passages) because of spontaneously neural differentiation. Additionally, goat ICM derived cells could be inducing differentiated into neural lineage in vitro. Although goat ESCs could not be established in PD0325901 and BIO alone medium, this derivation condition provides a useful research system to find signaling molecular those regulate early embryonic development and pluripotency in goat. - Highlights: • Goat inner cell mass derived cells possessed finite pluripotency in 2i condition. • These cells could not be proliferated in long-term in 2i condition. • These cells could spontaneously and inductively differentiate into neural lineage.

  3. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  4. Studies on bio climatic acclimatization in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassab, F.M.A.H.

    1994-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of temperature on some aspects of baladi goats (Caprahircus). The study was carried out on 14 female Baladi goats (2.5 year average and 15-30 kg weight). The study includes two experiments : In experiment I: 8 animals are maintained under hot condition (35 degree C and 25% R.H.) 8 h rs/day for one week to study the effect of heat stress on total body water content, water turnover rate and biological half life time of tritiated water by using tritiated water dilution technique in comparison to those of cold conditions (15 degree C and 50% R.H.) for 8 h rs/day for one week. The second experiment is concerned with the effect of high and low ambient temperatures on blood parameters (RBC count, Hb content and PCV) blood gases, acid-base status and blood oxygen dissociation curve. The results indicated that total body water content and water turnover rate increased significantly as a result of heat stress but biological half-life time decreased significantly

  5. Gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats - prevalence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, C.; Holm, S. A.; Thamsborg, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims were to examine prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats, based on faecal examination, in relation to geographical distribution and risk factors, and to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes in selected farms. In April 2012 all Danish goat farms...... with ≥10 female goats (N=132) according to the Central Husbandry Register, were invited to participate. Of these, 25 herds each submitted faecal samples, collected approximately 1 month after turn out, from 4‐12 kids born earlier the same year. During May‐July, a total of 232 samples were examined using...

  6. Development of conditioned taste aversion to Mascagnia rigida in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa,Raquel Ribeiro; Silva,Idalécio Pacífico da; Soto-Blanco,Benito

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether goats could be averted from consuming Mascagnia rigida, a toxic plant found in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Fourteen male goats not previously familiarized to M. rigida were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: control (treated with 5.5mL water orally by a drenching gun) and lithium group (treated with 100mg LiCl/kg body weight orally by a drenching gun). For conditioning, goats were allowed to feed on M. rigida leaves for 1...

  7. Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Italian goat breeds measured with microsatellite polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, S H; Pilla, F; Galal, S; Shaat, I; D'Andrea, M; Reale, S; Abdelsalam, A Z A; Li, M H

    2008-06-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to study genetic diversity of three Egyptian (Egyptian Baladi, Barki and Zaraibi) and two Italian (Maltese and Montefalcone) goat breeds. The microsatellites showed a high polymorphic information content (PIC) of more than 0.5 in most of the locus-breed combinations and indicated that the loci were useful in assessing within- and between-breed variability of domestic goat (Capra hircus). The expected heterozygosity of the breeds varied from 0.670 to 0.792. In the geographically wider distributed Egyptian Baladi breed there were indications for deviations from random breeding. Analysis of genetic distances and population structure grouped the three Egyptian goat breeds together, and separated them from the two Italian breeds. The studied Mediterranean breeds sampled from African and European populations seem to have differentiated from each other with only little genetic exchange between the geographically isolated populations.

  8. Assessing admixture by multivariate analyses of phenotypic differentiation in the Algerian goat livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchene-Khelifi, Nadjet-Amina; Ouchene, Nassim; Maftah, Abderrahman; Da Silva, Anne Blondeau; Lafri, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    In Algeria, goat research has been largely neglected, in spite of the economic importance of this domestic species for rural livelihoods. Goat farming is traditional and cross-breeding practices are current. The phenotypic variability of the four main native breeds (Arabia, Makatia, M'zabite and Kabyle), and of two exotic breeds (Alpine and Saanen), was investigated for the first time, using multivariate discriminant analysis. A total of 892 females were sampled in a large area, including the cradle of the native breeds, and phenotyped with 23 quantitative measures and 10 qualitative traits. Our results suggested that cross-breeding practices have ever led to critical consequences, particularly for Makatia and M'zabite. The information reported in this study has to be carefully considered in order to establish governmental plan able to prevent the genetic dilution of the Algerian goat livestock.

  9. Dose-effect Curve for X-radiation in Lymphocytes in Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanbasic, D.; Saracevic, L.; Sacirbegovic, A.

    1998-01-01

    Dose-effect curve for X-radiation was made based on the analysis of chromosome aberrations in lympocytes of goats. Blood samples from seven goats were irradiated using MOORHEAD method, slightly modified and adapted to our conditions. Linear-square model was used, and the dose-effect curves were fitted by the smallest squares method. Dose-effect curve (collective) for goats is displayed as the following expression: y(D)= 8,6639·10 -3 D + 2,9748·10 -2 D 2 +2,9475·10 -3 . Comparison with some domestic animals such as sheep and pigs showed differences not only with respect to linear-square model, but to other mathematical presentations as well. (author)

  10. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  11. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Q211 and K222 PRNP polymorphic variants in the susceptibility of goats to oral infections with Goat Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Fast, C.; Tauscher, Kerstin; Espinosa, J.C.; Groschup, M.H.; Muhammad, Nadeem; Goldmann, W.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Bossers, A.; Andreoletti, O.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The prion protein-encoding gene (PRNP) is one of the major determinants for scrapie occurrence in sheep and goats. However, its effect on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transmission to goats is not clear.

    Methods. Goats harboring wild-type, R/Q211 or Q/K222 PRNP

  13. Study of Goat Herdering System in Sawohan Village, Buduran District, Sidoarjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasich, M.; Suyadi; Ciptadi, G.; Budiarto, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyze goat herdering system in group of goat “Oro-oro” in Sawohan Village, Buduran District, Sidoarjo. This research was conducted by case study method, using 5 members of goat farmers “Oro-oro” with 298 goats. The results of this study indicate that the average number of goat ownership was more than 50 head/farmer. The goat breed that raising by the farmers was Kacang goats. Average daily gains was 53.32 + 36.01 gram, litter size 1.34 + 0.51 head, mean of kidding interval 7,41 + 0,99 month and mortality of kid prenatal period was 20,4%. From this research can be concluded that productivity of goat in Sawohan village was good with herdering system, so it can be used as one of alternative in developing goat farming system in other area.

  14. Bivalent vaccination against pneumonic pasteurellosis in domestic sheep and goats with modified-live in-frame lktA deletion mutants of Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert E; Hauglund, Melissa J; Maheswaran, Samuel K; Tatum, Fred M

    2013-11-01

    A temperature-sensitive shuttle vector, pBB80C, was utilized to generate in-frame deletion mutants of the leukotoxin structural gene (lktA) of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12. Culture supernatants from the mutants contained a truncated protein with an approximate molecular weight of 66 kDa which was reactive to anti-leukotoxin monoclonal antibody. No protein reactive to anti-LktA monoclonal antibody was detected at the molecular weight 100-105 kDa of native LktA. Sheep and goats vaccinated intramuscularly with a mixture of serotypes 5 and 6 mutants were resistant to virulent challenge with a mixture of the wild-type parent strains. These vaccinates responded serologically to both vaccine serotypes and exhibited markedly-reduced lung lesion volume and pulmonary infectious load compared to control animals. Control animals yielded a mixture of serotypes from lung lobes, but the proportion even within an individual animal varied widely from 95% serotype 5-95% serotype 6. Cultures recovered from liver were homogeneous, but two animals yielded serotype 5 and the other two yielded serotype 6 in pure culture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Gamma ray irradiated goat milk: comparative sensorial analysis with pasteurized goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Maria Sylvia de C.C. do Amaral; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Marta H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Goat milk consumption has increased in the last years, due to its better digestibility and for constituting a good alternative to cow milk for intolerant people. Brazil has over 10 millions goats, mainly in the Northeast area. Considering that it is very important to increase the shelf-life for this product, this work was done to test the gamma-radiation as a preservation method, evaluating acceptability by sensorial analysis compared with pasteurized milk. The goat milk was bought in the Animal Production Department/ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, and irradiated with 3,5 kGy in the Food Irradiation Laboratory/CENA/USP, using a cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammabeam-650, from Nordion, Canada. After irradiation, the samples were maintained under refrigeration at 5 deg C and submitted to sensorial analysis at 1 st , 7 th and 15 th days by 30 untrained tasters. The results indicated, by Tukey test, a significant preference for the pasteurized milk in comparison to the irradiated one, because a hard caprine flavor was developed by the irradiation. (author)

  16. Meat quality parameters of descendants by grading hybridization of Boer goat and Guanzhong Dairy goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W; Kou, L; Cao, B; Wei, Y

    2010-03-01

    Chemical composition, cholesterol levels, fatty acid profile, meat taste, and quality parameters were evaluated in 48 buck kids from goats of the Guanzhong Dairy breed (Group G) and their crosses (Group F1: 1/2 Boermale symbolx1/2 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F2: 3/4 Boermale symbolx1/4 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F3: 7/8 Boermale symbolx1/8 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol) at different ages of slaughter (6, 8 and 10 months). Results indicated that grading hybridization (Pmeat nutritive value. The muscle of hybrid goats had lower crude fat and cholesterol, higher crude protein, and greater proportion of C18:2 and C18:3 than that of Group G at each age. Group F1 goats had better (Pgoats were tenderer and juicier compared to Group G. In all four groups, cholesterol levels increased (Pmeat quality, and the higher ratio of unsaturated to SFA in Group F1 indicate better quality for human consumption. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  18. Study Regarding Goat Milk Composition and the Growth Rate in Kids of Carpatina Goat Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Voia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the fat and protein content from goat colostrum and milk at weaning the kids. Also, the growth rate of kids was determined during the 50 days of milk feeding period. The experiment was carried out on 8 Carpatina breed goats with their twin male/female couple kids (n=16. Fat and protein content is significant higher (p<0,001 by 8.12 and 13.2 percentage points, respectively compared to normal goat milk. Body weight at birth was on average 2.72 kg for females and 2.89 kg for males. At the end of experimental period, body weight of males was 2.15 kg higher compared to females. Average daily gain during the milk feeding period was 41.97 g/day significantly higher (p<0.001 in males (168.85 g/day than in females (126.88 g/day.

  19. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Researchers will test improved cassava and sweet potato varieties to ... Integrating improved goat breeds with new varieties of sweetpotatoes and cassava in the agro-pastoral systems of Tanzania : a gendered analysis.

  20. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    3The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of ... Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the caprine PRNP .... Sampling localities, sample size (n) and sex of Turkish native goat breeds.

  1. Dietary overlap between Boer goats and indigenous browsers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly preferred species were Capparis sepiaria, Phyllanthus verrucosus and Scolopia zeyheri, while Rhoicissus tridentata, Calpurnia aurea, Acacia ataxacantha, Euclea natalensis, Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Hippobromus paucifolia were strongly avoided. Goats fed between ground level and 1m, ...

  2. (zp) antibodies in west african dwarf (wad) goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Olaleye

    Sera from 967 adult female West African Dwarf (WAD) goats previously screened for Trypanosome ... There is the possibility of damage to the blood-ovary barrier as a result of trypanosome ... eggs using glass pipettes with bores a little.

  3. Radiographic evaluation of experimentally induced nephrosis in goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Pandey, N. N.; Singh, G. R.; Setia, H. C. [Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (India)

    1995-06-15

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) with pneumoperitoneum (PP) was undertaken in normal and induced nephrotic goats. In normal goats, the technique provided visualization of both the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder at 10 min post-administration of sodium iothalamate (70%). In mercuric chloride- and oxytetracycline-induced nephrosis in goats, the urinary tract could not be visualized even 60 min post-administration of dye indicating sever failure of renal excretory function. However, in gentamicin-abused goats, renal excretory function was not significantly altered owing to a very mild renal damage. It was concluded that IVP with PP could be a dependable diagnostic test for varied degree of renal insufficiency in ruminants.

  4. Radiographic evaluation of experimentally induced nephrosis in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Pandey, N.N.; Singh, G.R.; Setia, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) with pneumoperitoneum (PP) was undertaken in normal and induced nephrotic goats. In normal goats, the technique provided visualization of both the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder at 10 min post-administration of sodium iothalamate (70%). In mercuric chloride- and oxytetracycline-induced nephrosis in goats, the urinary tract could not be visualized even 60 min post-administration of dye indicating sever failure of renal excretory function. However, in gentamicin-abused goats, renal excretory function was not significantly altered owing to a very mild renal damage. It was concluded that IVP with PP could be a dependable diagnostic test for varied degree of renal insufficiency in ruminants

  5. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAMLOLA

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... 2Department of Animal Science, School of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North ... West African dwarf (WAD) goats are an extremely important livestock species in developing countries.

  6. Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in north eastern. Ethiopia ... farmers get value for their stock rather than the middlemen. However ..... of West African long-legged and West African dwarf sheep in Northern Ghana.

  7. Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Saudi goat breeds using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... rational breeding strategy for genetic improvement of goats in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The studied. Mediterranean breeds sampled from African and Asian populations seem to have ..... West Asia and North Africa, Vol. 2.

  8. Growth performance of crossbred kids (Boer x Indigenous Goat Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegay Teklebrhan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate growth performance of crossbred (Boer x Hararaghe Highland and Boer x Short Eared Somali kids at Haramaya University Goat Farm in Eastern Ethiopia. Breed (p

  9. Use of computed tomography to diagnose sinusitis in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrington, G.M.; Tucker, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographic examination proved incapable of determining the extent and severity of chronic sinusitis in a goat. Computed tomography was subsequently used to clearly define the nature and extent of the lesion

  10. Genetic characterization of two Sudanese goat breeds (Capra hircus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... study offer useful information about some Sudanese goat breeds. Key words: Capra hircus ... the College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University, while those for the Nilotic ..... hircus) in Schuan P R China, Zool. Sci. 23: 29-234.

  11. The Garfagnina goat: a zootechnical overview of a local dairy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M; Salari, F; Altomonte, I; Rignanese, D; Chessa, S; Gigliotti, C; Caroli, A

    2010-10-01

    Domestic livestock with a limited distribution are increasingly recognized in the action plans of the European Union as a reason for protecting rural land. The preservation and enhancement of the native germplasm and traits selected through the ages in different areas of farming is the first step in increasing typical products at a time when high quality products are increasingly in demand. This is the first time that a zootechnical overview has been performed on the Italian native goat population named "Garfagnina," which is registered on the Tuscan regional repertory of genetic resources at risk of extinction. The aim of the study was to give added value to this population by focusing on particular traits that could be used for promoting typical products. Data on the size of the local goats, zoometric measures, breeding system, milk quality, and genetic polymorphisms were collected to get insight into the current state of the population of this type of goat. The native goat population is reared in Tuscany in central Italy, mostly for its milk. The local goat farms considered in our study are located in the hills and mountains of the northwestern Tuscan Apennine area. For every farm we measured at least 10% of the reproductive females (273), randomly chosen, and all reproductive males (47) for a total of 320 subjects. Regarding the management of the animals and the feeding system, semi-extensive farming is practiced in all the flocks. From a morphological point of view the animals are relatively homogeneous, especially in terms of zoometric data, whereas they show a wider variability regarding coat. Milk gross and fatty acid composition were similar to that reported in the literature for bulk goat milk. Moreover, the average of somatic cell count and standard plate count found in Garfagnina goat milk indicated good hygienic farm management and correct milking practices, although milking is mainly manual. The average number of globules per milliliter found in

  12. Effect of goat breed on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food

  13. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Djokić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS. Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012, almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001 and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027. Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004. The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.

  14. Metabolism of 181W - labeled sodium tungstate in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, L.; Figueiras, H.D.; Jones, B.E.V.; Myamoto, S.

    1977-11-01

    Radiotungsten was given as Na 2 181 WO 4 orally to 4 goats and intravenously to 3 goats. Blood, milk, urine and faeces were collected regularly during an 8-day period. Thereafter the animals were slaughtered and different tissues were taken for analyses of 181 W. The data obtained suggest that radiotungsten is unlikely to be a significant environmental pollutant source for man, as far as its concentration in milk and meat are concerned

  15. Morphometric and Phylogenic Analysis of Six Population Indonesian Local Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Batubara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives were to characterize morphometric and genetic distance between populations of Indonesian local goats. The morphological discriminant and canonical analysis were carried out to estimate the phylogenic relationship and determine the discriminant variable between Benggala goats (n= 96, Marica (n= 60, Jawarandu (n= 94, (Kacang (n= 217, Muara (n= 30 and Samosir (n= 42. Discriminant analysis used to clasify body weight and body measurements. In the analysis of variance showed that body weight and body measurement (body length, height at withers, thorax width, thorax height, hert girth, skull width and height, tail length and width, ear length and width of Muara goats was higher (P<0.05 compared to the other groups, and the lowest was in Marica goats. The smallest genetic distance was between Marica and Samosir (11.207 and the highest were between Muara and Benggala (255.110. The highest similarity between individual within population was found in Kacang (99.28% and the lowest in Samosir (82.50%. The canonical analysis showed high correlation on canon circumference, body weight, skull width, skull height, and tail width variables so these six variables can be used as distinguishing variables among population. The result from Mahalonobis distance for phenogram tree and canonical analysis showed that six populations of Indonesian local goats were divided into six breed of goats: the first was Muara, the second was Jawarandu, the third was Kacang, the fourth was Benggala, the fifth was Samosir and the sixth was Marica goats. The diversity of body size and body weight of goats was observed quite large, so the chances of increasing productivity could be made through selection and mating programs.

  16. Cell kinetic and radiosensitivity of PHA stimulated goat lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuyst, B.; Rosenthal, M.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining method has been used to study the cell kinetic of goat peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin and to assess their radiosensitivity. At 48 h, the standardized culture time employed for human lymphocytes, 71% of the goat lymphocytes are in first mitosis, 23% are in second mitosis and 5% in third. Irradiation with 200 rads X-rays induces an average of 24,5 dicentric chromosomes per hundred cells in first mitosis [fr

  17. Milk production of Tswana goats fed diets containing different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to characterize the milk yield of the Tswana goat of Botswana. Twenty-one Tswana goat does were allocated to one of three diets formulated to provide energy for maintenance and a milk yield of either 1.5 kg/d, 1.0 kg/d or 0.5 kg/d. Intake, milk yield and kid growth rate was monitored for 14 ...

  18. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, NN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research were : 1) to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2) to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3) to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4) to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performe...

  19. Ultrasonography of the omasum in 30 Saanen goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquat Désirée

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary diseases of the omasum are uncommon in goats, although the omasum may be involved in various gastrointestinal disorders. Examination of the caprine omasum via ultrasonography requires a good understanding of the normal appearance of the organ. However, in contrast to cattle, there is a lack of reference information on this topic in goats. Thus, the goal of the present study was to describe the results of ultrasonography of the omasum in 30 healthy Saanen goats. Results Ultrasonography was carried out in standing, non-sedated goats using a 5.0 MHz linear transducer. The location and size of the omasum, thickness of the omasal wall and visualisation of the abomasal laminae, contents and contractions were assessed. The omasum was visible from the 9th intercostal space (ICS in all the goats, and from the 8th and 10th ICSs in 29 and 24 goats, respectively. The omasum was seen medial to the liver, but only the omasal wall closest to the transducer was visible. The dorsal omasal limit formed a dorsally convex curve running from cranioventral to caudodorsal and was furthest from the dorsal midline in the 6th ICS. The ventral omasal limit formed a ventrally convex curve. The size of the omasum was largest (10.2 ± 3.1 cm in the 9th ICS and decreased cranially and caudally from this position. Active omasal motility was recorded in 20 goats with 0.3 to 2.0 contractions per minute. Conclusions The findings of this study provide reference ranges for the interpretation of the location and size of the omasum in goats with suspected omasal abnormalities. Ultrasonography is an ideal diagnostic tool for evaluation of the omasum, which is not accessible to conventional examination techniques, such as inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation.

  20. Net mineral requirements of dairy goats during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härter, C J; Lima, L D; Castagnino, D S; Silva, H O; Figueiredo, F O M; St-Pierre, N R; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-09-01

    Mineral requirements of pregnant dairy goats are still not well defined; therefore, we investigated the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy and for maintenance during pregnancy in two separate experiments. Experiment 1 was performed to estimate the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements in goats carrying single or twin fetuses from 50 to 140 days of pregnancy (DOP). The net mineral requirements for pregnancy were determined by measuring mineral deposition in gravid uterus and mammary gland after comparative slaughter. In total, 57 dairy goats of two breeds (Oberhasli or Saanen), in their third or fourth parturition, were randomly assigned to groups based on litter size (single or twin) and day of slaughter (50, 80, 110 and 140 DOP) in a fully factorial design. Net mineral accretion for pregnancy did not differ by goat breed. The total daily Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy were greatest in goats carrying twins (Pgoat maintenance during pregnancy. In total, 58 dairy goats (Oberhasli and Saanen) carrying twin fetuses were assigned to groups based on slaughter day (80, 110 and 140 DOP) and feed restriction (ad libitum, 20% and 40% feed restriction) in a randomized block design. The net Ca, P and Mg requirements for maintenance did not vary by breed or over the course of pregnancy. The daily net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for maintenance were 60.4, 31.1 and 2.42 mg/kg live BW (LBW), respectively. The daily net Na requirement for maintenance was greater in Saanen goats (11.8 mg/kg LBW) than in Oberhasli goats (8.96 mg/kg LBW; Pgoats throughout their pregnancy.

  1. Cyolane residues in milk of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.; Fakhr, I.M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Consecutive feeding of lactating goats with 14 C-alkyl labelled cyolane for 5 days at dietary levels 8 and 16 ppm resulted in the appearance of measurable insecticide residues in milk (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). The residue levels were markedly reduced after a withdrawal period of 7 days. Analysis of urine and milk residues showed the presence of similar metabolites in addition to the parent compound. The major part of the residue consisted of mono-, diethyl phosphate and 2 hydrophilic unknown metabolites. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to about 50% after 24 hours whereas the plasma enzyme was only slightly affected. The animals remained symptom-free during the experimental period. (author)

  2. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats.

  3. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation.

