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Sample records for gmbh bremen germany

  1. Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community Based Responses and Challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the following book: Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community based responses and challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, Bremen 2012

  2. Environmental remediation activities at WISMUT GmbH, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Miyasaka, Yasuhiko; Yamana, Hajimu

    2007-01-01

    The WISMUT GmbH has carried out environmental remediation activities since 1991 in former GDR (German Democratic Republic) to rehabilitate the environment and landscape which have been adversely affected by decades of unrestrained mining and processing of uranium ores. It is worthy of being mentioned especially that WISMUT GmbH's sites including waste rock dump, mill tailings pond, open pit mine and water treatment facilities with an area of 3,700ha have been rehabilitated practically and extensively, and these activities are planned to terminate in 2015 except for the water treatment. For safety assessment after remediation, the value of 1mSv/y (in excess of the background level) is applied to as an individual effective dose, from the recommendation of ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). This report shows a summary of environmental remediation activities carried out by the WISMUT GmbH and related regulatory laws. (author)

  3. Professionalisation in Early Childhood Education: A Comparative View of Emerging Professional Profiles in Germany (Bremen) and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinioti, Kalliope

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a comparative approach is applied to two programmes of study for the education of early childhood pedagogues. One of the terms of our comparison is the University of Bremen's Bachelor of Arts degree in "subject related educational sciences," while the other is the programme offered by Aristotle University of…

  4. Academic and non-academic career options for marine scientists. - Support measures for early career scientists offered at MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeln, Dierk; Klose, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Early career scientists at MARUM cover a wide range of research topics and disciplines including geosciences, biology, chemistry, social sciences and law. Just as colourful as the disciplinary background of the people, are their ideas for their personal careers. With our services and programmes, we aim to address some important career planning needs of PhD students and early career Postdocs, both, for careers in science and for careers outside academia. For PhD students aiming to stay in science, MARUM provides funding opportunities for a research stay abroad for a duration of up to 6 months. A range of courses is offered to prepare for the first Postdoc position. These include trainings in applying for research funding, proposal writing and interview skills. Following MARUM lectures which are held once a month, early career scientists are offered the opportunity to talk to senior scientists from all over the world in an informal Meet&Greet. Mentoring and coaching programmes for women in science are offered in cooperation with the office for equal opportunities at the University of Bremen. These programmes offer an additional opportunity to train interpersonal skills and to develop personal career strategies including a focus on special challenges that especially women might (have to) face in the scientific community. Early career scientists aiming for a non-academic career find support on different levels. MARUM provides funding opportunities for placements in industry, administration, consulting or similar. We offer trainings in e.g. job hunting strategies or interview skills. For a deeper insight into jobs outside the academic world, we regularly invite professionals for informal fireside chats and career days. These events are organised in cooperation with other graduate programmes in the region to broaden the focus of both, the lecturers and the participants. A fundamental component of our career programmes is the active involvement of alumni of MARUM and our

  5. Assessing the Acceptability and Usability of an Internet-Based Intelligent Health Assistant Developed for Use among Turkish Migrants: Results of a Study Conducted in Bremen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Samkange-Zeeb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation.

  6. ''Transportare necesse est''. Reflections on attempts to prohibit the transport of radioactive material in Germany with special consideration of the Bremen Port Operation Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, U.

    2016-01-01

    Irrespective of the fact that about 95% of all nuclear transports are not related to the nuclear fuel cycle but are needed among others in medicine, research, agriculture, non-destructive testing of material and in the non-nuclear industry the number of protests against transports of all sorts of radioactive material have increased, especially the attempts to prohibit nuclear transports or - e.g. by delay - to hamper them. Such attempts come from citizens' initiatives as well as out of the political area. However, prohibition of nuclear transports can also be prescribed by law. A striking example for such a prohibition is the ban of loading and unloading of nuclear fuel in the ports of Bremen which was inserted in the Bremen Port Operation Act in 2012. Because of the unconstitutionality of this ban (Breach of exclusive federal competence and breach of loyalty to the federal state) but also because of the ban setting a precedent it was indispensable to take action before court against the ban. Several actions were brought to the administration court of Bremen in 2013 by three companies being active in the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim of the actions is to get a decision by the Federal Constitutional Court attesting the unconstitutionality of paragraph 2 subpara 3 of Bremens Port Operation Act.

  7. THE BLACK STONE: Memory of a female serial killer in Bremen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holck Per

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the story of the serial killer, Mrs. Gesina Gottfried from Bremen, Germany. She was executed in 1831, being charged and convicted for having murdered at least 16 people, partly from her own family, with arsenic trioxide.

  8. Joop van den Bremen, Streektaalmuziek in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn 1996, folk music fan Joop van den Bremen started his website Streektaalmuziek in Nederland (“Regional language music in the Netherlands”).1 On this website he collects information on Dutch musicians singing in dialect.2 As of September 2014, his still expanding database contains 6,164

  9. Planning and building a gas cave store in Bremen-Lesum; Planung und Errichtung von einem Gaskavernenspeicher in Bremen-Lesum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossert, J.; Schultz, K.F. [Mobil Erdgas Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In order to supply sufficient natural gas to the Northern part of Germany Mobil set up a gas cave storage in Bremen Lesum. Drilling- and brine engineering, plant design, electricity supply, brine plant are described. Remote control, personnel planning, operational experience and plants for gas operation as well as pipelines, compressors and gas drying are described. [Deutsch] Um kuenftig den Spitzenbedarf nach umweltfreundlichem Erdgas in Norddeutschland befriedigen zu koennen, errichtete Mobil einen Gaskavernenspeicher in Bremen Lesum. Im Folgenden wird die Bohr-und Soltechnik, die Anordnung der Anlagenteile, die Elektroversorgung der Solanlage sowie der Solbetrieb naeher erlaeutert. Ausserdem werden die Fernueberwachung, der Personaleinsatz, die Betriebserfahrungen und die Anlagen fuer den Gasbetrieb wie Verbindungsleitung, Kompressoranlage und Gastrocknungsanlage beschrieben.(msk)

  10. Microgravity Experiment Programs for Students at the Bremen Drop Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; Eigenbrod, Christian; Von Kampen, Peter; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) founded by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Rath in 1985 is part of the Department of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen, Germany. ZARM established as a research center and currently headed by Prof. Dr. Claus Lämmerzahl is mainly concentrated on fundamental investigations of gravitational and space-related phenomenas under conditions of weightlessness as well as questions and developments related to technologies for space. At ZARM more than 70 scientists, engineers and administrative staff as well as many students from different departments are employed. Today, ZARM is still one of the largest and most important university institutes for space sciences and technologies in Europe as well as worldwide well known in the space community. With a height of 146 m the Bremen Drop Tower is the predominant facility of ZARM and also the only drop tower of its class in Europe. ZARM’s ground-based laboratory offers the opportunity for daily short-term experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness at a level of 10 (-6) g (microgravity). The provided quality is one of the purest for experiments under weightlessness worldwide achieved. The scientists may choose between a single drop experiment with 4.74 s in simple free fall and a catapult experiment with 9.3 s of weightlessness. Either in the drop or in the worldwide unique catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM are always the same, generally up to 3 times per day. Since the start of operation of the facility in 1990, over 6750 launches of more than 160 different experiment types from various scientific fields like Fundamental Physics, Combustion, Fluid Dynamics, Planetary Formation / Astrophysics, Biology and Materials Sciences have been successfully accomplished so far. In our paper we will report and inform about microgravity experiment programs for students like "Drop Your Thesis!“ by ESA and

  11. [Health for refugees - the Bremen model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Zahra; Jung, Felicitas; Lelgemann, Monika

    2016-05-01

    The Bremen model recognizes that refugee health care has to go beyond merely checking for the prevalence of contagious diseases. Elementary health care offered in the reception centre and transitory facilities is based on voluntary acceptance by the refugees. At the same time, legal requirements for the medical reception of refugees are observed. In addition, doctors performing the initial medical examination are enabled to cover acute care on the spot. During the preliminary phase of immigration refugees are allowed to see a doctor in their facility repeatedly. After a certain time, they are provided with a health card permitting limited access to regular care outside of their facility. The current rise of refugee numbers affects the situation of Bremen health care for adult as well as juvenile refugees. In spite of the increase, health care standards are maintained by means of the health card. From 2011 to 2014, "Factors influencing health status and contact with health services" averaged 29.6 % in the health check data. Diseases of the respiratory system (18.1 %) and "symptoms, signs and abnormal findings not elsewhere classified" (16.9 %) ranked second and third, respectively. Diseases of the digestive system (6.1 %) of the musculoskeletal system (6 %) and of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (3.6 %) followed. Infectious diseases such as HIV infections, hepatitis or tuberculosis were seldom.

  12. ''Transportare necesse est''. Reflections on attempts to prohibit the transport of radioactive material in Germany with special consideration of the Bremen Port Operation Act; ''Transportare necesse est''. Zu den Versuchen in Deutschland, den Transport radioaktiver Stoffe zu unterbinden unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des bremischen Hafenbetriebsgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, U. [Wirtschaftsverband Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf und Kerntechnik e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Irrespective of the fact that about 95% of all nuclear transports are not related to the nuclear fuel cycle but are needed among others in medicine, research, agriculture, non-destructive testing of material and in the non-nuclear industry the number of protests against transports of all sorts of radioactive material have increased, especially the attempts to prohibit nuclear transports or - e.g. by delay - to hamper them. Such attempts come from citizens' initiatives as well as out of the political area. However, prohibition of nuclear transports can also be prescribed by law. A striking example for such a prohibition is the ban of loading and unloading of nuclear fuel in the ports of Bremen which was inserted in the Bremen Port Operation Act in 2012. Because of the unconstitutionality of this ban (Breach of exclusive federal competence and breach of loyalty to the federal state) but also because of the ban setting a precedent it was indispensable to take action before court against the ban. Several actions were brought to the administration court of Bremen in 2013 by three companies being active in the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim of the actions is to get a decision by the Federal Constitutional Court attesting the unconstitutionality of paragraph 2 subpara 3 of Bremens Port Operation Act.

  13. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  14. Classical Music at a German Inner-City School: The German Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra Bremen at Comprehensive School Bremen East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Musiol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The German Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra Bremen, a world famous orchestra for classical music, and the Comprehensive School Bremen East, a school in a deprived area, in North American terms an inner-city school, are cooperating since 2007. A three-year follow-up evaluation study was conducted to find out, if projects facilitated by the presence of the orchestra have a positive impact on the self-reported well-being and the grades of students. Results showed that involvement in the projects distinctly benefited boys: They experience a better class climate and a higher satisfaction with school as well as improved German grades.

  15. En/countering the New Language of Exile in Uche Nduka's The Bremen Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obododimma Oha

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Many African writers have been very critical of Europe in their works, especially in relation to racism and the experience of colonization. Yet, with the conditions in African countries becoming unfriendly to the careers of these writers, many of them have had to seek refuge in Europe. The New European context of African writing (which means an entry into the space of the Other raises a number of issues about literary style in the exilic/migrant text, especially with regard to the use of literature as a means of recreating the self and articulating the way the self experiences a new cultural space. To what extent does this entry into the space of the Other imply dialogism and transformation? The present paper discusses the stylistic and discourse patterns utilized by the Nigerian poet, Uche Nduka, who has been in self-exile in Germany, in his The Bremen Poems. It analyses the images that are enlisted in the textual politics of re/identification in the poems, especially in the articulation of Europe/Germany as a productive space. It analyses the images that are enlisted in the textual politics of re/identification in the poems, especially in the articulation of Europe/Germany as a productive space.

  16. QUANTUS: Implementing atom optical experiments in the Bremen drop tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntinga, Hauke; van Zoest, T.; Ahlers, H.; Seidel, S. T.; Herr, W.; Rudolph, J.; Gaaloul, N.; Singh, Y.; Schulze, T. A.; Rode, C.; Schkolnik, V.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E.; Müntinga, H.; Künemann, T.; Resch, A.; Herrmann, S.; Lümmerzahl, C.; Dittus, H.; Vogel, A.; Wenzlawski, A.; Sengstock, K.; Meyer, N.; Bongs, K.; Krutzik, M.; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W.; Schiemangk, M.; Peters, A.; Eckart, M.; Kajari, E.; Arnold, S.; Nandi, G.; Walser, R.; Schleich, W. P.; Steinmetz, T.; Hünsch, T. W.; Reichel, J.

    We report on the current status of the QUANTUS free fall BEC experiment at the ZARM drop tower in Bremen. After the first realization of a BEC in microgravity in 2007, we were able to observe conden-sates after an unprecedented time of free evolution. The extremely shallow traps possible in microgravity and resulting ultralow temperatures of a few nK allow for further studies ranging from coherence properties of condensates to inertial sensors based on matter waves. In our talk we will focus on technological challanges of the project and its roll in bringing matter wave optics into space. A drop tower experiment is considered a stepping stone towards the ISS or other platforms as it makes high demands on mechanical stability, power consumption and payload. After showing the feasibility of such a project we are now working on a second generation apparatus which leads the way to high precision measurements of gravitational forces and eventually a quantum test of Einstein's weak equivalence principle. These goals are worked on in close cooperation with QUEST and the projects PRIMUS and LASUS. The QUANTUS project is a collaboration of U Hamburg, U Ulm, HU Berlin, MPQ Munich, ZARM at U Bremen and LU Hannover. It is supported by the German Space Agency DLR with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) under grant numbers 50WM0835 -50WM0839.

  17. [Frequency and comorbidity of social anxiety and social phobia in adolescents. Results of a Bremen adolescent study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, C A; Conradt, J; Petermann, F

    1998-11-01

    Using data from the Bremen Adolescent Study, this report presents findings on the frequency, comorbidity and psychosocial impairment of social phobia and social fears among 1035 German adolescents of 12-17 years of age. The adolescents were randomly selected from 36 schools in the city and provincial government area of Bremen, Germany. Social phobia and other psychiatric disorders were coded based on DSM-IV criteria using the computerized personal interview of the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Seventeen (1.6%) of the adolescents had met the DSM-IV criteria for social phobia at some time in their life. More girls than boys were diagnosed as suffering from social phobia. The incidence of the disorder increased with age. The lifetime frequency of social fears is much higher. The most common types of feared social situations were fear of doing something in front of other people, followed by public speaking. Social phobia very often co-occurred with depressive disorders, somatoform disorders and disorders caused by excessive or inappropriate consumption of substances. Over 94% of those with social phobia and 54.4% with any social fears were severely impaired in their daily life during the worst episode. Despite the high level of psychosocial impairment, only a small portion of the cases received professional help.

  18. [False Medical Treatment Investigation in Otorhinolaryngology by the MDK in Lower Saxony and Bremen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellies, M; Grotz, M; Seger, W

    2016-11-01

    Objective: In a retrospective study the cases of possibly false medical treatment investigated by the Health Advisory Boards (MDK) in Lower Saxony and Bremen, Germany, in the years from 2012 to 2015 were analyzed. Material and Methods: All relevant data - especially diagnoses and procedures - were recorded in accordance to a standardized data entry form and were evaluated. In addition, relevant case studies are presented. Results: Altogether 206 cases of possibly false medical treatment were recorded for the investigated period. Among them there were 24 cases (12%), in which a false medical treatment was detected. The relevant case studies showed on the one hand, that relevant false medical treatment does occur in the field of ENT-surgery and on the other hand that it is sometimes very difficult do get the right decision even on a high-skilled background. Conclusions: In the field of Otorhinolaryngology there is a constant number of cases for examination in possibly false medical treatment, although the number of detection of false medical treatment is rather lower than in other disciplines. Analysis of possible false medical treatment cases produces the chance of preventing false medical treatment in future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. The text of the agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities has been suspended

  20. The harbours in Bremen as a 'neutral zone' for nuclear fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttloff, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The federal legislator has delivered his energy policy commitment as part of the energy turnaround with the decision on the forced backing out from nuclear energy to be completed until the end of 2022 at the latest. This was obviously not enough for the parliamentary groups of the SPD and Die Gruenen (Green party) of the Bremen City Parliament. With an Act dated 25 January 2012, the Bremen Parliament decided to amend the Harbour Operation Act insofar as '..the turnover of nuclear fuels in the sense of paragraph 2 Para. 1 of the Nuclear Act is excluded..'. This means that the turnover of nuclear fuels in the Bremer harbours is principally forbidden, unless the senate grants an explicit exception. However: Can a federal legislator enforce its energy policies like that? In order to receive an answer to this question, the representatives of the CDU parliamentary group of the Bremen Parliament lodged a complaint of unconstitutionality at the Bremen State Court of Justice. The decision was delivered on 12 April 2013 (AZ: St 1/12). And what answer did the CDU parliamentary group receive to their question? None. The Bremen State Court of Justice did not make a decision on this politically controversial issue. As its position, the State Court stated that the rules of the Basic Law on the limitations for the legislative jurisdiction between the Federation and the federal states do not constitute a component of the Bremen federal state constitution. And the legal criterion of the State Court of Justice is solely the Bremen constitution, not however, the Basic Law. In short: The State Court of Justice declares itself de facto not competent. (orig.)

  1. 78 FR 52410 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model BO-105A, BO-105C, BO-105S, BO- 105LS A-1, BO-105LS A-3, MBB-BK 117 A-1, MBB-BK... Deutschland (Germany). Comments We gave the public the opportunity to participate in developing this AD, but...

  2. Only the first results count: user-feedback-modified relevance ranking in E-LIB Bremen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Blenkle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of new search engine-based library catalogues and resources discovery systems, users have been able to find millions of online documents that are available in parallel to local holdings. Users of these new, continually expanding catalogue systems need to be able to find titles in a convenient way. The quality of recommendation systems and especially relevance ranking methods is very important for the success of discovery catalogues. Up to now, library catalogue ranking methods have largely ignored user feedback. However, in 2011, the State and University Library Bremen (SuUB developed modified ranking methods for its own discovery system, Electronic Library Bremen (E-LIB Bremen. These make use of popularity factors such as click statistics and information about the number of editions published as well as how many copies of a given title are available. This customized development has enabled fast and flexible new retrieval functions to meet the needs of local users.

  3. The temperature in Bremen since 1803. Embedding data fragments into homogeneous time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbers, Dirk [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Over several decades the physician and astronomer Wilhelm Olbers (1758-1840) has written many manuscripts to meteorological topics. Few of his works were published, most fell into oblivion, so also Olbers' measurements of temperature and pressure from the years 1803-1822, although these meteorological observations are the first continuous and reliable measurements of this kind in Bremen. This article deals with the monthly and annually averaged temperatures from 1803 to 1822, which are taken from the literary legacy of Olbers and are partially reconstructed from his manuscripts. The linkage of this series of measurements to the well-known Bremen temperature series is discussed, which begins in 1829 and is today continued by the German Weather Service (DWD). The method we propose for the adjustment of the combined data (with a gap of 6 years 1823 to 1828) is based on the extremely high correlation which the annually averaged data of the Bremen time series has with corresponding data from other monitoring sites. Data from De Bilt, Berlin, Prague, Hohenpeissenberg and Stockholm are used. The result is a temperature time series for Bremen from 1803 to today, which may be regarded as homogeneous at least to some extent. (orig.)

  4. Teaching Chemistry about "Stevia"--A Case of Cooperative Curriculum Innovation within PROFILES in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marc; Lippel, Marianne; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    PROFILES is a project of teacher education and curriculum innovation funded by the FP7-programme of the European Union. The aim of PROFILES is implementing innovative science teaching practices incorporating a societal perspective and compassing inquiry-based science learning. The University of Bremen, Germany, as one of the partners, combines…

  5. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its effects on the Bremen area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.; Moser, D.; Urbach, M.

    1986-01-01

    Chapter 2 of the report gives an outline of the design of the RBMK-1000 reactor and its inventory of radionuclides at the time the accident happened, together with a brief scenario of possible events leading to the accident, and an assessment of total radionuclide release. Chapter 3 explains the measurement campaigns made in the Bremen area in the given period and the consequences to be drawn from measured data up to present time. The measuring campaigns are described by a full-test report, graphical illustration, and a table of measured data. The information covers all data collected from onset of radioactivity release up to the 9th of Sept. 1986. Chapter 4 describes the assessment of dose commitment by the Bremen population, on the basis of measured radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Chapter 5 discusses the possible health hazard to the population in accordance with current knowledge of radiation exposure and its effects. Chapter 6 summarizes and interprets the results, and chapter 8 presents definitions of concepts and terminology. (orig./HP) [de

  6. [Too fat, too thin?--bodily self-perception and eating habits of teenagers in Bremen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkotte, E

    2011-02-01

    A study of about 600 eighth grade students by the Bremen Department of Health show that overweight and the risk of an eating disorder are widespread among teenagers in Bremen. In the school year 2008/2009 a quota sample of eighth graders was questioned in regard to their dietary habits, their bodily self-perception and their eating behaviour, and they were weighed and measured. 21% of the students were overweight, 10% were even obese. Our studies showed that the share of overweight students had doubled between the beginning and the end of primary school and only increased marginally after that. The students' bodily self-perception frequently did not correspond to their actual body weight, not only among those who were overweight, but also among those with an objectively normal body weight. In one in 7 of the teenagers with normal body weight, furthermore, we found signs of disrupted eating behaviour. The actuality of the topic of eating disorders for the health of teenagers becomes apparent when taking into account further results of the study. If, moreover, we bring to mind the long-term consequences of overweight and the often massive adverse effects through illnesses like anorexia or bulimia, it becomes clear that the disruptions addressed here should be a central concern for prevention. The study presented here shows where interventions are most needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. A desire, if fulfilled... Order for reference in case of the prohibition for transhipment of nuclear fuel; Ein Wunsch, wenn er erfuellt... Zum Vorlagebeschluss des VG Bremen vom 09.07.2015 betreffend das Umschlagverbot fuer Kernbrennstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-10-15

    Three companies appealed against the ''Bremischen Hafengesetz'' (Bremen Port Act) before the ''Verwaltungsgericht Bremen'' (Bremen Administrative Court) regarding the ban on nuclear fuel transhipment. The court is convinced that the act is unconstitutional and referred the case to the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court).

  8. The Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences (GLOMAR) - Postgraduate education with an interdisciplinary focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Christina

    2013-04-01

    The Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences (GLOMAR) provides a dedicated research training programme for PhD students in all fields related the marine realm combined with an exceptional supervision and support programme in a stimulating research environment. The graduate school is part of MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the frame of the Excellence Initiative by the German federal and state governments to promote top-level research at German universities. GLOMAR hosts approx. 75 PhD students from different research institutions in Bremen and Bremerhaven. 50% of them are German, 50% have an international background. All students are a member of one of the four GLOMAR research areas: (A) Ocean & Climate, (B) Ocean & Seafloor, (C) Ocean & Life and (D) Ocean & Society. Their academic background ranges from the classical natural sciences to law, social and political sciences. The research areas are supervised by research associates who share their experience and offer advice for their younger colleagues. GLOMAR students work in an interdisciplinary and international context. They spend several months at a foreign research institution and are encouraged to actively participate in international conferences and publish their research results in international scientific journals. The services GLOMAR offers for its PhD students include team supervision by a thesis committee, a comprehensive course programme, research seminars and retreats, a family support programme, a mentoring programme for women in science, an ombudsperson and a funding system for conference trips, research residencies and publication costs. The graduate school offers different formats for interdisciplinary exchange within the PhD student community. Monthly research seminars, which are conducted by the GLOMAR research associates, provide an opportunity to discuss research results, practice oral and poster

  9. Broadcasting studios Radio Bremen becomes residence rehabilitation clinic. Energy efficient retrofitting with economic building services technology; Funkhaus Radio Bremen wird Residenz Reha-Klinik. Energieeffiziente Sanierung mit wirtschaftlicher Gebaeudetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinz, Thomas [Siemens AG, Bremen (Germany). Building Technologies Div.

    2012-07-01

    Hardly any building project is as sustainable as the rededication of a building. A recent example: The former site of Radio Bremen in the district Schwachhausen with approximately 10,000 square meters of studios, production facilities and offices were committed to the residence rehabilitation clinic with 200 beds and 100 outpatient rehab places. In order to support the economic efficiency of this measure, the existing infrastructure of the heating technology, ventilation technology and air conditioning technology was adopted and modernized.

  10. The " Daphnia" Lynx Mark I Suborbital Flight Experiment: Hardware Qualification at the Drop Tower Bremen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knie, Miriam; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Eck, Hendrik; Ribeiro, Bernard Wolfschoon; Laforsch, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The Drop Tower Bremen, a ground-based facility enabling research under real microgravity conditions, is an excellent platform for testing new types of experimental hardware to ensure full performance when deployed in costly and rare flight opportunities such as suborbital flights. Here we describe the " Daphnia" experiment which will fly on XCOR Aerospace Lynx Mark I and our experience from the hardware tests with the catapult system at the drop tower. The aim of the " Daphnia" experiment is to obtain data on the biological performance of daphnids and predator-prey interactions in microgravity, which are important for the development of aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The experiment consists of two subunits: The first unit is dedicated to predator-prey interactions, where behavioural analysis should reveal if microgravity interfere with prey ( Daphnia) detection or feeding and therefore may interrupt the trophic cascade. The functioning of such an artificial food web is indispensable for a long-lasting BLSS suitable for long-duration manned space missions or Earth-based explorations to extreme habitats. The second unit is designed to investigate the impact of microgravity on gene expression and the cytoskeleton in Daphnia. Next to data collection, the real microgravity conditions at the drop tower have helped to identify the weak points of the " Daphnia" experimental hardware and lead to further improvement. Hence, the drop tower is ideal for testing new experimental hardware which is indispensable before the implementation in suborbital flights.

  11. 77 FR 7005 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-1 and C-2 helicopters. This proposed... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH: Docket No. FAA-2012-0101; Directorate Identifier 2010...

  12. 78 FR 52872 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... requires installing warning placards on the inside of the passenger door and service doors and modifying... Support Services GmbH, Global Support Center, P.O. Box 1252, D-82231 Wessling, Federal Republic of Germany..., allowing a safe descent and landing. EASA issued AD 2007-0199 to require the installation of warning...

  13. 76 FR 54145 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Services GmbH, Global Support Center, P.O. Box 1252, D-82231 Wessling, Federal Republic of Germany... of this AD introduce pre-flight operational tests of the warning system modification, along with abnormal procedures that provide guidance to the flightcrew in the event of various potential warning...

  14. Safety at work and health protection of DBE and DBE Technology GmbH in an international comparison. Independent assessment with the ISRS rating tool; Arbeitssicherheits- und Gesundheitsschutz der DBE und DBE Technology GmbH im internationalen Vergleich. Unabhaengige Bewertung mit dem ISRS-Ratingtool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Beatrice [Bereich Sicherheitskultur der DNV Germany GmbH (Germany); Ripkens, Michael; Fricke, Claus-Peter [Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE), Peine (Germany); DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2009-10-01

    DBE and DBE Technology GmbH underwent a demanding international comparison of health and safety management at a high level. The DNV was able to award assessment level 9 in this field for the first time in Germany. (orig.)

  15. Mammography screening in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, S.; Diekmann, F.

    2008-01-01

    Available data suggest that early detection of breast cancer by mammography screening can reduce mortality by about 25%. Intensified monitoring of women with a family history of breast cancer and regular general screening have recently been introduced in Germany. The screening program is expected to be fully established by 2008. Following its successful introduction (participation rates between 65 and 80%), the German screening program will be conducted and evaluated in accordance with the European guidelines. At least in the screening trials that were conducted prior to the now established screening program the quality criteria were more than fulfilled (e.g. cancer detection rate in Bremen 8.7, Wiesbaden 9.4, Weser-Ems region 8.3/1000). Additional parameters that can be taken into account for quality assurance are the overdiagnosis bias, lead time bias, length bias and selection bias. Moreover, there are some factors that are specific to the German program compared with the breast cancer screening programs already established in other countries. One of these is the intensified screening program for high-risk women (ca. 5% of all carcinomas) and as a result fewer women with an increased genetic risk of breast cancer will be represented in the general screening program. The German screening program involves only a few university centers and hospital-based physicians, which may have adverse effects on research and development as well as mammography training in the future. Therefore, the screening program should also provide for the investigation of new techniques or emerging techniques (e.g. CAD systems in screening mammography) in the future. (orig.) [de

  16. Wind energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molly, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

  17. Cooperation of the private companies Groupe Intra and Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.; Neumann, W.

    1999-01-01

    For supporting companies running nuclear power plants and for eliminating the effects of an accident, Kerntechnischer Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG) was founded in Germany in 1977 whereas Groupe Intra (GIE) was founded in France 1988. Since the activities and responsibilities of the two companies are partly the same, they got into contact rather early, at that time with the intention to exchange experience. However, in 1993 the intensified contact resulted in signing an agreement on mutual assistance. In the following passage, a general idea is given of both organisations, the agreement on mutual assistance and the experience of cooperation they have had so far. (orig.) [de

  18. 77 FR 32884 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) for Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-1 and C-2 helicopters. This AD requires... Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2012-09-11 EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND...

  19. Germany at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  20. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  1. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...... in dissolution of open access and that the political system needs the capacity of efficiently creating legitimacy in order to sustain openness. The failure of Weimar Germany also indicates that the international political system might work as a destabilizing factor of open access and that the nation...

  2. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  3. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed...

  4. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet......The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... included in the framework. It is proposed that sustainable open access orders do not only depend on open political and economic access and on the state monopolising violence capacities (coercive power); government and the political institutions must also have the capacity to efficiently create legitimacy...

  5. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  6. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Document Server

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  7. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  8. Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk GmbH (HKG). Annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The annual report presents the agenda of the general meeting of members, held on July 3, 1986 at Hamm-Uentrop, the report of the managing board, and the annual financial statement as of December 31, 1985, including the profit and loss account of the period January 1 to December 31, 1985. The object of the HKG GmbH is the planning, financing, installation, and operation of the Hamm-Uentrop nuclear power station equipped with a high-temperature reactor, as a joint enterprise of the European partners. (UA) [de

  9. Nur die ersten Drei zählen! Optimierung der Rankingverfahren über Popularitätsfaktoren bei der Elektronischen Bibliothek Bremen (E-LIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Haake

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seit Einführung der neuen Discovery-Kataloge stehen unseren Nutzerinnen und Nutzern zusätzlich Millionen von Dokumenten neben dem lokalen Buchbestand zur Verfügung. Diese Zielgruppe muss in die Lage versetzt werden, die für sie relevanten Titel einfach und sicher zu finden. Die Qualität von Empfehlungsfunktionen und besonders der Relevanz-Ranking-Methoden sind daher für den Erfolg eines Discovery-Systems besonders wichtig. Das Ranking bibliothekarischer Suchmaschinentechnik ignoriert bisher das Feedback durch Nutzerinnen und Nutzer. Die Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen (SuUB setzt mit dem in Bremen entwickelten Discovery-System „E-LIB“ seit Sommer 2011 zusätzlich auf eine Modifikation des Treffer-Rankings über Popularitätsfaktoren der Medien wie Klickstatistik, Auflagen- und Exemplarzahl. Die maßgeschneiderte Entwicklung eines eigenen Bibliothekskataloges, den die SuUB seit 2004 mit dem Discovery-System „E-LIB“ in Bremen betreibt, erlaubt die schnelle und flexible Anpassung von Retrievalfunktionen an die Bedürfnisse der Nutzerinnen und Nutzer vor Ort. Since the introduction of modern discovery catalogues, users have been able to access millions of electronic documents in addition to local print holdings. For a search to be successful, users must be able to find relevant titles easily and reliably. The quality of recommendation functionality and especially the relevance ranking methods are essential for the success of every discovery system. Up to now, ranking methods of library catalogues have largely ignored user feedback. However, since 2011, the State and University Library Bremen (SuUB has developed modified ranking methods for its own discovery system E-LIB. These make use of popularity factors such as click statistics and information about the number of editions as well as the number of copies available for a given title. For the SuUB Bremen, the customized development of the discovery catalogue

  10. Morphology, processes and geohazards of giant landslides in and around Agadir Canyon, northwest Africa - Cruise MSM32 - September 25 - October 30, 2013 - Bremen (Germany) - Cádiz (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Krastel, Sebastian; Böttner, Christof; Cartigny, Matthieu; Feldens, Peter; Fu, Lili; Glogowski, Silke; Guggolz, Theresa; Hellmann, Sebastian; Hühnerbach, Veit; Jähmlich, Heiko; Kraus, Katrin; Kretschmer, Jacob; Matthew, Duncan; Meier, Daniela; Mücke, Isabell

    2014-01-01

    Agadir Canyon is one of the largest submarine canyons in the World, supplying giant submarine sediment gravity flows to the Agadir Basin and the wider Moroccan Turbidite System. While the Moroccan Turbidite System is extremely well investigated, almost no data from the source region, i.e. the Agadir Canyon, are available. Understanding why some submarine landslides remain as coherent blocks of sediment throughout their passage downslope, while others mix and disintegrate almost immediately af...

  11. Cegelec Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

  12. Coal hydrogenation at Bergbau-Forschung GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, B.; Friedrich, F.; Koelling, G.; Liphard, K.G.; Romey, I.

    1981-09-01

    Since several years, Bergbau-Forschung GmbH is running a continuous experimental plant (Kohleoel), in which coals are decomposed and hydrogenated to light- and middle-distillates. The process is based on the sumpphase-technique, developed by Bergius and the IG-Farbenindustrie, and serves as basis for the pilot-plant, which has been established commonly by RAG and Veba in Bottrop and is in operation at this time. The existing results and experiences drawn from the experimental plant are summarized. Especially the influences of the amounts of catalyst, mineral matter and total gas throughput, the suitability of different coals and the properties of the product oil are reported in this paper.

  13. 78 FR 52412 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... new airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-16-20 Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD): Amendment 39-17558...

  14. 77 FR 49705 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopters. A page reference of the rotorcraft flight manual in the...

  15. 78 FR 49115 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) that was published in the Federal Register. The AD applies to certain Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH...

  16. 78 FR 37150 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...): Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD): Docket No. FAA-2013-0519; Directorate Identifier 2010-SW-068-AD. (a...

  17. 78 FR 23696 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... airworthiness directive (AD): EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND GmbH (ECD): Docket No. FAA-2013-0020; Directorate...

  18. 75 FR 68179 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel piston.... Contact Austro Engine GmbH, Rudolf-Diesel- Strasse 11, A-2700 Weiner Neustadt, Austria, telephone: +43...

  19. 77 FR 37777 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for all Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopters. That AD currently... following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2012-12-21 Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH: Amendment 39-17101...

  20. 77 FR 37790 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model EC135 helicopters. The existing EAD, which was previously sent to all... new airworthiness directive (AD): 2012-11-02 Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Amendment 39-17065; Docket...

  1. 77 FR 43736 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Deutschland GmbH (Eurocopter) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by the discovery... Deutschland GmbH: Docket No. FAA-2012-0773; Directorate Identifier 2009-SW-71-AD. (a) Applicability This AD...

  2. 77 FR 75073 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental notice... proposed airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (Eurocopter) Model BO-105A, BO- 105C... airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Docket No. FAA-2011-1285; Directorate Identifier 2010...

