WorldWideScience

Sample records for gm radon levels

  1. Radon levels in Oslo schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovlev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radon measurements using passive CR-39 detectors have been conducted in all schools in Oslo municipality during winter 2003/2004. Results are presented and discussed in the light of qualitative and quantitative factors, some of which are specific for schools as workplaces. Analysis is conducted with respect to factors relating to building construction type, ventilation principle, age of building, building size etc. The influence of ventilation type on radon levels is studied, and problems of investigations based purely on conventional passive radon detectors are noted. Over-estimation of radon concentration by passive detectors and day-night variations of indoor radon levels in buildings with mechanical ventilation systems are discussed. Several guiding principles for planning similar investigations based on above discussions are outlined. (author)

  2. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Deyuan

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  3. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radon-resistant features. These features include gravel and plastic sheeting below the foundation, along with proper sealing ... lower the radon level. Detailed information about radon reduction in your home or building can be found ...

  4. The control of radon levels in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarallah, M. B. I.

    2007-01-01

    The article speaks about radon entry ways to houses, the technologies of controlling the level of radon in indoors and four possible ways to solve the problem of high concentration of radon gas in housing and protection from being gathered to a certain extent that is harmful to health. These methods are: removal of the radon source, modifying the radon source, ventilation and air filtration. The article also addresses the impact of reducing the consumption of heating energy in homes and buildings using thermal insulators in floors, walls, ceilings and doors and making double glazed windows that confine the air. It has been proven that there is a steady relationship between energy conservation measures in housing and the increase of radon concentration by two to three times. In a lot of buildings, where conservation measures have been taken, materials to conserve heat are used, which themselves launch radon and this may lead to increased levels of the gas in the housing.

  5. Investigation of radon level in Chongqing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chunzhen; Liu Jialie; Du Hengyan; Wang Ling; Li Yiwei

    2009-01-01

    Contents of radon in air in the urban district, building fields,diggings and hotel in Chongqing were investigated. Result shows that the mean concentration of radon is 10.8 Bq/m 3 in air in the urban district, and the mean concentration of radon is 1193 Bq/m 3 in soils on building fields. Radon level is obviously different in each of diggings, with the highest being in fluorite mine and the second in plumbum and zinc mine. The statistical mean value of radon concentration of 10 typles of diggings investigated is 65.2 Bq/m 3 , while the mean concentration of radon in fluorite mine is 369 Bq/m 3 , which is 35 times higher than in the urban area. The mean concentration of radon is 32.9 Bq/m 3 in eight hotels. (authors)

  6. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series, describes what radon is, where it is found, why it presents a risk to health, the official advice, and the remedies that are available to reduce radon levels. (author)

  7. Radon levels in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Planinic, J.

    2005-01-01

    Average radon concentrations in the air and geothermal water of spa pools in Croatia were 40.3 Bq/m 3 and 4.5 kBq/m 3 , respectively. Substantial difference between radon concentrations in pool and spring water is explained by the mixing normal and geothermal water in the pool and with radon decay. The estimated annual effective dose received by the personnel in the spa of Stubicke toplice, Croatia was 0.7 mSv. At the same location, the calculated transfer factor of radon for the air and thermal water in the pool was 4.9x10 -3 .(author)

  8. Indoor radon levels in coastal Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Indoor radon levels have been measured in selected dwellings of coastal Karnataka using LR-115 type II peelable films and it is found to vary from 28.4 to 45.6 Bq m -3 with a geometric mean value of 35.7 Bq m -3 . The annual effective dose equivalent to the population of the region due to inhalation of radon was estimated from the measured data on radon level and is found to be in the range 1.9 - 3.1 mSv y -1 with a mean value 2.4 mSv y -1 . The correlation between indoor radon level and radium content in the underlying soil were studied. No definite correlation was observed to exist between indoor radon level and radium content in soil. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Exposure to unusually high indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    Unusually high indoor radon concentrations were reported in a small village in western Tyrol, Austria. The authors have measured the seasonal course of indoor radon concentrations in 390 houses of this village. 71% of houses in winter and 33% in summer, showed radon values on the ground floor above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq/cm 3 . This proportion results in an unusually high indoor radon exposure of the population. The radon source was an 8,700-year-old rock slide of granite gneiss, the largest of the alpine crystalline rocks. It has a strong emanating power because its rocks are heavily fractured and show a slightly increased uranium content. Previous reports show increased lung cancer mortality, myeloid leukemia, kidney cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer resulting from indoor radon exposure. However, many studies fail to provide accurate information on indoor radon concentrations, classifying them merely as low, intermediate, and high, or they record only minor increases in indoor radon concentrations. Mortality data for 1970-91 were used to calculate age and sex standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 51 sites of carcinoma. The total population of Tyrol were controls. A significantly higher risk was recorded for lung cancer. The high SMR for lung cancer in female subjects is especially striking. Because the numbers were low for the other cancer sites, these were combined in one group to calculate the SMR. No significant increase in SMR was found for this group

  10. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  11. Measurements of radon levels inside Mexican caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borau, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.

    1993-01-01

    Living animal species on earth have been exposed to environmental radon from the very beginning of time. The effects of radiation, combined with other natural parameters such as temperature, humidity, salt contents, etc., have most likely influenced the evaluation of different species. Thus, it is important to know and to evaluate the radon levels, among other radioactive elements present in enclosed environments such as caves, especially since those caves were also the dwellings and refuge of the predecessor of man. In this work we present radon level measurements inside some caves with vestiges of ancient inhabitats and some recently discovered natural caves, using Nuclear Track Detectors. (author)

  12. Soil radon levels across the Amer fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, Ll.; Baixeras, C.; Moreno, V.; Bach, J.

    2008-01-01

    Soil radon levels have been measured across the Amer fault, which is located near the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, Spain. Both passive (LR-115, time-integrating) and active (Clipperton II, time-resolved) detectors have been used in a survey in which 27 measurement points were selected in five lines perpendicular to the Amer fault in the village area of Amer. The averaged results show an influence of the distance to the fault on the mean soil radon values. The dynamic results show a very clear seasonal effect on the soil radon levels. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the fault is still active

  13. Recommended action levels for radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The recommendation made by a group appointed by the Directorate of Public Health, arrives at the conclusion that radon in Norwegian dwellings implies a substantial health problem for the country. For this reason it is recommended that actions should be taken to reduce the radiation exposure from radon in Norway. Upper levels for such actions are set to 200 Bq/m 3 (radon in air of dwellings) for new contructions. For existing dwellings having concentrations of 200 - 800 Bq/m 3 , simple and unexpensive remedial actions to reduce levels are sufficient. When levels exceed 800 Bq/m 3 , more elaborate and costly actions are necessary. An evaluation of the extent of the radon problem in Norway is included, together with a survey of the cost and benefit involved in choosing various levels for remedial actions

  14. Indoor radon level measurements in Iran using AEOI passive dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Solaymanian, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A passive radon diffusion dosimeter was developed at the RPD of AEOI for nationwide indoor radon level measurements. Several parameters of the dosimeter were studied. Radon levels were determined in about 250 houses in Ramsar (a high natural radiation area), Tehran, Babolsar and Gonabad. In this paper, the results of some dosimeter parameters as well as radon levels in indoor air are reported

  15. Determination of radon levels in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena G, P.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the determination of radon levels in the houses room in Mexico City is part of the project Emanometry of the radon. To carry out this study, the passive method was used, which consists of: thin film dosemeter of cellulose nitrate, container of the same one and spark accountant. The method is based on the mensurations of exhibition of the number of marks of alpha track is of the open type and it allows to average the radon activity along several weeks and it presents low concentrations. This study was carried out in 4 periods of exhibition of 3 months each one. (Author)

  16. Geographical associations between radon and cancer: is domestic radon level a marker of socioeconomic status?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.P.; Stern, G.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showing a geographical association between radon and various cancers, particularly the leukaemias and lymphomas, appear to be confounded by the role of radon levels as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. Higher socioeconomic status (at least at the UK county level) is correlated with higher levels of domestic radon. Controlling for the relationship between socioeconomic status and radon removes the correlation between radon exposure and lymphoproliferative disease. Reported associations between radon and lymphoproliferative disease (and possibly other cancers) may be secondary to socioeconomic variables. (author)

  17. Radon levels in a water distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabdula'aly, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    The capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, relies on both desalinated sea water as well as treated groundwater to meet all its water requirements. About 66% of the water demand is met by desalinated sea water, and the remaining is supplied by six groundwater treatment plants located in the vicinity of the city and supplied with water from 161 wells. The desalinated sea water is blended with only one plant product water and pumped to the distribution network, whereas the other five plants product water is pumped directly to the network. A study of 222 Rn levels in the city distribution network was carried out in which 89 samples were collected from different locations representing the city districts. All samples have shown low radon levels with an average concentration of 0.2 Bq l -1 and a range values of 0.1-1.0 Bq l -1 . The level of radon in different parts of the network was found to be influenced by the water sources to which they are supplied. The lowest radon levels were observed in districts supplied mostly by desalinated sea water. (Author)

  18. Application of a radon model to explain indoor radon levels in a Swedish house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, LL.; Baixeras, C.; Joensson, G.; Enge, W.; Ghose, R.

    1999-01-01

    Radon entry from soil into indoor air and its accumulation indoors depends on several parameters, the values of which normally depend on the specific characteristics of the site. The effect of a specific parameter is often difficult to explain from the result of indoor radon measurements only. The adaptation of the RAGENA (RAdon Generation, ENtry and Accumulation indoors) model to a Swedish house to characterise indoor radon levels and the relative importance of the different radon sources and entry mechanisms is presented. The building is a single-zone house with a naturally-ventilated crawl space in one part and a concrete floor in another part, leading to different radon levels in the two parts of the building. The soil under the house is moraine, which is relatively permeable to radon gas. The house is naturally-ventilated. The mean indoor radon concentration values measured with nuclear track detectors in the crawl-space and concrete parts of the house are respectively 75±30 and 200±80 Bq m -3 . Results of the model adaptation to the house indicate that soil constitutes the most relevant radon source in both parts of the house. The radon concentration values predicted by the model indoors fall into the same range as the experimental results

  19. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M.

    1991-09-01

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of 222 Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  20. Indoor radon level in schools of Shillong, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, A.; Sharma, Y.; Maibam, D.; Walia, D.; Diengdoh, E.

    2010-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) in the atmosphere is the most important contributor to human exposure from natural sources. Radon is a noble inert gas; and it decays to radionuclides that are chemically active and relatively short lived. Inhalation of the short lived radon progeny imparts a radiation dose to the lung, to which an increased risk of lung cancer is attributed due to the alpha particle irradiation of the secretory and basal cells of the respiratory tract. The indoor radon concentration is dependent on the texture, porosity, permeability, water content of the soil underlying the structure and the radon behaviour in soils on aspects of geology and climate. The direct cause of high radon entry rates into structures exhibiting high indoor radon concentrations are fractures in bedrock formations, cracks in the soil, and similar inhomogeneities in the materials of the foundation of the structures. Other factors influencing indoor radon concentration includes exhalations from the walls and ceilings, building design and material, cracks and openings in the foundation of the buildings. The geological factors in the study area promote radon accumulation especially in buildings and dwellings. The world average annual effective dose in the indoor environments is 1.01 mSv.y -1 . The importance of radon level measurements in school buildings is of interest as children are more sensitive to radon exposure than adults. Hence, radon measurements in 10 schools have been undertaken in the present study

  1. Factors affecting radon levels in homes in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, D.R.; Phillips, B.G.; Van Netten, C.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia, Canada's most westerly province, has diverse geologic and climatic characteristics, making it a region where predicting radon gas level is quite complex. Data recently obtained for eleven (11) communities confirm an association between background terrestrial gamma radiation measurements and indoor radon levels in homes. Direct links between radon levels and other factors such as home design/construction features and heating/ventilation systems were observed in data for some communities, but not necessarily from the overall data. (author)

  2. Radon level and radon effective dose rate determination in Moroccan dwellings using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oufni, L.; Misdaq, M.A.; Amrane, M.

    2005-01-01

    Inhalation of radon ( 222 Rn) and its daughter product are a major source of natural radiation exposure. The measurement of radon activity in dwelling is assuming ever increasing importance. It is known from recent surveys in many countries that radon and its progeny contribute significantly to total inhalation dose and it is fairly established that radon when inhaled in large quantity causes lung disorder. Keeping this in view, the indoor radon activity level and radon effective dose rate were carried out in the dwellings of Beni-Mellal, Khouribgra and Ben Guerir cities, Morocco, using the solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) technique. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, we found that the 222 Rn effective dose rate in the studied dwellings ranges from 1.01 to 7.90mSvy -1 . The radon activity in the corresponding dwellings was found to vary from 40 to 532Bqm -3 . The radon activity has not only been found to vary with seasonal changes, but also with the age, the construction mode of houses, the ventilation conditions and with specific sites and geological materials

  3. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery that radon enters into residential and commercial structures and produces adverse health consequences to occupants thereof has raised issues for the real estate profession in connection with transactions involving affected structures. The legal responsibilities of real estate professionals in relation to such structures have not yet been clearly defined. Moreover, consistent and reliable testing methods and results, clear identification of circumstances where testing is necessary, and consensus as to health risks suggested by various radon levels have yet to be achieved. When these legal and technical questions are clarified, real estate buyer and sellers as well as agents and brokers will be greatly benefited

  4. The effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Reddy, T.A.; Socolow, R.

    1992-01-01

    In contradiction to the widely held assumption that ventilation is ineffective as a means of reducing indoor radon concentrations, experiments in a research house have shown that the basement radon level can be reduced by a factor of 5-10 using only natural ventilation. Measurements of the outdoor-basement pressure differential and the radon entry rate show that this unexpectedly large reduction in indoor radon levels is caused by two complementary physical processes. The first mechanism is the obvious one: dilution. Radon concentrations are lowered by the addition of uncontaminated outdoor air. The second mechanism is less evident: an open basement window reduces basement depressurisation. This decreases the rate at which radon-laden soil gas is drawn into the house. It was also found that the radon entry rate is a linear function of basement depressurisation up to a differential pressure of about 4 Pa, as would be expected for laminar soil gas flow; opening two basement windows approximately doubles the building air exchange rate and reduces the radon entry rate by up to a factor of 5. (author)

  5. Application of a radon model to explain indoor radon levels in a Swedish house

    CERN Document Server

    Font, L; Jönsson, G; Enge, W; Ghose, R

    1999-01-01

    Radon entry from soil into indoor air and its accumulation indoors depends on several parameters, the values of which normally depend on the specific characteristics of the site. The effect of a specific parameter is often difficult to explain from the result of indoor radon measurements only. The adaptation of the RAGENA (RAdon Generation, ENtry and Accumulation indoors) model to a Swedish house to characterise indoor radon levels and the relative importance of the different radon sources and entry mechanisms is presented. The building is a single-zone house with a naturally-ventilated crawl space in one part and a concrete floor in another part, leading to different radon levels in the two parts of the building. The soil under the house is moraine, which is relatively permeable to radon gas. The house is naturally-ventilated. The mean indoor radon concentration values measured with nuclear track detectors in the crawl-space and concrete parts of the house are respectively 75+-30 and 200+-80 Bq m sup - sup 3...

  6. Radon concentration levels in Fatima Jinnah women university Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Ali, S.; Tufail, A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Public exposure to radioactive gas radon and its progeny present in the air results in the largest contribution to total effective dose received by human beings. It is therefore of great concern to monitor radon concentration in energy conserved air tight buildings. Measurements of radon in the Fatima Jinnah Women University (FJWU) have been carried out for investigation and comparison of radon concentration in the new and old buildings of the campus at Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The study was done because according to the international guidelines concerning environmental problems, it is necessary to evaluate and know the radon levels, especially since most of the natural radiation dose to human beings comes from radon gas and its progeny. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) being efficient, therefore, the measurements were carried out by passive, time integrated method, using CR-39 detector in polythene bags. The detectors were exposed for more than six month in various locations indoors and outdoors. The detectors were etched using NaOH, the tracks were counted manually, and the track density was converted to radon concentration. Radon concentration varied from 31 to 213 Bq.m -3 in old building and from 27 to 143 Bq.m -3 in new buildings, showing slight elevated values in the old buildings. Radon concentration values were found to be less than the values quoted by radiation protection agencies. Radiation dose due to radon varied in the university campus depending on occupancy factor. (author)

  7. Utilisation of an Air-conditioning System to Control the Levels of Radon and Radon Progeny in a Workplace Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, F.

    2000-01-01

    From long-term real-time radon and radon progeny measurements taken in a relatively large retail store, cyclical patterns were evident, which were found to relate to the overriding influence of the timed air-conditioning system. Concentration of radon, radon progeny and the variability of F factor were found to depend significantly on the intermittent operation of this ventilation-air-conditioning system. After pressure equalisation remedial measures proved ineffective, the air-movement system was utilised to reduce the levels of radon and radon progeny to well within established norms applicable during working hours. It is demonstrated that the average levels for radon and radon progeny are reduced in absolute terms. This amounted to less than 12% of the general level, during designated work periods. Where air movement systems are already installed, as well as other circumstances, their regulation provides an economical solution to meeting legal and other standards for radon in the workplace. (author)

  8. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.

    1996-01-01

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  9. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S B; Langroo, R; Peggie, J R [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R G [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J M [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R.; Lyons, R.G.; James, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m -3 . The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  11. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  12. Establishing the level of exposure to radon gas in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karupa, Jackson Uakaningirua

    2016-04-01

    The main source of natural internal irradiation of man is radon and its decay products. In this study, the radon concentration levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia will be estimated using passive or active radon detector. The primary objective of the study is to measure and establish radon levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund of Namibia. Measurements will be carried out for the period of twelve months and after three months period the detectors will be exchanged for laboratory analysis. The results obtained from the study will reveal the concentration of radon in most of the selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia. Once Radon level is measured or identified, the results with data from work done in other environments in Africa and elsewhere will be compared. In case of high radon concentrations in dwelling, the occupants will be advised to ensure good ventilation practices as cost effective means of mitigation of indoor radon gas level in the area. (au)

  13. Characterization of radon levels in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the different types of monitoring and sampling techniques that can determine the radiation burden of the general public from radon and its decay products. This is accomplished by measuring the range and distribution of radon and radon decay products through broad surveys using simple and convenient integrating monitoring instruments. For in-depth studies of the behavior of radon decay products and calculation of the radiation dose to the lung, fewer and more intensive and complex measurements of the particle size distribution and respiratory deposition of the radon decay products are required. For diagnostic purposes, the paper describes measurement techniques of the sources and exhalation rate of radon and the air exchange inside buildings. Measurement results form several studies conducted in ordinary buildings in different geographical areas of the United States, using the described monitoring techniques, indicate that the occupants of these buildings are exposed to radon and radon decay product concentrations, varying by as much as a factor of 20

  14. Radon in Rented Accommodation and Variables Determining Its Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes in rented accommodation. In addition, buildings were registered for a series of variables describing building characteristics and used materials. The mean year value of the indoor radon level was 30.7 (1~250) Bq/m3. The indoor radon level exceeded 100...... Bq/m3 in 5.9% of the homes. Of the investigated variables, only homes in single-family terraced houses, were statistically significant. Approx. 75% of homes exceeding 100 Bq/m3 indoor radon level had levels between 100 and 200 Bq/m3 and 25% had indoor radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. Significant...... differences in indoor radon levels were found in homes located in multi-occupant houses. Additionally, the risk of indoor radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was the highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....

  15. Unusually amplified summer or winter indoor levels of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The ratios of winter/summer indoor radon levels for houses in different regions of the southern Appalachians are characterized by individual log-normal distributions with geometric means both above and below unity. In some counties and cities, subpopulations of houses have unusually exaggerated winter/summer ratios of indoor radon, as well as high indoor radon levels, during periods of either warm or cool weather. It is proposed that in many instances, houses are communicating with larger than normal underground reservoirs of radon-bearing air in hilly karst terrains; differences between the outdoor and underground air temperatures are believed to provide density gradients producing aerostatic pressure differences for seasonally directed underground transport and subsequently elevated indoor radon. These seasonal movements of air are analogous to the well-known underground chimney effects, which produce interzonal flows of air inside caves

  16. Unexpected levels and movement of radon in a large warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Espinosa, G.

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-track detectors, used in screening for radon, identified a large warehouse with levels of radon as high as 20 p Ci/l. This circumstance was unexpected because large bay doors were left open for much of the day to admit 1 8-wheeler trucks, and exhaust fans in the roof produced good ventilation. More detailed temporal and spatial investigations of radon and air-flow patterns were made with electret chambers, Lucas-cell flow chambers, tracer gas, smoke pencils and pressure sensing micrometers. An oval-dome shaped zone of radon (>4 p Ci/L) persisted in the central region of each of four separate bays composing the warehouse. Detailed studies of air movement in the bay with the highest levels of radon showed clockwise rotation of air near the outer walls with a central dead zone. Sub slab, radon-laden air ingresses the building through expansion joints between the floor slabs to produce the measured radon. The likely source of radon is air within porous, karst bedrock that underlies much of north-central Tennessee where the warehouse is situated

  17. Variation of radon levels in US homes with various factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.; Gromicko, N.

    1988-01-01

    A program combining 70,000 purchased and 3500 random selection-no charge measurements with extensive questionnaires is described. Methods for reducing biases in purchased measurements have been reasonably successful. Distributions are roughly lognormal with σ/sub g/ ≅ 3.0 but with an excess of very high measurements. Winter and spring-fall measurements average about 60 percent and 40 percent, respectively, higher than summer measurements. Basements average 2.5 times higher radon levels than upper floors. Tightening of homes since 1974 has increased radon levels by less than 10 percent, but well-weatherized houses have ∼ 40 percent higher levels than poorly weatherized houses. Open windows reduce levels by a factor of about 2.5. Low-cost newer houses have much lower levels than more expensive newer houses, but among older houses this is reversed. Low income families have substantially lower radon levels than average. There is little variation with education level. Nonsmokers have higher radon levels than smokers, but this seems to apply mainly to living rooms and dining rooms. Suburban houses have higher levels than urban, and rural houses have still higher levels. Owner-occupied houses have much higher levels than rented houses. Variations of radon levels with weatherization do not seem to be due to cost factors. A strategy for locating areas with high mean radon levels is described

  18. Normal and seasonally amplified indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; King, D.

    1995-01-01

    Winter and summer indoor radon measurements are reported for 121 houses in Freehold, New Jersey. When presented as winter:summer ratios of indoor radon, the data closely approximate a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean is 1.49. Freehold is located on the fairly flat coastal plain. The winter:summer ratios are believed to represent the norm for regions of the U.S. with cold winters and hot summers. The Freehold data set can be compared to corresponding data sets from other locations to suggest seasonal perturbations of indoor radon arising from unusual causes

  19. Development of a low-level radon reference chamber; Entwicklung einer Low-Level-Radon-Referenzkammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzmaier, Diana

    2013-01-04

    The naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas radon-222 exists worldwide in different activity concentrations in the air. During the decay of radon-222, decay products are generated which are electrically charged and attach to aerosols in the air. Together with the aerosols, the radon is inhaled and exhaled by humans. While the radon is nearly completely exhaled, ca. 20 % of the inhaled aerosols remain in the lungs in one breath cycle. Due to ionizing radiation, in a chain of events, lung cancer might occur. Consequently, radon and its decay products are according to the current findings the second leading cause of lung cancer. At the workplace and in the home measurements of radon activity concentration are performed to determine the radiation exposition of humans. All measurement devices for the determination of radon activity concentration are calibrated above 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}, even though the mean value of the present investigation in Germany shows only 50 Bq/m{sup 3}. For the calibration of measurement devices in the range below 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} over a long time period, the generation of a stable reference atmosphere is presented in this work. Due to a long term calibration (t>5 days) of the measurement devices, smaller uncertainties result for the calibration factor. For the calibration procedure, a so-called low-level radon reference chamber was set up and started operation. The generation of a stable reference atmosphere is effected by means of emanation sources which consist of a radium-226 activity standard. On the basis of {gamma}-spectrometry, the effective emanation coefficient ofthe emanation sources is determined. The traceability of the activity concentration in the reference volume is realized via the activity ofthe radium-226, the emanation coefficient and the volume. With the emanation sources produced, stable reference atmospheres within the range of 150 Bq/m{sup 3} to 1900 Bq/m{sup 3} are achieved. For the realization, maintenance and

  20. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin; Weng, Pao-Shan

    2000-01-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m 3 /day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m 3 , while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m 3 . Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  1. Indoor radon concentration levels in Amman, Zarka and Sault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatibeh, A.J.A.H.; Ahmad, N.; Matiullah, A.

    1997-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels in three main cities of Jordan have been measured using CR-39 polymeric nuclear track detectors. CR-39 detectors were placed in polyethylene bags and cups. These bag and cup dosimeters were installed in randomly selected houses. The average value of indoor radon concentration level in the city of Amman was found to be 41.3 Bq m -3 with cup dosimeters and 42.6 Bq m -3 with bag dosimeters. For the district of Zarka, the average value of indoor radon concentration level measured with bag dosimeters was 33.9 Bq m -3 , whereas with cup dosimeters the level was 30.7 Bq m -3 . For Sault and its suburbs, the average value of indoor radon concentration level was found to be 51.2 Bq m -3 with bag dosimeters and 49.8 Bq m -3 with cup dosimeters. (author)

  2. Effect of weatherization on radon levels in Maine dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Hill, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A study of radon concentration in the air of 30 Maine dwellings was performed before and after weatherization during November 1982-May 1983. The average radon (.75 pCi/1) was lower than a group of houses in a previous study in October 1980-May 1981 (3.1 pCi/1). The after-weatherization levels show an increase over the before-weatherization levels. Trailers were found to have lower radon concentrations than houses. The maximum value measured was 3.2 pCi/1 before and 6.2 pCi/1 after correction for season of exposure. 13 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  3. A new coating material for reducing indoor radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo, W.; Tokonami, S.; Ichitsubo, H.; Yamada, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In order to mitigate indoor radon level, a new fast-setting, solvent-free, polyurethane-based coating material was developed. The permeability of radon gas in the new material was estimated with a simple radon permeation test system set up in this study. It was found that the permeation velocity depended on the thickness of the coating material, and a thickness of 2.0 mm of the coating material seems sufficient for preventing radon permeation. The permeability of radon in the coating material was estimated to be (2.2± 0.8)x10 -10 m 2 ·s -1 for a thickness of about 1.0 mm. The value is much lower than those reported for membrane materials and caulking compounds. For its performance test, the coating material was used in an existing room with high radon level. By spraying a thickness of 1.5 mm of the material, the indoor radon level reduced by about 80%

  4. Experimental and theoretical study of radon levels in a house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameon, R.; Dupuis, M.; Marie, L.; Diez, O.; LionS, J.; Tymen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon being a radioactive gas of natural origin is omnipresent everywhere at the surface of earth. It is created by the radium decay issued from the uranium contained in the earth crust and more specifically in granitic and volcanic subsoils. Because of the dilution due to air masses, its concentration in open air is low. On the other hand, radon may accumulate in the confined atmosphere of buildings and achieve high concentration levels. Across France, it has been estimated that 300 000 individual dwellings present concentration higher than the French reference level of 400 Bq.m -3 and that 60 000 other ones would exhibit concentration above 1 000 Bq.m -3 , the French warning threshold. Indoor radon concentration may vary significantly for various reasons, including design of buildings, radium content and texture of the soil in contact with the building's slab and walls, the under pressure value between the inside and outside and the fresh air supply rate. These considerations have led the I.R.S.N. to develop a code called R.A.D.O.N. 2 for conducting simple and methodical studies of indoor radon concentrations, to take into account the above-mentioned factors. But, the achievement of an effective diagnosis and risk management -aiding tool requires to first check its validity on the phenomenological model at the origin of the code. A 3-year experimental follow-up was, thus, conducted within an unoccupied house built on an uranium-bearing geological formation. After characterization of the subsoil, the instrumentation was implemented on site to continuously monitor the following parameters: - the radon source term in the building (exhalation rate of 222 Rn at the ground/building interface and at soil surface, radon concentration at the soil and in outdoor air), - the radon penetration by advection (differential pressure in the house basement), - the driving mechanisms for natural ventilation in the house (weather conditions, indoor

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of radon levels in a house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameon, R.; Dupuis, M.; Marie, L.; Diez, O.; LionS, J. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-roses (France); Tymen, G. [LARAAH, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon being a radioactive gas of natural origin is omnipresent everywhere at the surface of earth. It is created by the radium decay issued from the uranium contained in the earth crust and more specifically in granitic and volcanic subsoils. Because of the dilution due to air masses, its concentration in open air is low. On the other hand, radon may accumulate in the confined atmosphere of buildings and achieve high concentration levels. Across France, it has been estimated that 300 000 individual dwellings present concentration higher than the French reference level of 400 Bq.m{sup -3} and that 60 000 other ones would exhibit concentration above 1 000 Bq.m{sup -3}, the French warning threshold. Indoor radon concentration may vary significantly for various reasons, including design of buildings, radium content and texture of the soil in contact with the building's slab and walls, the under pressure value between the inside and outside and the fresh air supply rate. These considerations have led the I.R.S.N. to develop a code called R.A.D.O.N. 2 for conducting simple and methodical studies of indoor radon concentrations, to take into account the above-mentioned factors. But, the achievement of an effective diagnosis and risk management -aiding tool requires to first check its validity on the phenomenological model at the origin of the code. A 3-year experimental follow-up was, thus, conducted within an unoccupied house built on an uranium-bearing geological formation. After characterization of the subsoil, the instrumentation was implemented on site to continuously monitor the following parameters: - the radon source term in the building (exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn at the ground/building interface and at soil surface, radon concentration at the soil and in outdoor air), - the radon penetration by advection (differential pressure in the house basement), - the driving mechanisms for natural ventilation in the house (weather

  6. Indoor radon levels in schools of South-East Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisi, Rosabianca; Leonardi, Federica; Simeoni, Carla; Tonnarini, Sabrina; Veschetti, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate average levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in all educational buildings (506 schools) located in South-East Italy (the Salento peninsula, province of Lecce). In this paper the final findings relating to measurements performed with SSNTD dosemeters in 438 schools (86% of the sample) are reported. The average annual activity concentration of radon in schools located in the province of Lecce is 209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 . Radon values actually ranged from 21 Bq/m 3 to 1608 Bq/m 3 . About 7% of schools showed radon concentration values above 500 Bq/m 3 , the Italian action level for workplaces. - Highlights: ► The annual radon concentration in schools of the province of Lecce is 209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 . ► Schools radon values (209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 ) are higher than the regional average (52 ± 2 Bq/m 3 ). ► Nursery schools showed higher radon values. ► Nursery schools had the highest percentage of schools (12%) over 500 Bq/m 3 .

  7. Radon gas exposure levels in some selected areas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.M.; Taha, T.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; El-Hussein, A.M.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    During a summer season of 2003, the atmospheric concentrations of radon gas were measured indoor every one-hour for twenty-four hour measurements in some selected areas, using Pylon-AB4. Two hundreds and forty samples were monitored to determine the concentration of radon gas at each location using high-efficiency Lucas type continuous passive cell. The average values of radon gas concentration were taken in three time intervals 6.00:18.00, 18.00:6.00 and whole day. The average values of indoor radon gas of two locations using three time intervals were 4.82±0.63, 9±0.71 and 6.9±0.33 and 9.6±0.23, 11.82±0.42 and 9.37±0.7 Bq/m /h. respectively. The exposure levels were within the ICRP and EPA recommendations

  8. Indoor radon levels in Riyadh city dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Khalid, Aleissa; Ghazi, Alzeer

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Building materials used for construction of houses represent a major source of indoor radon. In this investigation, indoor radon concentrations are found to vary substantially among the different building materials, ventilation, cooling and heating systems used. This paper presents the effects of these factors on the radon concentration in Riyadh city dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm Electret ion chamber. The study covered more than 700 houses and apartments, which were selected to cover the most common type of houses. The concentration range was found to be 1.02 to 196 Bq.m -3 , with an average value of 17.5 ± 3 Bq.m -3 . The results show that the radon concentration is higher in houses where the white bricks, no ventilation systems, plastic paint and Freon air conditioners are used, but relatively lower in houses where the red bricks, window ventilation, and water air conditioner is used. (author)

  9. Method of reducing radon levels in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajdarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khajdarov, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentration can be reduced by using polymeric compositions which fill pores inside building materials and decrease the coefficient of permeation of radon atoms and water molecules in building materials (concrete, gypsum, etc.). Polymeric silico-organic compounds were investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, 222 Rn, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment with chemicals was examined. The effect of the cement and sand types, preliminary treatment with various chemicals, type of the polymeric silico-organic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between the preparation of chemicals and the treatment of concrete (ageing of chemicals), time between the treatment of concrete and testing (ageing of treated concrete) were examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spraying. The experiments gave evidence that the chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing the coefficient of gas permeability in 200 - 400 times. Treatment of the floor, walls and ceiling of the basement of 5 buildings reduced the radon concentration in the premises of the first floor from 400-600 Bq/m 3 to the background value of 17-20 Bq/m 3

  10. Provincial practice: adopting the new reference levels for Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christine; Johnson, Darryl

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In June 2007 new reference levels for radon gas were announced from Health Canada. These new levels brought new attention to the issue of radon gas exposure in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Research in radon gas exposure has a long history in the fluorspar mines of the Burin Peninsula, indeed, occupational data from the 1950 's and 60 's had been included in Darby et al. large scale occupational meta analyses. Radon was also implicated in a royal commission of occupational mining hazards in Newfoundland in 1968. Although, the occupational exposures of miners have been well documented, very little is known about population exposures in indoor spaces. Geological maps are currently being composed for national areas, but data for this province is not yet published. Information about mining tailings used in construction materials or as fill is very poor (unlike the data known for uranium mining tailings in Ontario and Manitoba). The challenges of estimating radon exposures for the province are myriad and these are explored here in this narrative study of how new information has to be generated, and then incorporated into new environmental public health policies for a population. The process by which new scientific information informs public health policy is described in this study of radon in Newfoundland and Labrador. Anticipated regulations for new buildings are discussed. (author)

  11. Effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses. Rept. for Apr 90-Sep 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Reddy, T.A.; Socolow, R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses the effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses. Contradicting the widely held assumption that ventilation is ineffective in reducing indoor radon concentrations, experiments in a research house have shown that the basement radon level can be reduced by a factor of 5 to 10 using only natural ventilation. Measurement of the outdoor-basement pressure differential and the radon entry rate shows that this unexpectedly large reduction in indoor radon levels is caused by two complementary physical processes: (1) the obvious one, dilution, which lowers radon concentrations by adding uncontaminated outdoor air; and (2) although less evident, introducing a pressure break in the system through an open basement window which, in turn, reduces the outdoor-basement pressure differential and the rate at which radon-laden soil gas is drawn into the house. The radon entry rate was found to be a linear function of basement depressurization up to a differential pressure of about 4 Pa, as would be expected for laminar soil gas flow; opening two basement windows approximately doubled the building air exchange rate and reduced the radon entry rate by up to a factor of 5

  12. Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, F [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1978-09-01

    The noble gas radon, formerly called emanation, was discovered a few years after radium. /sup 222/Rn, the longest-lived isotope, has a half-life of 3,82 days. This half life is so short that the experimental techniques available at present (1978) are not sufficient for a characterization of defined radon compounds, even though there are definite indications for the existence of such compounds, and one may expect such radon compounds to be even more stable than the numerous known xenon compounds. - The radon isotopes /sup 219/Rn (Actinon), /sup 220/Rn (Thoron), and /sup 222/Rn (Radon) occur in nature despite their rather short half-lives, because they are continously generated from their mothers /sup 223/Ra, /sup 224/Ra, and /sup 226/Ra, which are in secular equilibrium with long-lived isotopes /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 232/Th, and are in turn continously formed from these long-lived isotopes. Since the radon isotopes are gases, they enter the atmosphere and are carried for long distances with air currents. - Because radon is so short-lived, its practical applications are rather limited. For medical applications, small sealed glass tubes filled with radon are used as radiation sources after the radon has decayed, because the whole series of Po-, Bi-, and Pb-isotopes of the radium decay chain are formed, whose penetrating radiation is useful for therapy. When solids are spiked with Ra isotopes, radon is evolved at a constant rate. On heating such solids, phase transitions show up by sudden increased radon evolution (Hahn's emanation method). - On the basis of nuclear theoretical calculations, there is hardly a chance for the discovery of a long-lived radon species. Therefore, major progress in radon chemistry is hardly to be expected in the near future.

  13. Does natural gas increase the indoor radon levels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, H.A.; Shabaan, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas is naturally occurring hydrocarbon consists mainly of methane and includes varying amounts of other hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and other impurities such as: nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. It is used domestically and industrially as a preferable energy source compared to coal and oil. Because natural gas is found in deep underground natural formations or associated with other underground hydrocarbon reservoirs, there is a potential to contain radon as a contaminant. This work was designated to measure indoor radon concentrations in dwellings supplied with natural gas compared with those not supplied with it, where radon level was estimated using solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39). The results showed that radon concentration was significantly higher in dwellings supplied with natural gas, where it was 252.30 versus 136.19 Bqm -3 in dwelling not supplied with natural gas (P < 0.001). The mean values of radon exhalation rate was 0.02 ± 6.34 · 10 -4 Bq · m -2 · h -1 in dwellings supplied with natural gas and 0.01 +- 0.008 Bq · m -2 · h -1 in dwellings lacking it. In addition, a significant difference was observed in the mean annual effective doses (4.33 and 2.34 mSv · y -1 , respectively) between both groups. Conclusively, the data indicate that natural gas may represent a potential source of indoor radon

  14. Radon levels in the 1988 Swedish housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Mellander, H.; Mjoenes, L.

    1993-01-01

    Radon levels have been measured in about 1300 randomly selected Swedish dwellings as part of a nation-wide energy and indoor climate study, ELIB. The measurements were performed in the heating season 1991-92 with alpha track detectors using an integration time of three months. In single-family houses the weighted mean was 141 Bq/m 3 (78 Bq/m 3 geometric) for the living area; for multi-family houses the corresponding values were 75 and 40 Bq/m 3 . More than 5% of the single-family houses and 1% of the dwellings in multi-family houses had levels above the action level for existing houses - 400 Bq/m 3 . Since 1981 Swedish building regulations have included limits on radon in new houses. The investigation shows that radon levels in houses built after 1981 are significantly lower than those in houses built before 1981. (orig.). (6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  15. Radon and its decay products in living spaces: estimation of radiation exposure and risks for radon levels measured in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1984-03-01

    After a general introduction to radiation levels, radon and its daughter products are considered. Radon in living spaces is discussed, in particular the radon concentration in family houses. The influence of energy saving characteristics on the radon concentration in the indoor air includes a 'matched pair' analysis and ventilation installations and dwell duration of indoor air noxious agents. Estimation of the radiation risks are determined, including risks of lung cancer, human epidemiological investigations (miners and radiation levels in living spaces), and possible results of energy saving characteristics. Finally characteristics and recommendations in general are given. (A.N.K.)

  16. Epistemic assessment of radon level of offices in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L. T.; Mui, K. W.; Law, K. Y.; Hui, P. S.

    People spend most of their life working indoors. Human exposure to various air pollutants changed its importance in nature from outdoor to indoor. As some of the pollutant sources basically originate from the building envelope that could not be removed or is costly to mitigate, the remaining questions are: how the indoor air quality (IAQ) is monitored and how the information could be used for the environmental control system to achieve the best air quality delivery. Indoor radon level could be measured with a number of sampling approaches and used to determine the acceptance of an IAQ with respect to certain exposure limits. In determining the acceptable IAQ of a space, this study proposes that the measured indoor radon level must be accompanied with the confidence levels of the assessment. Radon levels in Hong Kong offices were studied by a cross-sectional measurement in 216 typical offices and a year-round longitudinal measurement in one office. The results showed that 96.5% (94.0-99.0% at 95% confidence interval) and 98.6% (97.0% to >99.9% at 95% confidence interval) of the sampled offices would satisfy action radon levels of 150 and 200 Bq m -3, respectively. The same results were then used to quantify the prior knowledge on radon level distributions of an office and the probable errors of the adopted sampling schemes. This study proposes an epistemic approach, with the prior knowledge and a sample test result, to assess the acceptance against an action radon level of an office in Hong Kong. With the certainty of the test results determined for judgmental purposes, it is possible to apply the method to an office for follow-up tests of acceptance.

  17. Modification of radon levels in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breysse, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Radon infiltration from the ground into a house is primarily due to pressure differences between the interior of the home and the soil. If the atmospheric pressure inside the home is lower than the pressure in the soil, flow into the house will be accelerated since air flows from high pressure to lower pressure. Pressure differences can arise due to wind action. Temperature differences between indoors and outdoors also affect the relative indoor and outdoor pressure. These temperature and pressure variations can produce a stack effect which sucks air in from the bottom of the structure where the interior pressure is lowered and out toward the top. The internal pressure in houses is usually less than the gas pressure in the soil. Internal pressure in houses, however, can be further lowered as the result of the operation of kitchen, bathroom and attic exhaust fans as well as by the use of fireplaces, furnaces and wood stoves, and clothes dryers. This further reduction in internal pressure will likely increase the entry of radon into the house

  18. A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Stupak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidence on the socio-economic impacts of GM crops and analyzes whether there are patterns across space and time. To this end, we investigate the effect of GM crops on farm-level costs and benefits using global data from more than one decade of field trials and surveys. More specifically, we analyze the effects of GM-crops on crop yields, seed costs, pesticide costs, and management and labor costs and finally gross margins. Based on collected data from studies on Bt cotton and Bt maize, statistical analyses are conducted to estimate the effect of GM crop adoption on these parameters. Our results show that, compared to conventional crops, GM crops can lead to yield increases and can lead to reductions in the costs of pesticide application, whereas seed costs are usually substantially higher. Thus, the results presented here do support the contention that the adoption of GM crops leads on average to a higher economic performance, which is also underlined by the high adoption rates for GM crops in a number of countries. However, the kind and magnitude of benefits from GM crops are very heterogeneous between countries and regions, particularly due to differences in pest pressure and pest management practices. Countries with poor pest management practices benefited most from a reduction in yield losses, whereas other countries benefited from cost reductions. However, our study also reveals limitations for meta-analyses on farm-level costs and benefits of GM crops. In particular, published data are skewed towards some countries and the employed individual studies rely on different assumptions, purposes and methodologies (e.g., surveys and field trials. Furthermore, a summary of several (often short-term individual studies may not necessarily capture long-term effects of GM crop adoption.

  19. New method of reducing radon levels in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radon is a naturally occurring gas seeping into homes and underground structures (buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, etc.) from the surrounding soil through walls, floor, etc. and emanating from construction materials such as concrete, granite, etc. The level of radon is especially great in regions with the heightened content of uranium in soil and water and with geological breaks of the earth's crust. Concentrations of uranium higher than 10 g per ton of soil have been found in 14 percent of territory of Uzbekistan. As a result, for instance, concentration of radon 10-100 times exceeds the regulation level in 14 percent of premises in Tashkent, 41 percent of premises in Almalik town and 44 percent in Yangiabad town. The purpose of this work was creating a method to reduce concentration of radon gas in buildings and underground structures. We suppose that the most effective technique is a treatment of walls, floors, etc. of basement and underground structures by special chemicals which seal micropores inside the construction materials. Sealing the pores stops radon diffusion and in addition, it blocks another radon pathway - water migration and emanation from concrete, gypsum or other construction materials. In the paper polymeric silico organic compounds are investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, Rn 222, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment by chemicals has been examined. Influence of types of cement and sand, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric silico organic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of concrete (aging of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (aging of treated concrete) have been examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spray. Experiments have shown that chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing

  20. Novel technique of reducing radon levels in living premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radon is a naturally occurring gas seeping into homes and underground structures (buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, etc.) from the surrounding soil through walls, floor, etc. and emanating from construction materials such as concrete, granite, etc. The level of radon is especially great in regions with the higher content of uranium in soil and water and with geological breaks of the Earth's crust. Concentrations of uranium higher than 10 g per ton of soil have been found in 14% of territory of Uzbekistan. As a result, for instance, concentration of radon 10-100 times exceeds the regulation level in 14% of premises in Tashkent, 41% of premises in Almalik town and 44% in Yangiabad town. The purpose of this work was creating a method to reduce concentration of radon gas in buildings and underground structures. We suppose that the most effective technique is a treatment of walls, floors, etc. of basement and underground structures by special chemicals which seal micropores inside the construction materials. Sealing the pores stops radon diffusion and, in addition, it blocks another radon pathway - water migration and emanation from concrete, gypsum or other construction materials. In the paper polymeric silicoorganic compounds are investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, Rn-222, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment by chemicals has been examined. Influence of types of cement and sand, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric silicoorganic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of concrete (ageing of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (ageing of treated concrete) have been examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spray. Experiments have shown that chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing the coefficient of gas

  1. Radon levels in dwellings in chalk terrain. Development and analysis of distributional and causal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killip, Ian Richmond

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates the range, distribution and causes of high radon levels in dwellings in the Brighton area of Southeast England. Indoor radon levels were measured in more than 1000 homes. The results show that high radon levels can arise in an area previously considered to offer low radon potential from local geological sources. Climate and building-related factors were found to affect significantly the radon levels in dwellings. Multiple regression was used to determine the influence of the various factors on indoor radon levels and an empirical model develop to predict indoor radon levels. The radon hazard, independent of building-related effects, was determined for each surveyed location by adjusting the radon measurement to that expected on the ground floor of a 'model' dwelling. This standardised set of radon levels was entered into a geographical information system (GIS) and related to surface geology. The geometric mean radon level for each lithological unit was plotted to produce a radon hazard map for the area. The highest radon levels were found to be associated with the youngest Chalk Formations, particularly where they meet overlying Tertiary deposits, and with Clay-with-Flints Quaternary deposits in the area. The results were also converted to the radon activity equivalent to that expected from the NRPB's standard dual-detector dwelling survey method and analysed by lognormal modelling to estimate the proportion of dwellings likely to exceed the UK Action Level of 200 Bq/m 3 for each lithological unit. The likely percentages of dwellings affected by radon thus obtained were mapped to lithological boundaries to produce a radon potential map. The radon hazard map and the empirical radon model facilitate the prediction of radon levels in dwellings of comparable construction and above similar geology and should further the understanding of the behaviour of radon gas in buildings to allow indoor radon concentrations to be controlled. The radon

  2. A study of radon levels in NHS premises in affected areas around the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Lewis, G.T.R.; Brennen, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas contributes a significant fraction of the natural background radiation dose, and in some areas raised levels are found in buildings, both homes and the workplace. Different UK Action Levels apply to homes and the workplace, because of the diurnal variation of radon. This study reviews the results for a number of hospitals throughout England and Wales, and suggests that the likelihood of finding raised radon levels is similar in the workplace and homes in the same area. Radon measurements and consequent remediation of any raised levels are appropriate in all workplaces in radon Affected Areas with over 5% of houses above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3

  3. A study of indoor radon levels and radon effective dose in dwellings of some cities of Gezira State in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzain Abd-Elmoniem Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sources of radiation, especially 222Rn and its short-lived daughter products has become an important issue throughout the world because sustained exposure of humans to indoor radon may cause lung cancer. The indoor radon concentration level and radon effective dose rate were carried out in the dwellings of Medani, El Hosh, Elmanagil, Haj Abd Allah, and Wad Almahi cities, Gezira State - Central Sudan, in 393 measurements, using passive integrated solid-state nuclear track devices containing allyl diglycol carbonate plastic detectors. The radon concentration in the corresponding dwellings was found to vary from (57 ± 8 Bq/m3 in Medani to 41 ± 9 Bq/m3 in Wad Almahi, with an average of 49 ± 10 Bq/m3. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, we found that the annual effective dose rate from 222Rn in the studied dwellings ranges from 1.05 to 1.43 mSv per year and the relative lung cancer risk for radon exposure was 1.044%. In this research, we also correlated the relationship of radon concentration and building age. From our study, it is clear that the annual effective dose rate is larger than the “normal” background level as quoted by UNSCEAR, lower than the recommended action level of ICRP, and less than the maximum permissible dose defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  4. Radon levels in underground workplaces: a map of the Italian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossetti, Marta; Esposito, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The indoor radon exposition is a widely recognised health hazard, so specific laws and regulations have been produced in many countries and so-called radon-risk maps have consequently been produced. In Italy the regulation applies to general workplaces and a national survey was carried out in the 1990's to evaluate the exposure to radon in dwellings. Failing a national coordinated mapping programme, some Italian regions performed a survey to identify radon-prone areas, nevertheless with different methodologies. In this work a national map of the average annual radon concentration levels in underground workplaces, obtained from the results of 8695 annual indoor radon measurements carried out by U-Series laboratory between 2003 and 2010, was presented. Due to underground locations, the mean radon concentration is higher than that from previous map elaborated for dwellings and a significant radon concentration was also found in Regions traditionally considered as low-risk areas. (authors)

  5. Determination of radon levels in Mexico City; Determinacion de niveles de radon en la Ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena G, P

    1992-01-15

    The study of the determination of radon levels in the houses room in Mexico City is part of the project Emanometry of the radon. To carry out this study, the passive method was used, which consists of: thin film dosemeter of cellulose nitrate, container of the same one and spark accountant. The method is based on the mensurations of exhibition of the number of marks of alpha track is of the open type and it allows to average the radon activity along several weeks and it presents low concentrations. This study was carried out in 4 periods of exhibition of 3 months each one. (Author)

  6. A study of radon levels in the soil of Nasir's College of Agriculture - Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Taher M.; Ahmed, Hayel A.; Zumalian, Abubaker A.