  4. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  5. Total intravenous anaesthesia in a goat undergoing craniectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieitez, Verónica; Álvarez Gómez de Segura, Ignacio; López Rámis, Víctor; Santella, Massimo; Ezquerra, Luis Javier

    2017-09-15

    Cerebral coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep and goats, and is usually fatal unless surgical relief is provided. Information regarding neuroanaesthesia in veterinary medicine in goats is scant. We describe anaesthetic management of an intact female goat (2 years; 16 kg) presented for craniectomy. The goat was sedated with xylazine (0.05 mg kg -1 , i.m.) and morphine (0.05 mg kg -1 , i.m.). General anaesthesia was induced 20 min later with propofol and maintained with a constant rate infusion of propofol (0.2 mg kg -1  min -1 ). A cuffed endotracheal tube was placed and connected to a rebreathing (circle) system and mechanical ventilation with 100% oxygen was initiated. A bolus of lidocaine (1 mg kg -1 ), midazolam (0.25 mg kg -1 ) and fentanyl 2.5 μg kg -1 was delivered via the intravenous route followed immediately by a constant rate infusion of lidocaine (50 μg kg -1  min -1 ), midazolam (0.15 mg kg -1  h -1 ) and fentanyl (6 μg kg -1  h -1 ) administered via the intravenous route throughout surgery. Craniectomy was undertaken and the goat recovered uneventfully. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol, lidocaine, fentanyl and midazolam could be an acceptable option for anaesthesia during intracranial surgery in goats.

  6. Effect of cortisol on gluconeogenesis in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastradipradja, D.

    1976-01-01

    Three non-pregnant goats of local Malaysian breed with body weights between 15.9 and 22.6 kg were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to study the effect of daily cortisol injections for 5-6 days on gluconeogenesis. The treatments consisted of cortisol injection at a daily level of 1 mg/kg BW (body weight), 2.5 mg/kg BW, and a control. An extra goat (14.0 kg) received the same treatments for comparison and to check the accuracy of the methods employed. NaH 14 CO 3 , preceded by a primer dose, was infused continuously for 4-5 h to estimate quantitatively the extent to which gluconeogenesis may be affected by cortisol administration. Glucose-2- 3 H was also injected as a single pulse to assess kinetic parameters of the glucose pool. There was strong tendency (P=0.08) indicating that cortisol administration increased plasma glucose concentration. The mean increases above pre-treatment levels were 6.6, 21.3 and 53.5 mg/100 ml plasma for control, low and high cortisol treatment respectively. The transfer quotient from CO 2 to glucose for the treatments was significantly different (P 2 fixation expressed in absolute amounts was not significantly different among treatments (0.24, 0.33 and 0.36 mg/min per kg BW for control, low and high cortisol doses respectively). The insignificant result of the statistical test seemed to be caused by the low precision inherent in the experimental design. The data also show that glucose utilization was not impaired following cortisol treatment, and rather suggest normal glucose utilization at a higher level of plasma glucose concentration. (author)

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimmer Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Barbara; Luttikholt, Saskia; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Vellema, Piet; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van

    2011-12-30

    The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction and minimize airborne

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction

  10. Efficacy of albendazole against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in Ethiopia: relationship between dose and efficacy in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, Tadesse; Chaka, Hassen; Gizaw, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    A suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of Hawassa University was examined using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (EHA) to verify the development of resistance and/or the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. The experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups: treatment versus control) and 24 goats (4 groups: 3 treatments versus control, n = 6; per group) following artificial infection with infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Oesophagostomum columbianum. The first group of sheep and goats were treated orally with albendazole at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg body weight (i.e. manufacturer's recommended dose for sheep) while the second group of sheep and the fourth group of goats were left untreated. The second and the third group of goats were treated with albendazole at 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg respectively. The FECRT showed an efficacy of albendazole in goats to be 65.5, 81.4 and 84.1% at the dose rate of 3.8, 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg body weight respectively while in sheep it was 62% at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg. Increasing the dose to 1.5 the sheep recommended dose induced minor improvement of efficacy in goats; however the efficacy was almost the same at 1.5 and twice the dose recommended for sheep. Worm counts at day 15 post-treatment revealed that H. contortus has developed resistance to albendazole. EHA results also supported these findings. On the other hand, O. columbianum was 100% susceptible at all dose levels tested.

  11. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-12-08

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats.

  12. Male goat vocalizations stimulate the estrous behavior and LH secretion in anestrous goats that have been previously exposed to bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, José Alberto; Vielma, Jesús; Hernandez, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Duarte, Gerardo; Fernández, Ilda Graciela; Keller, Matthieu; Gelez, Hélène

    2012-09-01

    We investigated whether live vocalizations emitted by bucks interacting with anestrous females stimulate secretion of LH, estrous behavior and ovulation in anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks rendered sexually active by exposure to long days followed by natural photoperiod were exposed in a light-proof-building to five anestrous females. Buck vocalizations were reproduced through a microphone-amplifier-loudspeaker system to an open pen where one group of goats (n=6) was exposed for 10 days to these live vocalizations. Another group of females (n=6) was isolated from males and vocalizations. The proportion of goats displaying estrous behavior was significantly higher in females exposed to buck vocalizations than in females isolated from males. The proportion of goats that ovulated did not differ between the 2 groups (exposed to males versus isolated). In experiment 2, female goats that either had previous contact with males (n=7), or no previous contact with males (n=7) were exposed to live buck vocalizations, reproduced as described in experiment 1, for 5 days. The number and amplitude of LH pulses did not differ between groups before exposition to buck vocalizations. Five days of exposure to male vocalizations significantly increased LH pulsatility only in females that had previous contact with males, while LH pulse amplitude was not modified. We concluded that live buck vocalizations can stimulate estrous behavior and LH secretion in goats if they have had previous contact with bucks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of selection signatures for ear carriage in Maltese goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Talenti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection and breeding practices in goats have led to the fixation of several traits. This is probably due to the standardization of several peculiar morphological characteristics that have always been one of the major exclusion criteria of individuals from selection. Among these, ear carriage is one of the most ancient and considered a signature of domestication in several species, such as the dog, pig, sheep and goat (Boyko et al., 2010. The availability of improved genomic analyses tools for goats may provide useful information on genes involved in this trait. By studying, for example, the homozygosity decay of haplotypes (contiguous length of alleles such information can be detected. In the current study, we focused on the Maltese goat, a breed showing floppy ears, in comparison with other Italian breeds using a goat medium density SNP chip (Nicoloso et al., 2015. A total 48,767 SNP markers for 369 animals belonging to 16 breeds or populations were analyzed. Genotypes were imputed within population excluding markers without known position on the current genome assembly (ARS1, Bickhart et al., 2017. Population analysis using MDS, ADMIXTURE and fastSTRUCTURE confirmed the good differentiation among the populations. Integrated Haplotype Score (iHS, Sabeti et al., 2007 was performed for each population, comparing the regions detected on the Maltese breed with the others considered to detect genes that may be involved into shaping  ear morphology. These results may provide new insights into ear carriage phenotype by detecting genes that play a pivotal role in shaping the goat phenotypic diversity. Acknowledgement The research was funded by INNOVAGEN project.

  14. Goat farm management and Brucella serological test among goat keepers and livestock officers, 2011-2012, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te-Chaniyom, Thanidtha; Geater, Alan F; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chethanond, Usa; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease particularly affecting goats, emerged in Thailand in 2003, resulting in both an occupational hazard for goat keepers and livestock officers, and production losses. Farm management practices have been identified as risk factors associated with Brucella sero-positivity in many studies. Our finding in this study should be considered in order to strengthen the system of biosecurity control in farm animals as one health approach. The objectives of the study were to describe the distribution of potential risk factors by types of goat farms and to document the prevalence of human Brucella sero-positivity among goat keepers and livestock officers in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2012. The study population included three types of goat farms: standard, community enterprise and private goat farms that were located in Nakhon Si Thammmarat Province in southern Thailand. Information on whether the farm had any Brucella sero-positivity goats since 2011 was retrieved from the local livestock office records. Information on farming management was also traced back to 2011. Field researchers collected information from goat keepers of the selected farms using a structured questionnaire. Goat keepers on all farms pre-identified (January to June 2012) as having had at least one positive goat were considered to have been exposed. Goat keepers on a random sample of farms having all goats with negative results were considered to be unexposed. Venous blood samples were collected from goat keepers exposed and unexposed and from livestock officers and the samples were tested by IgG ELISA. Statistical analysis was done under the complex survey design in R software. Fourteen standard farms, 66 community enterprise farms and 68 private farms participated in the study; 82.4% (122/148) used public pasture and 53.4% (79/148) shared breeder goats with other farms. Farm management practices corresponding

  15. Seasonal variations in diet selection of Nguni goats: effects of physical and chemical traits of browse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fomum, SW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Goats select some browse species more than others, given options. Seasonal trends of diet selection of Nguni goats indexed by intake were investigated in cafeteria-style experiments. The relationships between diet selection and plant chemical...

  16. Genetic polymorphism of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rulien

    2016-12-24

    Dec 24, 2016 ... variation for αs2-casein in the South African goat populations ... of Pretoria's experimental farm (Saanens) and commercial goat farms in the provinces of Gauteng. (Toggenburg), North West (British Alpine and Toggenburg), ...

  17. Income analysis of goat farmers on the farmers group in district of Serdang Bedagai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, J. N.; Hasnudi; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    The farmers group are expected to reduce the production cost of goat breeding and improve the income of farmers which impact on the welfare of goat farmers. This research aim to analyze the factors that influence the income of farmers group, in sub-district Dolok Masihul Pegajahan, and Dolok Merawan, Serdang Bedagai. The method used is survey method with 90 respondents. Data was analysed by multiple linear regression. The result showed, simultaneously goat cost, sale price of goat, fixed cost and variable cost had significant effect on income of goat farmers. Partially, goat cost, variable cost and sale price of goat had significant effect on income of goat farmers, while fixed cost had no significant effect.

  18. Serological prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goats and ewes diagnosed with adverse pregnancy outcomes in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filioussis, George; Theodoridis, Alexandros; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Vouraki, Sotiria; Bramis, George; Arsenos, Georgios

    2017-12-23

    Coxiella burnetii is an obligatory intracellular bacterial pathogen causing the zoonotic disease Q fever. The most common reservoirs of C. burnetii are wild mammals, birds and ticks. Pregnant domestic ruminants infected with this bacterium are also a major source of human infection. The serological prevalence of C. burnetii in goats and sheep diagnosed with adverse pregnancy outcomes was assessed by undertaking a survey on 800 dairy goats and 800 dairy ewes reared in four different regions of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace, Thessaly, and Peloponnese). A stratified sampling was carried out, taking also as a criterion the age of the animals. Serum antibodies were analyzed by a commercial ELISA according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Generally, there was a statistically significantly higher serological prevalence of C. burnetii (14.4%) in goats compared to sheep (8%). Serological prevalence was higher in adults (15.5% in goats and 8.5% in sheep) compared to yearlings (7.4% in goats and 4.6% in sheep). The prevalence increased significantly with age only in goats. Finally, all animals reared in Peloponnese had a prevalence significantly higher (21% in goats and 18% in sheep) than animals reared in the other three regions. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report that associates C. burnetii with reproductive disturbances of domestic ruminants in Greece. However, considering the importance of coxiellosis for public health, further investigations are required on its epidemiology regarding abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth and weak offspring in small ruminants, as well as in other domestic and wild animal species.

  19. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  20. Laryngeal Neuropathy in Adult Goats With Copper Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, R F A; Almeida, V M; Neto, J E; Nascimento, C W A; Medeiros, G X; Medeiros, R M T; Riet-Correa, F; Mendonça, F S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the cause of a neurological syndrome characterized by stridor in adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency. The main clinical signs consisted of apathy, emaciation, pale mucous membranes, mucous nasal discharge, dyspnea, severe achromotrichia, diffuse alopecia, torpor, ataxia, and stridor. When the goats were forced to move, the stridor increased. In a herd of 194 Toggenburg goats, 10 adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency were removed from the herd and divided into 2 groups: group 1, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck with stridor, and group 2, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck without stridor. Group 3, used as a control, consisted of 5 adult goats from another flock without any clinical signs of disease. The mean serum copper concentrations were 1.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L in group 1, 8.1 ± 1.1 μmol/L in group 2, and 11.3 ± 2.2 μmol/L in group 3. The mean serum iron concentrations were 42.3 ± 14.2 μmol/L in group 1, 39.1 ± 8.2 μmol/L in group 2, and 20.6 ± 6.1 μmol/L in group 3. The main histological lesions in goats from group 1 were axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves and atrophy of the muscles of vocal folds and of the dorsal cricoarytenoid and right and left cricothyroid muscles. Goats with ataxia had neuronal degeneration and necrosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells and of the cranial cervical ganglion. We concluded that the stridor was caused by axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves due to the severe copper deficiency.

  1. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  2. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after laparoscopic intrauterine insemination: a field study

    OpenAIRE

    KULAKSIZ, Recai; DAŞKIN, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after intrauterine laparoscopic artificial insemination with frozen semen. Twenty-four Saanen goats, divided in 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 11 primiparous goats and group 2 consisted of 13 multiparous goats. Estrus was synchronized by 20 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA)-impregnated intravaginal sponges and the IM administration of 125 mg of cloprostenol (PGF2a) and eCG (400 IU...

  4. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-08-06

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Peripheral and placental immune responses in goats after primoinfection with Neospora caninum at early, mid and late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Horcajo, Pilar; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Romão, Elton Amorim; Álvarez-García, Gema; Mesquita, Emanuela Polimeni de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2017-08-15

    Neospora caninum can cause reproductive failure in goats. However, the pathogenesis of neosporosis in this domestic species remains largely unknown. We recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection by N. caninum in pregnant goats is highly dependent on the time of gestation, during which infection occurs. In the present study, we examined the peripheral and placental immune responses in these groups of goats infected with 10 6 tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at early (G1, at day 40 of gestation, dg), mid (G2, 90 dg) and late (G3, 120 dg) gestation, together with a group of non-infected goats as a control group (G4). Seroconversion was observed as early as day 10 post-infection (pi) in all goats from G1 that aborted earlier (10-11 pi). The remaining infected goats had seroconverted by day 14 pi. Similar IFN-γ kinetic profiles were found in sera from goats in G1 and G2 with a significant increase in the IFN-γ levels on days 7 and 10 pi. This increase was not observed in G3. A similar pattern of placental cytokine expression was found in all infected groups. IFN-γ and IL-4 showed the highest increase, followed by a weaker up-regulation in TNF-α and IL-10. The lowest up-regulation was observed for IL-12 expression. In summary, this study provides information regarding the dynamics of immune responses and their relationship with the outcome of N. caninum infection in goats during gestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic polymorphism of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism and genetic variation of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goats, using DNA sequencing technology. Sixty dairy goats (20 Saanes, 20 British Alpine, and 20 Toggenburg) and 20 meat-type goats were sequenced with four primers to distinguish among the seven known ...

  7. A survey of goat production in the developing areas of the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    kidding rate, fecundity, herd health care, herd management, live weight and withers height, coat color, skin condition ... were collected on breed and type of goat, reasons for keeping goats, health care, management, fertility, fecundity, sex, mature ... The main reasons given for keeping goats were for milk, meat and social ...

  8. Induction of estrus during the non-breeding season in Egyptian Baladi goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, Mohamed; Shalaby, Abdel-Hamid; Sharawy, Sayed; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The induction of estrus during the non-breeding season was investigated in 100 Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). All animals assigned to treatments had low progesterone concentrations (Baladi goats using norgestomet and PGF2alpha and the injection of GnRH 24 hr after norgestomet implant removal synchronized ovulation in a higher percentage of goats.

  9. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for growth traits of Hainan Black goat in southern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Han Lin; Gu, Li Hong; Sun, Yanyan; Xu, Tie Shan; Rong, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic improvement of the growth of Hainan Black goats is a major concern as the breed is an important meat-type goat raised in southern China. To estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for growth traits for this breed, a population of 1354 Hainan Black goats born and maintained at the

  10. Genome-wide population structure and admixture analysis reveals weak differentiation among Ugandan goat breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Upadhyay, M.R.; Mukiibi, R.; Kanis, E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Uganda has a large population of goats, predominantly from indigenous breeds reared in diverse production systems, whose existence is threatened by crossbreeding with exotic Boer goats. Knowledge about the genetic characteristics and relationships among these Ugandan goat breeds and the potential

  11. Strain characterization of West African Dwarf goats of Ogun State II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf (WAD) goat presents variable coat colours, ranging from black, brown, gray, red and white and sometimes combinations of these variety of patterns. In this study, strains of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat were characterized using linear body measurement. The WAD goat included the chocolate, white ...

  12. Strain characterization of West African Dwarf Goats of Ogun State I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of West African Dwarf goat is an approach to a sustainable use of its great potentials. In this study, strains of WAD goat were characterized using linear body measurement. The WAD goat included the gold (brown), black, buckskin and chaimose of ages 1, 2, 3 and 4 years,raised under extensive system of ...

  13. Feeding Chromonaela odorata during pregnancy to goat dams affects acceptance of this feedstuff by their offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Everts, H.; Tien, van D.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Chromonaela odorata ingestion by goat dams during pregnancy on intake of C. odorata by their kids. Alteration of prenatal feed preference may be used to increase feed intake of novel feeds and the transit from outdoor to indoor goat farming in Vietnam. Ten female goats

  14. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY... testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action will facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by eliminating the need to conduct pre...

  15. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    .... APHIS-2009-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements... tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action would facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by...

  16. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  17. Goats and/or cattle on Mopani veld. | C.H. | African Journal of Range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This phenomenon had a marked influence on the outcome of the results of the trial. It was concluded that the use of both cattle and goats is desirable in order to utilize and control woody plants. A cattle:goat ratio of less than 1:2 should be applied if the goats are to attain optimum production. Keywords: animal performance ...

  18. Molecular cloning, polymorphisms, and expression analysis of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, M X; Wang, H H; Wang, Z W

    2015-11-24

    The current study aimed to investigate the coding sequence, polymorphisms, and expression of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats. cDNA of RERG, obtained through reverse transcription PCR was analyzed using bioinformatic techniques. Polymorphisms in the exon regions of the RERG gene were identified and their associations with growth traits in three varieties of indigenous Chinese goats were investigated. Expression of the RERG gene in three goat breeds of the same age was detected using real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that the cDNA of RERG, which contained a complete open reading frame of 20-620 bp, was 629 bp in length. The associated accession numbers in GenBank are JN672576, JQ917222, and JN580309 for the QianBei Ma goat, the GuiZhou white goat, and the GuiZhou black goat, respectively. Four consistent SNP sites were found in the exon regions of the RERG gene for the three goat breeds. mRNA expression of the RERG gene differed between different tissues in adult goats of same age. The highest expression was observed in lung and spleen tissues, while the lowest expression was recorded in thymus gland tissue. In addition, the expression of the RERG gene in the muscle of Guizhou white goat, GuiZhou black goat, and QianBei Ma goat decreased sequentially. Our results lay the foundations for further investigation into the role of the RERG gene in goat growth traits.

  19. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan/salt group (GY was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01 than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01. The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01 after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal

  20. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  1. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS goat isolate (RSHc and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc (isolated from WAD goats, was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3 of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP, faecal egg counts (FEC, worm burden (WB, body weight (BW, packed cell volume (PCV, and body condition score (BCS were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63±0.26 and 19.50±0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P=0.004 and WB (P=0.001. BW were significantly higher (P=0.004 both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P=0.001. There was a significant drop in PCV (P=0.004 of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  2. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4-6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  3. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  4. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  5. Laparoscopic ovarian biopsy pick-up method for goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fabiana A S; Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Souza, Samara S; Silva, Yago P; Freitas, Vicente J F; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2018-02-01

    Biopsy pick-up (BPU) has been considered a safe method to harvest ovarian fragments from live animals. However, no studies have been reported on the use of BPU to collect in vivo ovarian tissue in goats. The goals of this study were: (i) to test different biopsy needle sizes to collect ovarian tissue in situ using the BPU method (Experiment 1), and (ii) to study ovarian tissue features such as preantral follicle density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density in ovarian fragments obtained in vivo through a laparoscopic BPU method (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, goat ovaries (n = 20) were collected in a slaughterhouse and subjected to in situ BPU. Three needles (16, 18, and 20G) were tested. In Experiment 2, the most efficient biopsy needle from Experiment 1 was used to perform laparoscopic BPU in goats (n = 8). In Experiment 1, the recovery rate was greater (P rate). Overall, 2054 preantral follicles were recorded in 5882 histological sections analyzed. Mean preantral follicular density was 28.4 ± 1.3 follicles per cm 2 . The follicular density differed (P rate in goats. Furthermore, this study described for the first time that goat ovarian biopsy fragments have a high heterogeneity in follicular density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Observation of physiological changes after Detomidine administration in Pateri goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tunio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physiological effects of detomidine on Pateri goats. A total of six female Pateri goats were randomly treated with three different dose rates of Detomidine at 40 μg, 50 μg and 60 μg/kg body weights. The effects of Detomidine on respiratory and heart rate, rectal temperature and serum glucose level were investigated. Following detomidine intravenous administration in goats, it produced dose dependent effect on physiological parameters. Respiratory and heart rate decreased after intravenous administration in all goats. The heart rate decreased at 5 min with all dose rates and returned to the base line at 60 min. This change in heart rate was dose dependent and there was no significant (P>0.05 change observed with 40 μg and 50 μg/kg of Detomidine. However, there was significant difference (P<0.05 at 75 min between the 40 μg and 60 μg/kg of Detomidine in all goats. However, significant (P<0.01 increase in serum glucose level occurred with all dose rates at 30 min compared with control groups. It is concluded that Detomidine has produced no adverse effect on physiological parameters.

  7. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with 125 I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of 35 S and 125 I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any 125 I or 35 S-labeled surface proteins

  8. HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN THE ALPINE GOATS DURING LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Antunović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present haematological parameters in the Alpine goats during lactation. The study included 15 goats average age of 5 years in the 4th lactation. The blood sampling of goats was conducted on the 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days of lactation. In the blood of goats, significant decrease in the number of red blood cells was determined, as lactation progressed, and their growth in the latter measure, but with no significant difference. Also, a significant decrease was found in the number of leukocytes as lactation progressed, whereas the 120th day of lactation showed their increase compared to the 90th day. A similar trend was found out for the content of hemoglobin and hematocrit. The mean volume of red blood cells and a significant proportion of monocytes were declining as lactation advance, while the mean concentration of hemoglobin significantly increased, and in the end of the study significantly decreased, compared to the measurement of 90th day. The above mentioned changes in hematological parameters indicate the quality of recovery and adjustment of goats in lactation.