  3. 78 FR 42409 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) for Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (Eurocopter) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopters. This AD requires... directive (AD): 2013-12-05 Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters: Amendment 39- 17483; Docket No. FAA-2013...

  4. 78 FR 67020 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...-17 Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH (ECD): Amendment 39-17623; Docket No. FAA-2013-0519; Directorate..., of Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Flight Manual BO 105 C/CS, Revision 5, dated March 12, 2010. (ii...

  5. 77 FR 72913 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model EC135 helicopters, except the EC 135 P2+ and T2+. This AD requires... apply to all Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) model EC135 helicopters, except the EC 135 P2+ and T2...

  6. 77 FR 27661 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) model EC135 helicopters, except the EC 135 P2+ and T2+. This proposed AD was prompted...): Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH: Docket No. FAA-2012-0500; Directorate Identifier 2010-SW-014-AD. (a...

  7. 78 FR 25361 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Deutschland GmbH (Eurocopter) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the long tail... directive (AD): 2013-03-18 Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (Eurocopter): Amendment 39- 17352; Docket No. FAA...

  8. 78 FR 37446 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Deutschland GmbH (Eurocopter) Model BO-105A, BO-105C, BO- 105S, BO-105LS A-1, BO-105LS A-3, EC135 P1, EC135 P2... new airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-11-15 Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Amendment 39-17475; Docket...

  9. 78 FR 31394 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopters. This AD... directive (AD): 2013-10-05 Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters: Amendment 39- 17458; Docket No. FAA-2013...

  10. 77 FR 69558 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model EC135 P1, EC135 P2, EC135 P2+, EC135 T1...-53 Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH (ECD): Amendment 39-17254; Docket No. FAA-2012-1188; Directorate...

  11. 77 FR 27659 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model BO-105A, BO-105C, and BO-105S helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH: Docket No. FAA-2012-0503; Directorate Identifier 2011...

  12. 78 FR 54383 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) EC 135 P1, P2, P2+, T1, T2, and T2+ helicopters equipped with a certain... directive (AD): 2013-16-14 Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Amendment 39-17552; Docket No. FAA-2013-0239...

  13. 78 FR 7312 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Deutschland GmbH (Eurocopter) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopters. This proposed AD would require changing the... new Airworthiness Directive (AD): Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Docket No. FAA-2013-0021; Directorate...

  14. 78 FR 16196 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for all Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) EC 135 P1, P2, P2+, T1, T2, and T2+ helicopters... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Docket No. FAA-2013-0239; Directorate Identifier 2010...

  15. 78 FR 78710 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Deutschland GmbH (Eurocopter) Model EC135 P1, EC135 P2, EC135 P2+, EC135 T1, EC135 T2, EC135 T2+, and MBB-BK... directive (AD): 2013-21-06 Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters: Amendment 39- 17630; Docket No. FAA-2013...

  16. 77 FR 20321 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) MBB-BK 117 A-3, MBB-BK 117 A-4, MBB- BK B-1, MBB-BK 117 B-2, and MBB-BK C-1 helicopters... Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 A-4 model. The EASA AD makes no mention of this model. The...

  17. 77 FR 44116 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) MBB-BK 117 A-3, MBB-BK 117 A-4, MBB- BK B-1, MBB-BK 117 B-2, and MBB-BK C-1... directive (AD): 2012-14-14 Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters: Amendment 39- 17128; Docket No. FAA-2012...

  18. 76 FR 54373 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., contact Austro Engine GmbH, Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 11, A-2700 Weiner Neustadt, Austria, phone: +43 2622... information, we estimate that this AD will affect about 32 model E4 diesel piston engines, installed on...

  19. 76 FR 33660 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... 2010-23-09, Amendment 39-16498 (75 FR 68179, November 5, 2010), for Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel... 2011-0039, dated March 8, 2011, adding a terminating action on Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel...

  20. 78 FR 40053 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH...

  1. 78 FR 2223 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland... new airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Docket No. FAA-2012-1305; Directorate...

  2. 78 FR 44039 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland... airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (Eurocopter): Docket No. FAA-2013-0642...

  3. 78 FR 4090 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH...

  4. 78 FR 22209 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland...): Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters: Docket No. FAA-2013-0340; Directorate Identifier 2010-SW-081-AD. (a...

  5. [Continuing Medical Education in Germany - mandatory and voluntary obligations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böthin, Elke

    2013-01-01

    After 1945 the common medical training infrastructure was broken up into two different political systems. While in the Federal Republic of Germany the structure was based on physicians' self-governance, in the German Democratic Republic medical professional structures were organised by the government. After the unification of the two German states, which took place on October 3, 1990, the centralistic structure was replaced by the system of physician self-governance. Before January 1, 2004, continuing medical education (CME) in West Germany relied on a system of voluntary obligations. In East Germany, though, professional CMEs were compulsory; they were called "obligatorische periphere Fortbildung." Based on 15 expert interviews on the topic of "CME in Germany", the different circumstances and conditions were analysed taking account of the historical background. Only selected professionals with experience in both German states (one with a federal, the other with a centralistic system), were chosen for the survey. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  7. Diode pumped solid state kilohertz disk laser system for time-resolved combustion diagnostics under microgravity at the drop tower Bremen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Volker; Paa, Wolfgang; Triebel, Wolfgang [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Eigenbrod, Christian; Klinkov, Konstantin [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Larionov, Mikhail; Giesen, Adolf; Stolzenburg, Christian [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    We describe a specially designed diode pumped solid state laser system based on the disk laser architecture for combustion diagnostics under microgravity (μg) conditions at the drop tower in Bremen. The two-stage oscillator-amplifier-system provides an excellent beam profile (TEM{sub 00}) at narrowband operation (Δλ < 1 pm) and is tunable from 1018 nm to 1052 nm. The laser repetition rate of up to 4 kHz at pulse durations of 10 ns enables the tracking of processes on a millisecond time scale. Depending on the specific issue it is possible to convert the output radiation up to the fourth harmonic around 257 nm. The very compact laser system is integrated in a slightly modified drop capsule and withstands decelerations of up to 50 g (>11 ms). At first the concept of the two-stage disk laser is briefly explained, followed by a detailed description of the disk laser adaption to the drop tower requirements with special focus on the intended use under μg conditions. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the capsule laser as a tool for μg combustion diagnostics, we finally present an investigation of the precursor-reactions before the droplet ignition using 2D imaging of the Laser Induced Fluorescence of formaldehyde.

  8. Electrostatic Positioning System for a free fall test at drop tower Bremen and an overview of tests for the Weak Equivalence Principle in past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Andrea; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2016-08-01

    The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) is at the basis of General Relativity - the best theory for gravitation today. It has been and still is tested with different methods and accuracies. In this paper an overview of tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle done in the past, developed in the present and planned for the future is given. The best result up to now is derived from the data of torsion balance experiments by Schlamminger et al. (2008). An intuitive test of the WEP consists of the comparison of the accelerations of two free falling test masses of different composition. This has been carried through by Kuroda & Mio (1989, 1990) with the up to date most precise result for this setup. There is still more potential in this method, especially with a longer free fall time and sensors with a higher resolution. Providing a free fall time of 4.74 s (9.3 s using the catapult) the drop tower of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) at the University of Bremen is a perfect facility for further improvements. In 2001 a free fall experiment with high sensitive SQUID (Superconductive QUantum Interference Device) sensors tested the WEP with an accuracy of 10-7 (Nietzsche, 2001). For optimal conditions one could reach an accuracy of 10-13 with this setup (Vodel et al., 2001). A description of this experiment and its results is given in the next part of this paper. For the free fall of macroscopic test masses it is important to start with precisely defined starting conditions concerning the positions and velocities of the test masses. An Electrostatic Positioning System (EPS) has been developed to this purpose. It is described in the last part of this paper.

  9. Management and predictors of outcome in unselected patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results from the Bremen STEMI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Tina; Fach, Andreas; Schmucker, Johannes; Fiehn, Eduard; Garstka, Daniela; Stehmeier, Janina; Hambrecht, Rainer; Wienbergen, Harm

    2017-12-11

    Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and consecutive cardiogenic shock (CS) represent a challenge in clinical practice. Only few 'real-world' data on therapeutic management and outcome exist. The present analysis focuses on changes of clinical management of STEMI-patients with CS and analyzes predictors of outcome using the Bremen-STEMI registry. Out of 7865 patients with STEMI, 981 patients (13%) presented with CS. Most CS patients (88%) underwent an early percutaneous intervention (PCI). Intraaortic balloon pumps (IABP) were less implanted since 2013 (p patients with CS was 37%, 1 year mortality was 50%. A significantly reduced 1-year mortality (2006-2009: 55%, 2010-2013: 50%; 2014-2015: 43%, p = 0.027) was observed. In a multivariate analysis significant predictors of an increased 1-year mortality were acute renal failure (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.9-7.0), atrial fibrillation (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.3-6.0), three-vessel disease (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.7), age ≥ 75 years (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4) and anemia (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.3). A successful performed PCI (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) was associated with a significantly reduced 1-year mortality. management of patients with CS changed with a steep decrease of IABP implantations. Mortality of patients with CS decreased over the last 10 years. Especially, performance of successful PCI was associated with a reduction of mortality, indicating the crucial role of early revascularization to improve prognosis in this high-risk cohort of STEMI-patients.

  10. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  11. 75 FR 48617 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... 13679, dated March 23, 2007) and adding the following new AD: Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Docket No...

  12. Germany, Russia, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  13. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  14. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  15. 75 FR 66657 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Model MBB- BK 117 C-2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation... (AD) for the Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB BK 117 C-2 helicopters. This amendment...: 2010-22-07 Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Amendment 39-16486; Docket No. FAA-2010-0780; Directorate...

  16. 77 FR 1624 - Airworthiness Directives; Schempp-Hirth Flugzeugbau GmbH Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... directive (AD) for Schempp-Hirth Flugzeugbau GmbH Model Discus 2cT gliders. This AD results from mandatory... Discus 2cT gliders, serial numbers 1 through 35, certificated in any category, except those on which a...

  17. 78 FR 45471 - Airworthiness Directives; Schempp-Hirth Flugzeugbau GmbH Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Schempp-Hirth Flugzeugbau GmbH Model Duo Discus T gliders... accomplishment instructions of Technical Note (Technische Mitteilung) (TN) 890-13, referenced for Duo Discus T... requirements of EASA AD 2013-0012, which is superseded, and requires, for certain Duo Discus T powered...

  18. 76 FR 65421 - Airworthiness Directives; Schempp-Hirth Flugzeugbau GmbH Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... (AD) for Schempp-Hirth Flugzeugbau GmbH Model Discus 2cT gliders. This proposed AD results from... applies to Schempp-Hirth Flugzeugbau Discus 2cT gliders, serial numbers 1 through 35, certificated in any...

  19. 78 FR 77567 - Airworthiness Directives; Schempp-Hirth Flugzeugbau GmbH Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... directive (AD) for Schempp-Hirth Flugzeugbau GmbH Model Duo Discus T gliders. This AD results from mandatory... accomplishment instructions of Technical Note (Technische Mitteilung) (TN) 890-13, referenced for Duo Discus T... requirements of EASA AD 2013-0012, which is superseded, and requires, for certain Duo Discus T powered...

  20. 77 FR 42958 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 (all versions) and BO-105LS... tail rotor pitch link and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: This AD becomes... improperly swaged spherical bearing on the pitch link, which could result in loss of tail rotor control and...

  1. Sales controlling comes into view. MIS (management information system) Deutschland GmbH fits energy suppliers; Vertriebscontrolling in Sicht. MIS Deutschland GmbH macht Energieversorger fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-03-01

    MIS has integrated Microsoft-Excel efficiently, so appliers must not change other systems, can utilize advantages and know how and further functionalities like optimization of planning processes, automation of data processing, generation of a data base with structured information of energy data are available for customers.(GL) [German] Die MIS Deutschland GmbH wurde 1988 gegruendet. Die Gruender waren Studenten der Universitaet Darmstadt. Einer von ihnen ist noch heute Vorstandsvorsitzender der MIS AG. Schon damals hatte man die Vision, Manager oder die Entscheidungstraeger in Unternehmen mit Informationen zu versorgen und in die Lage zu versetzen, diese auch nach ihren Beduerfnissen auswerten, analysieren und reporten zu koennen. Dadurch entstand 1988 in Zusammenarbeit mit Microsoft die erste Microsoft-Excel-Konferenz in Deutschland. MIS hat Microsoft-Excel leistungsfaehig integriert, sodass der Anwender nicht auf ein anderes System umlernen muss, sondern die Vorteile und das Know-how Weiterverwenden kann und zusaetzlich weitere Funktionalitaeten zur Verfuegung gestellt bekommt. (orig.)

  2. Bremen Workshop : Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Schlütter, F.

    The objective of the workshop was a comparison between the prototype and the laboratory measurements. the emphasis is put on comparison between recorded run-up levels. Three enclosed reports present measurements and results from University of Ghent (UG)/ FCCD, Flanders Hydraulics (FH) and Aalborg...... University, respectively. These three reports have served as basis for the comparisons carried out during the workshop....

  3. Multiculturalism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts out from the recent statement by the German Chancellor Angela Merkel that multiculturalism in Germany is dead. The author draws attention to the unfavourable conditions for the development of multiculturalism in Germany. The reasons are historical, especially the experience of Nazism as well as the German social state. Namely, foreign workers in Germany, although without political rights and socially non-integrated, enjoyed a high degree of working and social rights, including high employment security. In this respect their position significantly differed from that of American workers (immigrants, which is why the struggle for civil rights was not in the foreground for German immigrants. Therefore, “the crisis of multiculturalism” appeared with the immigrants’ “second generation” (children, who have been first hit in the current times of crisis and the increasing deregulation of the labour market. They have remained socially non-integrated and without civil and political rights. It is interesting that the churches, particularly the Protestant one, lead in Germany in the efforts to begin to look at immigrants in a cultural (human sense as well, and have thus been the first to acknowledge that Germany has become a multicultural society. But this term and concept in Germany have remained sketchy, both in the theoretical and political sense. However, they have gained certain sympathy, mainly in parts of liberal-democratic circles – the Green Party leading the way – but more in a symbolic sense in countering xenophobia and cultural exclusion in German society. When multiculturalism was accused of developing “parallel society”, both the right and the left renounced it in favour of the (seemingly neutral concept of integration. The author proves that Germany has become and has remained multicultural, although not a multiculturalist country.

  4. Senmicro GmbH expanding beyond Europe: country analysis for a potential market entry in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kromoser, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão Internacional/ JEL Classification: F23, M16 This work describes the development of the internationalization strategy of the Austrian sensors developer Senmicro GmbH. This company, which was founded in 2008, develops, produces and markets sensors to measure moisture during the production of paper in a very innovative way. In order to continue with their successful expansion, Senmicro’s management is seeking for new markets in Asia. This project has the objecti...

  5. Group Psychotherapy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rainer; Strauss, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of group psychotherapies in Germany originating from a psychodynamic tradition. The German health system provides access to inpatient and outpatient psychotherapy for all of its citizens. Whereas groups are common in inpatient settings, the provision of outpatient group treatment still could be improved, as it is the case for the general training of group psychotherapists. Group research in Germany largely reflects clinical practice, with more studies coming from the inpatient field. It is stated that the general image of group treatment seems to be largely positive, which could provide a basis for political initiatives to improve the dissemination of group therapy in this country.

  6. Germany after Federal elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzballa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

  7. Germany's power potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for independent power projects in Germany after the reunification. The topics discussed in the article include legal questions, pricing regulations, pollution regulations, energy efficiency regulations, the carbon tax, the market for modernization of power plants and construction of new capacity, and the future outlook

  8. The effects of training school staff for utilizing student monitoring system data : 10th IFIP WG 3.7 conference, ITEM 2012, Bremen, Germany, August 5-8, 2012 : revised selected papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staman, Laura; Visscher, Arend J.; Luyten, Johannes W.; Passey, Don; Breiter, Andreas; Visscher, Adrie

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch School Inspectorate defines achievement-oriented work (AOW) as the maximization of student performance in a systematic and goaloriented way. Research by the Inspectorate shows that students in achievementoriented schools perform better than students in schools that meet the criteria for

  9. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-Dürr Energietec...

  10. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-Dürr Energiet...

  11. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  12. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  13. [Regional analysis of drug treatment prevalence and medication of diabetes mellitus in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willert, T; Walker, J; Schramm, W

    2012-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a widespread chronic disease. Diabetes prevalence was already analyzed in multiple complex studies. The goal of this analysis was the determination of the regional drug treatment prevalence and medication of diabetes mellitus in Germany. Simultaneously, we examined and validated the applicability of prescription data of the German statutory health insurance (SHI) as the basis for reliable and comparable prevalence estimations. For the analysis, we used anonymized data from a prescription database as well as the member statistics of the German federal Ministry of Health. By using defined prescription profiles with anti-diabetic medication, we determined the diabetic patients and treatment schemes per Association of SHI Physicians. Subsequently, we calculated and described the drug treatment prevalence and medication. A differentiation between type 1 and type 2 diabetes was not possible. The total prevalence of drug-treated patients in Germany was 7.77%. The regional values ranged from 6.40% in Schleswig-Holstein until 11.37% in Saxony-Anhalt. The highest numbers of drug treatment prevalence were found in the East of Germany. Insulin treatment was frequent in Hamburg, but rare in Bavaria. Insulin combined with oral anti-diabetic medication was mainly dispensed in Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg, least in Hamburg. A treatment with one or more oral anti-diabetics was most common in Bavaria and Bremen, lowest in Rhineland-Palatinate and Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. We developed an easy to use evaluation algorithm for prescription data to estimate the drug treatment prevalence of a chronic disease. The estimated prevalence confirms the increasing trend reported from other studies and appears to be plausible in comparison. More research is required to validate and enhance the method. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Incidence of anogenital warts in Germany: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajczyk Rafael T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papilloma virus (HPV types 6 and 11 account for 90 percent of anogenital warts (AGW. Assessment of a potential reduction of the incidence of AGW following introduction of HPV vaccines requires population-based incidence rates. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence rates of AGW in Germany, stratified by age, sex, and region. Additionally, the medical practitioner (gynaecologist, dermatologist, urologist etc. who made the initial diagnosis of AGW was assessed. Methods Retrospective cohort study in a population aged 10 to 79 years in a population-based healthcare insurance database. The database included more than 14 million insurance members from all over Germany during the years 2004-2006. A case of AGW was considered incident if a disease-free period of twelve months preceded the diagnosis. To assess regional variation, analyses were performed by federal state. Results The estimated incidence rate was 169.5/100,000 person-years for the German population aged 10 to 79 years. Most cases occurred in the 15 to 40 years age group. The incidence rate was higher and showed a peak at younger ages in females than in males. The highest incidence rates for both sexes were observed in the city-states Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen. In females, initial diagnosis of AGW was most frequently made by a gynaecologist (71.7%, whereas in males, AGW were most frequently diagnosed by a dermatologist (44.8% or urologist (25.1%. Conclusions Incidence of AGW in Germany is comparable with findings for other countries. As expected, most cases occurred in the younger age groups. The frequency of diagnoses of AGW differs between sexes and women and men receive treatment by doctors of different specialties.

  15. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, A.

    1990-01-01

    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  16. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large......-scale terrorism, and the new US emphasis on pre-emptive strikes. Based on an analysis of Germany's strategic culture, it portrays Germany as a security actor and indicates the conditions and limits of the new German willingness to participate in international military crisis management that developed over...... the 1990s. The book debates the implications of Germany's transformation for Germany's partners and neighbours, and explains why Germany said ‘yes’ to the war in Afghanistan, but ‘no’ to the Iraq War. Based on a comprehensive study of the debates of the German Bundestag and actual German policy responses...

  17. ECFA SURVEY: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Few nations can match the scope of German basic physics contributions. Earlier this century, illustrious names (Rontgen, Franck, von Laue, Planck, Sommerfeld, Heisenberg, ) kept Germany among the front runners. Subsequent history has given German physics a very different profile - the country now participates massively in international projects and is the largest single contributing nation in CERN's research programme. At the same time, an impressive high energy programme at the German national Laboratory at DESY, Hamburg, centred around the 6.3 kilometre HERA ring, the world's only high energy electron-proton collider, attracts scientists from all over the world

  18. Environmental policy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wey, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    Previous forms, emergence, and development of German environ-politics from 1900 to the present day are looked into by means of so far disregarded sources. The main lines of ecological and technological environ-politics are described and the difficulties in formulating and getting through adequate state measures of environment protection are shown quoting cases. The influence of structural pre-conditions, of the constitutional state, political culture and global development of Germany is examined as to its influence on environ-politics. The work must be understood as a historical argument in favor of a more conscious, reasonable political formation of environment in the sense of an ecological concept. (orig.) [de

  19. Country report for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusener, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    The status of the nuclear energy in Germany can be summarised as follows: 19 operating NPPs (22 GWe); electricity production in 200 amounted to 170 TWh (one third of the total production); average availability 91%; goal of the Federal Government is to phase out nuclear energy without paying to the utilities. Fast reactor activities involve participation of FZK in the European Project 'Burning of Pu and MAs in Critical Fast Reactors'; shifting to burning of actinides in subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS). This includes neutronics, safety analysis, Pb-Bi technology, development of spallation target, corrosion in Pb and Pb-Bi

  20. 77 FR 75973 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... Bearing GmbH & 0.00 Co. KG, Schaeffler Italia SpA and The Schaeffler Group... SKF Industries S.p.A...

  1. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  2. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  3. Evaluation of an Intercultural Peer Training for Incoming Undergraduate Students at an International University in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina K. Kedzior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available University education is increasingly becoming international. Therefore, it is important that universities prepare their new students for the challenges of an intercultural academic environment. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of an intercultural peer-to-peer training offered to all new incoming students at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany. The training aims to facilitate the social and academic integration of students at this international university. A total of 117 first-year undergraduate students completed a pen-and-paper questionnaire with 47 items one semester (6 months after attending the intercultural training. The results suggest that participants liked the structure of the training and the use of senior students as peer trainers. It appears that the training improved the awareness of the effects of culture (own and other on the social life of students. However, the training was less adequate at preparing the participants for the student-centered academic culture at this university. In light of its cost-effectiveness, the intercultural training could be easily adopted for use at other universities as part of the campus-wide orientation activities. However, regardless of their culture, all new university students require more assistance to academically adapt to and succeed in multicultural classrooms.

  4. Introduction of a quality management system at the Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar GMBH (GKN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, W.; Graeber, U.

    1997-01-01

    In the course of commissioning unit II of the GKN nuclear power plant, a Quality Assurance Manual was introduced in 1988. The Quality Assurance Manual is essentially based on the quality assurance elements of KTA 1401; that is, the emphasis is on quality assurance procedures for safety relevant plant components. During the actual application of the Quality Assurance Manual, however, it soon became apparent that this one-dimensional approach to quality management is not sufficient for the efficient organization of the quality related operational processes and procedures. The management of GKN decided at the end of 1992 to carry out a revision of the Quality Assurance Manual, with the objective of using quality, within the meaning of DIN ISO 9001, as a comprehensive organizational element for all operational processes and procedures. BTB-Jansky GmbH, a consulting firm familiar with the operational processes and procedures was commissioned to revise the Quality Assurance Manual, to investigate the procedures and implement a quality management system. The introduction of the quality management system has made it possible for the quality relevant processes and procedures at GKN to be regulated comprehensively and in a systematically transparent and workable manner. The introduction of the quality management system took place within the framework of an efficiency raising programme. It becomes apparent from this that the introduction of a quality management system is able to provide economic benefits for the operator. (orig.)

  5. Logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle. Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Horst; Schymke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH (NCS) offers logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle to fuel manufacturers, reactor operators, and waste management companies. Transport equipment and interim stores are part of the company's facilities. The firm's Front End unit conducts transnational transports of yellow cake, uranium hexafluoride, and enriched uranium and uranium from reprocessing. In the Back End unit, the company performs worldwide transports of spent fuel elements of research reactors. Another key area of activity is shipment of radioactive waste ranging from low-level waste to HAW (highly active waste generating heat). In its Component Disposal area, NCS offers a variety of transport services up to and including large components, e.g. reactor pressure vessels, both on the road and by rail and ship. NCS operates storage halls of its own for storing radioactive materials including radioactive waste. The technical equipment of NCS comprises a large pool of road and rail transport vehicles as well as a great number of vessels for radioactive materials. (orig.)

  6. LOFAR in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Reich

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The LOw Frequency ARray – LOFAR – is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz centered in the Netherlands. In May 2006 ten German institutes formed the German LOng Wavelength consortium – GLOW – to coordinate its contributions and scientific interests to the LOFAR project. The first LOFAR station CS1 was installed in summer 2006 near Exloo/Netherlands. The second station IS-G1 is presently been placed in the immediate vicinity of the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope near Bad Münstereifel/Germany. This contribution briefly describes the basic properties and aims of LOFAR, the aims of the GLOW consortium and the actual activities to install a LOFAR station at the Effelsberg site.

  7. CaRe high - Cascade screening and registry for high cholesterol in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Nina; Grammer, Tanja; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Julius, Ulrich; Kassner, Ursula; Klose, Gerald; König, Christel; Laufs, Ulrich; Otte, Britta; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Wanner, Christoph; März, Winfried

    2017-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of the LDL metabolism, leading to cardiovascular disease, even at young age. This risk can be significantly lowered by early diagnosis and treatment. About 270,000 patients affected in Germany are not diagnosed correctly and only a small number is treated properly. To improve FH diagnosis in the general population a cascade screening and registry data is warranted, yet missing in Germany. This project aims to fill this gap. Study assistants approach physicians and lipid clinics to introduce the cascade screening and registry. The physicians identify potential FH patients and include them in the study. Patient data is acquired via questionnaires about medical history. Patients meeting at least two inclusion criteria (LDL-C >190 mg/dl or total cholesterol >290 mg/dl; tendon xanthomas; family history of hypercholesterolemia or early myocardial infarction) are included in the registry. Family members will be contacted and physicians get feedback about diagnosis and treatment options. Ethical approvals for all German states have been collected. So far physicians, lipid clinics and patients within the Rhein-Neckar region, the Saarland, North-Rhine-Westphalia, Upper Bavaria, Bremen, Saxonia and Berlin have joined the study. We expect to include more than 3000 patients during the next two years. After initial patient and data collection the project aims to improve FH-diagnosis and treatment. Utilizing registry data might advance diagnostic criteria and improve detection of FH and thus prevent CVD in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. The Lincoln Image in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Nagler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the enduring fascination with the sixteenth President of the United States in Germany. In general, his legacy and its evaluation changed in relation to the determinate historical contexts, beginning with the monarchial system, extending through the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and now the Federal Republic of Germany. Certain social and political individuals/groups in Germany used the image and iconography of Lincoln as a projection screen to support their own political objectives. Although there were always multiple layers of Lincoln representations in Germany, the dominant images were: the national unifier, the libertarian universalist, the emancipator, the defender of moral values, the modernizer, the democrat who used the power of the democratic state, the egalitarian self-made man from humble origins, and the defender of social justice and workingmen’s rights.

  10. Sexual Behavior in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haversath, Julia; Gärttner, Kathrin M; Kliem, Sören; Vasterling, Ilka; Strauss, Bernhard; Kröger, Christoph

    2017-08-21

    There have not been any population-based surveys in Germany to date on the frequency of various types of sexual behavior. The topic is of interdisciplinary interest, particularly with respect to the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Within the context of a survey that dealt with multiple topics, information was obtained from 2524 persons about their sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual contacts outside relationships, and contraception. Most of the participating women (82%) and men (86%) described themselves as heterosexual. Most respondents (88%) said they had engaged in vaginal intercourse at least once, and approximately half said they had engaged in oral intercourse at least once (either actively or passively). 4% of the men and 17% of the women said they had been the receptive partner in anal intercourse at least once. 5% of the respondents said they had had unprotected sexual intercourse outside their primary partnership on a single occasion, and 8% said they had done so more than once; only 2% of these persons said they always used a condom during sexual intercourse with their primary partner. Among persons reporting unprotected intercourse outside their primary partnership, 25% said they had undergone a medical examination afterward because of concern about a possible sexually transmitted infection. Among some groups of persons, routine sexual-medicine examinations may help contain the spread of sexually transmitted infections. One component of such examinations should be sensitive questioning about the types of sexual behavior that are associated with a high risk of infection. Information should be provided about the potential modes of transmission, including unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse outside the primary partnership.

  11. Country report Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Germany, there are 19 operating nuclear power plants, with a total installed capacity of 21.4 GWe. In 2002, the electricity production of these 19 nuclear power plants amounted to 165 TWh, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity production. The average availability of the German nuclear power plants was 85.6 % (this low value is due to the unexpected outage of some NPPs). The expressed goal of the German Federal Government is to phase out of nuclear energy without paying compensations to the utilities. On 11 June 2001, the final agreement between the German utilities and the German Federal Government was signed, and the amendment to the German Atomic Law (AtG-Novelle) was enforced on 27 April 2002. The overall objective of the new AtG is changed from 'support of nuclear energy' to 'fix phase-out of nuclear energy'. After the German parliament elections, the new Government coalition formulated a Coalition Contract which has the following statements on Nuclear Energy: - Work out an energy research programme which gives first priority to renewable energies and energy efficiency, - Assess termination of EURATOM membership, - Terminate nuclear electricity production on the base of a guaranteed total amount of electricity produced (in GWh),No reprocessing after 2005, - Erection of interim storages at nuclear power plant sites, - Support of research to improve safety of existing reactors, - Stop of national support for development of techniques for nuclear energy production (this includes fission and fusion). The German Committee on a Selection Procedure for Repository Sites (AkEnd) was established 1998 by the Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) reached agreement on the following main issues: - One final repository concept, - Storage in deep geological formation starting about 2030, - Isolation for 1 million years, - Under-ground exploration of at lease two sites, - One selection criteria for the final repository is the transparency of

  12. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  13. From model state combine to top refinery. The successful history of the PCK Raffinerie GmbH; Vom Vorzeigekombinat zur Spitzenraffinerie. Die erfolgreiche Entwicklung der PCK Raffinerie GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winsen, Josephus van [PCK Raffinerie GmbH, Schwedt an der Oder (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The PCK Raffinerie GmbH had a double anniversary in 2011: It was founded 50 years ago and passed into private hands 20 years ago. The PCK is regularly cited as one of the leading European refineries in the global Solomon study, which is published every two years. This was achieved by a number of measures, e.g. regular 'best practice' analyses and an effective suggestion awards system. (orig./AKB)

  14. Geogenic radon potential in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemski, J.; Siehl, A.; Valdivia-Manchego, M.

    1998-01-01

    Classification of geogenic radon potential in Germany is based on detailed field studies of radon activity in soil gas and gas permeability of the soil in representative test areas with an expected high geogenic radon potential and further on wider spaced investigations in the main part of Germany. As a result, detailed maps of geogenic radon potential for selected test area as well as a general map for Germany (1:2 000 000) are presented. Radon activity in soil gas shows great regional variability, which can direct optimisation of further measures for radon prevention and mitigation, as well as focus attention to areas where additional smaller scaled investigations could be advisable. (orig.) [de

  15. Sandflies and leishmaniasis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naucke, T J; Menn, B; Massberg, D; Lorentz, S

    2008-12-01

    This study has provided evidence for the natural occurrence of sandflies in Germany. Two species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus were detected. Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus, a proven vector of leishmaniasis, was found in association with an autochthonous case of canine leishmaniasis near Kaiserslautern. Two hundred thirty-seven specimens of Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii were caught in 17 different locations in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate. The northernmost finding in Germany (and Europe) was near Cochem (Moselle). P. mascittii has not yet been confirmed as a vector of leishmaniasis, but its competence is strongly suspected. In addition to the detection of the vector, since 1991, there have been 11 cases of leishmaniasis in Germany in which an autochthonous origin was confirmed or which were highly likely to have been of indigenous origin. Data from the German meteorological service indicate that Germany currently has a Mediterranean climate, with an annual average temperature of 10 degrees C being reached or exceeded in several regions. This type of climate is also appropriate for the living conditions of sandflies. Therefore, it is assumed that sandflies have a greater geographical distribution in Germany than the first studies suggested, being mainly restricted to the southern region of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The risk of an autochthonous canine infection occurring in Germany is very low. The rapidly increasing number of imported cases of leishmaniasis in dogs means that special attention must be focused on veterinary advice to dog owners about prophylaxis. The results indicate that the use of repellents and preventive behavioural measures is vital.

  16. Variation in the definition of intrauterine growth restriction in routine antenatal care: a physician survey among gynecologists in Northwest Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Brand, Tilman; Petersen, Knud; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-07-04

    To assess how intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined by gynecologists in routine practice. We surveyed primary care gynecologists in Bremen and Lower Saxony, Northwest Germany, between January and July 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data; consensus was considered as 90% agreement among the respondents. Multiple logistic regression models were performed for the associations between respondents' background characteristics and choice of the small for gestational age (SGA) cutoff values. Overall, 185 primary care gynecologists participated in the survey. Consensus was only observed in two items: (1) an accurate determination of gestational age (91%) and (2) repeated measurement of the abdominal circumference (91%). Umbilical artery Doppler (76%) and repeated ultrasonography (76%) were the most frequently used methods to confirm suspected IUGR diagnoses, but different responses prevailed. Notably, only 46% of the respondents opted for the 10th percentile of estimated fetal weight as a cutoff for SGA classification, which is the internationally recommended value. The results of this survey indicate considerable practice variation regarding detection and management of IUGR pregnancies. There is a need for better agreement in terminology and definition of core aspects of IUGR in antenatal care.

  17. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Stool screening of Syrian refugees and asylum seekers in Germany, 2013/2014: Identification of Sabin like polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Sindy; Neubauer, Katrin; Baillot, Armin; Rieder, Gabriele; Adam, Maja; Diedrich, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Germany is a partner of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Assurance of polio free status is based on enterovirus surveillance, which focuses on patients with signs of acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis/encephalitis, representing the key symptoms of poliovirus infection. In response to the wild poliovirus outbreak in Syria 2013 and high number of refugees coming from Syria to Germany, stool samples from 629 Syrian refugees/asylum seekers aged Syrian refugees and asylum seekers at that time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. [Regulations of sickness certification as a factor for increased health care utilization in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfram J; Haarmann, Alexander; Bærheim, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, utilization of ambulatory health care is high compared to other countries. Classical models of health care utilization cannot sufficiently explain these differences. The aim of this study was to explore relevant factors which can explain the higher health care utilization in Germany. In this article, we focus on regulations regarding sickness certification as a potential factor. An explorative qualitative study design. We conducted episodic interviews with 20 patients in Germany and 20 patients in Norway and participant observation in four primary care practices each. Additionally, we conducted a context analysis of relevant health care system related factors which emerged during the study. Qualitative data analysis was done by thematic coding in the framework of grounded theory. The need for a sickness certificate was an important reason for encounter in Germany, especially regarding minor illnesses. Sickness certification is a societal topic. GPs play a double role regarding sickness certification, both as the patients' advocate and as an expert witness for social security services. In Norway, longer periods of self-administered sickness certification and more differentiated possibilities of sickness certification have been introduced successfully. Our results point to regulations regarding sickness certification as a relevant factor for higher health care utilization in Germany. In pilot studies, the effect of extended self-certification of sickness and part-time sickness certification should be further assessed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German reu...