    2000-01-01

    The radon diffusion in the atmosphere and dwelling interior comes from one source, it is the soil. Emitting alpha particles, radon daughters may be deposited in to the lungs and cause health hazards, so for this reason, estimation of radon levels in soil and dwelling were done in may countries. in the present work, we have used the passive dosimeters (SSNTD s ) containing (Cr-39) detectors. The dosimeters were distributed at the surface of the ground, in the soil horizontally (at depth 50 cm) and in soil with depth. The overall mean for radon levels in soil horizontally was (1.28 ± 0.05) KBq/m 3 and the mean radon concentration at the surface of the ground was (0.42 ± 0.03) KBq/m 3 . It is found that radon concentration increases as the depth increases up to (90 cm) depth after that radon levels decrease as the depth increases. (author)

  7. Radon-in-soil concentration levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-in-soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospecting and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping covers the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neovolcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of 222 Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon-in-soil map covering one third of the territory of Mexico is presented. The lowest mean values occur in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (author)

  8. Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes

  9. Ventilation cost impact of reduced radon-daughter working levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Published information on costs of radon-daughter control in uranium mines was analyzed to develop estimates of the cost per ton for any level of radiation exposure control. All data were converted to 1967 cost of living index to provide a common analysis base. Results of the analysis show that the cost per ton increases exponentially as the radiation level is lowered. A linear relationship with the cost of living index is assumed, and equations and graphs are provided to estimate control cost per ton for any exposure control level and cost of living index

  10. Building and environmental factors associated with elevated radon levels in rural Iowa homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weih, L.M.B.

    1993-01-01

    This work examined the relationships between home construction, soil, and climatic factors with radon concentration in 585 rural Iowa homes, screened in winter of 1989. The specific goals of this work were to evaluate the utility of Soil Conservation data in describing radon occurrence in Iowa, and to assess the joint influence of construction and environmental characteristics on predicting radon concentration in homes. A follow-up study in a subset of homes evaluated the variability of radon screening measurements over time. The first part found that the relationship between radon concentration and home construction factors was dependent on location of the radon test in homes. In basements, wall construction and degree of energy efficiency predominated in predicting radon concentration. On upper floors, age of home predominated in predicting radon concentration, with a general decrease in radon concentration with age of home. The second part found that texture of the soil on which the home is located was the most important predictor of radon concentration for homes tested in basements, but the explanatory power was low. Precipitation in the year preceding screening was negatively correlated with radon concentration in homes, but the relationship was only apparent when basement wall type and soil texture were accounted for. Regional trends were not apparent except in describing the relative distribution of soil texture classes across the state. Radon concentration on upper floors of homes was not well described by either soil factors or precipitation. In 1992 a decrease of 36% and 51% from 1989 radon screening levels was found for homes tested in basements and upper floors, respectively. This data set included pair measurements of the same testing location in homes tested in winter 1989. Temperature differences were positively correlated with radon concentration and precipitation differences were not significantly associated with change in radon concentration

  11. Radon levels and transport parameters in Atlantic Forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, E.E.G. de; Silva Neto, P.C. da; Souza, E.M. de; De Franca, E.J.; Hazin, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    In natural forest soils, the radon transport processes can be significantly intensified due to the contribution of living organism activities to soil porosity. In this paper, the first results of the radon concentrations were obtained for soil gas from the Atlantic Forest, particularly in the Refugio Ecologico Charles Darwin, Brazil. The estimation of permeability and radon exhalation rate were carried out in this conservation unit. For forested soils, radon concentrations as high as 40 kBq m -3 were found. Based on the radon concentrations and on the permeability parameter, the results indicated considerable radon hazard for human occupation in the neighborhood. (author)

  12. Geologic influence on indoor radon concentrations and gamma radiation levels in Norwegian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundal, Aud Venche

    2003-09-01

    Indoor radon levels in 1618 Norwegian dwellings located in different geological settings were compared with geological information in order to determine potential correlations between geological factors and indoor radon concentrations in Norway and to establish whether geological information is useful in radon risk analysis. In two geographically limited areas, Kinsarvik and Fen, detailed geological and geochemical investigations were carried out in order to explain their elevated natural radiation environment. Significant correlations between geology and indoor radon concentrations in Norway are found when the properties of both the bedrock and the overburden are taken into account. Areas of high radon risk in Norway include 1) exposed bedrock with elevated levels of radium (mainly alum shale and granites) and b) highly permeable unconsolidated sediments derived from all rock types (mainly glaciofluvial and fluvial deposits) and moderately permeable sediments containing radium rich rock fragments (mainly basal till). More than 20 % of Norwegian dwellings located in the high-risk areas can be expected to contain radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. The elevated radon risk related to penneable building grounds is illustrated in Kinsarvik where the highly permeable sediments and the large vadose zone underlying the Huse residential area enable the transport of radon from large volumes into the dwellings resulting in enhanced indoor radon concentrations. Subterranean air flows caused by temperature/pressure differences between soil air and atmospheric air and elevations differences within the Huse area are shown to strongly affect the annual variations in indoor radon concentrations. The marked contrasts in radon risk potential between different types of building grounds are clearly illustrated in the Fen area where outcrops of the radium rich Fen carbonatites represent areas of high radon risk while only low levels of both indoor radon concentrations and indoor gamma

  13. Evaluating for a geospatial relationship between radon levels and thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Mangano, Joseph; Goldenberg, David

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between radon levels and the rise in incidence of thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania. Epidemiological study of the state of Pennsylvania. We used information from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry and the Pennsylvania Department of Energy. From the registry, information regarding thyroid incidence by county and zip code was recorded. Information regarding radon levels per county was recorded from the state. Poisson regression models were fit predicting county-level thyroid incidence and change as a function of radon/lagged radon levels. To account for measurement error in the radon levels, a Bayesian Model extending the Poisson models was fit. Geospatial clustering analysis was also performed. No association was noted between cumulative radon levels and thyroid incidence. In the Poisson modeling, no significant association was noted between county radon level and thyroid cancer incidence (P = .23). Looking for a lag between the radon level and its effect, no significant effect was seen with a lag of 0 to 6 years between exposure and effect (P = .063 to P = .59). The Bayesian models also failed to show a statistically significant association. A cluster of high thyroid cancer incidence was found in western Pennsylvania. Through a variety of models, no association was elicited between annual radon levels recorded in Pennsylvania and the rising incidence of thyroid cancer. However, a cluster of thyroid cancer incidence was found in western Pennsylvania. Further studies may be helpful in looking for other exposures or associations. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Development of high sensitivity radon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kajita, T; Tasaka, S; Hori, H; Nemoto, M; Okazawa, H

    1999-01-01

    High sensitivity detectors for radon in air and in water have been developed. We use electrostatic collection and a PIN photodiode for these detectors. Calibration systems have been also constructed to obtain collection factors. As a result of the calibration study, the absolute humidity dependence of the radon detector for air is clearly observed in the region less than about 1.6 g/m sup 3. The calibration factors of the radon detector for air are 2.2+-0.2 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 0.08 g/m sup 3 and 0.86+-0.06 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 11 g/m sup 3. The calibration factor of the radon detector for water is 3.6+-0.5 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3). The background level of the radon detector for air is 2.4+-1.3 counts/day. As a result, one standard deviation excess of the signal above the background of the radon detector for air should be possible for 1.4 mBq/m sup 3 in a one-day measurement at 0.08 g/m sup 3.

  15. Exposure to radon in dwellings below the ground level in the area of Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sokolovic, E.; Petroci, L.; Sencar, J.; Lokner, V.

    1998-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in 44 dwellings at 22 locations in the area of Zagreb with the aim of establishing possible differences in radon levels between dwellings located below ground level, and those on higher floors. The measurements were performed using a Honeywell professional radon monitor both during the spring/summer and the autumn/winter seasons. Significant differences were found: for dwellings below ground level, the average annual radon activity concentration was 57±20 Bqm -3 ; for those on higher floors the value was 35±15 Bqm -3 . (A.K.)

  16. Use of commercial radon monitors for low level radon measurements in dynamically operated VOC emission test chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, M.; Richter, M.; Jann, O.

    2017-01-01

    Compared to the intended EU reference level of 300 Bq m -3 for indoor radon concentrations, the contribution of building materials appears to be low. Considering the recommended limit of 100 Bq m -3 by WHO, their contribution is supposed to be relevant, especially at low air exchange rates. This study as part of a two-part research project investigated the suitability of direct low level 222 Rn measurement under simulated indoor conditions with commercial radon monitors and dynamically operated emission test chambers. Active measuring devices based on ionisation or scintillation chambers with 1-σ uncertainties below 8.6% at 20 Bq m -3 were found to be best suitable for a practical test procedure for the determination of radon exhalation rates of building materials. For the measurement of such low concentrations, the knowledge of the accurate device background level is essential. (authors)

  17. Radon levels at the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tims, S.; Ryan, B.; Martin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A high sensitivity radon monitor has now been in continuous operation at the Nabarlek mine site for several months. The pit area can be viewed as a single, extended radon source, which can be used to assess the validity of radon dispersal predictions. The data have been recorded simultaneously with a variety of meteorological parameters, with a view to using correlations between the data sets as a guide for the improvement of dispersion model inputs. The sensitivity of radon concentration to selected parameters will be discussed, as will the future of the study which aims to make additional simultaneous radon measurements at selected locations around the mine site

  18. National survey of indoor radon levels in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Katic, M.; Faj, Z.; Lukacevic, I.; Planinic, J.; Suveljak, B.; Faj, D.; Lukic, M.

    2006-01-01

    National survey of indoor radon was performed by a random sampling of thousand (782 realized) dwellings in Croatia. Radon concentrations were measured for one year with LR-115 SSNT detectors and arithmetic and geometric means of 68 and 50 Bq/m 3 were obtained, respectively. The arithmetic means of radon concentrations on 20 counties were from 33 to 198 Bq/m 3 . The percentage of dwellings with radon concentrations above 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 was 5.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The average annual effective dose of the indoor radon was estimated as 2.2 mSv. (author)

  19. Background compensated GM counter for the measurement of low level #betta#-activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Kumanomido, H.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    When low level activity of a #betta#-ray source or surface contamination is to be measured with a GM counter, it is desirable to obtain a net count without background count through a single measurement. An end-window GM counter for such a purpose was constructed. The counter has a diaphragm to divide it into two parts. The front part, the window side, can detect #betta#-rays and background radiations, while the rear part only detects background, since #betta#-rays coming through the front are absorbed by the diaphragm. In the counter type I, the sensitive volumes of the two parts are the same and the anode wire of the front is connected to that of the rear through an electric resistor which leads to yielding different pulse heights and rise times. The net count of #betta#-rays can be obtained through a single measurement by subtracting the count in the rear part from that in the front part. In the counter type II, the lengths of the anode wires of the two parts are different, which gives rise to different pulse heights. With a background compensated GM counter, it is possible to shorten the measuring time, keeping nearly the same accuracy compared with a conventional GM counter. (orig.)

  20. Anomalous Radon Levels in Thermal Water as an Indicator of Seismic Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmazek, B.; Gregoric, A.; Vaupotic, J.; Kobal, I.

    2008-01-01

    Radon can be transported effectively from deep layers of the Earth to the surface by carrier gases and by water. This transport is affected by phenomena accompanying seismic events. If radon is therefore monitored shortly before or during an earthquake, at a thermal water spring, an anomaly, i. e. a sudden increase or decrease in radon level, may be observed. Thermal springs and ground waters in Slovenia have therefore been systematically surveyed for radon. The work presented here is a continuation of our previous radon monitoring related to seismic activity carried out on weekly analyses during 1981-82 in thermal waters of the Ljubljana basin. In this paper, we focus on radon anomalies in thermal springs at Hotavlje and Bled in the period from October 2005 to September 2007

  1. Study on radon and thoron progeny levels in Gudalore in South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Mugunthamanikandan, N.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Santhanam, R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the important route of radiation exposure to man is through inhalation of air containing radioisotopes. A major contribution to inhalation dose comes from radon, thoron and its progenies. The indoor radon and thoron progeny levels are determined by two count method. In this method the radon and thoron progenies are collected on a glass fiber filter paper using volume air sampler (Staplex) and counted for alpha activity in ZnS (Ag) alpha counting system. It is observed that thoron working level is higher than the radon working level in all houses except few houses with stone walls and mosaic floor. Behavior of indoor radon and thoron working levels for different seasons at different houses are determined and discussed in detail. Radon and thoron working levels are measured high in winter, autumn, and low in summer and rainy seasons. Among all seasons highest value is measured in winter and low in summer and rainy seasons. Radon progeny working level varies from 1.659 to 6.675 mWL, whereas thoron progeny working level varies from 1.670 to 12.671 mWL. The geometric mean values of radon and thoron progeny concentration in the present study are 2.836 and 4.133 mWL. The high thoron progeny level observed in this is attributed to the high thorium content observed in soils of this area. (author)

  2. Study on radon and thoron levels in different types of granitic work industries around Tumkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushan, S.R.; Ujjinappa; Srilatha; Sannappa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radon, Thoron and its progeny monitoring has become a global phenomenon due to its health hazards on human being. The concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny levels have been measured in different types of Granite and brick work industries around Tumkur city by using LR-115 type II Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the measurement of these gases. The higher concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny were observed in the dwellings near brick industries compared to Granite cutting and polishing industries. The inhalation dose due to Radon, Thoron and their progeny to the workers and public living near these industries have been estimated. (author)

  3. Some problems in the action level and dose assesment of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    2007-01-01

    In the recent past, remarkable progresses has been made in radon epidemiological investigation for human populations, with the radon-induced excess relative risk being 0.16%/100 Bq m -3 . It should be noted, for implementing radon action standards, that the action levels are differently implicated for population dwellings and workplaces. The dose limits and the derived air concentration are provided for the individuals, both of which can not be used as the main basis for con- trolling workplaces (sources). The controlling of radon concentrations should be based primarily on radiation protection optimization and constraints. (authors)

  4. Cigarette smoking increases radon working level exposures to all occupants of the smoker's home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H. Jr.; Rosario, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the 1988 National Academy of Sciences report on radon health risks evaluated the combined effects of radon exposures and cigarettes on the lung cancer risk to smokers. This report showed that the risk of lung cancer is about 10 times greater for smokers than for nonsmokers at the same Working Level exposures. In 1986, the Surgeon General reported that 106,000 lung cancer deaths occurred among smokers. Therefore, the health risks of cigarettes alone or in combination with radon exposures are well recognized. What has not been studied is the effect of cigarette smoke on the Working Levels in homes that increases the exposure to radon decay products to all occupants, both smokers and nonsmokers. Preliminary studies in a radon chamber at Radon QC showed that the smoke from a single cigarette increased the Working Levels by a factor of five within four hours. Furthermore, the Working Levels remained at an elevated level for more than 24 hours. The equilibrium ratio of radon decay products to radon gas also went from about 14% up to 71%, with a slow decrease over 24 hours. Similar studies in the homes of a smoker and nonsmoker confirmed the laboratory observations. The studies in homes also showed the effects of thoron decay products

  5. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radom levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in 'The householders' guide to radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. (Author)

  6. Indoor radon in a Spanish region with different gamma exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos, L.S.; Fernandez, P.L.; Sainz, C.; Fuente, I.; Nicolas, J.; Quindos, L.; Arteche, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the beginning of 1990s within the framework of a national radon survey of more than 1500 points, radon measurements were performed in more than 100 houses located in Galicia region, in the Northwest area of Spain. The houses were randomly selected only bearing in mind general geological aspects of the region. Subsequently, a nationwide project called MARNA dealt with external gamma radiation measurements in order to draw a Spanish natural radiation map. The comparison in Galicia between these estimations and the indoor radon levels previously obtained showed good agreement. With the purpose of getting a confirmation of this relationship and also of creating a radon map of the zone, a new set of measurements were carried out in 2005. A total of 300 external gamma radiation measurements were carried out as well as 300 measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K content in soil. Concerning radon, 300 1-m-depth radon measurements in soil were performed, and indoor radon concentration was determined in a total of 600 dwellings. Radon content in soil gave more accurate indoor radon predictions than external gamma radiation or 226 Ra concentration in soil

  7. Study on radon and thoron levels in different types of granitic work industries around Tumkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushan, S.R.; Ningappa, C.; Srilatha; Shekar, Usha; Sannappa, J.

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas generated by the decay of uranium and thorium bearing minerals in rocks, soils and building materials. Radon and decay products are the major contributors to human exposure from natural radiation sources. Epidemiological evidence indicates that indoor radon and thoron were responsible for a substantial number of lung cancer in publics. UNSCEAR reported recently indicates that there is a remarkable coherence between the risk estimates developed from epidemiological studies from miners and residential case-control radon studies. Hence to select the study area for the estimation of dose due to radon and thoron to the publics and workers, concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny were measured by using SSNTD. Since, activity concentration in granite more, higher concentrations of radon and thoron have been observed in the dwellings near to granite industry and lesser concentration of radon and thoron have been observed in the dwellings near brick industries of Tumkur city. From the study, the concentration of radon and thoron varied from 31 to 70.4 Bq.m 3 and 11.6 to 46.3 Bq.m 3 , respectively. Corresponding progeny level varied from 0.11 to 2.5 mWL and 1.1 to 3.4 mWL, respectively. (author)

  8. Working level measurement of radon daughters and thoron daughters by personal dosimetry and continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.; Leung, H.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of personal alpha dosimeters in mixed radon daughter and thoron daughter atmospheres in Ontario uranium mines is described together with monitoring developments which enable the radon daughter working level to be determined separately. The theoretical bases for continuous and integrated working level measurements based on individual and gross counts are presented in terms of the weighting factor for combining the thoron daughter working level with the radon daughter working level, and in terms of the in-growth time of the air. Implications for the determination of working level in the presence of thoron daughters are discussed

  9. Radon levels reduced through venting of house foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivborg, P.; Johansson, I.; Strindehag, O.

    1981-01-01

    It has been confirmed that the radon emanation from the ground poses a more importent radiation hazard than the radon contained in the building material. In this article a simple system for ventilation of the gases produced under the foundation of a small houses is described. This ventilation system reduced the radondaughters concentration in a house by a factor of ten. (L.E.)

  10. Low-level radon measurements by nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koksal, E. M.; Goksel, S. A.; Alkan, H.

    1985-01-01

    In the work to be described here we have developed a passive nuclear track dosimeter to measure the integrated value of indoor radon (Rn-222) over a long period of time. Passive radon dosimeter which we have developed in our laboratories makes use of two small pieces of CR-39 plastic (Allyl diglycol carbonate) as detectors for registering tracks of alpha particles emitted by radon. These CR-39 plastic detectors are fixed on the inside bottom of a cup-shaped polystrene enclosure which is closed at the top by a tissue permeable for gases only. CR-39 detectors exposed to radon gas in the indoor air for a period of six months then are removed and chemically etched to make the alpha particle tracks visible under the microscope. The counts of tracks are evaluated to determine the radon concentration in the air in comparison with the number of tracks produced by a known concentration of radon gas. By using the passive dosimeters developed and the chemical etching procedure descriped here, measurements of indoor radon concentrations were carried out in 45 houses in different districts of the city of Istanbul. In this pilot experiment mean radon concentrations between 0.7 and 3.5 pCi/l have been found in these houses. In order to improve the counting of alpha tracks produced on the detectors a prototype electrochemical etching system in addition to chemical etching, is being developed. (author)

  11. Indoor radon levels in selected hot spring hotels in Guangdong, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Gang [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Boyou [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Xinming [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]. E-mail: wangxm@gig.ac.cn; Gong Jingping [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chan, Daniel [Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Bernett, John [Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Lee, S.C. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-03-01

    Guangdong is one of the provinces that have most hot springs in China, and many hotels have been set up near hot springs, with spring water introduced into the bath inside each hotel room for hot spring bathing to attract tourists. In the present study, we measured radon in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in hot spring waters, in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong by using NR-667A (III) continuous radon detector. Radon concentrations ranged 53.4-292.5 Bq L{sup -1} in the hot spring water and 17.2-190.9 Bq m{sup -3} in outdoor air. Soil gas intrusion, indoor hot spring water use and inefficient ventilation all contributed to the elevated indoor radon levels in the hotel rooms. From the variation of radon levels in closed unoccupied hotel rooms, soil gas intrusion was found to be a very important source of indoor radon in hotel rooms with floors in contact with soils. When there was spring water bathing in the bathes, average radon levels were 10.9-813% higher in the hotel rooms and 13.8-489% higher in bathes compared to their corresponding average levels when there was no spring water use. Spring water use in the hotel rooms had radon transfer coefficients from 1.6x10{sup -4} to 5.0x10{sup -3}. Radon in some hotel rooms maintained in concentrations much higher than guideline levels might thus have potential health risks to the hotel workers, and technical and management measures should be taken to lower their exposure of radon through inhalation.

  12. Indoor radon levels in selected hot spring hotels in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Zhang, Boyou; Wang, Xinming; Gong, Jingping; Chan, Daniel; Bernett, John; Lee, S C

    2005-03-01

    Guangdong is one of the provinces that have most hot springs in China, and many hotels have been set up near hot springs, with spring water introduced into the bath inside each hotel room for hot spring bathing to attract tourists. In the present study, we measured radon in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in hot spring waters, in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong by using NR-667A (III) continuous radon detector. Radon concentrations ranged 53.4-292.5 Bq L(-1) in the hot spring water and 17.2-190.9 Bq m(-3) in outdoor air. Soil gas intrusion, indoor hot spring water use and inefficient ventilation all contributed to the elevated indoor radon levels in the hotel rooms. From the variation of radon levels in closed unoccupied hotel rooms, soil gas intrusion was found to be a very important source of indoor radon in hotel rooms with floors in contact with soils. When there was spring water bathing in the bathes, average radon levels were 10.9-813% higher in the hotel rooms and 13.8-489% higher in bathes compared to their corresponding average levels when there was no spring water use. Spring water use in the hotel rooms had radon transfer coefficients from 1.6x10(-4) to 5.0x10(-3). Radon in some hotel rooms maintained in concentrations much higher than guideline levels might thus have potential health risks to the hotel workers, and technical and management measures should be taken to lower their exposure of radon through inhalation.

  13. Indoor radon levels in selected hot spring hotels in Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Gang; Zhang Boyou; Wang Xinming; Gong Jingping; Chan, Daniel; Bernett, John; Lee, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    Guangdong is one of the provinces that have most hot springs in China, and many hotels have been set up near hot springs, with spring water introduced into the bath inside each hotel room for hot spring bathing to attract tourists. In the present study, we measured radon in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in hot spring waters, in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong by using NR-667A (III) continuous radon detector. Radon concentrations ranged 53.4-292.5 Bq L -1 in the hot spring water and 17.2-190.9 Bq m -3 in outdoor air. Soil gas intrusion, indoor hot spring water use and inefficient ventilation all contributed to the elevated indoor radon levels in the hotel rooms. From the variation of radon levels in closed unoccupied hotel rooms, soil gas intrusion was found to be a very important source of indoor radon in hotel rooms with floors in contact with soils. When there was spring water bathing in the bathes, average radon levels were 10.9-813% higher in the hotel rooms and 13.8-489% higher in bathes compared to their corresponding average levels when there was no spring water use. Spring water use in the hotel rooms had radon transfer coefficients from 1.6x10 -4 to 5.0x10 -3 . Radon in some hotel rooms maintained in concentrations much higher than guideline levels might thus have potential health risks to the hotel workers, and technical and management measures should be taken to lower their exposure of radon through inhalation

  14. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of two-storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not

  15. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not on

  16. Radon levels after restoration of the U-mine disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizman, M.J.; Rojc, J.; Jovanovic, P.

    2010-01-01

    After cessation of the underground mining of uranium ore and production of uranium concentrate at Zirovski Vrh (Slovenia) in the period 1985-1990, two permanent surface disposal sites remained, namely, tailings pile and mine waste rock pile. Both disposal sites were of equal size of 4 hectares and were significant sources of radon. Their final restoration was designed in compliance with the condition of dose constraint for the public and authorized limits for radon exhalation from the remediated piles. In the late summer of 2008, a restoration of the mine waste pile was finished. Radon releases were reduced significantly by constructing an effective radon barrier of well compacted clay material and a thick complex protective cover layer constructed over it. Radon exhalation rate from the mine waste area was lowered from primary level of 0.7 Bq/m 2 ·s to natural levels (0.01 Bq/m 2 ·s), and consequently, ambient radon levels also decreased on the site and nearby environment. The average radon contribution from the remaining U-mine sources was estimated on the basis of the environmental measurements of radon concentrations; they dropped from initial 7-9 Bq/m 3 to approximately 3 Bq/m 3 . Further reduction of outdoor radon concentrations is expected after 2010, since the restoration of another disposal site will have been completed by the end of this year. Public exposure due to industrial radon after the first phase of restoration satisfactorily meets the dose constraint level of 0.3 mSv/y, since it decreased to less than 0.1 mSv/y. (authors)

  17. Seasonal variation measurements of radon levels in caves using SSNTD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Gammage, R.B.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Viccon-Pale, J.; Signoret-Poillon, M.

    2008-01-01

    The results of radon concentration measurements inside of the Gabriel caves of Mexico, during three consecutive two-month periods covering almost three seasons, are reported in the present work. The radio-ecological importance of this site is related to the radon and its concentration-dynamic behavior in the cave. Further interest in radiation safety motivated this initiative since routine biological field work is done, with people spending long periods of time there. CR-39 passive nuclear track detector was chosen for this survey. Radon concentration levels decrease during the rainy season and show different values depending on the ventilation and geometeorological structure. Measured values range between 956 and 4931Bqm -3 , an indication that radon doses may exceed the allowed values for workers. This project is part of a larger study of indoor radon alpha emitters in Mexican caves

  18. Seasonal variation measurements of radon levels in caves using SSNTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gammage, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Viccon-Pale, J.; Signoret-Poillon, M. [El Hombre y su Ambiente, UAM-Xochimilco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-15

    The results of radon concentration measurements inside of the Gabriel caves of Mexico, during three consecutive two-month periods covering almost three seasons, are reported in the present work. The radio-ecological importance of this site is related to the radon and its concentration-dynamic behavior in the cave. Further interest in radiation safety motivated this initiative since routine biological field work is done, with people spending long periods of time there. CR-39 passive nuclear track detector was chosen for this survey. Radon concentration levels decrease during the rainy season and show different values depending on the ventilation and geometeorological structure. Measured values range between 956 and 4931Bqm{sup -3}, an indication that radon doses may exceed the allowed values for workers. This project is part of a larger study of indoor radon alpha emitters in Mexican caves.

  19. Evaluation of tectonic impact on radon level of lithological units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkowicz, S.; Strzelecki, R.

    2000-01-01

    The radon potential maps of the Sudetes Mountains and Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been prepared on a base of arithmetic mean value of radon concentration in soil air in distinguished lithological/stratigraphic units. Both zones of shallow position of ground table and the fault zones influence value of this parameter: the first one affects in specific conditions lowering of background values, the second ones - origin of values several and teen times higher than rock background values. Estimation of power of tectonic influence on general radon potential of the lithological units has been made on a base of examination of histograms of distribution of radon concentration in soil air. In the Sudetes area, 0 % to about 30 % of the measurements is related to fault zones. Higher tectonic engagement (about 30 %) characterizes the Karkonosze Granites, Izera Gneisses and Strzegom Granites. In the cases of Karkonosze Granites and the Strzegom Granites, rock background values concentrations in soil air are a little than 50 kBq/m 3 , what is the value defined for lower threshold of high radon risk areas. In conclusion, presence of numerous fault zones and fissures increases radon risk category with one class. Background modal values of radon emanations, defined for the studied units, in the 5 cases fulfill criteria for medium radon risk areas, and in other cases do not exceed of the threshold 10 kBq/m 3 . It displays, that in the case of low radon potential rocks only a few-percent rich population of measurements related to tectonic zones, is sufficient to substantially deform of the image of the studied unit radon potential. For instance, medium radon potential characterizes the Klodzko - Zloty Stok Granites (the arithmetic mean value of this class is 36.15 kBq/m 3 , n=104) and small tectonic engagement (about 3.8 %). In the result the modal value belongs to the class 20-30 kBq/m 3 . The Poreba Beds in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin are characterised by almost the same radon

  20. Synthesis of the day 'Sane dwelling and radon: how to act at the local level?' - Experiments and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of contributions which addressed the knowledge about radon and regulation regarding radon, the management of the risk related to the presence of radon in dwellings and the environment, at the international level (in Switzerland, in Canada); locally implemented experiments (around Montbeliard, in Aix-en-Provence, in the Finistere district) with measurements and public information are discussed

  1. Dependence of radon level on ventilation systems in residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotti, H.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of indoor radon and radon entry from soil into a house are expected to increase with increasing radon concentration in soil pores, and indoor radon concentration is expected to decrease with increasing ventilation rate. Depressurization, which can be caused by the stack effect, by wind and by unbalanced ventilation, creates different pressure conditions in a house and in the soil beneath it. To reveal the possible differences in radon removal and entry resulting from different ventilation systems, radon concentrations were determined in three similar slab-on-grade buildings provided with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation, mechanical exhaust or natural ventilation. To limitate the effect of differences in soil parameters, the houses were constructed on the same gravel esker in Kuopio. Thus, the variation in radon entry as a result of different depressurisation of the houses (caused by unbalanced mechanical ventilation systems) could also be observed. In addition, the effect of pressurisation on living rooms could be determined in five slab-on-grade houses constructed on the same esker in Hollola. Mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation system controlled by measured indoor-outdoor pressure difference, was installed in the six houses. The seasonal variation with and without controlled pressure conditions were followed in a slab-on-grade house constructed on a gravel esker in Rekola. Long-term radon concentrations were observed to correlate negatively with air exchange rates. However, the removal effect of ventilation was found to be disturbed by negative pressure due to the stack effect and/or to unbalanced mechanical ventilation. (91 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs.)

  2. Consideration of tidal influences in determining measurement periods when monitoring built-environment radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Gillmore, G.K.; Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Using three hourly-sampling continuous radon monitors, deployed at separate locations in and around the town of Northampton, UK, during the period May 2002 to September 2005, evidence has been identified of tidal influences on built environment radon levels. The data-sets from these deployments, together with additional data-sets collected from a house in Devon, UK, over the period May 1994 to October 1996, and made available by the UK Building Research Establishment, have been analysed using a number of analytical techniques, including a novel correlation technique developed during the investigation. Radon concentration levels in all of the investigated sites exhibit cyclic variation with a period of approximately 14-15 days, equivalent to the spring-tide interval, and lag the corresponding new and full moons by varying periods. The tide/radon lag interval for the two public-sector buildings changes abruptly in September/October, indicating that a significant characteristic of these buildings changes at this time. For domestic properties, the lag is relatively unchanged during the year, but is greater in Devon, in the South-West of England, than in Northampton, in the English East Midlands. These differences are attributed to location relative to coastlines (the South-West experiences greater tidal-loading than the Midlands), underlying geology and rock/soil hydration. Depending on its position within the local 14 to 15-day tidally-induced radon cycle, an individual 7-day radon measurement may yield an erroneous estimate of longer term average levels, up to 46% higher or lower than the average level for one of the reported data-sets. Thus a building with a mean radon concentration below the local Action Level could appear to be unsafe if measured around a tidal-cyclic radon maximum: conversely, a building with a mean radon concentration above the Action Level could appear to be safe when measured around a tidal-cyclic radon minimum. A minimum radon

  3. Selection of a radon level corresponding to 0.02 WL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board requires that the concentration of radon daughters in occupied structures in communities associated with nuclear facilities be less than 0.02 working level. The AECB has been interested in using measurements of radon concentration rather than of working level for compliance at 0.02 WL. It has been found, however, that there is no radon concentration which corresponds to 0.02 WL over a typical range of field conditions. This is principally due to the range of physical characteristics of structures, heating methods, living habits and of outdoor temperatures that may be encountered. A radon level of 2.4 pCi/l would indicate 95 percent of the instances at the three towns studied when working level exceeded 0.02

  4. Radon levels in underground workplaces – results of a nationwide survey in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisi, Rosabianca; Orlando, Claudia; Orlando, Paolo; Amici, Mario; Simeoni, Carla

    2012-01-01

    In Italy an extensive survey has been carried out with the aim to evaluate annual average radon concentration in underground workplaces. The survey covered 933 underground rooms located in 311 bank workplaces spread throughout in all Italian regions; at this scope the sampling was stratified random in order to be representative on national scale. The annual radon concentration was estimated by using passive radon dosemeters (NRPB/SSI type holder and CR-39 as detector): the devices were exposed for a period of about 3 months and 4 cycles were performed to cover a solar year. The radon levels in underground workplaces ranged from 27 to 4851 Bq/m 3 with an overall mean value of 153 Bq/m 3 . As expected, radon distribution is not uniform throughout Italy: in several regions high radon annual averages have been found, confirming previous surveys. The analysis of data shows a high variability among regions and intra-region but low spread among rooms belonging to the same workplace. About 5% of underground workplaces displayed radon concentration exceeding 400 Bq/m 3 , and the 4.4% exceeds 500 Bq/m 3 , the national action level for the exposure to natural radioactivity in workplaces.

  5. Radon gas. A review with emphasis on site investigations and measurements of soil gas and indoor house levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Seamus.

    1992-09-01

    A review of radon gas, with particular reference to its source and transport through soils and into buildings is examined. The principal parameters affecting the movement of radon has been discussed. The levels of radon gas in soils and in dwelling houses has been examined. Radon levels in the soil gas were highest in mineral soils with pear soils giving low readings but there was no significant differences between the results. Houses situated over granite and limestone bedrock gave similar results for indoor radon concentrations, with no significant differences being recorded. Results were expected to be much higher in houses over granite areas, in view of the higher uranium series activity in granites. It is concluded that high radon gas levels in soils under and in he vicinity of houses is the probable explanation for the indoor radon levels found. The influence of the underlying bedrock is not the most important parameter as was surmised before the study. (author)

  6. Radon 222 levels in deep well waters of Toluca municipality (county)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin Gutierrez, Maria Teresa.

    1990-01-01

    The levels of Radon 222 were determined in 46 deep (50-180m) wells in the city and county of Toluca, as well as the annual radiation dose that the stomach admits when ingesting such water. The method used for the quantification of Radon 222 was liquid scintillation counting. The result revealed that levels of Radon 222 in the studied area in the range of 0 to 320 pCi l -1 . In the case of the equivalent annual dose that the stomach (empty) admits due to ingestion of water from the wells, values are in an interval between 0 to 95 mrem a -1 . This values are well below the level established by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The wells that had the higher concentration of Radon 222 were found in the regions of Lodo Prieto, Seminario; San Antonio Buenavista and La Trinidad Huichochitlan. (Author)

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the control of indoor radon daughter levels in new structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, J.E. Jr.; Guimond, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of its assessment of the radiological impact of the phosphate industry in Florida, the US Environmental Protection Agency has surveyed residences built atop uraniferous reclaimed phosphate mining land. These surveys have shown elevated radon daughter levels to exist in structures built on this land. In order to allow safer use of this land for residential construction, various state-of-the-art radon daughter control technologies were evaluated by the Agency. These included forced ventilation, polymeric sealants, excavation, crawl space construction, and improved slab quality. From a cost-effectiveness evaluation, improved slab quality and crawl space construction were determined to best satisfy the criteria for optimal radon daughter control

  8. Radon measurements during the building of a low-level laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Antanasijevic, R; Bikit, I; Banjanac, R; Dragic, A; Joksimovic, D; Krmpotic, D; Udovicic, V; Vukovic, J

    1999-01-01

    Radon measurements were provided during the different stages of building of a low-level laboratory in Belgrade. The depth of the laboratory is 12 m, equivalent to 30 m of water with an area of 45 m sup 2. The whole of the laboratory is hermetically lined with 1 mm A1 foil and is ventilated with filtered air. Radon concentrations were measured with the CR-39 detector as well as via the gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements. The radon concentrations in the air were achieved to 20 Bqm sup - sup 3 and reduction of secondary and tertiary cosmic-ray fluxes is five times when ventilation, filtering and sealing was applied.

  9. Radon measurements during the building of a low-level laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Anicin, I.; Bikit, I.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Joksimovic, D.; Krmpotic, D.; Udovicic, V.; Vukovic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Radon measurements were provided during the different stages of building of a low-level laboratory in Belgrade. The depth of the laboratory is 12 m, equivalent to 30 m of water with an area of 45 m 2 . The whole of the laboratory is hermetically lined with 1 mm A1 foil and is ventilated with filtered air. Radon concentrations were measured with the CR-39 detector as well as via the gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements. The radon concentrations in the air were achieved to 20 Bqm -3 and reduction of secondary and tertiary cosmic-ray fluxes is five times when ventilation, filtering and sealing was applied

  10. Correlation between radon level and confounders of cancer. A note on epidemiological inference at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnal, M.A.; Toth, E.; Hamori, K.; Minda, M.; Koteles, Gy.J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine and further clarify the extent of radon and progeny induced carcinogenesis, both separated from and combined with other confounders and health risk factors. This work was financed by National Development Agency, Hungary, with GVOP-3.1.1.-2004-05-0384/3.0. Methods. A case-control study was conducted in a Hungarian countryside region where the proportion of houses with yearly average radon level above 200 Bq.m -3 was estimated to be higher than 20% by our preceding regional surveys. Radon levels were measured with CR39 closed etched detectors for three seasons separately yielding yearly average by estimating the low summer level. The detectors were placed in the bedrooms, where people were expected to spend one third of a day. 520 patients with diagnosed cancers were included in these measurements, amongst which 77 developed lung or respiratory cancers. The control group consisted 6333 individuals, above 30 years of age. Lifestyle risk factors of cancers were collected by surveys including social status, pollution from indoor heating, smoking and alcohol history, nutrition, exercise and mental health index 5. Except smoking and alcohol habits, these cofactors were only available for the control group. Comparing disease occurrences the authors selected the multivariate generalised linear models. The case and control proportions along a given factor are binomially distributed, thus the logit link function was used. For radon both log and linear terms were probed for. Results. Many known health confounders of cancers correlated with radon levels, with an estimated total net increase of 50-150 Bq m -3 with increased risks. For lung cancers the model with the terms radon, age, gender and smoking was found to have the lowest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Heavy dependency on age, gender and smoking contribute largely to observed lung cancer incidence. However log linear relationship

  11. Managing Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  12. Indoor radon levels in Columbus and Franklin county, Ohio residences, commercial buildings, and schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafton, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper data is presented for 2 residential radon surveys, one survey of city-owned buildings, and survey of Columbus Public Schools. The first residential survey used volunteer participants and employed a 48 hour activated carbon measurement: 4425 measurements in the data. The second survey consisted of 120 randomly selected residences in which alpha track detectors were placed for from 60 to 120 days. A survey of 52 city-owned buildings in which screening measurements were obtained using activated carbon, alpha track, and E-PERM radon detectors is included in the data. Also a survey of 25 Columbus Public Schools in which E-PERM radon monitors were used to obtain measurements is detailed in the data. More than 72% of the volunteer survey residences showed screening measurements of 4.0 pCi/L or greater while the random survey revealed 92% of the residences with radon levels of 4.0 pCi/L or higher. Schools tested in the survey also showed elevated radon levels with 20% of the tested structures with an average radon level of 4.0 pCi/L. Work is still in progress on city-owned buildings and Columbus Schools. The authors conclude that any owner or lessor of occupied buildings in Franklin County, Ohio should perform screening measurements and should be prepared to also perform follow-up measurements

  13. Radon and thoron progeny levels in air samples at Udagamandalam region of Nilgiris in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, N.M.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Raghunath, V.M.; Sundaram, V.M.; Santhanam, S.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of concentration of radon and thoron daughter products in various indoor environment covering four seasons of a year in Udagamandalam Taluk of Nilgiris biosphere has been carried out using a high volume air sampler to assess the inhalation dose to the population which delivers higher dose than the radon and thoron gas alone. The potential alpha-energy concentrations of the radon and thoron progeny ranged from 0.97 to 12.72 mWL and from 1.63 to 15.83 mWL with a geometric mean of 6.02 and 7.89 mWL, respectively, taking all seasons into account. These measurements have yielded a wealth of data on the variation among the indoor radon and thoron progeny in various places during different seasons. The radon and thoron progeny levels are higher in winter seasons and are less in summer season with autumn and spring data lie in between winter and summer. Using the dose conversion factor for indoor exposures given in UNSCEAR 93 report the internal equivalent dose to the inhalation of radon progeny is evaluated to be 1357 μSv x y -1 and the corresponding annual effective dose equivalent value has been found to be 2.13 mSv x y -1 . It can be observed that the mean value of radon is higher than the Indian average. Also it is found the radon and thoron progeny levels are higher in the case of houses built with rock and granite and in tiled type houses of nearly 100 years old. The levels are less in the case of houses built with brick and cement. The observed results for different types of houses and seasons are discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. Clinical significance of determination of serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF levels in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Donglin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF levels were measured with RIA in 32 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF were very significantly higher in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma than those in controls (P<0.01). After one week treatment, the levels dropped considerably but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the diseases. (authors)

  15. Do the UK workplace Radon Action Levels reflect the radiation dose received by the occupants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Parkinson, S.; Barker, S.P.; Marley, F.; Phillips, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    In the UK, Action Levels for radon have been established at 400 Bq m -3 for the workplace and 200 Bq m -3 for the home. We have estimated the dose received by occupants of rooms with radon levels near or above the Action Level, using hourly radon readings, and a questionnaire to record occupancy. In the workplace, results for 73 staff suggest that doses are lower than expected, partly due to part-time working and partly due to the mobility of staff. The 75% quantile for the series, corrected to a 37 hour week, is 5.2 mSv at 400 Bq m -3 . Compared to the current annual limit for radiation workers, the Action Level could be increased, but the current Action Level is compatible with the recent EEC Directive requiring a lower dose limit. However, when raised radon levels in the workplace were reduced by remediation in the series we studied, the dose reduction to staff was consistently around half of the radon level reduction. Although it would be appropriate to study more locations, this suggests an Action Level for remediated workplaces of 200 Bq m -3 . Finally, in a limited series of dose assessments in domestic properties, we found that doses could considerably exceed 5 mSv at the 200 Bq m -3 Action Level, primarily because the sample included an example of high occupancy, in our case several Asian wives in purdah, whose occupancy was almost total. (author)

  16. Radon levels in dwelling shielded spaces (DSS) in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Margaliot, M.; Riemer, T.; Shamash, S.; Even, O.; Shamai, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to radon gas is known as the major contributor to the general public exposure to ionizing radiation. The typical radon concentration in Israeli houses with a direct ground contact is about 50 Bq/m 3 , attributed mainly to soil gas penetration into the house. All newly constructed buildings (since 1991) must include Dwelling Shielded Spaces (DSS) which are rooms made of massive solid concrete, equipped with air-tight steel door and window. The DSS serve as shelters against both explosive and chemical warfare. In normal practice, the DSS serves as a conventional room in the household. Standard size DSS contain a mass of around 35 tons of concrete with typical 2 26R a activity concentration of 30 Bq/kg. This mass of concrete is expected to increase the radon concentration in the DSS room due to exhalation from the building material. Published exhalation rate values from concrete in the US and Europe vary from 0.1 to 8 mBq/m 2 sec. (0.5 - 30 Bq/m 2 h). This work presents short and long-term radon measurements performed in high-rise building DSS's. Measurements of the free exhalation rate and wall exhalation rate as well as ventilation rate in DSS are also presented and the relation between these quantities is analyzed

  17. Indoor radon levels and inhalation doses in dwellings near the some sites of Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, B.S.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the fact that radon and its daughters are a major source of natural radiation exposure, the measurement of radon concentration levels in dwellings has assumed ever-increasing importance. Keeping this in view, the indoor radon level measurements were carried out in the dwellings of different villages known to be located in the vicinity of uranium-mineralized pockets of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh. Track-etch technique, a passive method using the Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), LR-115 type II, was utilized for these measurements. An attempt has been made to assess the levels of the indoor radon in the dwellings and inhalation dose rates of the population living in these villages. The radon concentrations were found to be varying with seasonal changes, building materials and mode of construction of houses. The radon concentrations were found to be higher in houses made from local sandstone and with mud floor in comparison to the houses having cemented brick floors. The annual indoor radon concentration and thus annual effective dose in most of the dwellings of these villages is certainly quite higher and even in some of the dwellings it even exceeds the upper limit of the proposed action level of ICRP, 1993. The inhalation dose rates in dwellings of these villages located in the vicinity of uranium mineralized pockets of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh have been found to be quite higher than dose rate in the dwellings in the Amritsar city, Punjab, which is located in a completely uranium free zone. The radon survey in the dwellings of these villages has also been carried out using the Alpha-Guard technique, which is based on the pulse ionization chamber. The indoor radon concentration levels measured using the active technique of Alpha Guard have been found to be quite different from those measured in these dwellings by the passive technique of SSNTDs; indicating the importance of the SSNTDs in the long-term integrated measurement

  18. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Herron Caroline M; Newell James N; Lewis Christopher P; Nawabu Haidari

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Methods Nineteen ind...