  9. Mediterranean shrub diversity and its effect on food intake in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šarić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean ecosystem offers a variety of shrubs that were over long periods of time involved in the evolution of complex plant-animal interactions. Biochemical components of these plants enter different metabolic pathways after digestion and absorption, resulting in development of dietary preferences in browsing animals. Herbivores in general were found to perform better when grazing in a mixed plant community composed of diverse species, and show preferential feeding behaviours for mixed vs single species diet. Our findings demonstrate an asymptotic relationship among Mediterranean shrubs species diversity and their voluntary intake by goats. Shrub biomass intake showed linear increase when number of different shrubs in diet increased from one to three. However, goats did not further increase intake when the number of shrub species increased from four to eight. As the number of shrub species offered increased, goats exhibited more preferential feeding behaviour for Quercus pubescens, Fraxinus ornus, Rubus heteromorphus and Arbutus unedo and decreased the intake of Hedera helix, Juniperus oxycedrus and Helichrysum italicum. This asymptotic relationship indicates that the maintenance of plant species richness in Mediterranean shrublands can overall benefit domestic goat farming, goat’s productive performance, and the conservation of plant biodiversity.

  10. Metabolic fate of cinmethylin in goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, M.D.; Stearns, S.M.; Lee, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic fate of [phenyl- 14 C]cinmethylin (1), a novel cineole herbicide, in a lactating goat was examined. The test animal was administered four consecutive daily doses equivalent to approximately 100 ppm cinmethylin in the daily diet. The animal was sacrificed 6 h after the last dosing. A rapid and extensive metabolism of cinmethylin was observed. The major route of elimination was via urine: 40% of the administered dose and feces (20%). [ 14 C]Carbon dioxide or radioactive material in the respired air and residual radioactivity in the digestive tract were not monitored. A complex degradation pattern in the excreta and liver tissue was observed. In addition to the undegraded cinmethylin, recovered only in the feces, at least 25 metabolites were isolated and identified as both organic-extractable and conjugated products. They were classified as mono-, di-, trihydroxylated, dehydrated, carboxylated, methoxylated, and ether linkage cleavage products. The level of 14 C residues in the milk and tissues was low and combined to account for less than 1% of the administered radioactivity

  11. Quantitative determination of casein genetic variants in goat milk: Application in Girgentana dairy goat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of albendazole sulfoxide in sheep and goats, and dose-dependent plasma disposition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Dilek; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Sekkin, Selim; Boyacioğlu, Murat; Cirak, Veli Yilgor; Ayaz, Erol; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2015-05-27

    The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO, ricobendazole) in goats and sheep at a dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (BW), after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations, and to investigate the effects of increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg BW) on the plasma disposition of ABZ-SO in goats following SC administration. A total of 16 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus, eight males and eight females) and 8 sheep (Ovis aries, four males and four females) 12-16 months old and weighing 20-32 kg, were used. The study was designed according to two-phase crossover study protocol. In Phase-1, eight sheep were assigned as Group I and 16 goats were allocated into two groups (Group II and Group III). ABZ-SO was applied to Group I (sheep) and Group II (goats) animals subcutaneously, and to Group III (goats) animals intravenously, all at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW. In Phase-2, the sheep in the Group I received ABZ-SO intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg BW; the goats in Group II and Group III received ABZ-SO subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg BW, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at different times between 1 and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of ABZ-SO and its metabolites were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. In goats, the area under the curve, terminal half-life and plasma persistence of ABZ-SO were significantly smaller and shorter, respectively, compared with those observed in sheep following both IV and SC administrations at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW. On the other side, dose-dependent plasma dispositions of ABZ-SO were observed following SC administration at increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) in goats. Consequently, ABZ-SO might be used at higher doses to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to achieve greater efficacy against the target parasites.

  13. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... The baseline for this analysis is the present state of the beef, chicken, goat, lamb and pork...

  14. Genetic characterization of Istrian goat: the key-point for a long-term conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Istrian goat is an autochthonous Croatian breed which inhabited Istrian peninsula and was important in milk production and human nutrition, especially for poor people. For centuries Istrian goat was a recognizable heraldic symbol of Istria, but in her real form almost disappeared from the breeding area. The revitalization and reaffirmation of Istrian goat began with several dozen remaining breeding animals, after a decade-long breeding ban. Genetic characterization of the Istrian goat population is necessary for providing insight into the state of genetically preserved structure within population as well as positioning Istrian goats within phylogenetically related breeds. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of reproductive individuals of Istrian goat and related breeds, Croatian White goat and Saanen goat was carried out. In the population of Istrian goat, higher allelic variability (nA = 9.7; AR = 7.4 were found as well as significant genetic distance (FST = 0.068 - 0.086 in relation to other two breeds. Such results indicated that Istrian goat constitutes a separate genetic identity. The observed ten haplotype sequences of the D-loop mtDNA also confirm the significant genetic richness of the maternal hereditary component. The observed haplotypes in the population of Istrian goat belong to lineage A. A smaller number of haplotypes shows similarity to the group of “white” goats, indicating traces of earlier limited but targeted crossing of Istrian goats. The genetic profile analysis of Istrian goats indicates a high level of genetic variability and provides guidelines for a long-term conservation program. The preserved genetic and promising potential of milk production of Istrian goat makes a significant basis for her economic reaffirmation. Orientation of the breed towards milk production could be an efficient strategy for its effective preservation.

  15. Goats in the city: prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in extensively reared goats in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utaaker, Kjersti Selstad; Myhr, Nina; Bajwa, Rajinder Singh; Joshi, Himanshu; Kumar, Anil; Robertson, Lucy J

    2017-12-22

    Various characteristics of goats mean they are highly suitable livestock for backyard rearing by people with limited resources. They are a popular livestock choice in India, where they are often kept to supplement an already scarce income. In these settings, hygiene and sanitation standards tend to be low, and weakens the interface between humans and animals, thus reducing the barrier between them and thereby increasing the likelihood that zoonotic and anthroponotic infections will occur. This study reports an investigation of the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in goats being reared in different settings in urban and peri-urban areas in northern India, and addressed the zoonotic potential of these important protozoan parasites shed from goats living close to humans. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 33.8 and 0.5% for Cryptosporidium spp.; the relatively low prevalence of cryptosporidiosis may reflect that most samples were derived from adult animals. The prevalence of G. duodenalis excretion was found to be similar to that reported in other studies. However, although other studies have reported a predominance of non-zoonotic Assemblage E in goats, in this study potentially zoonotic Assemblages predominated [Assemblage A (36%) and Assemblage B (32%)]. The results of this study indicate that in this area where goats and humans are living in close proximity, there may be sharing of intestinal parasites, which can be detrimental for both host species.

  16. The Production of Goat Milk under Organic Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Stan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has turned into a very important subject who consists in a food production label and it has become very popular. That is because, especially in the EU the majority of the dairy goat farms want or have already applied the organic farming in order to benefit not only from the good price of milk but also from the given positive image. The main issue of this study is the high production of goat milk using organic farming under specific regulations. Therefore, the organic farming is based on a safe environment, 100% organic feedstuffs, healthy animals (by prevention of diseases, natural mating, reduced stress in animal rearing, modern stables and milking equipment. A few feeding rations were established to improve the quantity and quality of goat milk.

  17. Necrotizing granulomatous pneumonia caused by fungal infection in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wapf, P.; Braun, U.; Ossent, P.; Scharf, G.

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical and postmortem findings in a 2.5-year-old goat with necrotizing granulomatous pneumonia. The goat was referred to our clinic because of swelling of the head and neck, which was unresponsive to treatment, dysphagia, and deterioration in general condition. Thoracic radiographs showed two soft tissue densities, about 10 cm in diameter, in the left caudodorsal lung. The goat was euthanized and a necropsy was carried out. The two lesions in the left caudodorsal lung were round, firm and clearly demarcated from the surrounding lung tissue. They contained purulent material and compromised about 70 % of the diaphragmatic lung lobe. Histological examination of the lesions revealed a dense network of hyphae characteristic of Mucorales spp

  18. Reproductive performance of the Saanen goat in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianchen; Duan Enkui; Huang Qunshan; Hao Zhiming; Wu Hao

    1991-01-01

    Reproductive endocrinology of Saanen dairy goats in China was studied during puberty, pregnancy, parturition and different breeding seasons. The effect of controlled release melatonin (CRM) on ovarian function in the non-breeding season was also evaluated. The average pubertal live weight, age and length of the pubertal oestrous cycle were 10.2 kg, 54.7 days and 8.3 days, respectively. The average length of pregnancy was 150.6 days. Diurnal changes of plasma concentrations of 17β-oestradiol, cortisol and progesterone during pregnancy and parturition are described. The breeding season began in the middle of August for adult Saanen goats. No significant differences were observed in 17β-oestradiol and progesterone concentrations in the milk of goats treated with CRM during June in the non-breeding season. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  19. The immunogenic effect of irradiated Hemonchus contortus larvae in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Cruz, B.; Perfuse, W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against parasitic disease has been reported in literature. The use of irradiated larvae as vaccines enables one to take advantage of the special immunological properties of living parasites; the radiation treatment can largely suppress the pathogenic effects of the vaccines and the reproductive capacity of the parasites involved. This report deals with our attempts to produce a radiation-attenuated vaccine against Hemonchus contortus infection in adult goats. Hemonchus contortus infection in ruminants is prevalent in the Philippines, especially among cattle and goats. The results presented indicate that a certain degree of resistance against Hemonchus contortus infection can be induced in adult goats immunized with irradiated larvae. The shelf-life of the vaccine was also determined. (author)

  20. Cassava dreg as replacement of corn in goat kid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Lucíola Vilarim; Guim, Adriana; Véras, Robson Magno Liberal; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos; de Freitas, Marciela Thais Dino

    2018-02-01

    The effects of corn replacement by cassava dreg in diets of crossbred goat kids were evaluated. We tested the impacts of 0, 33, 66 and 100% replacement on intake, digestibility, feeding behaviour, performance and carcass characteristics. Thirty-six goat kids, aged between 4 and 5 months and with initial body weights of 17.61 ± 1.98 kg, were used in a completely randomised design. Analysis of regression revealed a negative linear effect on neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake and a positive linear effect on non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and hydrocyanic acids (HCN) intake. Cassava dreg use had a positive linear effect on organic matter digestibility and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Based on our results, cassava dreg use did not negatively impact animal performance, feeding behaviour and carcass characteristics, suggesting that it may replace corn up to 100% in the diets of confined goat kids.

  1. Consumer Willingness to Pay a Premium for Halal Goat Meat: A Case from Atlanta, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The growth in goat meat demand is attributed to the influx of immigrants from goat-meat-eating countries into the U.S. This Paper examines the willingness to pay a premium for halal goat meat. The factors that significantly impact the willingness to pay a premium for halal goat meat in Atlanta include income, current consumption, household size, and marital status. Results suggest that the mean willingness to pay a premium for the halal attribute is 50 cents per pound of goat meat.

  2. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P goat meat compared with the control groups (P meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  3. A Pilot Study of Halal Goat-Meat Consumption in Atlanta, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Liu, Xuanli; Nelson, Mack C.

    2008-01-01

    Atlanta is a relatively large market for goat meat. As in most metropolitan areas around the U.S., goat-meat consumption has grown steadily in Atlanta over the past decade (Northwest Cooperative Development Center 2005; Nettles and Bukenya 2004). This growth is attributed to the influx of immigrants from goat-meat-eating countries into the U.S. over the same period (Gipson 1999). The increase in demand for goat meat has made the U.S. a net importer of competitively priced goat meat from Austr...

  4. Genetic Resistance to Scrapie Infection in Experimentally Challenged Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

  5. Goats display audience-dependent human-directed gazing behaviour in a problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Brett, Jemma M; McElligott, Alan G

    2016-07-01

    Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an 'unsolvable problem' task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward-facing or an away-facing person. They gazed towards the forward-facing person earlier and for longer and showed more gaze alternations and a lower latency until the first gaze alternation when the person was forward-facing. Our results provide strong evidence for audience-dependent human-directed visual orienting behaviour in a species that was domesticated primarily for production, and show similarities with the referential and intentional communicative behaviour exhibited by domestic companion animals such as dogs and horses. This indicates that domestication has a much broader impact on heterospecific communication than previously believed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  7. Reproduction and milk production performances of Draa goats in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Boujenane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was a contribution to the knowledge of Draa goats. The study concerned the analysis of reproduction and milk production performances of Draa goats at Skoura research station from 1989 to 2001. Age at first kidding, gestation period, kidding interval, and kidding to conception interval averaged 25.5 months, 153 days, 157 days and 206 days, respectively. The lactation period was 133 days. Daily milk production and total milk production were 0.46 and 61.3 kg, respectively. It was concluded that it would be interesting to make use of the genetic variability present in the breed for selection purposes.

  8. Respiratory disease, behavior, and survival of mountain goat kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Anderson, Christopher A.; Clark, Nicholas J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Plummer, Paul J.; Cox, Mike; Mcadoo, Caleb; Wolff, Peregrine L.

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a threat to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. Bighorn sheep in the East Humboldt Mountain Range (EHR), Nevada, USA, experienced a pneumonia epizootic in 2009–2010. Testing of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) that were captured or found dead on this range during and after the epizootic detected bacteria commonly associated with bighorn sheep pneumonia die‐offs. Additionally, in years subsequent to the bighorn sheep epizootic, the mountain goat population had low kid:adult ratios, a common outcome for bighorn sheep populations that have experienced a pneumonia epizootic. We hypothesized that pneumonia was present and negatively affecting mountain goat kids in the EHR. From June–August 2013–2015, we attempted to observe mountain goat kids with marked adult females in the EHR at least once per week to document signs of respiratory disease; identify associations between respiratory disease, activity levels, and subsequent disappearance (i.e., death); and estimate weekly survival. Each time we observed a kid with a marked adult female, we recorded any signs of respiratory disease and collected behavior data that we fit to a 3‐state discrete hidden Markov model (HMM) to predict a kid's state (active vs. sedentary) and its probability of disappearing. We first observed clinical signs of respiratory disease in kids in late July–early August each summer. We observed 8 of 31 kids with marked adult females with signs of respiratory disease on 13 occasions. On 11 of these occasions, the HMM predicted that kids were in the sedentary state, which was associated with increased probability of subsequent death. We estimated overall probability of kid survival from June–August to be 0.19 (95% CI = 0.08–0.38), which was lower than has been reported in other mountain goat populations. We concluded that respiratory disease was present in the mountain goat kids in the EHR and negatively affected their activity levels and survival

  9. Production systems of Creole goat and their implications for a breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; Mandonnet, N; Arquet, R; de la Chevrotière, C; Naves, M; Mahieu, M; Alexandre, G

    2010-12-01

    The Creole goat is a local meat breed well adapted to the tropical environment of Guadeloupe, a French island in the Caribbean. A survey of 47 goat farmers was conducted in May 2008 to describe the Guadeloupean goat farming systems. It was the preliminary step for the implementation of a breeding programme for Creole goats. Farmers had 31 does on average. A small number (4%) kept only Creole goats. Most of them (62%) had a mixed herd of Creole and crossbreds. One-third of them (34%) reared only crossbred goats. Farmers appreciate the rusticity and resistance of the Creole goat but consider its growth as too slow. The most desired traits for goat selection were conformation and growth for males (77% of the answers). These traits were also important for females (30% of the answers). Maternal qualities were also frequently cited (maternal behaviour 23%, reproduction 20% and milk production 17%). Disease resistance was not seen as an important trait (10% and 7% of the answers for bucks and does, respectively). A typology constituted of five groups of farmers was also created. Farmers of three groups were retained to participate at a selection programme. They kept Creole goats and have expressed a strong willingness to join a selection programme. The results of the survey suggest that a breeding programme should mostly focus on the Creole goat as a maternal breed. Real consideration should be given to disease resistance. The Creole goat has indeed a key role to play in the sustainability of local farming systems.

  10. Titres of Specific Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in Goats and their Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Mišurová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to perform repeated determination of specific antibody levels in mothers and their kids in order to assess indirectly the possibility of vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis in goats. Twenty-eight goats with their kids were included in the study. The following variables were assessed: number of born kids in relation to antibody titres of goats; levels of specific antibodies in the blood of goats and kids; and concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig, total protein (TP and total globulins (G in order to define the end of colostral immunity and the start of active production of antibodies in kids under 69 days of age. Specific antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in goats were detected by IFAT in titres ranging from 0 to 1 280. Out of a total of 28 animals, 5 goats were negative (17.9% and 23 goats were seropositive (82.1%. The goats delivered 42 kids. A total ratio of number of kids to number of mothers was 1.5. Partial evaluation of results in goats without positive titre against T. gondii before parturition and goats with positive titre showed that negative goats tended to have more kids (p p < 0.01 of monitored non-specific immunity indicators. During this period, we observed increased titres of specific antibodies against toxoplasmosis in 20 kids (5 kids 41 days old, 5 kids 55 days old, and 10 kids 69 days old and thus we could assume the possibility of vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis.

  11. Technical efficiency of goat farming in Turkey: a case study of Isparta province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt Gül

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study estimates the technical efficiency of goat rearing in the province of Isparta in Turkey using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The data used were collected from 92 goat farmers using the stratified sampling method by means of a questionnaire. The technical efficiency of the goat farming varied widely between 0.13 and 1.00. The mean efficiency of 92 goat farms was calculated to be 0.44 and 0.66 for constant and variable returns to scale assumptions, respectively. The greatest slacks were in feedstuff concentrates and labour used. The most significant factors affecting efficiency of goat production were farmer experience, cooperative membership, milk yield per goat, and family and hired labour. Technical efficiency should be improved by providing farmers with well-organised education, an extension program, and research and development programs on goat rearing.

  12. Genetic distances and taxonomic trees between goats of Ceará State (Brazil and goats of the Mediterranean region (Europe and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Théa M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Goats of an undefined breed (called UDB from the State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil (N = 447, European Mediterranean goats (N = 3,847 and African Mediterranean goats (N = 325 were compared to establish genetic distances and taxonomic trees. Allelic frequencies in each population for presence or absence of the following traits were used: horns, reduced ears, long hair, wattles, beard, roan color, brown eumelanin and eumelanic standard pigmentation. The genetic distance, applying the method developed by Nei (1972, was: least between goats from different meso-regions of the State of Ceará (0.0008 to 0.0120; small between all UDB of Ceará and French goats of Rove and Haute Roya (0.0236 and 0.0459; greater between all UDB of Ceará and northern Spanish goats (0.1166, and greatest between all UDB of Ceará and northern African goats (Moroccan of Drâa, Rhâali and Zagora, Balkan goats (Sakhar from Bulgaria and Macedonia from Greece and some insular Mediterranean populations (Corsica, Sicily and Sardinia, which ranged from 0.1237 to 0.2714. Brazilian UDB goats are more closely related to Continental and Western European populations than to North African, Balkan or Insular Mediterranean populations.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats from the south-west region of Poland and the detection of T. gondii DNA in goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jacek; Kusyk, Pawel; Bilska-Zajac, Ewa; Karamon, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Wojcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zajac, Violetta; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Rozycki, Miroslaw; Cencek, Tomasz

    2017-07-11

    Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite prevalent in animals and humans worldwide having medical and veterinary importance on account of causing abortion or congenital disease in intermediate hosts, including man. Since T. gondii has already been identified in the milk of goats, Capra aegagrus hircus (Linnaeus), the possibility of acquiring infection by ingesting unpasteurised goat milk should be taken into consideration. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the presence of T. gondii DNA in goat milk. First, 73 goats (females) from 36 farms located in Poland were examined serologically by direct agglutination test (DAT) to estimate the T. gondii serological status. Milk samples from 60 selected lactating females were examined for the presence of T. gondii DNA by Real time PCR and nested PCR (B1 gene). To estimate the clonal type of detected T. gondii, multiplex PCR was performed using 6 markers. In DAT, positive results were found in 70% of 73 goats. Among examined 60 milk samples, 65% were positive in Real time PCR and 43% in nested PCR. It is noteworthy that 11 samples positive in PCR were collected from seronegative goats. The multilocus PCR analysis mostly revealed the occurrence of genotype III, which is relatively rare in Europe. The recorded high prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in tested goats (70%), associated with a high prevalence of T. gondii DNA in goat milk samples (65%), indicates a potential risk of the parasite transmission through goat milk ingestion.