  1. Physician assistant education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dierks; L. Kuilman; C. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    The first physician assistant (PA) program in Germany began in 2005. As of 2013 there are three PA programs operational, with a fourth to be inaugurated in the fall of 2013. The programs have produced approximately 100 graduates, all with a nursing background. The PA model of shifting tasks from

  2. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large...

  3. Adult Education in Western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others

    Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…

  4. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  5. New Adenovirus in Bats, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Michael; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2009-01-01

    We tested 55 deceased vespertilionid bats of 12 species from southern Germany for virus infections. A new adenovirus was isolated from tissue samples of 2 Pipistrellus pipistrellus bats, which represents the only chiropteran virus isolate found in Europe besides lyssavirus (rabies virus). Evidence was found for adenovirus transmission between bats. PMID:19961700

  6. Prices in the two Germanies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, E; Wagener, HJ

    Comparative evaluations across economic systems are often hampered by the typical valuation problem, that is, market prices have a different meaning than planned prices. This paper considers prices in the two Germanies and the widely accepted hypothesis that East German prices did not reflect

  7. The political culture of unified Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    One condition for the stability of democratic systems is the development of a political culture that is congruent with the implemented structure. As the presented data shows, in unified Germany this kind of congruence exists only in West Germany. In East Germany a majority of citizens is supporting democracy as well, but have a rather skeptical attitude toward the liberal democracy of Germany. This skepticism results partly from socialization and experiences in the state socialist system of t...

  8. Economic consequences of alternative nuclear power plant lifetimes in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenberger, D.; Wissen, R.; Bartels, M.; Buttermann, H.G.; Hillebrand, B.

    2006-01-01

    The coalition agreement of the Christian Democratic (CDU), Christian Social (CSU), and Social Democratic (SPD) parties contains a provision under which the existing regulations about phasing out the peaceful use of nuclear power will remain in force because of different opinions about the use of nuclear power in Germany. This article studies the consequences of longer lifetimes of the nuclear power plants currently in operation as compared to the provisions in opt-out legislation. The details examined include the effects of longer nuclear power plant lifetimes on the development of generating capacities in Germany, electricity generation, fuel consumption and fuel imports, the resultant CO 2 emissions, costs of electricity generation and electricity prices as well as the associated impact on production and employment in this sector and in industry as a whole. A summary is presented of the findings of a comprehensive study published under the same title in October 2005. The study was compiled by the Institute of Power Economics of the University of Cologne (EWI) and by Energy Environment Forecast Analysis GmbH, and had been commissioned by the Federation of German Industries (BDI). (orig.)

  9. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  10. Allergies in Germany -- prevalence and perception by the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Matthias; Franzke, Nadine; Beikert, Florian C; Stadler, Rudolf; Reusch, Michael; Schmitt, Jochen; Schäfer, Ines

    2013-06-01

    During the recent decades allergies have become more frequent all over the world. However, it is unclear how important the topic of allergies is for the general German population and how appropriately patients with allergies are treated. A telephone survey was performed on a representative random sample of n = 1,004 adults in Germany. The survey was performed by the Forsa Institute for Social Research and Statistical Analysis, Berlin, Germany, in the period from 31 January to 2 February 2012. Of the interviewees 52% responded that the topic of allergies concerned them; in 33% actually an allergy had been diagnosed by a physician. The proportion of allergies in the population correlated with the level of school education and was higher among people with a higher educational status. No differences in allergy rates were found between Eastern and Western Germany. Among allergic persons, 53% reported to be burdened by their allergy, 48% suffered from impaired performance because of their allergic symptoms. Among people suffering from pollen allergy, only 28% received sublingual immune therapy, with which 70% were satisfied. While 58% practiced self-medication, only 21% of the allergic persons were treated with anti-allergic drugs during their allergy flares. Allergic diseases are a common, often burdensome problem in the German population, but nevertheless the medical treatment of people affected is still insufficient. The proportion of patients receiving sublingual immune therapy as causal treatment is comparatively low. Active steps are needed to improve the utilization behavior of patients, e. g. to take advice of an allergy specialist. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  11. Labor Quality Growth in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Schwerdt; Jarkko Turunen

    2009-01-01

    Extending the common baseline model in various dimensions does not fundamentally change the low contribution of labor quality to productivity growth in Germany. Labor quality growth is low owing to a small increase in the share of workers with higher education, a negative contribution from a higher share of females and declines in relative returns. The contribution of actual labor market experience is lower than suggested by an age proxy.

  12. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  13. Germany's strategy for the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav B. Belov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade Germany has increased activity in the Arctic region. From a formal point of view, the German state connects it with various aspects of international security (mainly — environmental and transport, with needs to respect the rights of peoples living in the Arctic regions and the importance of scientific research in the Arctic. But in reality, they are hiding far-reaching interests of safeguarding the national security of raw materials and access of German concerns to the Arctic resources. In solidarity and in many ways defining the EU's policy in the Arctic, Germany primarily is focusing on their long-term economic and geopolitical goals and objectives, which it will consistently implement in the coming years in the framework of the Arctic Council, and beyond, including within the framework of cooperation with Russia. This article is devoted to the analysis of these goals and objectives, as well as to the definition of medium-term trends in Germany's Arctic policy.

  14. [Private medical education in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwörer, Beatrix; Wissing, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Through the years, a range of privately funded medical training opportunities has been established in Germany. Only a few of them operate along the German Medical Licensure Act and thus underlie quality assurance regulations in Germany. Most of the courses are a result of German hospitals cooperating with universities from other EU countries. The content of the courses and the examinations underlie the regulations of the university's home country. This article aims to give an overview of the private medical training opportunities offered in Germany and to show differences compared to state funded German medical schools. The authors discuss the opportunities of private medical training as well as its challenges and risks. Basic principles concerning finances and quality assurance of national and international private medical training are provided. Regardless of their mode of financing, the superior goal of the training, according to the German Medical Licensure Act, should always be to enable young doctors to pursue further professional training, so that they can maintain the best possible quality in patient care, research, and medical education.

  15. Two cases of cutaneous diphtheria associated with occupational pig contact in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A; Boschert, V; Konrad, R; Schmidt-Wieland, T; Hörmansdorfer, S; Eddicks, M; Sing, A

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, two independent cases of cutaneous diphtheria caused by toxigenic C. ulcerans were identified in Germany. Both patients had intense occupational contact with pigs. Diagnostic work-up comprising biochemical differentiation, rpoB sequencing, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis, real-time tox PCR and Elek test as well as public health measures including an intensified source tracing involving 83 asymptomatic pigs of an associated pig farm are presented. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Estimation of the emission of radioactive contaminated dust in connection with the remediation activities of the Wismut GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebner, W.; Lange, C.; Hinz, W.

    1998-01-01

    Radiological protection regulations require assessment of exposure to workers and the general public from the inhalation of contaminated dust due to remediation activities performed by WISMUT GmbH. Relocation activities of waste pile material and vehicle movements on contaminated surfaces are characterized as diffuse dust emissions. Specific measurements performed near working places were aimed at the quantification of dust generation rates. Findings of dust concentration measurements, particle size distributions and activity concentrations of longlived alpha emitters contained in dust during waste pile relocation activities are presented. In addition, investigations focused on dust release by wind erosion which is significantly determined by wind speed, soil roughness and soil properties (particle size distribution, moisture, crust formation). Quantification of dust release by wind erosion was performed under field conditions by means of a mobile wind tunnel. (orig.) [de

  17. Germany after March 11th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, A.

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective since March 11th is presented with stress on the Fukushima accident, political situation in Germany, media and public opinion. Fukushima has devastated the trust in expert opinions about safety of NPPs. Germany’s Turn in Energy - consensus for nuclear phase-out exists between All political parties. The government has already announced adoption of the recommendations of the ethics commission. The 7 oldest units will remain shut-down. Further 7 units will be shut down until 2021. The youngest 3 units will be permanently shut down until 2022

  18. Air crew monitoring in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, R.; Frasch, G.; Kammerer, L.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

  19. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by

  20. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  1. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  2. Integrated solid waste management in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

  3. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany intends to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. This waste comprises spent fuel elements, vitrified fission product solution, nuclear power plant operational and decommissioning waste as well as spent sealed radiation sources and miscellaneous waste originating from small waste generators. The Atomic Energy Act gives the responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste to the Federal Government with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS - Federal Office for Radiation Protection) as the legally responsible authority. The Federal Government has made a pronounced change in energy policy since 1998, the most important feature of which is the abandoning or phasing out of nuclear energy. It is intended to irreversibly phase out nuclear energy use for electricity generation. Essential (basic) steps are the agreement which was achieved by the Federal Government and the utilities on June 14, 2000, and signed on June 11, 2001, and the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. (orig.)

  4. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Politicians and scholars alike praise the significant benefits associated with employee share ownership (ESO). However, little is known about the concrete motives of firms to provide ESO to their employees. In particular, it is unknown how these motives correlate with firms’ contexts. Drawing...... on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  5. Characteristics of Homeopathy Users among Internal Medicine Patients in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Amie; Cramer, Holger; Leung, Brenda; Lauche, Romy; Adams, Jon; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy use continues to grow in many European countries, and some studies have examined the characteristics of patients using homeopathy within the general population. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for homeopathy use among internal medicine patients. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among all patients being referred to the Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine at Essen, Germany, over a 3-year period. The analysis examined whether patients had used homeopathy for their primary medical complaint before, the perceived benefit, and the perceived harm of homeopathy use. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 2,045 respondents, 715 (35.0%) reported having used homeopathy for their primary medical complaint (diagnosis according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems), with 359 (50.2%) reporting perceived benefits and 15 (2.1%) reporting harm. Homeopathy use was positively associated with female gender, high school level education, suffering from fibromyalgia or subthreshold depression, and being fast food abstinent, while patients with osteoarthritis, spinal or other pain, smokers, and patients with a high external-social health locus of control were less likely to use homeopathy. Personal characteristics and health status may impact on the use and the perceived helpfulness of homeopathy. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  7. Molecular Survey on Brucellosis in Rodents and Shrews - Natural Reservoirs of Novel Brucella Species in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, J A; Ulrich, R G; Imholt, C; Scholz, H C; Jacob, J; Kratzmann, N; Nöckler, K; Al Dahouk, S

    2017-04-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease introduced from animal reservoirs to humans. In Germany, bovine and ovine/caprine brucellosis were eradicated more than a decade ago and mandatory measures in livestock have been implemented to keep the officially brucellosis-free status. In contrast, surveillance of wildlife is still challenging, and reliable data on the prevalence of brucellae in small mammal populations do not exist. To assess the epidemiology of Brucella spp. in rodents and shrews, a molecular survey was carried out. A total of 537 rodents and shrews were trapped in four federal states located throughout Germany and investigated for the presence of Brucella. Using a two-step molecular assay based on the detection of the Brucella-specific bcsp31 and IS711 sequences in tissue samples, 14.2% (n = 76) of the tested animals were positive. These originated mainly from western and south-western Germany, where preliminary analyses indicate population density-dependent Brucella prevalence in voles (Myodes glareolus) and mice (Apodemus spp.). recA typing revealed a close relationship to a potentially novel Brucella species recently isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Austria. The molecular detection of brucellae in various rodent taxa and for the first time in shrew species shows that these animals may be naturally infected or at least have a history of exposure to Brucella spp. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Routine outcome measures in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Bernd; Becker, Thomas; Bauer, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The German healthcare system offers comprehensive coverage for people with mental illness including inpatient, day hospital and outpatient services. These services are primarily financed through the statutory health and pension insurances. According to legal regulations, providers are required to base their services on current scientific evidence and to continuously assure the quality of their services. This paper gives an overview of recent initiatives to develop, evaluate and disseminate routine outcome measurement (ROM) in service settings in Germany. A large number of projects have shown outcome monitoring to be feasible, and that feedback of outcome may enhance routine care through an improved allocation of treatment resources. However, none of these initiatives have been integrated into routine care on a nationwide or trans-sectoral level, and their sustainability has been limited. This is due to various barriers in a fragmented mental health service system and to the lack of coordinated national or state-level service planning. The time is ripe for a concerted effort including policy-makers to pick up on these initiatives and move them towards wide-spread implementation in routine care accompanied by practice-oriented research including service user involvement.

  9. Climate index for Germany - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Germany. (J.S.)

  10. Die Energiewerke Nord GmbH. From operator of a decommissioned Russian nuclear power plant to one of Europe's leading decommissioning companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, Marlies

    2011-01-01

    EWN GmbH is a state-owned company with these duties: - decommissioning and demolition of the Greifswald and Rheinsberg nuclear power stations; - safe operation of the Zwischenlager Nord interim store; - development of the 'Lubminer Heide' industrial and commercial estate. Other projects for which EWN GmbH uses its know-how: - disposal of 120 decommissioned Russian nuclear submarines in Murmansk; - decommissioning and dismantling of the Juelich, NRW, AVR experimental reactor; - demolition of nuclear plants; running the Central Decontamination Operations Department at Karlsruhe, BW. Since 2008, EWN GmbH has held 25% of the shares of Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau- und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE), a firm building and operating nuclear repositories. (orig.)

  11. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    2010-10-01

    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles. [nl

  12. An energy policy for unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.

    1992-01-01

    In December 1991 the Federal Government adopted its new overall 'energy-policy-for-unified-Germany' concept. Since the last energy report was submitted in 1986 the unification of Germany, the risks of the greenhouse effect, the progress of European integration, and the radical changes in Central and Eastern Europe and in the former Soviet Union have brought about fundamental energy-policy changes which affect any of the fields and sectors involved. (orig.) [de

  13. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuebler, Knut

    2014-01-01

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO 2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  15. Germany's Iran Policy : beyond Critical Dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Gerschoffer, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Germany and the United States differ in their approach to Iran. While the United States seeks to contain Iran through diplomatic isolation and economic sanctions, Germany prefers to influence Iran though diplomatic engagement and economic cooperation. German foreign policy posits that its policy of constructive engagement is the most effective way to influence another country's behavior. This notion has its origins in the Cold War. In...

  16. Sunlover and its Internationalization to Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Milbradt, Linda Antonia

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The paper studies the internationalization process of Sunlover to Germany. The market opportunity in Germany is driven by several factors including the increasing importance of health and wellness, the still growing German economy despite the Eurozone crisis, the positive growth prospects for low-calorie and healthy drinks, and the early ...

  17. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  18. [Cochlear implant treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R; Stelzig, Y

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of impaired auditory function through cochlear implant is possible, with high reliably and great success. Nevertheless, there are regular disputes between patients and insurance companies due to high costs. In Germany, approx. 1.9 Mio. people are severely hearing impaired. It can be estimated that for adequate hearing rehabilitation about 30,000 cochlear implants/year are necessary. Currently, less than 10% of those affected are offered cochlear implant. A handicap is defined if there is deviation from normal hearing for more than 6 months. This sets a time frame for the supply with cochlear implant after sudden deafness. The professional code requires to advice all medical options to a person seeking help for hearing loss. This includes benefit-risk consideration. At this point, the economic aspect plays no role. The indication for medical treatment is only subject to the treating physician and should not be modified by non-physicians or organizations. It should be noted that a supply of hearing aids is qualitatively different to the help from a cochlear implant, which provides a restoration of lost function. In social law (SGB V and IX) doctors are requested to advise and recommend all measures which contribute to normal hearing (both sides). This indicates that doctors may be prosecuted for not offering help when medically possible, just because health insurance employees did not approve the cost balance. The current situation, with insufficient medical care for the hearing impaired, needs clarifying. To do this, patients, health insurance companies, the political institutions, legislation and professional societies need to accept their responsibilities.

  19. Germany, high-tech country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)

  1. Hepatitis E virus in wild rabbits and European brown hares in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, F; Schwaiger, K; Dähnert, L; Vina-Rodriguez, A; Höper, D; Gareis, M; Groschup, M H; Eiden, M

    2017-12-01

    Recently, a change of hepatitis E from being a typical travel-associated disease to an autochthonous zoonosis in Germany was observed. An increasing number of autochthonous infections with the hepatitis E Virus (HEV) have been recognized in developed countries. Venison from wild boar is already known to be a potential source of infection, if not prepared properly by the consumer. In Germany, certain wild animals are known to be a reservoir for HEV. However, current information is missing about European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Thus, a total of 833 hunting-harvested animals (European brown hares n = 669; wild rabbits n = 164) were tested for the occurrence of HEV RNA and HEV antibodies. For this, liver and blood specimens were taken after hunts in six German federal states. HEV antibodies were found by ELISA in 2.2% (624/14) of European brown hares, but no HEV RNA was detectable by nested real-time RT-PCR. In contrast, a seroprevalence of 37.3% (126/47) was observed for wild rabbits, and 17.1% (164/28) of the samples were HEV RNA positive. Genomic analysis revealed that these partial sequences clustered within the rabbit clade of HEV-3 genotype. In addition, one rabbit sequence segregated into subtype 3g of HEV-3. Highest seroprevalences for hares and rabbits were detected in the federal states of Bavaria and of Schleswig-Holstein, respectively. Comparing urban, rural and insular areas, the highest seroprevalence was shown for wild rabbits in rural areas and for European brown hares on the northern island Fehmarn. This study provides evidence that European brown hares and wild rabbits from Germany can be infected with HEV. The different prevalences indicate that wild rabbits are a potential reservoir for HEV in Germany, whereas European brown hares seem to be only of minor importance for the epidemiology of HEV. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  3. Regional labor markets and aging in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Ochsen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the aging labor force aþects the unemployment rate at the regional level in Germany. A theoretical model of equilibrium unemployment with spatial labor market interactions is used to study the eþects of age-related changes in job creation and job destruction. Using data for 343 districts, we then examine empirically the consequences of an aging labor force for the local labor markets in Germany. We apply diþerent estimation techniques to a spatial and time dynamic pane...

  4. Full case study report: EVG Landwege - Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Muenchhausen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The producer-consumer-cooperative EVG Landwege e.G. (EVG: Erzeuger-Verbraucher-Gemeinschaft) is located in the city of Lübeck. It has five organic retail outlets in the south-east of the Federal State of Schleswig-Holstein, the northern Federal State of Germany. The Hanseatic City of Lübeck is the second-largest city in Schleswig-Holstein and one of the major ports of Germany. Situated on the river Trave, it was the "capital" of the Hanseatic League (‘Queen of the Hanse’) for several centurie...

  5. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent of the sew......In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent...

  6. One Germany - A New Soviet Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-12

    Wall Street Journal , 9 October 1989, p.AlO. 3. Ibid. and Richard Cohen, "Europe’s Secret Fear: The...East Germany." The Wall Street Journal , 3 October 1989, p.A19. 29. Gumbel, Peter. "Gorbachev’s Style and Good Advance Man Make Him a Hot Ticket in West...Germany." The Wall Street Journal , 14 June 1989, p.A11. 30. Gumbel, Peter. "Secret Nazi-Stalin Pact Haunts Gorbachev." The Wall Street Journal ,

  7. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Rosemarie; Bernicke, Maja; Bertram, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  8. Has East Germany overtaken West Germany? Recent trends in order-specific fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua R; Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Some 20 years after reunification, the contrast between East and West Germany offers a natural experiment for studying the degree of persistence of Communist-era family patterns, the effects of economic change, and fertility postponement. After reunification, period fertility rates plummeted in the former East Germany to record low levels. Since the mid-1990s, however, period fertility rates have been rising in East Germany, in contrast to the nearly constant rates seen in the West. By 2008, the TFR of East Germany had overtaken that of the West. We explore why fertility in East Germany is higher than in West Germany, despite unfavorable economic circumstances in the East. We address this and related questions by (a) presenting an account of the persisting East/West differences in attitudes toward and constraints on childbearing, (b) conducting an order-specific fertility analysis of recent fertility trends, and (c) projecting completed fertility for the recent East and west German cohorts. In addition to using the Human Fertility Database, perinatal statistics allow us to calculate a tempo-corrected TFR for East and West Germany.

  9. Die Energiewerke Nord GmbH. From operator of a decommissioned Russian nuclear power plant to one of Europe's leading decommissioning companies; Die Energiewerke Nord GmbH. Der Weg vom Betreiber eines stillgelegten russischen Kernkraftwerkes zu einem fuehrenden Stilllegungsunternehmen in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Marlies [Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Rubenow (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    EWN GmbH is a state-owned company with these duties: - decommissioning and demolition of the Greifswald and Rheinsberg nuclear power stations; - safe operation of the Zwischenlager Nord interim store; - development of the 'Lubminer Heide' industrial and commercial estate. Other projects for which EWN GmbH uses its know-how: - disposal of 120 decommissioned Russian nuclear submarines in Murmansk; - decommissioning and dismantling of the Juelich, NRW, AVR experimental reactor; - demolition of nuclear plants; running the Central Decontamination Operations Department at Karlsruhe, BW. Since 2008, EWN GmbH has held 25% of the shares of Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau- und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE), a firm building and operating nuclear repositories. (orig.)

  10. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme in Germany: tendering scheme for RES-E, small power plants up to 100 kW are supported by a feed-in tariff. Market Incentive Programme (MAP) for RES-H, Electric Mobility Strategy for the transport sector

  11. Macroeconomic trends and reforms in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sabbatini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the main macroeconomic developments in the German economy from national unification. Its performance is compared with that of the rest of the euro area and its largest economies. The study documents as GermanyÕs modest growth in the later 1990s was due to the restrictive impact on domestic demand coming from the deep restructuring and modernization of the production system, followed by sweeping reforms after the turn of the century. Rapid productivity increases and prolonged wage moderation, especially in industry, fuelled a large and mounting current account surplus in Germany, that compares with the deficits registered in most European countries. The study retraces the recent debate on how to correct those imbalances, recalling the arguments for and against the thesis that the countries with a current payments surplus, above all Germany, must also play an active role in fostering the adjustment of the deficit countries. A possible synthesis is proposed, based on an analysis of the formation of national income and the use of resources according to the national accounts system. The implication is that Germany may contribute to the correction of imbalances within the euro area not so much by altering the wage formation mechanism as by creating incentives for domestic investment, hence fostering employment creation, in the service sectors that are currently lagging behind the extraordinary perfomance of a number of core activities in the industry.

  12. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  13. The natural gas supply of united Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1992-01-01

    One cannot classify and describe the developments in the natural gas sector in Germany without reference to the environment. The natural gas economy is now international. The prospects for the demand for natural gas are dealt with, taking into account any energy taxation. The market share, occurrence of natural gas and prospects for obtention are described. (DG) [de

  14. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  15. Germany Provides Higher Education without the Frills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labi, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, tuition is low because state governments shoulder a much higher percentage of university budgets than in the United States. As a result, most German universities provide far fewer amenities and services, and require their professors to teach longer hours to larger numbers of students than their American counterparts. Because they are…

  16. The regulation of asset valuation in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detzen, D.; Hoffman, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the regulatory history of asset valuation in Germany from the fifteenth century to the implementation of the European Economic Community's Fourth Directive in 1986. Aiming to explain regulatory changes by reference to preceding socio-economic and political developments, we find

  17. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  18. Expansion in Germany; Expansion am Standort Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2011-05-05

    Germany is one of the key countries of the worldwide solar industry. For more than a decade, more than 100 German businesses have been active in all parts of the solar sector. During the past three years, the situation has changed dramatically, owing to increasing globalization and stronger competition.

  19. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...

  20. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...

  1. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  2. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohberg, K.; Weingarten

    1997-01-01

    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  3. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  4. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  5. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes…

  6. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  7. [Pharmacovigilance in Germany : It is about time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, A; Schaefer, C; Kreutz, R; Garbe, E

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacovigilance is defined as the activities relating to the detection, assessment, and prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Although its beginnings in Germany date back more than 50 years, a stagnation in this field has been observed lately. Different tools of pharmacovigilance will be illustrated and the reasons for its stagnation in Germany will be elucidated. Spontaneous reporting systems are an important tool in pharmacovigilance and are based on reports of ADRs from treating physicians, other healthcare professionals, or patients. Due to several weaknesses of spontaneous reporting systems such as underreporting, media bias, confounding by comorbidity or comedication, and due to the limited quality of the reports, the development of electronic healthcare databases was publicly funded in recent years so that they can be used for pharmacovigilance research. In the US different electronic healthcare databases were merged in a project sponsored by public means resulting in more than 193 million individuals. In Germany the establishment of large longitudinal databases was never conceived as a public duty and has not been implemented so far. Further attempts to use administrative healthcare data for pharmacovigilance purposes are severely restricted by the Code of Social Law (Section 75, Book 10). This situation has led to a stagnation in pharmacovigilance research in Germany. Without publicly funded large longitudinal healthcare databases and an amendment of Section 75, Book 10, of the Code of Social Law, the use of healthcare data in pharmacovigilance research in Germany will remain a rarity. This could have negative effects on the medical care of the general population.

  8. The outlook for natural gas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a generally stagnant energy market, gas will be the energy with the highest growth rate in Germany, especially because of its steadily rising shares in the residential and commercial sector. In western Germany there is to be accepted that the demand forecasts, which were raised from one conference to the next, have passed their zenith. Great uncertainty exists as regards the future use of gas for power generation. In the absence of any significant expansion of this market sector, which is considered rather improbable in western Germany, it can be stated that anticipated gas demand up to the year 2005 is already covered by existing import contracts and scheduled domestic production. The picture is completely different in eastern Germany, where a doubling of consumption is quite feasible. To achieve the requisite diversification of supplies, substantial additional imports from western sources will have to be contracted. Russia can and should remain eastern Germany's main supplier in the long run, but Russian deliveries must be placed on a reliable, long-term contractual basis. As far as new gas projects are concerned, deliveries from Norway, to a limited extent from the United Kingdom and above all as part of the new Russian export initiative are under discussion. Generally speaking, transit will be an increasingly significant issue, especially for additional supplies from Russia. The efficiency and reliability of gas marketing companies will become far more important in an environment characterised by growing uncertainties. The reliable customer offering a dependable market outlet will be increasingly sought. With energy prices likely to increase only slightly, the management of uncertainties and the safeguarding of economic driving forces will be the main challenge facing our supply projects. 15 figs

  9. IT Infrastructure for Biomedical Research in North-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Insa; Zeleke, Atinkut; Freitag, Michael; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The efficient use of routine data for biomedical research presupposes an IT infrastructure designed for health care facilities. The objective of this study was to analyse which IT infrastructure is used in hospitals and by general practitioners' (GP) practices in the region Oldenburg-Bremen and to examine how well this supports research projects. To this end, IT managers and GPs were interviewed. The usage of hospital information systems (HIS) and data warehouse systems (DWS) in hospitals is of major importance for the study. Over 90 % use DWS for administration, 42 % for clinical research. None of the hospitals implemented consent for the use of routine data for research. Only a third of the GPs have participated in studies. The GPs' offices based EHR systems in use offer virtually no support for research projects. The study results demonstrate that technical and organisational measures are required for the further usage of routine data in the region.

  10. Outline conditions for energy management in the industrial location Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesing, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the economic outline conditions as a whole for the industrial location Germany, the following main themes are gone into in more detail: environmental protection and the industrial location Germany, world energy market perspectives, outline conditions of energy and environmental policy in Germany and the possibility of an energy tax. (UA) [de

  11. The Only Way Is Up? Match Outcome And Stock Price Reactions Of Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Ruelke, Jan Christoph

    2008-01-01

    We use stock market data for Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA - one of the leading German football clubs - for an application of the news model. Due to the specific characteristics of the news generating process, the case of a publicly traded sport club is a very appropriate candidate for testing...... this model. By applying a traditional as well as a reversed news model we elaborate whether new information can explain subsequent changes in the stock price of Borussia Dortmund. We find that sport as well as corporate governance related variables are important drivers of the stock price....

  12. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtwig, Vera; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Schulze, Christoph; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebe, G

    1997-01-01

    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  14. Potential and costs of renewables in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, K.F.; Raede, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Set off by the oil crisis in the Seventies and nurtured by the critical stance of the public towards nuclear energy and its growing awareness of the climate problem, studies on possible applications of renewables in Germany have played an increasingly important role over the years. A large number of publications have been turned out on this issue. It therefore appears worthwhile to collect the various results given in the literature and compile them for easy comparison. The authors of the present article give a short synopsis of a study to this end that was completed in the autumn of last year. The chief aim of the compilation was to enable the reader to gain a quick overview of the known results and to facilitate his orientation, thus making the problems surrounding the application of renewables in Germany more transparent. (orig.) [de

  15. Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabus, F.; Seibt, P.; Poppei, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m 2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

  16. Year 2 of Germany's Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2013-01-01

    After a decade characterised by the take-off of renewable energies, Germany decided in 2010 to make them the top priority. At the same time, it decided to make exemplary efforts in terms of energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. The audacious nature of this policy was strengthened by the 'turn' taken in 2011 to give up nuclear energy in the wake of the Fukushima accident. Given the initial results for 2012, Germany seems to be on target for reaching its national objective, of 18% renewable energy within total consumption by 2020. Germany is also well placed to reduce its planned cut in electricity consumption of 10%. The country will also meet its commitments, both international and European, concerning greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, recent trends suggest it will be increasingly difficult for Germany to meet its own, domestic goal of cutting emissions by 40%, by 2020. Furthermore, it is hard to see how Germany will be able to bring down total energy consumption by 20% by 2020 (from 2008 levels), or increase the share of renewables in electricity production above 35%. Success with this latter objective is largely dependent on reinforcing networks, both for transmission over long distances and for local distribution. It is not sure that the delays accumulated in both areas will be made up for by 2020, despite the rapid legislative adjustments that have already been made. By favouring intermittent energy sources - wind and solar power - Germany also faces problems of managing frequent production fluctuations. The long term solution to this lies in storing electricity. However, despite the considerable efforts in research and development, the technologies necessary for this will doubtless not be available on a large scale before the end of the present decade. These efforts could nevertheless provide German industry with interesting advantages in sectors of high potential, such as electric vehicles. Measures to promote renewable energies are

  17. The future of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The future of nuclear power in Germany is not only a matter of technology, economy and ecology but, above all, a matter of political leadership, the quality of interaction of all groups of society, the need to take ideology out of politico-economico-technical matters, and of firmly standing up for a style of democracy in which majorities, not minorities, decide. The power economy is agreed that nuclear power is indispensable in a powerful electricity supply scheme. These should be the criteria to be met by an energy consensus: No nuclear plants should be sacrificed by being shut down before the end of their technical and economic service life; spent fuel and waste management in Germany should be secured with sufficient interim storage and repository storage capacities. (orig.) [de

  18. Internal migration in Germany, 1995-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    "Over the last two decades, patterns of internal migration in Germany have been discussed under the headings of East-West movements and sub- and re-urbanisation. This paper argues that the intense scientific and public debate that ignited about the possible causes and consequences of internal migration should be based on a clear understanding of how internal migration flows impact on regional population change. Using the German Internal Migration (GIM) database, a unique new dataset that hold...

  19. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  20. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Fertig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  1. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  2. Energy transition in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures and comparisons between the French and German energy plans: electricity mix, 2003-2013 evolution of installed power and of renewable electrical production, cost of energy transition (evolution of charges relative to contracts of renewable electricity purchasing agreement), 2004-2013 evolution employment in renewable energies industry, France-Germany power exchanges (France import balance of 9.8 TWh in 2013), electricity goals in the French and German energy transitions

  3. Self-consumption in Germany. Experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about self-consumption from photovoltaic power plants and cogeneration plants in Germany: share of self-consumption in the overall electricity consumption, definition and economic models, legal aspects and feed-in tariffs, financial incentives for households, tertiary sector and industry, impact on grid dimensioning, challenge of storage on electric system optimisation, economic impact and 'lack of solidarity', possible future legal evolutions

  4. Supplementary income. Direct selling in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document treats, first, of the evolution of the German support mechanisms to renewable energy sources. Then, it presents the legal framework of direct electricity selling (goal, evolution, facilities in concern and eligibility criteria). Next, the operation of direct selling since August 2014 in Germany is presented (producers eligibility, over- and under-production, reference values, income, tariffs). Finally, the perspectives and conditions of direct selling success are summarized in the conclusion

  5. Nuclear licensing and supervision in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The legal instrument for implementing the licensing and supervisory procedure is specified by statutory ordinances, guidelines and provisions. The licensing requirements for nuclear power plants on the final storage of radioactive wastes in the federal republic of germany are described. The nuclear facilities are subject to continuous state supervision after they have been granted. The appendix gives a brief account of the most important ordinances relating to the AtG and extracts from the Nuclear Safety Convention. (HP)

  6. Propagation characteristics of thunderstorms in southern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, M.; Bartenschlager, B.; Finke, U.

    1998-05-01

    The propagation of thunderstorms in southern Germany was investigated. The thunderstorms were observed by a lightning position system during the summer months of the years 1992 to 1996. On average every second day thunderstorms were observed anywhere in southern Germany. In general thunderstorms approach from westerly and south-westerly directions. The average speed is 13 m/s. No significant relation between the occurrence of thunderstorms and the large scale synoptic pattern described by the Grosswetterlagen (large scale weather pattern) was found. Thunderstorms were observed during almost all Grosswetterlagen. The reduction to 8 weather pattern based on the low-level flow in southern Germany showed that thunderstorms are likely when the flow has westerly directions (43%) or easterly directions (20%). Three distinct groups of different lightning patterns could be identified; stationary, moving thunderstorms and thunderstorm lines. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the wind shear were retrieved from the radio soundings from Muenchen and Stuttgart. On average CAPE was 583 J/kg for stationary, 701 J/kg for moving thunderstorms, and 876 J/kg for thunderstorm lines. The average bulk Richardson numbers are 152, 80 and 52 for stationary, moving thunderstorms and thunderstorm lines, respectively. The steering level was found to be at about 3 and 6 km m.s.l. However, it should be noted, that in most cases the soundings do not completely describe the local environment of thunderstorms, since radio soundings are only available twice a day. (orig.)

  7. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  8. Investigation of the transport of air masses to Germany from nuclear facility sites east of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.; Spoden, E.