  19. Comparative study of different types of granular activated carbon in removing medium level radon from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabdula'aly, A.I.; Maghrawy, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) has proven its effectiveness in removing radon from water supplies. Laboratory and pilot plant studies were carried out using three different types of activated carbons (F-300, F-400, and HD-4000) to remove radon from water supply. From the experimental kinetic study, the data indicated that at least 6 h are needed to attain equilibrium between radon activity adsorbed onto carbon and its concentration in the aqueous phase. Also, it showed that HD-4000 has higher capacity for removing radon than the other two investigated carbons F-300 and F-400. The adsorption isotherms were satisfactorily explained by Freundlich equation. In the pilot plant study, the performance of the three activated carbons in removing radon at medium concentration (∼111 Bq dm -3 ) was evaluated over 60 days of continuous water flow. Four empty-bed contact times (EBCTs) corresponding to four bed depths were continuously monitored and the corresponding steady state adsorption-decay constant values were calculated and the efficiency of each carbon was used to provide a facet for comparison. The γ-radiation exposure rate distribution throughout each GAC bed was measured and compared. This study, despite paucity of literature in this field, is useful for designing a GAC adsorption system for the removal of medium level radon concentration from water supplies. (author)

  20. Radon, thoron and their progeny levels in some dwellings of Union Territory Chandigarh, India using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Vimal; Kumar, Amit; Chauhan, R.P.; Mudahar, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Indoor air quality is an important issue for protection against adverse health effects caused by the inhalation of pollutants because most individuals spend 90% of their time indoors and that indoor air quality is deteriorated by a large variety of sources. Out of these sources radon is a major pollutant and is an important global problem of radiation hygiene. Radon and its progeny are the major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Next to cigarette smoking, the inhalation of radon gas and the products of its radioactive disintegration are considered the most significant cause of lung cancer. Due to the potentially serious public health implications of exposure to high levels of radon, the environmental monitoring of radon, thoron and their progeny in some dwellings of Chandigarh, union territory of India has been carried out. The radon-thoron twin dosimeter cups were used for the study. The aim of the study is the possible health risk assessment in the dwellings under consideration. (author)

  1. Radon-thoron levels and inhalation dose distribution patterns in India dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Eappen, K.P.; Nair, R.N.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sadasivan, S.

    2003-09-01

    A countrywide survey on radon and thoron levels has been carried out in Indian dwellings under a Coordinated Research Project sponsored by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). Eight universities and a few research institutions from different parts of the country participated in this project. Under this project, radon and thoron levels were measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) -spark counter based passive technique. A plastic twin chamber radon -thoron dosimeter was developed and standardized for the survey. This radon-thoron discriminating dosimeter uses three SSNTDs; two of which are exposed in cup modes and the third one is exposed in bare mode. Calibration factors (CF) are obtained for cup and bare mode SSNTDs through controlled experiments in a calibration facility. Calibration factors obtained from experiments showed very good agreement with the calibration factors derived from theoretical models. Four nodal centres were set up each at Kalpakkam, Jodhpur, Jaduguda and Mumbai for calibration and standardization of the dosimeter system. Inter calibration of the dosimeters were also carried out for comparison purpose. Nearly 4500 measurements in about 1400 dwellings were made during the survey period. An analysis of the data shows that the indoor radon gas concentrations at different locations vary between 4.6 and 147.0 Bq.m -3 with a geometric mean of 23.0 Bq.m -3 (GSD 2.61). Indoor thoron gas concentrations, in general, are found to be less than the radon concentrations and vary from 3.6 to 42.8 Bq.m -3 with a geometric mean of 12.2 Bq.m -3 (GSD 3.22). The mean annual inhalation dose rate due to radon, thoron and their progeny in the dwellings is estimated to be 0.97 mSv.y -1 (GSD 2.49). It is observed that the major contribution to the indoor inhalation dose is due to radon and its progeny. However, the contribution due to thoron and its progeny is not trivial as it is about 20 % of the total

  2. Survey: Knowledge level of the population about radon in Switzerland; Enquete: niveau de connaissance de la population au sujet du radon en Suisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruson, M.; Murith, C. [Office Federal de la Sante Publique, Section Risques Radiologiques, Berne (Switzerland); Rumo, S. [CBC Marketing Research, Berne (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    In 1995, a survey was conducted in order to investigate levels of knowledge about radon among the Swiss population. In 2008, a second survey, using a similar methodology, was carried out by the F.O.P.H.. The new study showed that about 40% of the Swiss population has heard of radon, which represents an increase of 8% over the 1995 survey. Most of the respondents knew that radon causes lung cancer, but believed that the gas also produces other health effects (in particular, migraine and skin conditions). In addition, older people, those with a high level of education and property owners tended to be more familiar with the radon issue than the public at large. The inhabitants of high-risk regions achieved markedly better results, which demonstrate that information campaigns in these regions have been successful. At the same time, additional communication efforts are required in low- and medium-risk municipalities, where the majority of the population lives. (authors)

  3. Human papillomavirus infection is associated with decreased levels of GM-CSF in cervico-vaginal fluid of infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comar, Manola; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zanotta, Nunzia; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Ricci, Giuseppe; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-10-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection, there are very scant data about the influence of this virus on the in vitro fertilization outcome. To assess the presence of HPV in the cervico-vaginal fluid in relationship to the in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome and to the concentration of selected cytokines, known to affect embryo implantation and gestation: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Cervico-vaginal samples were collected on the day of oocyte pick-up from 82 women. Vaginas were flushed with 50 mL of sterile water and 3 mL of fluid was collected. Twelve women (15%) were positive for HPV. Interestingly, among HPV(+) women live birth rate was about half of the rate in HPV(-) women, although the differences were not statistically significant due to the low number of cases. Cervico-vaginal samples of a sub-group of 29 (8 HPV(+) and 21 HPV(-)) women were analyzed for GM-CSF and G-CSF by ELISA. GM-CSF but not G-CSF was significantly lower in the cervico-vaginal fluid of HPV(+) than in HPV(-) women. Since GM-CSF plays an important role during pregnancy, the reduced levels of GM-CSF in the cervico-vaginal fluid of HPV(+) women might contribute to explain the reduced live birth rate observed in HPV(+) women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation exposure and radon levels in some stations of the Syrian gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shwekani, R.; Jerbi, B.; Awad, I.

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, exposure levels and radon concentrations have been measured in natural gas production lines at the Syrian gas company. The study area includes gas stations for directories of Der Ezzor, Al-Jbessa, Al-Hassaka, and the middle region. The results showed that radiation exposure rates in remote stations and internal stations were within the natural levels except for two main locations, viz reflex pumps and propane production unites; 3 μSvhr -1 was reported. Radon concentration in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bqm - 3 and 1141 Bqm - 3; coproduced natural gas was found to contain higher concentration that the free natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities that the well heads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its daughters concentrations in these stations. Moreover, a value of 659 Bqm - 3 in Al-Jbessa directorate gas and 225 Bqm - 3 in Al-Hassaka directorate gas were reported. While the concentration was lower in gas producing safur; a value of 80 Bqm - 3 was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas concentrations and its daughters in workplace air environment was found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratory and they are due to gas release inside the lab during analysis in addition to good separation of these laboratories from the surrounding environment. (author)

  5. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum GM-CSF, IL-8, IL-6 levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Hongfeng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum GM-CSF, IL-8 and IL-6 levels both before and after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum GM-CSF, IL-8 and IL-6 levels were measured with RIA in 32 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum GM-CSF, IL-8, IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal high serum GM-CSF, IL-8, IL-6 levels played important role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in children. (authors)

  6. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum GM-CSF, CGRP levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lihua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum GM-CSF and CGRP levels both before and after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum GM-CSF and CGRP levels were measured with RIA in 33 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum GM-CSF levels was significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal high serum GM -CSF and low CGRP levels played important role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in children. (authors)

  7. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum NO, NOS and GM-CSF levels after treatment in children with bronchopneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongmei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum NO, NOS and GM-CSF levels after treatment in children with bronchopneumonia. Methods: Serum GM-CSF levels were determined with RIA, and serum NO, NOS levels were determined with biochemical methods both before and after treatment in 48 children with bronehopneumonia as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum concentrations of NO, NOS and GM-CSF in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum NO, NOS and GM-CSF levels were useful for assessment of therapeutic efficacy. (authors)

  8. Effect of local geology on indoor radon levels: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon monitoring in 40 East Tennessee homes that were a component of a larger study to evaluate indoor air quality. Measurements were conducted during two 3-month time periods with passive integrating track etch monitors in each of the forty homes. In a subset of homes, measurements were also conducted with a real-time monitor that provided readings on an hourly basis. The results of the monitoring indicate that about 30% of the homes had radon levels greater that 4 pCi/L in the living space. Homes with elevated radon levels were associated with local variations in geology; most of the homes having higher levels were located on the porous dolomite ridge partially surrounding Oad Ridge, Tennessee. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of radon and radioactivity level in phosphorite area in Guizhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhou; Yang Zhong; Wei Tao; Zhang Xiaole; Yu Lixin; Tian Zhujuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study and assess atmospheric radon and radioactive levels in one of phosphorite area in Guizhou province. Methods: To monitor and analyze the external irradiation level, atmospheric radon, nuclide levels, and water total radioactivity on the spot and in the laboratory. Results: External irradiation level is 7-18 x 10 -8 Gy/h, the mean value is 12 x 10 -8 Gy/h, atmospheric radon concentration is 105-246 Bq/m 3 , ore 226 Ra nuclide levels are between 156.7-372.3 Bq/kg, the mean value is 222.6 Bq/kg, the maximum total radioactivity levels of mine water are total α=0.175 Bq/L and total β=0.374 Bq/L, the total radioactivity levels of drinking water is not more than total α=0.0327 Bq/L, total β=0.174 Bq/L. Conclusion: Radioactivity levels accord with the relevant national standards. There were remarkable correlation in the total radioactivity levels of mine water and drinking water. The radon concentration in well air is not up to the point of reach intervention level. (authors)

  10. Determination of Radon Level in Drinking Water in Mehriz Villages and Evaluation the Annual Effective Absorbed Dose

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Malakootian; Hasan Salmani Marvast

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Radon is one of the most radioactive elements that may be found in soil, air and water naturally. Presence of fault and also granitic rocks near the water sources can cause high radon levels in these water resources. Radon concentration of various drinking water sources And network In Mehriz Villages was measured from Anar- Mehriz fault and granite stone of Shirkooh area. Material and Methods: This was a cross sectional research that was conducted in fall of 2013 on the sourc...

  11. Raetrad model extensions for radon entry into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Rogers, V; Holt, R B

    1997-10-01

    The RAETRAD model was generalized to characterize radon generation and movement from soils and building materials into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces. With the generalization, the model retains its original simplicity and ease of use. The model calculates radon entry rates that are consistent with measurements published for basement test structures at Colorado State University, confirming approximately equal contributions from diffusion and pressure-driven air flow at indoor-outdoor air pressure differences of deltaP(i-o) = -3.5 Pa. About one-fourth of the diffusive radon entry comes from concrete slabs and three-fourths comes from the surrounding soils. Calculated radon entry rates with and without a barrier over floor-wall shrinkage cracks generally agree with Colorado State University measurements when a sustained pressure of deltaP(i-o) = -2 Pa is used to represent calm wind (<1 m s(-1)) conditions. Calculated radon distributions in a 2-level house also are consistent with published measurements and equations.

  12. Modeling the dependency of radon concentration levels inside ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, S M; Abo-Elmagdb, M [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P. O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Salamaa, E [National Institute for Standard, Radiation Measurements Department, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-06-15

    Radon concentration inside partially closed places like dwellings, caves and tombs, depends on many parameters. Some parameters are known quantitatively as radon exhalation rate for walls, decay constant, surface to volume ratio and outdoor concentration while other parameters as ventilation rate is in common known qualitatively due to useless of traditional methods (tracer gases) in many places as ancient Egyptian tombs. This work introduces a derived mathematical model to evaluate the sensitivity of radon concentration levels inside single sided opening places as ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature differences. The obtained formula for the natural ventilation rate depends on the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and the geometrical dimensions of the doorway. The effects of in and out flow mixing, air viscosity, streamline contraction, swirling flow and turbulence, were taken into consideration in terms of an empirical correction factor. According UNSCEAR reports, the exhalation rate {phi}=C{sub ra}{lambda}{sub rn} f{rho}{sub s}(1-{epsilon})L; C{sub ra} the effective radium content, {lambda}{sub rn} decay constant, f emanation fraction, {rho}{sub s} soil grain density, {epsilon} porosity and L diffusion length, these are approximately static parameters but the variability of ambient temperature introduces a source of energy of fluctuating strength to radon atoms in rocks which controls the flow rate and the ambient content of radon. Therefore, the change of outdoor and indoor temperature difference causes fluctuation of value and direction of volume flow rate in such places consequently causes the daily variation and on average the seasonal variation of radon concentration. Therefore according to the present model, the daily accurate expectation of radon concentrations inside ancient Egyptian tombs, require precise measurements of indoor and outdoor temperatures.

  13. Modeling the dependency of radon concentration levels inside ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, S.M.; Abo-Elmagdb, M.; Salamaa, E.

    2007-01-01

    Radon concentration inside partially closed places like dwellings, caves and tombs, depends on many parameters. Some parameters are known quantitatively as radon exhalation rate for walls, decay constant, surface to volume ratio and outdoor concentration while other parameters as ventilation rate is in common known qualitatively due to useless of traditional methods (tracer gases) in many places as ancient Egyptian tombs. This work introduces a derived mathematical model to evaluate the sensitivity of radon concentration levels inside single sided opening places as ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature differences. The obtained formula for the natural ventilation rate depends on the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and the geometrical dimensions of the doorway. The effects of in and out flow mixing, air viscosity, streamline contraction, swirling flow and turbulence, were taken into consideration in terms of an empirical correction factor. According UNSCEAR reports, the exhalation rate Φ=C ra λ rn fρ s (1-ε)L; C ra the effective radium content, λ rn decay constant, f emanation fraction, ρ s soil grain density, ε porosity and L diffusion length, these are approximately static parameters but the variability of ambient temperature introduces a source of energy of fluctuating strength to radon atoms in rocks which controls the flow rate and the ambient content of radon. Therefore, the change of outdoor and indoor temperature difference causes fluctuation of value and direction of volume flow rate in such places consequently causes the daily variation and on average the seasonal variation of radon concentration. Therefore according to the present model, the daily accurate expectation of radon concentrations inside ancient Egyptian tombs, require precise measurements of indoor and outdoor temperatures

  14. Evaluating impact level of different factors in environmental impact assessment for incinerator plants using GM (1, N) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, T Y; Chiou, R J; Wen, H H

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the impact levels in environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports of 10 incinerator plants were quantified and discussed. The relationship between the quantified impact levels and the plant scale factors of BeiTou, LiZe, BaLi, LuTsao, RenWu, PingTung, SiJhou and HsinChu were constructed, and the impact levels of the GangShan (GS) and YongKong (YK) plants were predicted using grey model GM (1, N). Finally, the effects of plant scale factors on impact levels were evaluated using grey model GM (1, N) too. According to the predicted results of GM, the relative errors of topography/geology/soil, air quality, hydrology/water quality, solid waste, noise, terrestrial fauna/flora, aquatic fauna/flora and traffic in the GS plant were 17%, 14%, 15%, 17%, 75%, 16%, 13%, and 37%, respectively. The relative errors of the same environmental items in the YK plant were 1%, 18%, 10%, 40%, 37%, 3%, 25% and 33%, respectively. According to GM (1, N), design capacity (DC) and heat value (HV) were the plant scale factors that affected the impact levels significantly in each environmental item, and thus were the most significant plant scale factors. GM (1, N) was effective in predicting the environmental impact and analyzing the reasonableness of the impact. If there is an EIA for a new incinerator plant to be reviewed in the future, the official committee of the Taiwan EPA could review the reasonableness of impact levels in EIA reports quickly.

  15. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herron Caroline M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically Modified (GM crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Methods Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Results Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. Conclusion This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they

  16. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christopher P; Newell, James N; Herron, Caroline M; Nawabu, Haidari

    2010-07-12

    Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female) and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they believe use of GM biotechnology is an appropriate way in which

  17. Lifetime loss through lung cancer in Denmark and Sweden in relation to radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjorup, H.L.; Hansen, H.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radon levels in Swedish houses are 2.1 times higher than in Danish. Results show no positive correlation with cumulative lifetime loss due to lung cancer for the period 1972-1978, which in Denmark was 2.0 times that in Sweden. Neither do they show any positive correlation with lifetime loss due to leukemia, which was the same in Sweden and Denmark, or with lifetime loss due to total neoplasms. Lung cancer mortality figures resemble those for bronchitis, asthma and emphysema. The authors thus see no special radiogenic effect of the high Swedish radon levels. (author)

  18. Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors in houses of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Garcia, P.

    1992-01-01

    Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors have been obtained in houses from Mexico City, with the purpose of relating them with the local environment. Measurements were performed both outdoors and indoors in 60 unifamiliar houses. Track detectors, LR-115, Type II, were used in several detection arrangements during four recording periods with times of exposure of three months each, with the purpose of analyzing the fluctuations due to seasonal changes. Data were obtained about the construction materials were the detection systems were located in order to establish a correlation of radon levels with the climatic parameters and the construction materials. The results of radon concentrations both indoors or outdoors were lower than the international recommendations (148 Bq/m 3 ) (Author)

  19. Home radon levels and seasonal correction factors for the Isle of Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, P.; Preece, A.W.; Goodfellow, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation dose levels due to home radon can rise to levels that would be illegal for workers in the nuclear industry. It is well known that radon levels within homes and from home to home, and also from month to month, vary considerably. To define an Isle of Man radon seasonal correction factor, readings were taken in eight homes over a 12 month period. An average island indoor exposure of 48 Bq m -3 (range 4-518 Bq m -3 ) was determined from 285 homes selected from a cohort of 1300 families participating in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) in the Isle of Man. This compares with a UK home average of 20 Bq m -3 and a European Union average (excluding UK) of 68 Bq m -3 . Ten homes of those measured were found to have radon levels above the National Radiological Protection Board 200 Bq m -3 action level. There are 29 377 homes on the Isle of Man, suggesting that there could be some 900 or more homes above the action level. No statistical difference was found between the NRPB and Isle of Man seasonal correction factors. (author)

  20. Radon levels in some dwellings around the international monument Taj Mahal, Agra using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Mahur, A.K.; Singh, H.; Sonkawade, R.G.; Swarup, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Taj Mahal, Agra had been on top priority of India and safe guarded by Taj Mahal Corridor. All the gaseous industrial discharges as well as fluid chemicals and water due to rain and river Yamuna toxic polluting entities had been taken into account while maintaining the beauty of Taj and purity of environment around it's rural areas. Indoor radon concentration depends in a complex way on the characteristic of the soil, the type of building structure, ventilation condition and occupant's behaviour. LR-115 Type II Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD's) have been used to measure the airborne radon levels in some dwellings near Taj Mahal, Agra. Radon concentrations were found to vary from 98 to 305 Bqm -3 with an average value of 213 Bqm -3 . Annual effective dose in these dwellings were found to vary from 1.3 to 4.4 mSv. (author)

  1. Radon measurements during the building of a low-level laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Anicin, I.; Bikit, I.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Joksimovic, D.; Krmpotic, D.; Udovicic, V.; Vukovic, J

    1999-06-01

    Radon measurements were provided during the different stages of building of a low-level laboratory in Belgrade. The depth of the laboratory is 12 m, equivalent to 30 m of water with an area of 45 m{sup 2}. The whole of the laboratory is hermetically lined with 1 mm A1 foil and is ventilated with filtered air. Radon concentrations were measured with the CR-39 detector as well as via the gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements. The radon concentrations in the air were achieved to 20 Bqm{sup -3} and reduction of secondary and tertiary cosmic-ray fluxes is five times when ventilation, filtering and sealing was applied.

  2. A study of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Wang Yan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Xue

    2005-01-01

    Using Model 1027 continuous radon monitor, a test of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space was done. Four different types of ventilation, i.e. by air pump (P), by air intake blower (B), by air pump and air intake blower simultaneously (PBS), and by air pump and air intake blower in turn (PBT), were examined. The authors found that efficiency of PBS is the highest among these ventilation type. Having ventilated the underground space with PBS for 1, 2 or 3 hours in three different days, and having observed the radon concentration change in the following 24 hours, the authors can conclude that it is safe for people to stay there during the eight working hours if the underground space is ventilated for 2 hours everyday in the morning. (authors)

  3. Radon reference levels and priority areas considering optimisation and avertable lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, F.; Venoso, G.; Antignani, S.; Carpentieri, C.

    2017-01-01

    Protection from radon exposure in workplaces and dwellings, as included in the latest relevant international regulations and recommendations, is based on the new concept of 'reference level' whose meaning is significantly different from that of previous 'action level' concept. In fact, whereas remedial actions had to be considered only for radon concentrations above the action level, actions to optimise radon exposure are requested with priority above reference level but optimisation should be applied also for radon concentrations below reference level. Similar considerations can be applied to the usually called 'Rn-prone' areas, which are here proposed to be regulated as 'priority' areas. The main implication of these new challenging concepts is a substantial increase of avertable lung cancer deaths, as it will be shown using Italian data. Some practical examples of possible policy actions fitting an approach based on these new concepts will also be given, which could be useful for the implementation of the Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels after treatment in children with acute nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoyan; Zhou Hong; Xu Weiqin; Li Xinghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF- α levels after treatment in children with acute nephritis. Methods: Serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels (with RIA) were measured in 31 pediatric patients with acute nephritis and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P< O.01). After treatment for 3 months, the serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels, though markedly corrected, remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α contents after treatment might be of prognostic importance in pediatric patients with acute nephritis. (authors)

  5. Lowering the UK domestic radon Action Level to prevent more lung cancers-is it cost-effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A R; Groves-Kirkby, C J; Coskeran, T; Phillips, P S; Crockett, R G M; Tornberg, R

    2008-01-01

    Case studies have shown that radon gas can accumulate within domestic properties at sufficiently high levels that it can cause lung cancer, and recent studies have suggested that this risk remains significant below the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 . Raised radon levels can be reduced by engineering measures, and it has been shown that domestic radon remediation programmes in UK Affected Areas can result in reduced risks to the population and can be cost-effective. We consider here the benefits and costs of the domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, UK, and consider the implications for that programme of reducing the UK Action Level below its present value. A radon remediation programme based on an Action Level above 200 Bq m -3 will cost less and will target those most at risk, but will be less cost-effective and will lead to higher residual dose and greater risk of cancer in the remaining population. Reducing the Action Level below 200 Bq m -3 will prevent more cancers, but at significantly higher cost. It will also be less cost-effective, because remediation of a significant number of houses with moderate radon levels will provide only a modest health benefit to occupants. Overall, a completed radon remediation programme of the type implemented in Northamptonshire is most cost-effective for an Action Level between 200 and 300 Bq m -3 . The implications for future health policy are discussed

  6. Intercomparison of active, passive and continuous instruments for radon and radon progeny measurements in the EML chamber and test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpitta, S.C.; Tu, K.W.; Fisenne, I.M.; Cavallo, A.; Perry, P.

    1996-10-01

    Results are presented from the Fifth Intercomparison of Active, Passive and Continuous Instruments for Radon and Radon Progeny Measurements conducted in the EML radon exposure and test facility in May 1996. In total, thirty-four government, private and academic facilities participated in the exercise with over 170 passive and electronic devices exposed in the EML test chamber. During the first week of the exercise, passive and continuous measuring devices were exposed (usually in quadruplicate) to about 1,280 Bq m -3 222 Rn for 1--7 days. Radon progeny measurements were made during the second week of the exercise. The results indicate that all of the tested devices that measure radon gas performed well and fulfill their intended purpose. The grand mean (GM) ratio of the participants' reported values to the EML values, for all four radon device categories, was 0.99 ± 0.08. Eighty-five percent of all the radon measuring devices that were exposed in the EML radon test chamber were within ±1 standard deviation (SD) of the EML reference values. For the most part, radon progeny measurements were also quite good as compared to the EML values. The GM ratio for the 10 continuous PAEC instruments was 0.90 ± 0.12 with 75% of the devices within 1 SD of the EML reference values. Most of the continuous and integrating electronic instruments used for measuring the PAEC underestimated the EML values by about 10--15% probably because the concentration of particles onto which the radon progeny were attached was low (1,200--3,800 particles cm -3 ). The equilibrium factor at that particle concentration level was 0.10--0.22

  7. Preliminary findings radon daughter levels in structures constructed on reclaimed Florida phosphate land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Preliminary results are reported from a survey of the radon daughter levels in structures in Polk County, Florida, built on reclaimed phosphate tailings containing various amounts of 226 Ra. The structures surveyed consisted primarily of private dwellings although a few office buildings were also surveyed. Track-etch films and TLD air samplers were used to measure the levels of radon daughters within the structures and in structures built on non-phosphate land. Radiation levels were converted to WL units (the working level (WL) unit is defined as the potential α energy from the short-lived daughters of Rn which will produce 1.3 x 10 5 MeV in one liter of air). The highest observed level in any structure was 0.2 WL. Possible health hazards to long-time occupants are discussed

  8. Nationwide survey of radon levels in indoor workplaces in Mexico using Nuclear Track Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Angeles, A.; Griffith, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of an indoor workplace radon survey conducted during 2006-2007. Monitoring was carried out in 24 of the 32 federal entities of Mexico, incorporating 26 cities and 288 locations. The area monitored was divided into 8 regions for the purposes of the study: Chihuahua (a state with uranium mines), North-Central, South-Central, Southeast, South, Northeast, Northwest, and West. These regions differ in terms of geographic and geological characteristics, climate, altitude, and building materials and architectonic styles. Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) was employed for the survey, using a passive closed-end cup device with Poly Allyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC), known by its trade name CR-39 (Lantrack), as detector material. Well-established protocols for making continuous indoor radon measurements were followed, including one-step chemical etching in a 6.25 M KOH solution at 60 ± 1 deg. C with an etching time of 18 h. The track densities were determined with an automatic digital system at the Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (IFUNAM) (Physics Institute of the National Autonomous University of Mexico), and calibrated in facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The importance of this survey lies in the fact that it represents the first time a nationwide survey of radon levels in indoor workplaces has been carried out in Mexico. Mean indoor radon levels from continuous measurements taken during and after working hours ranged from 13 Bq m -3 (the lower limit of detection) to 196 Bq m -3 . Analogous official controls or regulations for radon levels in indoor workplaces do not exist in Mexico. The survey described here contributes to knowledge of the natural radiological environment in workplaces, and will aid the relevant authorities in establishing appropriate regulations. The survey was made possible by the efforts of both a private institutions and the Dosimeter Application Project

  9. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  10. Investigation of the various factors affecting the response of passive configuration track etch dosimeters to working level hour exposure in radon and radon daughter atmospheres. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    The work described in this report was directed toward identifying and devising methods to minimize the previously observed variability between working level hour exposures and the alpha particle track densities resulting on Track Etch films exposed to mine atmospheres containing radon and radon daughters. The disequilibrium between radon and its daughters was shown to directly affect the Track Etch film calibration factor. The wide range of disequilibrium states possible in mine situations amply explains the variability in the previous tests. A file of published mine atmosphere composition data was compiled and was used, along with atmospheric compositions derived from several theoretical models of the atmospheric behavior, to evaluate the variability of several dosimeter configurations and concepts

  11. Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10/C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.

  12. Factors controlling indoor radon levels. Annual report, June 1983-May 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.

    1984-01-01

    The factors which contribute to indoor radon levels were investigated. Soil moisture content appears to be such a factor and influences indoor radon levels in a subtle way. The single family dwelling studied here is a typical suburban home, with a full basement, two living levels and a full attic. Seasonal data for 1981 to 1983 are shown by hour (about 90 hours in each average) for the basement, first floor and outdoors. A twenty-five story, 225 apartment, high rise building has been under study for about the same time interval. The apartment has five rooms, and is on the 24th floor. Continuous monitors are located in a work room and outdoors on a terrace. Data are available from the summer of 1981. 2 references, 12 figures, 9 tables

  13. Clinical significance of determination of serum IL-2, IL-6 and GM-CSF levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhuo; Sun Jin; Yao Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, IL-6 and GM-CSF levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum levels of IL-2, IL-6 and GM-CSF were measured with RIA in 36 pediatric patients with bronchiol asthma and 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum levels of IL-6, GM-CSF were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05), Serum IL-2 levels were negatively correlated with the IL-6 and GM-CSF levels (r=-0.5846, -0.6018, P<0.01). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in pediatric patients. Mornitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the diseases. (authors)

  14. Effect of local geology on indoor radon levels: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon monitoring in 40 East Tennessee homes that were a component of a larger study to evaluate indoor air quality. Measurements were conducted during two 3-month time periods with passive integrating track etch monitors in each of the forty homes. In a subset of homes, measurements were also conducted with a real-time monitor that provided readings on an hourly basis. The results of the monitoring indicate that about 30% of the homes had radon levels were associated with local variations in geology; most of the homes having higher levels were located on the porous dolomite ridge partially surrounding Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Effect of local geology on indoor radon levels: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon monitoring in 40 East Tennessee homes that were a component of a larger study to evaluate indoor air quality. Measurements were conducted during two 3-month time periods with passive integrating track etch monitors in each of the forty homes. In a subset of homes, measurements were also conducted with a real-time monitor that provided readings on an hourly basis. The results of the monitoring indicate that about 30% of the homes had radon levels were associated with local variations in geology; most of the homes having higher levels were located on the porous dolomite ridge partially surrounding Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  16. Surveys of radon levels in homes in the United States: A test of the linear-no-threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Radon Project for large scale measurements of radon concentrations in homes is described. Its principal research is to test the linear-no threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis by determining average radon levels in the 25 U.S. counties (within certain population ranges) with highest and lowest lung cancer rates. The theory predicts that the former should have about 3 times higher average radon levels than the latter, under the assumption that any correlation between exposure to radon and exposure to other causes of lung cancer is weak. The validity of this assumption is tested with data on average radon level vs replies to items on questionnaires; there is little correlation between radon levels in houses and smoking habits, educational attainment, or economic status of the occupants, or with urban vs rural environs which is an indicator of exposure to air pollution

  17. Radon problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the health hazards resulting from the release of naturally occurring radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium. It is estimated that random inhalation is now causing about 10,000 fatal lung cancers per year in the US. Radon is constantly being generated in rocks and soils (in which uranium is naturally present) and in materials produced from them (e.g., brick, stone, cement, plaster). It is emphasized that radon levels in buildings are typically 5 times higher than outdoors because radon diffusing up from the ground below or out of bricks, stone, cement, or plaster is trapped inside for a relatively long time

  18. Examination of the influence of water-heated central heating systems on the levels of radon and radon progeny in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, F.; Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.

    2000-01-01

    A series of continuous real-time radon and progeny measurements, together with passive etched-track detector measurements returning average values, were undertaken in commercial premises in Northamptonshire. Detailed measurements over several months in two separate buildings show that the level of both radon and progeny are determined to a major extent by the influence of the operation and timing of the central heating systems in place. Both buildings studied are similar in construction to many single-storey domestic properties. The operative heating system reduced the radon and progeny levels relative to the non-operating mode by over 40% during the heating period of a normal working day. The variation in temperature during this time was generally less than 3 deg. C, indicative of a heat retentive building. Because the equilibrium (F) fraction is reduced during the heating period, the reductions in radon and progeny are not uniform. In the workplaces studied, the work-cycle was normally limited to 0900-1700 hours Monday to Friday, the period when the lowest values were recorded. Average daily values would therefore overstate by more than 50% the maximum potential dose during normal attendance hours. The corollary is that living under similar circumstances in domestic environments, the operation and timing of this type of heating regime may well result in higher exposure in the home than at work

  19. Correlation of indoor radon levels with physical properties of local soil in Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Bhaskar Reddy, G.; Sreenath Reddy, M.; Gopal Reddy, Ch; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor radon contributes significantly to the total radiation exposure caused to human beings. As might be expected, the physical characteristics of soil play key roles in determining the radon concentration in nearby buildings. The physical characteristics of soil, such as density, specific gravity and porosity in the vicinity of the dwellings of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, have been determined using core cutter and specific gravity bottle. In the present paper, these parameters are correlated with the average indoor radon levels estimated for a year using solid state nuclear track detectors. (author)

  20. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum NO, NOS and GM-CSF levels after massage therapy in patients with periarthritis of shoulder diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Chen Lixia; Pan Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum NO, NOS and GM-CSF levels after massage therapy in patients with periarthritis of shoulder diseases. Methods: Serum GM-CSF level was determined with RIA and serum NO, NOS levels were determined with chemical methods both before and after massage therapy in 33 patients with periarthritis of shoulder diseases as well as in 35 normal healthy controls. Results: Before massage therapy the serum concertration of NO, NOS and GM-CSF in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum NO, NOS and GM-CSF levels were closely related to the occurrence and development of the disease also provides important value clinically. (authors)

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of changes in serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels after treatment in children with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of the changes of levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) after treatment in children with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels were measured with RIA in 32 patients with bronchial asthma both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels in patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05 ). Conclusion: Changes of serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels contents after treatment might be of prognostic importance in children with bronchial asthma. (authors)

  2. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-6, IL-10 and GM-CSF levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Wenjing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of Serum IL-6, IL-10 and GM-CSF levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-10 and GM-CSF levels were measured with RIA in 33 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL-10 and GM-CSF levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-6, IL-10 and GM-CSF levels were useful for assessment of therapeutic efficacy and were of important clinical values in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. (authors)

  3. Level of radon and its daughters, and internal exposure doses in Shaanxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xin; Zhang Yawei; Yu Huilian

    1992-01-01

    About 4500 indoor and outdoor air samples were collected with FDT-84 sampler throughout Shaanxi Province in various seasons, and the concentrations of radon and its daughters in the air were determined with FD-3016 scintillator. Meanwhile, the diurnal, seasonal and altitudinal variation of radon and its progeny in Xi'an area were observed. The annual effective dose equivalent for individual adult resident was estimated to be 1.73 mSv·a -1 and the annual collective effective dose equivalent for the residents- in the whole province was estimated to be 5.09 ± 10 4 man.Sv·a -1 . The concentration levels and the doses are within the range of the data published in UNSCEAR reports in recent years, and all of them are in the normal range of the natural background

  4. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in The householders' guide to radon obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. The report has been prepared on the basis of experience gained in remedial work on more than 100 dwellings following advice given by BRE, and of discussions with others in the field, notably the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council. Work is continuing, particularly dealing with suspended timber floors, basements and ventilation systems. Results will be incorporated into revisions of this report as they become available. (Author)

  5. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  6. Measurement of indoor radon-thoron and their progeny levels in dwellings and radon concentrations in ground water of Hassan city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2014-01-01

    The indoor radon and thoron concentrations in dwellings of Hassan city have been measured by using LR-115 type-Il Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were carried in summer season from March to May-2013. The radon and thoron activity concentration in the corresponding dwellings has been found to vary from 7.4 to 45.7 Bqm -3 and 5.4 to 34.9 Bqm -3 with a median of 23.59±11 Bqm -3 and 14.47±8 Bqm -3 respectively. The overall average radon concentrations are found to be less than the lower reference level of 200 Bq m -3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The annual effective dose received due to radon and its progeny by the inhabitants in the dwellings under study has also been calculated which found to vary from 0.320 ±0.4 to 1.86 ±1.1 mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.957±0.8 mSv -1 . The obtained results are much lower than the upper reference level of 10 mSv y -1 (ICRP 2007). Radon in bore well water at different locations of Hassan city was determined using the emanometry technique and exposure dose from ingestion of drinking water was estimated. The radon concentration in ground water was found to vary from 19.49 to 60.74 Bq l -1 with an average value of 47.16±14Bq l -1 . From this study it is evident that, the recorded ground water radon concentration values are higher than MCL of 11 Bq l -1 proposed by USEPA. The total dose due to inhalation and ingestion of 222 Rn in ground water ranges from 0.053 mSv y -1 to 0.165mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.127±0.038mSv y -1 . (author)

  7. Long-term Radon Levels and Equilibrium Factor in Some Spanish Workplaces Measured with a Passive Integrating Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baixeras, C.; Amgarou, K.; Font, Ll.; Domingo, C.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of long-term radon levels and equilibrium factor is important to estimate the annual averaged dose due to radon progeny inhalation indoors. According to the European Union directive 96/26/EURATOM it is necessary to control the radon level in workplaces. This paper presents the radon concentration and equilibrium factor values obtained in some workplaces from the Barcelona area with a passive integrating dosemeter exposed for two months. The dosemeter consists of two Makrofol-DE nuclear etched track foils, one within a diffusion chamber and the other one bare, allowing the separated measurement of 222 Rn (C 0 ) and 214 Po (C 4 ) activity concentration respectively. The equilibrium factor is estimated from the disequilibrium degree (k 4 = C 4 /C 0 ). A description of the dosemeter and the methodology used, and an estimation of the annual dose received for the workers at the different workplaces are presented. (author)

  8. Radon reduction in waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, O.; Haberer, K.; Wilken, R.D.; Funk, H.; Stueber, J.; Wanitschek, J.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.; Stauder, S.

    2000-01-01

    The removal of radon from water using water aeration is one of the most effective methods for reducing radon in waterworks. Therefore, this report describes investigations on packed tower columns and shallow aeration devices and a method for mathematical modelling of gas exchange processes for dimensioning packed tower columns for radon removal. Moreover, possibilities for removing radon using active carbon filtration under waterworks typical conditions and for reducing indoor radon levels in waterworks are discussed. Finally, conclusions on the necessity of radon removal in German waterworks are drawn. (orig.) [de

  9. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  10. Comparison of a continuous working level monitor for radon daughters with conventional grab-sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Grenier, M.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of a radon daughter monitor was carried out under laboratory controlled conditions. The monitor operates on continuous sampling and time integrating principles and was tested in conjunction with a newly designed, large radon/thoron room calibration facility. The monitor was tested under constant and rapidly fluctuating radiation conditions. Experimental data obtained with the monitor were compared with data obtained by conventional grab-sampling and with an automated radon daughter/thoron daughter 'grab-sampler'. The Working Level used in the tests ranged from less than 0.01 WL to approximately 10 WL. The measurements were carried out under low aerosol concentration (1 x 10 3 - 2 x 10 3 cm -3 , approximately) to study plate-out effects in the sampling head. Good agreement (within about 10 %) was found between the monitor, conventional grab-sampling and the automated grab-sampler. The monitor should prove quite flexible, useful and reliable for monitoring underground and surface environments in the uranium mining industry

  11. A comparison of radon levels in Swedish homes in the 1980s and 30 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Buren, A.; Majones, L.

    1990-01-01

    The radon levels in Swedish homes were investigated in the 1950s and again in the 1980s. In 1955-56, an investigation of homes built before 1946 was carried out in four towns in Central Sweden by Hultqvist with the aim of obtaining results which were representative for the homes in the towns studied. In 1980-82 an investigation was carried out on Swedish homes built before 1976. This time the aim was to provide averages and distributions for the radon exposure of the Swedish population. Correlations with parameters such as building materials and building periods were also investigated. In this paper the radon concentrations in homes from approximately the same regions in the two investigations are compared. The average was found to be four times higher for the homes measured in 1980-82 than for those measured in 1955-56. The reason for this increase is discussed including a thorough evaluation of the sampling and measurement methods used in the two investigations

  12. Evaluation of radon-222 concentrations levels at workplaces of Curitiba, PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Martins Neto, Manoel R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    The radon is noble radioactive gas, which when inhaled and undergoing spontaneous decay emits alpha particles that interacting with the cells of biological tissue stimulates the development of lung cancer. The isotope 222 Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective dose received by the population from natural radiation sources. Current work is focused at the evaluation of the radon concentration levels in air of different workplaces at Curitiba-PR. For this purpose 126 track-etched detectors CR-39 were mounted inside the diffusion chambers that were distributed at workplaces of three enterprises environments for a period of three months approximately. The diffusion chambers were protected by a borosilicate glass fiber filters. After the exposition in air the detectors were submitted to chemical etching using a solution of 6.25M NaOH at 70°C during 14 hours. Such chemical treatment enables to count alpha particle track using an optical microscope with 100x objective magnification. The density of alpha particle tracks in CR-39 was converted to the radon activity concentration in air using the results of previous calibration performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. Obtained results show that the concentration of 222 Rn in air at studied workplaces varied from 16±2 Bq/m³ to 78±9 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the limits established by international regulatory agencies such as EPA and ICRP, which consider as normal the radon activity up to 200 Bq/m³ and 148 Bq/m³, respectively. (author)

  13. Evaluation of radon-222 concentrations levels at workplaces of Curitiba, PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Martins Neto, Manoel R., E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba - PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (FPP), Curitiba - PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radon is noble radioactive gas, which when inhaled and undergoing spontaneous decay emits alpha particles that interacting with the cells of biological tissue stimulates the development of lung cancer. The isotope {sup 222}Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective dose received by the population from natural radiation sources. Current work is focused at the evaluation of the radon concentration levels in air of different workplaces at Curitiba-PR. For this purpose 126 track-etched detectors CR-39 were mounted inside the diffusion chambers that were distributed at workplaces of three enterprises environments for a period of three months approximately. The diffusion chambers were protected by a borosilicate glass fiber filters. After the exposition in air the detectors were submitted to chemical etching using a solution of 6.25M NaOH at 70°C during 14 hours. Such chemical treatment enables to count alpha particle track using an optical microscope with 100x objective magnification. The density of alpha particle tracks in CR-39 was converted to the radon activity concentration in air using the results of previous calibration performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. Obtained results show that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in air at studied workplaces varied from 16±2 Bq/m³ to 78±9 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the limits established by international regulatory agencies such as EPA and ICRP, which consider as normal the radon activity up to 200 Bq/m³ and 148 Bq/m³, respectively. (author)

  14. Interpretation of radon isotope levels in geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.J.; Whitehead, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of 220 Rn and 222 Rn levels at Wairakei have been studied in relation to a model which considers the times taken for two separate processes, desorption of gases from the rock and fluid movement to a well. The relatively high 220 Rn levels are indicative of fluid movement through porous aquifer rock. (author)

  15. Effects of natural and forced basement ventilation on radon levels in single-family dwellings. Final report, May 90-Aug 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Reddy, T.A.