  14. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pfarms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency. We concluded that most of the studied variables were mainly related to goat physiology characteristics, as the effects of milking parameters and

  15. First genotyping of Blastocystis sp. in dairy, meat, and cashmere goats in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Ke; Yin, Yan-Ling; Yuan, Ya-Jie; Tang, Huan; Ren, Guan-Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Li, Zi-Xuan; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2017-12-01

    Blastocystis is one of the most common parasites inhabiting in small intestines of human and animals. Although its pathogenicity has been remaining controversial, the possibility of zoonotic transmission between human and animals was recognized. The goat was one of the most important economic animals supplying people with cashmere, meat, and dairy products. However, few studies were to investigate Blastocystis infection in goats. A total of 789 faecal specimens of goats (including 362 of dairy, 193 of meat and 234 of cashmere goats) were collected from multiple regions of Shaanxi province in northwestern China to investigate the colonization frequency and subtypes of Blastocystis, and to assess the zoonotic potential of these goats. The respective colonization frequencies of Blastocystis in dairy, meat and cashmere goats were 54.1% (196/362), 40.4% (78/193) and 78.6% (184/234). The prevalence of Blastocystis in pre-weaned (0-2-month) goats was significantly lower than that in goats of other age groups, and the highest colonization was observed in goats of 7-11-month age group. Sequence analysis of Blastocystis positive samples indicated the presence of seven subtypes in these goats, including six known subtypes (STs1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 14) and one possible novel subtype (isolate Sd26), with the subtype 10 as the predominant one. Additionally, zoonotic subtypes were found in dairy (ST1, ST3 and ST5) and cashmere (ST4 and ST5) goats, but not detected in meat goats. These results showed that Blastocystis is highly prevalent, widely distributed and genetically diverse in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China, and zoonotic potential of dairy and cashmere goats to transmit Blastocystis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of C. burnetii Infection on the Cytokine Response of PBMCs from Pregnant Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerdorffer, Anne; Roest, Hendrik-I J.; Dinkla, Annemieke; Post, Jacob; Schoffelen, Teske; van Deuren, Marcel; Sprong, Tom; Rebel, Johanna M.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to premature delivery, stillbirth and abortion. It is unknown whether these differences in clinical outcome are due to the early immune responses of the goats. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from pregnant goats. In total, 17 goats were included in the study. Six goats remained naive, while eleven goats were infected with C. burnetii. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine mRNA expression were measured after in vitro stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii at different time points (prior infection, day 7, 35 and 56 after infection). In naive goats an increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA upon C. burnetii stimulation was detected. In addition, TLR2 expression was strongly up-regulated. In goats infected with C. burnetii, PBMCs re-stimulated in vitro with C. burnetii, expressed significantly more TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA compared to naive goats. In contrast, IL-10 mRNA production capacity was down-regulated during C. burnetii infection. Interestingly, at day 7 after inoculation a decreased IFN-γ protein level was observed in stimulated leukocytes in whole blood from infected goats, whereas at other time-points increased production of IFN-γ protein was seen. Our study shows that goats initiate a robust pro-inflammatory immune response against C. burnetii in vitro. Furthermore, PBMCs from C. burnetii infected goats show augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine responses compared to PBMCs from non-infected goats. However, despite this pro-inflammatory response, goats are not capable of clearing the C. burnetii infection. PMID:25279829

  17. Primary surveys on molecular epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 infecting goats in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Yang, Leilei; Wang, Jianhui; Cheng, Suping; Wei, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Zhang, Wenwen; Hao, Fei; Ding, Yonglong; Sun, Yinhua; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2016-09-05

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of domestic and wildlife animals worldwide and is associated with several diseases. In China, there are many reports about genotyping of BVDV strains originated from cattle and pigs, and some of them focused on the geographical distributions of BVDV. Currently, the goat industry in Jiangsu province of China is under going a rapid expansion. Most of these goat farms are backyard enterprises and in close proximity to pig and cattle farms. However, there was very limited information about BVDV infections in goats. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of BVDV infections of goats, the relationship of these infections to clinical signs and determine what BVDV genotypes are circulating in Jiangsu province. From 236 goat sera collected from six regions in Jiangsu province between 2011 and 2013, BVDV-1 was identified in 29 samples from the five regions by RT-PCR. The BVDV-1 infections occurred with/without clinical signs. Eight different BVDV-1 strains were identified from these positive samples based on the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequences, and further clustered into four BVDV-1 subtypes on the phylogenetic analysis. Three were BVDV-1b, two BVDV-1m, two BVDV-1o, and one BVDV-1p, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the occurrence of BVDV and the genotypes of BVDV infecting goats in China. The results indicated that BVDV-1 infections were indeed present and the viruses were with genetic variations in Chinese goat herds. The information would be very useful for prevention and control of BVDV-1 infections in China.

  18. Genotypic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in Iranian goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and characterize the genotype of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus from goats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Methods: A total of 120 goats were screened from abattoirs of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Forty out of 120 samples were infected with cystic echinococcosis and 29 out of 40 infected samples were fertile hydatid cysts (containing protoscolices which were collected from the livers and lungs of infected goats. DNA samples were extracted from the protoscolices and characterized by mitochondrial DNA sequencing of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. Results: Sequences analysis of nine fertile hydatid cysts indicated that all isolated samples were infected with the G1 sheep strain and two sequences were belonged to G1 4 and G1c microvarients of the G1 genotype. Conclusions: The results showed that goats act as alternative intermediate hosts for sheep strain. G1 genotype seems to be the main route of transmission and it should be considered in further studies.

  19. An analysis of goat production within subsistence farming systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Animal Sciences

    The aims of this research were to study goat production in the rural areas of South ... of knowledge and markets, and production goals of the household. ..... Socio-economics of the animal husbandry in the rural communal areas of South Africa.

  20. Sprout selection and performance of goats fed Acacia karroo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Casper Nyamukanza

    Goats are important browsers in the Eastern Cape Province, which keeps ... Acacia karroo Hayne (Fabaceae = Leguminosae) trees are abundant and able to ... savanna and consists of subtropical thicket vegetation dominated by deciduous woody shrubs shorter than ..... National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

  1. Evaluation of Healing Intervals of Incisional Skin Wounds of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the healing intervals among simple interrupted (SI), ford interlocking (FI) and subcuticular (SC) suture patterns in goats. We hypothesized that these common suture patterns used for closure of incisional skin wounds may have effect on the healing interval. To test this hypothesis, two ...

  2. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis of rift valley goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence, mean intensity, relative density of helminth species and the effects of environmental factors, sex and maturity of host on seasonal dynamics in relative density of helminthes ova in Rift Valley goats were investigated from July 1997 to June 1998. Ten nematode and three cestode species were identified.

  3. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  4. Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats fed Panicum maximum supplemented with wheat offal. ... Total White Blood Cell (TWBC), L and N. There was an increased post-trial hematological over pre-trial hematological parameters for PCV, N and M while a decrease was observed for L in animals ...

  5. Bridging gender gaps with dairy goats and root crops

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tolerant and nutrient-rich ... to increase income from the animals and from sales of root crops. The methodology applied also addresses ... 1.5 - 2 litres per goat per day as the animal matures. Women control the income earned from milk, which ...

  6. Perception of Sheep and Goat Milk Consumption among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 120 respondents were purposively selected to study the perception of sheep and goat milk consumption among rural dwellers in South-Western Nigeria. The study showed that most of the respondents (72.5%) are not aware of the consumption of such milk and as such only few (10, 8%) claimed that they have ...

  7. Determinants of sheep and goat meat consumption in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aepli, M.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the

  8. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  9. Reference Gene Screening for Analyzing Gene Expression Across Goat Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2 in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken.

  10. Mammary remodeling in primiparous and multiparous dairy goats during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring

    2010-01-01

    Milk production is generally lower but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than in multiparous (MP) goats. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study aimed to el...

  11. Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats | Otsyina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presence of plastic bags in the rumen of the goats was clinically characterized by anorexia, severe depression, discomfort (grunting sounds), dehydration, firmness and asymmetrical distention of the abdomen, reduced ruminal movements, diarrhoea with intermittent constipation, recumbency and death. Severity of the ...

  12. Differences in nitrogen and urea metabolism between goats bred for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether selection for fleece weight is accompanied by changes in the efficiency of nitrogen utilization, using Angora and Boer goats as models of animals bred for fleece or meat production respectively. A diet, containing a protein: energy ratio of 12 g CP/ MJ ME, was fed at ...

  13. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively

  14. Behavioral and hormonal studies on Egyptian Baladi goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Fakhry Abdel Fattah

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: It concluded that visual, alfactactory, auditory contact with the male stimulate estrus response of anestrus females to be sexually responsive resulting in an increase in the economic gain of goat farm. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 160-165

  15. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Hoving, R.A.H.; Priem, J.; Bossers, A.; Keulen, van L.J.M.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined

  16. EARLY USAGE OF SHEEP AND GOAT YOUTH FOR THE REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ANA PIVODA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.

  17. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  18. Productivity of goats and their contribution to household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of goats and their contribution to household food security in high potential areas of East Africa: A case of Mgeta, Tanzania. ... milk and meat, manure is also an important by-product for farmers in this area, and is used to fertilize ... particularly in developing countries, livestock remains a desired source of food for

  19. Seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease in goats from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the level of exposure to the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes (SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) of apparently healthy, unvaccinated indigenous goats from four selected districts of Matabeleland South Province in Zimbabwe.

  20. Isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from the lung of a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, F; Musarella, R

    2009-09-18

    This report describes the first isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from the lung of a goat in Italy and represents the fourth isolation of this rare enterobacterial species from non-human sources reported in the literature. In fact, since its first isolation, M. wisconsensis has only been described in a few other occasions and often in clinical samples associated with cases of human enteritis.

  1. Population Genetic Structure and Gene Flow Among Nigerian Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population Genetic structure in 200 indigenous goats sampled across four states from the South-Western and South Southern region of Nigeria was assessed using 7 microsatellite DNA markers. Observed Analysis of molecular genetic variation (AMOVA) was higher within populations (3.47) than among populations (1.84) ...

  2. Research Report: Determination of Riboflavin Content in Goat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed to determine riboflavin content in goat and cow whole milk. The present method involves acidification of the milk to precipitate bulk of the proteins and centrifugation affording a supernatant, which was diluted with 2% acetic acid to a constant volume.

  3. Determination of anthelmintic resistance in goats and sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nematode parasites are known to pose a challenge to small ruminant production in Tanzania due to their fast development of resistance to the commonly used anthelmintics. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance of anthelmintics in small ruminants. A total of 30 sheep and 30 goats aged between 6 and ...

  4. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    per capita consumption of mutton is five kg and the sheep meat ... A market segment for goat's meat has been identified in the growing Muslim .... basis of studies at two farms; one located in the fjord and the other in .... But in most cases the differences are small as ..... behaviour of Korean American Families in. California.

  5. Blood profiles of indigenous Pedi goats fed varying levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    david

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... immensely to the economy and food security of many smallholder ... However, their productivity is constrained by shortage of good-quality feed, especially during the long ... There is insufficient plant biomass to support the production of goats in this .... Red blood cells (RBC) and total white blood cells.

  6. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project, supported by IDRC and GAC through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), will improve food security and nutrition in Tanzania through an integrated breeding and management program that will increase goat milk and meat production. Researchers will test improved cassava and ...

  7. Performance Characteristics of West African Dwarf Goats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study of dietary effects of fungi (Trichoderma ghanense and Trichoderma asperellum) treatment on Jatropha curcas meal. Defatted Jatropha curcas cake was inoculated with the fungi and then used to replace soybean meal in a formulated diet for West African Dwarf goats. The fungi Trichoderma ghanense was ...

  8. Performance Evaluation of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of replacing Pennisetum purpureum with unripe plantain peels on the performance of West African Dwarf Goats. Thirty buck kids with an average weight of 7.00 ± 0.55kg were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups with ten bucks per treatment in a completely randomized ...

  9. Deaths among West African dwarf goats fed sole Dactyladaenia barteri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dactyladaema barteri is an important shrub utilized in fallow development and as a much-preferred ruminant browse by local farmers in Nigeria. We report the death of two 12 – 15 months old West African Dwarf (WAD) goats used in a digestibility trail with D. barteri as sole feed and in a mixed browse - grass diet in the ...

  10. Superovulation and embryo recovery in Boer goats treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lehloenya

    Keywords: Boer goats, superovulation, oestrous synchronisation, pFSH, ... oestrous detection was performed three times daily at 8 h intervals with the aid ... sheep, where FSH/GnRHa treated ewes recorded a significant higher ... following short term storage of bovine IVP blastocysts at 25 ºC in EmcareTM compared to ovum.

  11. A note on cryptorchidism in Angora goats | Skinner | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (1972) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. A note on cryptorchidism in Angora goats.

  12. Evaluation of cashmere production of the meat producing Boer goat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa does not produce cashmere commercially and presently there is no local cashmere industry. The Boer goat is well known for its meat production and is an established farming enterprise in South Africa. The aim of this study is to evaluate...

  13. Assessment of Helminth Infections in Goats Slaughtered in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 23(2), 2015: ... The proportions of goats infected with each parasite type were 100%, 94.4%, 88.6%,80.5%, 68.6 ... northern rural Ghana (Otchere, 1986; ... to improve the livelihood of farmers. This.

  14. growth and physiological performance of west african dwarf goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-09-02

    Sep 2, 2014 ... Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin, Edo State, Nigeria. ... Twenty young growing West African Dwarf (WAD) goats of both sexes with an average body weight of 5.77kg ... Northern part of the country (Ugwu and.

  15. HYDRONEPHROSIS IN THE GOAT DUE TO NEOPLASIA. A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The clinical history, gross and microscopic necropsy findings are presented in a case of hydronephrosis in a goat due to a primary neoplasm of the...urinary tract. The neoplasm, a transitional cell adenocarcinoma, had interfered with urine flow to a degree that hydronephrosis and subsequent uremia resulted. Metastases were found in the regional lymph nodes and lungs. (Author)

  16. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared under intensive and semi-intensive production systems. ... Animals raised intensively were fed Megathyrsus maximus hay ad libitum, while those reared semi-intensively were allowed to graze freely in a fenced ... Keywords: bucks, immune response, season ...

  17. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of melatonin supplementation in semen extenders on cryosurvival of spermatozoa obtained from West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was studied. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of melatonin (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mM) were diluted with semen samples. The diluted semen samples were ...

  18. Prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in goats slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slaughter houses provide excellent avenues for detecting diseases of both economic and public health importance in livestock. A study of 12,429 slaughtered goats at the Bauchi central abattoir was carried out (from February to May, 2015) in order to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in slaughtered ...

  19. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115...

  20. Functional distribution of coronary vascular volume in beating goat hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, C. P.; Dankelman, J.; Spaan, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    With use of hemoglobin-bound O2 as an endogenous tracer, intramyocardial blood volume distribution between vessels involved in O2 exchange and more distal vessels was estimated. In nine anesthetized open-chest goats, the left main coronary artery was cannulated and perfused at a constant flow.

  1. Fuzzy logic and A* algorithm implementation on goat foraging games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsani, P.; Mulyana, I.; Zakaria, D.

    2018-03-01

    Goat foraging is one of the games that apply the search techniques within the scope of artificial intelligence. This game involves several actors including players and enemies. The method used in this research is fuzzy logic and Algorithm A*. Fuzzy logic is used to determine enemy behaviour. The A* algorithm is used to search for the shortest path. There are two input variables: the distance between the player and the enemy and the anger level of the goat. The output variable that has been defined is the enemy behaviour. The A* algorithm is used to determine the closest path between the player and the enemy and define the enemy's escape path to avoid the player. There are 4 types of enemies namely farmers, planters, farmers and sellers of plants. Players are goats that aims to find a meal that is a plant. In this game goats aim to spend grass in the garden in the form of a maze while avoiding the enemy. The game provides an application of artificial intelligence and is made in four difficulty levels.

  2. Enteral fluid therapy through nasogastric tube in rumen cannulated goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Atoji-Henrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of fluid therapy in goats through nasogastric route with an electrolyte solution composed by concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride similar to goat plasma (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Four Alpine Chamoisee goats, two of them with evident leakage of the rumen cannulas, were used in a crossover experimental design of two periods and two groups. In one group the two goats were submitted to a treatment protocol to induce dehydration before the fluid therapy, whereas the other group was not. Fluid therapy consisted supplying 10mL/kg/h of the electrolyte solution during 8 hours. No signs of discomfort or stress were observed. The dehydration model employed caused a mild dehydration indicated by decrease in feces humidity, body weight and abdominal circumference, and increase in plasma total solids concentration. During fluid therapy globular volume and plasma total solids decreased, whereas % body weight and abdominal circumference increased. No signs of hyperhydration were observed and serum electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+ presented no significant alterations in both groups. Fluid therapy proposed in this study was efficient to treat dehydration, even for rumen cannulated animals with evident leakage, and can be administrated safely with no electrolyte imbalance.

  3. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  4. Hair progesterone contents during oestrus cycle and pregnancy in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xianyin; Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi

    1991-01-01

    Hair progesterone contents during gestasion and milk progesterone levels during oestrus cycle in Saanen(S), crosses F 1 (SXChengdu Mah) and F 2 (SX(SXChengdu Mah)) goats were determined using the RIA kit. The results showed that progesterone in goats hair could be detected using the RIA kit. In pregnant goats, hair progesterone contents was correlated with the milk progesterone profile during 1-28 days after oestrus (r=0.5458, p<0.01). In non-pregnant goats, similar correlation was observed (r=7832, p<0.01). After milk samples were collected 22 days, 3.9ng/ml of progesterone was taken as the discriminatory level, and precision of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis were 82.4% and 100% respectively. After hair samples were collected 22 days, 3.7ng/50mg of progesterone was taken as discriminatory level, and precision of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis were 77.8% and 100% respectively. During gestation, hair progesterone content increased gradually from day 30(5.67±0.98ng/50mg hair)to day 120 (9.85±1.20ng/50mg) and decreased rapidly from -8(before parturition, 7.73±1.91ng/50mg) to day 0(parturition, 4.93±0.25ng/50mg)

  5. What Gets Your Goat? Art across the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Features Elayne Goodman's mixed-media sculpture "The Goat Castle in Natchez," which is dedicated to a whodunnit murder mystery in Mississippi. Provides historical background of the murder and information on Goodman's life. Includes activities in history and social science, mathematics, science, language arts, visual arts, and economics and social…

  6. Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

  7. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    Goat production is economically and socially important in. Turkey. An estimated 500,000 farm households ..... they could become target alleles for resistance breeding. Indeed, S146 was the most frequent PrP variant .... production in Turkey under new support regimes and market conditions. Small Rumin. Res. 62, 181–191.

  8. Responses of Tswana goats to various lengths of water deprivation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    are no published reports on the effects of water deprivation in Tswana goats. This study ... prevent evaporation and to maintain acidity at pH 3. .... Rectal temperature and respiratory rate did not differ (p > 0.05) between seasons, and indicates ...

  9. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Frido; Duijm, Elza; Gaag, Kristiaan J. van der; Geel, Bas van; Knijff, Peter de; Leeuwen, Jacqueline van; Mol, Dick; Plicht, Johannes van der; Raes, Niels; Reumer, Jelle; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5–4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to

  10. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, F.; Duijm, E.; van der Gaag, K.J.; van Geel, B.; de Knijff, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mol, D.; van der Plicht, J.; Raes, N.; Reumer, J; Gravendeel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to

  11. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, F.; Duijm, E.; van der Gaag, K.J.; de Knijff, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mol, D.; van der Plicht, J.; Raes, N.; Reumer, J.; Gravendeel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4. ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed

  12. Application of cloprostenol in the postpartum period of dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Becalete Rizzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Rizzoni L.B., Gioso M.M., Ribeiro S.D. de A., Ribeiro A.C., Fernandes C.A. de C. & Garcia J.A.D. [Application of cloprostenol in the postpartum period of dairy goats.] Aplicação do cloprostenol sódico no período puerperal de cabras leiteiras. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:0183-187, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, Rodovia MG 179, km 0, Alfenas, MG 37130-000, Brasil. E-mail: leandro_vet@hotmail.com.br This study assessed the effects of application of cloprostenol in postpartum dairy goats. We used twenty-nine Anglonubianas goats, divided evenly into two groups: group PGF2a (0.133 mg cloprostenol and control group (0.5 mL of saline (0.9%, both received two doses on days 1 and 4 postpartum. By transrectal ultrasonography on days 1, 4, 10, 16, 22, 28, 34, 40 and 46 after birth, were evaluated uterus and ovaries. The uterine diameter behaved differently between the groups (P 0.05, however there were no ovulations. The cloprostenol during the study period acted beneficially in the process of uterine involution and the expulsion of uterine contents in dairy goats.

  13. Assessing the iron chelation capacity of goat casein digest isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialowska, A; Matia-Merino, L; Carr, A J

    2017-04-01

    We isolated goat phosphopeptides via calcium and ethanol precipitation from a caseinate digest and investigated their feasibility as an iron-fortification ingredient in nutritional foods. Goat tryptic-digested phosphopeptides could bind 54.37 ± 0.50 mg of Fe/g of protein compared with goat milk, which could bind 3.83 ± 0.01 mg of Fe/g of protein, indicating that isolation did increase iron binding. However, the >13-fold increase in iron binding was only partly explained by the increased concentration of phosphoserine-rich residues in the isolated fraction: we observed a 77% increase in serine residue content and a 5.9-fold increase in phosphorus in the goat peptide isolate compared with the starting caseinate material. We investigated the effect of potential industrial processing conditions (including heating, cooling, holding time, and processing order) on iron binding by the tryptic-digested phosphopeptides. In addition, we tested the effect of ionic strength and the addition of peptides to a milk system to understand how food formulations could affect iron binding. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Quality Characteristics of Cellulose, Sheep and Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small intestines of 12 West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep and those of 12 Red Sokoto goats obtained from an abattoir were converted into casings. The imported cellulose casing used for the study was obtained from a sausage manufacturing company. Cellulose casing had the widest diameter of 35.00mm followed by ...

  15. Prevalence of Various Microbial Organisms Isolated from Dairy Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six- hundred and thirty (630) apparently normal milk samples from dairy goats in Nyeri district (Kenya) were examined over a three-month period to determine the prevalence of bacterial organisms. Bacteria were isolated in 28.7% of milk samples (181/630) either as a single bacterial organism (92.8%) or mixed bacterial ...

  16. Consumer sensory evaluation of meat from South African goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumer sensory evaluation of meat from South African goat genotypes fed on a ... evaluation was done with consumers of different ages, tribes and gender. ... < 0.05) aroma intensity scores than the Xhosa and the Zulu consumers for both ...

  17. Milk production potential of South African Boer and Nguni goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Given the ever-growing human population, particularly in the rural areas of ... of the NG were randomly allocated to extensive (veld) and intensive (high energy ... Table 1 Goat milk production and composition (7-100 days) for Boer and Nguni does. ... breeds to produced 0.75, 1.0 and 0.6 kg/milk/day respectively, which in ...

  18. Assessment of Helminth Infections in Goats Slaughtered in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to evaluate parasitic infections in small ruminants was conducted in an abattoir in a suburb of Accra from January to March 2015. Samples from various sections of the gut of 35 goats, either reared in Ghana or imported from Burkina Faso, were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique. The overall ...