    2000-05-01

    The accident in the Chernobyl-4 reactor demonstrated that even far distant reactor sites may cause some danger to the German territory, so that emergency preparedness measures are required. The geographic position of a site has an important influence on the transport of air masses starting at the site. The geographic positions of sources determine the potential danger to Germany that may result from an accident, and consequently the required emergency preparedness plans. For sites of nuclear power plants and spent fuel reprocessing facilities east of Germany (Nuclear Facilities East), the transport ways of air masses were calculated daily by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) for the period from November 1995 to October 1999. Those data were used to derive estimates of the frequency of transport to Germany, the time distribution for the cases of air masses reaching Germany, and the corresponding time of travelling. Until 31 October 1999, trajectories (transport ways) were calculated by the DWD for 1444 days, and were submitted for analysis to the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). The fraction of days for which trajectories with travelling times below seven days are reaching Germany decreases from 46 % for Dukovany (at a distance of 200 km) through to 17 % for Chernobyl (at a distance of 1000 km), 11 % for Kola (at a distance of 2000 km), and 1.3 % for Chelyabinsk (at a distance of 2900 km). (orig) [de

  9. Nuclear third party liability in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the

  10. Energy R and D in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  11. Energy R and D in Germany; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PJ Runci

    1999-01-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R and D stood at$42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R and D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R and D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R and D expenditures, public R and D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately$15 billion. The reduction in R and D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R and D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R and D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R and D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R and D fell from approximately$1.6 billion to$400 million--a 75% real decline. The$850 million reduction in Germany's fission R and D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R and D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R and D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy

  12. Health care resource utilization before and after natalizumab initiation among patients with multiple sclerosis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Crystal Watson,1 Christine Prosser,2 Sebastian Braun,2 Pamela B Landsman-Blumberg,3 Erika Gleissner,4 Sarah Naoshy1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Global Market Access, Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Real World Evidence, Xcenda GmbH, Hanover, Germany; 3Applied Data Analytics, Xcenda LLC, Palm Harbor, FL, USA; 4Market Access, Biogen, Ismaning, Germany Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, greatly impacts the quality of life and economic status of people affected by this disease. In Germany, the total annual cost of MS is estimated at €40,000 per person with MS. Natalizumab has shown to slow MS disease progression, reduce relapses, and improve the quality of life of people with MS.Objective: To evaluate MS-related and all-cause health care resource utilization and costs among German MS patients during the 12 months before and after initiation of natalizumab in a real-world setting.Methods: The current analysis was conducted using the Health Risk Institute research database. Identified patients were aged ≥18 years with ≥1 diagnosis of MS and had initiated natalizumab therapy (index, with 12-month pre– and post–index-period data. Patients were stratified by prior disease-modifying therapy (DMT usage or no DMT usage in the pre-index period. Outcome measures included corticosteroid use and number of sick/disability days, inpatient stays, and outpatient visits. Health care costs were calculated separately for pre- and post-index periods on a per-patient basis and adjusted for inflation.Results: In a final sample of 193 natalizumab-treated patients, per-patient MS-related corticosteroid use was reduced by 62.3%, MS-related sick days by 27.6%, and inpatient costs by 78.3% from the pre- to post-index period. Furthermore, the proportion of patients with MS-related hospitalizations decreased from 49.7% to 14.0% (P<0.001; this reduction was seen for patients with and without prior DMT use

  13. Prioritizing the patient: optimizing therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a patient questionnaire in northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollenhaupt J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Wollenhaupt,1 Inge Ehlebracht-Koenig,2 André Groenewegen,3 Dieter Fricke41Rheumatologikum Hamburg, Schön Klinik Hamburg Eilbek, Hamburg, Germany; 2Center of Rehabilitation, Bad Eilsen, Germany; 3UCB Pharma SA, Brussels, Belgium; 4UCB Pharma GmbH, Monheim, GermanyPurpose: A 40-question postal survey was developed to gain insight into the nature of difficulties experienced by patients due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as patient perceptions and priorities regarding their RA treatmentPatients and methods: A total of 3000 Lower Saxony, Germany members of Rheuma-Liga (RL, a patient support group for people with RA, were invited to participate between July 1, and August 20, 2009. The questionnaire was divided into four sections: (1 patient demographics, (2 quality of life (QOL, (3 treatment expectations and, (4 patient perceptions of RL. The questionnaire could be completed in writing or via the internet.Results: Of 959 respondents (response rate = 32.0%, 318 had diagnosed RA and were included in the analysis. The respondents were mostly retired (71.2%, female (83.3%, and >60 years of age (63.5%. Members’ responses indicated that most were generally satisfied with their current treatment (67.3%, considered it efficacious (84.0%, and reported minimal (none or little side-effects (61.2%. Patient involvement in treatment decisions, however, was reportedly low (49.6% felt insufficiently involved. Patients’ primary impairments were reflected in their treatment priorities: mobility (97.0%, ability to run errands/do shopping (97.1%, do the housework (95.6%, and be independent of others (94.2%. The primary service provided by RL and used by respondents was physiotherapy (70.6%, which was reported to benefit physical function and mood by over 90.0% of respondents.Conclusion: RA had a detrimental effect upon respondents' quality of life, specifically impairing their ability to perform daily tasks and causing pain/emotional distress

  14. Commentary: preparing primary care for the future - perspectives from the Netherlands, England, USA and lessons for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Antje; Nolte, Ellen; Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M

    2011-01-01

    Like the Netherlands, England, and the USA, Germany is facing challenges posed by globalisation, medical and technological progress, and demographic change. Strategies to meet these challenges and practice models in these countries vary because they depend on the organisation and funding of the health care system and the traditional role of primary care. However, some of the approaches from other countries and health care systems may be transferable to the German situation. We describe the background and the main challenges for primary care in Germany. Subsequently, we review the strategies pursued to prepare primary care for the future in the Netherlands, England, and the USA and analyse their applicability for Germany. All countries reviewed struggle with the improvement of cooperation and integration of care for patients with chronic illness. Proposed changes concern the organisation and funding of primary care, including cooperation in multidisciplinary teams within larger organisations such as virtual provider networks, GP-led health centres, or polyclinics which focus on the management of the patient population they are accountable for. This can be aided by national standards of care, care pathways, and guidelines. An appropriate funding model should provide incentives for population management which includes the whole team, e.g. through a mixture of capitation, fee-for-service, and pay-for-performance. The strategies pursued in other countries suggest how primary care in Germany could be restructured and improved to prepare for future challenges. However, in addition to considerable changes in organisation, funding, and incentives, educational, cultural, and other conditions need to be taken into account as well, especially in the case of forming multidisciplinary care teams. Improvement collaboratives and a national programme of practice coaches could be a way to prepare GP practices for and help them implement such major changes. Copyright © 2011

  15. Anti-mafia initiatives in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Norberti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Le ricerche degli ultimi anni suggeriscono che l’espansione delle mafie italiane in territorio tedesco stia avvenendo nell’indifferenza generale. Stato e autorità locali, così come società civile e media, non stanno dedicando sufficiente attenzione alla tematica. L’obiettivo di questo articolo è invece di identificare e mappare le numerose organizzazioni e i tanti eventi che sono stati organizzati negli ultimi anni, nel tentativo di analizzare la dimensione e le dinamiche del movimento antimafia in Germania. I risultati raccolti suggeriscono che, contrariamente al previsto, esistono molte persone e gruppi attivi in questo settore, anche se non sempre raggiungono un visibile impatto. Parole chiave: Germania, movimento antimafia, Mafia? Nein, Danke! e.V., educazione antimafia, giornalismo   Current research suggests that the expansion of Italian mafia groups in Germany is taking place almost completely unnoticed, as neither the state and regional institutions, nor civil society and the media are giving sufficient attention to the issue. The purpose of the paper is to identify and map the numerous organizations and events that have taken place in recent years, in an attempt to analyse the dimension and the dynamics of the anti-mafia movement in Germany. Taken together, these results suggest that there are many individuals and groups that are doing something in the anti-mafia field, even if they are not always reaching an adequate level of efficacy. Keywords: Germany, Anti-mafia movement, Mafia? Nein, Danke! e.V., Anti-mafia education, Journalism

  16. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  17. An ecological tax reform in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, L.; Bleijenberg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    This study, being a part of the large research program 'External Effects of Energy Procurement' and coordinated by PROGNOS, concerns the distributional and macro-economic effects of the internalization of the external effects of the energy supply by means of an ecological tax reform. The PROGNOS study is focused on the costs and effects of energy production, procurement and consumption (in Germany), that are not taken care of by the market. Here a rough estimate is given of the macro-economic consequence and the distributional effects for the industrial sector and households in (West) Germany of an energy tax of which the revenues are 'reinjected' into the economy, mainly by lowering the financial burden on labour. First a description is given of the starting points of the study and the form of the energy tax. Subsequently attention is paid to the macro-economic effects, the sectoral effects, and the effects on the distribution of incomes for households. The model calculations for Western Germany and the Netherlands confirm the expectation that an ecological tax reform leads to the combined realization of employment and environmental objectives. Shifts in the sectoral structure may occur. Energy intensive branches of industry will have to give up a part of their market share in favour of labour-intensive sectors. The results also illustrate that there are several possibilities to prevent a change in the collective burden of regular expenses as a result of a tax or levy on energy, and that the effects of a fuel tax on the income distribution can be corrected. 5 figs., 19 tabs., 5 apps., 15 refs

  18. A Less Ambitious Energy Transition for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeker, Etienne; Yahiel, Michel; Lenglart, Fabrice; Broca, Olivier de; Senne, Valerie

    2017-08-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, the German authorities launched the country's energy transition, or Energiewende. With near unanimous support of Germany's citizens, it was seen as a society-wide project. The enthusiasm the Energiewende generated soon spread beyond the Rhine. Indeed, for many French people it became the model to follow. Replacing nuclear energy and fossil fuels with renewable energy sources that were local when possible, developing electric mobility and making progress towards a zero carbon economy were all virtuous goals. What's more, it seemed they could be attained over a relatively short period of time and at reasonable cost. Today, the Energiewende's future looks less bright. While Germany produces a third of its electricity from renewable energy, this comes at a high price. The cost of electricity for small consumers more than doubled between 2000 and 2013. At the same time, the country continues to rely on coal to produce a large share of its electricity and still has one of the highest levels of CO 2 per person in Europe. But Germany's population is divided about closing its coal-fired and lignite power plants, not to mention doing so would jeopardize its energy supply. Add to this the fact the massive development of intermittent renewable energy sources has made the German power grid unstable and has necessitated the construction of thousands of kilometers of high voltage lines amidst strong local opposition. Lastly, electrifying the transport sector could serve to compound the series of scandals that have hit the automotive industry. Against this backdrop, the coalition government formed following the September 2017 federal elections could very well lower the bar for the Energiewende. (author)

  19. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  20. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  1. The unification of law via the institution of jurisdiction in the 19th century : commercial law before the High Court of Appeal of the four free cities of Germany / Peter Oestmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oestmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Institutsioonide pädevuse kaudu õiguse ühtlustamisest 19. sajandil Saksamaal. Nelja Hansa vabalinna (Hamburg, Frankfurt, Bremen, Lübeck) ühiskohtu Oberappellationsgericht tegevusest, Lübecki õigusest Tallinnas ja kohtulahenditest

  2. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  3. Natural radionuclides in mineral water in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrikat, D.; Beyermann, M.; Buenger, Th.; Viertel, H.

    2004-01-01

    The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Po-210, Pb-210, U-234, U-235, U-238 and Ac-227 have been determined in approx. 400 bottled mineral waters in Germany. The median value of radiation exposure for children (age 0-1 year, 170l/y) is 0.047 mSv/a. The main part of exposure (80-90% approx.) is caused by the isotopes Ra-226 and Ra-228. The median values of concentrations are 7 mBq/l, respectively. Maximal concentrations up to 370 mBq/l were observed. (orig.)

  4. Detection of radioactivity in scrap in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, E.; Thierfeldt, S.; Sefzig, R.; Weimer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Although Germany's scrap export exceeds the import, the imports of scrap amount to more than one million Mg per year. Radioactivity has been found mainly in imported scrap in Germany. This radioactivity can consist of surface contamination in scrap e.g. from the oil and gas industry, nuclear and other technical applications or of radiation sources, e.g. from medical or technical irradiation devices where the source has not been removed prior to scrapping. Fortunately really large sources have been involved in only very few occasions. More serious incidents have, however, been reported from other countries. Today, measurement facilities have been installed at the entrances to virtually all German foundries and larger scrap yards. These measurement facilities allow the swift measurement of whole lorry or freight car loads. The lower limit of detection is for some devices as low as ca. 5 nSv/h (dose rate increase above background at the detector) which is achieved by very advanced hardware and software. Additionally, simplified dose rate measurements are performed by German customs officials at the eastern borders for scrap loads to be imported into Germany. When activity is detected in a load, several options exist, like e.g.: (i) sending the scrap back to the sender; (ii) allowing the whole load to be melted down; (iii) careful unloading and separating the load with the aim of localizing and removing the contamination. This paper analyses these various options after detection, discusses the role of the competent authorities and evaluates the possible radiological consequences. Realistic dose calculations show that it is possible that a person may receive doses of several mSv or even 10 mSv if precautionary measures are neglected or if a larger source is not detected at all. This paper further addresses which types and amounts of radioactivity may be detected and which conclusions can be drawn from the dose rate at the detector. The continuous increase in the number

  5. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coy, K.

    1998-01-01

    The regulatory programme governing the safe use of radioisotopes in Germany is based on the federal legislation enacted as Atomic Energy Control Act (Atomgesetz) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlen-schutzverordnung) and its implementation by the competent authorities of the individual states. Despite this highly decentralized infrastructure of enforcement the basic principles of regulations described in this paper such as authorization criteria, conditions imposed as well as depth and intensity of inspection balanced according to the individual radiation hazard involved are harmonized to the greatest possible extent by regular coordination among the competent authorities as well as a series of technical regulations such as standards and guidelines. (author)

  6. Fuels and alternative propulsion in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The transportation sector is one of the first responsible of the air pollution in Germany. The kyoto protocol and the european directive led the german Government to set about some measures. To encourage the petroleum industry to develop classical fuels/biofuels mixing, the government exempted from taxes until 2020 the biofuels part. The Government decided also financial incentives for diesel vehicles equipped with particles filters. Among the different fuels, the document presents the advantages and disadvantages of the hydrogen fuels and the hybrid motors. (A.L.B.)

  7. Book-tax conformity: Empirical evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Zinn, Benedikt; Spengel, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We use a unique matched tax return - financial statement data set to examine the magnitude and sources of book-tax differences in Germany. For the first time, the data set enables us to evaluate the extent to which financial and tax accounting differ in Germany in the most accurate manner. Despite the close link between financial and tax accounting in Germany, we find that corporate taxable income and income reported to shareholders diverge considerably. Regression results suggest...

  8. The Shock of Studying in Germany: Students from Developing Countries in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, Uwe

    1981-01-01

    Describes problems faced by foreign students from developing countries as they go through advanced training in West Germany. These problems include curriculum inflexibility and inapplicability, cultural alienation, and racism. Descriptions of innovative programs and policies designed to ease the culture shock students experience upon reentering…

  9. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  10. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.

    1998-03-01

    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  11. Status of wind energy in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Nuclear energy research in Germany 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Research and development (R and D) in the fields of nuclear reactor safety and safety of nuclear waste and spent fuel management in Germany are carried out at research centers and, in addition, some 32 universities. In addition, industrial research is conducted by plant vendors, and research in plant and operational safety of power plants in operation is organized by operators and by organizations of technical and scientific research and expert consultant organizations. This summary report presents nuclear energy research conducted at research centers and universities in Germany in 2009, including examples of research projects and descriptions of the situation of research and teaching. These are the organizations covered: - Hermann von Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers, - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, responsibility of the former Karlsruhe Research Center), - Juelich Research Center (FZJ), - Nuclear Technology Competence Center East, - Dresden-Rossendorf Research Center (FZD), - Rossendorf Nuclear Process Technology and Analysis Association (VKTA), - Dresden Technical University, - Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Science, - Institute of Nuclear Energy and Energy Systems (IKE) of the University of Stuttgart. (orig.)

  13. The historiography of homoeopathy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jütte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Homoeopathy originated in Germany. The same applies, by the way, to many other branches of alternative medicine, e.g. mesmerism, homoeopathy, hydropathy, anthroposophical medicine. This historical fact provides more than just an excuse to start with a survey of the historiography of homeopathy in German-speaking countries. The first part of the paper focuses on 19th-century attempts at a history of homoeopathy, reflecting the wish to establish a corporate identity among the adherents of the new art of healing. Early examples are books by prominent homoeopathic doctors on the origins and recent history of homoeopathy in German lands. A look at their motives will give us a notion of the response of the fringe medicine to a wide ranger of attacks of orthodox physicians and medical historians who saw progress in the field of the new "scientific" medicine only and who shared the values and ideologies of the medical establishment. The second part of the paper - which covers the period from the turn of the century to the end of World War II - examines the first attempts by professional medical historians as well as amateurs to write about the rise and fall of homeopathy in Germany. The third part is then centred on recent medical historiography on this subject.

  14. Vitamin status of elderly people in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, D; Stehle, P

    1999-05-01

    In the last decade several attempts (Nationale Verzehrsstudie, NVS; Verbundstudie Ernährungserhebung und Risikofaktoren-Analytik, VERA: Bethanien-Ernährungsstudie, BEST) have been made to assess the nutritional status of the elderly in Germany. A careful evaluation of those data describing the vitamin status clearly indicate that healthy older people are not at higher risk for vitamin deficiency compared to younger adults. The results of the NVS showed that, except for folic acid, mean intake of all vitamins exceeded 80% of the current recommendations. Only 5% of blood vitamin concentrations analyzed in a subpopulation (VERA-Study) were founded to be below the physiological range. Only the incidence of low cobalamin values increased with age, presumably due to gastrointestinal problems (atrophic gastritis). In contrast, geriatric patients showed markedly lower vitamin blood concentrations compared to healthy subjects of the same age (BEST-Study). This might be explained by physical and mental deterioration, handicaps, chronic diseases and multiple chronic drug use. Underrepresentation of very old people, lack of reliable reference values for biomarkers and uncertainties in data collection may have contributed to misinterpretations. Representative studies are needed to objectively assess the nutritional status of the elderly population in Germany.

  15. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  16. Oral versus intravenous iron therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and iron deficiency with and without anemia in Germany – a real-world evidence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein J

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Stein,1,2 Jennifer Scarlet Haas,3 Siew Hwa Ong,4 Kathrin Borchert,3 Thomas Hardt,5 Elmira Lechat,4 Kerry Nip,5 Douglas Foerster,4 Sebastian Braun,3 Daniel C Baumgart6 1Interdisciplinary Crohn Colitis Center Rhein-Main, Frankfurt/Main, Germany; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, DGD Clinics Sachsenhausen, Teaching Hospital of the J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany; 3Xcenda GmbH, Hannover, Germany; 4Vifor Pharma Ltd., Glattbrugg, Switzerland; 5Vifor Pharma Deutschland GmbH, Munich, Germany; 6Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background: Iron-deficiency anemia and iron deficiency are common comorbidities associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD resulting in impaired quality of life and high health care costs. Intravenous iron has shown clinical benefit compared to oral iron therapy. Aim: This study aimed to compare health care outcomes and costs after oral vs intravenous iron treatment for IBD patients with iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia (ID/A in Germany. Methods: IBD patients with ID/A were identified by ICD-10-GM codes and newly commenced iron treatment via ATC codes in 2013 within the InGef (formerly Health Risk Institute research claims database. Propensity score matching was performed to balance both treatment groups. Non-observable covariates were adjusted by applying the difference-in-differences (DID approach. Results: In 2013, 589 IBD patients with ID/A began oral and 442 intravenous iron treatment. After matching, 380 patients in each treatment group were analyzed. The intravenous group had fewer all-cause hospitalizations (37% vs 48% and ID/A-related hospitalizations (5% vs 14% than the oral iron group. The 1-year preobservation period comparison revealed significant health care cost differences between both groups. After adjusting for cost differences by DID method, total health care cost savings in the intravenous iron group were

  17. PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PBDEs in blood samples of a rural population in South Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Albrecht, Michael; Appel, Markus; Hilger, Bettina; Völkel, Wolfgang; Liebl, Bernhard; Roscher, Eike

    2015-01-01

    The body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like (ndl-PCBs) polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined in blood samples from 70 subjects between 4 and 76 years old. The participants of the study were recruited in the neighborhood of a reclamation plant located in a rural area in Southern Germany. The median concentrations (95th percentiles in parentheses), expressed as WHO2005-TEQ (toxic equivalents), for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 4.5 (17.9)pgg(-1) l.w. and 2.6 (13.2)pgg(-1) l.w., respectively. The dl-PCBs contributed 40% of the total TEQ (median values), and the most abundant congener was PCB 156. Combined, the sum of the 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs had a median of 0.773μgL(-1) and a 95th percentile of 4.895μgL(-1). For the six tetra to hepta PBDE congeners, the median was 1.8ngg(-1) l.w. (95th percentile: 16.2ngg(-1) l.w.). None of our study subjects had a body burden that exceeded the biomonitoring equivalents for dioxins or PBDE congener 99 or the human biomonitoring values for ndl-PCBs. Likewise the study group did not exceed German reference values or values obtained in similar investigations. Overall, our study did not exhibit elevated internal exposures. The results also hint further decreasing tendencies for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in Germany and demonstrates that people in the vicinity of a reclamation plant with no indication of an environmental contamination did not exhibit elevated internal exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus in wild game from Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Anneliese; Plessow, Uta; Beer, Martin; Pfeffer, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important tick-transmitted viral disease in Europe and is caused by the flavivirus TBE-virus (TBEV). In Germany TBE is unevenly distributed with the vast majority of cases occurring in the south in so-called risk areas defined as regions with an incidence of at least 1 case in 100,000 inhabitants. However, in low endemic areas with lesser TBE cases the respective risk assessment is hard to achieve. We therefore intend to use the prevalence of antibodies against TBEV in wildlife to trace TBEV endemic areas as a surrogate marker for the notification of human cases. This study was conducted in Saxony, Germany, where 34 autochthonous cases were reported since 2001, thereby not allowing a geographic allocation within the state. A total of 1,851 sera from wild boar and 35 sera from roe deer from all Saxon districts shot between April 2011 and March 2013 were screened for the presence of antibodies against TBEV. The overall seropositivity for Saxony was 10.5%. Among the wild boar sera, most positive samples could be found in the districts Meißen (23%) and Vogtlandkreis (20%) followed by Dresden (18%), Erzgebirgskreis and Görlitz (both 10%). We conclude that seroprevalence studies in game animals represent a promising surrogate marker and should be considered for future determination of risk areas. Although we are currently unable to explain the discrepancy of the few human cases and the high seroprevalence in some districts, vaccination against TBE should be considered for people planning outdoor activities in Dresden, Meißen or Vogtlandkreis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Fresh MOX fuel transport in Germany: experience for using the MX6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemant, T.; Marien, L.; Wagner, R.; Jahreiss, W.; Tschiesche, H.

    2004-01-01

    The MX6 packaging developed by COGEMA LOGISTICS replaces the BWR SIEMENS packaging and SIEMENS III packaging for the transport of either BWR or PWR fresh MOX assemblies. It is licensed in France, Germany and Belgium according to TS-R-1 requirements (IAEA 1996). The associated security transport system was developed in co-operation with NCS (Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH). The MX6 packaging is based on innovative solutions implemented at each step of the design. In 2004, RWE GUNDREMMINGEN Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will be the first NPP delivered with the MX6 system and MOX assemblies manufactured by BELGONUCLEAIRE and FBFC in Belgium. Before this first transport, successful cold tests were performed for qualification of the whole system with the participation of all parties involved: NPP, carrier, fuel supplier and local Authorities. These tests were conducted by the NPP's operators in FBFC and GUNDREMMINGEN facilities and lead to the validation of the operating manual. Specific conditions for the return of the empty MX6 were also agreed between all parties. Similar operation will be conducted in each NPP before the first use of the MX 6. The large payload of the MX6: - 16 BWR MOX assemblies in one packaging instead of 2 - 6 PWR MOX assemblies in one packaging instead of 3 contributes to the optimisation of the dose uptake during unloading in the NPP. In this paper, the main contributors to the first MOX transport to Germany with the MX6 will present their involvement and feedback at each step of the transport of this new type of packaging, including loading and unloading operations. The use of the MX6 will be extended to other German NPP's from the next year. After FBFC in Belgium, MELOX in France will load the MX6 as well as the current MX8 packaging for the delivery to the French NPP's

  20. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  1. Postcolonial debates in Germany – An Overview1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emphasized the impact of German colonization not only on formerly colonialized populations but also on today's ... Germany voted a resolution in June 2016 on the memory of the Armenian genocide and. Germany's indirect ..... The term Farbe means ”color”, the verb ”bekennen” means to recognize or to admit. 17 For more ...

  2. The costs of coexistence on farms in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Venus, Thomas J.; Wesseler, Justus H H

    2017-01-01

    for farmers in their cultivation decisions, and therefore it is important to measure these costs. In this article, we investigate the costs of different coexistence measures for farmers in Germany. Currently, GM crop cultivation is outlawed in Germany, but there was a short period from 2005-2008 when...

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for the...

  4. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  5. Germany's Emerging Multiethnic Society: Old Problems and New.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedmin, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Opinion polls do not indicate a growing neo-Nazism in Germany, but they do reveal substantial hostile attitudes toward Jews and significant bias against other ethnic minorities. Demographic trends suggest that Germany will have an increasingly multiracial society as well as a greater need for foreign labor in the future. (SLD)

  6. Rebuilding Special Education in Germany after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengstock, Wayne L.; Ruttgardt, Sieglind Ellger

    1994-01-01

    The corruption of education values and the destruction of an outstanding educational system for children with mental retardation during Nazi rule in Germany necessitated a complete revamping after World War II. In its redevelopment, Germany resumed the practice of segregation and was slow to embrace social integration as adopted in other…

  7. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  8. Management of aging in technical facilities of E.ON Kernkraft plants; Alterungsmanagement bei technischen Einrichtungen in Anlagen der E.ON Kernkraft GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Sven H.; Brast, Gerhard [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Schoeckle, Friedrich [AMTEC Messtechnischer Service GmbH, Lauffen/N (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The publication explains, by means of specific measures, the management of aging in technical facilities as practiced in the plants of E.ON Kernkraft GmbH. First, the historical background is outlined and the reasons for introducing management of aging in order to limit and control factors influencing the lifetime of nuclear power plants are described. This is followed by a definition of management of aging in important safety-related facilities as against lifetime management of technical systems relevant to plant availability. This is the context in which the scope of the survey of continuous management of aging is defined in respect of physical aging. A classification is then made in accordance with the staggered requirements to be met in the quality of technical facilities. On the basis of the quality to be assured, the different component groups are assigned corresponding operational measures and explained. These continuous measures extend from failure-oriented maintenance to preventive maintenance to the integrity concept for technical installations. To document the findings and evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken, the integration of the process is described and reference is made to continuous optimization according to PDCA principles. The explicit introduction of the process of management of aging creates a platform which allows a documentation to be accumulated of the manifold and comprehensive measures taken to control phenomena of aging in technical installations. (orig.)

  9. West Germany: science and animal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, W

    1985-01-26

    West Germany's animal welfare movement is unusual in its emphasis on "protection" based on the religious concept of "Mitgeschöpflichkeit," which holds that "animals like man, are God's creatures and must all be treated with responsibility." At a hearing on amending the 1972 animal welfare law, protectionists, represented by nine organizations, asked for explicit restrictions on the purposes of research, approval of protocols by ethics committees, and the setting of qualifications for researchers. Their demands were challenged by representatives of major medical disciplines, scientific research societies, zoo directors, pharmaceutical companies, and the farmers' association. Lorenz comments that researchers ought to increase scrutiny of their work, avoid duplication, and give attention to pain relief, while protectionists must guard against "misanthropy" and "enmity to research per se."

  10. Documents and legal texts: Australia, Germany, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)

  11. Nuclear air cleaning activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1991-01-01

    The discussion is limited to nuclear air cleaning activities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Work is underway on containment venting with regard to filtration based on a combination of stainless steel roughing and fine filters with a decontamination factor similar to or better than that achieved with high-efficiency particulate air filters. The main point of interest is the development of relatively small filter units that can be located inside the containment. The concept of a new design for double containment having annular rooms between the steel containment and the concrete containment is discussed. Work related to the dismantling of decommissioned reactors and limited research for fuel reprocessing facilities are also noted

  12. Germany: facing the Nazi past today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Laurien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the changing debate on National Socialism and the question of guilt in German society. Memory had a different meaning in different generations, shaping distinct phases of dealing with the past, from silence and avoidance to sceptical debate, from painful “Vergangenheitsbewältigung” to a general memory of suffering. In present-day Germany, memory as collective personal memory has faded away. At the same time, literature has lost its role as a main medium to mass media like cinema and television. Furthermore, memory has become fragmented. Large groups of members of the German society, like immigrants, see the past from a different perspective altogether. Although the remembrance of the time of National Socialism is still a distinctive part of Germany’s political culture, it has become more generalised, with “Holocaust memory” as a globalised symbol for a fundamental “break” in Western culture.

  13. Germany at CERN, from 13 to 15 November 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF, during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 02: Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committe, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 04: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF; Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committee; Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva (background); Dr Horst Wenninger, CERN and Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, visiting the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN.

  14. Persistent Educational Advantage Across Three Generations: Empirical Evidence for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ziefle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP to analyze the persistence of educational attainment across three generations in Germany. I obtain evidence of a robust effect of grandparents' education on respondents' own educational attainment in West Germany, net of parental class, education, occupational status, family income, parents' relationship history, and family size. I also test whether the grandparent effect results from resource compensation or cumulative advantage and find empirical support for both mechanisms. In comparison, the intergenerational association between grandparents' and respondents' education is considerably weaker in East Germany and is also mediated completely by parental education. There are hardly any gender differences in the role of grandparents for respondents’ educational attainment, except for the fact that resource compensation is found to be exclusively relevant for women’s attainment in both West Germany and in East Germany after German reunification and the associated transition to an open educational system.

  15. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  16. Reflexions on Urban Gardening in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gustedt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany. The focus is on forms of gardening, that take place in spaces subject to land lease agreements and similar forms of tenancy or of illegal land take or squatting. The author examines various definitions taking into account the variety of practices, the development of urban gardening over time, and the respective backgrounds or values that users relate to such gardening activities. The examination of definitions led to the drawing up of a timeline of traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany and to the tentative approaching of this issue from a semantic perspective. The latter is due to the usage of many different terms mostly as yet undefined in a legal sense. Translation into English or, most likely, to any other language, further blurs the common understanding of the terms used. The author concludes with some considerations on these gardening movements in relation to urban sustainable developments. A presentation at the 5th Rencontres Internationals de Reims on Sustainability Studies, dedicated to Urban Agriculture – Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum, which took place in October 2015 in Reims/France was the starting point of this article. The basis of this article is a literature review, nourished to a certain extent by observations randomly made over many years and complemented through talks with competent young colleagues. Special thanks go to Martin Sondermann, Leibniz University Hannover, who shared his research experience in various discussions with the author, as well as to Friederike Stelter, internship student at the author’s place of work, who gave highly appreciated support to the preparation of the presentation.

  17. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  18. Energy Transition Index Germany 2020. How Germany can defend its pioneering role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlenkamp, Thomas; Weber, Marco; Ritzenhofen, Ingmar; Gersema, Gerke

    2016-01-01

    The current development of the indicators signals a new phase in the German energy transition: The cost of grid intervention explode and bottlenecks slow down the expansion of renewables. An enhanced system integration is now required when Germany's role as a pioneer of the energy transition will not lose to other regions of the world. Because there are booming renewables now. [de

  19. Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald GmbH plan and build wet decontamination plant for disposal of components of Russian nuclear submarines; Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald GmbH plant und errichtet eine Nassdekontaminationsanlage zur Entsorgung von Komponenten russischer Atom U-Boote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jan; Konitzer, Arnold; Luedeke, Michael [AKB Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald GmbH (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald, on behalf of Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Lubmin, plan and build a wet decontamination facility for the waste management center at Saida Bay, Russia (EZS). The plant is part of a large project with a total volume on the order of 3-digit millions funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology. This project involves construction at Saida Bay near the port city of Murmansk of a complete waste management center and a long-term interim store for radioactively contaminated components. These components are mainly parts of decommissioned nuclear vessels and submarines whose metals, after decontamination, can be returned to economic use. The basis of the wet decontamination plant is a former AKB project for disposal and re-use of contaminated metal components of Energiewerke Nord GmbH at Lubmin, which is being adapted and developed further. The plant is to allow unrestricted re-use of the metals after surface cleaning and surface abrasion, respectively. For this purpose, the contaminated layer is removed far enough for the clearance limits under the Radiation Protection Ordinance to be met. A large fraction of the metals can be re-used after cleaning and do not have to be stored in a financially and logistically expensive process. The contract gives AKB an excellent opportunity to demonstrate its capabilities in plant construction, especially in the very sensitive area of disposal of radioactively contaminated objects. (orig.)

  20. [Vocational training in general practice in Germany: a nation-wide survey among trainees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Marco; Blauth, Eckart; Steinhäuser, Jost; Ledig, Thomas; Joos, Stefanie; Peters-Klimm, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The increasing shortage of (primary care) physicians in Germany is currently being discussed within and outside the profession. A national survey among general practice trainees aimed to explore their perspectives of vocational training (VT). After translation, cultural adaptation and web implementation of the questionnaire of the "Vasco da Gama Movement," the survey was conducted during 2009. Descriptive analyses were performed. Among 436 participants (mean age 36 years, 64% female, 49 months of VT) discipline-specific ("medically diverse discipline", "one-to-one care", and "holistic approach"), but also gender-related (females: "compatibility with family life", males: "autonomy and independence", and "opportunities to start their own practice") aspects were important to their choice of career. Despite the heavy workload job satisfaction, but not salary satisfaction, was generally high. Participants rated the following general conditions and content of VT as important: "structured rotations", "rotations in hospitals", "management skills", "working in a local care setting and in a multidisciplinary team" (all>88%). These results provide clues to improving VT in General Practice with respect to organisation and content including the consideration of gender-related living conditions. Furthermore, improvement and further development of VT programmes should ideally be part of an area-wide, interdisciplinary and intersectoral approach. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Serosurvey of Schmallenberg Virus Infections in Sheep and Goat Flocks in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, C; Eibach, R; Tegtmeyer, P C; Humann-Ziehank, E; Runge, M; Ganter, M

    2015-08-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infections can cause congenital musculoskeletal and vertebral malformations as well as neurological failures in foetuses of several ruminant species if susceptible mother animals were infected during early gestation. Blood samples gained from 17 goat and 64 sheep flocks in Lower Saxony (LS), Germany (January-May 2012), which is located in the core region of the 2011/2012 epidemic were tested for antibodies against SBV by ELISA to detect past exposure to SBV. A SBV-specific questionnaire was raised in all flocks. The calculated median within-herd prevalence was 43.8% (min-max: 5.6-93.3%) for goats and 58.7% (min-max: 6.5-100%) for sheep, showing that small ruminants in LS, especially goats, are still at risk of novel SBV infections in the following lambing seasons as not all animals have seroconverted yet. Statistical analysis revealed that goats have a significantly lower risk of SBV infections than sheep which might be explained by different host preferences of Culicoides ssp. as main vectors for SBV and different housing conditions. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  3. Study tour to biomass gasifiers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoef, H.A.M.