    1992-06-01

    The report gives, for the first time, results of an extensive study of the effect of ventilation on radon concentrations and radon entry rate in a single-family dwelling. Measurements of radon concentrations, building dynamics, and environmental parameters made in Princeton University research houses over several seasons and under different building operating conditions show the functional dependence of radon entry rate on basement depressurization. The work clarifies the role of natural ventilation in reducing indoor radon concentrations. The work shows conclusively that natural ventilation can decrease radon levels two ways: (1) by simple dilution, and (2) by providing a pressure break (defined as any opening in the building shell that reduces the outdoor/indoor differential pressure). This reduces building depressurization and thus the amount of radon-contaminated soil gas that is drawn into the building

  16. Kakiziba, GM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kakiziba, GM. Vol 1, No 1 (2008) - Articles Marketing Communications: How Strategic Advertising Enhances Good Customer Relations and Assures Brand Loyalty – The Case of Celtel, Tanzania Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2071-2162. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  17. Determination of 222Rn levels in houses, schools and hotels of Ramsar by AEOI passive radon diffusion dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Zainali, H.; Mahdi, Sh.; Solaymanian, A.R.; Salehi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Radon-222 levels were determined in 473 rooms of about 350 houses, 16 schools in Ramsar and its high-level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) as well as in 89 rooms and many locations of old and new Ramsar Hotels. The AEOI (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran) Radon Diffusion Dosimeters applying electrochemical etching of polycarbonate detectors were used indoors during different seasons. The levels measured ranged from 20 to 3700 Bq.m -3 , detected in Talesh Mahalleh which has the highest natural radiation level in the area, corresponding to effective dose equivalents (H e ) up to 98.5 mSv.a -1 . The mean radon levels determined in different regions were 615 Bq.m -3 in Talesh Mahalleh, 326 Bq.m -3 in Chaparsar, 258 Bq.m -3 in schools of Ramsar and its HLNRAs, 246 Bq.m -3 in Ramak, 111 Bq.m -3 in Rasmar city, 50 Bq.m -3 in Sadat Mahalleh and Katalom, 49 Bq.m -3 Tonekabon and 27 Bq.m -3 in Talesh Mahalleh of Katalom; and 90 Be.m -3 in old and 50 Bq.m -3 in new Ramsar Hotels. It was found that houses built at a higher level above the ground even in the areas with the highest gamma exposures have lower radon levels compared to those built directly on the ground. The results of the radon levels determined in the above regions indoors are presented. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, Tracy

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  19. Study on seasonal variation of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny levels in Hassan District of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been measured in different types of buildings at different locations for different seasons in Hassan city using time-integrated passive radon dosimeters containing LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector exposed for four seasons of 3 months each covering a period of one year from October 2012 to September 2013. The radon and thoron activity concentration in summer season in the corresponding dwellings has been found to vary from 7.4 to 45.7 Bq m -3 and 5.4 to 34.9 Bqm -3 with a median of 23.59±11 Bqm -3 and 1447±8 Bq -3 respectively. The radon progeny concentrations varies from 0.4 to 4.1 mWL with an average value of 1.83±1 mWL, while thoron progeny concentrations vary from 0.3 to 3.2 mWL with an average value of 1.12±0.7 mWL respectively. The annual effective dose received due to radon, thoron and its progeny by the inhabitants in the dwellings under study has also been calculated which is found to vary from 0.320±0.4 to 1.860 ±1.1 mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.9576 ± 0.8 mSv y -1 . In general, the level of radon-thoron was observed highest in winter and lowest in summer. A detail analysis of radon and thoron distribution in different houses with seasonal variation is presented in this paper. From this study it is observed that, bathrooms and kitchens have significantly higher radon concentrations as compared to other rooms in the dwellings. (author)

  20. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  1. Determination of the levels of serum TNF-α, GM-CSF and HA in asthmatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Ma Yunbao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the diversity of the state of asthma and the three serum markers (TNF-α, GM-CSF and HA). Methods: RIA was adopted to measure the three markers in 66 asthmatic patients and 30 controls. Results: The levels of the three markers in patients during attack (n = 36) were significantly higher than those in controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.05). The three markers declined significantly in remission group (n = 30), but were still significantly higher than those in controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a close relationship between the levels of the three markers and the attack of asthma. Immunomodulator is therefore suggested to be used in addition to anti inflammatory treatment

  2. Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m 3 , 83.4±6.0 Bq/m 3 , 61.6±6.4 Bq/m 3 , 63.7±5.4 Bq/m 3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m 3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m 3 , 5.5 Bq/m 3 , 1.1 Bq/m 3 , 1.0 Bq/m 3 and 24 Bq/m 3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm -3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq

  3. EFFECTS OF NATURAL AND FORCED BASEMENT VENTILATION ON RADON LEVELS IN SINGLE FAMILY DWELLINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives, for the first time, results of an extensive study of the effect of ventilation on radon concentrations and radon entry rate in a single-family dwelling. Measurements of radon concentrations, building dynamics, and environmental parameters made in Princeton Unive...

  4. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheller, Kent W.; Elliott, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ( 238 U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from 40 K, 232 Th, and 238 U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74–145 mBq L −1 (2.0–3.9 pCi L −1 ). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger

  5. Environmental radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic region in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.

    2007-02-01

    A part of the survey programme on the evaluation of environmental radioactivity in Cameroon has just been initiated. The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. 30 soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11 - 17 Bq kg -1 , 22 - 36 Bq kg -1 and 43 - 201 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The radioisotope 137 Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor were estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value (UNSCEAR, 1988, 2000). A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTDs), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7 - 10.8 kBq m -3 and 5.5 - 8.7 kBq m -3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal natural background radiation in normal living conditions. (author)

  6. Radon studies in Indian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration has been measured by Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) in large number of Indian dwellings. Radon concentrations were measured in different parts of the country. In the first study, radon concentrations were measured in 143 dwellings of Udaipur, Bikaner and Banswara towns of Rajasthan province. The distributions of the time-averaged indoor radon concentration in these three towns of the Rajasthan fit an approximately log normal distribution. The geometric mean (GM) values of radon concentrations in these three places were found to be 74 Bq m -3 , 46 Bq m -3 and 66 Bq m -3 with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.2, 2.2 and 2.5 respectively. In another study, radon concentrations were measured in about 150 dwellings of hilly regions of the country. The measurements were carried out in Kohima (Nagaland), Baijnath and Palampur (Himachal Pradesh). The distribution of radon concentration in Kohima dwellings was found to be approximately log normal, however, the radon distribution in Baijnath and Palampur dwellings seems to be bimodal. The GM values of the radon concentrations for 65 dwellings in Kohima and 43 dwellings in Baijnath and Palampur were 88 Bq m -3 and 134 Bq m -3 with GSD of 1.7 and 2.5 respectively. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Measurements of radon concentration levels in drinking water at urban area of Curitiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Barbosa, Laercio; Sadula, Tatyana; Matsuzaki, Cristiana A.

    2009-01-01

    Current work presents the results of more than 100 measurements of 222 Rn activity in drinking water collected at artesian bores at Curitiba region during the period of 2008 - 2009. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology in cooperation with the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). Experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (ALPHA GUARD) connected to specific kit of glass vessels Aqua KIT through the air pump. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0.5 L/min. The 222 Rn concentration levels were detected and analyzed by the computer every 10 minutes using the software DataEXPERT by GENITRON Instruments. Collected average levels of 222 Rn concentration were processed taking into account the volume of water sample and its temperature, atmospheric pressure and the total volume of the air in the vessels. Collected samples of water presented the average 222 Rn activity about 57.70 Bq/L which is almost 5 times more than maximum level of 11.1 Bq/L recommended by the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). It has to be noted that many artesian drillings presented the radon activity in the range of 100 - 200 Bq/L. Further measurements are planned to be performed at other regions of Parana State and will involve the mineral water sources, explored artesian drillings as well as soil samples. (author)''

  8. Determination of indoor radon concentration levels and the associated annual effective dose rate in some Ghanaian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsiah-Akoto, I.

    2010-01-01

    Radon and its decay products in indoor air are the main source of natural internal irradiation of man. In this present work, the indoor radon concentration, the annual exposure, the annual effective dose and the annual dose equivalent to the lung received by the population were estimated in the dwellings at Dome in the Ga-East District of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana using time-integrated passive radon detectors; LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique. The primary objective of this project was to assess the annual effective dose rate due to the indoor radon concentration levels and the associated level of risk. Measurements were carried out from December 2009 to March 2010. After the 3 months exposure, the detectors were subjected to chemical etching in a 2.5M analytical grade sodium hydroxide solution at (60 ±1) o C, for 90mins in a constant temperature water bath to enlarge the latent tracks produced by alpha particles from the decay of radon. The etched tracks were magnified using the microfiche reader and counted with a tally counter. The mean indoor radon concentration was found to be (466.9±1.2) Bqm -3 and the mean annual exposure was (2.03±0.08) WLM. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.4 and 0.4 for equilibrium factor for radon indoors, we found out that the mean Rn-222 effective dose rate and the annual equivalent dose rate to the lung in the present study dwellings was (14.13±0.22)mSvy -1 and (3.74 E-07 ±3.50 E-06)Svy -1 respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations at Dome, Kwabenya, Biakpa, and South-Eastern part of Ghana, Prestea and Kassena-Nakana District in the previous research ranged from (9.4±0.5) to (518.7±4.0) Bqm -3 . The mean annual exposure, annual effective dose rate and the annual equivalent for the previous work ranged from (0.04±0.03)WLM to (0.58±0.05)WLM, (0.28±0.08) to (15.54±0.69mSvy -1 ), (8.23E-12±4.33E-07) to (4.15E-07± 1.13E-04) respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) for lung

  9. House characteristics associated with gamma radiation and radon daughter working levels in eastern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Dignam, J.J.; Anast, G.A.; Reilly, M.A.; Gerusky, T.M.; Hartman, T.T.

    1988-01-01

    Working levels (WL) of radon daughters and γ measurements in basements are described for ∼ 1200 houses near the Reading Prong. House variables included condition and construction materials of basement floors and walls, basement heights and areas, heating systems, air conditioning, water supply, and presence of drains and sump pumps. WLs were poorly predicted by house characteristics or γ measurements, while γ levels were well predicted by house characteristics and WL. Factors predicting high γ levels tended to be associated with low WLs and vice versa. Dirt basement floors and fieldstone basement walls were strongly associated with high γ levels, as were poor wall conditions in multivariate analyses. Gamma levels were low in electrically heated homes. High WLs were strongly associated with electric heat, low WLs with basement walls of fieldstone and/or in poor condition. Large house volumes and well water supply were also associated with higher WLs. (author)

  10. Determination of the Radon Concentration and Radioactivity Level in Karaca Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the radon gas concentration in the Karaca cave which is open to tourism has been determined and the negative effects of radon gas on people were discussed. Karaca cave (Gumushane) is visited by many tourists every year. The measurements of radon gas concentration which affects the health of human beings negatively and even causes the lung cancer when it reaches high points have been done for the summer and winter season. LR-115 passive radon detector was used to determine radon concentrations in the cave both winter and summer season. The average radon concentration in the Karaca cave were determined as 823 Bq/m 3 and 1023 Bq/m 3 for the summer and winter season, respectively. Moreover, to find out the natural radioactivity in the cave, the gamma spectroscopic analysis of soil, stone and stalagmite samples were carried out and their relations with the radon gas in the cave atmosphere was analyzed

  11. Radon levels in drinking water of Fatehabad district of Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, Vikas; Sharma, Samriti; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in 59 groundwater samples collected from Fatehabad district of Haryana, India. The measurements were performed by RAD7 an electronic radon detector manufactured by Durridge Company Inc. The measured radon concentration ranged from 1.4 to 22.6 Bq l −1 . 14% of the groundwater samples were above the United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended value for radon in water. The annual effective dose for ingestion and inhalation was also evaluated in this research. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation of radon in drinking water varied from 14.1 to 221.8 µSv y −1 . - Highlights: • We report the radon concentration in 59 groundwater samples from Haryana. • The water samples were characterized by RAD7 radon detector. • A 14% of the groundwater samples were above the USEPA recommended value. • Total annual effective dose from 12 locations was above EU Council recommendations.

  12. Background concentrations of radon and radon daughters in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Vasudev, P.; Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Prantl, F.A.; Taniguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of radon and radon daughters were carried out in 14 Canadian cities on a total of 9999 homes selected in a statistically random manner. The geometric means of the different cities varied from 0.14 to 0.88 pCi/l. for radon and 0.0009 to 0.0036 Working Levels for radon daughters. The radon originates from natural radioactivity in the soil surrounding the homes. (author)

  13. Background radon levels in Germany and how to take them into account in radiological evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrcke, K.; Kuemmel, M.; Dushe, C.

    2008-01-01

    A mean background radon level of 9 ±, 1 Bq/m 3 was determined for Germany as a whole. This value is lower by about 5 Bq/m3 compared to previous, less representative measurements. For 17 former mining areas in the east of Germany representative regional background levels were derived. Characteristic limits (decision thresholds and detection limits) were determined for these areas to facilitate statistically sound decisions in the radiological evaluation of mining legacies. The detection limits for the anthropogenic contribution to the radon concentration vary from 10 to more than 20 Bq/m 3 in the different mining areas. Especially the higher values are governed by the spatial and temporal variability of the background concentrations rather than measurement uncertainties. The fact that man-made contributions of partly more than 20 Bq/m3 cannot be detected with sufficient statistical accuracy has to be taken into account in radiological investigations and evaluations of mining legacies. (author)(tk)

  14. Radon level in China and elevated indoor exposure in carbon brick and cave dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zuoyuan

    1992-01-01

    A nation wide survey of Chinese houses was conducted to determine the average annual effective dose to Chinese population from exposure to radon and its daughter products. The indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its daughters were measured using scintillation flask, two filter and carbon canister methods, as well as modified Tsivoglou methods for Rn daughters. Average Rn concentrations are 26.2Bqm -3 and 13.5Bqm -3 for indoor and outdoor environment, respectively. Potential alpha energy concentration, indoor is 744 x 10 -10 Jm -3 , outdoor is 511 x 10 -10 Jm -3 . Equilibrium Factor of Rn daughters are 0.49 (indoor) and 0.61 (outdoor). Occupancy Factor is 0.77 and 0.23. Using appropriate conversion factors, the annual average effective dose to Chinese population is 0.967 mSv. And also, the indoor Rn concentration and gamma dose rate were surveyed in two rural Provinces: Gansu and Jianxi. The fact was found that lung cancer mortality of population lived in high Rn level dwellings is higher than in control groups. An epidemiological retrospective case-control study is recommended in houses with high Rn level. (author)

  15. Indoor radon concentration levels in Mexican caves, using nuclear track methodology, and the relationship with living habits of the bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Vega-Orihuela, E.; Morales-Malacara, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the results of a study of the radon levels in four caves in Mexico: Los Riscos Cave and El Judio Cave in the State of Queretaro, and Coyozochico Cave and Karmidas Cave in the State of Puebla. The measurements were made using the passive closed-end cup system, with CR-39 (Lantrack R ) as detection material, and following protocols established for the measurement of indoor radon, developed at the Dosimetry Applications Project of the Physics Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The radon concentration at one location with Karmidas Cave reached more than 60,000 Bq/m 3 , while concentrations in the other three caves varied from 83.1-1216.0 Bq/m 3 , was found. During the study was observed an interesting coincidence between the radon concentration distribution inside the caves, and the bat colonies location. In general, the bat colonies are located at the medium or low radon concentration levels zones. (author)

  16. The Influence od Air Temperature and Barometric Pressure on Radon and Carbon Dioxide Levels in Air of a Karst Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obu, K.; Cencur Curk, B.; Gregoric, A.; Smerajec, M.; Vaupotic, J.; Fujiyoshi, R.; Sakuta, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive noble gas radon (222Rn) is created in minerals by radioactive transformation of 226Ra within the 238U natural decay chain. It migrates through the ground, accumulates in underground rooms (e. g., karst caves) and eventually enters the atmosphere. It is always present in our living and working environment. Because of its harmful health effect, it presents a serious social concern but is, on the other hand, a useful tool in several scientific disciplines. It is thus used as a tracer in exploring movement of air masses and an indicator of tectonic faults. Another minor constituent of air is carbon dioxide. Similar as radon, it is dangerous at high levels, but its presence in air of karst caves is indispensable for their life, because it governs speleogenetic processes. In the cave air, its concentration is determined by the inflow of outside air, biogenic activity of soil, degradation of organic matter and carbonate, degassing from water, and human activity. Therefore, ventilation of the cave is crucial for its conservation. Based on temporal variations of radon and carbon dioxide levels, ventilation regime in the cave can be estimated. Radon has been surveyed in all the twenty show caves and in thirty other caves in Slovenia, with emphasis on the Postojna Cave. In the present study, in addition to radon, monitoring of carbon dioxide was introduced for the first time. The Kostanjevica Cave, situated in southern Slovenia in an isolated island of karst, was selected because it is crossed by a tectonic fault at which measurements of three-dimensional micro displacements are underway. Because of the fault, high levels of radon and carbon dioxide were expected. In this paper, measurements are described and both the spatial and time variations of radon and carbon dioxide levels are presented and commented on. Continuous radon monitoring was carried out with the RadonScout devices (Sarad, Germany) from April to December 2009, with several interruptions because of

  17. Radon: Detection and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.; Loken, T.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last few years, natural radon exposure in non-industrial settings, primarily homes, has become a health concern. Research has demonstrated that many homes throughout the United States have radon concentrations much higher than the legal federal limits set for miners. Thousands of unsuspecting people are being exposed to high levels of radiation. It is estimated that up to 15 percent of lung cancers are caused from radon. This is a significant health risk. With basic knowledge of the current information on radon, a primary health care provider can address patients' radon concerns and make appropriate referrals

  18. Variation of radon levels in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in Garhwal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Negi, M.S.; Ramola, R.C.; Choubey, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Radon is being measured continuously in spring water at Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal in Himalayan region by using radon emanometer since December 2002. An effort was made to correlate the variance of radon concentration in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in study area. The positive correlation (coefficient = 0.79, 0.53, 0.60 and 0.70) was observed between measured radon concentration and minimum and maximum temperature, relative humidity and water discharge rate from the spring, respectively. However, no correlation was recorded between radon concentration and rain fall in the study area. Sudden increase in radon concentration in spring water were observed before the earthquakes occurred on 24 January 2003 of magnitude 3.4 on Richter scale having epicenter near Uttarkashi in Garhwal Himalaya and on 31 January 2003 of magnitude 3.1 on Richter scale having epicenter almost in same area. Similar changes in radon concentration were recorded before the earthquakes occurred on 4 April 2003 with magnitude 4.0 having epicenter near Almora in Kumaon Himalaya and on 26 May 2003 having magnitude 3.5 in Chamoli region of Garhwal Himalaya. Regular radon anomaly was recorded with micro seismic events from 5th August to 4th September 2003, which is discussed in detail. The impact of non geophysical and geophysical events on radon concentration in spring water is discussed in details. This type of study will help us to develop earthquake alarm model from radon in near future. (author)

  19. County-Level Radon and Incidence of Female Thyroid Cancer in Iowa, New Jersey, and Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Oakland

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated the association between radon and thyroid cancer despite the sensitivity of the thyroid gland to radiation. Our goal is to investigate the association between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in the US States of Iowa, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Methods: Thyroid cancer incidence data were provided by individual state cancer registries and span 1990–2013. Radon data come from a publicly available third-party database, AirChek, accessed in 2017. We tabulated the percent of radon above four picocuries per liter and the female thyroid cancer incidence rate in each county. Quantile maps were constructed, and an ordinary least-squares regression model was run using Geoda 1.10.0.8 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: No association was observed between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in any of the States: New Jersey (β = 0.06, p = 0.23; Iowa (β = −0.07, p = 0.07; or Wisconsin (β = −0.01, p = 0.78. A spatial regression model was considered, but the Moran’s I of the residuals from each of the models was not significant, so no spatial term was required. Discussion: In this county-level ecological study across three different States in the US, we did not find an association between elevated radon and thyroid cancer incidence in women. While this ecologic study reports null findings, due to the ecologic fallacy, individual-level studies of this association may still be warranted.

  20. Leukaemia risks and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    A correlation has been established between domestic radon exposure and mutation in peripheral T lymphocytes. Some caution must be exercised, however, in interpreting this result as evidence that levels of domestically encountered radon are sufficient to cause leukaemogenic chromosomal alterations. Radon may simply be acting as a surrogate for some other mutagenic factor. Correlations with Local Authority statistics collected in the United Kingdom 1981 Census appear to show that lower domestic radon levels reflect relatively greater socioeconomic deprivation whereas higher levels reflect greater prosperity. The relative risk of lymphoproliferative disease correlates with the same factors that determine domestic radon levels at the county level. Putative relationships between domestic radon exposure and cancer thus need to be controlled for socioeconomic status and associated factors, at least at the county level. (The correlations may not apply to smaller areas.) Similarly, the causative factors underlying the relationships between higher regional socioeconomic status and leukaemia require closer examination. (author)

  1. Radon levels in domestic dwellings built since the introduction of the 1997 building regulations. Report of a pilot survey in Ennis, County Clare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.; Pollard, D.; Colgan, P.A.

    2003-04-01

    Amending Building Regulations were introduced in December 1997, which require that measures be taken during construction to prevent the entry of radon into buildings from the underlying soil. These Regulations apply to buildings built on or after the 1 July 1998. During 2001, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) undertook a pilot study of radon levels in houses built since that date with the aim of assessing the impact of these new Regulations. The area selected for this study was the 10 km Irish National Grid square including the town of Ennis, Co Clare. The RPII's National Radon Survey predicts that 27% of all dwellings in this grid square have radon concentrations in excess of the national Reference Level of 200 Bq/m3. Two hundred and seventy nine householders, whose houses were built since the amending Regulations came into effect, were invited to participate in a free survey and 97 of these agreed to do so. Participating householders were asked to complete a questionnaire aimed at assessing their knowledge of the radon preventive measures included in their house. Twelve percent of the houses measured in this survey were found to have radon levels in excess of the national Reference Level. This figure indicates a significant reduction as compared with the National Radon Survey prediction for the same grid square. It is difficult, however, to draw definitive conclusions from these data regarding the effectiveness of the new Regulations due to the very different age distribution for the two sets of houses and differences between current and historic building practices. Further work is underway comparing radon levels in houses built both immediately before and after the introduction of the 1997 Regulations, which aims to address outstanding questions. Householders' level of awareness of the radon preventive measures included in their house was low; 45% and 36% respectively of respondents were unaware of whether their house had a radon sump or

  2. Study of indoor radon levels in some radioactive areas of Himachal Pradesh: an inter-comparison of active and passive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, B.S.; Singh, S.; Sharma, N.; Virk, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Indoor radon levels measurements were carried using both the active and passive techniques in the dwellings of some villages, known to be located in the vicinity of uranium mineralized zones of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh. Even in the passive technique using S.S.N.T.D., both the bare -slide and twin chamber dosemeter cup modes were utilized. An attempt has also been made to assess the levels of the indoor radon in these dwellings and inhalation dose rates of the population living in these villages. The average value of radon concentration levels using the bare-slide mode varies from 109.0 to 741.5 Bq/m3 in these dwellings, where as the maximum radon level using the twin cup dosemeter technique was found to be 140.3 Bq/m3. As usual the radon concentrations were found to be varying with seasonal changes, building materials etc. The radon survey in the dwellings of these villages has also been carried out using the Alpha-Guard technique, which is based on the pulse ionization chamber. The indoor radon concentration levels measured using the active technique of Alpha Guard have been found to be quite different from those measured in these dwellings by the passive technique of S.S.N.T.D.; indicating the importance of the S.S.N.T.D. in the long -term integrated measurement of the indoor radon levels in the dwellings. (authors)

  3. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: HVAC SYTEMS IN SCHOOLS TEND TO HAVE A GREATER IMPACT ON RADON LEVELS THAN HVAC SYSTEMS IN HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioing -- HVAC-- system design and operationg) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  4. Estimation of radiological dose from radon, thoron and their progeny levels in the dwellings of Shivamogga district, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaswamvi, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Srinivasa, E.

    2018-01-01

    Among all natural radiation exposure to man, inhalation of radon, thoron and their progenies are the major contributor (50 %) to the dose from ionizing radiation received by the general population. Based on the results of epidemiological studies in Europe and North America, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended reducing the indoor radon reference level from 200 to 100 Bq.m -3 . In view of this, focus has now been given for simultaneous measurement of radon, thoron and their progeny concentration in indoor air and also to estimate radiological dose in the dwellings of the Shivamogga district. The geology of the Shivamogga district comprises different types of rock formation such as granites, schists, magnetites and gneisses, Meta basalt, laterites, quartz and chlorite schist, Graywacke etc. Present study was concentrating more in granite bed rock regions along with their surrounding regions

  5. A hypothetical high level of radon output before a major geophysical event: a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, M.; Seidel, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Variation of radon concentration may play the role of a precursor for seisms and volcanic eruptions. This variation depends on the motion of interstitial gases. A numerical model is presented. It describes the steady states of the radon concentration and mainly the transient states between two different steady states. For an up-flow of gases, it predicts the formation of an intense emission of radon over a short period of time, called a 'kludon' [fr

  6. Seasonal variation of indoor radon-222 levels in dwellings in Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghrouz, A. A.; Abu-samreh, M. M.; Shehadeh, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the seasonal variations of indoor radon levels in dwellings located in the Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine. The measurements were performed during the summer and winter of the year 2006/2007 using CR-39 solid-state-nuclear-track detectors. The total number of investigated buildings is 75 in summer and 81 in winter. A total number of 142 dosemeters are installed in dwellings for each season for a period of almost 100 d. The radon concentration levels in summer varied from 43 to 192 Bq m -3 for buildings in the Ramallah province and from 30 to 655 Bq m -3 for East Jerusalem suburbs. In winter, the radon concentration levels are found to vary from 38 to 375 Bq m -3 in the Ramallah buildings and from 35 to 984 Bq m -3 in East Jerusalem suburbs. The obtained results for radon concentration levels in most places are found to be within the accepted international levels. (authors)

  7. A comparative study of indoor radon levels and inhalation dose in some areas of Punjab and Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, B.S.; Singh, Harmanjit; Singh, Joga; Singh, Surinder

    2009-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations have been measured for two consecutive half-year periods in a wide range of dwellings of some regions of Punjab and Haryana states. The objective was to find correlation between the variations of indoor radon levels with the sub-soil, local geology, type of building materials, etc. of the two regions. So keeping this in view the indoor radon measurements have been carried out in the dwellings of different villages around the Tusham ring complex, Bhiwani District, Haryana, known to be composed of acidic volcanics and the associated granites along with some villages of Amritsar District, Punjab. The indoor radon concentration in the dwellings around Tusham (Haryana) have been found to be varying from 120.5±95 to 915.2±233 Bq m -3 , whereas it ranges from 60.0±37 to 235.6±96 Bq m -3 for the dwellings of Punjab. The 222 Rn concentration observed at most of locations particularly around Tusham ring complex region is higher than that of all the villages studied in Punjab region. Local geology including embedded granitic rocks, sub-soil, etc. as well as building materials having higher radioactive content are the major contributors for the higher indoor radon levels observed in the dwelling around Tusham, where few dwellings have higher radon concentrations than the ICRP, 1993 recommendations. The annual effective dose equivalent has also been estimated for each location of the both regions, which has been found to be varying from 1.0 to 17.2 mSv/y. (author)

  8. Experimental study of changes of skin blister fluid NPY, IL-12, sICAM-1 and GM-CSF levels in patients with vitiligo in progressive stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Mingye; Huang Haifen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of skin blister fluid NPY, IL-12, sICAM-1 and GM-CSF levels in patients with vitiligo in progressive stage. Methods: 80 patients with vitiligo in progressive stage were divided into two groups (vulgaris vitiligo groups : n=54, segmental vitiligo groups : n=26) Their blister fluid levels of NPY and GM-CSF were determined by radioimmunoassay(RIA), and IL-12 and sICAM-1 were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: The levels of skin blister fluid NPY were definitely higher in vitiliginous skin than those in non-vitiliginous patches in segmental vitiligo groups (P 0.05). The levels of skin blister fluid IL-12, sICAM-1 and GM-CSF were all obviously higher in vitiliginous skin than that in non-vitiliginous patches in vulgaris vitiligo groups (P 0.05). Conclusion: The changes of skin blister fluid NPY, IL-12, sICAM-1 and GM-CSF levels in vitiliginous skin may be closely related to development of difference type vitiligo patients with vitiligo, determination of 4 indexes might be helpful for studying the pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis of vitiligo. (authors)

  9. Indoor Radon Concentration Related to Different Radon Areas and Indoor Radon Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Indoor radon has been observed in the buildings at areas with different radon risk potential. Preventive measures are based on control of main potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to avoid building of new houses above recommended indoor radon level 200 Bq/m3. Radon risk (index) estimation of individual building site bedrock in case of new house siting and building protection according technical building code are obligatory. Remedial actions in buildings built at high radon risk areas were carried out principally by unforced ventilation and anti-radon insulation. Significant differences were found in the level of radon concentration between rooms where radon reduction techniques were designed and those where it was not designed. The mathematical model based on radon exhalation from soil has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor radon concentration. The model is focused on combined radon diffusion through the slab and advection through the gap from sub-slab soil. In this model, radon emanated from building materials is considered not having a significant contribution to indoor radon concentration. Dimensional analysis and Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares parametric regression were used to simplify the problem, identify essential input variables and find parameter values. The presented verification case study is introduced for real buildings with respect to various underground construction types. Presented paper gives picture of possible mathematical approach to indoor radon concentration prediction.

  10. Scopingreport radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Vaas, L.H.; Hesse, J.M.; Slooff, W.

    1989-09-01

    This report contains general information on radon concerning the existing standards, sources and emissions, the exposure levels and effect levels. lt serves as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory melting to be held in November/December 1989, aimed at determining the contents of the Integrated Criteria Document Radon. Attention is focussd on Rn-222 (radon) and Rn-220 (thoron), presently of public interest because of radon gas pollution in private homes. In the Netherlands air quality standards nor product standards for the exhalation rate of building materials have been recommended. The major source of radon in the Netherlands is the soil gas (> 97%), minor sources are phosphate residues and building materials (> 2% in total). Hence, the major concern is the transfer through the inhalation of air, the lung being the most critical organ at risk to develop cancer. Compared to risks for humans, the risks of radon and its daughters for aquatic and terrestric organisms, as well as for agricultural crops and livestock, are assumed to be limited. In the Netherlands the average dose for man due to radon and thoron progeny is appr. 1.2 mSv per year, the estimated dose range being 0.1-3.5 mSv per year. This dose contributes for about 50% to rhe total exposure due to all sources of ionizing radiation. Of this dose respectively 80% is caused by radon and about 90% is received indoor. The estimated dose for the general population corresponds to a risk for inducing fatal cancers of about 15 x 10-6 per year, ranging from 1.2 x 10-6 to 44 x 10-6 which exceeds the risk limit of 1 x 10-6 per year -as defined in the standardization policy in the Netherlands for a single source of ionizing radiation-with a factor 15 (1- 44). Reduction of exposure is only possible in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been described to reduce the indoor dose, resulting from exhalation of the soil and building materials. )aut- hor). 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 8 tabs

  11. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. Radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic area in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngachin, M. [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien, UMR7178 CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 rue de Loess, BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 02 (France)], E-mail: mngachin@yahoo.com; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), 91 via Tavagnacco, 33100 Udine (Italy); Kwato Njock, M.G. [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon); Nourreddine, A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien, UMR7178 CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 rue de Loess, BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 02 (France)

    2008-07-15

    The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. Thirty soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon Mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11-17 Bq kg{sup -1}, 22-36 Bq kg{sup -1} and 43-201 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The radioisotope {sup 137}Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor was estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 1988. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. United Nations, New York; UNSCEAR, 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. United Nations, New York]. A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7-10.8 kBq m{sup -3} and 5.5-8.7 kBq m{sup -3} in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with {gamma}-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south

  13. Radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic area in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.; Nourreddine, A.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. Thirty soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon Mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11-17 Bq kg -1 , 22-36 Bq kg -1 and 43-201 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The radioisotope 137 Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor was estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 1988. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. United Nations, New York; UNSCEAR, 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. United Nations, New York]. A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7-10.8 kBq m -3 and 5.5-8.7 kBq m -3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal

  14. Methods and measurements of indoor levels of radon and its daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Ramu, M.C.; Muraleedharan, T.S.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    General population is exposed, some times, to enhanced levels of radon (Rn) and its progeny concontrations in the indoor environment of dwellings, depending on various parameters like type of construction, location and ventilation features of the dwelling as well as on the occupancy factor. The risk involved in the indoor Rn exposure is briefly discussed in this report. Several methods are available for the measurement of Rn and its daughters in dwellings. This report describes in detail some of the suitable and convenient methods for the measurements. Methods for evluating ventilation rate in dwellings is also given. Grab sampling and time integrated measurements are described. The report also gives the results of some preliminary measurements carried out in some rooms and lecture halls of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. The results are discussed and conclusions drawn with particular reference to a country-wide survey of Rn exposure. (author)

  15. Variation of annual effective dose due to radon level in indoor air in Marwar region of Rajasthan, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Asha, E-mail: ashasachdeva78@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science, Ferozepur College of Engineering and Technology, Farozshah, Ferozepur-142052, Punjab (India); Mittal, Sudhir, E-mail: sudhirmittal03@gmail.com [Department of Applied Sciences, Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar-144601, Punjab (India); Mehra, Rohit [Department of Physics, Dr. B.R.Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar-144011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    In the present work, indoor radon and thoron measurements have been carried out from different locations of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Northern Rajasthan, India using RAD7, a solid state alpha detector. The radon and thoron concentration in indoor air varies from 8.75 to 61.25 Bq m{sup −3} and 32.7 to 147.2 Bq m{sup −3} with the mean value of 32 and 73 Bq m{sup −3} respectively. The observed indoor radon concentration values are well below the action level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (200-300 Bq m{sup −3}) and Environmental Protection Agency (148 Bq m{sup −3}). The survey reveals that the thoron concentration values in the indoor air are well within the International Commission on Radiological Protection (2005). The calculated total annual effective dose due to radon level in indoor air varies from 0.22 to 1.54 mSv y{sup −1} with the mean value of 0.81 mSv y{sup −1} which is less than even the lower limit of action level 3-10 mSv y{sup −1} recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (2005)

  16. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.M.; Finn, M.

    1995-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  17. Indoor radon levels in workplaces of Adapazarı, north-western Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main objective of this study is to assess the health hazards due to radon gas accumulation and to compare the concentrations in different kinds of workplaces, in the city of Adapazarı, one of the most important industrial cities of Turkey. For this purpose, radon activity concentration measurements were carried out in ...

  18. The Pennsylvania radon story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusky, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1984, the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection found itself confronted with the discovery of a home in eastern Pennsylvania having the highest level of radon daughters ever reported. The Bureau responded with a massive radon monitoring, educational, and remediation effort. As of November, 1986, over 18,000 homes had been screen for radon daughters, of which approximately 59% were found to have levels in excess of the 0.020 Working Level guideline. Pennsylvania's response to the indoor radon problem is detailed in this article

  19. A study of radon-222 concentrations in North Carolina groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater of 400 North Carolina homes was sampled to ascertain the distribution and extent of 222 Rn in North Carolina groundwater. Arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 1,816 pCi L -1 and 656 pCi L -1 were found for the state. These results indicate that two-thirds of 114 degree C. homes served by groundwater exceed the EPA proposed 300 pCi L -1 maximum contaminant level (MCL). Only 2% of NC homes exceeded 10,000 pCi L-1. The Eastern region had the lowest radon concentrations by far, with a GM of 2-)0 pCi L -1 . The Central region and Western region had GM's of 794 pCi L -1 and 1,032 pCi L -1 respectively. The groundwater data approached a log normal distribution. No consistent trends were noted in the relationship between indoor radon concentrations and groundwater radon concentrations. A correlation coefficient of 0.00921 revealed a very weak linear relationship

  20. Measurement and comparison of indoor radon levels in new and old buildings in the city of Muzaffarabad (Azad Kashmir), Pakistan. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, Muhammad; Jabeen, Shahida; Bukhari, Shujaht; Rahman, Saeed ur; Shahzad, Muhammad Ikram; Matiullah; Rahman, Said; Nasir, Tabassum

    2009-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in a limited number of dwellings in the state capital of Azad Jammu and Kashimir, Muzaffarabad city after the devastating earthquake of 2005. Radon detectors (CN-85 based box-type) were placed in the drawing rooms, bedrooms and kitchens of 35 houses, selected on the basis of their location and design as well as willingness and cooperation of householders from mid May to mid July 2007. The average radon concentrations were found to vary from 24 to 518 Bq m -3 , 41 to 380 Bq m -3 and 32 to 467 Bq m -3 in the bedrooms, drawing rooms and kitchens, respectively. The weighted average radon concentration in older houses was found to vary from 51 to 334 Bq m -3 and for newly constructed houses a considerable decrease in measured values (ranging from 14 to 102 Bq m -3 ) have been found. As Pakistan does not currently have a national reference (or action level) for radon in homes, therefore the present data has been compared with the data reported for other countries. Some of the houses studied were found to have higher radon concentrations. These higher values of indoor radon levels may be due to the poor ventilation and influence of the earthquake in creating new fissures and therefore new pathways for radon to enter into the buildings. (author)

  1. Measurement and comparison of indoor radon levels in new and old buildings in the city of Muzaffarabad (Azad Kashmir), Pakistan. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Muhammad; Jabeen, Shahida; Bukhari, Shujaht [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan); Rahman, Saeed ur [Dept. of Physics, COMSATS Inst. of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shahzad, Muhammad Ikram; Matiullah, [Physics Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan); Rahman, Said [SPAS Division, SPARCENT, SUPARCO HQs, Karachi (Pakistan); Nasir, Tabassum [Dept. of Physics, Gomal Univ., Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan)

    2009-11-15

    Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in a limited number of dwellings in the state capital of Azad Jammu and Kashimir, Muzaffarabad city after the devastating earthquake of 2005. Radon detectors (CN-85 based box-type) were placed in the drawing rooms, bedrooms and kitchens of 35 houses, selected on the basis of their location and design as well as willingness and cooperation of householders from mid May to mid July 2007. The average radon concentrations were found to vary from 24 to 518 Bq m{sup -3}, 41 to 380 Bq m{sup -3} and 32 to 467 Bq m{sup -3} in the bedrooms, drawing rooms and kitchens, respectively. The weighted average radon concentration in older houses was found to vary from 51 to 334 Bq m{sup -3} and for newly constructed houses a considerable decrease in measured values (ranging from 14 to 102 Bq m{sup -3}) have been found. As Pakistan does not currently have a national reference (or action level) for radon in homes, therefore the present data has been compared with the data reported for other countries. Some of the houses studied were found to have higher radon concentrations. These higher values of indoor radon levels may be due to the poor ventilation and influence of the earthquake in creating new fissures and therefore new pathways for radon to enter into the buildings. (author)

  2. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. If the subject moved to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon, the result would be an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend of the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. The author reports a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. 8 figures.

  3. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. Movement of the subject to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon would result in an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend on the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. We report a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. (author).

  4. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.; Saum, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality

  5. House characteristics associated with gamma radiation and radon daughter working levels in eastern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Dignam, J.J.; Reilly, M.A.; Gerusky, T.M.; Hartman, T.T.; Anast, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Working levels (WL) of radon daughters and γ measurements in basements are described for ∼1200 houses near the Reading Prong. House variables studied included condition and construction materials of basement floors and walls, basement heights and areas, heating systems, air conditioning, water supply, and presence of drains and sump pumps. WL's were poorly predicted by house characteristics or γ measurements, while γ levels were well predicted by house characteristics and WL. Except for windowless basements, associated with both high γ andl high WL measurements, factors predicting high γ levels tended to be associated with low WL's and vice versa. Dirt basement floors and fieldstone basement walls were strongly associated with high γ levels, as were poor wall conditions in multivariate analyses. Gamma levels were low in electrically heated homes. High WL's were strongly associated with electric heat, low WL's with basement walls of fieldstone and/or in poor condition. Large house volumes and well water supply were also associated with higher WL's. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Studying the Variation of Radon Level in Some Houses in Alexandria City, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Zaher, M.; Fahmi, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation of indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards. In the present work a set of indoor radon measurements was carried out, in different Egyptian houses in Alexandria city, built of the same type of building materials, using time-integrated passive radon dosimeters containing LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector. Measurements were carried out from October 2007 to June 2008. The results show that, the radon concentrations and the annual effective dose in these houses varied from (38.62 to 120.39) Bq m-3 and (0.96 to 3.06) mSv y-1 respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations in living rooms, bedrooms, bathrooms, and kitchens were: (50.93±7.14), (63.75±7.63), (105.3± 14.67) and (82.38±8.35) Bq m -3 respectively. Also the mean values of annual effective dose were (1.26±0.17), (1.58±0.185), (2.63±0.36) and (2.0± 0.20) mSv y -1 , respectively. This data shows that, bathrooms and kitchens have significantly higher radon concentrations and annual radon dose

  7. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  8. Radon as geological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M.; Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of 222 Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th and 23 '8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using 222 Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m -3 recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  9. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  10. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulekha Rao, N.; Sengupta, D.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) are a major source of natural radiation exposure. Indoor radon-thoron study has been carried out in some dwellings of Ganjam district, southern coastal Orissa, India using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06 μSv h -1 and is not high from those found elsewhere in India.

  11. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulekha Rao, N [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Sengupta, D. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)], E-mail: dsgg@gg.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2010-01-15

    Inhalation of radon ({sup 222}Rn) and thoron ({sup 220}Rn) are a major source of natural radiation exposure. Indoor radon-thoron study has been carried out in some dwellings of Ganjam district, southern coastal Orissa, India using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} and is not high from those found elsewhere in India.

  12. Radon and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication proposes an overview on what is known about the carcinogenic effect of radon. It recalls the origin of radon, its presence in the environment, and its radioactivity. It comments data on the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer, and with other forms of cancer. It discusses the role of the exposure level, and the cases of professional and domestic exposure with respect to these risks. It indicates the hazardous areas in France which are well identified, outlines that smokers are more likely victims of risks related to radon, that this risk is still underrated and underestimated (notably by the public). It gives an overview of existing regulations regarding exposure to radon, of public health policies and national plans concerning radon, and recalls some WHO recommendations

  13. Environmental radon level and radiation dose to residents in Shanghai municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haoran; Chen Peihua; Wen Yin

    1992-01-01

    From 1987 to 1990 we observed the diurnal and seasonal changes of radon concentrations indoors and outdoors in Shanghai Municipality. The average equilibrium factors for radon decay products indoors and outdoors were 0.5 and 0.7, respectively. The indoor radon concentrations at city proper, town and rural area were 11.2, 10.5 and 13.6 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The outdoor radon concentration was 5.1 Bq/m 3 . The occupancy factors in the city proper were 0.82 and 0.18 in the adults, 0.87 and 0.13 in the children for indoor and outdoor exposures, respectively. In 1989 the population weighted means of the annual effective dose equivalent amounted to approximately 0.53 mSv. The collective dose equivalent was 6800 man. Sv

  14. Radon levels in houses and workplaces in a uranium rich region in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos Poncela, L.S.; Fernandez Navarro, P.L.; Gomez Arozamena, J.; Lopez Romero, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of a study of the evaluation of the doses per inhalation of radon in a population from a region of Spain rich in uranium is compared with those of workers of a mining installation in the region

  15. A national-wide survey of radon and gamma radiation levels in Australian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langaroo, M.K.; Wise, K.N.; Duggleby, J.K.; Kotler, L.H.

    1990-04-01

    A nation-wide survey of Australian homes has been conducted to determine the average annual doses to the Australian population from exposure to radon and gamma radiation. The exposure to radon was measured using solid state track detectors (SSTD) whilst the gamma radiation dose was concurrently determined using thermoluminescent dosimetry. Dosemeters were placed in approximately 3400 randomly distributed homes (representing about 1 in 1400 occupied dwellings) for twelve months. The measured annual average radon concentration in Australian homes is 12 Bq m -3 . Using appropriate conversion factors, the annual average effective dose equivalents to the Australian population were determined to be 0.6 mSv and 0.9 mSv for radon and gamma radiation respectively. 20 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  16. Predicting radon/radon daughter concentrations in underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer programme is outlined for the calculation of radon/radon daughter concentrations in air. This computer model is used to predict the radon/radon daughter concentrations in Working Level (WL) at the workplace and at the various junctions at either end of the branches in a typical ventilation network proposed for the Jabiluka mine in the Northern Territory

  17. Radon Measurements in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses of epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk from residential exposures demonstrate a statistically significant increase per unit of exposure below average annual concentrations of about 200 Bq/m 3 . Indoor radon measurements performed in Novi Sad in about 400 houses and flats are presented and discussed in this paper. By measuring gamma-activity of radon daughters, radon activity concentration was determined to be 50 Bq/m 3 . In Vojvodina region indoor radon levels were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 3000 locations during the winter seasons in the period of three years (2003-2005). The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis for the future radon campaigns. Collaboration on the JRC program of European indoor radon map and implementation of grid system are also discussed.(author)

  18. Indoor radon and its progeny levels in new type houses in rural area of Hubei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Quan; Xiong Zhaoxing; He Zuan; Zheng Youqing

    1993-01-01

    Using Cluster Sampling method, indoor radon of 54 rooms and radon progeny potential alpha-energy concentrations of 200 rooms were measured in the new type brick-concrete 2-storey flats and old type brick-wood single-storey residences in the rural area. Instant and cumulative samplings and measurements were made. The average per capita residential area of the surveyed houses was 28.1 m 2 , clear height 3.6 m. The geometric means of indoor radon concentration were 18.22 Bq.m -3 and 15.93 Bq.m -3 for storied and single-storey buildings, respectively; radon progeny potential alpha-energy concentrations were 2.62 mWL and 2.54 mWL, correspondingly. In storied buildings, the arithmetic mean of indoor cumulative radon concentration was 25.56 Bq.m -3 in summer, and 37.94 Bq.m -3 in winter. The annual effective dose equivalent of radon progeny inhaled indoors and outdoors was 0.80 mSv. (orig.). (6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.)

  19. Emission of radon from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, P.; Lindmark, A.; Rosen, B.

    1980-03-01

    The report deals with the measurement of radon daughters in the soil Radon migrates readily through the limestone which is superpositioned the alum shale. The level of gamma radiation is normal. Measurements have been made by the track etch technique and with Kodak film. The contents of radon daughters are shown to be due to the measuring depth. (G.B.)

  20. Radon analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The process claimed includes the steps of transferring radon gas produced by a sample to a charcoal trap, cooled to a temperature whereby the radon is absorbed by the charcoal, heating the charcoal trap to a sufficient temperature to release the radon, and transferring the radon to a counting device where the gas particles are counted

  1. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  2. Radon atlas of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Pennanen, M.; Reisbacka, H.; Castren, O.

    1997-11-01

    The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m 3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m 3 . The maps and tables in this report are useful tools for those who plan and decide what kind of radon mitigation measures are needed in municipalities. STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has an indoor radon database of 52 000 dwellings, for which the indoor radon concentration and construction details are known. The building site soil type of about 38 000 dwellings is known. This atlas is a summary of all indoor radon measurements made by STUK in lowrise dwellings and in first-floor flats. The results are shown as arithmetic means of 5- or 10-km squares on maps of the provinces. Three radon maps have been made for each province. On one map the data consist of all measurements the position coordinates of which are known. On the two other maps the building sites of houses are classified into permeable and low-permeable soil types. The tables show statistics for all indoor radon measurements by municipality and building site soil type. (orig.)