  19. Characteristics of non-cerebral coenurosis in tropical goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulopoulos, G; Kassab, A; Theodoropoulos, G

    2015-07-30

    The epidemiological, clinical, and biochemical profile of non-cerebral coenurosis in goats and the morphological characteristics of the responsible metacestodes (cysts) were examined in a cross-sectional survey of slaughtered goats in abattoirs of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) originating from Abu Dhabi and various tropical countries. The age, country of origin, and location of each cyst in the body of goats were recorded. Blood samples collected from infected and matching healthy goats were subjected to biochemical analysis. Data on the morphological characteristics of the cysts as well as the clusters, scoleces, and rostellar hooks in one cyst from each affected carcass were collected. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. A total of 2,284 slaughtered goats were examined and 40 goats were diagnosed as infected with non-cerebral coenurus cysts. The prevalence of non-cerebral coenurosis was 1.75% and the degree of parasite aggregation (k) was 0.003, which is indicative of overdispersion (kgoats were palpation of large single cysts in thigh muscles and higher serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) value. A total of 76 non-cerebral coenurus cysts from 14 different body locations were collected. No cysts were found in the brain or spinal cord. Cysts located in psoas muscles had on average significantly bigger volumes and higher numbers of scoleces and clusters compared to cysts located in other body parts (P-value=0.000). Significant differences in the morphometric measurements of the rostellar hooks were observed between cysts found in goats from different countries of origin (P-value5; R-Sq=89.4%; P-value=0.000) and between number of clusters and number of scoleces (b=25.13>1; R-Sq=79.8%; P-value=0.000) indicative of following a positive allometric growth as well as between number of clusters and volume of cysts (b=0.25<0.5; R-Sq=69.4%; P-value=0.000) indicative of following a negative allometric growth. The biological significance of the

  20. Leather quality of some Sudan desert sheep and goats

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    Mohammed Alhadi Ebrahiem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This trial is aimed to study leather properties that produced from Sudan Desert sheep and goats in relation to breed type and age category. Thirty pieces of fresh sheep and goats skins were collected randomly (15 for each during January 2015. The collected skins were tanned and the produced leather properties were studied. The Statistix 8 program for variance analysis was used for data analysis. The study samples were taken according to the Complete Randomized Design. Sheep leather results revealed that, lamb's skin was significantly (P ≥ 0.05 produced better quality leather than ram's and ewe's skins in elongation (%, tensile strength (kg/cm2, cracking load (kg, thickness (mm, tear load (kg/cm, flexibility and moisture%. While it was yielded leather with the same characteristics to ram's and ewe's leather in Ash (%, fat (% and chrome (%. Leather properties [elongation (%, tensile strength (kg/cm2, cracking load (kg, tear load (kg/cm, flexibility and Ash (%] were significantly (P ≥ 0.05 affected by breed variation. On the other hand thickness (mm, moisture (%, fat (% and chrome (% were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05 affected by breed. Ram's skin was produced better quality leather than ewe's skins. Goat's leather results revealed that, kid goat's skin was significantly (P ≥ 0.05 produced better quality leather than bucks and doe's skin in tensile strength (kg/cm2, cracking load (kg, thickness (mm, tear load (kg/cm and flexibility degree. But kids and buck's skins were produced the same quality leather in elongation % and moisture% with significant variation (P ≥ 0.05 to doe's leather. Kid's skin yields leather with the same characteristics to buck's and doe's leather in Ash (%, fat (% and chrome (%. Generally Desert goats produce slightly better quality leather than Nubian goats. Leather prosperities [cracking load (kg, tear load (kg/cm, and Ash (%] were significantly (P ≥ 0.05 affected by breed variation. Elongation (%, tensile

  1. Detection of Brucella abortus DNA in aborted goats and sheep in Egypt by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2015-06-03

    Brucellosis is a major zoonoses affects wide range of domesticated as well as wild animals. Despite the eradication program of brucellosis in Egypt, the disease is still endemic among cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels. In the present study, abortion occurred naturally among 25 animals (10 cows, 5 buffaloes, 9 Egyptian Baladi goats and 1 ewe) shared the same pasture were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). DNA of Brucella (B.) abortus was detected in serum of goats and sheep which has aborted recently by species-specific RT-PCR. The results suggest cross-species infection of B. abortus from cattle to non-preferred hosts raised in close contact. This article will renew our knowledge about the Brucella agent causing abortion in small ruminants in Egypt. Information provided in this study is important for surveillance program, because eradication programs and vaccination strategies may have to be adapted accordingly.

  2. Quantitative aspect of the endogenous urea cycle in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Yu

    1975-01-01

    The turnover of plasma urea was studied in goats fed rations with different protein contents by using 14 C- and 15 N-urea as tracers. The biological half-life time of urea determined with 15 N-urea was always longer than that determined with 14 C-urea, reflecting the difference in the metabolic pathway between the urea hydrolysates, ammonia and carbon dioxide. It was roughly estimated from the turnover studies that more than a half the quantity of urea synthesized might be transferred to the alimentary canal, including the rumen, where it underwent dissociation, with a decrease in the protein content of the ration, the percentage of transfer and dissociation increased. The 14 C-urea discharged into the urine was less than 57% of the administered dose. It decreased to 3.9% in goats fed rations with a low protein content. The rate of urea turnover determined with 15 N-urea was nearly consistent with the rate of urea discharge into the urine in goats fed higher protein rations. In goats fed lower protein rations, on the other hand, the rate of urea discharge decreased and its consistency with the rate of turnover determined with 15 N-urea was upset. This was caused by assimilation of urea-nitrogen in rumen microorganisms, as was convinced by studying the incorporation of urea- 15 N into the fraction of rumen microorganisms. It was assumed that in goats fed lower protein rations the bulk of urea synthesized might have entered the endogenous recycling system within the body and assimilated by rumen microorganisms. (auth.)

  3. Fermentation optimization of goat milk with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum by Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guowei; Bao, Chunju; Chen, He; Wang, Changfeng; Yang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is only limited to the processing of goat milk powder and liquid milk, the products are mainly about milk powder and a few of them are made as milk tablet. Therefore, the study of probiotic goat milk will have great significance in the full use of goats and the development of the goat milk industry in China. The effect of fermentation temperature (35°C, 37°C, 39°C), strain ratio (1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1) and inoculum size (4%, 5%, 6%) on viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, total bacteria and sensory value during fermentation process of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum goat yogurt (AB-goat yogurt) was investigated. The optimum fermentation conditions for AB-goat yogurt were: fermentation temperature 38°C, the strain ratio 2:1:1, inoculum size 6%. Under the optimum conditions, the viable counts of B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, total bacteria and sensory value reached (4.30 ±0.11)×107  cfu/mL, (1.39 ±0.09)×108  cfu/mL, (1.82±0.06)×109  cfu/mL and 7.90 ±0.14, respectively. The fermentation temperature, the strain ratio and inoculum size had a significant effect on the fermentation of AB-goat yogurt and these results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yogurt.

  4. Considerations on Trends in the Romanian Sheep and Goat Meat Market, 1990-2009

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    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to identify the main trends in the Romanian sheep and goat meat market based on the analysis of the specific indicators regarding sheep and goat livestock and production at country level and by region, using the data provided by National Institute of Statistic for the period 1990-2009. About 198,729 farmers are raising sheep and goats and the average farm size is about 16 heads. The sheep and goat livestock declined by 34 % in the analyzed period accounting for 10,058 thousand heads in 2009. Sheep/goat ratio changed from 14/1 in 1990 to 9.96/1 in 2009, in the advantage of goats. Sheep and goats are mainly grown in Central, North-Eastern and South-Western Romania. Mutton and goat meat production accounted for 1,443 thousand tons in 2009, being by 40 % lower than in 1990  because of  livestock  decline.  About 23 % mutton and sheep meat is produced in the South-Eastern Romania, 18 % in the Central part and 14 % in North-East. The share of mutton and goat meat declined from 8.38 % in 1990 to 7.21 % in 2009 in total meat production in the country. As a conclusion,  mutton  and goat meat market registered a decline during the last decades, in favour of pork and poultry meat.

  5. Analysis of Income Distribution among Goat Farmer Households in Banjarnegara District, Central Java Province Indonesia

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    Moch Sugiarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the structure of household’s income of goat farmer and analyze the distribution of goat farmer household’s income in Banjarnegara. For this analysis, Banjarnegara district was divided into three agro ecological zones on the basis of altitude, i.e. low, medium and high land. 180 goat farmers were selected using multistage sampling and data were measured using descriptive statistic and Gini Coefficient. The study concluded that goat farming as a side job contributed 29% of total household income. The income from non-goat farming remain dominating a structure of household income by 71%. There was a high inequality household income among goat farmers with Gini Coefficient of 0.562. The high level of total income inequality was due to a greater relative inequality in non-goat farming income. Since there was a relationship between farm size and income, increasing the number of goats must be actualized to the goat farmers with no other livelihood. This would be able to reduce inequality of total income of goat farmers.

  6. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Abu-Basha, Ehab A; Youssef, Salah A H; Amer, Aziza M; Murphy, Patricia A; Hauck, Catherine C; Gehring, Ronette; Hsu, Walter H

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 μg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin.

  7. Haemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Capra hircus at Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    Amir Hossan Shaikat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A 6 month long study was undertaken to determine various hemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Caprahircus in Bangladesh.Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from goats of different ages of 5 Upazilla of Chittagong. Atotal of 120goats (60 Black Bengal and 60 Jamnapari having > 6 months of age were included. The whole blood was analyzed forhematology, and plasma and serum samples for biochemical analysis.Results: The study found higher number of RBC (million/cumm and PCV% in the goats of age 48 months and above (18.23± 1.89 and 28 ± 3.2 respectively. Besides, total protein was found higher (78.9 ± 14.5g/L in the goats of 6-24 months of age.Significant increase (p<0.01 of the number of WBC (thousand/cumm, RBC (million/cumm, PCV% was observed in BlackBengal over Jamnapari goat. In contrast, WBC, lymphocytes, RBC, PCV, ALT, and ASTwere significantly (p<0.01 higher inBlack Bengal than Jamnapari goat; whereas, monocyte, TP, Albumin, and Urea levels were significantly (p<0.01 higher inJamnapari than Black Bengal goats.Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate the normal haemato-biochemical values of two local goat breeds.Present results stated some significant variation of parameters between two goats whereas some shows no significant variationat all.

  8. Ultrasonographic findings in goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd

    2017-08-22

    In goats, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a cause of major economic losses in Africa, Asia and in the Middle East. There is no information emphasising the importance of diagnostic ultrasound in goats with CCPP caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp). This study was designed to describe the ultrasonographic findings in goats with CCPP caused by Mccp and to correlate ultrasonographic with post-mortem findings. To this end, 55 goats with CCPP were examined. Twenty-five healthy adult goats were used as a control group. Major clinical findings included harried, painful respiration, dyspnoea and mouth breathing. On ultrasonography, a liver-like echotexture was imaged in 13 goats. Upon post-mortem examination, all 13 goats exhibited unilateral pulmonary consolidation. Seven goats had a unilateral hypoechoic pleural effusion. At necropsy, the related lung was consolidated and the pleural fluid appeared turbid and greenish. Pleural abscessiation detected in five goats was confirmed post-mortem. Twenty-eight goats had a bright, fibrinous matrix extending over the chest wall containing numerous anechoic fluid pockets with medial displacement and compression of lung tissue. Echogenic tags imaged floating in the fluid were found upon post-mortem examination to be fibrin. In two goats, a consolidated right parenchyma was imaged together with hypoechoic pericardial effusions with echogenic tags covering the epicardium. At necropsy, the right lung was consolidated in three goats and fibrin threads were found covering the epicardium and pericardium. In goats with CCPP, the extension and the severity of the pulmonary changes could not be verified with clinical certainty in most cases, whereas this was possible most of the time with sonography, thus making the prognosis easier. Ultrasonographic examination of the pleurae and the lungs helped in the detection of various lesions.

  9. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K

    2010-10-01

    Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in goat's milk and goat's jben by the bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus faecium F58 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achemchem, Fouad; Abrini, Jamal; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes

    2006-10-01

    The bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus faecium F58 strain, a natural goat's jben cheese isolate, lacks decarboxylase activity involved in most biogenic amine formation. It was also sensitive to 13 antibiotics assayed and free of virulence and vancomycin resistance genes. The F58 strain reached the stationary phase after 12 h of growth in sterile goat's milk, and the production of enterocin F-58 (Ent L50) was first detected after 48 h (400 AU/ml), thereafter remaining stable up to 5 days. The effectiveness of the F58 strain in controlling Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b in reduced fat and whole goat's milk, and in goat's jben has been examined. Coculture experiments of F58-L. monocytogenes in both types of milk demonstrated that listeriae were not eliminated, although reductions by 1 to 4 log units were found. Nevertheless, when the F58 strain was previously inoculated in whole milk and left to grow for 12 h before contamination, the pathogen was completely eliminated after 130 h of coculture. Production of jben cheese contaminated with L. monocytogenes prior to packaging, using preparations of F58-producer strain, caused a significant decrease in the number of viable listeriae, which were undetectable after 1 week of cheese storage at 22 degrees C. Altogether, results from this study suggest that E. faecium F58 strain may be used as an adjunct culture in cheese to control contamination and growth of L. monocytogenes by in situ enterocin production, thus providing an additional hurdle to enhance control of this pathogen.

  11. Goat farm management and Brucella serological test among goat keepers and livestock officers, 2011–2012, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanidtha Te-Chaniyom

    2016-12-01

    Several goat farming management practices in the study area may increase the risk of Brucella infection in animals. Livestock officers in the area have a high risk of being infected with Brucella. Improving goat farm biosecurity practices in needed to reduce the risk of brucellosis in this area.

  12. Experimental infection of goats with tick-borne encephalitis virus and the possibilities to prevent virus transmission by raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Egyed, László; Ferenczi, Emőke; Bán, Enikő; Szomor, Katalin N; Takács, Mária; Berencsi, György

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection of goats and the possibilities to prevent human milk-borne infections either by immunizing animals or the heat treatment of milk. An experiment was conducted with 20 milking goats. Ten goats (half of them immunized) were challenged with live TBEV and 10 were left uninfected. Clinical signs and body temperatures of the animals were recorded and milk samples were collected daily. The presence of viral RNA and infectious virions in milk were detected by RT-PCR and intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice, respectively. Milk samples containing infectious virions were subjected to various heat treatment conditions and retested afterwards to assess the effect on infectivity. The infected goats did not show any clinical signs or fever compared to uninfected ones. Infectious virions were detected for 8-19 days from the milk samples (genome for 3-18 days by PCR) of infected goats. Immunized goats did not shed the virus. After heat treatment of the milk, the inoculated mice survived. Goats shed the virus with their milk without showing any symptoms. Human milk-borne infections can be avoided both by immunizing goats and boiling/pasteurizing infected milk. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Brucellae through the food chain : the role of sheep, goats and springbok (Antidorcus marsupialis as sources of human infections in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Magwedere

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A confirmed case of human brucellosis motivated an investigation into the potential source of infection in Namibia. Since domestic animals are principal sources of Brucella infection in humans, 1692 serum samples were screened from sheep, goats and cattle from 4 presumably at-risk farms and 900 springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis serum samples from 29 mixed farming units for Brucella antibodies by the Rose-Bengal test (RBT and positive cases confirmed by complement fixation test (CFT. To assess the prevalence of human brucellosis, 137 abattoir employees were tested for Brucella antibodies using the standard tube agglutination test (STAT and by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Cattle and sheep from all 4 farms were negative by RBT and CFT but 2 of the 4 farms (Ba and C had 26/42 and 12/285 seropositive goats, respectively. Post mortem examination of seropositive goats revealed no gross pathological lesions typical of brucellosis except enlarged mesenteric and iliac lymph nodes seen in a single buck. Culture for brucellae from organs of seropositive animals was negative. None of the wildlife sera tested positive by either RBT or CFT. Interviews revealed that besides the case that prompted the investigation, a family and another person from other farms with confirmed brucellosis shared a common history of consumption of unpasteurised goat milk, home-made goat cheese and coffee with raw milk and prior contact with goats, suggesting goats as the likely source of infection. All 137 abattoir employees tested negative by STAT, but 3 were positive by ELISA. The 3 abattoir workers were clinically normal and lacked historical connections with clinical cases. Although goats are often associated with B. melitensis, these studies could not explicitly implicate this species owing to cross-reactivity with B. abortus, which can also infect goats. Nevertheless, these data reinforce the need for a better National Control Programme for brucellosis in Namibia.

  14. [Role of goat in transmission of schistosomiasis japonica III Environmental contamination by goat feces and prediction of environments at high risk of S. japonicum infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You-Sheng, Liang; Yi-An, Wang; Xue-Hui, Shen; Wei, Wang; Guo-Li, Qu; Yun-Tian, Xing; Jian-Rong, Dai

    2016-10-18

    To quantitatively estimate the range and area of environmental contamination by the feces of Schistosoma japonicum -infected that were freely grazed, so as to provide the theoretical evidence for the scientific assessment of the role of the freely grazed goat in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica and development of control strategy. All the fecal samples excreted by the infected goat at daytime (12 h) were collected by using a self-made goat fecal collector, weighed and counted. The quantity and dispersal of the feces excreted by the freely grazed goat at daytime under a natural condition were investigated, and the walking route and speed of the freely grazed goat at daytime were recorded with a multifunction GPS data logger. The maximum range and area of the environment contaminated by the feces of the freely grazed goat at daytime were estimated, and the maximum range and area of the Oncomelania hupensis snails that may be infected by the schistosome miracidium released from the eggs in the fecal samples of the freely graze goat at daytime were calculated. During the walking along the marshland at daytime (12 h), the quantity of the feces execrated by the freely grazed infected goat was (232.8 ± 39.8) g per goat, and the fecal samples were composed of (819.2 ± 152.1) pellets. The goat had a mean walking speed of (0.522 7 ± 0.099 7) km/h, and the longest distance, largest radius and largest range of walking activity were (6.272 4 ± 1.195 8) km, 3.136 2 km and (3 191.113 0 ± 1 189.709 4) hm 2 at daytime, respectively. The area of the snails that may be infected by the miracidium released from the eggs in the fecal samples of the freely graze goat (range of key regions for infected snails detection and control) at daytime was estimated to be (3 210.717 5 ± 1 190.907 3) hm 2 . The intensity of environmental contamination by the eggs in the fecal samples of the freely grazed goat is linked to the number of infected goat. The contamination range caused

  15. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Protein and Amino Acid Profile of Filial Etawah Crossbred and Castrated Filial Boer Crossbred Goat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Purnomo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the protein content and amino acid profile of filial Etawah and castrated Boer goat meat. The results were expected to be used as information about protein content and amino acid composition of filial Etawah and filial castrated Boer goat meat and  as a reference for further experiment about different livestock. The material of the research were loin meat, front  and back thigh of filial Etawah and filial castrated Boer goat meat. Data were analysed with t-test. The results showed that castrated filial Boer goat meat had significantly higher protein content  and 7 essensial amino acids namely lysine, leucine, arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine and histidine compared to the one from filial Etawah goat meat. Key words: protein, amino acid profiles, goat  meat

  17. Reproductive and population dynamics parameters of Mbanza-Ngungu's local goat in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gasigwa Sabimana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for the development of goat breeding in the Democratic Republic of Congo seem favorable. Knowledge of the characteristics of local goat farming by breeders is a very important factor to control and promote goat production. The objective of this study was to improve the productivity of Mbanza-Ngungu’s local goat by increasing the knowledge of its reproductive performance. To achieve this objective, data were collected by direct observation of the goats. These data were used to simulate reproductive and population dynamics parameters over a five-year period. The study showed the relevance of the model to simulate the reproduction traits of Mbanza-Ngungu’s goats and that it is useless to keep them beyond five years.

  18. Variation in udder health indicators at different stages of lactation in goats with no udder infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Ylva; Larsen, Torben; Nyman, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an important disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose mastitis in goats are available but have not all been investigated in healthy udders and at different stages of lactation....... The purpose of the study was to investigate the variation in some udder health indicators at different stages of lactation in goats without intramammary infection (IMI). The udder health indicators were: somatic cell counts (SCC) measured by DeLaval Cell Counter (DCC) and estimated by California Mastitis Test...... (CMT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, N-acetyl-β-d-glucoseaminidase (NAGase) activity and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Milk samples from twenty-four clinically healthy dairy goats were collected on two consecutive days in early, mid and late lactation. At milking, each goat's udder half...