    2000-12-01

    A study trip to a biomass gasification plant in Germany took place from 13-15 November 2000. The goal of the trip was to obtain information on German developments, experience, and possibilities in the field of biomass gasification. The participants were representatives of Dutch parties in the energy sector: waste sector, manufacturers, producers, policy makers and consultants. The most important feature was the visit to plants that were in operation. Due in particular to the new EEG (Emeuerbare-Energien-Gesetz/Renewable Energy) legislation, German policy makers have created an initial market for sustainable energy with a degree of success. The key feature is that EEG makes projects 'bankable' by guaranteeing a return delivery compensation. An EEG-type scheme designed to accelerate the development of sustainable energy could be an interesting instrument also for the Netherlands. The plan was to visit four plants and have a number of presentations in a period of three days. Preference was for relatively new plants with differing concepts. The following plants were visited and/or presented: 200-kWe CHP wood gasification plant, based on AHT technology, located at Domsland in Eckenfoerde; a 10,000 tonnes/year wood gasification plant, based on 'cupola furnace' technology of blast furnaces, located at Holzhausen near Leipzig; a 1-MWe wood gasification plant, based on Carbo-V technology, located at Freiberg; and finally a 23-MWe CBP wood gasification plant, also based on Juch technology, located at Siebenlehn. In clearly appears that Germany is ahead of the Netherlands in the realisation of gasification plants. Still, there are certain problems with the reliability of operation. The plants selected were relatively new (with the possible exception of Espenhain) and they are having too many teething problems. Sound insight has been obtained into the various concepts of decentralised energy generation from biomass and how this can be fitted into the existing infrastructure

  4. Euro-Nuclear: Nuclear power for Germany and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The situation of nuclear power in Germany will be subject to changes in the wake of liberalisation of the energy sector and intensifying competition in the European Internal Market for electric power. This is a challenge to be managed by the nuclear power industry who can study the developments in Great Britain to see that the competitive market will bring risks just as well as new chances. And there still is the long-standing problem of nuclear power acceptance in Germany. The papers presented at the conference ventilate the variety of aspects involved with nuclear power generation in Germany. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Environmental liability in Germany: a comparative study with Brazilian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Oliveira Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seek compare the environmental liability institutes from Germany with those of Brazil, this study intends to conduct an analysis of civil liability for environmental damage in Germany. The concepts of liability and its species, subjective and objective initially are analyzed. Then the concept of civil liability for environmental damage under Brazilian law is analyzed, also discussing the concept of environmental damage. Finally it is carried out the assessment of some of the German Civil Code provisions as well as the Environmental Liability Act of Germany.

  6. Market value-oriented gas pricing in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimermacher, T.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany, natural gas faces stiff competition from other types of energy. In many applications, natural gas is capable of replacing other fuels. In addition there is a growing gas-to-gas competition in some European countries, either through pipeline construction by a competitor as in Germany or by mandatory third-party access as in UK. Competition leads to market value-oriented energy pricing, which is particularly evident in Germany. For the consumer, this competitive situation ensures that natural gas can be obtained (and remains available in the long term) at competitive prices

  7. Country policy profile - Germany. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The German Government has initiated a long-term transformation of the entire energy system termed Energiewende. Besides the gradual phase-out of nuclear energy by 2022, one substantial element is the complete overhaul of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). On 1 August 2014 the EEG 2014 entered into force, representing a fundamental revision of the existing support scheme for renewable electricity, primarily for PV, wind and biomass. Beyond, Germany decided to phase out nuclear power from its generation mix by 2022 and to increase its share of renewable energy to 40-45% by 2025 and 55-60% by 2035. Renewable electricity is still supported through feed-in tariffs laid down in the EEG 2014 and low interest loans but from now on complemented by tendering procedures over the coming years. Renewable heating and cooling is supported by the regulations in the Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWaermeG), the Market Incentive Programme (MAP) governed by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA) and low-interest loans offered via the KfW. Numerous support schemes are available for renewable heat on state (Laender) level. Renewable transport fuels are mainly supported by a quota system (bio-fuels Quota Act = Biokraftstoffquotengesetz - BiokraftQuG), and through fiscal regulation

  8. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  9. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  10. Energy transition: how is Germany doing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    This book is an updated edition of the previous version from 2015. In this book the author comments and discusses the content, successes and failures, uncertainties and consequences of the new German energy policy, Energiewende. The objective is to reach 80 to 95 per cent of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 while phasing out nuclear. The author denies some statements about this policy. Some say that coal will replace nuclear as in fact renewable electricity production more than compensates the reduction of nuclear electricity production. Others say that Germany will have to import French nuclear electricity as in fact France must import German electricity in case of peak consumptions. Others say that German electricity became more expensive: it's true but it is in fact compensated by much higher energy savings. Remaining issues are the financing of nuclear plant dismantling and of nuclear waste management, the organisation of a decentralised production network, and the passage to renewable energies in the heating and transport sectors

  11. Estimating the Number of Buildings in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnisch, M.; Ultsch, A.

    The debate on sustainable development has lead to the view of buildings as flows (mass, energy, money and information) or capitals. In this context buildings are considered as the largest physical, economical, social and cultural capital of a society. In Germany many institutions record different kind of data about buildings. Unfortunately there are just a few basic statistics about the amount of buildings. Collection of data is very complicated, often expensive and the handling of missing data is one of the biggest handicaps. With the exception of data about residential buildings and particularly monuments, it is an unsolved problem to determine the total number of buildings. Thus the main issue of this article is the description of an appropriate estimation procedure. This procedure relies on 12,430 communes and refers to data from the Cadaster of Real Estates and the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR). The estimation is based on statistical data from well-known and easily accessible institutions. The number of buildings is estimated for communes with missing data. Using methods from the, so called, Urban Data Mining approach, unsuspected relationships are found in the urban data. These relationships are valuable for the estimation. The quality of the estimation is analyzed by training and test data sets. Information optimization leads to the conclusion that 20% of the communes hold 80% of all buildings. For an improvement of the estimation it is essential to refine the amount and quality of data in the larger communes.

  12. [Research funding for rare diseases in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, Frank; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2017-05-01

    There is high need for more research in the field of rare diseases. Not only must the causes and mechanisms of the numerous and often heterogeneous diseases be delineated, but criteria must also be defined for optimal stratification of patients for individualized therapies. In this context, research and innovative diagnostics are linked together more closely than in other fields of medicine. The early stages of disease-oriented research can be performed in individual institutions but, due to low numbers of patients, late translation and transfer into clinics requires multicentric and international collaboration. In Germany research on rare diseases takes place mostly in faculties of medicine at universities. Since the institutional financial support is very low, research grants have substantial significance. The German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are the main grant agencies for national projects, but foundations and patient advocacy groups also finance research to a certain extent. The ERA-Net "E-Rare" and the programs of the EU target primarily international cross-border projects and patient trials. All of these programs need to be adapted more efficiently to the particular needs of rare disease research. For national and international research projects on rare diseases, sufficient funds are needed but also sustainable interdisciplinary platforms and centers must be established in order to share expert knowledge and to implement complex programs such as proof-of-concept studies in humans.

  13. Empirical research in financial accounting in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Hans P.

    1984-01-01

    Empirical research in financial accounting in Germany, Austria and Switzerland : a review / Adolf G. Coenenberg ; Peter Möller ; Franz Schmidt. - In: European contributions to accounting research / Anthony G. Hopwood ... (eds.). - Amsterdam : V. U. Uitgeverij, 1984. - S. 61-81

  14. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  15. Nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Brazil-Federal Republic of Germany Cooperation Agreement for constructing nuclear power plants, and the process of nuclear tecnology transfer in the different areas of design, are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Germany, Japan and the De-Baathification of Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porch, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    ... since the occupations of Japan and Germany at the end of World War II." These plans include trials for Saddam's "key" senior officials, backed by a "truth and reconciliation" process to "publicly shame but not necessarily punish, human rights violators...

  17. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heong Quah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  18. Women and Access to University in France and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Michele

    1973-01-01

    This research studied the evolution in the numbers of female students in France and Germany over a hundred years or so, compared them, and tried to interpret them in a manner valid for each country. (Author/RK)

  19. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  20. Are CSR disclosures relevant for investors? Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Gamerschlag, R.; Möller, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether narrative corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures (the provision of textual information on companies’ environmental and social performance to external stakeholders) are associated with firm value in Germany.

  1. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  2. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  3. The role of Germany in resolving the ukrainian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena L. Hilchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the participation of Germany in the matter of the Ukrainian crisis 2013-2015 and presents some approaches to the definition of the term «Ukrainian crisis». Reveals the reasons that lead Germany to take an active position in solving the Ukrainian question. Characterized the evolution of German-Russian relations from 90s to 2014, within which examined the St. Petersburg dialogue, «Pact of Putin-Schroeder», «Weimar triangle», «Partnership for modernization», Russian-Georgian conflict 2008. Available analysis of the new strategy of German foreign policy in 2012 «to support globalization – develop partnerships to share responsibility» and a new paradigm of German foreign policy presented in 2014 in the framework of the Munich conference on security policy. Examines the role of Germany in the European integration process of Ukraine during the Euromaidan events, the signing of the Association Agreement of Ukraine with the EU, ratification and future prospects of the enlargement of the European Union through the Eastern partnership countries. Presents the results of the public opinion of the population of Germany on this issue. Analyzes the position of the Germany government regarding the annexation of Crimea, the illegal referendum in Donetsk and Lugansk regions and the military aggression of Russian Federation against Ukraine. Presents description of the Germany role in the process of the diplomatic settlement of the military conflict in the East Ukraine in the framework of Norman four. On the example of polls are considered the public opinion of the population of Germany concerning possible ways of settlement the Ukrainian crisis. Presents the official position of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. J. Gauck, Chancellor Merkel, Foreign Minister Frank-V. Steinmeier and Minister of Finance Schaeuble on certain issues of the Ukrainian crisis and the prolongations of sanctions against the Russian Federation

  4. The politics of nuclear exports in West Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeckel, E.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: nuclear energy and policy making in West Germany; the significance of nuclear exports for West Germany (industrial employment; table of reactors exported); the significance of the German role in international nuclear commerce (world politics; table of national shares in world nuclear exports); export policy of the Federal Government (adherence to IAEA safeguards; Non-Proliferation Treaty; international cooperation). (U.K.)

  5. Environmental liability in Germany: a comparative study with Brazilian Law

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Daniela Oliveira; Escola Superior Dom Helder Câmara; Rezende, Élcio Nacur; Escola Superior Dom Helder Câmara

    2015-01-01

    Seek compare the environmental liability institutes from Germany with those of Brazil, this study intends to conduct an analysis of civil liability for environmental damage in Germany. The concepts of liability and its species, subjective and objective initially are analyzed. Then the concept of civil liability for environmental damage under Brazilian law is analyzed, also discussing the concept of environmental damage. Finally it is carried out the assessment of some of the German Civil Code...

  6. Gambling experiences, problems, research and policy: gambling in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Monika; Kräplin, Anja; Braun, Barbara; Kraus, Ludwig

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of gambling in Germany, including historical development, legislative and economic changes as well as treatment options and their effectiveness. The available scientific literature and research reports on gambling in Germany were reviewed to obtain relevant information on history, commercialization, legislation, treatment and research agenda. Gambling in Germany is characterized by compromises between protective and economic efforts. At present, gambling is illegal in Germany, and provision is subject to the state monopoly. Mere gaming machines (specific slot machines) are not classified as gambling activity, permitting commercial providers. In recent years, implementing regulations for state gambling and gaming machines have been changed. Concerning the treatment of pathological gambling, various options exist; treatment costs have been covered by health and pension insurance since 2001. Information on the effectiveness of treatment in Germany is limited. Similarly, the number of peer-reviewed publications on gambling is small. German gambling legislation was subject to major changes in the past years. Based on the available body of research (longitudinal), studies on risk and protective factors and the aetiology of pathological gambling are needed. The effectiveness of pathological gambling treatment in Germany and the impact of gambling regulations on gambling behaviour also need to be investigated. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  8. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  9. Trauma care in Germany: an inclusive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Johannes A; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Dienstknecht, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Development of trauma systems is a demanding process. The United States and Germany both have sophisticated trauma systems. This manuscript is a summary of political, economic, and medical changes that have led to the development of both trauma systems and the current high-quality standards. We specifically asked three questions: (1) What tasks are involved in developing a modern trauma system? (2) What is the approach to achieve this task? (3) Do these systems work? We conducted a systematic review of relevant articles by searching electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library) using the following search terms: "trauma system", "polytrauma", "trauma networks", and "trauma registry". Of 2573 retrieved manuscripts, the authors made a personal selection of studies. A personal study selection from our experiences was added when their contribution to the topic was judged important. Worldwide, similar tasks concerning trauma care have to be addressed. In most societies, traffic accidents and firearm-related injuries contribute to a high number of trauma victims. The German approach has been to decrease the number of accidents through injury prevention and to provide better care by establishing an emergency medical system. For in-hospital treatment, clinical care has constantly improved and a close interaction with members from the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma and the Orthopaedic Trauma Association has helped a great deal to achieve these improvements. The German healthcare system was developed as a powerful healthcare tool covering patients from injury to rehabilitation. In addition, trauma and injury research has been strengthened to deal with various questions of trauma care. Organized injury prevention programs and systematized professional patient care can address the issues associated with the global burden of trauma. These trauma systems require constant monitoring and improvement.

  10. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Germany, an industrialized country, and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wartenberg, L. v.

    2001-01-01

    The question of the future of nuclear power in Germany, and the agreement between the federal government and industry of June 14, 2000 about the future operation of plants, are important far beyond the confines of this sector of industry. In times of economic globalization and of competition among national economies, questions of location have become key issues in meeting future challenges. For this purpose, there must be more freedom for the economy; entrepreneurial action must be regarded as a positive duty to be fulfilled by society. Personal responsibility and competition, with room for self-responsibility, must not be hampered further by interventions and red tape. This applies to all sectors of the economy, in particular to the power supply sector, as is borne out by the current debate about the quota regulations for cogeneration systems (CHP). Social justice, one of the most important unifying forces in this modern society, must be interpreted as solidarity. This solidarity must be sought also in an international context. Supplying the basic necessities to all inhabitants of this earth requires all sources of energy, also in the interest of achieving sustainability. This term should be interpreted, above and beyond its meaning in environmental protection, as a concept in all areas of politics, implying that the future must be taken into account in all decisions made today. In the light of the problems associated with establishing a worldwide sustainable power supply system, inter alia meeting the objectives of climate protection, continuity of supply, and economic viability, there is no way around nuclear power. Free decisions are required in the sense of sustainable economic management, and the political boundary conditions must be created for this to be possible. (orig.) [de

  12. United States Foreign Policy Options Toward Germany What is the Impact of Vladimir Putin's Recent Engagement of Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morris, William

    2003-01-01

    .... At the same time relations between the United States and Germany have come to an all time low since the end of the Cold War with top Bush Administration Cabinet Members calling the relationship...

  13. Dose rate of terrestrial gamma radiation in Germany. - Radon concentrations in buildings of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, W.; Borsdorf, K.H.; Lehmann, R.; Kemski, J.; Siehl, A.

    1997-11-01

    1. Part: The dose rate of terrestrial gamma radiation was measured in a narrow grid for West Germany between 1972 and 1974 and for East Germany between 1994 and 1996. The results were now connected to a survey for all Germany. The average population weighted dose rate (photon dose equivalent rate) of terrestrial gamma radiation outdoors amounts to 57 nSv/h. 2. Part: Since the 70ies, investigations on the determination's exposure to radiation by radon and its progeny have been carried out in Germany. Of topical interest is the radon concentration in buildings and especially in dependence on the radon potential in the geological subsoil. Abstracts for two separate articles are prepared. (orig./SR) [de

  14. [Feeding of dogs and cats in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N; Dillitzer, N; Sauter-Louis, C; Kienzle, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine epidemiological data on the feeding of dogs and cats in Germany. A total of 865 dog owners and 243 cat owners were interviewed using standardised questionnaires about their animals (age, sex, weight, body condition, health) and feeding, including treats, additional supplements and reasons for food changes, together with data on the pet owners (age, sex, education, profession). The interviews took place in the waiting rooms of veterinarians, in dog schools, animal shelters and public parks as well as via the internet. Body condition scoring (BCS, scale 1-9) was performed separately by the pet owners and the interviewer. The mean age of dogs was 4.8 years and of cats 6.8 years. The dogs' body weight ranged from 2.2kg (Pomeranian dog) to 95kg (Saint Bernard). The cats had a body weight from 2 to 11kg. Approximately 52% of dogs and cats were overweight (BCS6-9). Differences existed between the assessment by the owner and the interviewer. Many owners underestimated the body condition, in particular, moderate overweight was not recognised (BCS6-7). Commercial food was exclusively used by 58% of dog and 90% of cat owners, while 35% and 10%, respectively, combined these with additional feed. Nearly 8% of dog and 7 years) and sick dogs received home-made diets more often. Older pet owners (≥ 46 years) fed their pets home-made diets more frequently. The education and profession of owners did not affect the percentage of home-made diets. There was no effect of the type of diet on BCS. Owners with a lower education as well as housewives and pensioners more often had overweight pets. Older owners and working owners gave treats less frequently. However, 95% of dogs and 65% of cats received treats. Being overweight is the biggest dietary problem. In comparison to previous studies, the number of overweight pets has increased. Pet owners should be advised early on excess weight, because the onset of being overweight is often not recognised

  15. Patients’ compliance with different administration routes for allergen immunotherapy in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egert-Schmidt AM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Marie Egert-Schmidt, Jan-Marcel Kolbe, Sabine Mussler, Susanne Thum-Oltmer Allergopharma GmbH & Co. KG, Reinbek, Germany Background: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT is the practice of administering gradually increasing quantities of an allergen extract to an allergic subject to ameliorate the symptoms associated with the subsequent exposure to the causative allergen. It is the only treatment that may alter the natural course of allergic diseases. According to AIT guidelines and summary of product characteristics (SmPCs, the treatment should be carried out for at least 3 years. It is controversially discussed whether subcutaneous or sublingual administration routes cause higher patients’ compliance.Methods: German sales data for different preparations of the allergen manufacturer Allergopharma GmbH & Co. KG were retrospectively evaluated for 5 consecutive years, based on prescriptions per patient: pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT and high-dose hypoallergenic (allergoid or unmodified depot pollen and mite preparations for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT. To identify patients’ compliance, “completed treatment years” were determined. A completed treatment year was defined by the required number of prescribed allergen preparations according to the recommended dosage scheme given in the respective SmPCs.Results: Prescription data of 85,241 patients receiving pollen or mite SCIT and 706 patients receiving pollen SLIT were included in this analysis. Patients’ compliance for at least 3 treatment years with high-dose hypoallergenic pollen SCIT was higher when administered perennially (60% compared to preseasonally (27%. Prescriptions for at least 3 years were received from 42% of patients with pollen SCIT and from 45% of patients with mite SCIT. Compliance with SLIT was lowest with only 16% of patients receiving prescriptions for at least 3 treatment years. Children and adolescents were more compliant than adults, independent of whether

  16. Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kussmaul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for transposition, we are faced with a translation problem. In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for

  17. Conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohrer, Philipp; Poize, Noemie; Hanus, Dominik; Hallmann, Dieter; Jourdain, Pierre; Ruehl, Martin; Bessiere, Patrick; Guyonnet-Duperat, Philippe; Foerster, Maelle; Partetzke, Matthias; Rumolino, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 150 participants exchanged views on the role and involvement of citizens in wind energy projects and raised the question of the prerequisite to the construction of a participatory wind farm. In this framework, the different participatory models existing in both countries were analysed, in particular with regard to their respective advantages and drawbacks and to a legal framework which remains to be defined. Four projects, 2 in France and 2 in Germany, were presented as examples. The call for proposals model was presented and debated as well as the question of the project success, and of its financing and profitability. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Community wind farms in Germany: status quo and forecast (Philipp Vohrer); 2 - Participatory projects in France: which legal solutions, which prospects for development? (Noemie Poize); 3 - Citizen owned wind farms and their legal forms in Germany: Advantages and challenges of the different schemes (Dominik Hanus); 4 - Make wind power profitable: Citizen participation in Germany and France/Make the energy transition together. The energy co-operative participation as a model in Germany (Dieter Hallmann); 5 - Power to the people - A new model for French wind energy. Beganne community-owned wind farm (Pierre Jourdain); 6 - Making wind power profitable: civic participation in Germany and France: German utility companies rely on wind power. Direct civic participation in the municipal utility company - democratization of the turnaround in energy policy (Martin Ruehl); 7 - French municipalities get involved: calls for projects (Patrick Bessiere); 8 - Crowd-funding - French regulatory framework (Philippe Guyonnet-Duperat, Maelle Foerster); 9 - Making wind energy

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  19. Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, K.

    2003-01-01

    Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.) [de

  20. Drinking water quality in household supply infrastructure--A survey of the current situation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    As a result of the amendment to the German Drinking Water Ordinance in 2001, local public health authorities are obliged to monitor the water supply in installations providing water for public use (Section 18 German Drinking Water Ordinance). With a systematic and nationwide survey of locally available data relating to hygienic drinking water quality and the existing drinking water infrastructure in buildings, the extent of microbial contamination of in-building distribution systems in Germany is intended to be assessed. To gain an overview of the microbial contamination of drinking water in public buildings all 419 local public health authorities in Germany were contacted in 2007. In a detailed study with a representative cooperation level of 5% of these local public health authorities, the available data relating to microbiological, chemical, physical and technical parameters gained from in-building distribution systems were collected. Drinking water parameters were combined with regard to the total number of analyses and the absolute number as well as the percentage of limit compliance failures (n=108,288). Limits exceeded were classified as the failure to comply with the German Drinking Water Ordinance, DVGW technical regulations and Federal Environment Agency recommended limits. The highest rates of samples exceeding these limits were found for the parameter Legionella sp. which contaminated 12.8% of all samples (n=22,786; limit: 100 CFU/100ml), followed by heterotrophic plate count at 36 degrees C (3.5%, n=10,928; limit: 100 CFU/1 ml) and Pseudomonas sp. (2.9%, n=3468; limit: 0 CFU/100ml). Legionella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. pose a direct health risk to immunosuppressed users. Additionally, for some chemical parameters, such as nickel, iron and lead, a potential risk for the health of consumers was detected. Further data analysis may reveal whether this contamination is related to stagnation where there is only sporadic use or whether other factors are

  1. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  2. "Great Technology, Football and...": Malaysian Language Learners' Stereotypes about Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.

  3. The perception of nuclear power in Germany and in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenau, H.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion about the peaceful uses of nuclear power is being pursued in very different ways in Germany and in France. The French attitude is characterized by a generally affirmative feeling about technology in the public and by openness and public-mindedness on the part of the operators. In Germany, it is being encumbered by all sorts of fears against which each group seeks to protect itself in its own peculiar way. While France focuses on the common goal to be reached, Germany all too often seems to be ruled by insecurity and fruitless dissipation of energies. To a large extent, these divergent developments have their historic roots in French centralism and German federalism. (orig.) [de

  4. Environment and economic growth in the federal republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, F.

    1998-01-01

    After several decades of economic growth with a continuous increase of energy consumptions, a new trend is now developing in Germany: reduction of energy consumptions and of pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes first the energy supplies of Germany (consumption, sources), the consumption by sector, and the share of the different energy sources in the German consumption (petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable energies). In a second part, the German energy policy is presented with its priorities and actions regarding the environment protection: energy savings, development of renewable energy sources, reduction of automotive fuels consumption, rational use of energy, thermal insulation of buildings, financial incentives etc.. Finally, the forecasting of future energy consumption and pollutants emission trends in Germany and at the worldwide scale are evoked. (J.S.)

  5. The photovoltaic sector in Germany, where does it go?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Opinion polls show that photovoltaic power is very popular in Germany. This sector employs about 130.000 people and although a lot of solar modules are imported from China, other components like current inverters are fabricated in Germany and as a whole the trade balance is positive and the export rate nears 50%. In 2011 Germany invested 25 billion euros in the photovoltaic sector and now about 5% of the consumed electricity is photovoltaic power. Photovoltaic power reached grid parity in february 2012 for some consumers and the German government decided to reduce the purchase tariff drastically which may jeopardize the aim of having a photovoltaic park of 51 GWc by 2020. (A.C.)

  6. Regional cost differences of hospital supply in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauterbach, Karl W.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The intended adoption of a global reimbursement system for inpatient care in Germany envisions identical payments for identical treatments at different hospitals. This may lead to losses in some hospitals and may cause problems for the supply with health care facilities in the long run if there a important regional cost differences. Cost and performance data of 1112 hospitals in Germany have been analysed for regional differences in 2001: As regional categorizations we used official classification schemes based on centrality. The investigation does not support the postulation of additional payments for selected regions in Germany accounting for level cost-differences between hospitals. Confounding influence factors like ownership and hospital size seem to be more important. We recommend further investigations to evaluate regional cost-differences on the level of medical wards and using more risk-adjusted data. The examination of the individual case is necessary.

  7. Trends in Adult and Continuing Education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkehard Nuissl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution summarizes the most important trends in adult education in Germany as they were elaborated in a secondary analytic research project of the DIE (Deutsches Institut für Erwachsenenbildung – German Institute for Adult Education in 2007. According to the study, participation in continuing education in Germany is increasing after long years of decrease, even though, overall, financing of adult education has been further reduced. Cooperation as well as competition between continuing education institutions has increased. Course offers have become shorter, counselling and information have more significant roles than in the past, and those employed in adult education, especially teaching staff, have a higher level of qualifications than before. Adult education policy in Germany has varying aims as a result of the federal structure of the country. Incentives for vocational and workplace training predominate however.

  8. High adherence to therapy and low cardiac mortality and morbidity in patients after acute coronary syndrome systematically managed by office-based cardiologists in Germany: 1-year outcomes of the ProAcor Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goss F

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Franz Goss,1 Johannes Brachmann,2 Christian W Hamm,3 Winfried Haerer,4 Nicolaus Reifart,5 Benny Levenson6 1Herzzentrum Alter Hof, München, Germany; 2Klinikum Coburg GmbH, II. Medizinische Klinik, Coburg, Germany; 3Kerckhoff Klinik GmbH, Kardiologie, Bad Nauheim, Germany; 4Herzklinik Ulm, Ulm, Germany; 5Kardiologische Praxis Prof. Reifart & Partner, Bad Soden, Germany; 6Kardiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis und Herzkatheterlabor Berlin-Charlottenburg, Berlin, Germany Abstract: We aimed to assess patient acceptance and effectiveness of a 12-month structured management program in patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS event who were treated in a special setting of office-based cardiologists. The program comprised patient documentation with a specific tool (Bundesverband Niedergelassener Kardiologen [German Federation of Office-Based Cardiologists] cardiac pass with visit scheduling shared by the hospital physician and the office-based cardiologist, the definition of individual treatment targets, and the systematic information of patients in order to optimize adherence to therapy. Participating centers (36 hospitals, 60 office-based cardiologists included a total of 1,003 patients with ACS (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] 44.3%, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI] 39.5%, unstable angina pectoris [UA] 15.2%, and unspecified 1.0%. During follow-up, treatment rates with cardiac medication remained high in all groups, with dual antiplatelet therapy in 91.0% at 3 months, 90.0% at 6 months, and 82.8% at 12 months, respectively. Twelve months after the inclusion, a total of 798 patients (79.6% still participated in the program. Eighteen patients (1.8% had died after discharge from hospital (6 in the STEMI, 12 in the NSTEMI group, while for 58 the status was unknown (5.8%. Based on a conservative approach that considered patients with unknown status as dead, 1-year mortality was 7.6%. Recurrent cardiac events

  9. Tuberculosis in newly arrived asylum seekers: A prospective 12 month surveillance study at Friedland, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Volker; Artelt, Tanja; Cierpiol, Stefanie; Gossner, Johannes; Scheithauer, Simone

    2016-11-01

    In the European Union tuberculosis prevalence-rates are among the lowest in the world. The prevalence of active tuberculosis in migrant populations has to be analyzed to get valid data on the risk of tuberculosis and for the decision of screening activities. Therefore, we prospectively quantified the risk of active tuberculosis among asylum seekers at time of arrival. Investigation was performed as regular part of the admission screenings for people arriving at Friedland, Germany, a primary major receiving center during one year. In 11.773 newly arrived asylum seekers 16 X-ray investigations gave the suspicion of active tuberculosis, thereof 11 cases could be verified by culture, thereof 9 cases were classified as microscopically positive. These data translate into rates of 136 per 100.000 suspected cases, 93 per 100.000 verified cases, and finally 76 per 100.000 infectious cases, respectively. Prevalence was higher in asylum seekers coming from Eritrea and Russia compared to the main origins of current migration Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, and Lebanon. One case of MDR-tuberculosis could be detected in a migrant from Russia. Prevalence rates of tuberculosis in newly arrived asylum seekers are higher than in native European populations. Rates seem to reflect the prevalence in the home countries. X-ray investigation during first examination may help identifying people needing further tests for detecting infectious tuberculosis and therefore may prevent transmission. However due to the low prevalence rates screening procedures have to be reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. [10 years of external quality assurance in dialysis in Germany: Results and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchtemann, Dorothea; Meinhold, Stefan; Follert, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In 2006, the Federal Joint Committee introduced a quality assurance programme for ambulatory dialysis treatment in Germany. Regarding the impact of chronic dialysis treatment on the quality of life of patients and on health care costs, quality assurance in dialysis is considered highly relevant. The directive on Quality Assurance in Dialysis (QSD-RL) established an external quality assurance programme on the basis of the assessment of certain quality parameters combined with an internal quality management system based on benchmarking parameters in all dialysis practices and centres. Data on quality parameters are collected and analysed quarterly. Regional associations of statutory health insurance physicians take responsibility for quality improvement measures and sanctions. This article aims to provide an overview of the development of quality parameters from 2008 to 2015. We analysed the summarised annual quality reports published on the website of the Federal Joint Committee between 2009 and 2016. We present results on the so-called core quality parameters duration and frequency of dialysis sessions (both for haemodialysis patients), wKt/V for peritoneal dialysis patients, and percentage of haemodialysis patients with central venous catheters which has only been measured since 2014. In 2015, 92,000 patients received outpatient dialysis. Between 2008 and 2015, the results for the core quality parameters duration and frequency of haemodialysis improved while the results for wKt/V seemingly show an unfavourable trend. The percentage of patients with central venous catheters appears to be quite high, and thus indicates that there is potential for quality improvement. For the future, the Federal Joint Committee has resolved to merge the quality assurance programmes in dialysis and in kidney transplantation into a newly designed programme that has the potential to follow patients through all stages and kinds of renal replacement therapy and to focus on further aspects

  11. Microbiological diagnosis and molecular typing of Legionella strains during an outbreak of legionellosis in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Andreas; von Baum, Heike; Gonser, Theodor; Haerter, Georg; Lück, Christian

    2016-02-01

    An explosive outbreak of Legionnaires' disease with 64 reported cases occurred in Ulm/Neu-Ulm in the South of Germany in December 2009/January 2010 caused by Legionella (L.) pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal (mAb) subtype Knoxville, sequence type (ST) 62. Here we present the clinical microbiological results from 51 patients who were diagnosed at the University hospital of Ulm, the results of the environmental investigations and of molecular typing of patients and environmental strains. All 50 patients from whom urine specimens were available were positive for L. pneumophila antigen when an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) was used following concentration of those urine samples that tested initially negative. The sensitivity of the BinaxNow rapid immunographic assay (ICA), after 15 min reading and after 60 min reading were 70% and 84%, respectively. Direct typing confirmed the monoclonal subtype Knoxville in 5 out of 8 concentrated urine samples. Real time PCR testing of respiratory tract specimens for L. pneumophila was positive in 15 out of 25 (60%) patients. Direct nested sequence based typing (nSBT) in some of these samples allowed partial confirmation of ST62. L. pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal subtype Knoxville ST62, defined as the epidemic strain was isolated from 8 out of 31 outbreak patients (26%) and from one cooling tower confirming it as the most likely source of the outbreak. While rapid detection of Legionella antigenuria was crucial for the recognition and management of the outbreak, culture and molecular typing of the strains from patients and environmental specimens was the clue for the rapid identification of the source of infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Two AEM Groundwater Mineralisation Surveys in the Werra River Valley, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemon, B.; Ullmann, A.; Vasterling, M.; Meyer, U.; Steuer, A.; Beer, W. W.; Pluemacher, J.

    2010-12-01

    The dissolution of Zechstein salt and the discharge of saltwater of the potash salt producing industry into the river Werra near the Hessian-Thuringian border in central Germany has led to a considerable mineralisation of ground and surface waters. In order to reduce the amount of saline water emissions directly into the river, the injection of waste water into the so called Plattendolomit was introduced. About 1000 million cubic meters have been stored in this porous and karstic limestone and dolomite bed of some ten metres thickness at about 500 meters depth. The waste water displaced the formation water upwards and in areas where fault zones exist saltwater rising occurred. Contracted by K+S KALI GmbH, BGR conducted a regional (1128 square kilometers) airborne geophysical survey in 2008 in addition to smaller survey (576 square kilometers) flown in 1996/97, both at 200/2000 meters line/tie-line spacing. Of particular interest was an area where a test disposal of saline waste water (9.5 million cubic meters) in the Gerstungen syncline took place between 1999 and 2007. Although complicated by the use of different helicopter-borne frequency-domain electromagnetic (HEM) systems (Dighem III and Resolve), it has been possible to quantitatively compare the results of both HEM surveys in order to map and outline changes of the near-surface groundwater mineralisation. Taking into account the challenging survey conditions, no significant increase in groundwater mineralisation could be substantiated within the achievable exploration depths of about 20 meters (saltwater ponds) and 200 meters (hard rock).

  13. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  14. Extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nydahl, Peter; Knueck, Dirk; Egerod, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    federal states of Baden-Württemberg and Schleswig-Holstein were surveyed to identify units that had implemented ICU diaries. An additional 69 ICUs from other parts of Germany were included in the survey. We excluded diaries used in neonatal ICUs. Out of 43 units using diaries 14 were selected for semi-structured...... in keeping ICU diaries. CONCLUSION: Six years after the introduction of ICU diaries, ICU nurses in Germany are becoming familiar with the concept. Nursing shortage and bureaucratic challenges have impeded the process of implementation, but the adaption of ICU diaries to German conditions appears...

  15. Occupational sex segregation and working time: Regional evidence from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humpert Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides descriptive evidence for declining occupational sex segregation on the German labor market, especially concerning the regional differences between the former East and West Germany. I use segregation measures and long-run social security data for the decade of 1992 to 2004. While segregation has declined over time, it remains higher for the eastern part of Germany. Although this finding is observable for full-time and part-time work, segregation is always lower in part-time employment.

  16. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the context...... of a multifunctional EU agricultural policy. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the bioenergy policy development pathways taken by Germany and Denmark, highlighting key consequences for agricultural land use and rural development. Findings from both case studies are then compared in summary tables...