  3. Study of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentration levels in the surrounding areas of Mangaldoi, Assam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deka, P.C.; Sarkar, S.; Goswami, T.D.; Sarma, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Natural sources contribute a significant percentage of radiation towards the total radiation exposure that humans receive. The majority of this natural radiation is harmless to humans in the ambient environment. However, radon, a major component of the natural radiation that humans are exposed to (greater than sixty percent), can pose a threat to the public health when radon gas accumulates in poorly ventilated residential and occupational settings. Measurements of concentration of radon, thoron and their decay products in various indoor environment covering four seasons of a year were carried out using the passive time-integrated method by employing LR-15 type II detectors in plastic twin-chamber dosimeter cups. The estimated indoor radon levels for well ventilated houses varied from a minimum value of 25.2 Bq.m -3 to a maximum of 80J Bq.m -3 with an annual geometric mean of 46.9 Bq.m -3 and that for poorly ventilated houses varied from a minimum value of 46.8 Bq.m -3 to a maximum of 146.8 Bq.m -3 with the annual geometric mean of 82 .2 Bq.m -3 . The thoron levels in well ventilated houses were also varied from a minimum value of 4.9 Bq.m -3 to a maximum of 21.5 Bq.m -3 with an annual geometric mean of 10.5 Bq.m -3 and that for poorly ventilated houses varied from a minimum of 6.3 Bq.m -3 to a maximum value of 29.2 Bq.m -3 with the annual geometric mean of 14.1 Bq.m -3 . Thus it is seen that both radon and thoron levels are higher in poorly ventilated houses than in well-ventilated houses. The ranges of radon and thoron progeny levels for well ventilated houses were 0.10 mWL to 0.58 mWL with an annual geometric mean of 0.21 mWL and 0.01 mWL to 0.06 mWL with an annual geometric mean of 0.03 mWL respectively. Similar variation was also observed in poorly ventilated houses. In poorly ventilated houses, the radon and thoron progeny levels varied between 0.16 mWL and 1.61 mWL with an annual geometric mean of 0.41 mWL and 0.02 to 029 mWL with the annual geometric mean

  4. Influence of environmental factors on indoor radon concentration levels in the basement and ground floor of a building – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Dong; Liao, Maili; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2015-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to measure indoor radon concentrations variations and observe any correlations with indoor and outdoor atmospheric parameters for over a period of one year. Indoor environmental parameters and radon concentrations were measured on an hourly basis in a two-story building both in a laboratory on the well-ventilated ground floor and in the basement below it which had negligible ventilation. The monthly average indoor radon concentration value of 29 ± 21 Bq m"−"3 in the laboratory was below the ICRP recommended limit of 200–300 Bq m"−"3. The monthly normalization factor for that location ranged from 0.5 to 2.0, while the seasonal normalization factor ranged from 0.78 to 2.0. In the unventilated basement, however, the average monthly indoor radon concentration was 1083 ± 6 Bq m"−"3 with little seasonal variation. The basement is only used for storage and thus the elevated radon concentration does not pose a serious health risk. The results indicated that indoor radon levels are higher in the autumn–winter season than in the spring–summer season. Analysis further showed that indoor radon concentrations negatively correlated with indoor humidity (correlation coefficient R = −0.14, p < 0.01), outdoor temperature (correlation coefficient R = −0.3, p < 0.01), outdoor dew point temperature (correlation coefficient R = −0.17, p < 0.01) and outdoor wind speeds (correlation coefficient R = −0.25, p < 0.05). Radon concentrations correlated positively with outdoor barometric pressure (correlation coefficient R = 0.35, p < 0.01), indoor–outdoor temperature difference (correlation coefficient R = 0.32, p < 0.05) and indoor–outdoor barometric pressure difference (correlation coefficient R = 0.67, p < 0.01). Indoor temperature, indoor barometric pressure and outdoor wind direction showed no clear correlations with indoor radon concentration. - Highlights: • Environmental variables and

  5. NEU3 sialidase strictly modulates GM3 levels in skeletal myoblasts C2C12 thus favoring their differentiation and protecting them from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Luigi; Papini, Nadia; Colazzo, Francesca; Palazzolo, Giacomo; Tringali, Cristina; Dileo, Loredana; Piccoli, Marco; Conforti, Erika; Sitzia, Clementina; Monti, Eugenio; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tettamanti, Guido; Venerando, Bruno

    2008-12-26

    Membrane-bound sialidase NEU3, often referred to as the "ganglioside sialidase," has a critical regulatory function on the sialoglycosphingolipid pattern of the cell membrane, with an anti-apoptotic function, especially in cancer cells. Although other sialidases have been shown to be involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, the role of NEU3 had yet to be disclosed. Herein we report that NEU3 plays a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation by strictly modulating the ganglioside content of adjacent cells, with special regard to GM3. Induced down-regulation of NEU3 in murine C2C12 myoblasts, even when partial, totally inhibits their capability to differentiate by increasing the GM3 level above a critical point, which causes epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition (and ultimately its down-regulation) and an higher responsiveness of myoblasts to the apoptotic stimuli.

  6. Study of indoor radon levels in some radioactive areas of Himachal Pradesh: an inter-comparison of active and passive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, B.S.; Singh, S.; Sharma, N.; Virk, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Indoor radon levels measurements were carried using both the active and passive techniques in the dwellings of some villages, known to be located in the vicinity of uranium mineralized zones of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh. Even in the passive technique using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (S.S.N.T.D.), both the bare-slide and twin chamber dosemeter cup modes were utilized. An attempt has also been made to assess the levels of the indoor radon in these dwellings and inhalation dose rates of the population living in these villages. The average value of radon concentration levels using the bare-slide mode varies from 109.0 to 741.5 Bq/m3 in these dwellings, where as the maximum radon level using the twin cup dosemeter technique was found to be 140.3 Bq/m3. As usual the radon concentrations were found to be varying with seasonal changes, building materials etc. The radon survey in the dwellings of these villages has also been carried out using the Alpha- Guard technique, which is based on the pulse ionization chamber. The indoor radon concentration levels measured using the active technique of Alpha Guard have been found to be quite different from those measured in these dwellings by the passive technique of S.S.N.T.D.; indicating the importance of the S.S.N.T.D. in the long-term integrated measurement of the indoor radon levels in the dwellings. (authors)

  7. Time series linear regression of half-hourly radon levels in a residence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper uses time series linear regression modelling to assess the impact of temperature and pressure differences on the radon measured in the basement and in the basement drain of a research house in the Princeton area of New Jersey. The models examine half-hour averages of several climate and house parameters for several periods of up to 11 days. The drain radon concentrations follow a strong diurnal pattern that shifts 12 hours in phase between the summer and the fall seasons. This shift can be linked both to the change in temperature differences between seasons and to an experiment which involved sealing the connection between the drain and the basement. We have found that both the basement and the drain radon concentrations are correlated to basement-outdoor and soil-outdoor temperature differences (the coefficient of determination varies between 0.6 and 0.8). The statistical models for the summer periods clearly describe a physical system where the basement drain pumps radon in during the night and sucks radon out during the day

  8. Lowering the UK domestic radon action level to reduce radiation-induced lung cancer in general population: when and where is it cost effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Case studies have shown that radon gas can be present within domestic properties at sufficiently high levels that it can significantly increase the risk of lung cancer in occupants. Recently, Darby et al. (2006) have shown that this risk exists at radon concentrations as low as 100 Bq·m -3 , which is below the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq·m -3 . As a result, there have been suggestions that national domestic Action Levels should be reduced. This paper considers the benefits and costs of the domestic radon remediation programmes in the UK, when a range of Action Levels from 125 Bq·m -3 to 600 Bq·m -3 are applied. The variations of total cost, cost-effectiveness, dose reduction and lung cancers saved for each proposed action level, and the proportion of houses over the proposed action level, were estimated. The study shows that, for an Action Level above 200 Bq·m -3 , a completed domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, where 6.3% of existing houses have initial radon levels over 200 Bq·m -3 , will cost less and will target those most at risk, but will be less cost effective. In addition, a higher Action Level leaves a higher residual dose and greater risk of cancer in the population living in unremediated homes. Reducing the Action Level below 200 Bq·m -3 will prevent more cancers, but at significantly higher cost. It will be less cost-effective, because a significant number of houses with moderate radon levels will be remediated with modest health benefit to occupants. The study suggests that a completed radon remediation programme is most cost-effective with an action level of around 250 to 300 Bq·m -3 . The finding appears to be independent of the percentage of houses over the Action Level. This has clear implications for future health policy. (author)

  9. Effects of barium chloride treatment of uranium mill tailings and ore on radon emanation and 226Ra levels. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.A.; Flot, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of barium chloride treatments on: reduction of 222 Rn emanation from mill wastes; reduction of 226 Ra levels in wastewater; and decreased leachability of 226 Ra from mill wastes. Baseline 226 Ra concentrations were determined for ore and tailings as well as radon emanation fractions. Uranium ore was treated with soluble barium at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg per litre of slurry. The leach-liquor declined in 226 Ra concentration by as much as 50%. When soluble potassium as well as barium was used in the treatment process at equal concentrations of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg per litre of slurry, a similar reduction was observed. No significant difference was noted between the two treatment regimes. An accelerated leaching experiment was performed on the ore treated with barium chloride. All treatment groups except that treated with 10 mg of soluble barium per litre of slurry showed significant decreases in leachability. Available 222 Rn (corresponds with radon emanation fraction) was measured in treated and untreated ore. Ore treated with concentrations of Ba ++ up to 1.00 mg per gram of ore did not show a statistically significant reduction in available 222 Rn, however when potassium sulfate was also added, a significant decline was noted. This study suggests that barium chloride treatments reduce radon emanation from mill wastes and reduce 226 Ra levels in wastewater. Leachability of 226 Ra from treated samples decreased markedly. 19 references, 8 figures, 7 tables

  10. Elevated indoor radon levels and elevated incidence of lung cancer in Columbus and Franklin County, Ohio: Cause or coincidence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafton, H.E.; West, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Columbus, and Franklin County, Ohio, have been identified as having elevated residential radon levels. Research by the Columbus Health Department, the Ohio Department of Health, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has shown that average screening measurements for the county range from 63% to 73% above 148 Bq m -3 , 23% to 27% above 370 Bq m -3 , and 1% above 1850 Bq m -3 , for both males and females, respectively. The observed cancer rate per 100,000 persons for the period 1979-1986 for the City of Columbus was 62.8 and for the State of Ohio, 49.3, for the bronchi, lungs, and trachea. The reliability of residential radon data, the effect of smoking, mobility of residents, and other confounding factors are referenced. We suggest that while current evidence is insufficient to demonstrate a causal or coincidental relationship between elevated radon levels and higher-than-average rates of lung cancer, the measurement data suggest that Franklin County, Ohio, is an appropriate site for such research

  11. Measurement of underground contamination of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) on the basis of the radon concentration in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.

    2001-01-01

    It was investigated whether measurements of radon concentrations in ground level air are a suitable method of detecting sub-surface soil contamination with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The working postulation was that, due to the very high solubility of radon in NAPLs, and the resulting accumulation of radon in NAPLs, radon exhalation to the ground level air in the proximity of such NAPL contamination should be locally reduced, thus indicating contamination of sub-surface soils with NAPLs. The research work reported was to verify the working theory by way of experiments, and to finally develop a reliable detection method for NAPL contaminations. The investigations comprised theoretical studies, laboratory experiments, experiments in defined soil columns, and extensive field studies [de

  12. Measurement of indoor radon levels in Erbil capital by using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.H.; Khdar, S. per; Abdulla, H.Y.; Muhamad, N.Q.; Othman, M.M.; Qader, S.

    2005-01-01

    Radon alpha activity concentration has been measured in 28 homes in the Erbil Capital-Iraqi Kurdistan region during the autumn season by using time-integrated passive radon dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors 'SSNTDs'. The radon activity concentrations in these homes range from (10.33-90.34) Bqm -3 with an average of 44+/-23Bqm -3 . The average absorption effective dose equivalent for a person living in homes for which the investigation were done was found to be 1.3+/-0.65mSvy -1 , obtained by using an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and an occupancy factor of 0.8. The average lung cancer cases per year per 10 6 person was found to be 23+/-12

  13. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Radon in Schools Related Information Managing Radon in Schools Radon Measurement ... Radon Could Be a Serious Threat to Your School Chances are you've already heard of radon - ...

  14. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  15. Rehabilitation of a house with high radon level, using a ground ventilation system with double barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefous, Y.C.; Richon, P.; Arnautou, J.C.; Sabroux, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A ground ventilation system has been designed and implemented in a town hall in Brittany. Radon concentration in the heating unit room of this building has been reduced from 10000 Bq/m 3 to less than 200 Bq/m 3 by the means of a depressurization system using a 32 W fan, which blows air into a permeable gravel layer intercalated between two radon barrier mylar films. Results show that passive systems should be applicable; for new buildings, very low energy consumption systems with 10 W fans, are easily implemented if designed before construction

  16. Correlation between the radon levels and the lung cancer mortality rates - experimental and theoretical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep; Vo Thi Anh

    2003-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas and is present in the most earth materials such as soil, stone, air, water and others. Comprehensive and scientifically rigorous studies found a low lung cancer mortality rates in high radon areas. It is opposite to the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH), which is a popular theory in the field of radiation safety. The fact is explained by the theory of energy transfer model, that takes accounts of the competitive processes arising in material during irradiation.(author)

  17. Radioactivity in the furnace air-cleaning filter from a house with an unusually high level of airborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Essling, M.A.; Urnezis, P.W.

    1979-01-01

    The amounts of the three short-lived daughters of radon on the furnace air-cleaning filter from a house with a high level of radon were estimated to be 8.2, 33, and 38 kBq (0.22, 0.89, and 1.03 μCi) for 218 Po, 214 Pb, and 214 Bi, respectively, at the time of removal from the furnace. These data were used to calculate the airborne concentrations of the three, and the results indicated that about 70% of the daughters were lost to surfaces in the house and by impaction in the air ducts. The filter's content of 210 Pb was found to be 4.4 kBg (0.12 μCi); from this the average concentration of radon-producing filterable daughters during the time the furnace blower operated, was estimated to be 860 Bq m -3 . This indicated that there was no significant loss to surfaces or in air ducts. Possible reasons for the difference are given. The filter was also found to contain 1 kBq (27 nCi) of 212 Bi from the thorium series

  18. Cases study of lung cancer deaths and analysis of radon levels in house-room of Mexicali, B. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez B, G.; Reyna C, M. A.

    2009-10-01

    The lung cancer is a case of health of more importance as much in women as in men, with more frequency that the cancer of mamma, colon and prostate on the whole. A factor that influences in the cancer generation originating serious complications it is the exposition to radioactive substances in closed places, as house-room. In the investigation study, levels of radon concentration were measured in interiors of Mexicali homes, to study the relationship that this gas could have with the death cases by lung cancer into population. The gas radon is radioactive and it adheres easily to particles that remain suspended in air; when inhaling them small explosions take place inside the alveoli, changing the DNA of cells and lung cancer is generated. The meteorological, geographical and urban characteristics of Mexicali, favor conditions so that certain areas of the city present high indexes of suspended particles in atmosphere. One sample of gas radon inside 100 house-rooms, the analysis was made by paved and not paved colonies and for sex, to establish if the death cases by lung cancer had relationship with the genus and/or with some of two groups of colonies. The study found that the major number of deaths it was presented in colonies in which lacked the paving service and always happened with more frequency in women; and that in homes of having died by lung cancer the radon concentrations were more high that the homes where there was not death cases, with significant differences that go from 9.2% to 70%. This investigation project is presented as a cases study in the Mexicali City. (Author)

  19. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  20. Health effects of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of people to radon has taken on increased interest during the last decade because of the understanding that buildings can serve to trap radon and its daughters, and thereby build up undesirable concentrations of these radioactive elements. Numerous studies of underground miners (often uranium miners) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. Laboratory animals exposed to radon daughters also develop lung cancer. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Those observations are of considerable importance, because uranium, from which radon and its progeny arise, is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, including coal mines. Risk estimates of the health effects of long-term exposures at relatively low levels require continued development, especially to address the potential health effects of radon and radon daughters in homes and occupational settings where the exposure levels are less than levels in underground uranium and other metal mines that have been the subject of epidemiological studies. Two approaches can be used to characterize the lung-cancer risks associated with radon-daughter exposure: mathematical representations of the respiratory tract that model radiation doses to target cells and epidemiological investigation of exposed populations, mainly underground uranium miners. The mathematically-based dosimetric approach provides an estimate of lung cancer risk related to radon-daughter exposure based specifically on modeling of the dose to target cells. The various dosimetric models all require assumptions, some of which are not subject to direct verification, as to breathing rates; the deposition of radon daughters in the respiratory tract; and the type, nature, and location of the target cells for cancer induction. The most recent large committee effort drawn together to evaluate this issue was sponsored by the National Research Council

  1. Radon surveys and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Dixon, D.W.; Green, B.M.R.; Strong, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the UK, as in other countries, radon daughter inhalation is the most significant cause of human exposure to ionising radiation either at home or at work whether one considers the mean or the maximum dose. Substantial studies of radon are under way in the UK, and the importance of radon is recognised in several spheres. NRPB investigations of the radon levels in buildings and mines are reported, the distributions of doses presented and risk factors calculated. The bases of radon limitation for workers and members of the public are given and the means of compliance discussed. (author)

  2. Estimation of radon daughter levels in the ventilation planning of an underground uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, T.H.; Wise, K.N.; Leach, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion parameters determined by laboratory measurements can be utilized for predictions of radon daughter exposures in underground mining environments, as well as providing data for ventilation planning purposes. Wherever possible field measured data for the various diffusion parameters should be used. Underground mining methods, the tunnel model and diffusion theory are considered

  3. Indoor radon levels in workplaces of Adapazarı, north-western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapdan, Enis; Altinsoy, Nesrin

    2014-02-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the health hazards due to radon gas accumulation and to compare the concentrations in different kinds of workplaces, in the city of Adapazarı, one of the most important industrial cities of Turkey. For this purpose, radon activity concentration measurements were carried out in schools, factories, offices and outdoors using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Results show that the mean radon activity concentrations (RAC) in schools, offices and factories were found to be 66, 76 and 27 Bq/m3, respectively, with an outdoor concentration of 14 Bq/m3. The average concentrations were found to decrease as follows for different types of industries: automotive > electronic > metal > textile. Because the maximum measured radon concentrations are 151 Bq/m3 in the schools, 173 Bq/m3 in the offices and 52 Bq/m3 in the factories, the limits of ICRP are not exceeded in any of the buildings in the region. In addition, the estimated mean annual effective doses to the people in the workplace, students, office workers and factory workers have been calculated as 0.27, 0.63 and 0.20 mSv/y, respectively for the region.

  4. Indoor radon levels in workplaces of Adapazari, north-western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapdan, Enis; Altinsoy, Nesrin

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the health hazards due to radon gas accumulation and to compare the concentrations in different kinds of workplaces, in the city of Adapazari, one of the most important industrial cities of Turkey. For this purpose, radon activity concentration measurements were carried out in schools, factories, offices and outdoors using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Results show that the mean radon activity concentrations (RAC) in schools, offices and factories were found to be 66, 76 and 27 Bq/m 3 , respectively, with an outdoor concentration of 14 Bq/m 3 . The average concentrations were found to decrease as follows for different types of industries: automotive > electronic > metal > textile. Because the maximum measured radon concentrations are 151 Bq/m 3 in the schools, 173 Bq/m 3 in the offices and 52 Bq/m 3 in the factories, the limits of ICRP are not exceeded in any of the buildings in the region. In addition, the estimated mean annual effective doses to the people in the workplace, students, office workers and factory workers have been calculated as 0.27, 0.63 and 0.20 mSv/y, respectively for the region. (author)

  5. Search for buildings with high radon levels in Sweden: measurements carried out by local authorities in both older and newly built homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Local authorities in Sweden have made about 58,000 radon daughter measurements with the following aims: (1) to search for houses with high radon daughter levels, (2) to determine the level above which the house would be regarded as an insanitary dwelling, and (3) to check that the radon daughter concentrations in newly built houses are below the established limit. The sampling of dwellings is therefore not representative for Swedish homes. 5300 homes were found to have levels above the limit 400 Bq.m -3 EER. The highest level found was 28,000 Bq.m -3 . In about one third of the homes found to have levels exceeding the limit, measures had been carried out to decrease the radon daughter concentration. About half of the homes in which the levels were decreased had levels below the limit for rebuilding, e.g. 200 Bq.m -3 . Measurements in order to ascertain levels in newly built houses were made in about 1100 homes out of 200,000 built since 1981 which was the year in which requirements for newly built houses came into force. Of those built with radon-protective foundations, 94% had concentrations below the 70 Bq.m -3 EER limit, compared to 80% for traditional building techniques. (author)

  6. An assesment of the characteristics of the GM detectors and iodine remote detectors of the Paks environmental monitoring system based on the data measured from 1982 to 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Gy.; Lang, Edit; Deme, S.; Feher, I.

    1986-03-01

    Measurements performed at the GM detectors and iodine remote detectors of the continuous environmental monitoring system of the Paks NPP can be used for estimating the effect of atmospheric releases. Based on the investigations carried out from Sep. 1982 to July 1985, a good correlation between the signals and the background radioactivity levels could be established. It was further stated that radon fallout during raining was responsible for significant signal changes of both types of detectors. (V.N.)

  7. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackmurdo, R.

    1994-01-01

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  8. Indoor radon concentrations and radon doses at three districts of Ankara, Turkey and raising public awareness on the issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmet Kildir; Inci Goekmen; Ali Goekmen

    2016-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations at METU, CIGDEM and DOSTLAR in Ankara were measured using electrets. The statistical analysis of the data indicated a lognormal distribution of radon concentrations, with no significant difference between CIGDEM and DOSTLAR with geometric means of GM = 87.5 and 54.5 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radon concentrations did not change seasonally at CIGDEM which contain modern buildings, but at the slum district DOSTLAR, with poor insulation of houses a seasonal variation was observed. Annual effective radon doses were estimated (0.4-8.4 mSv). Public awareness about indoor radon was raised. (author)

  9. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.; Samet, J.M.; Cross, F.T.; Hess, T.; Muller, J.; Thomas, D.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  10. Radon in houses due to radon in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Korsah, J.K.; Einloth, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radon concentration in the air of 10 houses has been measured as a function of water use and meterological parameters such as barometric pressure, wind velocity and direction, indoor and outdoor temperature, and rainfall. Results of calibrations and data collected in winter, spring, fall, and summer are given for selected houses. Average values of radon concentration in air are from 0.80 to 77 rhoCi/1. Water use average ranges from 70 to 240 gal/day. Average potential alpha energy concentrations in these houses range from 0.02 to 1.6 working levels. The radon level due to water use ranges from 0 to 36% of the house radon from soil and water combined. The radon level change due to use of a filter on the water supply shows a 60% reduction in radon in the house. Conclusions are that water radon can be a major fraction of the radon in houses. The ratio of airborne radon concentration due to water use to the radon concentration in water is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ - 13 x 10/sup -5/

  11. Radon - natural health threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Natural sources of radiation attract little attention, yet a survey has found radon gas in buildings at levels which put the occupants at some risk. The author wants safety standards set without undue delay. (author)

  12. ROE Radon Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The polygon dataset represents predicted indoor radon screening levels in counties across the United States. These data were provided by EPA’s Office of Radiation...

  13. The Formation of GM-free and GM Coasean Clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Wesseler, Justus

    2017-01-01

    The unintended presence of traces of genetically modified (GM) crops in the harvests of non-GM crops plays a prominent role in the debate over the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. One way to address the issue is the formation of GM-free or GM-only clubs. We model the decisions of individual

  14. Levels of radon gas concentration and progeny in homes of Potosi City, Bolivia to 4000 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani M, R.; Claros J, J.; Vasquez A, R.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: In this work the presence of radon gas was determined, which is a radioactive contaminant that comes from underground, able to penetrate the houses. The danger is that when mixed air and when inhaled can cause serious damage to the lungs, for the short life time that has radon and progeny for decay, damaging the pulmonary alveoli and reducing breathing capacity of the habitants, then causing polycythemia in some cases. The study was carried out in homes in the city of Potosi, Bolivia located at 4000 m. The quantification of radon gas and progeny was performed with the equipment Alpha-Zaeller-2 (Az-2), quantification was realized in 6 zones of the city of Potosi, chosen randomly. In each zone were carried out measurements in 40 homes (2 rooms more permanent), both day and night, for a period of 3 days in two different seasons and with concentrations of average humidity of 20, 50 and 80%. The values obtained for each period vary depending on the season and 30 to 50% of the allowable values given by the EPA and Who for housing. (Author)

  15. Gamma radiation and radon concentration levels at the radioactive waste repositories 'Richard' and 'Bratrstvi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berka, Z.; Sabol, J.; Janu, M.

    1998-01-01

    Owing to the fact that cosmic rays are shielded off, the photon equivalent dose rates in the corridors of the Richard repository are usually slightly lower than outside. However, in points close to barrels containing radioactive waste, the dose rates can reach values as high as tens of μSv/h. Because of high concentrations of natural radionuclides, the dose rates in the Bratrstvi repository is generally considerably higher, as much as 5 times the normal background value. Radon concentrations exhibit specific time variations which are modified by ventilation. Where ventilation is poor or absent, the radon concentrations are extremely high, viz. up to 30 and 300 kBq/m 3 in the Richard and Bratrstvi repositories, respectively. Personal exposure of workers depend on the total time spent underground and on the ventilation rate. While the contribution from photons can be kept below the relevant limits, the radon-related doses may be significant and even exceed the professional limits if no precautions are taken. (P.A.)

  16. Radon levels in Swedish homes: A comparison of the 1980s with the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Buren, A.; Mjones, L.

    1987-01-01

    In 1980-82 a study was carried out on Swedish homes built before 1976. The aim was to provide averages and distributions for the radon exposure of the Swedish population. Correlations with parameters such as building materials and building periods were also investigated. In 1955-56, a study of homes built before 1946 was carried out in four towns in central Sweden by Hultqvist with the aim of obtaining results which were representative for the homes in the areas that were studied. The radon concentrations in homes from approximately the same regions in the two studies are compared. The average was found to be four times higher for the homes measured in 1980-82 than for those measured in 1955-56. The reason for this increase is discussed including a thorough evaluation of the sampling and measurement methods used in the two studies. Indications that there has been an increase in the radon concentrations in other Swedish homes and also in other countries in temperature regions are also discussed

  17. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1996-02-09

    The ratio of {sup 210}Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ({sup 222}Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5{+-}2.2) x 10{sup -5} (arithmetic mean{+-}S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of {sup 210}Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of {sup 210}Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 214}Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of {sup 210}Po to {sup 210}Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, were 1:7.5x10{sup -5} and 1:0.6 x 10{sup -5}, respectively.

  18. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The ratio of 210 Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ( 222 Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5±2.2) x 10 -5 (arithmetic mean±S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of 210 Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of 210 Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, 210 Pb and 214 Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of 210 Po to 210 Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to 210 Pb and 210 Po, were 1:7.5x10 -5 and 1:0.6 x 10 -5 , respectively

  19. Developing biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM plants using conceptual food webs: a case study with elevated triacylglyceride levels in ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Todd, Jacqui H; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Malone, Louise A

    2010-01-01

    Regulators are acutely aware of the need for meaningful risk assessments to support decisions on the safety of GM crops to non-target invertebrates in determining their suitability for field release. We describe a process for developing appropriate, testable risk hypotheses for invertebrates in agroecosystems that might be exposed to plants developed by GM and future novel technologies. An existing model (PRONTI) generates a ranked list of invertebrate species for biosafety testing by accessing a database of biological, ecological and food web information about species which occur in cropping environments and their potential interactions with a particular stressor (Eco Invertebase). Our objective in this contribution is to explore and further utilise these resources to assist in the process of problem formulation by identifying potentially significant effects of the stressor on the invertebrate community and the ecosystem services they provide. We propose that for high ranking species, a conceptual food web using information in Eco Invertebase is constructed, and using an accepted regulatory risk analysis framework, the likelihood of risk, and magnitude of impact for each link in the food web is evaluated. Using as filters only those risks evaluated as likely to extremely likely, and the magnitude of an effect being considered as moderate to massive, the most significant potential effects can be identified. A stepwise approach is suggested to develop a sequence of appropriate tests. The GM ryegrass plant used as the "stressor" in this study has been modified to increase triacylglyceride levels in foliage by 100% to increase the metabolisable energy content of forage for grazing animals. The high-ranking "test" species chosen to illustrate the concept are New Zealand native species Wiseana cervinata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), Persectania aversa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and the self-introduced grey field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller).

  20. Riddle of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Why is the most significant source of human exposure to ionising radiation - and one that is so easy to reduce - not accorded the attention it deserves from those engaged in radiological protection nor the action it requires from those affected by it at work or at home? There are, after all, clear indications that high levels of radon exist and firm strands of evidence that radon causes cancer. Some national and international authorities have even developed regulations and recommendations to limit exposures. But radon still lies in the penumbra of protection because proponents of intervention lack conviction and opponents are full of passionate intensity. Little wonder that citizens are confused! (Author)

  1. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  2. The world of "GM-free".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Vivian; Brookes, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The rapid global development of agricultural production systems using seeds derived from genetic modification (GM) has been paralleled by the growth of attempts to keep at least a part of the world's agriculture and food as free from GM-crops and their products as possible. The ideal for some proponents of such "GM-free" activity would be a total absence, usually styled "zero content"; others, perhaps more realistically, opt for a definition usually not precisely defined that allows for minimal trace levels of GM material. The reasons for wanting "GM-free" agriculture and its products are varied; they include philosophical and religious beliefs, concern for human (and animal) health--and for "the environment"-as well as commercial and political interests. With such a variety of motivations, and in the absence of legal rulings, the definitions of "GM-free" vary according to inclination and circumstances. Whatever the precise meaning, the maintenance of a "GM-free" product stream in a world where GM crop production is widespread requires the establishment of identity preservation and segregation systems in which traceability and testing are cornerstones. Inevitably these have cost implications for the supply chain and/or the ultimate consumer. In a number of countries different forms of "GM-free" labels exist for some products; the style of such labels is variable with schemes and labels typically voluntary or privately organized. In more recent years, some governments have begun to regularize the definition and meaning of "GM-free." We conclude our analysis by exploring consumer reactions both to "GM-free" and to "GM-free" labels, and ask who ultimately benefits from preserving a product stream substantially or entirely devoid of GM-content.

  3. Study on radon and thoron levels in different types of dwellings of Lambapur area of Nalgonda District, A.P., India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    An attempt has been made to study the indoor radon and thoron concentration levels in different types of dwellings of Lambapur and Peddagattu proposed uranium mining areas. The dwellings with mud floors recorded a relatively higher concentrations compared to those with other type of floors. Similar studies have also been made with different types of walls. In this case, dwellings having brick walls with mud plastering showed relatively higher levels of radon and thoron concentrations. The average concentration levels of radon and thoron in this area is found to be 88.8 ± 66.7 Bq.m -3 and 118.3 ± 96.4 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  4. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables

  6. The radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings

  7. Radon in housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    The enclosed material deals with the substantial efforts made until now to control the levels of radon in Sweden dwellings. It is meant as a source material for the several publications which have emerged from the National Institute of Radiation Protection in Stockholm during 1983 and 1984. The first document is a translation of chapter 16, the deliberations of the Swedish Radon Commission, appointed by the government in 1979. Comments on the report of the commission were solicited before 1 October, 1983. (author)

  8. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Lowder, W.; Fisenne, I.; Knutson, E.O.; Hinchliffe, L.

    1983-07-01

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniques for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs

  9. Radon campaigns. Status report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Valmari, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Niemelae, H.; Oinas, T.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Laitinen-Sorvari, R.

    2008-12-01

    the questionnaire 37 - 60% had taken remedial measures. New buildings should be designed and constructed so that the indoor radon concentration is below 200 Bq / m 3 . In the campaign regions this limit has been exceeded in 0 - 77% of houses, and in 36% of all measurements. The results confirm that the present authority orders and regulations given on radon prevention in new buildings should be followed in the whole country. Radon mitigation training for construction companies is one part of the campaign programme. Since 2003 already nine one-day training courses have been organised with a total of 360 participants from companies and municipalities. Training courses have also increased the supply of radon mitigation services. STUK has collected information on house construction, remedial measures and radon prevention in new buildings through the questionnaire sent to house owners together with the radon detector. The results show that using radon prevention practices in new buildings has become more common in the 2000s. Sealing of the gaps in slab-on-grade foundation has been performed in 28% of the houses, according to the house owners replies. In 69% of the houses, a preparatory radon piping has been installed beneath the floor slab. This piping can be activated in case the indoor radon concentration exceeds 200 Bq / m 3 . The results also show that indoor radon concentrations are lower in houses built in the 2000s than in houses built in 1990s. The decrease has been observed in the regions where radon concentrations have been higher than the average level in the country. (orig.)

  10. Human perception of radon risk and radon mitigation: Some remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Radon program in the Czech Republic has a relatively long and rich history. Procedures, which enable to evaluate the risk of radon penetration from the ground, to protect new buildings, to find existing buildings with elevated indoor radon levels and to realise remedial measures in such buildings, have been developed, published and tested. In some cases, the whole system may fail due to psychological or sociological reasons. Three types of problems (conflicts) will be presented: human behaviour affecting measurement results, conflict between individual and 'all-society' points of view, interpretation of radon risk itself. (authors)

  11. Indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies

  12. THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS RADON DANGER MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Chunikhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon is the major contributor to the background exposure of the population. In the world practice, the radon risk or radon potential mapping are used for the radon dose assessment.The aim of this work was a radon danger mapping of the Republic of Belarus to assess the radiation situation and determine the radon hazard critical areas.Materials and methods: The mapping is based on measured values of radon volume activity in the living rooms of different buildings on the territory of the six regions of the Republic of Belarus. We have performed more than 4000 measurements. Integral track radon radiometers based on the polymer Kodak LR-115 film were used to evaluate radon volume activity. Exposure time ranged from 90 to 120 days. The cartogram was built with using the MAPINFO software package.Results: The low levels of radon concentrations were determined in the Brest and Gomel regions, as well as in the southern districts of Minsk and south-western districts of the Mogilev region. The high levels radon concentrations were determined in some districts of the Vitebsk and Grodno regions, as well as in the north-eastern districts of the Mogilev region. About 2–5 times nonuniformity of radon distribution in settlements of the Republic was observed. The radon hazard critical areas with radon concentrations in the range of 200–400 Bq/m3 were found in some districts of the Vitebsk, Grodno and Mogilev regions.Conclusions: The radon risk map of the Republic of Belarus gives the possibility to estimate the existing radiation risk. Taking into account the low efficiency of countermeasures long after the Chernobyl accident, it is necessary to increase the level of radiation protection through the radon mitigation activities or to change the radon normative documents.

  13. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  14. Correlation between geology and radon levels in groundwater, soil and indoor air in Bhilangana Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choubey, V.M.; Ramola, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in soil, air and groundwater in Bhilangana Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India by using an LR-115 plastic track detector and radon emanometer. Radon concentrations were found to vary from 1 KBq/m 3 to 57 KBq/m 3 in soil, 5 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l in water and 95 Bq/m 3 to 208 Bq/m 3 in air. The recorded values are quite high due to associated uranium mineralization in the area. Radon concentration was also found to depend on the tectonic structure and geology of the area. (orig.)

  15. CSF drug levels for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by 5 g/m2 methotrexate. A study from the EORTC Children's Leukemia Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, G; Thyss, A; Serre Debeauvais, F; Laureys, G; Benoit, Y; Deville, A; Dutour, C; Robert, A; Otten, J; Behar, C

    1990-04-01

    A multicenter EORTC study was conducted in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia to determine whether 5 g/m2 of methotrexate (MTX) (24 h i.v. infusion, four cycles) is an appropriate dosage for obtaining CSF drug concentrations approaching the critical cytotoxic level of 10(-6) M. A total of 193 cycles were analyzed for 58 patients. At the end of the 24 h infusion, the mean MTX serum level was 65.27 +/- 33.11 microM; the mean CSF MTX level was 1.47 +/- 1.1 microM; no significant difference in CSF MTX levels was observed between patients with (n = 20) and those without i.v. Ara-C (n = 38). The mean CSF MTX/serum MTX ratio was 0.029 +/- 0.027. CSF drug concentrations greater than or equal to 10(-6) M were achieved in 81% of the courses. The highest level was 8.4 X 10(-6) M. Only 5% of patients failed to achieve this drug concentration in at least one cycle. No significant correlation was observed between blood and CSF MTX levels. Mean CSF MTX levels were comparable from one cycle to another.

  16. Radon and NO2 levels and related environmental factors in 100 underground subway platforms over two-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Jae Bum; Park, Wha Me

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the environmental factors that affect radon (Rn) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels in subway-station underground platforms are evaluated, and the outdoor NO 2 levels are compared with those obtained for the underground platforms. The Rn and NO 2 levels from May 2013 to September 2015 are determined for lines 1-4 of the Seoul Metro, via calculation of the arithmetic means of the Rn and NO 2 levels with their standard deviations (SDs). The underground Rn levels in 2013 are found to be significantly higher than those recorded in 2015 for the Seoul Metro. In addition, the Rn levels are related to the station depth and construction year. Further, the underground NO 2 levels are shown to be significantly higher than the outdoor levels for all four Seoul Metro subway lines. The Rn levels are also found to vary significantly between months, and are shown to increase gradually with depth from 8 to 20 m. The Rn levels are also higher for stations constructed in the 1980s. Therefore, stricter monitoring of Rn level may be required for stations constructed in the 1980s and/or having platform depths within the 8-20 m range. Island-type platform stations based on granite areas may also require careful attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radon Research Program, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER) is the principal federal agency conducting basic research related to indoor radon. The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. There still remains a significant number of uncertainties in the currently available knowledge that is used to estimate lung cancer risk from exposure to environmental levels of radon and its progeny. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny and to identify and understand biological mechanisms of lung cancer development and required copollutants at low levels of exposure. Information useful in radon control strategies is also provided by the basic science undertaken in this program

  18. Radon and radon daughters in South African underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Radon and the radon daughters are the radionuclides which primarily determine the level of the radiation hazard in underground uranium mines and to a smaller extent in non-uranium mines. Radon is a gas, and its daughters adsorb on aerosol particles which are of respirable size. The hazard thus arises from the alpha decay of radon and its daughters in contact with lung tissue. Radon is itself part of the uranium decay chain. The major radionuclide, 238 U, decays successively through thirteen shorter-lived radionuclides to 206 Pb. Radon is the only gaseous decay product at room temperature; the other twelve are solids. The main hazard presented by the uranium decay chain is normally determined by the radon concentration because gaseous transport can bring alpha emitters close to sensitive tissue. There is no such transport route for the other alpha emitters, and the level of beta and gamma radiation caused by the uranium decay chain generally presents a far lower external radiation hazard. Radon itself is the heaviest of the noble gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Its chemical reactions are of no concern in regard to its potential hazard in mines as it may be considered inert. It does, however, have a solubility ten times higher than oxygen in water, and this can play a significant part in assisting the movement of the gas from the rock into airways. Radon continuously emanates into mine workings from uranium ores and from the uranium present at low concentrations in practically any rock. It has been found that the control of the exposure level is most effectively achieved by sound ventilation practices. In South African mines the standard of ventilation is generally high and exposure to radon and radon daughters is at acceptably low levels

  19. A Radon Chamber without Radium Source for Detector Calibration and Radon Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, D.; Karunakara, N.

    2008-01-01

    A radon chamber of volume 216 liters was designed and constructed for calibration of radon detectors and radon test measurements. The main feature of this chamber is that the active 226 Ra source, to generate the 222 Rn inside the chamber volume, is not required. Instead, 222 Rn from soil gas is utilized for this purpose. The supply of radon comes from the soil gas. Soil gas is drawn from the soil to fill the chamber with high radon concentration levels (∼ 80 kBq/m3). Desired radon concentration levels can be obtained by drawing the soil gas for different time durations and/or flow rate (author)

  20. Survey of radon activity at ground level in village houses of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Selmeczi, D.

    1996-01-01

    Our national survey in Hungary began in 1992, in the most beautiful European village: Matraderecske. In the dwellings of Matraderecske there is a wide range of radon activity concentration from 50 Bq/m3 to 2600 Bq/m3 in yearly average. In the first two years we have learnt the whole process of the measurement in this village: how to communicate with the local people with the help of the local students and their physics teacher, how to handle CR 39 track detectors in a reliable way, and how to evaluate the detectors by a home made semi-automaton. The results in this village encouraged us to extend our survey to find a much wider statistics to see better the correlation between cancer cases and low dose radiation

  1. Radon concentration and working level in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiver, J.H.; Tung, Chao-Hsiung.

    1995-01-01

    Radon-222 ( 222 Rn) and 222 Rn progeny WL monitoring in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was initiated to support regulatory compliance. Measurements were taken over two periods, in Test Alcove No. 1 of the ESF, about 60 m from the tunnel entrance. For both periods, 222 Rn concentration was less than 10% of the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) set forth in DOE Order 5480.11. Thus, these assessments were sufficient to demonstrate regulatory compliance. Based on these findings, quarterly 222 Rn and 222 Rn progeny monitoring was initiated. Two systems each were employed for 222 Rn and 222 Rn progeny measurement. No significant differences were observed between the respective systems. An interesting finding was that at the time the measurements were taken, barometric pressure appeared to be the predominant factor controlling 222 Rn concentration in the ESF. This was true even during periods of ventilation shutdown

  2. The distribution of radon in tunnels with different geological characteristics in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaoyan, E-mail: lxyan421@hotmail.co [School of Geographic and Biologic Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, GuiYang 550001 (China); Song Bo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Zheng Baoshan [Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, GuiYang 550002 (China); Wang Yan [Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang Xue [Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, GuiYang 550002 (China)

    2010-05-15

    In China, as the economy is developing and the population is expanding, some underground buildings have been used as supermarkets, restaurants and entertainment places. Tunnels in mountains are one type of underground building, and the radon ({sup 222}Rn) level in tunnels is an important issue. Radon levels in different type tunnels appear to differ, and relatively higher levels of {sup 222}Rn are associated with particular types of bedrock. The {sup 222}Rn levels in tunnels in five different geological characteristics were analyzed. Those built in granite had the highest {sup 222}Rn levels with a geometric mean (GM) of 280 Bq m{sup -3}, while those built in limestone (GM: 100 Bq m{sup -3}) and andesitic porphyry (GM: 96 Bq m{sup -3}) were lower. The sequence of {sup 222}Rn concentrations was: granite > tuff > quartz sandstone > limestone > andesitic porphyry, and the {sup 222}Rn in granite was statistically significantly higher than in limestone and andesitic porphyry. Tunnels built in granite, tuff, quartz sandstone, limestone tended to have higher {sup 222}Rn concentrations in summer than in winter, while the reverse tendency was true in andesitic porphyry tunnels. Only the difference in limestone was statistically significant.

  3. The distribution of radon in tunnels with different geological characteristics in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Song Bo; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Yan; Wang Xue

    2010-01-01

    In China, as the economy is developing and the population is expanding, some underground buildings have been used as supermarkets, restaurants and entertainment places. Tunnels in mountains are one type of underground building, and the radon ( 222 Rn) level in tunnels is an important issue. Radon levels in different type tunnels appear to differ, and relatively higher levels of 222 Rn are associated with particular types of bedrock. The 222 Rn levels in tunnels in five different geological characteristics were analyzed. Those built in granite had the highest 222 Rn levels with a geometric mean (GM) of 280 Bq m -3 , while those built in limestone (GM: 100 Bq m -3 ) and andesitic porphyry (GM: 96 Bq m -3 ) were lower. The sequence of 222 Rn concentrations was: granite > tuff > quartz sandstone > limestone > andesitic porphyry, and the 222 Rn in granite was statistically significantly higher than in limestone and andesitic porphyry. Tunnels built in granite, tuff, quartz sandstone, limestone tended to have higher 222 Rn concentrations in summer than in winter, while the reverse tendency was true in andesitic porphyry tunnels. Only the difference in limestone was statistically significant.

  4. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de

  5. Investigation of natural levels of radon-222 in groundwater in Maine for assessment of related health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Casparius, R.E.; Norton, S.A.; Brutsaert, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    We have used an inexpensive radon ( 222 Rn) measurement method using liquid scintillation counting to remeasure potable water from 10 sites near Raymond, Maine, to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of earlier measurements. Duplication or triplication of samples shows a high degree of reproducibility for the liquid scintillation method. A hypothesis emerged from analysis of the measured values of 222 Rn near Raymond, Maine, that high values (50,000 to 200,000 pCi/liter) are associated with granite. This was shown to be correct for several large areas of granite such as the Sebago, Lucern, Waldo, and Waldoboro granites. The presence of high 222 Rn concentrations in granite areas hundreds of kilometers from the Raymond area shows that the high 222 Rn levels in water are a statewide and perhaps a regional problem rather than a western Maine problem

  6. Seasonal and spatial variations in Rn-222 and Rn-220 in soil gas, and implications for indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharman, G.

    1992-01-01

    Rn-222 enters dwellings as a component of soil gas drawn from the soil by mass flow driven by the pressure difference between the house and soil beneath. In a site on Northampton Sand Ironstone (Aalenian), a preferred path of emanation (hotspot) was found. A difference of 63 Bq L -1 Rn-222 was recorded in July between this point and another 3 m away. Rn-222 in this hotspot shows 12% less variation annually than the surrounding rock. During winter, Rn-222 values within 1.6 m of the house were 44% lower than those at more than 4 m away. Rn-222 showed a 99.5% negative correlation with wind run, showing that on this soil wind pressure can significantly reduce radon in the soil at 500 mm depth. Rn-220 in soil gas correlated positively at the 99.5% level with grass and air temperatures. Rn-220 was not associated with the hotspot. (Author)

  7. Radon Infiltration in Rented Accommodation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    in homes was measured and the Buildings were registered for a series of variables describing upgrades, facilities, building components, Construction characteristics and used materials. In addition, the radon level was measured in the basement in 9 of the buildings. The mean year value of the indoor radon......Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...... radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....