  19. Effect of Q211 and K222 PRNP Polymorphic Variants in the Susceptibility of Goats to Oral Infection With Goat Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Fast, Christine; Tauscher, Kerstin; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos; Groschup, Martin H; Nadeem, Muhammad; Goldmann, Wilfred; Langeveld, Jan; Bossers, Alex; Andreoletti, Olivier; Torres, Juan-María

    2015-08-15

    The prion protein-encoding gene (PRNP) is one of the major determinants for scrapie occurrence in sheep and goats. However, its effect on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transmission to goats is not clear. Goats harboring wild-type, R/Q211 or Q/K222 PRNP genotypes were orally inoculated with a goat-BSE isolate to assess their relative susceptibility to BSE infection. Goats were killed at different time points during the incubation period and after the onset of clinical signs, and their brains as well as several peripheral tissues were analyzed for the accumulation of pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) and prion infectivity by mouse bioassay. R/Q211 goats displayed delayed clinical signs compared with wild-type goats. Deposits of PrP(Sc) were detected only in brain, whereas infectivity was present in peripheral tissues too. In contrast, none of the Q/K222 goats showed any evidence of clinical prion disease. No PrP(Sc) accumulation was observed in their brains or peripheral tissues, but very low infectivity was detected in some tissues very long after inoculation (44-45 months). These results demonstrate that transmission of goat BSE is genotype dependent, and they highlight the pivotal protective effect of the K222 PRNP variant in the oral susceptibility of goats to BSE. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Welfare effects of a disease eradication programme for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, K; Leine, N; Valle, P S

    2016-02-01

    The Norwegian dairy goat industry has largely succeeded in controlling caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and paratuberculosis through a voluntary disease eradication programme called Healthier Goats (HG). The aim of this study was to apply an on-farm welfare assessment protocol to assess the effects of HG on goat welfare. A total of 30 dairy goat farms were visited, of which 15 had completed disease eradication and 15 had not yet started. Three trained observers assessed the welfare on 10 farms each. The welfare assessment protocol comprised both resource-based and animal-based welfare measures, including a preliminary version of qualitative behavioural assessments with five prefixed terms. A total of 20 goats in each herd were randomly selected for observations of human-animal interactions and physical health. The latter included registering abnormalities of eyes, nostrils, ears, skin, lymph nodes, joints, udder, claws and body condition score. For individual-level data, robust clustered logistic regression analyses with farm as cluster variable were conducted to assess the association with disease eradication. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used for comparisons of herd-level data between the two groups. Goats with swollen joints (indicative of CAE) and enlarged lymph nodes (indicative of CLA) were registered on 53% and 93% of the non-HG farms, respectively, but on none of the HG farms. The only other health variables with significantly lower levels in HG herds were skin lesions (P=0.008) and damaged ears due to torn out ear tags (PGoats on HG farms showed less fear of unknown humans (P=0.013), and the qualitative behavioural assessments indicated that the animals in these herds were calmer than in non-HG herds. Significantly more space and lower gas concentrations reflected the upgrading of buildings usually done on HG farms. In conclusion, HG has resulted in some welfare improvements beyond the elimination of infectious diseases

  1. BUILDING LEADERSHIP CAPACITY OF AN EMERGING GOAT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Nye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leadership development has been a primary objective of Extension educators directing Ohio Meat Goat Task Force efforts. Producer members have been instrumental in the formation of the Ohio Meat Goat Marketing Alliance. This group has developed by-laws and articles of incorporation for the purpose of promoting and marketing commercial meat goat producers in Ohio. Nationwide market centers have been accessed through the establishment of graded pool sales. Cooperation between producer networks, industry, and the Department of Agriculture were responsible for establishing a certified livestock grader position. Producers have enhanced the effectiveness of their efforts by partnering with agencies such as the Ohio Cooperative Development Center, Somalia and East African Organization, Jewish Family Services and Institute for Social and Economic Development. Extension educators have developed the Ohio Meat Goat Production and Budgeting Fact Sheet as a guide for establishing this value added enterprise. Extension has designed and conducted regional workshops, seminars, and on-farm tours to transfer knowledge to over 2100 participants. Education, production, and marketing topics are discussed in the Buckeye Meat Goat Newsletter. The website http://www.ohiomarketgoat.com has been developed to enhance the exchange of production and marketing information. The task force has received $63,000 in Research and Extension grants to conduct on going feasibility studies of ethnic markets, Ohio’s processing infrastructure, and development of farmer/consumer cooperatives. On-farm meat goat research encompasses breed comparisons, forage utilization, and developing benchmark data. Progress continues in the ability to market fresh and safe chevon products directly to emerging ethnic and faith based consumer populations to capture the most value. This task force is taking a unique approach to building industry infrastructure by utilizing a social approach

  2. The size of domestic cattle, sheep, goats and pigs in the Czech Neolithic and Eneolithic Periods: Temporal variations and their causes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, René

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, Junio (2016), s. 33-78 ISSN 1132-6891 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : osteometry * body mass * domestication * cross-breeding * Chalcolithic * Bos taurus * Ovis aries * Capra hircus * Sus domesticus * aurochs * wild boar * archaeozoology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. Molecular characterization of Giardia intestinalis assemblage E from goat kids in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Alamgir Hossain; Sohana Akter Mina; Lolo Wal Marzan; Mohammad Asif Imran Khan Emon; Rasel Das; AMAM Zonaed Siddiki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To molecularly characterize Giardia in goat kids to elucidate the possible zoonotic hazards in Bangladesh and find out the role of Giardia protozoan parasite as a source of human infection. Methods: Fecal samples of 100 goat kids were genotyped by nested PCR amplification of β-giardin gene fragment followed by sequencing and analysis. Results: The total prevalence of Giardia in goat kids was 3% (3/100) and the infection is more widespread in younger (P = 0.36), Bl...

  4. A Development Strategy for Dairy Goat Farms in Bogor Regency - West Java

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrilla, L; Purwanto, B. P; Astuti, D. A; Atabany, A; Sukmawati, A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of present study were to formulate development strategies for dairy goat' farms that capable of supporting goat's milk agribusiness. Three medium scale dairy goat farms located in Bogor Regency which has population of more than 100 heads and has established more than 10 years were purposively selected for the study. Data were collected during February to May 2014. The design of this study was based on descriptive qualitative approach (rapid appraisal approach). Data were analiz...

  5. Purification of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptide Derived From Kacang Goat Meat Protein Hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Jamhari, J; Yusiati, L.M; Suryanto, E; Cahyanto, M.N; Erwanto, Y; Muguruma, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitorypeptide derived from Kacang goat meat protein hydrolysate. Kacang goat meat loin section washydrolyzed with pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat was thentested the protein concentration and ACE inhibitory activity. ACE inhibitory peptide of the proteinhydrolysate was purified through several steps of purification by column SEP-PAK Plus C18 Cartridgeand RP-HPLC usi...

  6. Studies on the serological relationships between avian pox, sheep pox, goat pox and vaccinia viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, P. K.; Nilakantan, P. R.

    1970-01-01

    By using neutralization, complement fixation and immunogel-diffusion tests, it has been demonstrated that cross-reactions occur between various avian pox viruses and between sheep pox and goat pox viruses. No such reactions were demonstrated between avian pox viruses and vaccinia virus or between avian pox and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. Furthermore, no serological relationship was demonstrable between vaccinia virus and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. PMID:4989854

  7. Transcriptomic response of goat mammary epithelial cells to Mycoplasma agalactiae challenge – a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogorevc, Jernej; Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is one of the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections in small ruminants, causing contagious agalactia. To better understand the underlying disease patterns a primary goat mammary epithelial cell (pgMEC) culture was established from the mammary tissue and ch....... Additionally, the results represent comprehensive goat mammary transcriptome information and demonstrate the applicability of the comparative genomics approach for annotation of goat data, using transcriptome information of a closely related species (Bos taurus) as a reference....

  8. Enjoy Yourself by Listening in——To Get One’s Goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国凤

    1987-01-01

    Like every language American English is full of strange expressions, phrases that come from day to day life of the people and develop in their own way. Where did these expressions come from, and how did they get into the language? Our expression today is 'to get one’s goat' and other phrases that come from the goat. The goat is an ancient creature that has done muck for man, providing milk, meat, cheese, and other good and useful things.

  9. Risk assessment of the risk of introduction and distribution of Sheep and goat pox in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorova, Krasimira

    2014-01-01

    Sheep pox and Goat pox (Variola ovina; Variola caprina; Sheep pox, Goat pox) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease can take place with moderate clinical presentations of local breeds, but for animals that have met for the first time the virus ends with death. Caused by a virus of Sheep pox and a virus of Goat pox, genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Economic losses come from reduced milk production, lowering the quality of the leather, wool and more. Sheep...

  10. Use of scanning electron microscopy to confirm the identity of lice infesting communally grazed goat herds

    OpenAIRE

    P.J. Sebei; C.M.E. McCrindle; E.D. Green; M.L. Turner

    2004-01-01

    Lice have been described on goats in commercial farming systems in South Africa but not from flocks on communal grazing. During a longitudinal survey on the causes of goat kid mortality, conducted in Jericho district, North West Province, lice were collected from communally grazed indigenous goats. These lice were prepared for and viewed by scanning electron microscopy, and micromorphological taxonomic details are described. Three species of lice were found in the study area and identif...

  11. Assessment of the Kid Production Traits of Kacang Goat Under Smallholders Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Sodiq, A; Priyono, A; Tawfik, ES

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to assess the influence of environmental (non-genetic) factors on kid production traits of Kacang goat under smallholders production system. The study was conducted at the Kacang goat smallholders, located at the centre of Kacang goat in Gundi subdistric, Purwodadi regency, Central Java. The kid production traits evaluated are birth weight, weaning weight, and growth rate till weaning. The environmental factors assessed were: sex (male, female), type of ...

  12. Serological, culture and molecular survey of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in a goat flock in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiero, Alessia; Turchi, Barbara; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Cantile, Carlo; Colombani, Giuseppe; Forzan, Mario; Cerri, Domenico; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Fratini, Filippo

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (Map) is a pathogen which causes a chronic progressive granulomatous enteritis known as paratuberculosis or Johne's disease and it primarily affects wild and domestic ruminants. The aim of this research was to examine a flock which consisted of 294 goats and was located in Garfagnana district (Tuscany, Italy) performing ELISA tests, culture and IS900 PCR assay; direct diagnostic methods were carried out not only on bulk tank milk and cheese samples but also on individual milk and tissue specimens collected from nine subjects positive to ELISA tests. Out of 294 animals, 20 goats (6.8%) were positive to ELISA surveys. Bulk tank milk samples were negative to culture and to PCR assay carried out on the DNA extracted directly from them, while, with respect to cheese, Map was detected by culture in 2/12 (16.66%) cheeses ripened for 3-7 days, and by PCR in 2/12 (16.66%) cheeses ripened for 3-7 days and in 3/12 (25%) cheeses ripened for 45 days. Regarding individual milk samples, Map was detected by culture in 2/9 (22.22%) specimens and by PCR in 5/9 (55.55%) samples. Furthermore, Map was isolated from the intestine in 9/9 (100%) animals, from the mesenteric lymph nodes in 8/9 (88.88%) subjects, from the liver in 4/9 (44.44%) goats, from the spleen in 5/9 (55.55%) animals, while Map DNA was found in all the tissue samples analyzed.The results demonstrated the presence of paratuberculosis in a goat flock located in Garfagnana district (Tuscany, Italy).

  13. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) with maralfalfahay (Pennisetum sp.) in diets of lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.

    2016-01-01

    tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg...... of body weight [BW]) were selected in a 2-treatment and crossoverdesign experiment where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group offive goats was fed a mixed ration with alfalfa as forage (A diet) and the other diet replacedalfalfa with maralfalfa (M diet) in a forage concentrate ratio...

  14. Grazing Behavior and Itineraries of Kacang Goat with Different Coat Color under Semi Intensive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Heri Kiswanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of coat color on behavior and itineraries of kacang goat during grazing time. This research used 9 females and 3 males kacang goat. Behavior observed by one zero sampling method and analyzed using t-Test at level 5%. The result indicated that ingestion and browsing of brown goat (30.91±2.87%; 8.75±3.10% higher than black goat (28.57±2.69%; 6.07±4.78%, while black goat showed more locomotion (33.26±4.50% than brown goat (29.70±4.63%. Grazing, panting, and resting behaviors, and distance traveled of black goat (22.56±2.63%; 4.48±4.02%; 2.34±2.97%; 483.48±133.16 m were not different with brown goat (22.16±2.90%; 4.59±3.71%; 2.64±1.52%; 392.29±81.19 m. Result also  indicated that goat showed more grazing than browsing with high preference in you ng grass than old grass,  legume, and weed.

  15. Technical efficiency of goat farming in Turkey: a case study of Isparta province

    OpenAIRE

    Gül, Mevlüt; Demircan, Vecdi; Yilmaz, Hasan; Yilmaz, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study estimates the technical efficiency of goat rearing in the province of Isparta in Turkey using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The data used were collected from 92 goat farmers using the stratified sampling method by means of a questionnaire. The technical efficiency of the goat farming varied widely between 0.13 and 1.00. The mean efficiency of 92 goat farms was calculated to be 0.44 and 0.66 for constant and variable returns to scale assumptions, respectively. The greate...

  16. Complementing endozoochorous seed dispersal patterns by donkeys and goats in a semi-natural island ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treitler, Julia Tabea; Drissen, Tim; Stadtmann, Robin; Zerbe, Stefan; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin

    2017-12-19

    Endozoochory is, in grazing systems, a substantial vector for seed dispersal. It can play an important role in vegetation dynamics, especially in colonization processes through seed input on the vegetation and on the soil seed bank. We investigated the endozoochorous seed input of donkeys and goats on a semi-natural island ecosystem in the Mediterranean. Through germination experiments, we assessed the viable seed content of the dung of these grazing animals to estimate their suitability and efficiency for seed dispersal of the vegetation types of the island. We show different dispersal patterns of donkeys and goats. Goats disperse a high number of diaspores from shrubs while donkeys disperse more diaspores of grasses. In addition, goats disperse plants of greater growth height and donkeys plants of shorter height. These dispersal patterns are in accordance with the vegetation types of which donkeys and goats disperse indicator species. Both, donkeys and goats, feed on and disperse species of the vegetation types, open grassland and temporarily wet grassland. In addition, goats feed on and disperse diagnostic species of the semi-open maquis and preforest formations. Overall, our results show that donkeys and goats are complementing each other in their endozoochorous seed dispersal potential. This emphasizes the importance of both grazing animals for the vegetation dynamics of the semi-natural island ecosystem. Therefore, the adaption of the goat management to a traditional land management based on directed transhumance might maintain and enrich vegetation types.

  17. Ultrasonographic evaluation to diagnose hepatic lipidosis in Egyptian Zaraibi goats with vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry A. El-Khodery; Hussein S. Hussein; Mohamed E. El-Boshy; Medhat N. Nassif

    2011-01-01

    As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease) in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy) were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l an...

  18. Comparative transcriptome profiling of dairy goat microRNAs from dry period and peak lactation mammary gland tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuanjian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that serve as important post-transcriptional gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post-transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play important roles in many biological processes. Extensive high-throughput sequencing studies of miRNAs have been performed in several animal models. However, little is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in goat (Capra hircus, which is one of the most important agricultural animals and the oldest domesticated species raised worldwide. Goats have long been used for their milk, meat, hair (including cashmere, and skins throughout much of the world. RESULTS: In this study, two small RNA libraries were constructed based on dry period and peak lactation dairy goat mammary gland tissues and sequenced using the Illumina-Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 346 conserved and 95 novel miRNAs were identified in the dairy goat. miRNAs expression was confirmed by qRT-PCR in nine tissues and in the mammary gland during different stages of lactation. In addition, several candidate miRNAs that may be involved in mammary gland development and lactation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages of the mammary gland. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the first miRNAs profile related to the biology of the mammary gland in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lactation physiology and mammary gland development in the dairy goat.

  19. Heritability and variance components estimates for growth traits in Saudi Ardi goat and Damascus goat and their crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the genetic and non-genetic factors and their interactions affecting growth rate and body weights at birth, weaning and at 6 months of age in Saudi Ardi, Damascus goats and their crosses.Methods: Crossbreeding program between Saudi Ardi(A goats with Damascus(D was carried out to improve the meat productivity of Ardi goats through crossbreeding. The pedigree records of the body weights were obtained from 754 kids (397 males and 357 females produced from 46 Sires and 279 Dams. Birth weight, weaning weigh and 6 months weight as well as average daily gain during different growth stages from birth to weaning (D1, weaning to 6 months (D2 and from birth to 6 months of age (D3 were recorded during winter/autumn and summer/spring. Data were classified according to breed, generation, sex, season, year, and type of birth. Data were analyzed using GLM procedure for the least-squares means of the fixed factors. Heritability and genetic parameters were estimated with derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedures using the MTDFREML program.Results: The percentages of variations were moderate for body weights and high for daily gains. Genetic groups had a highly significant (P<0.01 effect on the body weights traits. Damascus goats had higher (P<0.01 birth and weaning weights, but ½D½A group kids had a higher (P<0.01 body weight at 6 months. The genetic groups had a significant effects on the daily weight gains for D1 (P<0.01 and D3 (P<0.05 periods, whereas, it had no effects on D2 period. The fixed effects of sex, season, year and type of birth were significant differences for body weights. Male kids were heavier (P<0.01 than females for different growth stages. Body weights and daily gains during winter/autumn were significantly higher (P<0.01 than summer/ spring. Kids born and raised as singles were significantly (P<0.01 heavier than those were born as twins or triplets. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between birth

  20. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examination.......50. There was no difference between the prevalence in sheep and goat herds. Records for well over half of the herds could be combined with data from the Danish Central Husbandry Register. No association between occurrence of ED and herd size was found. Cattle were registered as contemporarily present on 135 out of 521 herds...... which was shown to be strongly associated to ED. The estimated herd prevalences of ED among farms with and without contemporary cattle were 0.24 and 0.042, respectively....

  1. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  2. Hepatic lipidosis associated with cobalt deficiency in Omani goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E H; Muirhead, D E; Annamalai, K; King, G J; Al-Busaidy, R; Hameed, M S

    1999-06-01

    Livers from 36 of 684 (5.3%) apparently healthy goats examined at an abattoir in the greater Muscat area of Oman exhibited gross pathological findings characterized by extremely pale, friable, fatty livers encompassing the entire organ. Histopathologically, diffuse hepatic lipidosis and occasional bile duct proliferation were observed. Periodic acid Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant pigment was observed in the macrophages lining the sinusoids. These histopathological lesions were consistent with those characteristic of ovine white liver disease. Cobalt analysis revealed that normal livers had six times more cobalt and a 3-fold less fat content than those measured in the fatty livers. This is the first report of an association between cobalt deficiency and hepatic lipidosis in Omani goats.

  3. Occurrence of oestrus in the Boer goat doe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    r.r \\\\,ord met inagneming yan hierdie. s e i s o c r r l r l c g c s l u g r l l k 1 i 1 1 i 1 r ' i 1. Keywords: Boer goat, oestrous activitv, season. The lcvel of reproductive performance depends on the interaction of ge ne tic and environmental factors, but it ...

  4. Magnesium utilisation by West African dwarf goats during gestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve monoparous WAD goats aged 2-4 years and weighing 15 ± 1.2kg were used in a 20 wk gestation trial to study the effect of dietary inclusion of Mg supplementation at 0.01, 0.11 and 0.21% with MgSO4.7H2O in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. The does were synchronised and pregnant does were randomly ...

  5. haematological values of appararently healthy sheep and goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Uquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M. and Jenning, F.W. (1992). Veterinary Parasitology,. Chuchill Livingstone Inc. New York, U.S.A. pp 4-244. Wilkins, J.H. and Hodges, R.E.D.H. (1962):. Observations on normal goats blood. Royal Army Vet. Corp. J. 33:7. Received: July 1998. Revised version accepted: June ...

  6. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  7. Goat farming systems in Martinique: management and breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, G; Leimbacher, F; Maurice, O; Domarin, D; Naves, M; Mandonnet, N

    2009-04-01

    To be successful, initiatives to improve farmer's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. A survey was carried out to implement a genetic policy governing meat goat farming in Martinique (11,400 heads and 33,400 ha arable land). The questionnaire comprised a total of 27 items with 306 modalities, and included questions on farm structure, crop and animal productions, management of feeding, reproduction and health control. The sample consisted of 33 farmers with 644 ha and 2,680 goats (1,286 does and 52 bucks), 97% of does in the studied sample were crossbred, 56% of bucks were" imported" breeds (Boer or Anglo-Nubian). The number of goats per farm varied from 16 to 582. The feeding system was predominantly grazing, according to a rotation (55% of cases) or continuous grazing system (42%). On 62% of farms, the males remained with the females permanently, also 83% of farmers did not resort to methods of controlled-mating. The first criteria used for choosing animals (80 to 90% of answers) of both sex, were development and conformation. Assuming that adaptive together with productive traits are important in tropical zones, it is advisable to better define the maternal lineage of the local livestock (presently very sparse records), to improve reproduction management and culling strategies (poor and inadequate management practices do not support any genetic improvement programme), and to guide the farmers in their decisions by employing concerted interprofessional actions (choice of meat breed, market studies).

  8. Diet selection by Nguni goats in the Zululand Thornveld

    OpenAIRE

    Basha, N.A.D.; Scogings, P.F.; Nsahlai, I.V.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to determine diet selection of goats grazing/browsing in Zululand Thornveld. An experiment was done in spring (November 2007) and autumn (March/April 2008) at Owen Sitole College of Agriculture, KwaZulu-Natal. Diet selection was estimated using direct observation of animals and an indirect plant-based method. The browse species observed in the plant-based methods were: Gymnosporia senegalensis (Gs), Acacia nilotica (An), Acacia karroo (Ak), Scutia myrtina (Sm) and Dichrostachys ci...

  9. Innate Immune Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfon, Charles K.; Marszal, Peter; Zhang, Shunzhen; Weingartl, Hana M.

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a re-emerging mosquito-borne disease of ruminants and man, was endemic in Africa but spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen, meaning it could spread even further. Little is known about innate and cell-mediated immunity to RVF virus (RVFV) in ruminants, which is knowledge required for adequate vaccine trials. We therefore studied these aspects in experimentally infected goats. We also compared RVFV grown in an insect cell-line and that grown in a mammalian cell-line for differences in the course of infection. Goats developed viremia one day post infection (DPI), which lasted three to four days and some goats had transient fever coinciding with peak viremia. Up to 4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were positive for RVFV. Monocytes and dendritic cells in PBMCs declined possibly from being directly infected with virus as suggested by in vitro exposure. Infected goats produced serum IFN-γ, IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines but not IFN-α. Despite the lack of IFN-α, innate immunity via the IL-12 to IFN-γ circuit possibly contributed to early protection against RVFV since neutralising antibodies were detected after viremia had cleared. The course of infection with insect cell-derived RVFV (IN-RVFV) appeared to be different from mammalian cell-derived RVFV (MAM-RVFV), with the former attaining peak viremia faster, inducing fever and profoundly affecting specific immune cell subpopulations. This indicated possible differences in infections of ruminants acquired from mosquito bites relative to those due to contact with infectious material from other animals. These differences need to be considered when testing RVF vaccines in laboratory settings. PMID:22545170

  10. Acute metabolic and physiologic response of goats to narcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatte, C. L.; Bennett, P. B.

    1973-01-01

    Assessment of the metabolic consequences of exposure to elevated partial pressures of nitrogen and helium under normobaric and hyperbaric conditions in goats. The results include the finding that hyperbaric nitrogen causes and increase in metabolic rate and a general decrease in blood constituent levels which is interpreted as reflecting a shift toward fatty acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrates. A similar but more pronounced pattern was observed with hyperbaric helium.

  11. Sheep and goat fermented meat sausages — health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Rodrigues, Sandra; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2016-01-01

    The most common sausages use only pork meat and are ripened for long periods. However, some countries with great tradition of sheep and goat meat consumption have the habit of eating some processed products of these meats. In Mediterranean countries as well as in other parts of the world, the meat from young lamb or kid is very usual and appreciated. These young milk fed animals producing lightweight carcasses are highly appreciated by consumers and are traditionally comm...