  17. Germany: INIS — 45 years of Reliable Nuclear Energy Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, Silke; Eck, Sabrina; Mutschelknauss, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany has been an official INIS member since 1970. The first 78 citations from German publications can be found in Issue 2 of Volume 1 of the INIS Atomindex. At that time, the Zentralstelle für Atomenergie-Dokumentation (ZAED) was the INIS center in Western Germany. To ensure that the documentation on nuclear energy was directly serving the interests of researchers working in this field, the ZAED had been recently moved from Frankfurt to the neighborhood of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany’s most important nuclear research institution. After 1977, the ZAED, together with other documentation centers, was merged into what is today FIZ Karlsruhe. At the same time, publications from Eastern Germany were analyzed by the Staatliches Amt für Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz in Berlin from 1974 to 1989. After the German reunification, FIZ Karlsruhe became responsible for this. The share of German contributions made to the INIS database amounts to 7% of the total number of contributions. Germany has regularly ranked among the top 5 contributing Member States in the annual statistics. Regarding cooperation in INIS, Germany — represented by FIZ Karlsruhe and its predecessors — has always been actively involved, not only in contributing publications, but also in strategic planning, organization, and technical and subject matters throughout the past five decades. Germany was part of the INIS Study Team during the planning stage of INIS. Germany also hosted two ILO meetings in Karlsruhe: one in 1979 and one on the occasion of the 30th anniversary in 2000. Staff from various INIS centers worldwide often visit FIZ Karlsruhe in order to gain insight into our INIS production or to participate in internships and training sessions on workflow management, application of rules, and FIBRE usage. FIZ Karlsruhe’s many years of participation in the Voluntary Input Program, and the editing of input provided as a service to sometimes as many as 7

  18. Nuclear power phaseout policy and the economic implications for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Germany's nuclear power phaseout policy and the expected consequences are discussed in this paper, referring to environmental aspects and Germany's international commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, implications for the national economy, the required structural transformation of the energy industry, and changes in the general legal setting for the energy sector. Proposals are discussed for modifying the planned nuclear power phaseout policy so as to make the process of winding down nuclear generation more compatible with economic, social, and environmental policy conditions. (orig./CB) [de

  19. Unlimited - nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, W.

    1986-01-01

    Unlimited nuclear liabilities as in force in the Federal Republic of Germany go beyond the international rules of the Paris liability agreement. The unlimited liability mainly roots in the positive operational experiences and safety balance of the 20 nuclear power plants which meanwhile are in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear liabilities must not be confounded with scepticism as to the utilization of nuclear power. Extraordinary requirements of that kind should rather be reflecting responsibility and clear ideas and notions of the advantages and risks of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  20. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11 th March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17 th March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17 th May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13 th May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11 th October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30 th June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30 th June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative procedure at that time. The ''stress tests'' were started by all German

  1. Ferrofluid thin films as optical gaussmeters proposed for field and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, India; Biophysics and Microscopy Group, Molecular Cytology, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands; School of Engineering and Sciences, International University of Bremen, 28759, Bremen, Germany ...

  2. ["Deciding wisely together" - an initiative of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany: Mission, methodology and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothacker, Monika; Kreienberg, Rolf; Kopp, Ina B

    2017-12-01

    The question of how to improve healthcare quality and the need for patient empowerment and shared decision-making has been the subject of political and scientific debate for years. In addition to various quality initiatives, "top lists" summarizing selected recommendations to increase awareness of overuse, spread by means of public campaigns, has become popular on the international level - known as the "Choosing Wisely" initiative. However, the trustworthiness of "top lists", their impact on patient-relevant outcomes, their role in and integration into the context of the various pre-existing approaches to improve healthcare quality and the effects of neglecting under- and misuse are not clear. On the other hand, "top lists" may provide new opportunities to improve awareness and dissemination of carefully selected recommendations based on high-quality guidelines. Therefore, the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) has established an ad hoc commission to design a system-specific initiative. The commission has the task to clarify goals, methods of development and concepts for implementation and evaluation, to address concerns and to build upon specific existing resources - e. g., the established quality management system for guidelines in Germany. The key goals defined by the commission include the systematization of the dialogue between healthcare practitioners and patients and the promotion of ethically founded decision-making as an answer to an increasing economic orientation of the healthcare system. To ensure the methodological quality of specific recommendations, the commission has developed a manual. To the best of our knowledge, this manual is the first detailed method paper aiming to guide developers of "Choosing Wisely" recommendations. More than 20 German medical scientific societies have already addressed the subject of "top lists". Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Joint use of Disparate Data for the Surveillance of Zoonoses: A Feasibility Study for a One Health Approach in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, A; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A

    2016-11-01

    Zoonotic diseases concern human and animal populations and are transmitted between both humans and animals. Nevertheless, surveillance data on zoonoses are collected separately for the most part in different databases for either humans or animals. Bearing in mind the concept of One Health, it is assumed that a global view of these data might help to prevent and control zoonotic diseases. In following this approach, we wanted to determine which zoonotic data are routinely collected in Germany and whether these data could be integrated in a useful way to improve surveillance. Therefore, we conducted an inventory of the existing data collections and gathered information on possible One Health surveillance areas in Germany by approaching experts through a scoping survey, personal interviews and during a workshop. In matching the information between the status quo for existing data collections and the possible use cases for One Health surveillance, this study revealed that data integration is currently hindered by missing data, missing pathogen information or a lack of timeliness, depending on the surveillance purpose. Therefore, integrating the existing data would require substantial efforts and changes to adapt the collection procedures for routine databases. Nevertheless, during this study, we observed a need for different stakeholders from the human and animal health sectors to share information to improve the surveillance of zoonoses. Therefore, our findings suggest that before the data sets from different databases are integrated for joint analyses, the surveillance could be improved by the sharing of information and knowledge through a collaboration of stakeholders from different sectors and institutions. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Subtype specific risk factor analyses for sporadic human salmonellosis: a case-case comparison in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, D; Dreesman, J; Rabsch, W; Fruth, A; Pulz, M; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A

    2013-07-01

    With the intention to deepen the knowledge of the vertical transmission of particular subtypes of Salmonella enterica from "the stable to the table" a case1-case2 analysis in Lower Saxony, Germany, was conducted. The data collection was based on standardised telephone interviews with 1741 Salmonella case persons. Single-factor-analyses revealed statistically significant associations between S. Typhimurium infections and animal keeping (odds ratio (OR): 1.4; 95%-Confidence-interval (CI): 1.2-1.7), especially rodents (OR 1.5; CI 1.2-2.1), and with consumption of meat (OR 1.9; CI 1.3-2.8), raw ground pork (OR 3.0; CI 2.1-4.2) and uncooked pork sausage (OR 2.1; CI 1.6-2.9). The S. Typhimurium phage type DT 104 was associated most with consumption of uncooked pork sausage (OR 3.6; CI 1.3-8.5). Multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed the associations between S. Typhimurium infection and consumption of raw ground pork and with animal contact. The results circumstantiate the assumption of raw pork products still being a relevant source for S. Typhimurium infections in Germany. Therefore, it is recommended to intensify efforts to reduce salmonella infections caused by raw pork products. S. Enteritidis infection was associated statistically significantly with travelling abroad (OR 2.1; CI 1.6-3.3), consumption of raw tomatoes (OR 1.8; CI 1.5-2.1), dried herbs (OR 2.1; CI 1.0-1.8), and undercooked eggs (OR 1.3; CI 1.1-1.6) compared with other serovars. These results were confirmed in multiple logistic regression analyses, as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify and analyze the various aspects of the national power of the German Federal Republic as it concerns...military, scientific and economic fields, presents an assessment of West Germany’s defense potential. Finally, this research paper develops conclusions on

  6. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  7. The Idea of Inclusion: Conceptual and Empirical Diversities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Stefan; Dedering, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, inclusion was introduced into discussions on education; today, we still do not have a precisely defined concept of inclusion. This article focuses its attention in this context on Germany, which in ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2009 embarked on the path towards realising an inclusive…

  8. Community nursing in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, J. van der; Kramer, K.; Kerkstra, A.; Stevens, F.C.J.; Derksen, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a comparative study on community nursing in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, carried out in the region around Maastricht, where the borders of the three countries meet. The well-known problem of comparative studies (the incomparability of concepts and data) has been solved

  9. Does Distance Determine Who Attends a University in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Wrohlich, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the role of distance to the nearest university in the demand for higher education in Germany. Distance could matter due to transaction costs or due to neighborhood effects. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) combined with a database on university postal codes to estimate a discrete choice model of the demand for…

  10. Citizen in Uniform: Democratic Germany and the Changing Bundeswehr

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    June 2010), 5-6; Abenheim, Reforging the Iron Cross, 64-65. 9 Anja -Dalgaard Nielsen, Germany, pacifism and peace enforcement (Manchester...was only printed electronically.” 17 Abenheim, Reforging the Iron Cross, 56-67; Klaus Ebeling, Anja Seiffert, Rainer Senger, “Ethische Fundamente

  11. Postcolonial debates in Germany – An Overview1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sides and cannot only concern formerly colonized states, but also formerly colonizer states3. This article focuses on the main crosscutting themes of German postcolonial debates and the light they can shed on other larger European debates. Keywords: Postcolonial, Empire, Race, Diaspora, Germany, Namibia,. Résumé.

  12. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)

  13. Foreign Students and Government Policy: Britain, France, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Alice

    The impact of European government policy on the movement of foreign students in Great Britain, France, and West Germany is discussed by a member of the American Council on Education Committee on Foreign Students. Foreign student enrollments have increased dramatically in these three countries in the 1960s and 1970s, and foreign students also make…

  14. The Acceptance of the Social Market Economy in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Hans Jürgen; Schuhen, Michael; Schürkmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Germany's economic order is labelled "Social Market Economy" in order to indicate that the economic system has both an economic and a social dimension. Its purpose is to reconcile efficiency goals and social responsibility. The concept of the Social Market Economy is based on central values such as freedom or justice. Under the label…

  15. Preschool Child Care and Child Well-being in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan M.

    Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policymakers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It also examines differences in outcomes based on child...

  16. Cost-of-illness of chronic leg ulcers in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Sandra; Herberger, Katharina; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Pelzer, Peter; Rabe, Eberhard; Schäfer, Elmar; Stadler, Rudolf; Augustin, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Chronic wounds are important because of their frequency, their chronicity and high costs of treatment. However, there are few primary data on the cost-of-illness in Germany. The aim was to determine the cost-of-illness of venous leg ulcers (VLU) in Germany. Prospective cost-of-illness study was performed in 23 specialised wound centres throughout Germany. Direct, medical, non medical and indirect costs to the patient, statutory health insurers and society were documented. Thereover, health-related quality of life (QoL) was recorded as intangible costs using the Freiburg quality of life assessment for wounds (FLQA-w, Augustin). A total of 218 patients (62.1% female) were recruited consecutively. Mean age was 69.8 +/- 12.0 years. The mean total cost of the ulcer per year and patient was 9569 euros, [8658.10 euros (92%) direct and 911.20 euros (8%) indirect costs]. Of the direct costs, 7630.70 euros was accounted for by the statutory health insurance and 1027.40 euros by the patient. Major cost factors were inpatient costs, outpatient care and non drug treatments. QoL was strikingly reduced in most patients. In Germany, VLU are associated with high direct and indirect costs. As a consequence, there is a need for early and qualified disease management. Deeper-going cost-of-illness-studies and cost-benefit analyses are necessary if management of chronic wounds is to be improved.

  17. Radical Social Democracy and School Reform in Wilhelmian Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, James M.

    1977-01-01

    The article describes how the German Social Democratic Party promoted educational reform in Germany before World War I. It demanded state support for a secularized school program, suggested curricular reforms to instill socialist values, and promoted adult education and socialist training in the home. (AV)

  18. [Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany and its international context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U; Cursiefen, C

    2017-09-01

    Experimental basic research provides the foundations for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases. The objective of this contribution is to provide an overview of the international interconnection of basic research in ophthalmology in Germany. The international context of ophthalmological research conducted in Germany is presented by means of personal experiences and data published by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Union (EU). Due to the lack of organized databases this article lays no claim to completeness. Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany is mainly conducted in university eye departments and is mainly related to the etiology, pathophysiology and therapy development for various ophthalmic diseases. It is primarily funded by the DFG, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the EU plays an increasingly important role. Thus, ophthalmological research is integrated into numerous European research networks and beyond that into many international interconnections and relationships. In Germany, both clinical and basic research in ophthalmology is integrated into many international networks and is only functionally viable in an international context; however, given the increasing impact of ophthalmological research in Asian countries, future strategies require a continued focus on career development, research infrastructure, working environment and international cooperation.

  19. Germany, the United States, and Future Core Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schulz

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available With the end of the Cold War, much attention has been paid to the nature of the emerging new world order. By what criteria will power and influence be measured in this new era? Who will be the winners and losers? What types of allegiances will develop? Or is Francis Fukuyama's argument correct that, with the collapse of communism, we have reached the "...endpoint of man's ideological evolution" and thus "the end of history". Unlike Marx, who saw socialism at the end of humanity's arduous journey, Fukuyama tells us that the search is off because we have already arrived at our evolutionary destination: liberal capitalism...Other analysts envision less optimistic scenarios...One of the most popular scenarios over the past few years has been to anticipate growing tensions between the three main core powers: the US, Germany, and Japan... The first task of this paper, then, is to look at Germany within the context of the radically altered post-Cold War period... We argue that Germany, based on a multitude of factors which will be outlined below, is not now, nor will it ever become in the foreseeable future, a global hegemon... Indeed, as will be asserted in the second part of this paper, Germany will enter into a close alliance with the United States to form a reinvigorated trans-Atlantic marriage in which the common bonds of "culture and civilization" will replace a virulent anti-communism as the common vow.

  20. Postcolonial debates in Germany – An Overview | Pape | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since then, a renewed interest for postcolonial matters has been observed in public and scientific debates. Several associations have been created in Germany since the mid 2000s with the objective of decolonizing the public space, believing that the process of decolonizing has two sides and cannot only concern formerly ...

  1. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  2. Environmental Education in Germany: Concepts, History, Projects, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document presents the history of environmental education in Germany and reports on the diversions and solutions in the search for sustainable education. Five sections include: (1) "Environmental Education: Learning with All One's Senses"; (2) "Sustainability as the New Model: Knowledge of a New Quality"; (3)…

  3. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  4. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  5. Coordination of EU Policy Positions in Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Jopp, Mathias; Nedergaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the coordination mechanisms, in Germany and Denmark, which develop negotiation positions for the Council in the European Union (EU). The analysis studies these mechanisms through the lens of the ‘politics of institutional choice’ approach, which previous scholars have applied...

  6. Modeling the hydrological effect on local gravity at Moxa, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, S.; Troch, P.A.A.; Boll, J.; Kroner, C.

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting gravimeter has observed with high accuracy (to within a few nm s¿2) and high frequency (1 Hz) the temporal variations in the earth¿s gravity field near Moxa, Germany, since 1999. Hourly gravity residuals are obtained by time averaging and correcting for earth tides, polar motion,

  7. Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, E

    2005-01-01

    Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available.

  8. Germany and the Future of Nuclear Deterrence in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    attention in Germany. Unemployment and housing shortages have stimulated violent racist outbursts that have attracted media attention. The Federal...economies, overpopulated countries, and unstable political regimes, challenges to free trade, disputed access to vital natural resources, and the...the national unification process. Preoccupations regarding anti-foreigner violence, exchange rate controversy and European unity have only enhanced

  9. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM's needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US

  10. Resensies: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa. Book Author: Steven Robins. Cape Town: Penguin, 2016. 314 pp. ISBN 978 1 77609 024 2. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/tvl.v.54i1.18.

  11. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke

    As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. The paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large and varies between occupation...

  12. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  14. Germany plans 60m euro physics and medicine lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2017-09-01

    A new €60m medical-physics research lab is to be built in Erlangen, Germany, by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPL) together with the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg and the University Hospital Erlangen.

  15. Area Handbook Series: East Germany: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Columbia University Press, 1975. ____ The Two Germanies: A Modern Geography. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1978. Meyer, Alfred G. " Feminism , Socialism, and...Rica 550-172 Malawi 550-152 Cuba 550-45 Malaysia 550-22 Cyprus 550-161 Mauritania 550-158 Czechoslovakia 550-79 Mexico 550-52 Ecuador 550-49 Morocco

  16. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info 3-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Steffen

    This paper explores the importance and impact of sport in Germany from a variety of perspectives. Topics include: (1) the social function of sport; (2) popular sport, focusing on exercise and self-development rather than competition; (3) sport's role in the leisure activities of the handicapped; (4) top sport performers; (5) drugs and sport; (6)…

  17. Restructuring power supply in Germany; Umstrukturierung der Stromversorgung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to recent calculations of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office), all German nuclear power plants can be decommissioned from 2017. This will result neither in supply shortages nor in higher electricity rates, and Germany's climate protection goals will not be in danger either. There will be no need to import nuclear power from other countries. (orig.)

  18. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J. [Golder Associates, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.

  19. Climatic change in Germany. Development, consequences, risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Jacob, Daniela; Schuck-Zoeller, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The book on the climatic change in Germany includes contributions to the following issues: global climate projections and regional projections in Germany and Europe: observation of the climatic change in Central Europe, regional climate modeling, limits and challenges of the regional climate modeling; climatic change in Germany - regional features and extremes: temperature and heat waves, precipitation, wind and cyclones, sea-level increase, tides, storm floods and sea state, floods, definition uncertainties, draughts, forest fires, natural risks; consequences of the climatic change in Germany: air quality, health, biodiversity, water resources, biochemical cycles, agriculture, forestry, soils, personal and commercial transport, cities and urban regions, tourism, infrastructure, energy and water supplies, cost of the climatic change and economic consequences; overall risks and uncertainties: assessment of vulnerabilities, literature review, climatic change as risk enhancement in complex systems, overall risks and uncertainties, decision making under uncertainties in complex systems; integrated strategies for the adaptation to the climatic change: the climate resilient society - transformations and system changes, adaptation to the climatic change as new political field, options for adaptation strategies.

  20. The "Carbon-Neutral University"--A Study from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udas, Erica; Wölk, Monique; Wilmking, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, several higher education institutions around the world are integrating sustainability topics into their daily operations, functionality and education systems. This paper presents a case study from a pilot project implemented by the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald (hereafter, Greifswald University), Germany on its way…

  1. Overlapping Rivalries : The two Germanys, Israel and the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vita, L.

    2017-01-01

    The case of early German-Israeli relations offers unique insight into the dynamics of the German Cold War. As this article shows, the two Germanys were ideologically and geopolitically antithetical, but vis-a-vis the question of relations with Israel East and West German representatives faced a

  2. The Decline of Industry. The Rurh Area in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dijk (Henk)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of the decline of industry on urban development can particularly be felt in the former nineteenth-century industrial regions in Europe. In Germany the Ruhr Area was one of the most important industrial regions with a dominance of heavy industry (coal, steel, chemicals and

  3. Abatement strategies to reduce air pollution from transport in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kugler, U.; Theloke, J.; Thiruchittampalam, B.; Geftler, T.; Uzbasich, M.; Köble, R.; Friedrich, R.; Builtjes, P.; Gon, H.D. van der; Stern, R.; Jörb, W.; Dämmgen, U.; Appelhans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Large scale exceedances of PM10 and N02 ambient air limit values will continue in Germany despite the implementation of national and international policies. An integrated approach has therefore been developed to assess different cost-effective mitigation strategies for all

  4. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  5. Educating Jewish Children in Weimar and Nazi Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Herbert S.

    1975-01-01

    Asserts that the Jewish experience in Germany, insofar as it may be generalized, suggests that minority education is significant to its constituency only insofar as it is perceived to be "useful" or "necessary": the primary defining factors are economic and social, and the conditions are set by the majority society, not by…

  6. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  7. Chemotaxonomy of fossil woods from the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, Ulrich; Disko, Ulrich; Hofmann, Diana; van der Burgh, Johan; Vos, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    In the Lower Rhine Embayment (western Germany), the Neogene lignite bearing sequence is rich in large fossil wood trunks. Woods collected from sand-filled channels of a meandering river system (Pliocene: Reuver series) and from coal seams (Miocene: seams Garzweiler, Frimmersdorf and Morken) were

  8. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  9. Depression stigma and migration - results of a survey from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Anna C; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2017-11-29

    There are barely any studies focusing on migration in relation to mental illness stigma. We explore present attitudes regarding depression among migrants (either born in Germany or born abroad) and non-migrants in Germany, drawing upon three components of public stigma: stereotypes, emotional reactions and desire for social distance. Furthermore, differences in self-stigma of depression between the two groups are analyzed. Analyses are based on a representative telephone survey (N = 2013) in Germany. Respondents were presented with a vignette depicting either someone from Turkey or from Germany affected by depression, followed by questions on stereotypes, emotional reactions and desire for social distance. The (anticipated) self-stigma of depression was also assessed. Analyses of variance tested for differences between migrant and non-migrant respondents, stratified by migrant status in the vignette. Regarding the depression vignette depicting a non-migrant, there were only few differences between subgroups. However, when presented with a vignette describing someone from Turkey, respondents with migrant background who were foreign-born expressed greater stigmatizing attitudes, e.g. when it comes to stereotypes or desire for social distance. Furthermore, this subsample displayed higher levels of self-stigma of depression, especially regarding the ascription of own responsibility. The results underline the need to incorporate migration status/ethnicity in stigma research. Differences in attitudes as well as in (anticipated) self-stigma of depression identify foreign-born migrants in Germany as important target groups for tailored anti-stigma interventions, which need to consider diverse cultural backgrounds.

  10. Mental health care in Germany: current state and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Rössler, Wulf; Becker, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Germany turned towards community-based mental health care in the mid seventies, during a general climate of social and political reform. The continuing deinstitutionalisation process and the implementation of community mental health services was considerably affected by the reunification of East and West Germany in 1990, which required dramatic changes in the structure and quality of the mental health care system of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Overall, German mental health care is organised as a subsidiary system, where planning and regulating mental health care is the responsibility of the 16 federal states. So German mental health care provision is spread among many sectors and characterised by considerable regional differences. A key characteristic is the particularly wide gap between inpatient and outpatient services, which are funded separately and staffed by different teams. In 2003 the total number of psychiatric beds was a mere two thirds of the overall bed capacity in 1991, the first year as a re-unified Germany, when psychiatric beds in East and West Germany totalled 80,275. From 1970 onwards the number of psychiatric beds was cut by roughly half. So the momentum of the reform has been strong enough to assimilate the completely different mental health care system of the former German Democratic Republic and, in the course of a decade, to re-structure mental health services for an additional 17-18 million new inhabitants. In an ongoing struggle to adapt to changing administrative set-ups, legal frameworks, and financial constraints, psychiatry in Germany in currently facing specific problems and is seriously challenged to defend to considerable achievements of the past. A major obstacle to achieving this aim lies in the fragmented system of mental health care provision and mental health care funding.

  11. The situation of space education in the unified Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Muldau, Hans H.

    Because of the unique situation of the unified Germany it is worth discussing the state of the art and the future aspects of space education in this country. Two different social and educational systems of the F.R.G. (Federal Republic of Germany) and the G.D.R. (German Democratic Republic) have to be synchronized. The increase of the population by the unification affected the space science related people. So the majorities change. At the moment the severe unemployment situation in eastern Germany hides this fact. But we have to be prepared for this in years to come. The different relation to the space science programs of the U.S.A. and Russia for the German scientist gives a chance for more international understanding and cooperation. This becomes a subject of educational approach to the international cooperation problem. The start of DARA (the German national space administration) in 1989 accompanied by dramatic concentration of space knowledge in DASA (the cooperation of the German national space industry) in the late eighties, shows that Germany has begun to concentrate its capabilities. On such a background, space education for the majority of the population becomes understandable and desirable. European commercial unification on an open market at the beginning of 1993 helps to concentrate the Germans on their historical part and task in the European market. Therefore, many solutions to establish effective space education becomes visible which were hidden behind walls of emotions and prejudices in the past. So the forecast for space education in Germany for the nineties has never been better. The only remaining problem—funding—has to be solved by unconventional ways, e.g. a foundation by the industry as in other countries.

  12. Spatial Variation of Sub-national Fertility Trends in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Basten

    2012-06-01

    Based on the results of this analysis, we conclude that the recent degree of fertility convergence between regions within countries – particularly at the macro-regional level – is, indeed, striking. However, taking a long-term perspective, we are able to identify some substantial time periods over the last 150 years in which regional fertility levels diverged. This implies that the current picture must not necessarily constitute Fukuyama’s “end of history” over the coming decades. Moreover, the study of local-level data reveals that, in contrast to the overall macro-regional fertility convergence process in all three countries, a trend towards divergence can be observed within the city of Bremen. This demonstrates that local divergence can run parallel to overall regional convergence.

  13. Taking Control? Agency in Young Adult Transitions in England and the New Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Interviews of young adults in England and Germany (n=900) about higher education, unemployment, and work showed that in Germany, ethnicity, gender, and social class had more influence on employment than qualifications did. Failure (e.g, unemployment) was attributed to Germany's highly structured system. In England, the belief that opportunities…

  14. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  15. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  16. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314...

  17. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  18. Melanoma mortality following skin cancer screening in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniol, Mathieu; Autier, Philippe; Gandini, Sara

    2015-09-15

    In 2003, a skin cancer screening campaign based on total body skin examination was launched in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. 20% of adults aged 20 and over were screened. In 2008, a 48% decline in melanoma mortality was reported. In the same year, skin screening was extended to the rest of Germany. We evaluated whether melanoma mortality trends decreased in Germany as compared with surrounding countries where skin screening is uncommon. We also evaluated whether the initial decreasing mortality trend observed in Schleswig-Holstein was maintained with a longer follow-up. Regional and national melanoma mortality data from 1995 to 2013 were extracted from the GEKID database and the Federal Statistical Office. Mortality data for Germany and surrounding countries from 1980 to 2012 were extracted from the WHO mortality database. Age-adjusted (European Standard Population) mortality rates were computed and joinpoint analysis performed for Schleswig-Holstein, Germany and surrounding countries. In Schleswig-Holstein, melanoma mortality rates declined by 48% from 2003 to 2008, and from 2009 to 2013 returned to levels observed before screening initiation. During the 5 years of the national programme (2008-2012), melanoma mortality rates increased by 2.6% (95% CI -0.1 to 5.2) in men and 0.02% (95% CI -1.8 to 1.8) in women. No inflexion point in trends was identified after 2008 that could have suggested a decreasing melanoma mortality. Trends of cutaneous melanoma mortality in Germany from 1980 to 2012 did not differ from those observed in surrounding countries. The transient decrease mortality in Schleswig-Holstein followed by return to pre-screening levels could reflect a temporal modification in the reporting of death causes. An in-depth evaluation of the screening programme is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Seroprevalence of Oestrus ovis infection in sheep in southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, C; Steng, G; Prevot, F; Dorchies, P

    2002-12-11

    The aim of the survey was to determine the seroprevalence of Oestrus ovis infection in flocks in southwestern Germany. Serum samples collected from 1497 sheep (>6 months of age) of 110 flocks in 1997 and 1998 were examined for antibodies to crude somatic antigens of O. ovis second-stage larvae using an ELISA test. Data on the farm management were obtained by a questionnaire. Overall, 76% of the flocks had at least one seropositive animal, and the seroprevalence of anti-Oestrus antibodies was 50% in sheep. Flock size was the only risk factor significantly associated with the detection of antibodies. Larger flocks (>50 ewes) were more likely to be seropositive than smaller ones. These results show that Oestrus infections are widespread in sheep in southwestern Germany. Further investigations are required to estimate the economic importance of oestrosis and the efficiency of control measures. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Conference on energy transition financing in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, Ivan; Rid, Urban; Sickenberger, Peter; Ricordeau, Damien; Schmidt, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the energy transition financing in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the legal framework, the instruments and the role of financing institutions in the development of a low-carbon society and economy. Questions regarding the successful financing of renewable energy projects and the expectations of financiers were addressed. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Regulatory framework for investment in the 'green sector' in France (Ivan Faucheux); 2 - Overview of the financing framework for the German 'Energiewende' (Rid, Urban); 3 - Financing Renewables - KfW's Instruments and Track Record (Peter Sickenberger); 4 - French Overview on Renewable energy Financing (Damien Ricordeau); 5 - Profitability analysis of renewable energies in Germany: Which stakeholders and financing models have proven successful? (Gerrit Schmidt)

  1. Bioremediation in Germany: Markets, technologies, and leading companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, T.; Glass, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation has become an internationally accepted remediation tool. Commercial bioremediation activities take place in many European countries, but Germany and the Netherlands are the clear European leaders, with both having a long history of public and private sector activity in biological technologies. The German bioremediation market has been driven by government regulation, in particular the waste laws that apply to contaminated soils. The 1994 German market for bioremediation is estimated at $70 to 100 million (US $). There are at least 150 companies active in bioremediation in Germany, most of which practice bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, either in situ or ex situ. Because of their predominance in the current European market, German firms are well positioned to expand into those nations in the European Union (EU) currently lacking an environmental business infrastructure

  2. Psychology as science and as discipline: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Horst

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the history of psychology in Germany. It directs attention to the salient role played by examination regulations in the development of psychology. To highlight this, the term "discipline" is employed not as a synonym of "science" but according to its original meaning, as denoting a social entity consisting of teachers, disciples, more or less canonised subject matters, examinations, and resulting changes of the social status of the examinee. In the early nineteenth century a succession of state rescripts and regulations introduced to university curricula an examination subject named psychology, thereby making psychology an obligatory subject of university lectures, and creating a discipline of psychology next to the science of psychology. The two were far from being identical. This situation, thus far neglected in historiography, profoundly influenced the further development of psychology in Germany.

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed cultivation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Koebke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Walter, Katja; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    About 12 % of Germany's agricultural area is used for rapeseed cultivation and two third of the harvest is converted to biodiesel. Due to requirements of the EU Renewables Directive the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of rapeseed cultivation must be reported and sustainability criteria and GHG savings compared to fossil fuel must be achieved and certified. Current certified methodology estimates N2O field emissions from rapeseed cultivation using the IPCC Tier 1 approach based on a global emission factor (N2O emission per unit nitrogen fertilizer input) of 1 %, which is not specific for the crop. We present results from three years of measurements (2013 - 2015) on five field trials in Germany, which combined with data from a meta-analysis suggest that GHG emission factors of German rapeseed cultivation are lower than thought previously. Furthermore, results suggest that substitution of mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers is a valid mitigation option since it avoids GHG emissions during production of mineral fertilizers.

  4. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F. [German Wind Energy Inst, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy.

  6. Low Wage Mobility in Denmark, Germany and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette

    In this working paper, mobility out of low wage employment in Denmark, Germany, and the United States is studied. Data used for the analysis are the Danish Longitudinal Database – a representative sample of the Danish population, and the PSID-GSOEP Equivalent File Data. Mobility is analysed...... in the United States is more sensitive to the time period. At the micro level, effects of the explanatory variables are similar across the three countries, especially for the one-year period....... as the transition out of low wage in 1993 and 1995 respectively, conditional on low wage in 1992. The econometric model takes selection into low wage in 1992 into account, and results clearly state the importance. At the aggregate level, mobility patterns are similar in Denmark and Germany, while mobility...

  7. Prospects for pumped-hydro storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    After a period of hibernation, the development of pumped-hydro storage plants in Germany regains momentum. Motivated by an ever increasing share of intermittent renewable generation, a variety of energy players considers new projects, which could increase the available capacity by up to 60% until the end of the decade. This paper analyzes the current development and evaluates the revenue potential as well as possible barriers. Overall, the prospects for new pumped-hydro storage plants have improved, even though profitability remains a major challenge. - Highlights: ► The development of pumped-hydro storage in Germany regains momentum. ► The installed capacity could increase by more than 60% within 10 years. ► The regulatory framework changed, barriers for storage plants have been removed. ► However, profitability remains a major hurdle for new build projects.

  8. [The physical and technical outlook for neutron therapy in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R; Rassow, J; Haverkamp, U; Hess, A; Höver, K H; Jahn, U; Kronholz, H L; Meissner, P; Regel, K

    1993-03-01

    All five fast neutron therapy centres in Germany use low energy cyclotrons or neutron generators and are, therefore, at the low energy end of the 21 neutron therapy facilities presently in use worldwide. The depth dose characteristics are worse than for 60Co gamma rays, the absorbed dose rate is too low and the treatment is technically restricted because of the lack of those modern features like multileaf collimators and full gantry rotation that are available with modern linear accelerators. A survey of the statistical and methodical data on the neutron treatment in Germany is presented. To avoid masking the potential biological benefits of high LET neutron irradiation by the use of suboptimal equipment and to utilise the real therapeutical benefit for specific tumor types, the German neutron therapy centres urgently need modernization of their outdated facilities. Specific recommendations of how to meet the requirements of modern neutron therapy are given.

  9. BUYING BEHAVIOUR RELATED TO HEATING SYSTEMS IN GERMANY

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Thomas; Zapilko, Marina; Menrad, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The decision for buying a heating system is a long-term one, as many different aspects have an influence on this choice which were analysed in a Germany-wide, written survey. The respondents (only owners of a private house) had to answer questions about their attitude towards e.g. economics, convenience or ecological aspects related to heating systems and the respective combustibles. Using a multinomial logistic regression model the choice of the heating system is mainly explained by ecologic...

  10. Deinstitutionalization in Europe: two recent examples from Germany and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubnya, Gusztáv; Nagy, Zoltán; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Rihmer, Zoltán; Bitter, István

    2010-09-01

    Deinstitutionalization has made possible the development of modern community psychiatric services, however radical decrease in the number of hospital beds may result in a reduction in the overall standard of psychiatric care and disruptions in service delivery. The authors present an example of deinstitutionalisation in Hungary, which led to serious difficulties in the provision of healthcare in the field of psychiatry, contrasted with a case from Germany serving as an example of an alternative solution.

  11. Historical perspective on neurosurgery in Germany after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmann, Hartmut; Vitzthum, Hans-Ekkehart

    2008-11-01

    AFTER THE COLLAPSE of the Third Reich, the specialty of neurosurgery in Germany, although well developed in the late 1930s, had to start anew, and for decades to come, had to deal with the physical and political consequences of World War II. Because of the division of the country, neurosurgery developed separately in the two independent states. In West Germany, the evolution was promoted by a few personalities who represented different schools according to their own training: these "surgical neurologists" emphasized the neurological basis of neurosurgery and were represented by Traugott Riechert and the students of Otfrid Foerster, such as Arist Stender and Hans Kuhlendahl. In contrast, the "neurological surgeons" stressed their origins in general surgery. Their main proponent was Wilhelm Tönnis, who gained particular merit for promoting neurosurgical teaching, the development of new neurosurgical units, and the recognition of neurosurgery as an autonomous specialty. In East Germany, progress was delayed by a weak economy and a repressive political system. Yet several excellent neurosurgeons won international recognition, predominantly Georg Merrem, who came from the school of Fedor Krause. Following a worldwide trend, the number of neurosurgical units in West Germany increased dramatically from 18 in 1950 to 85 in 1988. In 2006, in the unified nation, 1200 certified neurosurgeons in 138 hospital departments and 75 private practices served 82 million people. Since its founding in 1949, the German Neurosurgical Society has promoted the idea of reconciliation and has focused on international collaboration in both science and education. This idea, shared by other European nations, eventually gave rise to the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. At present, escalating costs in the health sector pose a problem to neurosurgical services and have led to reconsiderations about their structure and financing.