  8. Application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurements is discussed. The ''Can Technique'', used for measuring radon emanation from building materials, walls and soil; the ''Working Level Monitor'', used for measuring short period working levels of radon daughters in houses; and ''Passive Radon Dosimeters'', used to measure radon levels in houses for long term (few months) periods are described. Application of nuclear track detectors for measuring the radon daughters plate-out on the surface of mixing fan blades and walls are discussed. The uranium content of some wall papers was found to be 6 ppm. The variation of radon progeny concentration in the same room was measured and supported by another study through Gas Chromatograph measurements. The independence of radon concentration on room level in high-rise buildings was established. The effect of sub-floor radon emanation on radon concentration in houses is dependent on whether there is sub-floor ventilation or not. (author)

  9. Concentration of Radon, thoron and their progeny levels in different types of floorings, walls, rooms and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, L. A.; Nagaraja, K.; Ramanna, H. C.; Nagesh, V.; Sundareshan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Radon, thoron and their progenies are the most important contributions to human exposure from natural sources. Radon exists in soil gas, building materials, Indoor atmosphere etc. Among all the natural sources of radiation dose to human beings, inhalation of radon contributes a lot. The work presented here emphasizes the long term measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations in about 100 dwellings using solid state nuclear track detectors. Materials and Methods: Measurements were made using dosimeters and the concentrations were estimated by knowing the track density of films through spark counter, and sensitivity factor for bare, filter and membrane films. Results: Presence of radon and thoron in houses is the effect of several aspects such as the activity concentrations of uranium, radium and thorium in the local soil, building materials, ventilation of houses and also entry of radon into houses through the cracks in floor/wall. Conclusion: The observations reveal that the concentrations of radon and/or thoron are relatively higher in granite than in concrete, cement and bricks. In continuation to this the concentration observed in bathrooms is more compared to kitchen bedroom and living rooms. This study discloses that the residential rooms of good ventilation will avoid the health hazards due to radon and its rich materials.

  10. Factors influencing radon attenuation by tailing covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silker, W.B.; Rogers, V.C.

    1981-07-01

    The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi/m 2 s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the atmosphere to allow for decay of 222 Rn within the cover. The depth of cover necessary to reduce the escaping radon flux to the prescribed level is to be determined by calculation, and requires precise knowledge of the radon diffusion coefficient in the covering media. A Radon Attenuation Test Facility was developed to determine rates of radon diffusion through candidate cover materials. This paper describes this facility and its application for determining the influence of physical properties of the soil column on the radon diffusion coefficient

  11. Application of underwater radon measurements in geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varhegyi, A.; Baranyi, I.; Gerzson, I. (Mecsek Ore Mining Enterprise, Pecs (Hungary)); Somogyi, G.; Hakl, J.; Hunyadi, I. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen (Hungary). Atommag Kutato Intezete)

    1988-01-01

    Based on the observed phenomenon of geogas migration in microbubble form from deeper regions, the authors have developed a new model for the vertical transport of radon released from deeper sources. The physical properties of the rock relating to the upflow of microbubbles below the groundwater level are considered and the radon transport parameter of rocks is introduced. The vertical distribution of radon concentration in the case of a multi-layered geological model is given and the penetration depth of underwater radon measurements is examined. Aspects of underwater radon detection by the nuclear track detector technique are analyzed. The radon transport model gives a new theoretical basis for several applications of radon measurements in geology. The advantages of underwater radon detection have already been proved in uranium exploration. Further geological applications are proposed in earthquake prediction, in volcanology, in the survey of active faults and thermal waters. (author).

  12. Control of radon in Finnish workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Natural radiation in Finland is regulated in the Finnish Radiation Act from 1992. Occupational exposure to natural radiation is regulated by an amendment of the Radiation Decree in 1998. The most important issues in Finland are radon in workplaces, radioactivity in drinking water and in building materials, and mining and industrial processes. Radon levels in mines have been measured regularly since 1972. Finland has an action level for radon in workplaces of 400 Bq/m 3 . Radon prone areas have been identified primarily from measurements of radon in dwellings. Radon measurements are compulsory in workplaces in radon prone areas unless it can be shown by other means that radon levels are low. A programme focusing on radon in workplaces was initiated in 1992. To date, radon measurements have been carried out in 10,000 workplaces and remedial actions have been taken in 200 of these. The average reduction in radon concentration in remediated buildings is about 1,500 Bq/m 3 . Identification of NORM industries is based on the radionuclide content of the materials used (>1.4 Bq/g U and >0.4 Bq/g Th). The occupational exposure should not exceed 1 mSv/y (excluding radon)

  13. Study on indoor radon exposure and its effect on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei

    2005-01-01

    Radon and its daughters relate to people health. Radon widely exists in the nature. The paper discusses the source, exposure and activity level of indoor radon, systematically analyzes the hazards and dose-response of residential radon exposure, and at last indicates the concrete method of controlling residential radon concentration. By interdicting radon pollution source and ventilation might effectively reduce indoor radon concentration and improve environmental air quality. (authors)

  14. Indoor radon concentration levels, gamma dose rates and impact of geology - A case study in Kotli, State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, sub-Himalayas, in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Shahid Baig, M.; Akram, M.; Qureshi, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of indoor radon has been recognized as the largest contributor to the total effective dose received by human beings. Indoor radon data were collected from the dwellings lying on the sedimentary rocks (sandstones, siltstones and clays) of the Murree Formation, Nagri Formation, Dhok Pathan Formation, Mirpur conglomerate and surficial deposits of the Kotli area in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Radon measurements were made using the passive time-integrated method using Kodak CN-85 Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors. The radon concentration in dwellings varied from 13 ± 6 Bq.m -3 to 185 ± 23 Bq.m -3 , with an average of 73 ± 15 Bq.m -3 .The radon concentration in the Murree Formation, Nagri Formation, river terrace and Dhok Pathan Formation were 89.7 ± 16.5, 72 ± 15, 68.5 and 69 Bq.m -3 , respectively. The average value of all the measured concentrations (73 ± 15 Bq.m -3 ) within the framework of this study is more than the world average value of 40 Bq.m -3 given by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, report to the General Assembly, United Nations, New York, 2000) and is within the action level of 200-600 Bq.m -3 fixed by the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP publication 65, Protection against radon at home and at work, 1993). The ambient gamma dose rates both indoors and outdoors in different parts of Kotli were also measured. The average value of gamma absorbed dose rates prevailing in the indoor environment was 131.2 ± 16.6 nGy/h. The gamma exposure rates recorded outdoors were 35% lower than in the indoor environment. The measured gamma dose rates have a weak positive correlation with indoor radon concentration. The annual effective dose for inhabitants in Kotli due to radon ranged from 0.32 to 4.7 mSv.y -1 , with an average value of 1.8 mSv.y -1 . This dose is relatively higher than the world mean dose of 1.15 mSv/y. That is explained by the particular geology of the

  15. Radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Gregory, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Guide has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. However if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and Safety Inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice. In the past, concern about exposure of employees to radon has largely centred on the mining environment. In recent times, with increased knowledge and mapping of radon levels in homes, attention has increasingly turned to radon exposure in buildings used for work purposes. Now there is a considerable fund of information to show that employees in some buildings can receive very significant radiation doses from radon. Surveys show that levels of radon tend to be higher in buildings with small rooms, such as offices rather than larger factory and warehouse constructions. The particular problem is that the nature of the work process gives no clue as to the radon hazard that may exist, and the employer may be unaware of its presence and how to deal with it. This Guide is aimed principally at employers and those who control buildings used for work purposes, or their representatives. It offers guidance on practical measures for reducing radon levels in workplaces. The guidance should also be of interest and assistance to those, such as surveyors and builders, concerned with specifying and carrying out the necessary remedial measures. Advice is provided for the majority of building types and construction situations likely to be encountered in larger non-domestic buildings. For buildings where construction is similar to that found in dwellings the guidance published by BRE on remedial measures for dwellings should be used. BRE prepared this Guide with assistance from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council under contract

  16. Radon survey in Metropolitan Toronto schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Moridi, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radon testing survey in Metropolitan Toronto public schools was the most intensive project of its kind ever undertaken in Canadian schools. It also included an extensive public education program on radiation and radon-in-schools. The radon levels at 632 schools were measured using the CAIRS Radon Monitors. Ninety percent of the locations measured were found to have a radon level equal to or less than 2 mWL. Two locations in two different schools were found to have a radon level at or above the Action Level (20 mWL). The remaining results were between the two extremes. Follow-up testing in those schools where more than 10 mWL of radon was found is in progress. (author)

  17. Radon and its importance for animal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowski, T.M.; Tombarkiewicz, B.

    1995-01-01

    Reconnaissance studies on radon concentration were carried out for various species of animal in animal housing in the Cracow region. It was found that the level of radon inside the livestock houses depended on the type of housing and animal species. In a cow shed the concentration of radon was higher by 25% than in the atmosphere, whereas in a piggery the radon level exceeded twice that in the ambient air. However, in a poultry house the radon concentration was over 20% lower then outside. (author). 9 refs

  18. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  19. Contribution to the improvement of radon risk evaluation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.; Vargas, A.

    2002-01-01

    The 96/29/Euratom Directive aims to introduce radon regulation at working places in European Countries. Within the framework, the Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body, the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), is interested in obtaining a reliable level of quality for radon measurements in Spain. The radon laboratory group at the Institute of Energetic Techniques of the Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona (INTE) has been commissioned to adequate its radon chamber for testing radon instruments using standards as IEC 61577 and ISO 13466

  20. Radon programme in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Thomas, J.

    2003-01-01

    The framework of the Radon programme in the Czech republic includes both precautionary measures and interventions. The programme informally started in early eighties has been now incorporated in national legislation (Atomic Act, Radiation Protection Decree, etc.). Aim of precautionary measures is to avert construction of building above natural radiation guidance levels (200 Bq/m 3 for indoor radon concentration and 0.5 Sv/h for gamma dose rate) by protection of new buildings against soil radon ingress, by regulation of natural radioactivity in building materials and supplied water. Aim of interventions is to identify buildings affected by enhanced natural radioactivity and help owners to put into effect reasonable remedial measures. Two sets of intervention levels for indoor natural exposure were established: guidance intervention levels 400 Bq/m 3 (indoor radon), 1.0 Sv/h (indoor gamma dose rate) and limit values 4000 Bq/m 3 and 10 Sv/h. The radon programme is based both on governmental and private activities. The governmental activities include representative and targeted indoor radon survey, subsidy for radon mitigation, mitigation test measurements and public information on radon issue. The private activities include radon measurement (radon index of building site, indoor measurements, radon diagnosis) and remedial measures. More than 100 commercial companies were authorised by Radiation Protection Authority (SUJB) to provide these measurements

  1. Elevated radon levels in buildings: an investigation of potential sources in Region V arising from energy-conserving practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    Some trends in single dwelling construction, and the resulting possibility of increased radiation exposure from radon progeny to the inhabitants, are identified. The number of such dwellings available and convenient for an ANL study is estimated. Preliminary measurements are reported

  2. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  3. Workshop on radon and radon daughters in urban communities associated with uranium mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This meeting of Atomic Energy Control Board staff, representatives of other government departments, and consultants was called to exchange information on steps taken to lower radiation levels in houses in communities such as Elliot Lake, Uranium City, and Port Hope. Discussions covered the sources of radon and radon daughters in these houses, radon measurement techniques, and remedial methods that worked or were not successful

  4. Fluid-based radon mitigation technology development for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.V.; Gabor, J.D.; Holtz, R.E.; Gross, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the radon mitigation technology development effort is to develop an efficient and economical radon gas removal technology based on a fluid absorption process. The technology must be capable of cleaning up a wide range of radon gas stream concentrations to a level that meets EPA gas emission standards for residential and industrial applications. Argonne has recently identified a phenomenon that offers the possibility of radon recovery from the atmosphere with high efficiency at room temperature, and radon release at slightly elevated temperatures (50-60 degrees C.) such a device would offer numerous substantial advantages over conventional cryogenic charcoal systems for the removal of radon. Controlled sources of radon in Argonne's radon research facility are being used to quantitatively assess the performance of a selected class of absorbing fluids over a range of radon concentrations. This paper will discuss the design of laboratory- and engineering-scale radon absorption units and present some preliminary experimental test results

  5. Contribution of waterborne radon to home air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Radon-222 is a member of the uranium decay chain and is formed from the decay of radium-226. Radon and its decay products emit alpha particles during the decay process. If radon is inhaled, alpha particles emitted from inhaled radon and its daughters increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon is soluble in water; thus when radon comes in contact with groundwater it dissolves. The radon concentration in groundwater may range from 100 pCi/L to 1,000,000 pCi/L. When water with a high radon level is used in the home, radon is released from the water to the air and thus can increase indoor air radon concentration. Considering the estimated health risk from radon in public water supply systems, EPA has proposed a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 300 pCi/L for radon in public drinking water supplies. To address the health risks of radon in water and the proposed regulations, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) initiated a study to determine the contribution of waterborne radon to radon levels in indoor household air

  6. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  7. Radon in indoor air. Health risk, measurement methods and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.

    1996-02-01

    Radon in indoor air is the main source of ionizing radiation in Norway. The booklet contains a presentation of radon sources, measurement methods, indoor radon concentrations, action levels, health risk and remedial measures

  8. The Formation of GM-free and GM Coasean Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Wesseler, Justus

    2018-01-01

    The unintended presence of traces of genetically modified (GM) crops in the harvests of non-GM crops plays a prominent role in the debate over the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. One way to address the issue is the formation of GM-free or GM-only clubs. We model the decisions of individual...... farmers to cultivate either GM or non-GM crops and combine this with a game theoretic model of club formation to investigate the feasibility of such clubs. We consider two liability regimes: GM farmers are liable or they are not.We consider two benchmarks: Nash equilibrium without negotiations......, they reach 95% of an efficient allocation. This holds independent of the property rights system and provides strong support for coexistence policies based on ex-post liability such as in the US and Spain....

  9. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    This patent describes a portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as in uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout displays the result in terms of working level-hours

  10. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    A portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure Radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air is described. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout diplays the result in terms of working level-hours

  11. Water radon anomaly fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, H.

    1980-01-01

    A striking aspect of water radon levels in relation to earthquakes is that before the Tangshan quake there was a remarkable synchronicity of behavior of many wells within 200 km of Tangshan. However, for many wells anomalous values persisted after the earthquake, particularly outside the immediate region of the quake. It is clear that radon may be produced by various processes; some candidates are pressure, shear, vibration, temperature and pressure, mixing of water-bearing strata, breakdown of mineral crystal structure, and the like, although it is not clear which of these are primary. It seems that a possible explanation of the persistence of the anomaly in the case of Tangshan may be that the earthquake released strain in the vicinity of Tangshan but increased it further along the geological structures involved, thus producing a continued radon buildup.

  12. Radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York state. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    A survey of radon levels in New York State homes indicates that approximately 4.4 percent of the homes have long-term living area radon concentrations above the U.S. EPA guideline of four pCi/l. The project addressed the effectiveness of techniques to reduce the radon level in existing homes and to prevent the occurrence of high radon concentrations in new homes. The goal of the project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of radon reduction techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations of more than the current EPA guidelines of four pCi/l. At the same time, radon-resistant construction techniques were demonstrated in homes under construction to provide guidelines for houses being built in areas with a danger of high radon levels. The project demonstrated new radon mitigation techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations exceeding four pCi/l; assessed the value of previously installed radon reduction procedures, and demonstrated new radon-resistant construction methods

  13. Radon dosimetry: a review of radon and radon daughter exposure conditions in dwellings and other structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Poston, J.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1983-07-01

    Within the past few years several situations have been brought to light which indicate an increased radiation exposure of certain segments of the general population caused by human activities. The most widely publicized activities are those associated with the mining and milling of uranium in the western United States, the phosphate industry in Florida, and those potential problems represented by former Manhattan Engineer District sites. One of the primary problems involves exposure to radon and radon daughters which are released from large waste piles or, in some cases, evolve from backfill and construction materials used in homes, schools, and other buildings. This report presents a review of the available data on radon and radon daughter concentrations in dwellings and other structures. The primary objectives were to compile and tabulate pertinent radon exposure data and to prepare a statistical summary of the data which will be useful in the prediction of normal levels of radon and radon daughter concentrations in these structures. In addition, other parameters associated with radon exposure conditions are presented and discussed

  14. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Khan, M.A.; Chowdhury, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm -3 inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm -3 inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408±98Bqm -3

  15. Radon and energy efficient homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1981-09-01

    Radon and its daughters in indoor air are presently responsible for dose equivalents of about 31 mSv/year (3 rem/year) to parts of the respiratory tract. Linear extrapolation from the dose response values of uranium miners heavily exposed to radon and its decay products would suggest that almost all lung cancers in the non-smoking population are caused by environmental 222 Rn. Using epidemiological data on the types of lung cancer found in non-smokers of the general public as compared to the miners, a smaller effect of low level radon exposure is assumed, which would result in a lung cancer mortality rate due to radon of about 10 deaths per year and million or 25% of the non-smoker rate. Higher indoor radon concentrations in energy efficient homes mostly caused by reduced air exchange rates will lead to a several fold increase of the lung cancer incidence from radon. Based on the above assumption, about 100 additional lung cancer deaths/year-million will result both from an increase in radionuclide concentrations in indoor air and a concomitant rise in effectiveness of radiation to cause cancer with higher exposure levels. Possibilities to reduce indoor radon levels in existing buildings and costs involved are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Experience from using plastic film in radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1999-01-01

    Plastic film is a useful detector of radon gas. The method of detection of the gas is used for several decades to measure radon concentrations both indoors and in soil. Experiences from radon measurements in Sweden indoors, in soil and in water using the plastic film Kodak LR 115-II are discussed in this report. Some examples are given from various projects. One example is taken from a large scale mapping of indoor radon levels in houses, where the building material is the main source of radon. In another example the measurements from a large scale soil radon mapping are discussed. The use of the plastic film for measurements of radon levels in water is also discussed. All the investigations are made in order to give the authorities concerned information of the radon situation and to study the connection between high indoor radon levels and various types of cancers

  17. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary indoor radon measurements in a high-radon area of Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.S.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Kelleher, K.; Paridaens, J.; Mc Laughlin, J.P.; Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P.; Onischenko, A.D.; Jovanovic, S.; Demajo, A.; Birovljev, A.; Bochicchio, F.

    2007-01-01

    In Niska Banja, Serbia, which is a high-radon area, a comparison was made between two retrospective radon measuring methods and contemporary radon measurements. The two retrospective methods derive the radon concentrations that occurred in dwellings over longer periods in the past, based on the amount of trapped 210 Po on the surface of glass objects (surface traps, ST) or in the bulk of porous materials (volume traps, VT). Both surface implanted 210 Po in glass objects and contemporary radon in air were measured in 46 rooms, distributed in 32 houses of this radon spa-town, using a dual alpha track detector configuration (CR-39 and LR115) and CR-39 track etched detectors, respectively. In addition to the use of surface trap measurements, in 18 rooms (distributed in 15 houses) VT samples of suitable material were also collected, allowing to compare ST and VT retrospective radon concentration estimates. For each room, contemporary annual radon concentrations (CONT) were measured or estimated using seasonal correction factors. The distribution of the radon concentration in all data sets was found to be close to lognormal (Chi-square test > 0.05). Geometric means (GM) are similar, ranging from 1040 to 1380 Bq m -3 , whereas geometric standard deviations (GSD) for both the retrospective methods are greater than for the CONT method, showing reasonable agreement between VT, ST and CONT measurements. A regression analysis, with respect to the lognormal distribution of each data set, shows that for VT-ST the correlation coefficient r is 0.85, for VT-CONT r is 0.82 and for ST-CONT r is 0.73. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary radon concentrations with regard to supposed long-term indoor radon changes further supports the principal agreement between the retrospective and conventional methods

  18. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for the province of Kymi, southeastern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennanen, M.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 . It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In this study about 5900 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurements and geological data were used to assess the radon risk from soil and bedrock in different areas. The building sites of the province of Kymi were divided into thirteen sub-areas. The radon prognosis are calculated for the most radon-prone foundation types including 1) houses with a slab-on-grade and 2) houses with a basement or hillside houses with open stairwells between basement and first floor. The radon levels are generally greater in the western part of the area. The radon risk is highest in gravel-dominated esker areas in southwestern, western (in Pyhtaa, Kotka, Anjalankoski, litti, Valkeala) and central (Taipalsaari) parts of the area. The radon risk is also high in some bedrock and till areas, also in southwestern and western parts of the area. In these areas the level of 200 Bq/m 3 will be exceeded in 80 % of new houses. About half of the future houses in these areas will have indoor radon concentrations exceeding 400 Bq/m 3 . The radon risk is lowest in the eastern part of the province of Kymi in every soil type. In this area the level of 200 Bq/m 3 will be exceeded in 30 % of new houses. Below 10 % will exceed 400 Bq/m 3 . (orig.) (14 refs.)

  19. Publications about Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no known safe level of exposure to radon. EPA strongly recommends that you fix your home if your test shows 4 picocuries (pCi/L) or more. These publications and resources will provide you with the information you need to fix your home.

  20. Radon remediation in irish schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Commencing in 1998, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland carried out radon measurements in 3826 schools in the Republic of I reland on behalf of the Irish Department of Education and Science (D.E.S.). This represents approximately 97% of all schools in the country. Approximately 25% (984) schools had radon concentrations above the Irish national schools Reference Level for radon of 200 Bq/m 3 and required remedial work. The number of individual rooms with radon concentrations above 200 Bq/m 3 was 3020. Remedial work in schools commenced in early 2000. In general schools with maximum radon concentrations in the range 200 -400 Bq/m 3 in one or more rooms were remediated through the installation of passive systems such as an increase in permanent background ventilation mainly wall vents and trickle vents in windows. Schools with maximum radon concentrations greater than 400 Bq/m 3 were usually remediated through the provision of active systems mainly fan assisted sub -slab de pressurization or where this was not possible fan assisted under floor ventilation. The cost of the remedial programme was funded by central Government. Active systems were installed by specialized remedial contractors working to the specifications of a radon remedial expert appointed by the D.E.S. to design remedial systems for affected schools. Schools requiring increased ventilation were granted aided 190 pounds per affected room and had to organize the work themselves. In most schools radon remediation was successful in reducing existing radon concentrations to below the Reference Level. Average radon concentration reduction factors for sub-slab de pressurization systems and fan assisted fan assisted under floor ventilation ranged from 5 to 40 with greater reduction rates found at higher original radon concentrations. Increasing ventilation in locations with moderately elevated radon concentrations (200 - 400 Bq/m 3 ) while not as effective as active systems produced on

  1. Project radon final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.; Rossby, U.

    1990-01-01

    The main radiation problem in Sweden is due to radon in dwellings. At the Swedish State Power Board, R, D and D about radon has been going on since 1980. The work has concentrated on the important questions: How to find building with enhanced radon levels?; How to accurately decide on measures that will give adequate cleaning-up results, using appropriate measurement procedures; What cleaning-up effect is possible to achieve with an electro-filter?; and What cleaning-up effects are possible to achieve with different types of ventilation systems? The R, D and D-work, has been pursued in cooperation with universities of technology in Denmark and Finland, equipment manufacturers, consultants and authorities concerned. It was decided in December 1986 to give an offer to some SSPB-employees to investigate the radon situation of their dwellings, in order to test methods of measurement and cleaning-up under realistic conditions and to develop the methods to commercial maturity. The investigation was named 'Project Radon' and was carried out in three years with costs amounting to 1 M dollars. During the project less comprehensive radon measurements, named 'trace-measurements' were undertaken in about 1300 dwellings and more elaborate measurements, leading to suggestions of actions to be taken, in about 400 dwellings. Out of the suggestions, about 50 are carried out including control measurement after actions taken. The control measurement have shown that the ability to suggest appropriate actions is very successful - in just one case was a minor additional action necessary. The high reliability is achieved by always doing elaborate measurements before suggested mitigation method is decided on. (authors)

  2. Radon Survey in Kalamata (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geranios, A.; Kakoulidou, M.; Mavroidi, Ph.; Moschou, M.; Fisher, S.; Burian, I.; Holecek, J.

    2001-01-01

    A national radon survey is still lacking for Greece. Some groups have carried out several more or less local or extended radon surveys and valuable experience has been gained. After the first preliminary survey carried out by our group, where 500 Kodak LR-115 etched track detectors were placed in Greek schools and dwellings for one year, indoor radon measurements were continued by placing the same number of detectors in a restricted area, covering the city of Kalamata (a medium size city with 60,000 inhabitants), situated in the south of Peloponnese. Although Kalamata was not of special radon interest, the local authorities insisted on knowing for their citizens' sake the level of this natural radiation. At first, the intention was to use a different method of organisation and distribution of the etched-track detectors from the previous one, attempting mainly to acquire more reliable results and to collect as many detectors as possible. Secondly, it was of great importance to test the statistics of the indoor radon concentrations for a rather small area, and thirdly, to estimate independently the annual absorbed dose by children, taking into account radon concentrations measured both in their home and at school. The set of detectors' readings (about 370), revealed, in general, lower values for Kalamata, compared to the ones found in the preliminary radon survey in Greece and almost all concentrations were found to be below the NRPB action level (200 Bq.m -3 ) (author)

  3. A study of environmental radon levels in rammed earth dwellings in the south west of Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Jennings, P.

    2002-01-01

    Indoor radon and thoron progeny Equilibrium Equivalent Concentrations (EEC) were measured with a portable 'Radon Sniffer' in 10 rammed earth dwellings and 10 conventional dwellings in Margaret River in the South West of Western Australia. Natural background gamma radiation was also measured within the dwellings. The results of this study show that the mean indoor radon progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings was 24 Bq m -3 EEC and 9.3 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The mean indoor thoron progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings was 3.9 Bq m -3 EEC and 0.8 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The ranges of combined indoor radon and thoron progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings were between 2.1 and 76 Bq m -3 EEC and 2.0 and 27 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The mean annual effective radiation dose equivalents from combined indoor radon and thoron progeny concentrations EEC using UNSCEAR's (1982) conversion factors in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings were 4.1 mSv y -1 and 2.2 mSv y -1 respectively. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  4. Conceptual model for the origin of high radon levels in spring waters - The example of the St. Placidus spring, Grisons, Swiss Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainon, F.; Goldscheider, N.; Surbeck, H.

    2007-01-01

    A variety of geological, hydrochemical and isotopic techniques were applied to explain the origin of exceptionally high radon levels in the St. Placidus spring near the city of Disentis in the Swiss Alps, where an average of 650 Bq/L 222 Rn was measured. 222 Rn is a radioactive noble gas with a half-life of 4 days, which results from the disintegration of radium ( 226 Ra). The high radon levels can neither be explained by generally increased radium content in the fractured aquifer rock (orthogneiss), nor by the radium concentration in the spring water. It was possible to show that there must be a productive radium reservoir inside the aquifer but very near to the spring. This reservoir mainly consists of iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides, which precipitate in a zone where reduced, iron-rich groundwaters mix occasionally with oxygen-rich, freshly infiltrated rainwater or meltwater. The iron, as well as the reduced and slightly acid conditions, can be attributed to pyrite oxidation in the recharge area of the spring. Radium cations strongly adsorb and accumulate on such deposits, and generate radon, which is then quickly transported to the spring with the flowing groundwater. (author)

  5. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in periodic RCP Proficiency Reports

  6. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving this objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide this information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under this voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report

  7. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report

  8. Uncertainties of estimating average radon and radon decay product concentrations in occupied houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronca-Battista, M.; Magno, P.; Windham, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radon and radon decay product measurements made in up to 68 Butte, Montana homes over a period of 18 months were used to estimate the uncertainty in estimating long-term average radon and radon decay product concentrations from a short-term measurement. This analysis was performed in support of the development of radon and radon decay product measurement protocols by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The results of six measurement methods were analyzed: continuous radon and working level monitors, radon progeny integrating sampling units, alpha-track detectors, and grab radon and radon decay product techniques. Uncertainties were found to decrease with increasing sampling time and to be smaller when measurements were conducted during the winter months. In general, radon measurements had a smaller uncertainty than radon decay product measurements. As a result of this analysis, the EPA measurements protocols specify that all measurements be made under closed-house (winter) conditions, and that sampling times of at least a 24 hour period be used when the measurement will be the basis for a decision about remedial action or long-term health risks. 13 references, 3 tables

  9. Radon risk in the house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values [it

  10. Indoor radon concentrations in the coastal and central regions of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, Perko; Antovic, Nevenka; Svrkota, Ranko

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first systematic indoor radon survey in Montenegro, in 10 municipalities of its coastal and central regions. In rural areas one home was randomly selected in each 5 x 5 km square of a regular grid covering the territory of Montenegro, while in urban areas the basic grid was subdivided into 0.5 x 0.5 km squares, and in each of them one building was selected and one dwelling within the building. In each of these 434 homes, radon measurements were performed twice a year, using passive dosimeters placed in the living room or bedroom on the ground floor or the first floor. The CR-39 nuclear track detectors were exposed each time for about six months. The annual average radon concentrations in the surveyed homes are found to be log normally distributed (GM = 49.6 Bq m -3 , GSD 3.2) within the range 2-2,208 Bq m -3 . Their arithmetic mean is 105 Bq m -3 and median 41.4 Bq m -3 . Radon concentrations above the action level of 400 Bq m -3 are detected in 5.6% of the surveyed homes. Most of these 24 homes are detached single-family houses, and the majority are rural. Radon concentrations were generally higher in detached family houses than in apartment buildings, in older than in newer houses, and higher in rural than in urban homes. As to the domestic radon exposure, this survey indicates reinforced concrete as the most favorable and stones as the most unfavorable of the building materials commonly used in Montenegro. The lowest average effective dose is in urban homes on the Montenegrin Coast (0.80 mSv y -1 ), while the highest is in the rural area of the Niksic municipality (7.31 mSv y - 1 ) , which is abundant in bauxite deposits. (author)

  11. Determination of Radon Level in Drinking Water in Mehriz Villages and Evaluation the Annual Effective Absorbed Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2015-03-01

    Results: Radon concentrations of samples ranged from 0.187 BqL-1 to 14.8 BqL-1.These results were related to samples No.12 and 9 and also to aqueducts of Tang-e-chenar and Malekabad village respectively. Based on the amount of radon in the sample, the lowest annual effective absorbed dose through drinking water or breathing(In an environment where water was used was 0.0005msv/y and the maximum amount was 0.04msv/y. Conclusion: Apart from samples No.9 and 16 that were elated to the aqueduct of Malekabad village and a private well in Dare Miankoohvillagehaving48 persons as total population, Radon concentrations of other samples used by people of Mehriz villages as drinking water was low and less than permitted limit set by the Environmental Protection Agency of United States of America.

  12. Radon in the Hotels in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, P.; Antovic, N.; Dapcevic, S.; Uvarov, V.V.; Mrdak, R.

    1997-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in the 16 hotels in Montenegro, well known by tourists, were measured in winter period by an integral method, with etch-track detectors. Radon concentrations obtained at the 30 measuring sites are in a range (22 - 90) Bq/m 3 , with an arithmetic mean of 43 Bq/m 3 . This means that the radon levels in the all surveyed hotels in Montenegro are much bellow the most stringent reference level internationally recommended. (author)

  13. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.; O'Colmain, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 112 Bq/m 3 and 100 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  14. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cork and Kerry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the third phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Cork and Kerry. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 76 Bq/m 3 and 70 Bq/m 3 . The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  15. Outdoor radon levels and dose to the members of public residing in and around the new BARC campus, Visakhapatnam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod Kumar, A.; Sumesh, C.G.; Krishna, N.S.; Sahoo, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radiation is the largest contributor to the collective radiation dose to the world population. The greatest fraction of the natural radiation exposure to humans results from inhalation of the short-lived decay products of Radon ( 222 Rn) and Thoron ( 220 Rn), which occur in the free atmosphere and in higher concentrations in the room air of buildings. 222 Rn, being the most important radon isotope in terms of radiation exposure contributes about 55% of the annual radiation dose to the general population from natural radiation sources

  16. Radon problem in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Raghavayya, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radon emission is invariably associated with the mining and processing of uranium ores. Radon (sup(222)Rn) enters mine atmosphere through diffusion from exposed ore body, fractures and fissures in the rocks and is also brought in by ground water. Being the progenitor of a series of short lived radioisotopes it contributes over 70% of the radiation dose to mine workers and thus accounts for nearly 30% of the total radiation doses received by workers in the whole nuclear industry. This paper summarises the data on radon emanation from the ore body, backfilled sands and mine water. Radon and its progeny concentrations in different haulage levels and stopes of the Jaduguda uranium mine are presented to emphasise the need for a well planned ventilation system to control radiation exposure of miners. Results of radon monitoring from a few exploratory uranium mines are included to indicate the need for a good ventilation system from inception of the mining operations. Relative contribution of mine exhaust and tailings surfaces to the environmental radon are also given. Some instruments developed locally for monitoring of radon and its progeny in mines and in the environment are briefly described to indicate the progress made in this field. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Radon and radon daughter measurements at and near the former Middlesex Sampling Plant, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Christian, D.J.; Leggett, R.W.; Dickson, H.W.; Myrick, T.E.

    1980-03-01

    The results of the radon and radon daughter measurements made to date (1978) at the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, are presented in this report. These measurements were one portion of a more comprehensive radiological survey conducted at this site and the surrounding area from 1976 to 1978. The surveyed property served as a uranium ore sampling plant during the 1940's and early 1950's and as a result contains elevated levels of surface an subsurface contamination. On-site indoor radon daughter and radon concentrations exceeded both the US Surgeon General Guidelines and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's maximum permissible concentration limits for radon (10 CFR Part 20) in all structures surveyed. Off-site structures showed concentrations of radon and radon daughters at or only slightly above background levels, except for one site where the radon levels were found to be above the 10 CFR Part 20 guidelines. Outdoor radon ad radon daughter concentrations, measured both on and off the site, were well below the guidelines, and the data give no indication of significant radon transport from the site

  18. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  19. A perspective on risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    In its Statement on Radon (November 2009), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reduced the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings to 300 Bq m -3 . The recommended level for workplaces is 1000 Bq m -3 . A risk coefficient of 8 x 10 -10 per Bq h m -3 is recommended without reference to smoking habits. On the basis of these figures: 1) The estimated risk of fatal cancer from exposure to radon at home and at work could be greater than the observed risk of accidental death from travelling by car, which would be surprising if true. 2) The estimated risk of lung cancer from radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all causes, which is actually known to be dominated by smoking. The author is not aware of any direct evidence of risks from inhaling radon in Australian dwellings, 99% of which have radon levels below 50 Bq m -3 . Evidence available from other countries shows that: 1) The effects of radon in the incidences of lung cancer are uncertain at levels less then about 50-100 Bq m -3 . 2) The estimation of risks at levels below 200 Bq m -3 depends on extrapolation from risks observed at higher levels. 3) Risks to non-smokers from radon are 25 times less than risks to smokers. Its concluded that the ICRP Statement on Radon and radon policies in the US and UK have the potential to cause unwarranted concern. Some people may be made to feel they need to spend money modifying their homes and workplaces to protect occupants from exposure to radon when there is no compelling reason to show that this is necessary. The vast majority of non-smokers do not need to be protected from radon. (Author)

  20. A perspective on risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In its Statement on Radon (November 2009), the ICRP has reduced the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings to 300 Bq m -3 . The recommended level for workplaces is 1000 Bq m -3 . A risk coefficient of 8x10 -10 per Bq h m is recommended without reference to smoking habits. On the basis of these figures,the estimated risk of fatal cancer from exposure to radon at home and at work could be greater than the observed risk of accidental death from travelling by car, which would be surprising if true. Also the estimated risk of lung cancer from radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all causes, which is actually known to be dominated by smoking. The author is not aware of any direct evidence of risks from inhaling radon in Australian dwellings, 99% of which have radon levels below 50 Bq m -3 . Evidence available from other countries shows that: effects on the incidences of lung cancer are uncertain at radon levels below 100 Bq m -3 ; the estimation of risks at levels below 200 Bq m -3 depends on extrapolation from risks observed at higher levels, and risks to non-smokers from radon are 25 times less than risks to smokers. It is concluded that the ICRP Statement on Radon and radon policies in the US and UK have the potential to cause unwarranted concern. Some people may be made to feel they need to spend money modifying their homes and workplaces to protect occupants from exposure to radon when there is no compelling reason to show that this is necessary. The vast majority of non-smokers do not need to be protected from radon.

  1. A perspective on risks from radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, D. J., E-mail: higsond@bigpond.net.a [Australasian Radiation Protection Society, PO Box 7108, Upper Ferntree Gully, Victoria 3156 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    In its Statement on Radon (November 2009), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reduced the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings to 300 Bq m{sup -3}. The recommended level for workplaces is 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. A risk coefficient of 8 x 10{sup -10} per Bq h m{sup -3} is recommended without reference to smoking habits. On the basis of these figures: 1) The estimated risk of fatal cancer from exposure to radon at home and at work could be greater than the observed risk of accidental death from travelling by car, which would be surprising if true. 2) The estimated risk of lung cancer from radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all causes, which is actually known to be dominated by smoking. The author is not aware of any direct evidence of risks from inhaling radon in Australian dwellings, 99% of which have radon levels below 50 Bq m{sup -3}. Evidence available from other countries shows that: 1) The effects of radon in the incidences of lung cancer are uncertain at levels less then about 50-100 Bq m{sup -3}. 2) The estimation of risks at levels below 200 Bq m{sup -3} depends on extrapolation from risks observed at higher levels. 3) Risks to non-smokers from radon are 25 times less than risks to smokers. Its concluded that the ICRP Statement on Radon and radon policies in the US and UK have the potential to cause unwarranted concern. Some people may be made to feel they need to spend money modifying their homes and workplaces to protect occupants from exposure to radon when there is no compelling reason to show that this is necessary. The vast majority of non-smokers do not need to be protected from radon. (Author)

  2. Radon reduction in crawl-space houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.C.; Moore, D.G.; Southerlan, R.E.; Brennan, T.; Pyle, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives results of an EPA study of radon-mitigation alternatives for crawl space houses in several houses in Nashville, TN. Application of one of these alternative mitigation options, suction under a polyethylene membrane, has been successful in significantly reducing radon levels in both the crawl space and the house. The large radon concentrations measured under unvented plastic ground covers and the moisture barriers found in many crawl spaces can act as radon-rich reservoirs capable of contaminating a crawl space and house during periods of depressurization. With the exhaust components of the mitigation system in place, radon levels below the plastic decreased by more than 95% under both passive and active suction conditions. Based on the study, the design of a cost-effective subplastic suction passive radon mitigation system for crawl spaces seems promising

  3. Radon investigations - Soil and commercial projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The liability issues of radon exposure have prompted potential purchasers of vacant land for commercial/industrial development, and commercial landlords, renting large commercial buildings, to determine the radon gas levels at such sites. This paper deals with both pre-construction sites subject to freezing conditions and to large commercial structures. A correlation of radon gas levels within a commercial building and a sister pre-construction site confirms the validity of using activated charcoal canisters as a cost effective means to combating radon in large structures

  4. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma relevant cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-2, TPO, EPO) levels in patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tintin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of relevant cytokines in the development and pathogenesis of aplastic anemia. Methods: Plasma GM-CSF, IL-2, TPO (with RIA) and EPO (with CLIA) contents were measured in 100 patients (acute 43, chronic 57) with aplastic anemia and 50 controls. Complete blood count was also performed in all these subjects. Results: The peripheral RBC, WBC, platelet counts and GM-CSF contents were significantly lower in the patients with aplastic anemia than those in the controls (P<0.05), while the IL-2, EPO and TPO contents were significantly higher in the patients (P<0.05). GM-CSF contents were positively correlated with the WBC numbers. EPO contents were negatively correlated with the RBC counts and TPO contents were correlated (negatively) with the platelet counts. Conclusion: There was correlationship between each blood elements (WBC, RBC, platelet) and its corresponding cytokine (GS-CSF, EPO, TPO respectively). IL-2 contents were not correlated with WBC counts. (authors)

  6. Interim protocols for screening and follow-up radon and radon-decay product measurements. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, P.; Nyberg, P.; Ronca-Battista, M.

    1987-02-01

    This report outlines the recommended strategy for assessing indoor radon levels and provides guidance for interpreting measurement results. It recommends a two-step strategy for making the fewest measurements possible, while ensuring that radon concentrations are not seriously underestimated

  7. Seasonal variations of radon and the radiation exposure levels in Nerja cave, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Canete, S.; Perez, M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-01-01

    222 Rn concentrations in the air in Nerja cave (Spain) (3 o 52'35''W 36 o 43'50''N) were measured by continuous monitoring using Alpha-Guard, Genitron instrument equipment. The 222 Rn measurements were carried out for a complete annual cycle in the different halls: Vestibule hall from July 2003 to June 2004, Ballet hall from July 2004 to June 2005 and Mirador hall from July 2005 to June 2006. Starting from the entrance of the cave we successively find the Vestibule hall, the Ballet hall and the Mirador hall. The range of 222 Rn levels were of 8-627 Bq m -3 for the Vestibule hall, 28-575 Bq m -3 for the Ballet hall and 38-578 Bq m -3 for the Mirador. The aim of this study was to detect seasonal variation patterns of 222 Rn concentrations. The seasonal variations of 222 Rn concentrations are discussed in relation to various meteorological factors measured inside and outside the cave. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists with different equilibrium factors have been evaluated. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists only represent a low percentage of the exposure guides for the general population. - Highlights: → The aim of the study was to detect seasonal variation of 222 Rn concentrations. → 222 Rn concentrations in the air-cave were measured by continuous monitoring. → The 222 Rn measurements were carried out in the different halls of the cave. → The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists have been evaluated.

  8. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable....... We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...

  9. A study of radon variation in dwelling during 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, A.N.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Muraleedharan, T.S.; Subbaramu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity due to radon and its progeny levels indoors contributes significantly to the total radiation to man. The main source of radon and its progeny in a dwelling is the emanation of radon gas from soil. The temperature and ventilation vary in a dwelling during the year. These parameters influence the indoor radon levels. The seasonal variation of radon was studied in a dwelling as well as in the outside air. The filter paper method and alpha counting, and the solid state track detector technique and track counting were used to study the radon levels. The geometric mean of radon daughters concentrations were 0.5 mWL and 0.8 mWL measured by filter-paper method and SSNTD method respectively. The geometric mean of radon concentrations were 6.2 Bqm -3 and 10.0 Bqm -3 by filter-paper method and SSNTD method respectively. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  10. Radon in soils: intercomparative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Galle, C.; Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of experiments were designed to evaluate some of the variations that can be expected from radon in soil concentrations as monitored by closely spaced solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were performed by the Insituto Nacional de Investigations Nucleares in Mexico and the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire in France. The first experimental design consisted of a series of 15 day exposures of twenty monitoring devices placed inside a single bore hole. Fluctuations obtained in the radon levels at the twenty closely spaced monitoring sites ranged from 9% to 33%. The second experiment was performed with 4 pairs of radon monitoring devices located at 4 different sites at the summit of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. Results show that the SSNTD technique is well suited for radon measurements intended for geophysical studies. (author)

  11. Radon in soils: intercomparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Galle, C. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)); Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of experiments were designed to evaluate some of the variations that can be expected from radon in soil concentrations as monitored by closely spaced solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were performed by the Insituto Nacional de Investigations Nucleares in Mexico and the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire in France. The first experimental design consisted of a series of 15 day exposures of twenty monitoring devices placed inside a single bore hole. Fluctuations obtained in the radon levels at the twenty closely spaced monitoring sites ranged from 9% to 33%. The second experiment was performed with 4 pairs of radon monitoring devices located at 4 different sites at the summit of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. Results show that the SSNTD technique is well suited for radon measurements intended for geophysical studies. (author).

  12. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  13. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  14. Indoor radon and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time on the basis of the Spitak earthquake of December 1988 (Armenia, December 1988) experience it is found out that the earthquake causes intensive and prolonged radon splashes which, rapidly dispersing in the open space of close-to-earth atmosphere, are contrastingly displayed in covered premises (dwellings, schools, kindergartens) even if they are at considerable distance from the earthquake epicenter, and this multiplies the radiation influence on the population. The interval of splashes includes the period from the first fore-shock to the last after-shock, i.e. several months. The area affected by radiation is larger vs. Armenia's territory. The scale of this impact on population is 12 times higher than the number of people injured in Spitak, Leninakan and other settlements (toll of injured - 25 000 people, radiation-induced diseases in people - over 300 000). The influence of radiation directly correlates with the earthquake force. Such a conclusion is underpinned by indoor radon monitoring data for Yerevan since 1987 (120 km from epicenter) 5450 measurements and multivariate analysis with identification of cause-and-effect linkages between geo dynamics of indoor radon under stable and conditions of Earth crust, behavior of radon in different geological mediums during earthquakes, levels of room radon concentrations and effective equivalent dose of radiation impact of radiation dose on health and statistical data on public health provided by the Ministry of Health. The following hitherto unexplained facts can be considered as consequences of prolonged radiation influence on human organism: long-lasting state of apathy and indifference typical of the population of Armenia during the period of more than a year after the earthquake, prevalence of malignant cancer forms in disaster zones, dominating lung cancer and so on. All urban territories of seismically active regions are exposed to the threat of natural earthquake-provoked radiation influence

  15. Cost effectiveness of radon mitigation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; Krewski, D.; Zielinski, J.M.; McGregor, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the cost effectiveness of comprehensive strategies for reducing exposure to radon gas in indoor air in Canadian homes. The analysis is conducted within the context of a general framework for risk management programme evaluation which includes well-known evaluation techniques such as cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses as special cases. Based on this analysis, it is clear that any comprehensive programme to reduce exposure to environmental radon will be extremely expensive, and may not be justifiable in terms of health impact, particularly when considered in relation to other public health programmes. Testing of homes at the point of sale and installing sub-slab suction equipment to reduce exposure to indoor radon where necessary appears to be a relatively cost-effective radon mitigation strategy. In general, radon mitigation was found to be most cost effective in cities with relatively high levels of radon. (author)

  16. Nuclear literacy in light of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Cziegler, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1992 the RAD Lauder Laboratory has carried out a survey of indoor radon levels all over Hungary. The co-workers of RAD Lauder were pupils and teachers in local schools. More than 50,000 people have taken the survey and received detailed information on the radon levels in their homes. (authors)

  17. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  18. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m 3 in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for each

  19. Mechanisms of radon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    In this new project, they conduct molecular, cellular and whole-animal research relevant to understanding the inhalation toxicology of radon and radon-daughter exposures. The work specifically addresses the exposure-rate effect in radon-daughter carcinogenesis; the induction-promotion relationships associated with exposure to radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures; the role of oncogenes in radon-induced cancers; the effects of radon on DNA as well as on DNA repair processes; and the involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced carcinogenesis. Preliminary experiments showed that oncogenes are activated in radon-induced lung tumors. They have therefore begun further exposures pertinent to the oncogene and growth-factor studies. An in vitro radon cellular-exposure system was designed, and cell exposures were initiated. Initiation-promotion-initiation studies with radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures have also begun; and they are compiling a radon health-effects bibliography

  20. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, D.; Adlam, K.