  12. Endocrine and metabolic traits in goat kids around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rosi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Saanen kids, three days after birth, were divided into two groups: WEAN and MILK. All kids were fed goat milk until the 5th week of age, when the WEAN group began a weaning protocol. MILK group continued to receive goat milk for the entire experimental period, while WEAN group was weaned at 47 days of age. Starting from the 3rd week of age, body weight was recorded and blood samples were taken weekly, before the first meal of the day. Plasma was analysed for glucose, total protein, free aminoacid, insulin, leptin and ghrelin.Weaning did not affect plasma levels of total protein and leptin, but decreased plasma glucose and free aminoacid, and increased ghrelin concentration. Moreover, weaning decreased plasma insulin level more than three times. This result was probably the consequence of the lower concentration of plasma glucose of the WEAN group, but the effect could be enforced by the milk-borne insulin ingested by the MILK kids with the diet. Goat milk contains peptides that can pass across the intestinal epithelium and enter the systemic circulation, suggesting a possible role in accomplishing the immature ability of suckling animals to produce hormones and growth factors.

  13. Abattoir survey on extra-cerebral coenurosis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of 19,046 goats aged between 5 and 6 month and slaughtered at an abattoir in Dubai between September 2012 and March 2014, 57 carcasses were objected at meat inspection due to the presence of bladder worms of the coenurus type. The majority showed single cysts that were cut out but 10 carcasses had to be discharged due to the presence of multiple cysts and with a maximum number of 41 coenuri. In the majority of carcasses, cysts were located in the legs (n=45 followed by abdominal muscles (n=16, diaphragm (n=14 and shoulder (n=13. Loin, rack, renal fat, heart, neck, masseter were other cyst locations. The size of the detected parasitic cysts ranged from 0.7 ml to 90 ml. The maximum number of 1,102 scolices was counted in an 86 ml coenurus found in the leg of a goat. Cysticercus tenuicollis was another cestode larval stage found in livers of 302 goats. A mixed infection with both parasites was detected in 35 carcasses.

  14. Bacterial communities of fresh goat meat packaged in modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizosa, Elia; Benito, María José; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Hernández, Alejandro; Villalobos, Maria Del Carmen; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the growth and development of fortuitous flora and food pathogens in fresh goat meat packaged under modified atmospheres containing two different concentrations of CO 2 . Meat samples were stored at 10 °C under two different modified-atmosphere packing (MAP) conditions: treatment A had 45% CO 2  + 20% O 2  + 35% N 2 and treatment B had 20% CO 2  + 55% O 2  + 25% N 2 . During 14 days of storage, counts of each bacterial group and dominant species identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed to determine the microbial diversity present. The MAP condition used for treatment A was a more effective gas mixture for increasing the shelf life of fresh goat meat, significantly reducing the total number of viable bacteria and enterobacteria counts. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were the most common contaminants, although Hafnia alvei was dominant in treatment A and Serratia proteamaculans in treatment B. Identification studies at the species level showed that different microorganisms develop under different storage conditions, reflecting the importance of gas composition in the modified atmosphere on the bacterial community. This work provides new insights into the microbial changes of goat meat storage under different MAP conditions, which will be beneficial for the meat industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf, H.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

  16. Ovarian function and growth performance of indigenous goats in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, S.; Jainudeen, M.R.; Alimon, A.R.; Sharifuddin, W.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian activity and factors influencing it were studied in the Malaysian indigenous goat using plasma progesterone radioimmunoassay technique and laparoscopic examination of the ovaries. Laparoscopy, complemented by progesterone assay, was found to be a reliable technique for diagnosing the presence of corpora lutea (CL). However, progesterone assay had the limitation that it could not detect the presence of early developing CL. Two morphological types of CL were observed, either protruding or embedded. The mean plasma progesterone concentrations for pregnant, dioestrous and postpartum anoestrous goats were 4.8 ± 0.72, 4.7 ± 1.60 and <0.7 ng/mL respectively. An inhibitory effect of suckling on the resumption of postpartum ovarian activity was also observed. Removal of kids tended to hasten the onset of postpartum ovarian activity. Continuous confinement of goats was suspected to contribute to conception failure and non-regression of the CL. Kids fed improved diet showed higher average daily weight gain than those suckling their dams. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  17. Experimental Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R

    1998-03-01

    The effects of intraduodenal administration of Clostridium perfringens cultures and culture products in goats were evaluated to develop a reliable experimental model of enterotoxemia in this species. Five conventionally reared, 11-16-week-old Angora goat kids were dosed intraduodenally with whole cultures of C. perfringens type D; five similar animals were dosed with C. perfringens type D filtered culture supernatant; and a third group of five kids was dosed with C. perfringens type D washed cells. Two kids were used as controls and received sterile, nontoxic culture medium intraduodenally. All animals received starch solution into the abomasum. All five kids inoculated with whole culture and three of five dosed with culture supernatant and with washed cells developed central nervous system signs. Diarrhea was observed in two of five kids inoculated with whole culture, in all five of those dosed with culture supernatant, and in three of five of those that received washed cells. The most striking postmortem findings consisted of lung edema, necrotizing pseudomembranous colitis, and cerebral vasogenic edema. The protocol thus provided a reasonable model of naturally occurring enterotoxemia in goats, producing a range of clinical signs and postmortem changes similar to those observed in the natural disease.

  18. Arterial supply of the stomach of the Egyptian native goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the origin, course and distribution of the arteries supplying the stomach of the goat which is of extreme clinical importance for surgeon during caprine rumenotomy. Materials and methods: Fifteen adult goats were used in this study to demonstrate the arterial supply of the stomach by injection of the thoracic aorta with red gum milk latex after general anesthesia and slaughtering of the animals. Gross dissection of the arteries of the stomach was done to detect the origin, course and distribution of these arteries. Results: The study revealed that the rumen was richly supplied by the right and left ruminal arteries as well as ruminal branches from the reticular artery. The reticulum was supplied with reticular branches of reticular and accessory reticular arteries. The omasum was vascularized by omasal branches of the left gastric artery. While the abomasum received its entire arterial supply from abomasal branches of the left gastric, left gastroepiploic, right gastric and right gastroepiploic arteries. Conclusion: The stomach of the goat receives its arterial supply from the branches of the right ruminal, left ruminal, reticular, left gastric and hepatic arteries. Rumenotomy could be done in the left aspect of the dorsal ruminal sac, between the area of anastomoses of the terminal branches of the left and right ruminal arteries as the blood supply was minimal, so that bleeding will be low. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 80-87

  19. Possibility of modifying the growth trajectory in Raeini Cashmere goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Heydar; Mokhtari, M S

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of modifying the growth trajectory in Raeini Cashmere goat breed. In total, 13,193 records on live body weight collected from 4788 Raeini Cashmere goats were used. According to Akanke's information criterion (AIC), the sing-trait random regression model included fourth-order Legendre polynomial for direct and maternal genetic effect; maternal and individual permanent environmental effect was the best model for estimating (co)variance components. The matrices of eigenvectors for (co)variances between random regression coefficients of direct additive genetic were used to calculate eigenfunctions, and different eigenvector indices were also constructed. The obtained results showed that the first eigenvalue explained 79.90% of total genetic variance. Therefore, changing the body weights applying the first eigenfunction will be obtained rapidly. Selection based on the first eigenvector will cause favorable positive genetic gains for all body weight considered from birth to 12 months of age. For modifying the growth trajectory in Raeini Cashmere goat, the selection should be based on the second eigenfunction. The second eigenvalue accounted for 14.41% of total genetic variance for body weights that is low in comparison with genetic variance explained by the first eigenvalue. The complex patterns of genetic change in growth trajectory observed under the third and fourth eigenfunction and low amount of genetic variance explained by the third and fourth eigenvalues.

  20. [Composition of nutrients and minerals in some goat milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, R; Ganowiak, Z; Nabrzyski, M

    1997-01-01

    The paper contains results of determinations of protein, fat, carbohydrates, water and minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Na, K) in 12 goat milk products. The nutrient components were determined by general approved analytical methods. Minerals like Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Na and K were determined by the flame ASA method. Phosphorus was determined as phosphates by colorimetric method with ammonium molybdate. Mean percentage content of protein, fat, carbohydrates and water were: 9.7-25.7; 1.4-33.5; 2.2-70.2; and 3.0-77.4 respectively. The content of minerals according to the products of goat milk were as follow: 86-1113 mg% Ca; 96-846 mg% P; 0.2-2.4 mg% Fe; 6-148 mg% Mg; 0.002-0.284 mg% Mn; 0.071-0.754 mg% Cu; 1.1-3.9 mg% Zn; 63-1281 mg% K and 27-407 mg% Na. The levels of nutrients and mineral composition of the examined goat milk products were similar to that of the cows milk products.

  1. Study of gastrointestinal nematodes in Sicilian sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, A; Dara, S; Marino, A M F; Sparagano, O A E; Vitale, F; Reale, S; Caracappa, S

    2004-10-01

    Parasitic gastroenteritis is one of the major causes of productivity loss in sheep and goats. This report records two studies of the helminth fauna from post-mortem examination. The first study, performed on the digestive tract of 72 sheep from a central part of Sicily in a high hill village (1,360 meters above sea level), between April 1996 and March 1997, showed an infection rate of 78%. The second study targeted goats from the western part of Sicily and showed an infection rate of 90%. For sheep, a total of 23 species of helminths were identified belonging to the family of Trichostrongyloidea, with the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia (Teladorsagia), Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, and Nematodirus; Strongilolidea with the genera Oesophagostomum and Chabertia: Ancylostomidea with Bunostomum; and Tricuridea with Tricuris. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most common in the sheep abomasum, Bunostomum trigonocephalum and Trichostrongylus spp. in the small intestine, and Chabertia ovina and Trichuris ovis in the large intestine. For goats, a total of 12 species were isolated in the abomasum with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus axei the most common species. In the small intestine, five species were isolated and Trichostrongylus capricola was the dominant species. T. ovis and O. venulosum were dominant in large intestine and in the cecum. We also found species belonging to other ruminants such as O. ostertagi (in cattle) and S. kolchida and O. leptospicularis (in wild ruminants).

  2. Monitoring of embryonic and fetal losses in different breeds of goats using real-time B-mode ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Haney; Karen, Aly; Ashmawy, Tarek; Abo-Ahmed, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-15

    Compared to cattle and sheep, few studies had been undertaken to evaluate the incidence of embryonic and fetal losses (EFL) in goats. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the timing of EFL and to identify the factors that are associated with EFL in goats such as breed, age, parity, method of estrous synchronization, and breeding. Moreover, this study aimed to ensure whether a relationship existed between serum progesterone (P4) and EFL. Goats (n = 151) of different breeds (70 Zaraiebi, 42 Damascus, and 39 Cross goats [Baladi × Damascus]) were evaluated by ultrasonography to monitor EFL during different stages of gestation (D20-23, D26-29, D33-36, D40-45, and D47-54 after breeding). Blood samples were collected at D7, D20, and at each ultrasonographic scanning to clarify changes of serum P4 levels concurrently with EFL. Results revealed that 45 of 109 goats (41.28%) were exposed to EFL. A higher EFL % was observed between D20 to 23 and D47 to 54 (19.61%) compared with D47 to 54 to birth (11.76%). Moreover, a higher EFL % was observed in Zaraiebi goats compared with others. Age and goat parity had no significant effect on the EFL % in all goats. A high EFL % were observed in goats synchronized by P4 sponge, as well as artificially inseminated goats compared with goats with spontaneous estrus, and bred by natural mating, respectively. Serum P4 at D7 or D20 after breeding showed nonsignificant difference between normal pregnant goats and goats that experienced EFL. Unlike goats that experienced partial EFL, goats that experienced total EFL between D20 to 23 and D26 to 29 showed an abrupt P4 reduction (85.06%; P < 0.01) suggesting the probability of endocrine disruption of the CL. However, goats that were exposed to total EFL between D26 and 29 to D33 to 36 showed a low P4 reduction (24.90%; P < 0.05), which might be considered as an effect rather than a cause of EFL. In conclusion, different factors such as breed, estrous synchronization

  3. Evolution of chemical-physical parameters and rheological characteristics of Sarda and Maltese goat dry hams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Mazzette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sardinia, goat farming is a very important resource. Sarda and Maltese breed are reared mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat, while meat from adult goats is undervalued. The use of adult goat meat to obtain ripened ham will contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. The aim of the present study was to characterize Sarda and Maltese goat dry ham in order to evaluate the quality of autochthonous goat breed meat. Chemical-physical characteristics were determined dur-ing the production stages, while the rheological and colour parameters and the composition of the goat ham were determined at the end of ripening. The pH evolution during processing were similar to other cured meat products, e.g. sheep hams, even though the values were high, especially in the products from Sarda breed. The aw value regularly decreased during processing. Colour parameters (L*, a*, b* in the hams from Maltese goat breed were significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those from Sarda. The Sarda goat ham showed a significantly lower percentage of moisture (42% vs 52%, an higher protein content (44.35% vs 34.19%, while no differences were pointed out in the total fat content. Among the ham rheological properties, hardness parameters showed higher levels (13850.22±7589.92 vs 11073.99±6481.31, respectively in Sarda and Maltese hams in comparison to similar products from pork and sheep, while adhesiveness value was lower. The results show that the quality parameters of goat ripened hams are affected mainly by the charac-teristics of the goat meat, in relation on the breed and the breeding system, and, less, by the traditional technology.

  4. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Cai

    Full Text Available Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT, ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-, and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin(-/- mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/- mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/- mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/- mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  5. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (pgoats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (pfarm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (pgoat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These results can inform strategies to mitigate exposure to C. burnetii in Ontario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The bacteriological quality of goat and ovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. A total of 54 (23 of ovine and 31 of goat bulk tank milk samples from 10 farms in the Czech Republic were collected in years 2013 - 2014. The sampling was done at regular time intervals during the whole year, with five to eight samples collected from each of the 10 dairy farms involved in the study. All milk samples were collected into sterile sampling bottles and transported in a cooler sampling case to the laboratory for immediate examination. Farms were randomly selected to cover the whole area of the Czech Republic. The prevalence and characteristic of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Raw cow's milk can be contaminated by E. coli intramammarily during clinical or subclinical mastitis and either directly through animal feces or indirectly during milk collection through farm employees or the milking equipment. E. coli was detected in 90.3% of the goat milk and 95.7% of the ovine milk samples. The genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2- (stx1, stx2 were not detected and no STEC was identified. The Eae was the detected in 3 (4.6% isolates. S. aureus was detected in 9 (29.0% samples of goat milk and 8 (34.8% samples of ovine milk. A total 12 (57.1% enterotoxin positive S. aureus were obtained; 6 (28.6% were positive for the production of sec encoding enterotoxin SEC; in 4 (19.0% isolates the gene seh was detected; 2 (9.5% isolates were proven positive for seg (4.8% and combination seg and sei (4.8%. The presence of MRSA was not detected in the tested samples in our study. L. monocytogenes was detected in 1 (3.2% samples of goat milk and 1 (4.3% samples of ovine milk. The serotype (1/2a, 1/2b was detected in our study. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. These results form

  7. Ammoniated babassu palm hay in anglo-nubian goat diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Leidiana Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaves of babassu may be used in diets for goats under maintenance, however, it is a low-quality roughage due to its high fiber content. The chemical treatment by ammonia causes reduction in the proportion of the cell wall, in addition to providing non-protein nitrogen for the microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Babassu palm hay ammoniated with 4% urea (BHAU4% was evaluated in this study as a substitute for guinea grass hay in the maintenance diets of goats in terms of intake, digestibility in vivo, and the partitioning of energy and nitrogen compounds. Twenty Anglo-Nubian male goats were used in a randomised block design with four treatments (diets containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% BHAU4% and five replicates (animals/block. The chemical compositions of the feeds, leftovers, faeces, nitrogen and crude energy of the urine were evaluated. In addition, the rumen fluid pH, the rumen N-NH3, and the blood serum urea were evaluated. The digestibility of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crud protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDFap and detergent acid (ADFap, corrected for ash and protein, declined (P<0.05 0.0939, 0.0722, 0.0953, 0.1113, and 0.2666%, respectively, with the 1% inclusion of babassu palm hay in the diet. A negative linear effect (P<0.05 was observed in the ingested nitrogen (N, excretion of N in the urine, retained N, and N balance, with decreases of 0.15711, 0.0225 and 0.1071 g/day and 0.1388%, respectively, per percentage unit of the babassu palm hay included in the diet. The intake and digestibility of the DM and nutrients are reduced with the inclusion of BHAU4% in maintenance diets for goats, with positive nitrogen balance and stability of the ruminal pH and N-NH3 as well as blood urea, which presented values within the normal physiological range for goats.

  8. Estrous of Goats Undergone Superovulation Induction with Anti-inhibin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TN Siregar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrous performance of goats underlying superovulation induction with anti-inhibin was done using anti-inhibin induction on rabbit. Twenty four goats used in this research that divided four groups namely P0 (control, P1 (immunization at days of 4 cycle, P2 (immunization at days of 9 cycle and P3 (immunization at days of 13 cycle. Immunization on groups was done with injection of 500 μg antibody against inhibin after synchronize before that. Estrous synchronization using injection 0.5 ml cloprostenol (EstronTM, Bioveta two times with interval 10 days. Twenty four hours after immunization, all of goats injection of cloprostenol with same doses. Estrous observation was done after injection of cloprostenol later three times a days. Collection of blood was done at estrous (to analyze of estradiol concentration and at days of 7 cycle (to analyze of progesterone concentration. All f goats after treatment showed estrous behavior as swelling around the vulva and redness, a thin mucous discharge from vulva, social behaviors, and showed mounted. Awal of estrous on P0, P1, P2, and P3 groups were 35.00+7.01; 28.67+4,50; 27.67+4.76; and 29.67+5.86 hours, respectively and revealed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Duration of estrous on P0, P1, P2, and P3 were 36.67+3.27; 49.33+3.20; 50.33+10.23; and 53.67+11.96 hours, respectively and revealed significant difference (P<0.05 between P2 and P3 with P0 and P1. Length of cycle on P0, P1, P2, and P3 groups were 20.33+1.75; 19.33+0.82; 19.33+2.50; and 20.83+2.56, respectively and revealed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. (Animal Production 11(1: 34-39 (2009 Key Words: anti-inhibin, goats, superovulation, synchronization

  9. Carcass Characteristics of the Libyan Purebred Mahali Goat and their Crosses with Damascus and Morcia Granada Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkareem E. Ahtash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the carcass characteristics of Mahali (M, Damascus (D and Morcia Granada (G goats and their crosses. Live weight, carcass weight, dressing-out %, rib eye muscle area, non-carcass components and kidney fat were measured. The results showed significant superiority of Damascus goats in live weight (65.8 kg, carcass weight (34.3 kg, dressing-out %( 52.1%, rib eye muscle areas (22.7 cm² over the Mahali and Morcia Granada goats. The crossbred group (1/2 M ҳ 1/2 D was superior in live weight (50 kg, carcass weight (24.2kg, dressing-out %( 48.4%, and rib eye muscle area (21.2cm² over other crossbreds. The crossbred group (3⁄4D ҳ 1⁄4M was superior in live weight (61.7kg, carcass weight (31 kg and rib eye muscle area (21.3cm² over the other 3⁄4 crossbreds. This study indicated that crossing between Mahali ҳ Damascus breed was beneficial for increasing live weight, carcass weight and meat production.

  10. Trypanotolerance in Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats : Importance of trypanosomosis, nutrition, helminth infections and management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osaer, S.; Goossens, B.

    1999-01-01

    The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different

  11. Between-breed variations in resistance/resilience to gastrointestinal nematodes among indigenous goat breeds in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Mukiibi, Robert; Ampaire, A.; Benda-Beckmann, von K.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), Haemonchus contortus, are a major health problem in goat production. Resistance to H. contortus, the most prevalent GIN in Uganda, was studied among three indigenous goat breeds to assess their differences. Twelve male goats of each breed approximately 7 months old

  12. 76 FR 39377 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the July Sheep and Goat Survey, and Postpone the Renewal of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... July Sheep and Goat Survey, and Postpone the Renewal of the Census of Aquaculture, and the Tenure... approved information collection, (July Sheep and Goat Survey), and to indefinitely postpone the renewal of..., (202) 720-4333. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Suspension of July Sheep and Goat Survey and...

  13. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate slaughter are...

  14. Big Animal Cloning Using Transgenic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Case Study of Goat Transgenic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Using of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could improve production traits and disease resistance by improving the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. However, robust ESCs have not been established from domestic ungulates. In the present study, we generated goat induced pluripotent stem cells (giPSCs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat induced pluripotent stem cells (tgiPSCs) from dairy goat fibroblasts (gFs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat fibroblasts (tgFs), respectively, using lentiviruses that contained hOCT4, hSOX2, hMYC, and hKLF4 without chemical compounds. The giPSCs and tgiPSCs expressed endogenous pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, and NANOG. Moreover, they were able to maintain a normal karyotype and differentiate into derivatives from all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Using SCNT, tgFs and tgiPSCs were used as donor cells to produce embryos, which were named tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. The fusion rates and cleavage rates had no significant differences between tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. However, the expression of IGF-2, which is an important gene associated with embryonic development, was significantly lower in tgiPSC-Embryos than in tgF-Embryos and was not significantly different from vivo-Embryos.

  15. Goats may experience reproductive failures and shed Coxiella burnetii at two successive parturitions after a Q fever infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berri, M; Rousset, E; Champion, J L; Russo, P; Rodolakis, A

    2007-08-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. Aborting domestic ruminants are the main source of human infection. In January 2003, an abortion episode occurred in a dairy caprine herd where 18/60 (30%) goats experienced reproductive problems: 4/60 (7%) aborted and 14/60 (23%) had stillbirths. Serological screening for abortion-related infectious diseases suggested Q fever. The diagnosis of C. burnetii infection was confirmed with PCR based on the occurrence of C. burnetii shedding into vaginal mucus, faeces and colostrums taken after kidding from the affected animals. The pregnancy following this episode resulted in one abortion and four stillbirths; three of those goats had already experienced reproductive failure during the previous kidding season. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection and the bacteria shedding were investigated using both ELISA and PCR assays, respectively, during the course of the initial and subsequent kidding seasons. Serological testing, performed on the whole herd 6 weeks after the abortion episode, showed 48/60 (80%) of ELISA positive goats. PCR assay performed on both vaginal swab and milk samples showed that the bacterium was shed for almost four months after the outbreak. C. burnetii DNA was also amplified from vaginal swab and milk samples taken from goats after the second kidding season. Furthermore, the bacteria were found into 14 vaginal swabs and 12 milk samples taken from infected females at both kidding seasons.