  12. Economic and Political Governance in Germany's Social Market Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Horst Siebert

    2004-01-01

    Germany's system of economic and political governance strongly relies on group decision-making and consensus to solve economic issues. This approach relates to a wide spectrum of decisions, including the social partners with the trade unions and the employers' associations in wage formation, the trade unions in the governance of firms through codetermination and the workers' councils in the operation of firms, but also to relationship banking and to the steering of the university system by co...

  13. Social Security in Germany: A Prey of Political Opportunism?

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas Potrafke

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how politicians influenced social security policy in Germany. Using yearly data from the German Pension Insurance from 1957 to 2005, revenues as well as expenditures are analysed in linear regression models, respectively. In accordance with opportunistic political behaviour, revenues from contributions decreased in pre-election years. Most important, pension expenditures increased in election years. Interestingly, the CDU/FDP governments provided higher subsidies to the so...

  14. Germany - France. A comparison of electric power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some remarks on the differences in the development on the energy sector and a comparison of the energy programmes of the two countries the different extension of nuclear energy utilization is described. Finally the effects of the differing nuclear energy programmes of the F.R. of Germany and France on the economic development to be expected are explained. Numerous data and graphic representations illustrate the statements of the report. (UA) [de

  15. Nuclear facilities in the fuel cycle - Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    The map of the Federal Republic of Germany (scale 1:800000) presents the sites of nuclear facilities. These include uranium mines and mills, fuel element fabrication and reprocessing plants, nuclear power plants (in operation or under construction), fuel transfer storage, and ultimate storage facilities. As a geographical extension, the PAMELA vitrification plant in Belgium is also shown. The map is of November 1984. (UA) [de

  16. Radon concentration in buildings of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.; Kemski, J.; Siehl, A.

    1997-01-01

    Since the 70ies, investigations on the determination and evaluation of the population's exposure to radiation by radon and its progeny have been carried out in Germany. Of topical interest is the radon concentration in buildings and especially in dependence on the radon potential in the geological subsoil. Measurements in buildings in East and West Germany have shown that there are no serious differences in the frequency distributions of indoor radon concentration between the new and old federal states. Thus, the classification of radon concentrations up to 250 Bq m -3 already made in 1988 by the German Commission on Radiological Protection for the old federal states can be applied as a normal range throughout the whole Federal Republic of Germany. It is estimated that the normal range of radon concentration in 1.1 to 1.8% of the buildings in Germany is exceeded. Radon concentrations above 250 Bq m 3 concentrate on areas with increased geogenic radon potential which concerns approximately 3% of the German territory. Empirical ranking classifications, including as relevant characteristic values the radon concentrations in the ground air and the gas permeability of the soil in a depth of 1 m, are used on the quantification of the geogenic radon potential. A high geogenic radon potential means that the concentration of radon in buildings in these areas is likely to be higher that it is typical of the country in the whole. Since the radon concentration in buildings is influenced by a complex chain of effects of different processes in soils and rocks in their natural condition, in the anthropogenically influenced building ground as well as in the contact zone of the building with the ground, and since the condition of the buildings plays an important role for the radon transition from the soil into the building, a high geogenic radon potential does not necessarily lead to a high indoor radon concentration [de

  17. Problem of Production of Shale Gas in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya K. Meden

    2014-01-01

    A bstract: Our magazine publishes a series of articles on shale gas in different countries. This article is about Germany, a main importer of Russian natural gas, so a perspective of exploitation of local shale gas resources is of a clear practical importance for Russia. We discuss external and internal factors which determine position of the German government concerning the shale gas excavation: policy of the USA and the EU, positions of German political parties, influence of the lobbying co...

  18. E-Government in Germany: Status Quo and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Elsas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available According to an UN survey, only 17 countries have reached a transactional stage of E-Government, no country has reached the fully integrated or seamless stage. A technological way to support reaching the seamless stage can be the utilization of the Web services framework to implement advanced, integrated E-Government applications. The actual situation in Germany is taken here as an example to illustrate the typical problems of recent E-Government developments.

  19. Trade union membership and works councils in West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo; Pannenberg, Markus

    2007-01-01

    The fraction of works councillors belonging to a trade union in Germany is much higher than union density among employees. If works councils represent the face of unions, union membership of employees should be related positively to the existence of works councils and their proximity to unions. Using data from the German Socio-Economic-Panel SOEP we find that (a) works councillors exhibit a higher probability of being a union member, (b) the mere existence of a works council within an establi...

  20. Germany at CERN, from 1 to 2 March 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee.

  1. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority tha...

  2. SHORT SURVEY OF ARRHENATH ERETALIA GRASLAND IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. DIERSCHKE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive synoptic table, a short syntaxonomical survey of mesic grassland of Germany is presented, concentrated on associations and alliances. Four alliances have been distinguished: Arrhenatherion elatioris, Cynosurion cristati, Poion alpinae, and Polygono-Trisetion (with two suballiances. The species-poor meadows, developed under very intensive farming, are classified as a fragmentary community within the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea.

  3. SHORT SURVEY OF ARRHENATH ERETALIA GRASLAND IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. DIERSCHKE

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive synoptic table, a short syntaxonomical survey of mesic grassland of Germany is presented, concentrated on associations and alliances. Four alliances have been distinguished: Arrhenatherion elatioris, Cynosurion cristati, Poion alpinae, and Polygono-Trisetion (with two suballiances. The species-poor meadows, developed under very intensive farming, are classified as a fragmentary community within the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea.

  4. Academic Integration of Mainland Chinese Students in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hanwei Li

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the academic integration experiences of mainland Chinese tertiary-level students in Germany. Using Tinto's model, the article explores the challenges that Chinese students face during their academic integration, the strategies they employ, and the relationship between academic and social integration. The data were collected in spring 2016 by interviewing 26 mainland Chinese students studying either in German universities or universities of applied sciences...

  5. Energy policies in the European Union. Germany's ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfens, P.J.J.; Jungmittag, A.; Meyer, B.; Jasinski, P.

    2001-01-01

    The chapters discuss the following aspects: 1. Energy policy as a strategic element of economic policy in dynamic open economies. 2. Phasing out nuclear energy and core elements of sustainable energy strategy. 3. Ecological tax reform: Theory, modified double dividend and international aspects. 4. The policy framework in Europe and Germany. 5. Optimal ecological tax reform: Options and recommendations for an EU-action plan. 6. Conclusions. (orig./CB)

  6. Farmsteads in early medieval Germany – architecture and organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Schreg, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In Germany early medieval rural settlements are known from a rising number of excavated sites. Rural architecture was a wooden architecture. Only churches were built in stone. A farmstead consisted of several buildings: the main house and several economic buildings as pit houses and storages. Before the 1980s, when large scale excavations became more and more common, there was little awareness of changes in rural settlement history. The formation of still existing villages was only late in th...

  7. Nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, D.O.

    1978-01-01

    The way the electricity supply in West Germany is organised is outlined. A summary is given of the development of commercial reactors, of FBRs and HTRs and of their role in present and future nuclear generating capacity. The link-up between manufacturers and companies within the industry is illustrated. Procedures for licensing of plant and the role of administrative courts in dealing with public contestations following the issues of licenses is described. Reference is made to plans for reprocessing. (UK)

  8. Analysing inequalities in Germany a structured additive distributional regression approach

    CERN Document Server

    Silbersdorff, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book seeks new perspectives on the growing inequalities that our societies face, putting forward Structured Additive Distributional Regression as a means of statistical analysis that circumvents the common problem of analytical reduction to simple point estimators. This new approach allows the observed discrepancy between the individuals’ realities and the abstract representation of those realities to be explicitly taken into consideration using the arithmetic mean alone. In turn, the method is applied to the question of economic inequality in Germany.

  9. Conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodineau, Luc; Menzen, Georg; Arnold, Peter Erich; Mauberger, Pascal; Roentzsch, Lars; Poggi, Philippe; Gervais, Thierry; Schneider, Guenther; Colomar, David; Buenger, Ulrich; Nieder, Babette; Zimmer, Rene; Jeanne, Fabrice; Le Grand, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 200 participants exchanged views on the different perspectives for use of hydrogen, in particular in transportation and energy storage applications. The technical production, transport and storage means were addressed too, as well as the technological models and the conditions for a large-scale industrial deployment. The economic prospects of hydrogen-energy in tomorrow's energy mix were also considered during the conference. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Hydrogen energy and Fuel Cells in France Today, and prospective (Luc Bodineau); 2 - The situation of energy Policy in Germany and the challenges for the Hydrogen Technology (Georg Menzen); 3 - Unlocking the Hydrogen Potential for Transport and Industry (Peter Erich Arnold); 4 - Hydrogen, a new energy for our planet - Hydrogen storage possibilities: example of solid storage (Pascal Mauberger); 5 - Innovative Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for H 2 Production and H 2 Storage (Lars Roentzsch); 6 - Scientific development and industrial strategy: experience feedback from the Myrte platform and energy transition-related perspectives (Philippe Poggi, Thierry Gervais); 7 - 'Power to Gas' - Important partner for renewables with big impact potential (Guenther Schneider) 8 - Developing a Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport in France and Germany - A Comparison (David Colomar, Ulrich Buenger); 9 - H 2 and Fuel-Cells as Key Technologies for the Transition to Renewable energies - The example of Herten (Babette Nieder); 10 - Social acceptance of hydrogen mobility in Germany (Rene Zimmer); 11 - Hydrogen - A development opportunity for regions? (Fabrice Jeanne)

  10. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  11. Student relationship management in Germany: Foundations and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbert, Andreas; Schönbrunn, Karoline; Schmode, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the article is to introduce to the topic of Student Relationship Management (SRM) in Germany. The concept has been derived from the idea of a Customer Relationship Management (CRM), which has already been successfully implemented in many enterprises. Its objective is to canvass for customers, obtain their loyalty towards the company and, if necessary, win them back. Furthermore, potential uses of a SRM within the context of Higher Education Management will be demonstrated by ...

  12. Speculative Bubbles in Urban Housing Markets in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kholodilin, Konstantin; Michelsen, Claus; Ulbricht, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the unconventional monetary policies conducted by the majority of large central banks around the world, there is an intense debate about their potential impact on the prices of capital assets. Particularly in Germany, skepticism about the sustainability of the recent policy by the European Central Bank is widely spread and concerns about the emergence of a speculative price bubble are raised. However, studies on bubbles in house prices are scarce and provide mixed results. Mor...

  13. Germany 2050 a greenhouse gas-neutral country. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kathrin; Nissler, Diana (eds.)

    2013-10-15

    For several years, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has been looking at the question how the climate target of a GHG-neutral Germany can be achieved. In a multi-disciplinary project launched by the agency, the first point of call was power generation because of its high emissions. It was shown in 2010 that power generation from 100 % renewable energy is possible. Even then it was understood that a renewable energy supply alone would not be enough to completely abolish greenhouse gas emissions. Other sectors of the economy would have to follow suit and undergo major changes, relying on low-GHG technology. Consequently, the study now submitted, ''Greenhouse gas-neutral Germany 2050'', includes in its research all relevant emission sources that are described in the annual National Inventory Report (NIR) on emissions and removal of greenhouse gases. Alongside complete energy supply, including heating and transport, we also look at emissions from industry, waste disposal, agriculture and forestry as well as changes in land use. We develop a target scenario. The transformations that lead to the target and related economic considerations or the selection of appropriate policy instruments, however, are not part of our study. The scenario analysis is based on the assumption that in 2050, Germany will still be an exporting industrial country with an average annual growth of 0.7 % of its gross domestic product.

  14. [German language psychiatry journals in Germany - a quantitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Uta; Baethge, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Although English is medicine's lingua franca, practising physicians in Germany express the need for articles in German. This study aimed at surveying the number and characteristics of German-language psychiatric journals in Germany. Journals were identified by the standard handbook "Fachmedien Gesundheit" as well as by an online and library search, and divided into specialty journals and general psychiatry journals. Volume 2009 of all general psychiatry journals was analyzed regarding form and content. In 2009 74 journals addressed psychiatrists, albeit many not exclusively. Ten were general psychiatry journals publishing 391 review articles and 97 original papers. They differed with regard to focus (science, education, health politics) and formal characteristics, such as circulation (500-30  000), share of academia-affiliated authors (39-93 %), female first-authors (13-44 %), COI statements (0-98 % of articles), and international visibility. While much of German psychiatric science appears in English, there are still a substantial number of original articles published in German, and there is a diverse psychiatric journal scene in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Climate protection policy in Germany. A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemmer, P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the economic aspects of environmental protection by Paul Klemmer covers these three points: (1) Is there a need for action to protect the climate, and what are its dimensions? (2) How should the German negotiating position in Kyoto and within the European Union be evaluated? (3) Did Germany promise more than it will be able to deliver in its CO 2 reduction policy? It is seen, against the very background of economic factors, that it remains highly unclear why Germany insists on conducting a climate protection policy mainly within the country, although the same amount of money spent in non-OECD countries could achieve a vastly greater reduction of CO 2 emissions. The authors also shows that Germany is unable to meet the postulated goals of reduction unless it is willing to accept grave economic problems. Especially the reduction in the contribution of nuclear power is counterproductive in the light of aspects of climate protection. This is even more true in a deregulated electricity market. (orig.) [de

  16. Support of Small Business and Problems of Migration in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Onuchak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The flow of refugees in Germany is a political migration at which the flow of migrants increases load of the budget due to payments of social benefits. At first sight, apparently, the existing privileges and incentives of creation of small and medium-sized enterprises (MSP rather big and that problems inemployment of such number of migrants shouldn't be. They will take potential workplaces or will open the business, but a question in, whether it is possible to occupy the arrived migrants in small business in the territory of Germany. However, unlike labor migration which increases self-employment of the population, political migration of such effect can't give. At present it is necessary to limit global migration of the same Germany if the country intend store the economy. Positive influence of a migratory stream on national economy will be short-term, connected with increase in demand. In the near future refugees will demand considerable expenses of the budget as they don't pay taxes or pay them in a smaller size, demand additional expenses on safety in the social sphere.

  17. Germany: Family diversity with low actual and desired fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Dorbritz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany is a low-fertility country with a rapidly ageing population, and will remain so for the foreseeable future. There are several reasons for this trend. Germany is among the countries with the highest rates of childlessness in the world, and childlessness has become widely accepted. This is illustrated by changes in living arrangements. A broad range of living arrangements has been added to the basic model of marriage with children; namely, single living, non-marital cohabitation, lone parenthood, patchwork families and living apart together. A culture of individualism has spread in Germany which forms the basis for widespread decisions against family formation. The desired number of children has become low and family policy is considered to be a failure in terms of its influence on fertility. German family policy has had a traditional orientation centred on monetary support to families and on the promotion of the male breadwinner model. Women have been largely forced to choose between family and work, and leave the labour market when a child is born. The still prevailing concept of family policy does not help to reduce the pressure to choose between work and family life, and thus makes it easier to decide not to have children, especially for highly educated women. A change in family policy is needed which will enable couples to choose between the breadwinner-housewife and the reconciliation model. Gradually, this change is starting to take place.

  18. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in Central Germany: an underestimated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Hannah; Rissmann, Anke; Brett, Birgit; Costa, Serban-Dan; Doßow, Birgit; Färber, Jacqueline; Fest, Stefan; Fritzsch, Christiane; Lux, Anke; Päge, Ilona; Spillner, Claudia; Redlich, Anke

    2017-08-01

    This is the first study to determine the cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegativity rate for women of childbearing age in Saxony-Anhalt and to determine the prevalence of clinically relevant congenital CMV (cCMV) infection in Central Germany, because there are no valid data available. The retrospective study was undertaken between January 2005 and December 2015. For the first time in Germany, the following seven data sources were used to analyze the prevalence of clinically relevant cCMV infection and the rate of CMV seronegative women of childbearing age: CMV Screening in maternity unit, University Women's Hospital, Social Paediatrics Centre (SPC), Malformation Monitoring Centre (MMC), Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS), Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and In-house Doctor Department. Key parameters were anti-CMV IgG and IgM, CMV PCR of urine, and clinically relevant symptoms caused by CMV. Between 46 and 52% of women of childbearing age were CMV seronegative. The prevalence of clinically relevant cCMV infection was between 0.008 and 0.04%. The CMV seronegativity rate of women of childbearing age was confirmed to be in the middle range of estimated data from other sources in Germany. Data from the NICU, SPC, NHS, and MMC show the prevalence of clinically relevant cCMV infection. The risk of all cCMV infections is underestimated. Thus, the true prevalence of clinically relevant and subclinical cCMV infections is >0.04%.

  19. Underground storage development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponheuer, T.

    1990-01-01

    As the demand for gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is increasingly dependent upon temperature, underground storage is becoming a more and more important tool for the adjustment of supply load factors to the patterns of gas demand. Total working gas capacity is expected to double by the year 2000. Capacity requirements must be planned for a design winter, but allowances must also be made for operational flexibility, but management of incidents and the decrease in deliverability mainly from porous rock storage fields towards the end of the withdrawal season. Storage development potential in the Federal Republic of Germany is adequate for these requirements. However, the substantial uncertainties associated with the various factors determining future storage needs, administrative and licensing procedures, difficulties with regard to storage site acceptance by the general public and the resulting long project lead times confront gas companies from the Federal Republic of Germany with a complex planning problem and a major technical and commercial challenge, considering the estimated capital outlay of 4 to 5 billion DM in 1988 Deutschmarks. To master this challenge and to be able to provide secure and competitive gas supplies, the gas industry must continue to operate in a market economy which remains undistorted by new legislation and regulation. (author). 11 figs

  20. Case law: France, Germany, India, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    France: Administrative Court of Appeal of Lyon, 19 June 2012, Judgements Nos. 12LY00233 and 12LY00290 regarding EDF's permit to construct a waste conditioning and storage facility (ICEDA) in the town of Saint-Vulbas; Conseil d'Etat decision regarding Atelier de technologie de plutonium (ATPu) located at the Cadarache site. Germany: Request for arbitration against Germany at the World Bank's International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) because of Germany's legislation leading to the phase-out of nuclear energy. India: Cases related to the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP). Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Inc. on the revocation of the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of the Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit vacating the NRC's 2010 Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; U.S. Supreme Court declines petition for certiorari filed by property owners on Price- Anderson Act claim for damages; Judgement of the NRC Atomic Safety and Licensing Board finding applicants ineligible to obtain a combined license because they are owned by a U.S. corporation that is 100% owned by a foreign corporation; Judgement of an NRC Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Authorizing Issuance of a license for the construction and operation of a commercial laser enrichment facility

  1. The legal status of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, political attitudes in Germany towards the nuclear industry have been characterised less by consistency than by some major policy shifts, and the same can be said for the legislation born of these attitudes. Although a number of these about-turns were predictable, others were less so because of their dependence on external factors. What now looks likely to be the final decision to phase out the civil use of nuclear power in Germany by 31 December 2022 raises a whole host of legal questions. In particular, the procedure followed to implement this phase-out provides ample material for debates on questions of constitutionality. Further matters of jurisprudential interest include the agreements concluded with the nuclear industry before the final phase-out decision was taken and the chronologically close political about-faces themselves. Finally, a degree of legal uncertainty still surrounds not only the as yet still unresolved issue of final repositories but also the resurgent debate over the source of funding for the dismantling of nuclear power plants. After providing an overview of the initial situation and the problems arising in connection with Germany's phasing out of the civil use of nuclear energy, this paper will place these issues in their proper legal context before evaluating them and highlighting the connection between these points of nuclear law and the current upheaval in German energy policy. (author)

  2. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710

  3. Epidemiology in Germany-general development and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Heinz-Erich

    2017-08-01

    Did you ever hear about epidemiology in Germany? Starting from an epidemiological desert the discipline has grown remarkably, especially during the last 10-15 years: research institutes have been established, research funding has improved, multiple curriculae in Epidemiology and Public Health are offered. This increase has been quite steep, and now the epidemiological infrastructure is much better. Several medium-sized and even big population cohorts are ongoing, and the number and quality of publications from German epidemiologists has reached a respectable level. My own career in epidemiology started in the field of environmental health. After German reunification I concentrated for many years on environmental problems in East Germany and observed the health benefits after improvement of the situation. Later, I concentrated on population-based cohorts in newborns (GINI/LISA) and adults (KORA, German National Cohort), and on biobanking. This Essay describes the development in Germany after worldwar 2, illustrated by examples of research results and build-up of epidemiological infractructures worth mentioning.

  4. Job satisfaction of radiologists in Germany. Status quo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitzel, K.I.; Grosse, C.; Reiser, M.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Ertl, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the work-related satisfaction of radiologists and its influencing factors in Germany. Materials and Methods: For this purpose an invitational letter for an online opinion survey was sent to all member physicians of the Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft in 2008. 1200 questionnaires were completed (response rate 21 %) and evaluated statistically. Results: 81.7 % of radiologists declared themselves as being 'very' or 'rather satisfied'. The level of satisfaction was largely independent of age, gender, status, salary or family status. It increased over the last 5 years for 37.5 % of participants and decreased for 24.8 %. Nevertheless, 72 % of respondents indicated that they would not choose to specialize in radiology again. The main reason given was the workload. 65.6 % deemed it to be 'considerably' or 'rather too high'. Concomitantly, more than 70 % of respondents indicated that the workload had increased 'a lot' or 'rather'. Further reasons for not wanting to select the radiological profession again were 'unfavorable working hours' and 'unsatisfactory career perspectives'. Conclusion: The job satisfaction of radiologists in Germany is generally very high in spite of the perception of an extensive and frequently increasing workload. The high workload was the dominant factor against a renewed selection of the field of radiology. These data have to be interpreted in light of the current lack of residents and trained radiologists in Germany to counteract the trend toward emigration. (orig.)

  5. Waste management concept during dismantling of KKS NPP in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacmeister, Georg U.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives an overview on the waste management of NPP Stade during dismantling. The general idea is to reduce the radioactive waste to about three percentage of the complete dismantling mass. The NPP Stade in Germany was shut down in November 2003. After a transient phase the license for dismantling was given in 2005. In the following 8 years about 20.000 tones of steel and 120.000 tones of concrete will be put out by the dismantling. The yearly output of steel will by about 100 times higher than during the running time of the NNP. For this a new processes for waste management had to be installed. The waste management during dismantling focus on free release (about 97%). Beside some minor exception, the rest is deemed to be radioactive waste. This will be collected in 1000 packages, which are ready to be sent to a final storage. As until now in Germany no final storage is open (and sending of radioactive waste to another country is forbidden), the NNP Stade build an intermediate storage, where the packages may by saved for longest 40 years. The clearance procedure in Germany is regulated in the radiation protection ordinances. It is based on a nuclide specific set of clearance levels. To fulfil these demands the NNP Stade chose a semi automated system for characterization and documentation, which we develop in accordance to our release license. It guaranties a most accurate determination of the relevant nuclides for a set of dismantling material (some 10 to 100 tones). After the characterization only the gamma-activity of the material is measured in boxes of about 500 kg. A short comparison of the chosen procedure with other options, possible in Germany will be given and the decision from the collaboration with the NPP in Barsebaeck, Sweden, will be withdrawn. Beside the free release different options are used for waste management, like incineration, sending to landfill or reuse in nuclear industry. The waste management of the NNP Stade take

  6. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic Of Germany) for Co-Operation in The Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994 [es

  7. On 18 November 2010, CERN signed an agreement with the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) GmbH, the company that is co-ordinating the construction of the accelerator and experiment facilities for the FAIR project in Germany.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    The agreement, which was signed by CERN's director-general, Rolf Heuer (left) and FAIR's scientific director Boris Sharkov, concerns collaboration in accelerator sciences and technologies and other scientific domains of mutual interest.

  8. Wind power report Germany 2014; Windenergie Report Deutschland 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrig, Kurt (ed.)

    2015-07-01

    Record year 2014. In Germany, the expansion figures attained were so high on land and at sea that the overall new installation figure of 5,188 MW surpassed the previous maximum (from 2002) by more than 60%. With an overall capacity of 39,259 MW, for the first time, wind energy in Germany covers 9.7% of gross power consumption. On the global scale a capacity of more than 51,000 MW has been added - another record high for wind energy installations. Power mix. At 161 TWh, renewable energies in Germany covered 27.8% of gross power consumption and provided for the first time more energy than any other energy source. Coming into force of the new REA in August 2014, modified support schemes caused the expansion of biogas plants and large-scale PV installations to falter. The record expansion seen for wind energy can be interpreted as a pull-forward effect due to the tender procedures coming into force in 2017. Grid integration. Loss of production caused by feed-in management measures rose by 44% to 555 GWh as compared to 2012. Wind turbines were affected in 87% of cases but the impact on PV installations is increasing. Power generation must be more flexible and grids expanded to limit loss of production. Of the 23 expansion projects (1,887 km) in the Electricity Grid Expansion Act, just a quarter of them had been realized by the end of 2014 (463 km). In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 grid development plan, the extent of grid upgrading and conversion was 3050 km. Offshore, the HelWin 1 grid link with a capacity of 580 MW went online. SylWin 1 and BorWin 2, with a total capacity of 1660 MW, are currently being tested in a trial. In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 offshore grid development plan, grid connections having an overall capacity of 10.3 GW are planned. Onshore. 2014 saw a total of 44 different turbine types installed in Germany. For the first time, virtually the same number of turbines were added in the 3-4 MW class, as in the 2-3 MW

  9. HgCdTe technology in Germany: the past, the present, and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanski, W.; Ziegler, J.

    2009-05-01

    The first HgCdTe (MCT) activities at AEG-Telefunken in Germany were started in 1976. As part of the closing of AEG, the Heilbronn based IR-technology division was established as a spin-off company in 1995, under the brand name of AIM Infrarot-Module GmbH. A rapidly growing team of scientists focused on the detector-dewar-cooler technology and the development of linear photoconductive MCT arrays by applying the solid-state-recrystallization (SSR) technique for MCT growth, depositing and thinning MCT on sapphire substrates and oxide passivation. In 1979, after successful development of an own MCT-technology base, AEG-Telefunken entered into a license agreement with Texas Instruments for US Common Module (CM) technology in order to speed up the entry into full scale production with a transfer of MCT-material, dewar and cooler processes. CMs are still manufactured in small numbers. At the same time, a proprietary pc-MCT technology, independent of the CM production line, was developed and continuously matured and is today successfully applied in various custom designs like detectors for smart ammunition, for commercial and space applications. In 1982 started the development of 2nd Gen. photovoltaic MCT detectors, based on liquid-phase-epitaxy (LPE) in tilting and dipping technique and on planar array technology with Hg-Diffusion and ion implantation for pn-junction formation and CdTe/ZnS passivation. Linear MCT arrays in the 8-10,5 μm wavelength range with state of the art electro-optical performance have rapidly been demonstrated. Within the frame of the European anti-tank program TRIGAT, a two-way know-how-transfer between AEGTelefunken and SOFRADIR was established for linear LW MCT array processing, flip-chip-technology and dewar technology. Today, AIM's 2nd Gen. portfolio is based on MCT-LPE in dipping technique on CdZnTe substrates, characterized by a very low defect and dislocation density for 0,9 μm to 15μm wavelength application. Array processing is performed

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Germany 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The IEA report takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Germany, and through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future. Few countries can have as great an impact on energy policy in Europe as Germany. Its large size and strategic location make it a critical component of the region's energy markets - as a result, sound energy policies and strong energy market design are a necessity. In these respects, Germany continues to make notable progress. The country has continued to reform its electricity and natural gas markets, set a timetable to phase out coal subsidies, is meeting key climate and environmental targets and is bringing energy, efficiency and environment to the top of the world agenda with its presidencies of both the G8 and European Union. The International Energy Agency (IEA) praises these efforts. Nevertheless, work remains to be done to further improve German energy policies and markets. The planned phase-out of nuclear power over the coming years would have major impacts on the country's energy mix, raising concerns about energy security, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability for the country and for Europe as a whole. Furthermore, though progress has been made, more needs to be done to set a truly level playing field for competition to develop in gas and electricity markets, which means effective unbundling of transport activities and a strongly empowered regulatory authority. Finally, the country's environmental policies, though helping meet ambitious goals, are expensive - and sometimes various policies work at cross-purposes. 22 figs., 27 tabs., 4 apps.

  11. [The development of nursing schools in East and West Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the various nursing schools in East and West Germany. In the 1980s and early 1990s the professionalization of nursing was still in its infancy there compared with Anglo-America. There were attempts to professionalize nursing that were meant to enhance the quality of nursing as well as lead to improved working conditions. As part of the political debates in the field after German reunification, the nursing schools in the former east were also affected by reform efforts. From the 1960s, diploma courses in nursing studies and in the teaching of medicine had been offered in the east and, up into the 1990s, these courses were repeatedly modified and adapted to educational requirements. The study also tries to establish the extent to which the academization of nursing in the reunified Germany was driven by the concurrence of the different training routes in West and East. It analyses above all the diverse study syllabi and lengths of training. What also emerged was that, despite all the positive impulses arising from the East German training models, the continuous changes in training in the GDR not only served to improve the nursing qualifications but also to promote identification with the socialist system and its political ideology. In addition, the teaching of theory was never prominent in East German nursing, while, in the west, theory was increasingly asked for and eventually also implemented. The possibility, in the former east, to study the teaching of medicine definitely made an impact on the nursing training in the west after the reunification and the subject is now offered at universities there, too. Despite all that, the concept of "professional nursing," which needs to be practised in a practical, patient-oriented way, and on a scientific basis, is again being discussed since the introduction of Bachelor and Master study courses. The process of professionalizing and academizing the nursing schools and further training courses clearly

  12. Regional differences in prediction models of lung function in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäper Christoph

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the influencing potential of specific characteristics on lung function in different populations. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether lung function determinants differ between subpopulations within Germany and whether prediction equations developed for one subpopulation are also adequate for another subpopulation. Methods Within three studies (KORA C, SHIP-I, ECRHS-I in different areas of Germany 4059 adults performed lung function tests. The available data consisted of forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow rate. For each study multivariate regression models were developed to predict lung function and Bland-Altman plots were established to evaluate the agreement between predicted and measured values. Results The final regression equations for FEV1 and FVC showed adjusted r-square values between 0.65 and 0.75, and for PEF they were between 0.46 and 0.61. In all studies gender, age, height and pack-years were significant determinants, each with a similar effect size. Regarding other predictors there were some, although not statistically significant, differences between the studies. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the regression models for each individual study adequately predict medium (i.e. normal but not extremely high or low lung function values in the whole study population. Conclusions Simple models with gender, age and height explain a substantial part of lung function variance whereas further determinants add less than 5% to the total explained r-squared, at least for FEV1 and FVC. Thus, for different adult subpopulations of Germany one simple model for each lung function measures is still sufficient.

  13. Antidepressant sales and regional variations of suicide mortality in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüml, Victor; Helbich, Marco; Mayr, Michael; Turnwald, Roland; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Lewitzka, Ute; Hartung, Sebastian; Plener, Paul L; Fegert, Jörg M; Kapusta, Nestor D

    2017-04-01

    Suicides account for over one million deaths per year worldwide with depression among the most important risk factors. Epidemiological research into the relationship between antidepressant utilization and suicide mortality has shown heterogeneous and contradictory results. Different methodological approaches and limitations could at least partially explain varying results. This is the first study assessing the association of suicide mortality and antidepressant sales across Germany using complex statistical approaches in order to control for possible confounding factors including spatial dependency of data. German suicide counts were analyzed on a district level (n = 402) utilizing ecological Poisson regressions within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Due to significant spatial effects between adjacent districts spatial models were calculated in addition to a baseline non-spatial model. Models were adjusted for several confounders including socioeconomic variables, quality of psychosocial care, and depression prevalence. Separate analyses were performed for Eastern and Western Germany and for different classes of antidepressants (SSRIs and TCAs). Overall antidepressant sales were significantly negatively associated with suicide mortality in the non-spatial baseline model, while after adjusting for spatially structured and unstructured effects the association turned out to be insignificant. In sub-analyses, analogue results were found for SSRIs and TCAs separately. Suicide risk shows a distinct heterogeneous pattern with a pronounced relative risk in Southeast Germany. In conclusion, the results reflect the heterogeneous findings of previous studies on the association between suicide mortality and antidepressant sales and point to the complexity of this hypothesized link. Furthermore, the findings support tailored suicide preventive efforts within high risk areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross border transport of vitrified residues from France to Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.; Jussofie, A.

    2016-01-01

    Until 1994 reprocessing was the only legal way to manage German spent fuel. Since in 1984 the national reprocessing concept was abandoned the reprocessing abroad was the only existing disposal route. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2002 spent fuel management changed completely since from 1 June 2005 any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited and the direct disposal of spent fuel became mandatory. Until 2005 the total amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed abroad added up to 6080 t HM, 5309 t HM thereof in France. According to the commercial contracts signed between the German utilities and COGEMA, now AREVA NC, in France and BNFL, now INS in UK, and to the intergovernmental agreements concluded between Germany and France or UK the waste generated from reprocessing has to be returned to Germany. The return of high active vitrified waste from La Hague to the interim storage facility at Gorleben was not only demanding from the view of safety ensured by the cask design but especially for security reasons since the Gorleben area served as a target for nuclear opponents from the first transport in 1996 to the latest one in 2010. The protection against sabotage of the railway lines and mass protests needed improved security measures. Special working forces and projects have been set up in France and Germany to cope with this situation. A complex transport organization was necessary to involve all parties in line with the German and French security requirements during transport. All transports have been completed successfully so far thus confirming the efficiency of the applied measures. (author)

  15. Smoking restrictions and hospitalization for acute coronary events in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Demidenko, Eugene; Malenka, David J.; Li, Zhongze; Gohlke, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Aims To study the effects of smoking restrictions in Germany on coronary syndromes and their associated costs. Methods and results All German states implemented laws partially restricting smoking in the public and hospitality sectors between August 2007 and July 2008. We conducted a before-and-after study to examine trends for the hospitalization rate for angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for an insurance cohort of 3,700,384 individuals 30 years and older. Outcome measures were hospitalization rates for coronary syndromes, and hospitalization costs. Mean age of the cohort was 56 years, and two-thirds were female. Some 2.2 and 1.1% persons were hospitalized for angina pectoris and AMI, respectively, during the study period from January 2004 through December 2008. Law implementation was associated with a 13.3% (95% confidence interval 8.2, 18.4) decline in angina pectoris and an 8.6% (5.0, 12.2) decline in AMI after 1 year. Hospitalization costs also decreased significantly for the two conditions—9.6% (2.5, 16.6) for angina pectoris and 20.1% (16.0, 24.2) for AMI at 1 year following law implementation. Assuming the law caused the observed declines, it prevented 1,880 hospitalizations and saved 7.7 million Euros in costs for this cohort during the year following law implementation. Conclusions Partial smoking restrictions in Germany were followed by reductions in hospitalization for angina pectoris and AMI, declines that continued through 1 year following these laws and resulted in substantial cost savings. Strengthening the laws could further reduce morbidity and costs from acute coronary syndromes in Germany. PMID:22350716

  16. Opening speech: nuclear power today - the situation in germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power is experiencing an upswing worldwide. High prices of conventional fuels, discussions about the long-term continuity of supply, rising energy requirements, and the search for efficient ways of protecting the climate have moved nuclear power back into focus in a positive way. This is also true for Germany. In this country, nuclear power has gone through twelve very successful months since the 2004 Nuclear Technology Conference in Duesseldorf, as is borne out by the performance of all nuclear power plants in Germany. A change of mood towards a positive view of nuclear power is taking place in Germany. It is also seen, however, that the ''problem'' of final storage, which has been solved technically, is in urgent need of a political solution. German know-how in nuclear technology enjoys a high reputation internationally. For manufacturers and the associated supplier industries, this means excellent market opportunities, also for future projects, in view of worldwide demand. Various nuclear projects have progressed at long last: The Heinz Meier-Leibnitz research reactor (FRM-II) has been commissioned; the final stage of expansion of the Urenco uranium enrichment plant in Gronau has been approved; the license for a capacity increase in the ANF fuel fabrication plant in Lingen has been granted. Nuclear power is enjoying a high reputation also in the European Union. Major expansion plans exist in Asia, while increases in power and performance as well as life extensions can be observed in the United States. The world needs a sustainable energy mix - with nuclear power. (orig.)

  17. Conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ronny; Furois, Timothee; Nolte, Nico; Lanoe, Frederic; Lehmann-Matthaei, Bjoern; Ifflaender, Andree; Courcambeck, Alexandre; Giese, Norbert; Kavafyan, Philippe; Bjaert, Niels; Wagner, Andreas; Guillet, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the planning and authorisation procedures implemented in both countries and on the installation, connection to the grid and maintenance of offshore wind turbines. environmental impacts and usage conflicts linked with offshore wind farms exploitation were addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Update: Offshore Wind In Germany (Ronny Meyer); 2 - Offshore wind development in France (Timothee Furois); 3 - The Licensing Procedure for Offshore Wind Farms in the German EEZ (Nico Nolte); 4 - Spatial Planning and Permitting in France: What leverage for more efficiency? (Frederic Lanoe); 5 - Results of 10 years environmental research on FINO-platforms (Bjoern Lehmann-Matthaei); 6 - Offshore Grid Connection - Status Quo and Overview (Andree Ifflaender); 7 - Grid connection of Offshore Wind in France: Situation, perspectives and recommendations (Alexandre Courcambeck); 8 - Controlling risks and warranting safety: Best practices for the installation, exploitation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines (Norbert Giese); 9 - Offshore wind Bremerhaven experience: An essential asset for the development of a complete Wind Offshore industry in France (Philippe Kavafyan); 10 - Standardizing and Cost Reduction -Lessons Learned from London Array (Niels Bjaert); 11 - Offshore Wind energy in Germany: System Benefits and Cost Reduction Potentials. Presentation of study results from prognos/fichtner and Fraunhofer-IWeS (Andreas Wagner); 12 - Offshore Wind energy financing - opportunities and risks (Jerome Guillet)

  18. Environment and environmental policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meroth, P.; Moltke, K. von.

    1987-01-01

    The subject 'environment' is a central problem of all human societies, which has increased to such an extent with progressive industrialisation that today it has a similar significance to the sectors 'safety' and 'economy'. In this respect it is an international topic - and this as far as environmental resources such as air and water and, correspondingly also environmental pollution, know no national boundaries. International interdependence becomes here the fateful question of all humanity. The work attempts to inform about the environmental situation, which is difficult to fathom, and the discussion in the Federal Republic of Germany in such a way that the mutual problems also become debatable internationally. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. The uranium supply situation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1978-01-01

    The increasing demand for uranium in the Federal Republic of Germany cannot be covered by endogenous uranium deposits, and will continue to depend very largely on imports. Supplies may be endangered if the policy of subsidising the prospecting activities of the mining companies is discontinued, if supplier countries apply prohibitive uranium policies (prohibition of exploitation and of export), and if no new, large uranium deposits are discovered. Prospecting for uranium must therefore be continued and intensified. Low-grade uranium deposits are of particular interest, and new methods (e.g., leaching) should be developed for their exploitation. (orig.) [de

  20. Report: environmental assessment of Darmstadt (Germany) municipal waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaityte, Ingrida; Denafas, Gintaras; Jager, Johannes

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this study was the emissions from waste incineration plants using Darmstadt (Germany) waste incineration plant as an example. In the study the emissions generated by incineration of the waste were considered using three different approaches. Initially the emissions from the waste incineration plant were assessed as part of the impact of waste management systems on the environment by using a Municipal Solid Waste Management System (MSWMS) assessment tool (also called: LCA-IWM assessment tool). This was followed by a comparison between the optimal waste incineration process and the real situation. Finally a comparison was made between the emissions from the incineration plant and the emissions from a vehicle.

  1. The international economic position of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strube, J.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of a clear increase in the domestic demands the German industry has been investing about 175 billion marks abroad during the past decade. These investments abroad have not necessarily been undermining the economic status of the Federal Republic of Germany but can rather be explained by the importance of the market proximity to foreign locations. In the first place, the German industry's foreign investments reveal the efficiency and competiveness of the companies which have been succeeding in establishing themselves on the markets in Europe and outside of Europe and in qualifying the domestic industry for the world market. (orig.) [de

  2. The future of Germany as an industrial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzler, H.

    1994-01-01

    The future of Germany as an industrial depends on its overcoming of few central challenges. The responsible politicians are quite aware of this. Topping the agenda is the fight against the causes of unemployment. We can say that the two main factors responsible for this are cost pressure and the sluggishness of our economy. Unit labour costs in the processing industry give an impressive illustration of the prevailing cost pressure. It becomes evident here that German personel expenditure cannot compete internationally. (orig./UA) [de

  3. Consequences for Germany arising from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station resulted in additional radiation exposure in Germany in the range of variance of the natural background exposure. Adequate measures were taken, and recommendations expressed, to ensure that the additional radiation exposures remained within the range of variation also in regions with higher exposures. The epidemiological studies conducted after the accident indicated no detectable health impacts as a consequence of the additional exposures. A Radiation Protection Provision Act passed in the meantime has helped to repair the inadequacies recognized during the event in the areas of environmental radioactivity monitoring and provisions for such occurrences (limits, measures to be taken). (orig.) [de

  4. Technology transfer assessment in the nuclear agreement Brazil-Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchi, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    The three main arguments utilized in the Nuclear Brazil-Germany Agreement celebrated in 1975 were the following: a) the low Brazilian hydroelectric potential insufficient to attend the increasing of electrical energy demand; b) the low cost of nuclear energy related to hydroelectric energy: c) and finally, the nuclear technology transfer, involving inclusive the fuel cycle and that could permit to Brazil self-sufficiency in the nuclear energy field. Thus, this work intends to describe and discussing the 'technology transfer strategy' trying to understand and showing which are its main characteristics, and also which are the real actuals results. (author) [pt

  5. Mammography screening in Germany: how, when and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, U.

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known from several large randomized trials that regular mammography screening can reduce breast cancer mortality. While in many countries mammography screening programs have been in existence for quite some time, an organized population-based screening program is only now being implemented in Germany. In this review article, the different elements of a mammography screening program and their effect on the cost-benefit ratio are discussed and the planned German screening program is compared to the international programs. (orig.)

  6. [Surgical research in Germany--an international comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, V; Rothmund, M

    2010-04-01

    Surgical research in Germany occupies a lower position in international ranking than expected. According to the size of the population, the economic impact, the gross domestic product and the research funding capacity, the impact of German surgical research should be much higher. Reasons are a more intensive commitment to patient care, structural differences and a changing lifestyle in younger doctors in comparison to many leading countries. If the situation is to be improved all factors have to be evaluated and, if possible, changed. Overall, German surgeons are underrepresented as readers and authors in the scientific market, which is mostly in the English language.

  7. Apartment price determinants : A comparison between Sweden and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anop, Sviatlana

    2015-01-01

    Similar development of economic fundamentals in Germany over the last two decades did not lead to the same dramatic house price increases as it is in Sweden. What can explain this house price stability over a long period? This thesis attempts to find the answer this question. The first paper in this thesis contains an extended literature review on the studies focused on the factors affecting house prices in the short and in the long run. Existing literature adopts a broad variation of approac...

  8. PMCT investigation of mummified forensic evidence from medieval Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kranioti, Elena

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo estimate the sex of a set of mummified right hands from Medieval Germany with the aid of non-invasive Computed Tomography in an effort to shed light to these people's identities. These hands were initially thought to belong to thieves, robbers or impertinent children that were punished by amputation. Recent research identified them in the literature as “Leibzeichen”, body members of unknown individuals murdered in the late middle Ages that represented the dead person in court.Mat...

  9. Voting preferences of outpatients with chronic mental illness in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullenkamp, Jens; Voges, Burkhard

    2004-12-01

    Outpatients with chronic mental illness living in therapeutic residential facilities in Mannheim, Germany (N=110) responded to an opinion poll to determine their voting preferences for the 2002 federal election to the Bundestag. The poll found that the outpatients were significantly more likely than the general population in Mannheim to prefer left-wing parties (78 percent compared with 56 percent). This finding is in contrast to earlier reports; however, it seems to better reflect common beliefs about the political preferences of this population. In conclusion, persons with chronic mental illness seem to prefer political parties that they believe will best serve their perceived specific interests.

  10. Germany's foreign trade with nuclear products, 1979-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The survey on the foreign trade of the Federal Republic of Germany with nuclear-technical products which was set up by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) shows for 1981 (with comparative figures for 1979 and 1980) an increase by 35.5% or from 0,5 billion DM to 2.1 billion DM if compared to the previous year while there had been a regression by 23.2%, 0.5 billion DM resp. from 1979 to 1980. (orig./UA) [de

  11. Policing and Islamophobia in Germany: The Role of Workplace Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Mescher

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study starts from a recognition that the German police have a significant potential to promote integration in contemporary multiethnic Germany. It employs three measures of Islamophobic attitudes and contact quality amongst a sample of 727 German police officers, and relates these to measures of job satisfaction, political affiliation, individual responsibility, and recognition. The data reveal Islamophobia to be significantly linked to these variables. Detailed analyses indicate that the respondents’ experience of policing may produce levels of dissatisfaction that impacts upon their outgroup attitudes. The implications of this for initiatives to promote police-Muslim relations are explored.

  12. Nuclear energy research in Germany 2008. Research centers and universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromm, Walter

    2009-01-01

    This summary report presents nuclear energy research at research centers and universities in Germany in 2008. Activities are explained on the basis of examples of research projects and a description of the situation of research and teaching in general. Participants are the - Karlsruhe Research Center, - Juelich Research Center (FZJ), - Dresden-Rossendorf Research Center (FZD), - Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), - Technical University of Dresden, - University of Applied Sciences, Zittau/Goerlitz, - Institute for Nuclear Energy and Energy Systems (IKE) at the University of Stuttgart, - Reactor Simulation and Reactor Safety Working Group at the Bochum Ruhr University. (orig.)

  13. Ectrodactyly and Germany's eugenics law of 14 July 1933

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Roland; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt

    2002-01-01

    The family reported herein serves as a genetically and historically important vignette on the issues of nonpenetrance (versus germinal mosaicism) in nonsyndromic autosomal dominant ectrodactyly and the Eugenics Law of Germany of 14 July 1933, which was used to coerce the sterilization...... for an adopted daughter, the propositus was childless. His two affected brothers each had an affected child, and the father- to son transmission confirmed the hypothesis of autosomal dominant inheritance. The issue of nonpenetrance versus germinal mosaicism in ectrodactyly was debated by Auerbach [1956:Ann Hum...

  14. Economical and strategical aspects of Brazilian-Germany nuclear agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1981-01-01

    The strategical and economical aspects of Brazilian-Germany nuclear agreement are analyzed in three aspects: 1) The nuclear agreement in the context of the Brazilian economic - and social development process, considering the availability of energetic resouces of the country. Political implications. Considerations about creation and transfer of technology. 2) The economy aspects involved in the agreement. Comparison costs of electrical energy generated in a nuclear power plants and hydroelectric plant in Brazil. Impacts on the industrial development. 3) Strategical aspects. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Competition policy for health care provision in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifmann, Mathias

    2017-02-01

    Since the 1990s, Germany has introduced a number of competitive elements into its public health care system. Sickness funds were given some freedom to sign selective contracts with providers. Competition between ambulatory care providers and hospitals was introduced for certain diseases and services. As competition has become more intense, the importance of competition law has increased. This paper reviews these areas of competition policy. The problems of introducing competition into a corporatist system are discussed. Based on the scientific evidence on the effects of competition, key lessons and implications for future policy are formulated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mathematicians fleeing from Nazi Germany individual fates and global impact

    CERN Document Server

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The emigration of mathematicians from Europe during the Nazi era signaled an irrevocable and important historical shift for the international mathematics world. Mathematicians Fleeing from Nazi Germany is the first thoroughly documented account of this exodus. In this greatly expanded translation of the 1998 German edition, Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze describes the flight of more than 140 mathematicians, their reasons for leaving, the political and economic issues involved, the reception of these emigrants by various countries, and the emigrants' continuing contributions to mathematics. The inf

  17. A case of pharyngeal diphtheria in Germany, June 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A; Meinel, D M; Schaffer, A; Ziegler, R; Pitteroff, J; Konrad, R; Sing, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    In June 2015, a 45-year-old man suffering from acute necrotic tonsillitis and throat phlegmon was hospitalized in Nuremberg, Germany. After emergency surgery the patient was initially treated with antibiotics. A throat swab grew a toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar mitis strain. The patient's vaccination status was not documented and the patient was tested serologically for anti-diphtheria antibodies showing no protective immunity. Extensive control investigations were performed by the local health department showing no likely source of his infection. No secondary cases were found and the patient completely recovered.

  18. Food irradiation developments in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Professor Diehl from Karlsruhe describes work in the Federal Republic of Germany, based on 30 years of research work at the Centre for Nutrition at Karlsruhe. The replacement of toxic chemical preservatives by irradiation is an attractive possibility and permission for commercial spice irradiation is expected later this year. Promising results had been demonstrated for onions, tropical fruits, fish, shrimps, certain meats and enzymes. Prolonged wholesomeness studies has failed to reveal detrimental health effects up to 50 kGy. In spite of certain adverse political and emotional pressures the author is convinced that food irradiation will be permitted in all E.E.C. countries in the not too distant future

  19. Accident management for PWRs in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heili, F.; Lecomte, C.; L'Homme, A.

    1991-11-01

    The results of risk analyses, research and particularly the two severe accidents in the nuclear power plants TMI-2 and Chernobyl let to a worldwide re-examination of all aspects dealing with the capability to cope with severe accidents. Strategies have been developed or are under development providing actions that can be taken to prevent severe accidents or to mitigate their consequences. Those strategies are investigated and discussed using the term 'accident management'. The purpose of this report is to present the respective views in France and Germany and to point out differences and commonalties of the approaches. This report also includes proposals for further work

  20. Wartime nuclear weapons research in Germany and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunden, Walter E; Walker, Mark; Yamnazaki, Masakatsu

    2005-01-01

    This article compares military research projects during the Second World War to develop nuclear weapons in Germany and Japan, two countries who lost the war and failed to create nuclear weapons. The performance and motivations of the scientists, as well as the institutional support given the work, is examined, explaining why, in each case, the project went as far as it did-but no further. The story is carried over into the postwar period, when the two cultures and their scientists had to deal with the buildup of nuclear weapons during the cold war and the new nuclear power industry.

  1. [Current epidemiological status of salmonellosis of humans in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, H; Rabsch, W; Liesegang, A

    1994-02-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi B have special epidemiological significance. However, the enteritis caused by Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium dominates. A complex typing of these serovars is the prerequisite for both, an effective surveillance of salmonellosis and the detection of occurring replacements and variations of the pathogens. The increasing occurrence of Salmonella in spices since 1993 is epidemiologically remarkable. In this connection, serotypes such as Salmonella javiana, S. rubislaw, and monophasic, KCN-positive serovars dominate. The transmission route man-man is of no special epidemiological importance at present in Germany.

  2. The compensation of damage in Germany following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eich, W.

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the workshop on the indemnification of damage in the event of a nuclear accident, this paper presents the proceeding of the the discussion on the compensation of damage in Germany following the Chernobyl accident. This paper presents also the national experiences and opinions, a documentation of the Federal Office of Administration on the topic, the example of Tokai-mura accident third party liability and compensation and the third party liability in the field of nuclear law in Ireland. (A.L.B.)

  3. Germany's Metamorphosis: Memory and the Holocaust in the Berlin Repulic

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Alison

    2013-01-01

    I want to focus on two recent debates in Germany from the same inaugural period of Germany’s SPD–Green government, which both have as their focus the contestation of memory in relation to the Holocaust. In both debates the Holocaust serves as a negative myth of origin and a primal phantasmatic scene of guilt and shame around which German national identifications are organised. The first is the Walser–Bubis debate and the second the much more protracted but no less fierce debate about the buil...

  4. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in hunters from a district in Central Germany, 2013: a cross-sectional study providing evidence for the benefit of protective gloves during disembowelling of wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielke, A; Ibrahim, V; Czogiel, I; Faber, M; Schrader, C; Dremsek, P; Ulrich, R G; Johne, R

    2015-10-22

    In Germany, 17% of the general human population have antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) (recomLine HEV-IgG/IgM immunoassay [Mikrogen GmbH]). Wild boars represent an animal reservoir for HEV genotype 3, which is the common genotype in Germany. We estimated the seroprevalence among hunters with contact to wild boars to identify factors that may be associated with past or present HEV infection. In 2013, the local veterinarian authority in a district in Central Germany attended meetings of hunters who provided blood specimens and completed a questionnaire collecting information on age, sex, hunting-related activities and consumption of wild boar meat. Specimens of wild boars were taken during drive hunts in this district during the season 2012/2013. All specimens were tested for HEV RNA and anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for the hunters. Of 126 hunters (median age 55; 94% male) 21% tested positive for anti-HEV IgG antibodies (95% confidence interval [CI] 13-28%) (recomWell HEV IgG assay [Mikrogen GmbH]). Anti-HEV prevalence was highest in the age group of the 70-79-year-olds (67%; 95% CI 39-95%). Wild boars showed an average anti-HEV prevalence of 41%. HEV RNA was detected in 4/22 (18%) liver specimens and in 1/22 (4.5%) muscle specimens. Most wild boars were tested positive for HEV RNA (3/10; 30%) and HEV-specific antibodies (7/15; 47%) in the southwestern part of the district. Hunters preferring this hunting ground had a lower anti-HEV prevalence when gloves were frequently used during disembowelling of wild boars compared to hunters using gloves never or infrequently (age-adjusted PR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.86). Hunters may benefit from wearing gloves when in contact with blood or body fluids of HEV animal reservoirs. Anti-HEV prevalence among the hunters of this study did not significantly differ from that of the general population suggesting that other factors play a major role in the

  5. Plutonium recycling in LWRs in F.R. Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibbert, H.J.; Huber, J.; Winnik, S.

    1988-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, there is strong commitment to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and reprocessing spent fuel. Increasing amounts of plutonium are supplied by reprocessing contractors in relationship to the increasing volume of spent fuel discharged annually in the FRG helped by increasing capacities of the reprocessing facilities. In the 1960s, utilities and the nuclear industry in Germany, supported by government-funded programs, started to investigate the possibilities for use of Pu as a fissile material in BWRs, PWRs and PHWRs. These efforts led to the design and manufacture of BWR, PWR and PHWR Mox fuel assemblies which were operated not only in test reactors but also in several commercial power plants. Due to the considerable investments necessary for the Pu processing and Mox fuel fabrication system which are compounded by German licensing requirements, the specific fabrication cost for Mox fuel assemblies is determined largely by plant throughput. A major achievement of the Utility-Industry Cooperation Program was to show that, after its completion, an Alkem throughput will have been achieved that yields overall LWR Mox fuel assembly costs comparable to those of uranium fuel assemblies. For the Alkem throughput expected for the late 1990s, model calculations show an overall cost advantage for the LWR Mox fuel assembly over the LWR uranium fuel assembly of almost a factor of two. This represents a significantly positive Pu equivalence value. 2 refs., 1 fig

  6. Technical and economical aspects of wind energy applications in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durstewitz, M.; Hoppe-Kilpper, M.; Kleinkauf, W. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V., Kassel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The use of renewable energy for the continuously growing global population is becoming increasingly important. These forms of energy not only broaden the urgently needed resource base, but are also free from emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} etc. The Federal German Government early recognized this and has provided more than DEM 4000 million for this purpose since 1973. Together with Japan and the USA, Germany belongs to the three leading nations in the world in R and D on the application of renewable energy. It has by far the largest and most broadly based programme in Europe. The technical and economical progress of wind power is very promising in Germany. It has scale demonstration programme `250 MW Wind`. Since 1991 another important impetus has been the sources (wind power presently 0.1728 DEM/kWh). In 1994, the rated wind power capacity was doubled to 643 MW. Electricity production in 1994 was around 1000 million kWh or 0.2 % of total German electricity production. The often discussed goal of producing one or more per cent of the German electricity by wind power seems to be attainable on a medium time scale by modern medium scale wind turbines or even large scale turbines. This is based on the promise that various nontechnical barriers will be overcome. (author)

  7. [Oral health in adult athletes with intellectual disabilities in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, A G; Kaschke, I; Bissar, A

    2011-05-01

    In 2008 the summer games of Special Olympics Germany took place in Karlsruhe, Germany. The athletes were offered on site the opportunity to have a voluntary and free dental examination. The examinations were performed by dental clinicians in rooms which were equipped with dental chairs. Data were collected following the criteria of WHO. 420 adult athletes took part in the dental examination. Their age ranged between 18 and 70 years and their mean age was 30.8 years. Nearly two thirds of the participants were males. The caries prevalence of the athletes was 90.8% (95% confidence interval 86.9-92.8%). The mean DMFT value was 9.4. Athletes who were living with their families had a significantly lower mean DMFT value than those living in an institution. In 22.1% of the examined athletes at least one fissure sealed tooth was observed. 58.8% presented with gingivitis and 21% had received prosthodontic care. 95% of the athletes brushed their teeth alone. Only 28% used an electric toothbrush. Less than 7% used regularly a gel with high fluoride concentration. This study shows that persons with intellectual disability still have a poorer oral health than the general population. In order to improve dental health and quality of life in persons with intellectual disability, efficient preventive programmes should be developed and applied in cooperation with parents, relatives and caregivers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Use of Homeopathy in Pediatric Oncology in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Längler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy is a frequently used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatment. We present results comparing responses of homeopathy users (HUs and users of other forms of CAM (NHUs in pediatric oncology (PO in Germany. Differences between these two groups (usage, associated demographic characteristics, previous experience with CAM are investigated. 186 (45.2% of the 367 CAM users were exposed to homeopathy. The treatment duration amounted to a median of 601 days for HUs and 282 days for NHUs. Parents with p (127; 76.5% also used homeopathy for their child's cancer. Nonmedical practitioners played a considerably greater role as source of information than did treating physician. In the majority HUs received their prescriptions from nonmedical practitioners (56%; 29.4% of NHUs. HUs communicate more frequently with their physicians about the CAM-use (77.7% versus 65.2% and recommend CAM more often than NHUs (94% versus 85.6%. Homeopathy is the most frequently used CAM treatment in PO in Germany. HUs sustain treatment and therapies considerably longer than NHUs. Most families who had used homeopathy before their child was diagnosed with cancer also used homeopathy for the treatment of their child's cancer. Compared to other CAM treatments, patient satisfaction with homeopathy appears to be very high.

  9. Nuclear fuels for the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    21 nuclear power plants are currently in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany, providing more than one third of the electric power consumed in the country. Approximately 3000 tonnes of natural uranium are needed each year to keep up their constant and reliable operation. Expensive pretreatment and processing steps must be taken before the energy enclosed in natural uranium can be liberated in the reactor and transformed into electricity in the nuclear power plant. Questions of safe raw material supply, technological efficiency, and economic optimization must therefore be satisfactorily solved for nuclear fuels if nuclear energy is to assume its role successfully as a reliable and inexpensive source of electric power. Where do we stand in this respect in the Federal Republic of Germany? What are the country's world-wide connections like? Are we exploiting the potential of the nuclear fuel cycle as best we can? And for what future developments should we already prepare ourselves? Renowned specialists and experts in high places answered these and other questions at the 1987 winter meeting of the 'Deutsches Atomforum', held at Bonn on January 27th and 28th. This conference volume once more summarizes and documents the reports. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 13 lectures. (orig./UA) [de

  10. A survey of nuclear power plant safety in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This report elaborated and published by the GRS is intended as information to the general public, presenting a comprehensive survey of facts and activities ensuring technical operational safety of the nuclear power plants in Germany. The report initially describes the functions and responsibilities of the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), and from this perspective sets out the scientific and technical information explaining the current safety standards and the safety status of the nuclear power plants. Readers will find well-arranged, descriptive information on facts and data drawn from the evaluation of the power plants' operating results regularly carried out by the GRS, as well as an overview of engineered or other reactor safety improvements achieved in the last few years in line with the advanced state of the art in nuclear science and technology. In addition, readers are given insight into the practical work of GRS, enabling them to reconstruct the approaches taken and the conclusions drawn in the context of practice, so as to gain a complete picture of all the (cross-disciplinary) activities performed in Germany for maintaining the high standards in nuclear power plant safety. (orig./CB) [de

  11. [Regionalisation of Germany by data of agricultural structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Roswitha; Busse, Marc; Rechter, Galina; Meer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    In order to simplify the design of representative studies in animal populations the structural differences of animal husbandry (cattle, pigs and laying hens) in Germany were characterised. Several regions were defined and thus districts identified which are typical for the respective region and can be regarded as representatives for the whole region. Data on animal husbandry as well as human population per district originated from the Federal Statistical Office and were linked to the geometric data of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy. By this, data of "livestock units/square kilometre area" and "farms/square kilometre area" per district were calculated using methods of the spatial statistics Global Moran's Index, Anselin Local Moran's Index and Getis-Ord Gi*. With the help of these analyses six clusters could be identified which resulted in four large (Middle, Northwest, East, and South) and one smaller region (Northern Upper-Rhine) respecting the federal state borders. These regions differed significantly regarding animal and farm densities. The selection of typical districts was carried out with the help of the respective animal and farm data of the species pigs, dairy cattle and laying hens. The means of the selected districts (three to six per region) were within the 60%- and the 80%-percentile of at least two of the analysed variables. Concerning the region Northern Upper-Rhine no representative district was selected. This presented regionalisation including representative districts can be used for the design of scientific studies that are associated with animal husbandry in Germany.

  12. Germany's energy turnaround. A joint venture for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Ethics Committee is sure that nuclear phaseout will be possible within a decade with the energy turnaround measures presented here. Nuclear phaseout is considered necessary and is recommended with the intention to prevent the risk of nuclear power in Germany and to use less risky technologies. The competitive standing of the German industry should not be affected. Science and research, new technologies and the readiness of German industrial organizations to develop new business models for a sustainable economy provides Germany with alternatives, i.e. wind power, solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, biomass, efficient energy use and higher energy efficiency, as well as fossil fuels used with low emissions of climate-relevant gases. Further, a changed human lifestyle with more respect of nature will help to save energy. In the first stage of nuclear phaseout, nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned. Of course, the Ethics Committee is aware that after this stage, there will be long years of intensive work of shielding, saveguarding and finally dismantling.

  13. RISE OF MOBILITY PROGRAMS IN GERMANY DUE TO GLOBALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Poppe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning has come to the front position of the educational agenda in many countries of the world – the knowledge society, learning society, learning organization and so forth are the common terms now in the 21st century. The terms come into view in countless publications of the European Union and of many other countries in and outside the European Community. The learning society is one of the products of globalisation and knowledge, learning and education are intertwined with global capitalism. Education is considered as a servant to global capitalism, enabling trans-boundary companies to gather more effectively in the knowledge society. Learning has become to a central task in governmental education policy in many countries and it is being treated as investment – adding value to human and social capital, resulting in employability and then in work, which makes an even greater distribution to the economy, rather than being treated as a natural human process that results in the improvement of people as human beings. Profound changes are taking place as a result of globalisation that is affecting the whole of the educational institution. The objective of this contribution is to present Germany on its way to a knowledge society by examining the past and the present situation of Germany concerning mobility and furthermore mobility programs.

  14. G8 Global Partnership: Germany's contribution to strengthening international security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffernoschke, A.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the German contribution to the G8 Global partnership whose aim is to support specific cooperation projects to address non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear safety issues. 4 priorities have been identified: -) destruction of chemical weapons, -) dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines, -) disposition of fissile materials, and -) employment of former weapon scientists. Today there are 23 donor countries and 2 official recipient countries (Russian Federation and Ukraine). Since the beginning Germany's activities in the G8 Global partnership have focused on chemical weapon destruction (340 million euros), dismantlement of nuclear submarines (600 million euros) and physical protection of nuclear materials (170 million euros). In the Gorny project (1995-2005) German provided the incinerator for the thermal treatment of liquid and solid residues and the equipment for destruction by hydrolysis. Germany's contribution to the following projects: -) the Kambarka project (2003-2007) for the destruction of lewisite, -) the Pochep project (2007-2010) for the destruction of munition containing nerve agents, and -) the Sajda-Bay project for the construction of a long-term storage site for reactor sections of decommissioned submarines, are detailed

  15. Perinatal mortality in Bavaria, Germany, after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, B. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Irl, C. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Schoetzau, A. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Santen, E. van [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    As has been shown by the authors of a paper recently published in this journal, a deviation from a long-term trend in perinatal mortality within the former Federal Republic of Germany occurred in 1987, i.e. 1 year following the Chernobyl disaster. It is the aim of this study to make a comparison between the areas of the state Bavaria, Germany, with different fallout levels as well as between the observed and expected numbers of perinatal deaths relating to these areas. The expected numbers of perinatal deaths, defined as external standard, were derived from the remainder of the former FRG. Testing an a priori formulated hypothesis revealed no differences in the temporal development of perinatal mortality between the areas with different fallout levels and subsequent exposures. Including May 1986 into the analysis revealed a significant increase during the first 3 months after the accident, which is due to an excess in May alone. Since no elevated radiation risks for the last days in utero are known, the additional Chernobyl radiation exposure is not plausible as a causative agent. Further analyses on stillbirths showed an increase in Southern Bavaria during the first 2 years following the accident. Later on, the rates were comparable to the expected values again. (orig.). With 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Key Aspects of a Sustainable Health Insurance System in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, Matthias; Hagemann, Vera; Laporte Uribe, Franziska

    2016-06-01

    The main goals of health-care systems are to improve the health of the population they serve, respond to people's legitimate expectations, and offer fair financing. As a result, the health system in Germany is subject to continuous adaption as well as public and political discussions about its design. This paper analyzes the key challenges for the German health-care system and the underlying factors driving these challenges. We aim to identify possible solutions to put the German health-care system in a better position to face these challenges. We utilize a broad array of methods to answer these questions, including a review of the published and grey literature on health-care planning in Germany, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in the system, and an online questionnaire. We find that the most urgent (and manageable) aspects that merit attention are holistic hospital planning, initiatives to increase (administrative) innovation in the health-care system, incentives to increase prevention, and approaches to increase analytical quality assurance. We found that hospital planning, innovation, quality control, and prevention, are considered to be the topics most in need of attention in the German health system.

  17. [Tobacco control politics in Germany. Evidence, success, and barriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2010-02-01

    Structural measures of tobacco prevention are effective and cost-efficient measures to reduce tobacco consumption and the related health and economic consequences. However, Germany has been very reluctant in implementing tobacco control laws for several decades. Only recently has Germany increased its efforts in tobacco control, which has resulted in a decrease of tobacco consumption and in a decrease of smoking rates, especially in youths. This paper summarizes the evidence-based measures of tobacco prevention as well as the progress of recent German tobacco control policies. Finally, the barriers of further effective tobacco control policies are discussed and illustrated with examples. For decades, politics gave in to pressure and influence of lobbyists of the strong tobacco industry, which deceived the public and politics for their economic interests and in order to establish a high social acceptance of smoking. In addition, there is the phenomenon of "denialism", which means the convinced denial of scientific findings regarding smoking and smoking prevention in opponents of tobacco control, who are not directly affiliated with the tobacco industry.

  18. Radiation exposure of nuclear medicine procedures in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine procedures offer the possibility to detect abnormalities on the basis of physiological and metabolic changes and to treat a growing number of diseases in human beings. However, the use of radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine examinations causes a significant component of the total radiation exposure of populations. In Germany it is an essential task of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection to determinate and assess radiation exposure of the population due to nuclear medicine diagnostics and therapy. An important input for this task is the frequency of nuclear-medical examinations with application of ionising radiation and the radiation exposure of patients related to the various procedures. Additional implementation of age- and gender-specific data today allows more exact risk stratification in focusing on different subgroups of patients. Moreover, the collective effective dose as well as the per caput effective dose of the German population may be estimated and compared with earlier collected data or foreign countries. These data reveal where the indication should be questioned particularly critically and if the dose for the various examinations can be reduced and, thus, contribute to the definition of diagnostic reference levels for nuclear medicine procedures in Germany with the aim of both a sufficient image quality and a minimum of radiation exposure. Exceeding the high- as well as the low-values requires documentation and explanation. (orig.)

  19. Energy for the future. New solutions - made in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Today we are once again in the middle of a new industrial and energy technology revolution. From a technology point of view, it is even a huge positive, as it opens up new markets for new and more energy and natural efficient solutions. Under this aspect, the paper under considerations consists of the following contributions: (a) From grassroots movement to political power; (b) Constructive experimentation; (c) Degrees for a green future (German universities offer a wide variety of courses in renewable energy); (d) Climbing the green career ladder (Diverse career opportunities in the renewable energy sector); (e) Natural power plants: Energy you can count on (German researchers successfully focus on the sun's energy); (f) Concentrated energy from the ocean (Dynamic development of wind energy in Germany); (g) Powerful waves and extraordinary treasures (German water experts are in demand all over the world); (h) Designer diesel and deep heat (Germany leads the fields in biofuels); (i) Sending the right signals (Climate protection as an opportunity for change); (k) Car today, bike tomorrow (Environmental psychologist Ellen Matthies); (l) The secret lies under the Bonnet (Hybrid technology paves the way for ''clean'' buses and trains); (m) Pioneering the ''silent'' car (Researchers put their foot on the accelerator for electromobility); (n) The school of the future (Students at RWTH Aachen University design an energy project for the classroom).

  20. The history of historical earthquake research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grünthal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the history of collecting and evaluating information on earthquakes in Germany. A rich literature mentioning historical and contemporary earthquakes has existed since the 16th century. Early earthquake catalogues began to appear in the middle of the 16th century, some of which report earthquakes in Germany dating back to the 9th century. Modern seismological views were introduced in connection with intense philosophical analysis of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, which was largely observed in Central Europe. The 19th century was characterized by a tremendous increase in detailed earthquake studies as well as earthquake compilations in the form of catalogues. The most comprehensive non-parametric catalogues were created in the middle of the 20th century, while the first digital parametric catalogues were published in the 1980s. This was also the time when critical studies on the re-interpretation of historical earthquakes began. Only in the 1990s was such analysis made in a systematic manner resulting in numerous publications and the current development of a modern earthquake catalogue.