    2000-01-01

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  1. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  2. Radon barrier: Method of testing airtightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2017-01-01

    The test method NBI 167/02 Radon membrane: Test of airtightness can be used for determining the airtightness of a radon barrier as a system solution. The test determines the air infiltration through the radon barrier for a number of levels of air pressure differences. The airflow through versus...... of the barrier with the low air pressure, through a well-defined opening, as a modification of the test method in general. Results, obtained using the improved test method, are shown for a number of radon barriers tested....

  3. Radon: Residential attitudes toward the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, R.; Hinman, G.; Rosenman, R.; Wandschneider, P.

    1990-01-01

    Veradale, Washington (east of Spokane) is a region of high residential radon concentrations. Three hundred eighty residents of Veradale recently responded to a mail survey designed to elicit (1) their knowledge of and attitudes toward the risks of radon in their homes, (2) the actions they have taken or intend to take to identify and reduce those risks, and (3) policy preferences toward radon. Results reveal that these residents know that they live in an area with high radon levels, that radon causes lung cancer, and that radon will affect their health. However only 11% of respondents have had their homes tested for radon. This especially is puzzling because a large number of respondents claimed that (1) radon was important in home buying decisions, (2) they would test their own homes, (3) they would take action if such tests revealed problems, and (4) their willingness to pay for tests and improvements was well within the current costs of these actions. It remains a mystery why testing is at such a low level. Three other results are of note. First, subsidies for radon tests and home improvements may be having the unintended consequences of unneeded improvements and (potentially) moves without improvements. Second, individuals want radon testing required and results made known during home purchase decisions. Third, at present, weatherization programs that concentrate radon are acceptable to individuals. Of course, the future may hold different results. Administrators of weatherization programs, who are trusted by respondents according to this survey, would do well to institute weatherization programs with reduced radon concentrations in mind

  4. Radon studies in selected workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Radon progeny levels were measured in coal mines, a hard rock mine and two underground hydro power stations, to indicate if there is a health problem associated with exposure to radon and radon progeny in these workplaces. The average alpha concentrations ranged from 37 to 276 Bq m -3 , with the highest levels being found in a mine with no ventillation that was being decommissioned. Average dosages were calculated to be 0.1 - 0.7 mSv y -1 . Radon progeny levels in coal mines measured in the return air circuit are indicative of levels to which a worker at the face would be exposed. They were well below international guidelines for intervention in New Zealand mines, as were the slightly higher levels in two underground hydro power stations. These results confirm that radon levels in New Zealand are low. Even in the extreme situation represented by the Sullivan mine with no ventillation the levels do not warrant concern. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Radon gas measurement in Corum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzbey, S.; Celebi, N.

    2009-01-01

    The existence of the natural radioactive sources in earth's crust which has long half-life and the degradation products of these in the environmental medium such as earth, rocks, foods, water, air, forms the basis of radiation which people are exposed to. Radon is the unique radioactive gas in the nature and it is made up of radium which is the result of uranium degradation. It is necessary to determine the radon concentration because of the difference in the concentration of uranium existence in different places. TAEK (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority) allows 400 Bq/m 3 of radon concentration at houses, 1000 Bq/m 3 at offices per year. In this attempt, government buildings, houses and offices were determined as the sampling places in Corum city center and towns to represent Corum. While disposing the radon measuring detectors, places which are close to the ground level were preferred. 74 radon detectors were left in those places for 60 days and in the end the detectors were collected while discontinuing the connection of environment and they were assessed. According to the results, the average radon gas concentration in 14 government buildings is 71,71 Bq/m 3 , in 15 offices 32,26 Bq/m 3 and at houses 42,34 Bq/m 3 .

  6. Studies of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air Conditioned Rooms in Hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, F.; Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    A series of continuous real-time radon and radon progeny measurements together with passive etched track detector measurements were performed in hospital premises during 1996. In one small room, detailed measurements over several weeks showed that both the radon concentration and the Equilibrium Factor depended on the intermittent operation of a filtered positive pressure displacement air-conditioning system, which was designed to conform to operating theatre standards. The average radon level measured while the air-conditioning was off was almost four times higher than that recorded whilst it was on. The progeny level was over five times higher than that whilst it was on. Thus, the Equilibrium Factor (F), was significantly lower when the air-conditioning was on. Measurements in similar rooms in two hospitals, confirmed that the reduction in radon level was a general finding. Thus staff working in such environments receive significantly lower radiation dose from radon than staff working in nearby normally ventilated rooms. (author)

  7. Mapping of groundwater radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aekerblom, G.; Lindgren, J.

    1997-01-01

    The domestic use of water with elevated radon concentration may represent a public health hazard, partly due to the release of radon to the indoor air. While only a limited number of countries have implemented regulations with respect to radon in water, many more are considering doing so. The compulsory limits proposed by Swedish authorities are 100 Bq/1 for public water, while water from private wells is not to exceed 1000 Bq/1. Furthermore, it is recommended that water with a radon content above 500 Bq/1 should not be given to children under five years of age. In Sweden, the estimated number of wells with radon levels above 1000 Bq/1 exceeds 10,000, with a considerable amount in excess of 10,000 Bq/1. The highest radon concentration in a well supplying drinking water encountered so far is 57,000 Bq/1. Radon levels exceeding 500 Bq/1 are almost exclusively found in wells drilled into bedrock and in springs with intramontaneous water. Elevated ground water radon levels require that the water has passed through bedrock with elevated concentration of uranium, or through fractures with coatings of minerals containing enhanced concentrations of radium-226. Intramontaneous water from areas with uranium-bearing rock types (e.g. uranium-rich granites, pegmatites and vulcanites) often manifests elevated radon levels. Routines for the establishment of risk maps focusing on water are currently under development. The backbone of the process is the access to high spatial resolution radiometric information together with bedrock and soil information on a detailed scale (1:50,000). This information is available from the Geological Survey of Sweden, which is routinely carrying out airborne measurements at an altitude of 30 m and a line spacing of 200 m. While some 60% of Sweden is covered up to now, 75 % is expected to be covered within the next ten years. Other available databases utilized in the risk mapping process include radon measurements in wells, geochemical data from

  8. Radon Survey in Hospitals in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Slovenia, several radon studies at workplaces have been carried out in last years, supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, and the Ministry of Health. After radon surveys in kindergartens, schools and homes, within which about 2600 buildings were checked for radon and which provided the level of radon problem in the country, next investigations were focused on the workplaces with potentially higher radon risk. Hence, in the Postojna Cave permanent radon monitoring was introduced in 1995 and comprehensive radon studies were performed: in 5 bigger spas during 1996-1998, in major waterworks and wine cellars in 2001, and in major Slovene hospitals in 2002. This paper reports the results of radon study in 26 major Slovene hospitals, comprising radon concentrations in 201 rooms and dose estimates for 1025 persons working in these rooms. Radon survey in 201 rooms of 26 major hospitals in Slovenia revealed only 7 rooms in which monthly average radon concentration in the indoor air exceeded 400 Bqm -3 . Generally, concentrations in basement were on average for about 30% higher than in ground floor, although exceptionally high values have also been found in the ground floor. For 966 persons (94.2%) of the total of 1025 persons working in the rooms surveyed, the annual effective dose, estimated according to the Basic Safety Standards was below 1 mSv, while for 59 it exceeded 1 mSv. In 7 rooms with more than 400 Bqm -3 in which 16 persons receive between 2.1 and 7.3 mSv per year radon monitoring is continued. (author)

  9. Baseline studies of radon/thoron concentration levels in and around the Lambapur and Peddagattu areas in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Sreenath Reddy, M.; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2003-01-01

    Studies conducted by Atomic Minerals Directorate of Exploration and Research (AMD) of Hyderabad, India had established the presence of higher concentrations of uranium in Lambapur and Peddagattu areas of Nalgonda district, AP, India and it was estimated that it could be a viable source for commercial extraction. The envisaged extraction process involves dispersion of radioactive particulate matter into atmosphere. Environmental radioactive studies in and around proposed mining areas at this point of time will be extremely useful for establishing base line data before a large scale uranium extraction process comes into existence. To this end, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were installed to evaluate indoor radon and thoron concentration levels in the dwellings of the area. The geometric means of radon and thoron concentration levels were found to be (7.1±0.2)x10 1 and (6.7±0.3)x10 1 Bq/m 3 , respectively. Simultaneously, natural background radiation measurements were also made and these levels are found to vary from 770 to 3995 μGy/y in the spatial distribution

  10. Radon in the Environment: Friend or Foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Radon 222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is part of the Uranium decay series. Its Presence in the environment is associated mainly with trace amounts of uranium and its immediate parent, radium 226 , in rocks, soil and groundwater. About one-half of the effective doses from natural sources is estimated to be delivered by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny. Owing to this fact, radon is the most popular subject of studies on environmental radioactivity. The presence of high level of radon in indoor environment constitutes a major health hazard for man. The radon progeny is well established as causative agents of lung cancer and other types of caners. Radon unique properties as a naturally radioactive gas have led to its use as a geophysical tracer for locating buried faults and geological structures, in exploring for uranium, and for predicting earthquakes. Radon has been used as a tracer in the study of atmospheric transport process. There have been several other applications of radon in meteorology, water research and medicine. This paper summarizes the health effects and the potential benefits of radon and its progeny.

  11. Behaviors of radon in indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Sadamu; Shimo, Michikuni.

    1987-01-01

    The source of radon ( 222 Rn) in the atmosphere is radioactive nuclide, uranium ( 238 U), which exists fairly common throughout the earth's crust. Radium ( 226 Ra) descended from uranium produce radon ( 222 Rn) of noble gas by decay. After formation in the ground, radon diffuses into the atmosphere. Without exception radon decay products are heavy metals which soon become attached to natural aerosols. Therefore, radon and its daughters (decay products) appear also in indoor environment, and generally, their concentration levels become higher than that of outdoor air due to build-up effects in the closed indoor environments. With the progress of the study on the influence of radon and its daughers on human health, it has become clear that they act effectively as an exciting cause of lung cancer. So, the study on the risk evaluation of them in room air has become to be very important. Concequently, the behaviors of radon and its daughters in indoor environment, first of all, should be studied in detail for the accurate estimation of the risk caused by them. In this special edition, fundamental characteristics of radon and its daughters, some measuring methods, theoretical considerations and some observational evidences obtained from various circumstances of indoor environment are described inorder to grasp and understand the behaviors of radon and its daughters in the indoor environment. (author)

  12. Radon and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Radon is radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water, outdoor and indoor air. Since environmental radon on average accounts for about half of all human exposure to radiation from natural sources, increasing attention has been paid to exposure to radon and its associated health risks. Many countries have introduced regulations to protect their population from radon in dwellings and workplaces. In this article are discussed main characteristics of radon, including sources of exposure, variation in radon exposure, how managing risks from radon exposure, how to measure the concentration of radon. There are results of measurements conducted under the 'National radon programme' in Bulgaria also. Key words: radon, sources of exposure, risk, cancer, measure to decrease the concentration [bg

  13. Radon exhalation rates of some granites used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mladen D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address concern about radon exhalation in building material, radon exhalation rate was determined for different granites available on Serbian market. Radon exhalation rate, along with mass exhalation rate and effective radium content were determined by closed chamber method and active continuous radon measurement technique. For this research, special chambers were made and tested for back diffusion and leakage, and the radon concentrations measured were included in the calculation of radon exhalation. The radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.161 Bq/m2h to 0.576 Bq/m2h, the mass exhalation rate from 0.167 Bq/kgh to 0.678 Bq/kgh, while the effective radium content was found to be from 12.37 Bq/kg to 50.23 Bq/kg. The results indicate that the granites used in Serbia have a low level of radon exhalation.

  14. How to Ensure Low Radon Concentrations in Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on methods for measuring radon levels in the indoor air in buildings as well as on concrete solutions that can be carried out in the building to prevent radon leakage and to lower the radon concentration in the indoor air of new buildings. The radon provision in the new Danish...... Building Regulations from 2010 has been tightened as a result of new recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for its harmfulness. It is therefore important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible in new...... buildings. The airtightness is a major factor when dealing with radon in buildings. Above the ground it is important to build airtight in compliance with energy requirements and against the ground it is important to prevent radon from seeping into the building. There is a direct connection between...

  15. Study of radon transport through concrete modified with silica fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.; Kumar, Amit

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of radon in soil usually varies between a few kBq/m 3 and tens or hundreds of kBq/m 3 depending upon the geographical region. This causes the transport of radon from the soil to indoor environments by diffusion and advection through the pore space of concrete. To reduce indoor radon levels, the use of concrete with low porosity and a low radon diffusion coefficient is recommended. A method of reducing the radon diffusion coefficient through concrete and hence the indoor radon concentration by using silica fume to replace an optimum level of cement was studied. The diffusion coefficient of the concrete was reduced from (1.63 ± 0.3) × 10 −7 to (0.65 ± 0.01) × 10 −8 m 2 /s using 30% substitution of cement with silica fume. The compressive strength of the concrete increased as the silica-fume content increased, while radon exhalation rate and porosity of the concrete decreased. This study suggests a cost-effective method of reducing indoor radon levels. -- Highlights: • Radon diffusion study through silica fume modified concrete was carried out. • Radon diffusion coefficient of concrete decreased with increase of silica fume contents. • Compressive strength increased with increase of silica fume. • Radon exhalation rates and porosity of samples decreased with addition of silica fume. • Radon diffusion coefficient decreased to 2.6% by 30% silica fume substitution

  16. Radon in schools. Report for May 1988-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., HVAC system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system design. It also discusses mitigation systems installed by the U.S. EPA in four schools. The primary source of radon entry into a school with significantly elevated radon levels is normally soil gas that is drawn in by pressure differentials between the soil surrounding the substructure and the building interior. If the building interior is at a lower pressure than the soil surrounding the substructure and radon is present in the soil, the radon can be pulled in through cracks and other openings that are in contact with the soil. The amount of radon in a given classroom depends on the level of radon in the underlying material, the ease with which the radon moves as a component of the soil gas through the soil, the magnitude and direction of the pressure differentials, the number and size of the radon entry routes, and dilution and mixing of the room air. HVAC systems in schools vary considerably and tend to have greater impact on pressure differentials--and consequently radon levels--than do heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems in houses

  17. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler, R.; Rolle, R.; Foisner, W.

    1998-01-01

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  18. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  19. How much radon is too much?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the concerns over human exposure to radon have become more pressing. This paper will attempt to explain the phenomenon of radon gas in the home, how it can be detected and measured and what are the maximum permissible exposure levels. The talk is aimed primarily at teachers who wish to introduce this material into their classroom discussions

  20. The GM foods debate in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The debate on genetically modified (GM) foods has been led on multiple levels in Europe, including such diverse frames of reference as economic policy and international trade, environmental risk, bioethics, consumer protection and food safety. The shifting frames of reference are traced over...

  1. Daily and seasonal variation of short-lived radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air at Munich-Neuherberg - a long-term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.

    2001-09-01

    Daily and seasonal variation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC Rn-222 ) and of the concentration of the short-lived radon decay product 214 Pb in ground-level air was investigated at Munich-Neuherberg from 1982 to 2000, and from 1989 to 2000, respectively. For this, the EEC was measured continuously with an alpha/beta aerosol monitor at 2.5 m above ground, and 214 Pb was determined by online gamma spectrometry at about 12 m above ground. The resulting time series were analysed statistically. For the respective periods, the measurements yielded a long-term average concentration of 7.8 Bq m -3 (geometric mean: 6.1 Bq m -3 ) for the EEC, and 6.0 Bq m -3 (geom. mean: 5.0 Bq m -3 ) for 214 Pb. In these periods, daily averages ranged from 0.6 to 49 Bq m -3 (EEC), and from 0.6 to 43 Bq m -3 ( 214 Pb). Monthly mean concentrations varied between 3.0 Bq m -3 in March 1988 and 20 Bq m -3 in October 1985 (EEC), and from 3.4 Bq m -3 in April 1992 to 11 Bq m -3 in October 1995 ( 214 Pb), respectively. The annual average concentrations were from 5.9 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 10.6 Bq m -3 in 1985 (EEC), and from 5.3 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 6.8 Bq m -3 in 1991 ( 214 Pb). From the long-term average equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC), an average annual effective dose of 0.13 mSv due to the short-lived radon progeny outdoors was estimated. The time series showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. The variations from day to day are mainly caused by the actual weather conditions (wind, rain, etc.), i.e. the short-term turbulent conditions. The seasonal pattern is characterised by an autumn to winter maximum and an early summer minimum, and reflects the prevailing turbulent conditions at the respective seasons. As known, at Munich-Neuherberg during autumn and winter months (October/November to February) inversion weather conditions frequently occur, while the other months are characterised by more turbulent conditions. (orig.)

  2. Radon in an underground cave system in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedt, J.C.; Boal, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radon levels in a cave system in Victoria have been measured. The variation of radon and radon progeny levels with time, position throughout the cave and season have been determined. The radiation exposure of tour guides were estimated. The data is being used to develop a radiation management plan for the tour guides. Radon concentration within a cave system was proven to be dependent to a large extent upon the rate of air exchange with outside. Cave ventilation is the single most important factor in determining if there is diurnal variation in the radon concentration

  3. Radon programme: presence and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation an overview of radon programme experiences is presented. The paper summarises national radon policy, national programmes, legislation, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, practical protection in dwellings, radon measurements strategies, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, natural radioactivity of building materials and radioactivity in public water and their role in the radon programme, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions of radon issues in future

  4. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S.

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations

  5. Indoor radon epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, E; Tomasek, L; Mueller, T [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Expertises and Emergencies, Pribram-Kamenna (Czech Republic); Matzner, J; Heribanova, A [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The study is a long-term prospective cohort study of lung cancer and possibility other causes of death. The study population includes inhabitants of the area, who had resided there for at three years and at least one of these between 1.1.1960 and 21.12.1989. A total of 11865 inhabitants satisfied these criteria. The cumulative exposure of each respondent is being assessed on the basis of measurements in dwellings, time spent there and estimation of previous exposure levels by a model accounting for constructional changes in buildings. One year lasting measurements of radon daughter products by integral dosimeters (Kodak film LR 115) were performed in practically all dwellings of the specified area. Radon measurements in houses in term of equilibrium concentration are compared with the results of a pilot study in Petrovice in 1990-91 which gave the stimulus for the epidemiological study. The distribution of death causes and ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases among collected death cases in the cohort, generally, somewhat lower ratios than one reflect the non-industrial character of the region, with the exception of lung cancer in man. The differences in the O/E ratios for lung cancer among the separate communities indicate that even in the situation of generally lower mortality, the dependence of lung cancer mortality on radon.

  6. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano; Mediciones de radon y elementos quimicos: Volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. [UMR 5569 CNRS Hydrosciences, Montpellier (France)

    2002-07-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  7. Unattached radon daughter atoms and radon daughter equilibrium ratios in uranium mines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holaday, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    Uranium mines in Colorado and New Mexico were surveyed for airborne concentrations of radon (10043922) and radon daughters. A procedure for measuring individual daughters and the fraction of each existing as free atoms was developed and used for field monitoring. Samples were taken in working areas and particle counts were made. The data was analyzed to determine the ratio of radon to radon daughters as well as the ratios among the radon daughters. The author concludes that since the radon to working level ratios have not changed much in 20 years, using the ratio as the basis for estimating relative biological hazard is just as uncertain now as then. The large number of daughters present as free atoms indicate that the lung radiation doses calculated using any of the lung models need reexamination

  8. Isoflavone Malonyltransferases GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 Differently Modify Isoflavone Glucosides in Soybean (Glycine max under Various Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Malonylated isoflavones are the major forms of isoflavonoids in soybean plants, the genes responsible for their biosyntheses are not well understood, nor their physiological functions. Here we report a new benzylalcohol O-acetyltransferase, anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase, deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase (BAHD family isoflavone glucoside malonyltransferase GmIMaT1, and GmIMaT3, which is allelic to the previously characterized GmMT7 and GmIF7MaT. Biochemical studies showed that recombinant GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 enzymes used malonyl-CoA and several isoflavone 7-O-glucosides as substrates. The Km values of GmIMaT1 for glycitin, genistin, and daidzin were 13.11, 23.04, and 36.28 μM, respectively, while these of GmIMaT3 were 12.94, 26.67, and 30.12 μM, respectively. Transgenic hairy roots overexpressing both GmIMaTs had increased levels of malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin, and contents of daidzin and glycitin increased only in GmIMaT1-overexpression lines. The increased daidzein and genistein contents were detected only in GmIMaT3-overexpression lines. Knockdown of GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 reduced malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin contents, and affected other isoflavonoids differently. GmIMaT1 is primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum while GmIMaT3 is primarily in the cytosol. By examining their transcript changes corresponding to the altered isoflavone metabolic profiles under various environmental and hormonal stresses, we probed the possible functions of GmIMaTs. Two GmIMaTs displayed distinct tissue expression patterns and respond differently to various factors in modifying isoflavone 7-O-glucosides under various stresses.

  9. Radon anomalies along faults in North of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tamimi, M.H.; Abumurad, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Radon emanation was sampled in five locations in a limestone quarry area using SSNTDs CR-39. Radon levels in the soil air at four different well-known traceable fault planes were measured along a traverse line perpendicular to each of these faults. Radon levels at the fault were higher by a factor of 3-10 than away from the faults. However, some sites have broader shoulders than the others. The method was applied along a fifth inferred fault zone. The results show anomalous radon level in the sampled station near the fault zone, which gave a radon value higher by three times than background. This study draws its importance from the fact that in Jordan many cities and villages have been established over an intensive faulted land. Also, our study has considerable implications for the future radon mapping. Moreover, radon gas is proved to be a good tool for fault zones detection

  10. Developmental toxicology of radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Cross, F.T.; Mast, T.J.; Palmer, H.E.; James, A.C.; Thrall, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns about hazards associated with radon exposure in dwellings may be especially relevant to pregnant women, many of whom spend substantial amounts of time in their homes. There are few data concerning the placental transfer and fetoplacental distribution of inhaled radon and decay products or their effects on the conceptus. We performed a study in rats to determine if prenatal effects could be produced by prolonged inhalation exposures to high concentrations of radon throughout gestation. A group of 43 pregnant rats was exposed 18 h d -1 , at a rate of 124 working level months (WLM) per day, from 6 to 19 days of gestation (dg), of radon and daughters adsorbed onto ore dust. A group of 26 pregnant rats from the same shipment was exposed to a filtered-air atmosphere as controls. At 20 dg, the rats were removed from the chambers, killed, and necropsied. The fetuses were evaluated for the presence of toxic effects, which included detailed teratology protocols. These exposures did not produce detectable reproductive toxicity nor teratogenic change. Two other rats were removed from the radon chambers during the last day of exposure, and their tissues were analyzed to determine the distribution of radioactivity and for dosimetry. Samples from these rats suggested that the dose rates to the placenta were roughly threefold those to the fetus but were similar to those to the liver and femur of the pregnant rats. These data indicate that the dose to the conceptus from the decay of placentally transferred radon and its progeny is more important than the contribution of translocated decay products. Translocated radon decay products are an important source of radiation doses to placental structures, however, and may have most of the radioactivity content at birth

  11. Radon and radon-daughter concentrations in air in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M H; Lindstrom, J B; Dungey, C E; Kisieleski, W E

    1979-11-01

    Radon concentration, working level, and meteorological variables were measured continuously from June 1977 through June 1978 at three stations in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill with measurements integrated to hourly intervals. Both radon and daughters show strong variations associated with low wind velocities and stable atmospheric conditions, and diurnal variations associated with thermal inversions. Average radon concentration shows seasonal dependence with highest concentrations observed during fall and winter. Comparison of radon concentrations and working levels between three stations shows strong dependence on wind direction and velocity. Radon concentrations and working-level distributions for each month and each station were analyzed. The average maximum, minimum, and modal concentration and working levels were estimated with observed frequencies. The highest concentration is 11,000 pCi/m/sup 3/ on the tailings. Working-level variations parallel radon variations but lag by less than one hour. The highest working levels were observed at night when conditions of higher secular radioactive equilibrium for radon daughters exist. Background radon concentration was measured at two stations, each located about 25 km from the mill, and the average is 408 pCi/m/sup 3/. Average working-level background is 3.6 x 10/sup -3/.

  12. Radon and radon-daughter concentrations in air in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.; Lindstrom, J.B.; Dungey, C.E.; Kisieleski, W.E.

    1979-11-01

    Radon concentration, working level, and meteorological variables were measured continuously from June 1977 through June 1978 at three stations in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill with measurements integrated to hourly intervals. Both radon and daughters show strong variations associated with low wind velocities and stable atmospheric conditions, and diurnal variations associated with thermal inversions. Average radon concentration shows seasonal dependence with highest concentrations observed during fall and winter. Comparison of radon concentrations and working levels between three stations shows strong dependence on wind direction and velocity. Radon concentrations and working-level distributions for each month and each station were analyzed. The average maximum, minimum, and modal concentration and working levels were estimated with observed frequencies. The highest concentration is 11,000 pCi/m 3 on the tailings. Working-level variations parallel radon variations but lag by less than one hour. The highest working levels were observed at night when conditions of higher secular radioactive equilibrium for radon daughters exist. Background radon concentration was measured at two stations, each located about 25 km from the mill, and the average is 408 pCi/m 3 . Average working-level background is 3.6 x 10 -3

  13. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    , tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel...... concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However, in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved....

  14. Continuous measurements of soil radon under regular field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, LL

    1999-01-01

    Continuous soil radon measurements were performed in the frame of an European Community-radon network using the Clipperton II detector. It has been found that in some periods, soil radon levels obtained with one Clipperton II probe are very different from those obtained with another probe placed at the same depth but a short distance apart. It has been also found that the response of the probes to a sudden change of radon concentration is controlled by the diffusion process along the bottom tube of the probe. Therefore, this study shows that the experimental data can be attributed to the natural behaviour of soil radon

  15. Assessing the risks from exposure to radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.J.; Lowder, W.M.

    1983-07-01

    The factors used to assess the radiation dose and health risks from human exposure to radon in dwellings are critically reviewed in this summary. Sources of indoor radon and determinants of air concentrations and exposure levels are given as well as the uncertainties that exist in their formulation. Methods of assessing health effects from inhalation of radon and its progeny are discussed with emphasis on dosimetry of radon daughters and formulation of risk per dose values. Finally, methods of assessing risks for general population exposures to indoor radon concentrations are treated

  16. Review of existing instrumentation and evaluation of possibilities for research and development of instrumentation to determine future levels of radon at a proposed building site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The rate at which radon enters houses from the soil depends on the pressure differential between the house and the soil, the resistance of the soil to gas movement, and the radon release rate of the soil near the house. The pressure differential between house and soil is caused by wind forces and temperature differences, which depend on the size of the building and the season, and are therefore almost independent of the site location. The soil resistance (permeability) and radon release rate are site specific, and a computer study of radon movement through the soil suggested that these parameters could be combined to give a Radon Index Number (RIN) for a site that would be proportional to the radon entry rate into a typical house. Regional RIN estimates would be produced using existing airborne gamma survey maps to estimate average soil radon release rate, plus agricultural soil classification maps to estimate permeability. Area RIN estimates would be produced using portable gamma spectroscopy equipment to estimate soil radon release rates over an area, plus simple soil grain size analysis techniques to estimate permeability. Site RIN estimates would be produced using laboratory techniques to measure both the radon release rate and the permeability of several undisturbed soil core samples taken at depths over the site. These would provide the most accurate value of RIN possible for a given site

  17. Ten practical lessons for an effective radon risk communication program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. Several recent studies have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon's risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. Unfortunately, the results of these studies have not reached practitioners. This paper is for them. It summarizes the practical implications that are most crucial for planning and implementing an effective radon risk communication program--a program that will motivate people to test for radon and mitigate when radon levels are high, without unduly alarming those whose radon levels are low

  18. Indoor radon measurements and methodologies in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.; Lopez, F.O.; Arnaud, M.I.; Oliveira, A.A.; Neman, R.S.; Hadler, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Paulo, S.R.; Osorio, A.M.; Aparecido, R.; Rodriguez, C.; Moreno, V.; Vasquez, R.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Martinez, T.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, I.; Segovia, N.; Pena, P.; Tamez, E.; Pereyra, P.; Lopez-Herrera, M.E.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2001-01-01

    According to the current international guidelines concerning environmental problems, it is necessary to evaluate and to know the indoor radon levels, specially since most of the natural radiation dose to man comes from radon gas and its progeny. Several countries have established National Institutions and National Programs for the study of radon and its connection with lung cancer risk and public health. The aim of this work is to present the indoor radon measurements and the detection methods used for different regions of Latin America (LA) in countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. This study shows that the passive radon devices based on alpha particle nuclear track methodology (NTM) is one of the more generalized methods in LA for long term indoor radon measurements, CR-39, LR-115 and Makrofol being the more commonly used detector materials. The participating institutions and the radon level measurements in the different countries are presented in this contribution

  19. Radon risk perception and testing: Sociodemographic correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.T.; Warner, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    While numerous health education campaigns have been carried out to alert the public to radon's potential dangers and to encourage testing and mitigation, there has been little follow-up to determine which segments of the public are now most aware of the possible hazards of radon. Using information from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the authors have examined beliefs regarding radon and radon-testing activities among different sociodemographic groups. They used logistic regression to determine the relationship between these beliefs and actions and age, gender, education, income, minority status, and smoking status. The results suggest relatively superficial knowledge regarding radon, and very little testing, within the survey population. In particular, significantly less knowledge was observed among female and minority respondents, while less testing behavior was seen among older respondents. Lower educational levels and lower family income were associated with both decreased knowledge and testing. Recommendations for future education campaigns are discussed

  20. Indoor radon risk potential of Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of radon risk potential in the State of Hawaii indicates that the potential for Hawaii is low. Using a combination of factors including geology, soils, source-rock type, soil-gas radon concentrations, and indoor measurements throughout the state, a general model was developed that permits prediction for various regions in Hawaii. For the nearly 3,100 counties in the coterminous U.S., National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data was the primary input factor. However, NURE aerorad data was not collected in Hawaii, therefore, this study used geology and soil type as the primary and secondary components of potential prediction. Although the radon potential of some Hawaiian soils suggests moderate risk, most houses are built above ground level and the radon soil potential is effectively decoupled from the house. Only underground facilities or those with closed or recirculating ventilation systems might have elevated radon potential. (author)

  1. Development of a portable radon detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.W.

    1976-09-01

    The presence of radon-222 in soil gas and ground water can indicate the existence of nearby uranium deposits even when heavy overburdens completely absorb the associated gamma radiation. Techniques to detect and measure radon have evolved during the past several years to the point where radon prospecting is routinely employed in a number of countries. A program to develop and field test a prototype system for measuring radon from soil gas and water is described. A prototype system employing a flow through scintillation detector was designed and constructed, utilizing standard commercial components, to provide a fieldworthy unit for testing the system concepts. Laboratory and preliminary field tests of this unit indicate that it can detect anomalous radon levels of less than 10 picoCuries per liter (pCi/l) in soil gas and ground water

  2. Radon in houses and soil of Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Miklavcic, I.; Planinic, J. [Osijek Univ., Dept. of Physics (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements in thousand Croatian homes, randomly selected, were performed by the LR-115 track etch detectors during a year 2003/2004. The obtained values of arithmetic means of radon concentrations in 20 Croatian counties were in range from 33 to 198 Bq/m{sup 3}, while the arithmetic and geometric means for Croatia were 68 and 50 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively. Indoor radon concentrations follow log-normal distribution and the percentage of dwellings with concentrations above 400 Bq/m{sup 3} was 1.8 %. Radon concentrations in soil gas, at depth of 0.8 m, were measured by 'Alphaguard' measuring system. Association between levels of indoor and soil radon was investigated. (authors)

  3. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  4. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  5. A radon progeny deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steven R.; Hime, Andrew; Guiseppe, Vincent E.; Westerdale, S.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  6. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  7. Radon sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeham, C.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    A radon sump which can be installed easily by unskilled labour and which is cheap to produce comprises a unit in the form of a box-like housing having one or more walls, a floor and a roof, and is preferably made from a synthetic plastics material, optionally reinforced with glass fibre or other reinforcing material, the housing having a plurality of inlets in its wall or walls and at least one outlet leading to a pipe spigot which is made in one piece with the housing. Alternatively, the housing is made in concrete, in 3 pieces (floor, wall, roof) with a knock-out portion which can be removed for insertion of an outlet pipe. (Author)

  8. Comparing summer and winter indoor radon and radon daughters activity in Campinas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, O.S.; Hadler, N.J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Neman, R.S.; Souza, W.F.; Tello, S.C.A.; Paulo, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a technique - based on alpha particle track detection using CR-39 - where the activity originated from indoor radon can be potentially separated into three fraction: (i) radon in the air, (ii) radon daughters (RD), 218 Po and 214 Po, in the air and (iii) RD plated-out on the detector surface during exposure. In this work only a partial separation was carried out, then our results are limited to radon plus RD in the air and RD attached to detector surface. These activities can be separated if size and gray level of the round tracks are measured using an automatic optical microscopy system.Our group carried out an indoor radon and radon daughters (RD) survey in Campinas made up by a summer (November, 96 to May, 97) and a winter (May, 97 to November, 97) exposure, where the detectors were placed in the same rooms of the same dwellings (approximately 100) in both cases. Comparing winter and summer alpha activity for the detectors analyzed up to now, approximately 45 dwellings, we observed that: i) it seems that the source of radon is the material (brick and concrete mainly) making up walls, floor and ceiling of the dwellings, ii) there is no clear relationship between intensity of aeration and the activities measured in this work, and iii) the average ratio between winter and summer activity in the air (radon plus RD) is approximately equal to similar ratios observed in other countries, but for radon only. (author)

  9. Comparative study of radon in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Shaza Ismail Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted primarily to contribute radon data for radon map in Sudan and identify regions with elevated radon levels and improve data collection and analysis for the future radon levels evaluation. This study partially covered three states of Sudan ( Red Sea - Khartoum - South Khordofan). Previous work done has been considered in this study which focused and investigated the levels of radon concentration in ( indoor radon gas and water) by using gamma spectrometry equipped with ( HPGe detector) or (Na1 (T1) detector). The results obtained are within the acceptable levels and dose not poses any risk from radiation protection point of view. Red Sea state ( port-sudan): (124.39±6.21) Bq/m 3 . Khartoum state ( Suba): (151.52) Bq/m 3 . (Omdurman): ( 127±23) Bq/m 3 . Radon in water: (59) Bq/L. South Kordofan State: (102.8) Bq/m 3 . In water (Kadugli): (3 1 39)) Bq/L.(Author)

  10. Secular variations of radon in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Slawson, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sampling of radon within the soil from three sites in metropolitan Vancouver is reported. Alpha trace bi-weekly measurements during a period of 4 years show secular variations with a period of 8-15 months. There are low-radon and high-radon episodes enduring several months to a year. Average radon level during the high-radon episodes reaches 5-10 times that of the low-radon periods. During high-radon episodes the high-frequency variations show very high amplitudes. After filtering of the high-frequency fluctuations, the data from different sites demonstrate remarkably similar trends. It is suggested that along with hydrogeological events, stress relaxation in rocks, earthquake, and magma emplacement may contribute to the sources of secular variations of radon. Because of long-term variations, radon level in urban areas should be monitored on a continuous basis. Single measurements, even those integrating radiation over a period of few months, may sample a low-radon episode, and provide a false assurance, or occur during a high-radon episode and give a false alarm

  11. Radon in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2000-01-01

    Several projects in Austria deal with the problem of enhanced radon exposure to the public. The Austrian Radon Project is the largest project within this task, with the aim of investigating the radon concentrations in Austrian homes. Another project concerns mitigation methods. According to the EU directive EURATOM 96/29 it is also necessary to check working places for possibly enhanced radon concentrations. These projects are and will be funded by the government. The federal government of Upper Austria sponsored a project to test the indoor air quality in kindergartens including radon measurements. Within an EU research project, the radon concentrations in Austrian springs and groundwater were systematically listed and analyzed. Additional investigations will focus on methods to improve the radon potential maps from the Austrian Radon Project by including geological and other information. (author)

  12. Radon: A health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, J.; Gaston, S.

    1990-01-01

    Nurses can and should function as effective teachers about the potential hazards to health of radon contamination in the home as well as become activists in the development of health care policy on radon

  13. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  14. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of the carcinogenic risk of low-dose, high-LET radiation in the case of exposure to radon daughters and lung-cancer is subject to numerous uncertainties. The greatest of these concerns the parametric values of the dose-response curve. We lack knowledge and an understanding of the dosimetry and the distribution of aggregates of radioactivity that remain localized as hot spots in specific regions of the lungs and the influence on greater or lesser risk of lung cancer per average lung dose than uniformly deposited radiation (NRC76). We have only a limited understanding of the response to exposure to high-LET radiations, such as alpha particles, for which linear risk estimates for low doses are less likely to overestimate the risk, and may, in fact, underestimate the risk (BEIR80). Other uncertainties include the length of the latency period, the RBE for alpha radiation relative to gamma radiation, the period during which the radiation risk is expressed, the risk projection model used - whether absolute or relative - for projecting risk beyond the period of observation, the effect of dose rate and protraction of dose, and the influence of differences in the natural incidence of lung cancer in different populations. In addition, uncertainties are introduced by the biological and life-style risk characteristics of humans, for example, the effect of sex, the effect of age at the time of irradiation and at the time of appearance of the cancer, the influence of length of observation or follow-up of the study populations, and the influence of perhaps the most important confounding bias, cigarette-smoking. The collective influence of these uncertainties is such as to deny great credibility to any estimate of human lung cancer risk and other cancer risk that can be made for low-dose, high-LET radon daughter radiation exposure

  15. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of the carcinogenic risk of low-dose, high-LET radiation in the case of exposure to radon daughters and lung-cancer is subject to numerous uncertainties. The greatest of these concerns the parametric values of the dose-response curve. We lack knowledge and an understanding of the dosimetry and the distribution of aggregates of radioactivity that remain localized as hot spots in specific regions of the lungs and the influence on greater or lesser risk of lung cancer per average lung dose than uniformly deposited radiation (NRC76). We have only a limited understanding of the response to exposure to high-LET radiations, such as alpha particles, for which linear risk estimates for low doses are less likely to overestimate the risk, and may, in fact, underestimate the risk (BEIR80). Other uncertainties include the length of the latency period, the RBE for alpha radiation relative to gamma radiation, the period during which the radiation risk is expressed, the risk projection model used - whether absolute or relative - for projecting risk beyond the period of observation, the effect of dose rate and protraction of dose, and the influence of differences in the natural incidence of lung cancer in different populations. In addition, uncertainties are introduced by the biological and life-style risk characteristics of humans, for example, the effect of sex, the effect of age at the time of irradiation and at the time of appearance of the cancer, the influence of length of observation or follow-up of the study populations, and the influence of perhaps the most important confounding bias, cigarette-smoking. The collective influence of these uncertainties is such as to deny great credibility to any estimate of human lung cancer risk and other cancer risk that can be made for low-dose, high-LET radon daughter radiation exposure.

  16. Radon and buildings: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    An effective way of reducing the level of radon in dwellings is to extract air from beneath the ground floor. This is usually achieved by mechanical ventilation or by use of a radon sump. However, in some circumstances, these remedial measures may lower the air pressure inside the dwelling. In a small number of cases, this causes combustion gases from open-flued combustion appliances, such as open fires, to spill into the living spaces. Spillage of this type is potentially hazardous. This leaflet recommends ways to reduce the likelihood of spillage, and suggests solutions if spillage does occur. (author)

  17. On the influence of environmental factors on radon levels in caves of Ribeira valley state parks, SP and evaluation of radioactive equilibrium and equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2011-01-01

    In the present study it was carried out the monitoring of radon in caves distributed among three state parks of Sao Paulo. The radon concentration were determinate in Morro Preto and Santana caves, located at PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Tourist State Park), Diabo cave, situated in PEJ - Parque Estadual de Jacupiranga (Jacupiranga State Park) and Colorida cave located in PEI - Parque Estadual Intervales (Intervales State Park PEI). The monitoring covered measurements between April 2009 and June 2010. Radon concentrations were carried out by using the technique of passive detection with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors and NRPB diffusion chambers. The detectors were exposed in periods ranging from 30 to 150 days. Radon concentrations varied from 132 Bq/m 3 to 9456 Bq/m 3 . The values of radon concentrations were analyzed together with information about rainfall and internal and external temperature values of the Santana cave environment and regional literature values for a possible relationship between radon variations and weather information. Both the determinations of 22 '6Ra in water samples collected in some caves and rivers and radon emanation from a stalactite collected at Santana cave allowed to verify that the radon in the caves comes from the walls rocks. The verification of the radioactive equilibrium between 222 Rn, 218 Po and '2 14 Po in the exposed detectors was prejudiced by the high tracks densities, committing the methodology effectiveness. The annual effective dose was calculated for three values obtained from the literature for the equilibrium factor. Considering the most realistic scenario, with equilibrium factor of 0.5 and 52 working weeks, the annual effective dose was 5.1 mSv/y. Concerning the worst scenario, which simulates an extreme case, adopting an equilibrium factor equal to 1 and 52 weeks of work per year, the annual effective dose is 10.2 mSv/y. Also with information received from a

  18. Assessment of radiation exposure to miners due to radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.

    1979-01-01

    An overview is given of the basic considerations regarding the establishment of lung limits for miners exposed to radon and radon daughters. Problems associated with the practical conduct of radiation protection monitoring are also dealt with, for example, the implications of temporal and local variations in activity levels to the mode of sampling and the interpretation of results. (author)

  19. Radon remediation of a two-storey UK dwelling by active sub-slab depressurization: observations on hourly Radon concentration variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Radon concentration levels in a two-storey detached single-family dwelling in Northamptonshire, UK, were monitored at hourly intervals throughout a 5-week period during which sub-slab depressurization remediation measures, including an active sump system, were installed. Remediation of the property was accomplished successfully, with the mean radon levels upstairs and downstairs greatly reduced and the prominent diurnal variability in radon levels present prior to remediation almost completely removed. Following remediation, upstairs and downstairs radon concentrations were 32% and 16% of their pre-remediation values respectively. The mean downstairs radon concentration was lower than that upstairs, with pre-and post-remediation values of the upstairs/downstairs concentration ratio, R U/D , of 0.93 and 1.76 respectively. Cross-correlation between upstairs and downstairs radon concentration time-series indicates a time-lag of the order of 1 hour or less, suggesting that diffusion of soil-derived radon from downstairs to upstairs either occurs within that time frame or forms a relatively insignificant contribution to the upstairs radon level. Cross-correlation between radon concentration time-series and the corresponding time-series for local atmospheric parameters demonstrated correlation between radon concentrations and internal/external pressure-difference prior to remediation. This correlation disappears following remediation, confirming the effectiveness of the remediation procedure in mitigating radon ingress from the ground via the stack-effect. Overall, these observations provide further evidence that radon emanation from building materials makes a not insignificant contribution to radon concentration levels within the building. Furthermore, since this component remains essentially unaffected by sub-slab depressurization, its proportional contribution to the total radon levels in the home increases following remediation, leading to the conclusion that where

  20. Accurate measurement of indoor radon concentration using a low-effective volume radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Aya; Minami, Nodoka; Mukai, Takahiro; Yasuoka, Yumi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Muto, Jun

    2017-01-01

    AlphaGUARD is a low-effective volume detector and one of the most popular portable radon monitors which is currently available. This study investigated whether AlphaGUARD can accurately measure the variable indoor radon levels. The consistency of the radon-concentration data obtained by AlphaGUARD is evaluated against simultaneous measurements by two other monitors (each ∼10 times more sensitive than AlphaGUARD). When accurately measuring radon concentration with AlphaGUARD, we found that the net counts of the AlphaGUARD were required of at least 500 counts, <25% of the relative percent difference. AlphaGUARD can provide accurate measurements of radon concentration for the world average level (∼50 Bq m -3 ) and the reference level of workplace (1000 Bq m -3 ), using integrated data over at least 3 h and 10 min, respectively. (authors)

  1. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Khan, M.A. [Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: hamidkhan1950@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.S. [Physics Department, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm{sup -3} inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm{sup -3} inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408{+-}98Bqm{sup -3}.