  16. ISOLATION, MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GOAT MILK CASEIN AND ITS FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ahmed Salem

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The SDS-PAGE electrophoretic pattern of goats´ milk has a unique pattern compared to those of cow and human milk. β-casein is the major fraction and comprises 70.2% of total goat-milk caseins, while αs- is a minor fraction (29.85 %. This pattern is similar to that of human casein but different to that of cow casein. Purified casein fractions of goat milk showed different electrophoretic migration compared to those of bovine milk. The corresponding Mr(s of goat αs- and β-casein were estimated at 30.2 for αs and 26.6 & 23.9 for β1 and β2 versus 32.6 and 26.6 for bovine αs- and β-casein, respectively. The amino acid composition of goat-milk whole casein appeared to be similar to those of cow, sheep and camel caseins. Meanwhile, goat casein has the satisfactory balance of essential amino acids equal to or exceeding the FAO/ WHO/ UNU requirements for each amino acid. Goat αs-casein was characterized by the presence of higher contents of both acidic and basic amino acids than β-casein. Peptide mapping profiles of goat, cow and human caseins were completely different. This means that each protein has its own unique peptide mapping.

  17. Amino acid diversity on the basis of cytochrome b gene in Kacang and Ettawa Grade goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lestari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of study were to identify and assess the amino acid diversity of Cytochrome b (Cyt b gene, genetic marker and characteristic of specific amino acid in Kacang and Ettawa Grade goat. Nineteen heads of Kacang goat (KG and twelve heads of Ettawa Grade goat (EG were purposively sampled. The genomic DNA was isolated by Genomic DNA Mini Kit (Geneaid and amplified Cyt b using PCR method with CytbCapF and CytbCapR primers and was sequenced. The results showed that there were two specific amino acids that distinguish KG and EG goat with C. hircus and C. aegagrus and four specific amino acids that distinguish KG and EG goat with C. falconeri, but there were no specific amino acids can be used as a genetic marker to distinguish between Kacang and EG goat. In conclusion, specific amino acids in Cyt b gene can be used as a genetic marker among KG and EG goat with 3 goat others comparator.

  18. Use of copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Terrill, T H; Kallu, R R; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J

    2007-10-01

    The objectives of these experiments were to determine the optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in young and mature goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether the effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding management. Two experiments were conducted during cooler months in Georgia, and 4 experiments were conducted during warmer spring or summer months in Arkansas. Meat goats received 0 up to 10 g of COWP under a variety of management conditions. In all experiments, blood and feces were collected every 3 or 7 d from 6 to 42 d to determine blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC) to estimate the degree of GIN infection. In mature goats grazing fall pasture, mean FEC of 0 g of COWP-treated goats increased, and those of 4 g of COWP-treated goats remained low on d 0, 7, and 14 (COWP x d, P 0.10), which were lower on d 7 through 21 (COWP x date, P copper toxicity, was effective in reducing FEC in young goats, and 5 g of COWP was effective in older goats. Copper oxide does not appear to be effective in controlling newly acquired L4 stage (preadult) larvae, which also feed on blood, leading to decreased PCV in newly infected goats.

  19. Determination of anatomic landmarks for optimal placement in captive-bolt euthanasia of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Paul J; Shearer, Jan K; Kleinhenz, Katie E; Shearer, Leslie C

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal anatomic site and directional aim of a penetrating captive bolt (PCB) for euthanasia of goats. SAMPLE 8 skulls from horned and polled goat cadavers and 10 anesthetized horned and polled goats scheduled to be euthanized at the end of a teaching laboratory. PROCEDURES Sagittal sections of cadaver skulls from 8 horned and polled goats were used to determine the ideal anatomic site and aiming of a PCB to maximize damage to the midbrain region of the brainstem for euthanasia. Anatomic sites for ideal placement and directional aiming were confirmed by use of 10 anesthetized horned and polled goats. RESULTS Clinical observation and postmortem examination of the sagittal sections of skulls from the 10 anesthetized goats that were euthanized confirmed that perpendicular placement and firing of a PCB at the intersection of 2 lines, each drawn from the lateral canthus of 1 eye to the middle of the base of the opposite ear, resulted in consistent disruption of the midbrain and thalamus in all goats. Immediate cessation of breathing, followed by a loss of heartbeat in all 10 of the anesthetized goats, confirmed that use of this site consistently resulted in effective euthanasia. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Damage to the brainstem and key adjacent structures may be accomplished by firing a PCB perpendicular to the skull over the anatomic site identified at the intersection of 2 lines, each drawn from the lateral canthus of 1 eye to the middle of the base of the opposite ear.

  20. Prenatal transmission of scrapie in sheep and goats: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... or unwashed in vivo derived embryos are hazards for the transmission of scrapie. Evidence from causal reasoning, including experience from other prion diseases, shows that mechanisms exist for prenatal transmission and transmission by semen and embryos in both sheep and goats. Keywords: Goat, Prenatal, Scrapie, ...

  1. Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to document the socio-economic aspects of goat production in Teso subregion of Uganda. Data were collected by using a questionnaire administered to 114 purposively selected goat owners in five districts. Majority (87%) of de fecto household heads were male. About 41.2% of the farmers were ...

  2. Goat-based aid programme in Central Java: An effective intervention for the poor and vulnerable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a goat-based aid programme developed to facilitate the recovery of vulnerable people in an earthquake affected area in Central Java, Indonesia. Farmers, organised in farmers’ groups, received a package of one male and four female goats. In total, 72 farmers from 6 farmers’

  3. A cross-sectional study of PRNP gene in two native Sicilian goat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sergio Migliore

    Prion protein gene (PRNP) analysis revealed that none of the scrapie cases carried the p. ... low presence of wild-type goats and the lack of protective alleles. ... Recent association studies showed that allelic vari- .... healthy goats (94 males and 63 females) in more than 20 ..... Results from a retrospective cohort study. Vet.

  4. Distribution of protein fraction in the milk of West African dwarf goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milks from lactating West African dwarf goat and white Fulani cow were analysed for total protein, casein, whey protein, non protein nitrogen, Globulin and albumin and proteose peptone contents. Milk samples were from healthy goats and cows (n=24) in mid-lactation. The data were grouped and analysed as treatment 1 ...

  5. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii in goat bulk milk samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy goat herds in Fars, Ghom, Kerman, Khuzestan and Yazd provinces, Iran. In this study, 296 bulk milk samples from 89 dairy goat ...

  6. Q fever in pregnant Goats: PAthogenesis and excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Gelderen, van E.; Dinkla, A.; Frangoulidis, D.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Keulen, van L.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we

  7. Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Ahmad Mohamad Z

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission.

  8. Coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors on five farms in the Netherlands. The goats were individually sampled. Coccidial oocysts were identified and nematode eggs counted. Larval cultures were made and infective larvae identified to the generic or

  9. Fibre, yarn and fabric properties of the Cashmere component of South African indigenous goat hair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Anton F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has over 4 million indigenous goats (Boer, Savannah and Nguni/Mbusi breeds), many of which have two coats of fibre, namely a cashmere-like fine down and a coarse guard hair. These goats are primarily kept for their meat, milk and skin...

  10. Adding further value to South African indigenous goats through the production of cashmere

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braun, AL

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has over 6 million indigenous goats, many of which have two coats of fibre, namely a fine down (cashmere) that is finer than 18,5 micron and a coarse guard hair. These goats are primarily kept for their meat, milk, skin products...

  11. Fibre, yarn and fabric properties of South African indigenous goat hair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Anton F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has over 4 million indigenous goats (Boer, Savannah and Nguni/Mbusi breeds), many of which have two coats of fibre, namely a cashmere like fine down and a coarse guard hair. These goats are primarily kept for their meat, milk and skin...

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factor Assessment of Peste des petits ruminants in Goats in Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Sarker

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Peste des petitis ruminants (PPR in goats in Rajshahi District of Bangladesh, and its relation to age, sex, breeds and seasonal influence. In total, 627 goats were examined where 305 were males and 322 were females. The overall prevalence of PPR in goats was found to be 20.57% (n=129. From the various risk factors analysed, age categories of goats, sex, breed and seasonal influence were found to be significantly associated (p<0.01 with the prevalence of PPR. Findings suggested that the seasonal influence on outbreaks of this disease was significantly higher. The clinical prevalence of PPR was highest in the month of December (31.68% and lowest in June (9.52%. The influence of sex on PPR outbreaks was found to be higher in male (28.52% than female (13.04% goats. As regards to age, PPR was significantly higher in young (31.06% compared to sucklers (13.14% and adult (10.15%. The susceptibility of Black Bengal goats to PPR was higher than other breeds. The results of this study showed that PPR is an important goat disease in the studied areas. Thus, an appropriate control strategy has to be designed and applied, which could involve prevention of contact with infected goats and vaccination against the PPR virus. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 546-549

  13. Identification of prion protein gene polymorphisms in goats from Italian scrapie outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acutis, P.L.; Bossers, A.; Priem, J.; Riina, M.V.; Peletto, S.; Mazza, M.; Casalone, C.; Forloni, G.; Ru, G.; Caramelli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Susceptibility to scrapie in sheep is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein (PrP) gene, whereas no strong association between genetics and scrapie has yet been determined in goats due to the limited number of studies on these animals. In this case¿control study on 177 goats from six

  14. Fibre, yarn and fabric properties of the Cashmere component of South African indigenous goat hair.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Anton F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has over 4 million indigenous goats (Boer, Savannah and Nguni/Mbusi breeds), many of which have two coats of fibre, namely a cashmere-like fine down and a coarse guard hair. These goats are primarily kept for their meat, milk and skin...

  15. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula

  16. True ileal amino acid digestibility of goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk is used as an alternative to cow milk for the production of infant formulas. However, little is known about the protein quality and, specifically, about the digestible AA pattern of goat milk formulas compared with their cow milk counterparts. In this study, the true ileal AA digestibility

  17. Impact of goat browsing on Aloe ferox in a South African savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent and impact of the utilisation of Aloe ferox by Boer goats during winter in a South African savanna was determined using a plant-based approach. All Aloe plants rooted within the transects were eaten by goats, with small plants utilised more frequently than tall plants. The density of dying and dead Aloe plants was ...

  18. Extended scrapie incubation time in goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication in sheep is based in part on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie. Goats may serve as a scrapie reservoir, and to date there has been no experimental inoculation confirming strong genet...

  19. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Goats in Hunan Province, Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi-Feng; Li, Fen; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2018-01-23

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, which can infect animals and human, including goats. However, little information on C. abortus infection is available in goats in Hunan province, subtropical China. To investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in goats in Hunan province, China, a total of 911 goat blood samples were collected randomly from 14 herds having number of goats ranging from 1000 to 3000 from March 2014 to December 2015. Seropositive animals were found in 11 out of 14 (78.57%) goat herds with seroprevalence ranging from 0.00% to 29.94% in individual herds. Overall, the seroprevalence of C. abortus infection was different among regions (southern Hunan: 1.78%; northeast Hunan: 5.47%; and west Hunan: 15.29%), gender (male: 4.58% and female: 9.10%), seasons (spring: 5.97%; summer: 2.61%; autumn: 16.88%; and winter: 10.94%), and ages (year ≤1: 2.39%; 1 3: 17.57%). Risk factors for C. abortus infection were associated with region, season, and age in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first document to demonstrate the existence of C. abortus infection in goats, and the seroprevalence was 8.45% out of 911 goats in Hunan province.

  20. Control measures against Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds: epidemiological and economical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the disease dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a Q fever transmission model was developed by CVI. With such a model we can study questions like ‘What strategy can lower the incidence of Q fever in goats or even lead to disease extinction?’ and ‘Is

  1. Epidemiology of Q fever in dairy goat herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerwerf, L.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms caused by Coxiella burnetii had been observed. Intervention measures included vaccination of dairy goats, followed by one-time

  2. Reduction of Coxiella burnetii prevalence by vaccination of goats and sheep, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerweg, R.; Brom, Van den R.; Roest, H.I.J.; Bouma, A.; Vellema, P.; Pieterse, M.; Dercksen, D.; Nielen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of

  3. Diagnosis of ORF in West African dwarf goats in Uyo, Akwa Ibom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sixty (60) male West African Dwarf goats were reported with clinical signs of enlarged lymph nodes, scabs on the mouth, nose and ears. Two of the goats died and post mortem examination reveals enlarged submandibular lymph nodes and vesicular lesions on the tongue. Clinical diagnosis of Orf has been ...

  4. Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminants in West African Dwarf Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, goats play a significant socioeconomic role in the life of rural people. Recently, there had been report of high mortality of goats especially the kids under one year with none of such among sheep reared together in Eruwa, Southwestern Nigeria. An investigation was conducted to ascertain the cause of the deaths.

  5. Milk yield and rectal temperature in West African Dwarf goats as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate milk yield and rectal temperature in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats as affected by wattle and litter size. A total of 28 lactating does were used for the experiment. 13 does had wattle (bilateral) while 15 had no wattle. 14 does had twin birth while the other 14 had single birth. The goats ...

  6. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent

  7. Farmer perceptions on factors influencing water scarcity for goats in resource-limited communal farming environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdletshe, Zwelethu Mfanafuthi; Ndlela, Sithembile Zenith; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla; Chimonyo, Michael

    2018-05-09

    The objective of the study was to compare factors influencing water scarcity for goats in areas where there are seasonal and perennial rivers under resource-limited communal farming environments. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire (n = 285) administered randomly to smallholder goat farmers from areas with seasonal and perennial rivers. Ceremonies was ranked as the major reason for keeping goats. Water scarcity was ranked the major constraint to goat production in areas with seasonal rivers when compared to areas with perennial rivers (P goat drinking in areas with seasonal and perennial river systems during cool dry and rainy seasons. Rivers were ranked as an important water source for goat drinking where there are seasonal and perennial river systems during the cool dry season. Households located close (≤ 3 km) to the nearest water source reported drinking water for goats a scarce resource. These results show that river systems, season and distance to the nearest water source from a household were factors perceived by farmers to influence water scarcity for goats in resource-limited communal farming environments. Farmers should explore water-saving strategies such as recycling wastewater from kitchens and bathrooms as an alternative water source. The government may assist farmers through sinking boreholes to supply water for both humans and livestock.

  8. Evaluation of furazolidone, sulfadimidine and amprolium to treat coccidiosis in Beetal goats under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avais, Muhammad; Rashid, Ghazanfar; Ijaz, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Arif; Nasir, Amar; Jahanzaib, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Jawaria Ali; Hameed, Sajid; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Coccidiosis is a protozoal and occasionally fatal diarrheic disease of goats imposing heavy economic losses to farming community. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacies of Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium against coccidiosis in Beetal goats. Twenty-four (24) Beetal goats naturally infected with coccidiosis were randomly divided into four groups of 6 (A-D). Goats in groups A, B and C were treated orally with Furazolidone (10 mg/Kg), Sulfadimidine (100 mg/Kg) and Amprolium (55 mg/Kg), respectively for 7 days. Goats in-group D served as positive control. Oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces counts of individual goats in each group were performed on Days; 0 (pre-treatment) 7, 14 and 21 (post-treatment). OPG counts amongst goats in all groups at day 0 were not significant (P>0.05). On days 7, 14 and 21, OPG values decreased significantly (P0.05). In conclusion, Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium are well-tolerated and any one of these may be recommended to effectively treat coccidiosis in Beetal goats.

  9. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid a in subacute ruminal acidosis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.D. González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal acidosis is a frequent disorder that occurs in goats as a consequence of feedingmistakes in animals not adapted to a diet of easily fermentable carbohydrates. The subacuteform of the disease is difficult to diagnose because no apparent signs are shownand the acid-base parameters may remain within the normal range. The present studyaimed at testing the hypothesis that haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA,the two major acute phase proteins in ruminants, may be useful as markers of subacuteacidosis in goats.A subacute acidosis was induced in six Murciano-Granadina goats through a diet of60% mixed feed-40% alfalfa hay offered during 5 days to goats not adapted to eatmixed feed. Two goats were rumen-fistulated to investigate the effect of feeding onruminal pH. Sampling of blood and urine of all animals was done before the inductionof the acidosis, during 5 days after the onset of induction and for 18 days after theinduction (recovery period.Ruminal pH in the fistulated goats dropped to less than 5.5 during the inductionperiod, and half of the goats had diarrhea on the third day after the induction of acidosis.Acid-base parameters showed that the acid-base compensatory mechanisms wereefficient in maintaining the equilibrium. Serum Hp had a moderate increase duringthe induction period, while SAA did not change. These results suggest that Hp mightbe a potential marker for ruminal acidosis in goats.

  10. The prospect of biogas among small-holder dairy goat farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biogas can be a clean cooking alternative where biomass is the dominant source of cooking energy and where feedstock for anaerobic digestion is available. By substituting woody biomass for energy, biogas may reduce local deforestation. Tanzania has more than 15.6 million goats. Dairy goats of different breeds are ...

  11. Conditioned food aversion to control outbreaks of intoxication by Ipomoea carnea and Turbina cordata in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...

  12. Diets of angora goats grazing leafy spurge Euphorbia esula-infested rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Kirby; Thomas P. Hanson; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1997-01-01

    Angora goats have been suggested as biological control agents for leafy spurge, especially in environmentally sensitive or limited access areas. Dietary preferences and dietary nutritive content of herded Angora goats were evaluated over a two-year period in North Dakota. Relative preferences of forages were evaluated by comparing botanical composition of diets as...

  13. EU-approved rapid tests might underestimate bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meloni, Daniela; Bozzetta, Elena; Langeveld, Jan P.M.; Groschup, Martin H.; Goldmann, Wilfred; Andrèoletti, Olivier; Lantier, Isabelle; Keulen, Van Lucien; Bossers, Alex; Pitardi, Danilo; Nonno, Romolo; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Ingravalle, Francesco; Peletto, Simone; Colussi, Silvia; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2017-01-01

    We report the diagnostic sensitivity of 3 EU-approved rapid tests (ELISAs; 1 from IDEXX and 2 from Bio-Rad) for the detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases in goats. Ninety-eight goat brainstem samples were tested. All the rapid tests had 100% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity,

  14. Concentrations of transuranic elements in critical organs and tissues of goats (CAPRA HIRCUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averin, V.S.; Vaskovtsova, V.A.; Kuhtsevich, A.B.; Tagai, S.A.; Tsarenok, A.A.; Buzdalkin, K.N.; Gvozdik, A.F.; Makarovets, I.V.; Nilova, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    Parameters of Am 241 and Pu 238, 239+240 transfer from the dietary soil-based component (mineral soil) to organs and tissues of goats during a grazing period of 80 and 160 days have been determined. The maximum specific activities of transuranic elements have been found in liver of goats. (authors)

  15. beta-TCP Versus Autologous Bone for Repair of Alveolar Clefts in a Goat Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, A. de; Meijer, G.J.; Dormaar, T.; Janssen, N.; Bilt, A. van der; Slootweg, P.J.; Bruijn, J. de; Rijn, L. van; Koole, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective : The aim of this study in goats was to test the hypothesis that a novel synthetic bone substitute beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) can work as well as autologous bone harvested from the iliac crest for grafting and repair of alveolar clefts. Design : Ten adult Dutch milk goats ( Capra

  16. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

  17. effect of combined use of urea and goat dung manure on celosia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three field experiments were conducted to investigate the separate and combined effects of urea and goat dung manure on leaf nutrient contents, growth and yield of Celosia argentea in southwest Nigeria. Each experiment involved 7 treatments namely: no treatment, 10t/ha goat dung, 125 kg/ha urea, 125 kg/ha urea + ...

  18. Experimental studies on hemolysis following extracorporcal blood irradiation in sheep and goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, E.; Vogel, M.; Richter, K.D.; Widmer, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    In experimental studies extracorporal blood irradiation was performed in 3 sheep and 1 goat by means of a 500 Ci 137 Cs source. The sheep died of the sequelae of narcosis, with anemia being only moderately marked. In the goat a transit dosis of 466,566 rad could be applied before the animal died of the sequelae of hemolytic anemia. (author)

  19. Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region,. Uganda ... 41.2% of the farmers were aged 51 years and more. The average number of .... Business (retail shopping). 24. 0. Regular .... able 5. Sales of goats by district in 12 months preceding the study. District ..... more efficient management practices that.

  20. The potential to control Haemonchus contortus in indigenous South African goats with copper oxide wire particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Waller, P J; Githiori, J B; Medley, G F

    2009-06-10

    The high prevalence of resistance of Haemonchus contortus to all major anthelmintic groups has prompted investigations into alternative control methods in South Africa, including the use of copper oxide wire particle (COWP) boluses. To assess the efficacy of COWP against H. contortus in indigenous South African goats, 18 male faecal egg-count-negative goats were each given ca.1200 infective larvae of H. contortus three times per week during weeks 1 and 2 of the experiment. These animals made up an "established" infection group (ESTGRP). At the start of week 7, six goats were each given a 2-g COWP bolus orally; six goats received a 4-g COWP bolus each and six animals were not treated. A further 20 goats constituted a "developing" infection group (DEVGRP). At the beginning of week 1, seven of the DEVGRP goats were given a 2-g COWP bolus each; seven goats were treated with a 4-g COWP bolus each and no bolus was given to a further six animals. During weeks 1-6, each of these DEVGRP goats was given ca. 400 H. contortus larvae three times per week. All 38 goats were euthanized for worm recovery from the abomasa and small intestines in week 11. In the ESTGRP, the 2-g and 4-g COWP boluses reduced the worm burdens by 95% and 93%, respectively compared to controls (mean burden+/-standard deviation, SD: 23+/-33, 30+/-56 and 442+/-518 worms, P=0.02). However, in the DEVGRP goats, both the 2-g and 4-g COWP treatments were ineffective in reducing the worm burdens relative to the controls (mean burdens+/-SD: 1102+/-841, 649+/-855, 1051+/-661 worms, P=0.16). Mean liver copper levels did not differ between the ESTGRP goats treated with 2-g COWP, 4-g COWP or no COWP (mean+/-standard error of the mean, SEM, in ppm: 93.7+/-8.3; 101.5+/-8.3; 71.8+/-8.3, P=0.07) nor did they differ between the DEVGRP goats (mean+/-SEM, in ppm: 74.1+/-9.1; 75.4+/-9.1; 74.9+/-10.0, P>0.99). The copper values were considered adequate, but not high, for goats. The COWP boluses have the potential to be used