  2. Second report of RADMIL on radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    RADMIL is the radiation and radioactivity monitoring organisation established by the 14 District Councils of Lancashire and the County Council. Annual reports on RADMIL monitoring of the Lancashire environment are produced and this is the second in a series of separate reports on one aspect of monitoring, i.e. 'Radon in homes'. Radon measurements in 283 homes showed an overall mean radon level of 20 Becquerels per cubic metre and few homes above RADMIL's current further investigation level of 75 Becquerels per cubic metre. On the basis of current information, RADMIL does not expect Lancashire to be designated on 'affected area''. (author)

  3. Comparative study of radon exposure in Canadian homes and uranium mines - a discussion on the importance of national radon program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The history of lung cancer in uranium miners is well known for over hundreds of years when the disease was referred to as 'miner's disease' or 'mountain sickness'. Radon levels in uranium mines have decreased significantly over the past 30 years as a result of effective radiation protection measures at workplaces. For the most recent 10-year period, the average radon concentrations to underground and surface workers in Canadian uranium mines were 111 and 11 Bq m -3 , respectively. Based on the recent radon survey carried out in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada and the more recent radon and thoron survey in 33 Canadian cities and 4000 homes, the average radon concentration in Canadian homes is 77 Bq m -3 . This study demonstrates that, nowadays, workers are exposed to radon in underground mines at a comparable radon level to what Canadians are exposed to at home. Since exposure to indoor radon is the main source of natural radiation exposure to the population, it is important for the National Radon Program to further increase radon awareness, and to encourage more Canadians to take appropriate actions to reduce radon exposure. (authors)

  4. Domestic radon in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El May, Michele V.; Omrane, Latifa; Mtimet, Sadok; Hammou, Azza

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine level of natural radioactivity and to eventually identify areas where radon concentrations are elevated, measurements of indoor air radon concentrations were carried out in Tunisian houses since 1999. Passive alpha-track open Kodalpha dosimeters have been placed in one or two rooms by dwellings at 1 m to 1.50 m from soil. The first campaign controlled the capital, Tunis, and lasted 14 months by two months periods. The annual median was 30 Bq m -3 . In the 120 surveyed houses, a seasonal variation has been found with the highest concentrations unregistered in winter. The second campaign was conducted in 1,151 houses situated in all the inhabited areas of Tunisia during two winter months. The median was 36 Bq m -3 with a maximum of 512 Bq m -3 . The majority of results were lower than 100 Bq m -3 . Only 5.5% of results were comprised between 100 and 200 Bq m -3 and 0.7% between 200 and 400 Bq m -3 . The third campaign was performed in an area where inhabitants used to live in underground homes. Sixty modern and sixty underground houses were controlled during one year by three months periods. The results were significantly different with a median at 46.5 Bq m -3 in the modern houses and 305 Bq m -3 in the underground caves with a maximum at 1,563 Bq m -3 . 54% of results were under 100 Bq m -3 , 32% between 100 and 400, 13% between 400 and 1,000 Bq m -3 . Only 1% (two underground houses) were higher than 1,000 Bq m -3 . A careful enquiry showed that most of these underground houses are no more inhabited and are rarely opened. In these dwellings, the highest concentrations were found during summer. Most of the indoor radon concentration levels found in Tunisia were under international recommended levels. (author)

  5. Parenteral administration of GM1 ganglioside to presenile Alzheimer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svennerholm, L; Gottfries, C G; Blennow, K; Fredman, P; Karlsson, I; Maansson, J -E [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Gothenburg University (Sweden); Toffano, G; Wallin, A [Fidia Research Laboratories, Abano Terme (Italy)

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic parameters of GM1 ganglioside were examined in 16 patients (mean age 64 {plus minus} 5 years) with Alzheimer's disease. The ganglioside was given intramuscularly and subcutaneously. The maximum GM1 blood level was reached after 48-72 h, the subcutaneous route leading to the highest blood levels, but the individual variability was relatively large. When 100 mg GM1 ganglioside was given daily for a week, maximum serum values of 15 to 20 {sup m}u{sup m}ol/l were found in 3 patients. The elimination half-life from serum was 60-75 h. (author).

  6. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  7. Creating Geologically Based Radon Potential Maps for Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfield, B.; Hahn, E.; Wiggins, A.; Andrews, W. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Radon potential in the United States, Kentucky in particular, has historically been communicated using a single hazard level for each county; however, physical phenomena are not controlled by administrative boundaries, so single-value county maps do not reflect the significant variations in radon potential in each county. A more accurate approach uses bedrock geology as a predictive tool. A team of nurses, health educators, statisticians, and geologists partnered to create 120 county maps showing spatial variations in radon potential by intersecting residential radon test kit results (N = 60,000) with a statewide 1:24,000-scale bedrock geology coverage to determine statistically valid radon-potential estimates for each geologic unit. Maps using geology as a predictive tool for radon potential are inherently more detailed than single-value county maps. This mapping project revealed that areas in central and south-central Kentucky with the highest radon potential are underlain by shales and karstic limestones.

  8. Moving beyond the GM debate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottoline Leyser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture.

  9. Radon remedial measures in cold climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovljev, A.

    2004-01-01

    A view is taken that mitigation of an indoor radon problem is often more complex than usually assumed, and that additional factors should be considered to avoid situations in which after mitigation the radon problem may be solved, but other problems have been created. Emphasis is put on how the choice and design of radon remedial measures are influenced not only by effectiveness in reducing radon levels indoors, but also by climatic factors, energy-saving aspects, as well as economic and psycho-social factors. Climatic conditions give rise to several concerns when attempting to mitigate a radon problem in areas with large seasonal temperature variations. Problems with humidity, energy consumption and durability of sealing materials are probably the most prominent issues. Commonly used radon remedial measures and their effectiveness in Norway is reviewed. Discussion is focused on principles and technical solutions which produce good results, and those which don't perform so well in cold Norwegian climate. Innovative technical solutions which successfully resolve some of the main conflicting issues are discussed. Results of some preliminary tests showing performance of such solutions in reduction of radon levels are presented. Other aspects of mitigation systems, such as need and cost of maintenance, longevity, noise levels, 'additional benefits', etc., are briefly mentioned. Homeowners' perceptions and willingness to implement various mitigation solutions are briefly reviewed. Based on discussion, several guiding principles which may be adopted in search for optimal solutions are suggested. (author)

  10. Indoor Radon Exposure in Italian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Azara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess radon concentration in schoolrooms in a city located in the midwest of Italy. Methods: A two-phase environmental study was carried out in 19 school buildings of 16 primary, secondary, and tertiary schools. Results: Median (interquartile range—IQR indoor radon concentration in schoolrooms was 91.6 (45.0–140.3 Bq/m3. The highest (median 952.8 Bq/m3 radon concentration was found in one (3.6% classroom, located in a building of a primary school whose median concentration was 185 Bq/m3. Radon concentration was significantly correlated with the number of students and teachers, foundation wall construction material, and with the absence of underground floors. A geopedological survey was performed close to the building with highest radon level, showing the presence of granite and tonalithic granodiorite in the soil. Conclusions: Radon levels should be routinely assessed where individuals live or work. Schools are susceptible targets, because of childhood stay and the long daily stay of occupants. Low-cost interventions, such as implementation of natural air ventilation and school maintenance, can reduce radon levels, limiting individual exposure.

  11. Qualitative and quantative analysis of some physical processes encountered in measurements of low level radon activity by means of proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluszcz, A.; Moscicki, W.

    1980-01-01

    Physical model for absorption of radon and its decay products on the electrodes of the proportional counter filled with Rn-CO 2 mixture is presented. The results of calculations based on developed model are compared with observed changes of counting rate of radon and its decay products. (author)

  12. Study on absolute humidity influence of NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jian; Xiao Detao; Zhao Guizhi; Zhou Qingzhi; Liu Yan; Qiu Shoukang; Meng Yecheng; Xiong Xinming; Liu Xiaosong; Ma Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    The absolute humidity and temperature's effects on the NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon were studied in this paper. By controlling the radon activity concentration of the radon laboratory in University of South China and improving the temperature and humidity adjust strategy, different correction factor values under different absolute humidities were obtained. Moreover, a correction curve between 1.90 and 14.91 g/m"3 was also attained. The results show that in the case of absolute humidity, when it is less than 2.4 g/m"3, collection efficiency of the NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon tends to be constant, and the correction factor of the absolute humidity closes to 1. However, the correction factor increases nonlinearly along with the absolute humidity. (authors)

  13. Measurements of radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Schelin, Hugo R.; Barbosa, Laercio; Sadula, Tatyana; Matsuzaki, Cristiana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: After the decades of systematic and numerous studies performed at different countries of the World, it has been concluded that radon as well as its progeny is the main cause of lung cancer. It is well known that more than 50% of the effective annual radiation dose received by a human being is related to the radon and its progenies. Among the principle mechanisms that bring the radon inside the dwelling is the soil exhalation as well as exhalation and release from the water. Radon concentration in the soil and its transport (emanation, diffusion, advection and adsorption) to the surface depends on different physical, geological and ambient parameters such as the geology of the area, geochemical composition of the soil, its porosity and permeability, grain size, soil humidity, bottom sediments and inputs from streams, temperature, atmospheric pressure, etc. Since the main part of indoor radon originates in the soil, the measurements of radon concentration in soil gas have to be considered as an important tool and indicator of probable high levels of radon inside the dwellings. Present work describes the radon in soil gas measurements performed during the last two years in cooperation between the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) and the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) from the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Following previously concluded measurements of radon concentration in dwellings and the measurements of 222 Rn activity in drinking water collected at artesian bores of Curitiba urban area, present step of activities has been dedicated to measurements of radon concentration in soil gas. Experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (ALPHA GUARD) connected to specially developed for such measurements Soil Gas Probe through the air pump and filter system. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0

  14. A study of radon 222 transfer indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Robe, M.C.; Archimbaud, M.

    1985-01-01

    Indoor exposure can vary considerably depending upon the natural environment (geology, climate), man-made arrangements (building materials, insulation and ventilation systems...) or way of living. In order to specify the sources and assess their respective contribution in a given dwelling, a good knowledge of radon transfer and dispersion processes is required as well as a heavy experimental device (continuous radon and ventilation monitoring...). The study must be limited to some cases selected by a systematic measurement program either because they are representative of dwelling conditions, or preferably on account of their high radon level, the origin of which will be investigated. As a consequence, countermeasures can be developed. A pilot study has been carried out on radon transport in two houses of the Rhone river valley. The two houses -selected among 131 other ones for their high radon levels- are built with the same architectural approach and located very close to each other, yet the factors accounting for domestic exposure are quite different. Indoor parameters are at the origin of various radon concentrations in the case of low natural ventilation; conversely, outdoor parameters only seem to act in the case of high ventilation. For a larger part, however, radon seems to emanate from under the foundations of both houses [fr

  15. World Health Organization's International Radon Project 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Zhanat; Shannoun, Ferid; Zielinski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies of people exposed to indoor radon have confirmed that radon in homes is a serious health hazard that can be easily mitigated. To address the issue at an international level, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Radon Project (IRP). The project was launched in January 2005 with its first meeting attended by 36 experts representing 17 countries. The project's scope and the key objectives were outlined at this meeting and later refined: 1-) To identify effective strategies for reducing the health impact of radon; 2-) To promote sound policy options, prevention and mitigation programs (including monitoring and evaluation of programs; 3-) To raise public, political and economical awareness about the consequences of exposure to radon (including financial institutions as target group); 4-) To estimate the global health impact of exposure to residential radon using available data on radon worldwide. WHO and its member states strive through the WHO-IRP to succeed in putting indoor radon on the environmental health agenda in countries with lower awareness of radon as a health problem and in strengthening local and national radon-related activities in countries with ongoing radon programs. Two subsequent working meetings were held: in March, 2006 in Geneva with 63 participants from 25 countries, along with representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and European Commission (EC); and in March 2007 in Munich with 61 participants from 27 countries. Both meetings reviewed the IRP progress and focused on the two main outputs: 'The WHO Report on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to Radon' and 'The WHO Radon Handbook'. The former applies the WHO methodology for GBD assessment and considers ways to graphically map residential radon concentrations

  16. EPA urges schools to check for radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    In April recommended that schools test their facilities for radioactive radon gas after examining preliminary test data from 130 schools scattered across the country which indicated that elevated radon levels may be at least as prevalent in schools as in private residences. EPA is recommending that schools test 100 percent of frequently-used rooms on the basement-level and ground-level floors. The agency also recommends that testing be conducted in the cooler months of the year when doors and windows are likely to be closed. As part of a study to gather more information about measuring radon in schools, EPA tested approximately 3000 classrooms in 16 states. The states are widely distributed across the country. Of the total number of rooms, 54 percent had at least one room with a radon level above four picocuries per liter of air pCi/L. Nineteen percent had radon levels above four pCi/L. Three percent of the classrooms measured had radon level over 20 pCi/L. Each of the 16 states had a school with one measurement over four pCi/L, and one school had levels as high as 136 pCi/L

  17. The finnish guide to radon-resistant homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New regulations of the National Finnish Building Code require consideration of radon risks and as a main rule radon technical design in the building permission documents. Slab-on-grade is the prevalent substructure in Finnish low-rise residential buildings. Building statistics show that the prevalent practices in foundation construction promote the flow of radon-bearing soil air into living spaces. Without prevention the normal practices would result in high indoor radon concentrations in Finland. In wide areas more than 50% of houses exceed the reference level of 200 Bq/m 3 given for new buildings. The new guide published in 2003 requires installation of protective sheet in the slab-on-ground foundation and a preparatory radon piping. A protective sheet of durable reinforced bitumen felt with a width of 50 - 100 cm should be installed in the slab-foundation wall joint. Careful sealing of lead-troughs plays also an important role. In the case the sealing work does not result in low indoor radon concentration, the radon piping should be activated through radon-fan installation. Careful implementation of the sealing work reduces indoor radon concentration to a level of less than 50 Bq/m 3 , also in areas where the normal building practices result in indoor radon concentrations exceeding the reference level of 200 Bq/m 3 in more than 50% of new houses. Recent experiences from the implementation of the guide will be considered. (author)

  18. Development of a model for radon concentration in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelle, Bjørn Petter

    2012-01-01

    A model is developed for calculation of the radon concentration in indoor air. The model takes into account various important parameters, e.g. radon concentration in ground, radon diffusion resistance of radon barrier, air permeance of ground, air pressure difference between outdoor ground and indoor at ground level, ventilation of the building ground and number of air changes per hour due to ventilation. Characteristic case studies are depicted in selected 2D and 3D graphical plots for easy visualization and interpretation. The radon transport into buildings might be dominated by diffusion, pressure driven flow or a mixture of both depending on the actual values of the various parameters. The results of our work indicate that with realistic or typical values of the parameters, most of the transport of radon from the building ground to the indoor air is due to air leakage driven by pressure differences through the construction. By incorporation of various and realistic values in the radon model, valuable information about the miscellaneous parameters influencing the indoor radon level is gained. Hence, the presented radon model may be utilized as a simple yet versatile and powerful tool for examining which preventive or remedial measures should be carried out to achieve an indoor radon level below the reference level as set by the authorities. - Highlights: ► Model development for calculation of radon concentration in indoor air. ► Radon model accounting for various important parameters. ► Characteristic case studies depicted in 2D and 3D graphical plots. ► May be utilized for examining radon preventive measures.

  19. Systematic effects in radon mitigation by sump/pump remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Tornberg, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sump/Pump remediation is widely used in the United Kingdom to mitigate indoor radon gas levels in residential properties. To quantify the effectiveness of this technology, a study was made of radon concentration data from a set of 173 homes situated in radon Affected Areas in and around Northamptonshire, U.K., re-mediated using conventional sump/pump technology. This approach is characterised by a high incidence of satisfactory mitigation outcomes, with more than 75% of the sample exhibiting mitigation factors (defined as the ratio of radon concentrations following and prior to remediation) of 0.2 or better. There is evidence of a systematic trend, where houses with higher initial radon concentrations have higher mitigation factors, suggesting that the total indoor radon concentration within a dwelling can be represented by two components, one susceptible to mitigation by sump/pump remediation, the other remaining essentially unaffected by these remediation strategies. The first component can be identified with ground-radon emanating from the subsoil and bedrock geologies, percolating through the foundations of the dwelling as a component of the soil-gas, potentially capable of being attenuated by sump/pump or radon-barrier remediation. The second contribution is attributed to radon emanating from materials used in the construction of the dwelling, principally concrete and gypsum plaster-board, with a further small contribution from the natural background level, and is essentially unaffected by ground-level remediation strategies. Modelling of such a two-component radon dependency using realistic ground-radon attenuation factors in conjunction with typical structural-radon levels yields behaviour in good agreement with the observed inverse-power dependence of mitigation factor on initial radon concentration. (authors)

  20. Radon emanation from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    The results of gamma spectrometric sample measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) emanation coefficients and radium concentrations ( 226 Ra) from about 800 Finnish soil samples are presented. The radon emanation rate was measured in about 400 soil samples, using radon-tight cans and Lucas cells. The effects of water content and temperature on radon emanation were investigated, using various samples of different soil types. Radon emanation and the effect of water content on radon emanation were investigated separately for different grain sizes (samples of till). The results provide some information on radon emanation in different soil types and relate emanation in laboratory conditions to conditions in ground soil. In routine measurements of radon emanation from soil samples, use of a 5% water content was considered advisable. The correction coefficients of radon emanation varied between 0.3 and 1.5, depending on the water content and soil type. At 5% water content, hardly any difference was found between radon emanation at temperatures of 20 and 1 o C. Radon emanation was found to be an inverse function of grain sizes larger than 0.5 mm in diameter. (author)

  1. Radon in US workplaces: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Robert D.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring radon is unavoidable and is second only to smoking as a direct cause of lung cancer in the USA. The literature for existing information on US occupations that are prone to increased radon exposures was reviewed. Current recommendations and applicable protective standards against occupational radon exposure that are applicable to US workers are discussed. Exposure varied widely among several working populations, most of whom were employed in industries that were unrelated to the uranium fuel cycle. Radon protection standards differed among agencies and have not changed since the height of domestic uranium production in the 1970's. In contrast, European countries are adopting recommendations by the International Commission on Radiation Protection to set a reference level near a derived annual exposure of about one working level month, which is 25% of the level currently established for US miners. (authors)

  2. Absolute measurement of environmental radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1987-01-01

    A transportable meter for environmental radon measurement with a 40 liter decay chamber is designed on the principle of Thomas two-filter radon content absolute measurement. The sensitivity is 0.37 Bq·m -3 with 95% confidence level. This paper describes the experimental method of measuremment and it's intrinsic uncertainty. The typical intrinsic uncertainty (for n x 3.7 Bq·m -3 radon concentration) is <10%. The parameter of exit filter effeciency is introduced into the formula, and the verification is done for the case when the diameter of the exit filter is much less than the inlet one

  3. Psychosocial aspects of Czech Radon Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojtikova, I.; Neznal, M.; Hrdy, L.

    2004-01-01

    In November 1999 a radon awareness survey was conducted among Czech republic residents to evaluate their general awareness and the factual knowledge about radon, radon measurements and radon mitigation. This survey, however, did not provide any detailed information on whether the respondents' knowledge is deep and structured or it is just a chaotic mixture of impressions. Therefore, a new survey was conducted from May to November 2001. About 20 respondents, in whose houses the long term testing for radon levels had just been finished, were interviewed. The in-depth interviews had several main aims: a) to obtain a more detailed understanding of their general awareness and factual knowledge about radon; b) to learn more about the sources of their knowledge and of their perception of the radon risk; c) to get information as to whether householders accept radon remediation, and to identify any personal, attitudinal or other variables that can influence the householder's decision; and d) to experience the direct risk communication and conceive its effectiveness. The interviews confirmed some results of the former quantitative study, e.g. increasing knowledge correlating with increasing education level. They showed that the public, overloaded with information, is not disposed to search actively for other information sources (e.g. on the Internet). People perceive their knowledge as adequate and sufficient. Their approach to gathering information is very passive. Therefore, to enhance public understanding of radiation phenomena it is necessary to make efforts, including the use of public media, otherwise radioactivity will remain shrouded in myths. These myths often lead to underestimation of the radon risk. A typical example of such underestimation is a contention that there exist long-aged healthy people who live in extreme radon concentrations. Together with the interviews, a questionnaire describing 11 presumably risky situations or practices was used. Among other

  4. Safety at work: radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimington, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act, employers have a duty, so far as reasonably practicable, to maintain a safe working environment. To ensure that this occurs, the Health and Safety Commission defines standards and applies stimuli to make sure the standards are observed. The risk from radon ranks as one of the most severe industrial risks to be encountered in a hazardous industry. The Ionising Radiations Regulations specify a radon concentration above which the regulations apply, and various duties fall on the employer. Where an inspector finds radon concentrations above this level, he has the power to require remedial measures to be undertaken. (Author)

  5. Air pollution. Actions to promote radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Peter F.; Adams, Charles M.; McGee, William F.; Goldsmith, Larry A.; Feldesman, Alice G.; Grissinger, Charles R.; Updegraff, William D.; Langdon, Robin S.; Bartholomew, Philip L.

    1992-12-01

    To promote radon testing, EPA initiated public information and awareness programs and provided grants to states to develop programs aimed at encouraging homeowners to test for radon. Nationwide telephone surveys, according to EPA, indicate that these efforts have raised the public awareness of radon to as high as 78 percent but that about only 9 percent of those surveyed have tested their homes for radon. Concerned about improving risk reduction through its radon program, EPA convened a review panel. The panel not only recommended in May 1992 that the current voluntary approach be continued but also called for program changes to encourage more testing. These changes include targeting public information and other resources to areas where radon levels are predicted to be high and promoting testing and mitigation at the time of real estate transactions. To support state radon efforts, the Congress authorized a grant program for yearly grants of $10 million for 3 years. Funds for this program were recently extended for a fourth year through fiscal year 1993. Information to measure states' success in promoting testing by homeowners was generally not available because (1) much of the grant funding has been used to identify the extent of the radon problem; (2) federally funded public information projects were often directed to large audiences, making it difficult to measure testing rates; and (3) EPA's evaluation process for the grant program did not contain a component to measure increases in testing. We did, however, identify some state projects that have increased radon testing by targeting program efforts to homes in areas with potentially high levels of radon. The results of the state projects would seem to support the EPA review panel's recommendations on promoting radon testing through targeting program resources. In two states we surveyed, the voluntary use of disclosure statements as part of a real estate sales contract was a frequent occurrence, and in one state

  6. Comparative Measurements of Radon Concentration in Soil Using Passive and Active Methods in High Level Natural Radiation Area (HLNRA of Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanat B

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon and its daughters are amongst the most important sources of natural exposure in the world. Soil is one of the signifcant sources of radon/thoron due to both radium and thorium so that the emanated thoron from it may cause in creased uncertainties in radon measurements. Recently, a diffusion chamber has been designed and optimized for passive discriminative measurements of radon/thoron concentrations in soil. Objective: In order to evaluate the capability of the passive method, some com parative measurements (with active methods have been performed. Method: The method is based upon measurements by a diffusion chamber, includ ing two Lexan polycarbonate SSNTDs, which can discriminate the emanated radon/ thorn from the soil by delay method. The comparative measurements have been done in ten selected points of HLNRA of Ramsar in Iran. The linear regression and cor relation between the results of two methods have been studied. Results: The results show that the radon concentrations are within the range of 12.1 to 165 kBq/m3 values. The correlation between the results of active and passive methods was measured by 0.99 value. As well, the thoron concentrations have been measured between 1.9 to 29.5 kBq/m3 values at the points. Conclusion: The sensitivity as well as the strong correlation with active mea surements shows that the new low-cost passive method is appropriate for accurate seasonal measurements of radon and thoron concentration in soil.

  7. Nuclear tracks in solids and gas radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in USA, and the European Community, have dedicated significant budget to the Radon study, its health effects and remedial actions for controlling and achieving lower levels, in these cases, nationwide research programs have been organized. With the aim to contribute on the radon levels knowledge in our country, the Applied Dosimetry Project at the Physics Institute of the University of Mexico has developed an indoor and outdoor radon measurement methodology. In this paper a passive radon detector device based on CR-39 polycarbonate for use in radon research and routine measurements is presented. As well the methodology for the track formation, automatic reading system, calibration procedure and measurements in a different location, are shown in this work. The results had been compared with dynamic detection systems, and another methodologies and research groups in order to have a high confidence in the radon levels reported. (Author)

  8. The Norwegian information campaign on radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, G.; Strand, T.

    1999-01-01

    The responsibility for providing an overview of 'all factors in the environment which are or may be having a direct or indirect influence on the health - -' rests with the municipal health authorities. In order to enable the municipal staff throughout Norway to accomplish local radon surveys, an information campaign on radon, including printed information material and training courses, was carried out in 1998-99, primarily directed towards municipal civil servants. The two-day training courses comprised of lectures and a compendium covering basic knowledge on ionizing radiation, sources of radon, measurement techniques, health risk, prophylactic and remedial measures, design and accomplishment of survey projects, and information strategy. The printed information material includes booklets providing general information on radon (health risks, measurements, and mitigation), methods for measuring radon in indoor air and construction sites, action levels, and design of municipal radon surveys. Two posters have been issued, one mainly intended for public offices and waiting rooms to motivate the public for radon measurements, the other one intended for municipal personnel and governmental offices, the latter also issued as a collection of fact sheets intended for schools etc. the booklets are displayed on the Internet (www.nrpa.no). The site also contains links to further information on mitigation techniques and economic support to remedial measures. (au)

  9. Element of risk: The politics of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The recent history of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to managing the risk of indoor radon offers a rich base from which to consider US practice in risk assessment, management, and communication. The biological evidence of risks from high-level exposure to radon is in many ways stronger--and the gap to be spanned by extrapolation from laboratory animal studies to ambient exposures narrower--than for many of the toxic and hazardous air pollutants that have been the focus of EPA regulatory attention. The epidemiological evidence about radon is complicated by a number of confounding variables, but this is often the state of epidemiological evidence. Radon has also been the focus of a considerable amount of research on risk communication. To complete the promising ingredients, disagreements between federal regulators at EPA and managers of federal nuclear programs run by the Department of Energy (DOE) concerning radon from uranium mill tailings, for example, and other issues in radiation health physics offer a rich array of opportunities to explore issues in federal bureaucratic politics. This book provides a straightforward report of much of the development of US policy on indoor radon over the past decade. As such, it gives readers unfamiliar with the evolution of radon regulation an opportunity to come quickly up to speed on many historical details

  10. American Lung Association's radon public information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation's oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results

  11. Orphan radon daughters at Denver Radium site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, R.F.; Droullard, R.F.; Davis, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    During 18 mo of sampling airborne radioactively at a National Priority List (open-quotes Superfundclose quotes) site in metroPOlitan Denver, Bureau of mines personnel discovered radon daughters that are not supported by the parent radon gas. We refer to them as open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters because the parent, radon, is not present in sufficient concentration to support the measured daughter products. Measurements of the open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters were made continuously, using the Bureau-developed radon and working-level (radon-daughter) monitors. The data showed high equilibrium ratios, ranging from 0.7 to 3.5, for long periods of time. Repeated, high-volume, 15-min grab samples were made, using the modified Tsivoglou method, to measure radon daughters, to which thoron daughters contributed 26 ± 12%. On average 28 ± 6% of the particulate activity was contributed by thoron daughters. Most samples were mixtures in which the 218 Po concentration was lower than that of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, in agreement with the high-equilibrium factors obtained from the continuous sampling data. In view of the short half-life of radon progeny, we conclude that the source of the orphan daughters is not far from the Superfund sites. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood at this time, but we will discuss its possible significance in evaluating population doses

  12. Reduction of radon from household water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, P.S.; Sorg, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater can be a major source of indoor radon in homes that use individual wells or are served by very small community water supply systems. In the United States, several wells have been found to contain more than 37,000,000 Bq.m -3 of radon dissolved in the water. This radon can be released in the indoor air in the course of using water for normal household activities. A measurement of the radon in the drinking water can be made when an indoor radon problem is suspected. While ventilation may reduce indoor radon levels that result from household water usage, the most common control technique presently applied is removing the radon from the water using a granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment system. Aeration methods are also effective and have been proven to be economical for small community water supplies. Some of the issues faced in using GAC are sizing and maintaining the unit and shielding and disposing of the GAC to prevent exposure from gamma radiation. (author)

  13. Indoor radon survey in Eastern Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, R.; Immè, G.; Mangano, G.; Morelli, D.; Tazzer, A. Rosselli

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of radon (Rn-222) and its progeny is one of the most significant sources of natural radiation exposure of the population. Nowadays, high radon exposures have been shown to cause lung cancer and many governments all over the world have therefore recommended that radon exposures in dwellings and indoor workplaces should be limited. Radon levels in buildings vary widely from area to area depending on local geology. This paper presents the results of a long-term survey of radon concentrations carried out from 2005 till 2010 in schools and dwellings of Eastern Sicily, using the solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique. The investigated area shows medium-high indoor radon concentrations, higher than the Italian average of about 70 Bq/m 3 , with peaks of 500 Bq/m 3 or more in buildings near active faults. Fortunately, only a small fraction of the measurements, about 1.5% of total, was found greater than EU and Italian action limits for indoor and workplaces. - Highlights: ► In this paper we report radon monitoring survey carried out in the east Sicily in schools and dwellings. ► The detection methodology was the solid-state nuclear track detector one. ► The work was supported by a national projects financed by the National Institute of Nuclear Physics.

  14. The role of house surveys in geological radon potential mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, K.

    1997-01-01

    Because radon levels vary widely between apparently identical buildings on the same geological unit, no map can predict the radon level in an individual building. Maps can, however, give the probability that a building in a particular locality is above a threshold of radon concentration such as a reference or action level. The probability may be calculated for a particular building type or for a mixture of building types. In the latter case the probability is in effect an estimate of the proportion of buildings above the threshold level. Alternatively maps can provide estimates of the mean radon levels in buildings by area. Maps showing the geographical variation in probability that new or existing building will exceed a radon reference level are used to prevent excessive exposures to radon. The information may be used in various ways, such as to target information campaigns encouraging measurement of radon levels in homes or to modify regulations for new buildings. The data which are used to provide the estimates of the proportion of buildings above a threshold may be radon measurements results from a sample of buildings, or may be indirect indicators such as ground radium concentrations, emanation coefficients and permeability measurements. Consistency in radon measurement protocols and detailed positional information are prerequisites for mapping radon prone areas based upon house data. Grouping building radon measurements by geological formation and superficial cover can produce radon potential maps which are more spatially accurate than grid square maps and more accurate in estimating numbers of homes affected than mapping based only on measuring geological and pedagogical properties

  15. Regulatory Strategy to Control Radon Exposure in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younus, Irfan; Cho, Kun Woo

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) was established in 2001 with one of the objectives to ensure the protection of workers, general public and the environment from the harmful effects of naturally occurring and artificially produced ionizing radiations by formulating and implementing the effective regulations. Radon is a naturally occurring odorless, colorless, tasteless, imperceptible to senses and chemically inert radioactive gas which is produced continuously from the natural decay of U-238, U-235 and Th-232 in most soils, rocks and water all over the earth. High levels of radon in the soil and rock are primarily responsible for indoor radon problems. Therefore when inhaled with air, there much probability that radon decay products will stay and decay in the lungs. If stayed in the lungs, the radiation may damage the cells causing lung cancer. Hence the radon problems have been taken seriously in most of the developed countries of the world. Radon reference levels for dwellings and workplaces have been set and the general public has been made alert of radon through newspapers and electronic media. In Pakistan, neither publicity campaign nor radon measurement and control programmes have been started countrywide. Rather small individual efforts for the sake of interest have been done to investigate the radon in some specific area or institution. This paper presents the regulatory strategy to control radon exposure for the sake of radiation protection of public and workers in Pakistan

  16. Lyso-GM2 ganglioside: a possible biomarker of Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takashi; Togawa, Tadayasu; Tsukimura, Takahiro; Kawashima, Ikuo; Matsuoka, Kazuhiko; Kitakaze, Keisuke; Tsuji, Daisuke; Itoh, Kohji; Ishida, Yo-Ichi; Suzuki, Minoru; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    To find a new biomarker of Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease. The lyso-GM2 ganglioside (lyso-GM2) levels in the brain and plasma in Sandhoff mice were measured by means of high performance liquid chromatography and the effect of a modified hexosaminidase (Hex) B exhibiting Hex A-like activity was examined. Then, the lyso-GM2 concentrations in human plasma samples were determined. The lyso-GM2 levels in the brain and plasma in Sandhoff mice were apparently increased compared with those in wild-type mice, and they decreased on intracerebroventricular administration of the modified Hex B. The lyso-GM2 levels in plasma of patients with Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease were increased, and the increase in lyso-GM2 was associated with a decrease in Hex A activity. Lyso-GM2 is expected to be a potential biomarker of Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease.

  17. A statistical evaluation of the geogenic controls on indoor radon concentrations and radon risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, J.D., E-mail: jda@bgs.ac.u [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Nicker Hill, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Miles, J.C.H. [Health Protection Agency (HPA), Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    ANOVA is used to show that approximately 25% of the total variation of indoor radon concentrations in England and Wales can be explained by the mapped bedrock and superficial geology. The proportion of the total variation explained by geology is higher (up to 37%) in areas where there is strong contrast between the radon potential of sedimentary geological units and lower (14%) where the influence of confounding geological controls, such as uranium mineralisation, cut across mapped geological boundaries. When indoor radon measurements are grouped by geology and 1-km squares of the national grid, the cumulative percentage of the variation between and within mapped geological units is shown to be 34-40%. The proportion of the variation that can be attributed to mapped geological units increases with the level of detail of the digital geological data. This study confirms the importance of radon maps that show the variation of indoor radon concentrations both between and within mapped geological boundaries.

  18. Determination of exhalation rate of radon from walls and indoor radon by CR-39 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Tillaev, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The knowledge of true value exhalation rate of radon gas from building materials represents scientific and practical interest in environmental radiation protection. This point of view in the paper exhalation rate of radon gas from building materials and a surface of walls with different constructions were determined by detectors CR-39. The values of the exhalation rate of radon per unit area of the granite, concrete, fired and unfired bricks, sand, cement, alabaster varied 0.091 - 0.1 Bq·m -2 ·h -1 . The surface of walls of dwellings constructed from different building materials the exhalation rate of radon are within in limits of 0.083-1.12 Bq·m -2 ·h -1 . Were measurements with CR-39 detectors a level of radon within 50-520 Bq/m 3 in air of rooms constructed of the different building materials

  19. The use of mechanical ventilation with heat recovery for controlling radon and radon-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.; Roseme, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    An energy research house in Maryland was found to have radon concentrations far in excess of recommended guidelines. A mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery was installed in this house to test its effectiveness as an energy-efficient control technique for indoor radon. Radon concentration was monitored continuously for two weeks under varying ventilation conditions (0.07 to 0.8 air changes per hour (ach)) and radon daughter concentrations were measured by grab-sample techniques about nine times daily during this period. At ventilation rates of 0.6 ach and higher radon and radon daughter levels dropped below guidelines for indoor concentrations. Comparison with other studies indicates that indoor radon buildup may be a problem in a considerable portion of houses characterized by their low infiltration rates. The use of mechanical ventilation systems with air-to-air heat exchangers may offer a practical, cost-effective, and energy-efficient means of alleviating not only the radon problem specifically but also the general deterioration of indoor air quality in houses designed or retrofitted to achieve low infiltration

  20. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  1. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for eastern Uusimaa. Askola, Lapinjaervi, Liljendal, Loviisa, Myrskylae, Maentsaelae, Maentsaelae, Pernaja, Pornainen, Porvoo, Porvoon mlk, Pukkila, Ruotsinpyhtaeae and Sipoo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 . It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In the study about 2400 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined form maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurement and geological data were used to assess the radon risk form soil and bedrock in different areas. (15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.)

  2. Development and management of a radon assessment strategy suitable for underground railway tunnelling projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, C. J.; Frommer, G.; Chan, K.; Auch, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The construction of underground tunnels through radon-bearing rock poses a radiation health risk to tunnelling workers from exposure to radon gas and its radioactive decay products. This paper presents the development and practical application of a radon assessment strategy suitable for the measurement of radon in tunnelling work environments in Hong Kong. The assessment strategy was successfully evaluated on a number of underground railway tunnelling projects over a 3 y period. Radon measurements were undertaken using a combination of portable radon measurement equipment and track etch detectors (TEDs) deployed throughout the tunnels. The radon gas monitoring results were used to confirm that ventilation rates were adequate or identified, at an early stage, when further action to reduce radon levels was required. Exposure dose estimates based on the TED results showed that the exposure of tunnel workers to radon did not exceed 3 mSv per annum for the duration of each project. (authors)

  3. The US radon problem, policy, program and industry: achievements, challenges and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    US radon research, policy and programs have stalled since their start in the late 1980's and early 1990's. In 2005, more homes had radon above the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Reference Level than anytime in history since more homes were added to the housing stock that had indoor radon concentrations exceeding 150 Bq m -3 than had been mitigated. Funding for the US radon program has declined two-thirds from 1997 to 2007. Despite impressive goals for radon reduction, EPA lacks sound progress indicators especially in new construction radon control systems. School radon reduction has been at a standstill since the early 1990's. There has been no significant radon risk reduction in low-income sectors of the population. There is need for effective partnerships between the public and private sectors of the US radon professional communities as well as with the international programs and professionals. (authors)

  4. A Radon Micro Study of Salthill, Galway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle-Tobin Ann

    2006-01-01

    This project presents a study of radon gas, when it enters from the ground into the built environment. In order to further inform the present body of knowledge on this potentially dangerous gas, a radon micro study is carried out in the area of Salthill, Galway. A total of 51 households are measured for radon. The results indicate a high variation in the levels recorded, with over a third of the houses measuring above the national safe standard of 200 becquerels per cubic meter, with a small percentage of houses exhibiting very high levels. The results are spatially analysed against the local geology, as radon is a by-product of the breakdown of uranium in rocks. Householders' knowledge and awareness of radon is explored to inform the reasons why more people are not testing their homes for radon, and not installing remedial measures when high levels are detected. The findings indicate significant gaps in householders' knowledge of radon. A certain complacency is noted, which may indicate that people still do not recognise a need to know about this invisible threat. As ways to encourage further testing and remediation levels are equally explored, the government is viewed to play a central role in these processes through partial state funding. Further evidence supports continued and more effective and widespread advertising of radon issues, through all types of media, with emphasis at local level. Incidents of lung cancer and lung disease of long term residents are recorded in an attempt to find out if there is a correlation between them. The results indicate no correlation; however, not all households could participate in this part of the survey as it was limited to long-term residents only

  5. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotti, H.; Kalliokoski, P.

    1992-01-01

    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m -3 h -1 . (Author)

  6. Variation of radon exposure in Damascus dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, activity concentrations of 222 Rn in air and 222 Rn and 226 Ra in drinking water were measured in Damascus city covering its old and modern parts. It was found that the average air radon activity concentration in the old part was higher than in the modern part, and in drinking water, radon was found to be 60±3 Bq/l, and less than 0.13 Bq/l for radium, which were lower than the recommended levels set by WHO. - Highlights: ► This work presents screening of natural radioactivity in dwellings in Damascus city. ► Radon, 226 Rn and total alpha/beta in air and drinking water were measured. ► Most of the obtained results were within the recommended levels set by WHO. ► In general radon in the old part was higher than the modern part of the city.

  7. Radon Progeny in Egyptian Underground Phosphate Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hady, M.A.; Mohammed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ali, A.E.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to the workers in uranium mines, the staff of other underground mines, such as workers in underground phosphate mines, can be exposed to 222 Rn and its progeny. In this study the individual radon progeny concentrations were measured in three Egyptian underground phosphate mines to estimate the occupational exposure of the workers at those sites. A filter method was used to measure individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po). The reported mean values of radon progeny concentrations exceed the action levels which are recommended by ICRP 65 (1993). Based on the measured individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po) in these mines, the annual effective dose for the workers has been calculated using the lung dose model of ICRP 66 (1994). According to the obtained results, some countermeasures were recommended in this study to minimise these exposure levels. (author)

  8. Health effects of radon in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Widely accepted risk estimates for exposure to radon in homes are derived largely from studies of miners. These include large groups of US Czechoslovakian, and Canadian uranium miners, Newfoundland fluorspar miners, and Swedish iron, lead, and zinc miners, all of which give roughly consistent results, with the excess risk of lung cancer increasing linearly with the exposure to radon. The authors have studied correlations between average radon levels and lung cancer rates in counties of the US. One study based on 50,000 purchased measurements in the main living areas of houses in which there have been no previous measurements involves 310 counties. It gives a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between mean radon levels and lung cancer rates for both females and males, whereas the usual risk estimates predict a large positive correlation

  9. Indoor Air '93. Particles, microbes, radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliokoski, P.; Jantunen, M.; Seppaenen, O.

    1993-01-01

    The conference was held in Helsinki, Finland, July 4-8, 1993. The proceedings of the conference were published in 6 volumes. The main topics of the volume 5 are: (1) particles, fibers and dust - their concentrations and sources in buildings, (2) Health effects of particles, (3) Need of asbestos replacement and encapsulation, (4) Seasonal and temporal variation of fungal and bacterial concentration, (5) The evaluation of microbial contamination of buildings, (6) New methods and comparison of different methods for microbial sampling and evaluation, (7) Microbes in building materials and HVAC-systems, (8) Prevention of microbial contamination in buildings, (9) Dealing with house dust mites, (10) Radon measurements and surveys in different countries, (11) The identification of homes with high radon levels, (12) The measurement methods and prediction of radon levels in buildings, and (13) Prevention of radon penetration from the soil

  10. An investigation into the knowledge and attitudes towards radon testing among residents in a high radon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, Susan; Menezes, Gerard; Hevey, David

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of residents in the Castleisland area to radon. Castleisland in Co. Kerry was described as a high radon area following the discovery of a house in the area with radon levels 245 times that of the national reference level. Residents in this area were then asked to measure their homes for radon in the Castleisland radon survey. The uptake of this measurement was 17%. In order to investigate this response rate further, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to residents in the Castleisland area. This questionnaire measured the testing history of the participants, the reasons for testing/not testing, the factors important to them when considering having their home tested, radon knowledge and finally intentions to measure their home for radon. It was found that the main reason people do not test their home for radon is that they believe their home does not have a problem. Optimistic bias was thought to play a role here. The subjective norm component of the theory of planned behaviour was found to have a significant independent contribution in the variation in intentions to measure one’s home for radon and this in turn could be targeted to increase uptake of radon measurement in the future. (note)

  11. Measurement of mean radon concentrations in the Tokai districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Ikebe, Yukimasa; Yamanishi, Hirokuni

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an electrostatic integrating radon monitor designed for the environmental radon monitoring and longterm measurements of mean radon concentrations in outdoor and indoor air. The position of the collecting electrode within the monitor was determined based on the calculation of the internal electric field. The radon exchange rate between the monitor and the outside air through the filter was 0.75 h -1 . The exchange rate can make the radon concentration inside the monitor to follow thoroughly the outside concentration. Since the electrostatic collection of RaA + ( 218 Po + ) atoms depends on the humidity of the air, the inside of the monitor was dehumidified with a diphosphorus pentaoxide (P 2 O 5 ) drying agent which is powerful and dose not absorb radon gas. From the relationship between track density and radon exposure, the calibration factor was derived to be 0.52 ± 0.002 tracks cm -2 (Bq m -3 h) -1 . The detection limit of mean radon level is 1.2 Bq m -3 for an exposure time fo 2 months. The mean radon concentrations in various environments were measured through the year using the monitors this developed. The annual mean outdoor radon level in the Tokai districts was 7.0 Bq m -3 . The mean radon concentrations was found to vary from 3.5 to 11.7 Bq m -3 depending upon the geographical conditions even in this relatively small region. The annual indoor radon concentrations at Nagoya and Sapporo ranged from 6.4 to 11.9 Bq m -3 and from 15.5 to 121.1 Bq m -3 , respectively, with the type of building material and the ventilation rate. The mean radon concentrations in tightly built houses selected at Sapporo are about 10 times as high as those in drafty houses at Nagoya. (author)

  12. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  13. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Henrik eHebelstrup

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved.

  14. Management of radon: a review of ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, Ludovic; Bataille, Céline

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a review of past and current ICRP publications dealing with the management of radon exposures. Its main objective is to identify and discuss the driving factors that have been used by the Commission during the last 50 years so as to better appreciate current issues regarding radon exposure management. The analysis shows that major evolutions took place in very recent years. As far as the management of radon exposures is concerned, ICRP recommended, until ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP 2007 ICRP Publication 103; Ann. ICRP 37), to use action levels and to consider only exposures above these levels. The Commission has reviewed its approach and now proposes to manage any radon exposure through the application of the optimisation principle and associated reference levels. As far as the assessment of the radon risk is concerned, it appears that the successive changes made by ICRP did not have a strong impact on the values of radon gas concentration recommended as action levels either in dwellings or in workplaces. The major change occurred in late 2009 with the publication of the ICRP Statement on Radon, which acknowledged that the radon risk has been underestimated by a factor of 2, thus inducing a major revision of radon reference levels. (review)

  15. Radon in your dwellings - problems and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of radon in dwellings gained importance in 1984 after the Stanely Watra's house incidence in Pennsylvania USA. Since then several radon measuring techniques have been identified and instrumentations developed. National survey programs were started for monitoring radon levels in dwellings by Government authorities in all developed and developing countries including India. Successively, the measurement of thoron levels was also found desirable especially in high radiation background areas. A lot of work has been done since then by scientists and university researches and thousands of publications have been made in this field. Several developed countries have given guide lines for initiating action to reduce radon levels in dwellings if it is beyond 200-400 Bq/m 2 . The recommended 'action level' is found to depend upon the authorities making the recommendations. This talk is aimed to produce public awareness about the health hazard posed by concentration of naturally occurring radon gas in our dwellings, the sources of its production and mitigation of radon problem. The matter will be discussed in a general way using ppt presentation. (author)

  16. Effectiveness of ventilation improvements as a protective measure against radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoving, P.; Arvela, H.

    1993-01-01

    Radon reduction rates for ventilation improvement measures vary considerably. In 70% of the cases studied, further mitigation is needed to reach a level of 400 Bq/m 3 . Ventilation measures in crawl spaces and basements have resulted in reduction rates of up to 90%, though more typically 30-70%. Installing new mechanical systems in dwellings has resulted in 20-80% reduction rates. If fan use or fan efficiency is increased, radon levels can be reduced as much as when new systems are installed. Increasing fresh-air supply through vents or window gaps reduces radon concentrations 10-40%. Low ventilation rates, measured after mitigation using the passive per fluorocarbon tracer gas method, seem to be accompanied by also low radon reduction rates. Multiple zone tracer gas measurements were conducted in order to reveal radon entry from the soil and radon transport between zones. (orig.). (3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  17. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Timson, K.; Shield, G.; Rogers, S.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m -3 , have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  18. 1982 radon intercomparison exercises at EML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisenne, I.M.; George, A.C.; Keller, H.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of two radon measurement intercomparison exercises held in 1982. Sixteen organizations, including five United States federal departments, two state governments, two national laboratories, three universities, three private sector laboratories and Swedish National Institute participated in these exercises. The results indicate good agreement among the participants at the 30 pCi 222 Rn/L level. With the continued interest and cooperation of groups involved in radon measurements, twp intercomparison exercises are planned during 1983

  19. Biological indicators of exposure to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.

    1998-01-01

    A review is given of recent investigations into mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to alpha irradiation by the radon progeny. Studies of the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations after alpha irradiation are given particular attention. In the author's opinion, up to now no useful biological indicator of response to high and low doses of alpha particles has been found, including those of radon on the molecular and cellular level. (A.K.)

  20. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of Mizoram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalramengzami, R.; Laldawngliana, C.; Sinha, D.; Ghosh, S.; Dwivedi, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of indoor radon has been measured in some dwellings of Mizoram state by employing time integrated method using solid state nuclear track detector. This state is located in the north eastern region of India which has been identified as a high background area. The indoor radon levels determined in this work are compared with data obtained from other regions of India and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed safe limit. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs