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Sample records for gm potato varieties

  1. Consumptive qualities of different potato varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Фурдига

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To summarize results of studying consumptive qualities of different varieties of potato and define basic characteristics which allow to subsume them under specific economic categories. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, summarizing, analytical approach. Results. Potato varieties entered in the State register of plant varieties suitable to dissemination in Ukraine and new ones especially to be bred at the Institute of Potato Growing of NAAS were studied during the period of 2005–2016 for such basic economic characters as consumptive quality of tubers, content of starch, dry matters, protein, sugar, vitamins, carotenoids and mineral substances as well as aminoacids, color of flesh, suitability for industrial manufacturing of potato products and for purpose of technology. Attention was paid to the good prospects to use varie­ties with purple, blue and red potato tuber flesh with high antioxidant capacity. Potato varieties with above cha­racteristics and their complex combination were defined and described. The requirements of processing industry for potato as a raw material for manufacturing of potato food were given. Conclusions. The major criterion for consumptive qualities of a potato variety and correspondingly division for the commercial use is consumptive quality of tubers, especially content of essential nutrients and their favorable combination, improved taste and cooking quality, high antioxidant capacity, suitability for potato products manufacturing and use for purpose of technology. Potato varieties can be divided for economic purposes into edible, suitable for potato products manufacturing, technical and multipurpose ones.

  2. Adoption of Improved Potato Varieties in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaya Gairhe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is one of the top twenty countries where potato contributes substantially for the human diet. Enhancing adoption of improved potato varieties could impact on farmer’s income, household food and nutritional security. As such, using a multistage sampling procedure, a study was conducted to assess the determinants of improved potato varieties adoption in Nepal covering 180 samples in four districts, two in hills and two in Tarai region. The study revealed that; Kavre and Bardiya districts in the hills and Tarai, respectively, were dominated by improved potato varieties adoption. On the other hand, Dhankuta and Jhapa in the hills and Tarai, respectively, were dominated by local potato varieties adoption. The informal seed sources followed by agro-vet and market were the major sources for improved varietal adoption. Farmers’ accesses to training and formal seed sources were important factor determining improved potato varietal adoption. However, households with larger farm size were less likely to allocate more area for improved potato varieties as many of farmers were reluctant to take potato cultivation as agri-business and still follow subsistence farming. Potato R&D programs, therefore, need to strengthen formal seed system to enhance access to quality potato seeds and build producer’s capacity through regular training and exposer visits in order to improve adoption of improved potato varieties in Nepal.

  3. Comparative storage studies of selected varieties of potatoes treated with CIPC and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Karim, A.; Hossain, M.M.; Hossain, A.

    1990-01-01

    Three varieties of potatoes (Diamant, Kufri sinduri and Lal pakri) were treated with 8 Krad of gamma radiation and CIPC at the rate of 2 gm/kg of potatoes and were stored at 4 deg C, 15 deg. C and ambient temperature. The control, irradiated and CIPC treated potatoes at ambient temperature spoiled within 2 months of storage. Control potatoes stored at 15 deg. C lost their market value due to sprouting and shrinkage after 6 months of storage. Irradiated potatoes stored at 15 deg. C lost weight at a slower rate than CIPC treated samples stored at the same temperature and control potatoes stored at 4 deg. C. All the potatoes in control samples sprouted within 3 months of storage at 15 deg. C whereas no sprouting was recorded in any variety of potatoes treated with radiation or CIPC and stored at 15 deg. C for 6 months. After 6 months of storage reducing sugar content was much lower in the irradiated or CIPC treated potatoes than the control potatoes stored at 4 deg. C. The irradiated tubers stored at 15 deg. C and control tubers stored at 4 deg. C retained excellent physical appearance and market quality at the end of 6 months storage though irradiated potatoes were more attractive

  4. Performance Stability Analysis of Potato Varieties under Rainfed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, farmers cultivate potato both in the rainy season under rainfed condition and the dry season using irrigation. Despite the variation in climatic condition and production constraints between the two systems, farmers grow the same variety both in rainfed and irrigated potato production systems. Moreover ...

  5. Shooting responses of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at IRAD Bambui (Cameroon) to evaluate the rate of shooting in four improved IRAD potato varieties: Cipira, Tubira, Mafo and Bambui wonder. Liquid and solid media stocks prepared according to the International Potato Center (CIP)'s protocol were used. A randomized complete ...

  6. Symptom expression of Potato virus Y across all market classes of U.S. potato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) can cause a range of foliar and tuber symptoms that can lead to reduced yield and quality defects in the daughter tubers. Five strains of PVY were used to inoculate 70 potato varieties in aphid screened greenhouses in Idaho and New York. Three to five isolates per strain were ...

  7. New varieties of potato can feed the poor | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... But high-quality varieties are required. This Canadian–Colombian research project uses innovative genetic techniques to produce biofortified potatoes with higher crop yields and greater resistance to disease. Already available genetic information from native varieties forms the basis of this work.

  8. Phenetic relationships of nine varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) based on morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Topik; Barlian, Andri; Kusdianti, R.; Kirana, Rinda

    2017-05-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) is an important commodity in Indonesia as one of the main crop after rice. Recently some new varieties have been released, but their relationship have not been studied yet. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship among nine varieties of potatoes. Phenetic analysis was conducted using 27 morphological character states, which was derived from stems, leaves, and tubers. The character states observed were scored, and further analyzed based on Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) method. The results showed a high diversity of morphological character states, of which 20 states were significantly different across the varieties. Phenogram indicated that the nine varieties of potato were classified into three main groups. While the first group was consisted of varieties of Cipanas, Granola, Atlantic, and Repita, the second group was housed of Manohara and GM 05. The third group was composed of Margahayu, Mb 17, and Maglia. This pattern of relationships can be used as one of the basis in the process of crossbreeding to assemble the new varieties. The crossbreeding will be better if it is made between distantly related varieties.

  9. 74 agronomic assessment of some sweet potato varieties for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-05-02

    May 2, 2009 ... All intercropping combinations of sweet potato varieties and .... of a and b. Values of LER greater than 1 are ...... switching from low value crop production to a ... and/or pursuing off-farm employment. .... reflected in higher yield and greater per hectare ...... potentials qualified it for inclusion among the 17 ...

  10. Agronomic assessment of some sweet potato varieties for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute sub-station, Otobi, in 2006 and 2007 to assess the suitability of improved sweet potato varieties for intercropping with pigeonpea and also to determine the planting pattern and the productivity of the intercropping system. Intercropping ...

  11. Genetic modifications of established varieties of potato through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Owing to the high intercrossability of improved clones with primitive cultivars and many wild species there is little justification for use of induced mutations in potato to increase variability per se. Modification of certain traits while leaving the genotype basically intact is a promising use of mutagenesis in potato. The successful curing of defects in clones will depend on the establishment a priori of three principles. First, the clones undergoing mutagenesis should be well established varieties tolerant or resistant to the major biotic and abiotic stresses in the area of cultivation. The yield and culinary quality should also be considered high. Second, there should exist some indication that the variation desired is induceable, either through reports of natural intra-clone variation or previous mutagenesis studies. Third, initial screening should be done in virus-free materials

  12. The unlucky potato: Study of consumer risk perception toward a GM-potato using mental models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    The second generation of GMO aims at providing consumers with food that has a clear health benefit such as rice with enhanced nutrient levels or potatoes with a lower level of natural toxin. The new generation with health enhancing attributes is predicted to reduce consumer skepticism toward use...

  13. Study of gene flow from GM cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) varieties in El Espinal (Tolima, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rache Cardenal, Leidy Yanira; Mora Oberlaender, Julian; Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, 4088 hectares of genetically modified (GM) cotton were planted in Tolima (Colombia), however there is some uncertainty about containment measures needed to prevent the flow of pollen and seed from regulated GM fields into adjacent fields. In this study, the gene flow from GM cotton varieties to conventional or feral cotton plants via seed and pollen was evaluated. ImmunostripTM, PCR and ELISA assays were used to detect gene flow. Fifty six refuges, 27 fields with conventional cotton and four feral individuals of the enterprise Remolinos Inc. located in El Espinal (Tolima) were analyzed in the first half of 2010. The results indicated seed mediated gene flow in 45 refuges (80.4 %) and 26 fields with conventional cotton (96 %), besides pollen mediated gene flow in one field with conventional cotton and nine refuges. All fields cultivated with conventional cotton showed gene flow from GM cotton. Two refuges and two feral individuals did not reveal gene flow from GM cotton.

  14. Diverging quality preferences along the supply chain: implications for variety choice by potato growers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abebe, G.K.; Bijman, J.; Pascucci, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Tsegaye, A.

    2016-01-01

    Improving the introduction of new potato varieties requires aligning the preferences of all supply chain actors. In Ethiopia, the majority of ware potato growers source their seed from the informal supply system. Using a case study on specialised seed growers and a survey among ware potato growers

  15. Detection of Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV), Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Virus X (PVX) on Five Potato Varieties by Using of DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik

    2012-01-01

    Potato is a staple food crop that widely grown around the world. Virus infection is main factor that affects great loss of the potato production. Potato virus X(PVX), potato virus Y(PVY),and potato leaf roll virus(PLRV) are top three viruses that result in decreased yield of potato in Indonesia. Therefore, the rapid methods of DAS-ELISA was studied to test tuber samples of five potato varieties, Granola, Atlantik, Raja, Super John, Kalosi, and Masalle. Two simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable...

  16. New varieties of potato can feed the poor | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... According to estimates, farmers spend about 6% of their potato crop income on chemicals to control late blight and other diseases — a high cost that also has environmental ... The project also aims to produce a more nutritious potato by selecting cultivars that can store more minerals, such as zinc and iron.

  17. new potato varieties fight poverty and malnutrition in colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    of potato, nutritionally poor diets. this leads to chronic health problems and high rates of iron deficiency, especially in small children. Meeting the ... 17% more zinc and double the protein of the commercial cultivar. • research activities with ...

  18. Performance Of Irish Potato Varieties Under Aeroponic Conditions In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    1Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, National University of Rwanda. (NUR) ... Though Irish potato is very important in Rwanda, average yields ... One plausible solution to this problem is to adopt a soil-less seed production.

  19. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Varieties of Genetically Modified (GM) Embrapa 5.1 Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Non-GM Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Geisi M; Valentim-Neto, Pedro A; Mello, Carla S; Arisi, Ana C M

    2015-12-09

    The genetically modified (GM) common bean event Embrapa 5.1 was commercially approved in Brazil in 2011; it is resistant to golden mosaic virus infection. In the present work grain proteome profiles of two Embrapa 5.1 common bean varieties, Pérola and Pontal, and their non-GM counterparts were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry (MS). Analyses detected 23 spots differentially accumulated between GM Pérola and non-GM Pérola and 21 spots between GM Pontal and non-GM Pontal, although they were not the same proteins in Pérola and Pontal varieties, indicating that the variability observed may not be due to the genetic transformation. Among them, eight proteins were identified in Pérola varieties, and four proteins were identified in Pontal. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 2-DE data, and variation between varieties was explained in the first two principal components. This work provides a first 2-DE-MS/MS-based analysis of Embrapa 5.1 common bean grains.

  20. Assessment of the productivity of sweet potato varieties grown on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness and economic viability of soil amendment with prunings of agro-forestry tree species in sweet potato production on a highly weathered soil of South Eastern Nigeria were assessed in a field study conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, ...

  1. Evaluation of primary and secondary metabolites in selected varieties of potatoes.

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    Ján Mareček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine primary and secondary metabolites in selected varieties of potatoes. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. are good source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenols as one of the most important components. The chemical composition with reducing sugar, starch, ascorbic acid, total polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed in five potato varieties (Agria, Marabel, Red Anna, Picasso, Princess. Values of dry matter content ranged from 20.34 to 23.64%. In terms of tubers storage, its content above 20% is required. The highest level of starch was detected in variety Princess (16.82%. The lowest reducing sugar content was recorded by variety Marabel (0.08%. Similarly, low values reached varieties Princess (0.12%, Agria (0.14 and Red Anna (0.16%. These would be appropriate to use for food processing and for production of fried potato chips or fries. Variety Red Anna reached the highest amount of vitamin C (73.72 mg.kg-1. The lower levels of this vitamin showed tubers of varieties Picasso (35.02 mg.kg-1 and Princess (36.89 mg.kg-1. The antioxidant activity was measured with radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as phosphomolybdenic assay. Potato varieties contained high levels of total polyphenols (0.474 – 1.550 mg GAE per dry weight and flavonoids (1.407 – 15.933 μg QE per dry weight. The consumption of potatoes can provide nutritional value along with antioxidant potential that can be helpful for proper functioning of the body physiological systems. Statistical evaluation by the single factor analysis of variance detected high significant impact of variety on the content of all the analytical parameters in evaluated varieties of potato tubers. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  2. THE RESEARCH OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS CONTENT AND THEIR CHANGES IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF POTATOES

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    Beáta Volnová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants with antioxidant properties. In this work we research the changes in the content of total polyphenols in five varieties of potatoes (Rumelia, Arwen, Megan, Malvína, Erídia. Potatoes were grown at the stage of full maturity from Matejovce nad Hornádom, region of Poprad. Total polyphenols we determined in whole peeled potatoes; in the outside part of peeled potato tubers (1 cm; in inside part of potato tubers (mean 2 cm and in the whole peel-boiled potatoes. The total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (λ = 765 nm and it was used lyophilized samples in ethanol extracts. In whole peeled potatoes was the content of total polyphenols in the range from 243.34 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Rumelia to 446.38 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Megan, in the outside part of peeled potato tubers was content in the range from 190.45 mg.kg-1 (cv. Rumelia to 446.84 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Malvína and in inside part of potato tubers from 245.51 mg.kg-1 to 446.26 mg.kg-1 DM (Arwen < Rumelia < Megan < Erídia < Malvína. In the whole peel-boiled potatoes was the lowest content of total polyphenols in variety Rumelia (252.5 mg.kg-1 DM and the highest content in variety Megan (440.54 mg.kg-1 DM. Results were statistically evaluated by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA – Multiple Range Tests, Method: 95.0 percent LSD using statistical software STATGRAPHICS (Centurion XVI.I, USA and the regression and correlation analysis (Microsoft Excel was used.

  3. CARBOHYDRATES IN VARIETIES OF STORED POTATOES AND INFLUENCE OF STORAGE ON QUALITY OF FRIED PRODUCTS

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    Ján Mareček

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this work deals with the issue of changes in carbohydrate representation of potato tubers at 11 varieties due to their storage. Time of storage effect on starch and reducing sugars content was examined. The lowest reducing sugar content was observed at the end of the storage at the variety of Markies (0.15%. Sensory quality of the fried potato chips and French fries was assessed by the international system (Colour cards for quality evaluation of potato chips. Best varieties, that showed (even after 6 months of storage the highest sensory assessment at French fries (9, were Agria and Vladan. In case of potato chips the highest rating was 7 points (Laura, Mark, Vladan after the storage time.

  4. Chemometric classification of potatoes with protected designation of origin according to their producing area and variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Latorre, Carlos; Barciela García, Julia; García Martín, Sagrario; Peña Crecente, Rosa M

    2013-09-04

    Potatoes from Galicia (northwestern Spain) are subjected to a Protected Geographic Indication (PGI) according to European legislation. Ten trace elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn) have been determined by atomic spectrometry in two sets of potato samples: Geo-Origin.set and Variety.set. The first data set is composed of samples of the only variety authorized by PGI (Kennebec) with two geographical origins: Galician and non-Galician. The second set corresponds to samples from different varieties but with only Galician geographical origin. Chemometric pattern recognition techniques have been applied to the study of potato geographical and varietal origins in relation to their capability for translocating metals from soil to tuber. Also, authentication models for classifying potato samples with Galician PGI based on metal fingerprints have been developed. The results obtained showed that samples of the same variety, Kennebec, have different metal fingerprints when they have been produced in different geographic locations. Also, diverse potato varieties cultivated on equal geographic Galician origin presented different metal profiles as well. Therefore, it can be concluded that classification studies on the differentiation of geographical origin of foods should take into account information of production area together with varietal data. Otherwise, classification obtained on the basis of the geographical origin could be due to the different variety or vice versa. Finally, two models were constructed for Kennebec Galician samples against Kennebec from other origins as well as against other varieties cultivated in Galicia (Liseta and Baraka). Both models achieved adequate classification rates (93-100%), good sensitivities, and total specificities (100%), allowing the fraud detection in the PGI label.

  5. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: Effects of variety and tuber storage time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, J. Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T.; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G.; Mottram, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed. PMID:25842300

  6. Minitubers production of four potato Cuban varieties in greenhouse with zeolite as substrate

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    Manuel de Feria

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of original seed of national potato varieties (Solanum tuberosum L. is of great importance. The objective of the present work was to obtain minitubers from four national potato varieties in a greenhouse with zeolite as substrate. The plants in vitro propagated of the varieties 'Grettel', 'Yuya', 'Ibis' and 'Marinca' were planted and received cultural and phytosanitary attention according to the protocol existing at IBP. Harvest was performed at 75 days of culture and the total number of minitubers and the number of minitubers with a diameter greater than 15 mm were quantified for each plant. Plants and tubers showed the typical characteristics of each variety under zeolite substrate culture conditions. The highest number of minitubers per plant was achieved in the 'Yuya' and 'Ibis' varieties with 3.84 and 3.52 respectively. For the number of minitubers available as original seed (>15 mm, the 'Yuya' variety was superior with 82.3%. The culture conditions with zeolite substrate allow to obtain minitubers of potatoes of the four varieties from plants in vitro cultured. 'Yuya' and 'Ibis' showed the best results and potentially could be incorporated into the national seed production program in Cuba.   Keywords: agamic seed, ‘Ibis’, ‘Grettel’, ‘Marinca’, Solanum tuberosum, ‘Yuya’

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on the physical properties of some South African varieties of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the mass loss, specific gravity, firmness, sprouting, and rotting of five varieties of potatoes grown in South Africa have been studied. Doses of up to 15 krad inhibit sprouting without detrimental effects on other physical properties, and the culinary properties are expected to be unaffected. Excessive mass loss, shrinkage, and rotting found in some varieties are ascribed to unsuitable storage conditions rather than to irradiation. (orig.) [de

  8. Disinfestation of different varieties of potato naturally or artificially infested by the potato tuber moth, Phthorimea Operculella Zell. In the storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiba, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    The exposure of potato tuber varieties of Alpha, Spunta, Cara and escort to radiation dose level of 150 Gy could be used to disinfest the potatoes from their natural attacked pest, Phthorimaea Operculella, after the harvest and before storage. Escort variety exhibited somewhat resistance to the natural infestation if compared with the others. The irradiation of the potato tubers did not protect them from the re infestation, during the storage. Also, there were significant changes in some biological properties of the resulted pests, among the four potato varieties, whether the potatoes were non-irradiated or irradiated. The feeding of the artificial infested larvae on the treated tubers gave some malformed adults. 3 tabs

  9. The irradiation dose for the inhibition of the sprouting of Baraka variety potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Rivero, B.; Salcines, R.; Prieto, E.

    1990-01-01

    Baraka variety potatoes graded in the packing house, were irradiated with doses of 0.08; 0.10; 0.15 and 0.20 kGy after a two weeks curing period. The potatoes were stored for five months at 12 0 +- 2 0 C and relative humidity of 85 to 95%, and to determine the percentages of sprouting, rotting and loss in weight. It was concluded that doses of 0.08 kGy or more inhibited definitively the sprouting process. Less total losses and better commercial quality were obtained with a dose of 0.08 kGy the last of the store. 13 refs

  10. An Assessment of the Impact of Two Late Blight Tolerant Potato Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walingo, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A study was made to assess the impact of two late blight tolerant potato varieties Tigoni and Asante releases in 1998. The appraisal and impact assessment set out to collect information on the adoption of the two varieties; assess their economic impact; and forecast future prospects for these two varieties and identity constraints to their adoption and diffusion in three divisions of Molo, Timboroa and Laikipia. The methodology adopted was conducting field surveys between September and October 2001, and gathering secondary information from the Ministry of Agriculture, research Centres, seed companies, NGO's and farmers. Results indicated that high yield, early maturity, tolerant to late blight, good market for ware potatoes and good taste were the advantages of Tigoni and Asante, widely recognised in all survey sites. Disadvantages of Tigoni and Asante were poor storage, rapid greening of tubers (mainly for Tigoni), and limited availability of planting material. The two varieties had higher yield benefits, net benefit per hectare and higher rates of return compared to the local varieties. the rate of returns when the local cultivars were substituted by the new improved varieties ranged from 556 to 1070%. Data on diffusion of Tigoni and Asante showed that combined acreage of varieties Tigoni and Asante rose to 196.3, 137.5 and 1476 ha in Molo, Timboroa and Laikipia respectively. The future forecast for the two varieties is good if the limitation on seed availability is addressed

  11. The Effect of Potato Varieties on Population of Golden Cyst Nematode (Globodera rostochiensis

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    Jasmina Bačić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of susceptibility/resistance of seed potato varieties on population of golden cyst nematode – Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber, 1923 Skarbilovich, 1959 was investigated in the infested field of Brdo, KO Ljubovija No. 413, in Mačva District in Serbia during 2002 and 2003. The susceptible varieties Desiree, Innovator, Kennebec, Cleopatra, and Kondor were used in the experiment as varieties frequently grown in this district. The resistant ex-andigena varieties Agria, Frisia, Latona, Saturna, and Tresor were chosen on the basis of identified pathotypes of G. rostochiensis population originating from the aforementioned infested field. The results of this research indicated that nematode population of G. rostochiensis could be reduced and higher yield obtained by growing the resistant ex-andigena varieties in case of presence of pathotype Ro1. In the second year of investigation, final cyst density was 3.5 times lower than in the first year. It subsequently affected the crop yield which increased in the second year. The lowest crop yield was observed for susceptible varieties Kennebec (8.5 t/ha and Cleopatra (16.9 t/ha, and the highest for resistant varieties Agria (25.7 t/ha and Frisia (29.1 t/ha. These results may be useful to growers in the infested areas of Mačva District when choosing potato varieties, in order to eradicate the quarantine nematode G. rostochiensis.

  12. Adoption of Improved Potato Varieties in Ethiopia: the role of Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System and Farmers' Quality Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abebe, G.K.; Bijman, J.; Pascucci, S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Although potato is considered to be one of the strategic crops for ensuring food security in Ethiopia, the adoption of high yielding and disease tolerant improved potato varieties is low. Common explanations include farmers’ attitudes to risk and socio-cultural factors. We develop a system

  13. Lamoka, a variety with excellent chip color out of cold storage and resistance to the golden potato cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoka is a white-skinned, white-fleshed potato cultivar variety notable for excellent chip color from cold storage, good yield, and resistance to both common scab and race Ro1 of the golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis). It was selected from a cross made at Cornell University in 1...

  14. STUDY OF GENE FLOW FROM GM COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum VARIETIES IN “EL ESPINAL” (TOLIMA, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, 4088 hectares of genetically modified (GM cotton were planted in Tolima (Colombia, however there is some uncertainty about containment measures needed to prevent the flow of pollen and seed from regulated GM fields into adjacent fields. In this study, the gene flow from GM cotton varieties to conventional or feral cotton plants via seed and pollen was evaluated. ImmunostripTM, PCR and ELISA assays were used to detect gene flow. Fifty six refuges, 27 fields with conventional cotton and four feral individuals of the enterprise “Remolinos Inc.” located in El Espinal (Tolima were analyzed in the first half of 2010. The results indicated seeds mediated gene flow in 45 refuges (80,4 % and 26 fields with conventional cotton (96 %, besides a pollen mediated gene flow in one field with conventional cotton and nine refuges. All fields cultivated with conventional cotton showed gene flow from GM cotton. Two refuges and two feral individuals did not reveal gene flow from GM cotton.

  15. AFLP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in european and North American potato varieties cultivated in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Tarkesh Esfahani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about the genetic diversity of potato germplasm in Iran is important for variety identification andto enhance the classification of germplasm collections and exploit them in breeding programs and for the development andintroduction of new varieties. AFLP fingerprinting was applied to a group of cultivated potato varieties to find if there is anygeographical differentiation in potato diversity from Europe and North America. The high level of polymorphism within potatovarieties and the high number of variety-specific bands suggest that AFLPs are powerful markers for diversity analysis inpotato varieties. No region-specific AFLP markers were found (present in varieties from the same origin and absent inothers. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed four distinct clusters corresponding almost to the geographical origin of thevarieties. However, the bootstrap support for branches was rather weak. No clusters clearly distinguished varieties fromEurope and North America. Varieties from the same geographical origins however tended to group together within eachcluster. The mean similarity and the UPGMA dendrogram both suggest that North American varieties have nearly identicalgenetic diversity to European varieties. The results of AMOVA revealed large within-region variations which accounted for94.5% of the total molecular variance. The between-region variation, although accounting for only 5.5% of the total variation,was statistically significant. AFLP technology was successfully used to evaluate diversity between different geographicalgroups of potatoes and is recommended for potato genetic studies.

  16. Transformation of heat shock protein gene (HspB-C) of helicobacter pylori into sweet potato varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jie; Yan Wenzhao; Zhou Yu; Zhang Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    Sweet potato which is one of the most important crops in the world has many advantages as a new bioreactor. Helicobacter pylori, as a kind of cancer-causing factor by the World Health Organization, has a strong immunogenicity, and its monoclonal antibody has bactericidal activity, which has the possibility as the vaccine components. In this research, we have constructed the plant expression vector with heat shock protein gene (HspB-C) of Helicobacter pylori. This vector was transformed by agrobactrium tumefaciens EHA105 into four sweet potato varieties. After callus-induction and re-differentiation, we got the transgenic plants from sweet potato variety of Nancy holl. (authors)

  17. Appropriateness of culinary preparations of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties and relation to sensory and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Helene F; Tønning, Erik; Wiking, Lars; Thybo, Anette K

    2011-02-01

    Appropriateness of potatoes for culinary preparations is defined as the optimal use of a given variety for a specific culinary preparation. The aim of this study was to examine the sensory attributes and physicochemical characteristics (dry matter content, starch properties, instrumental texture) of 11 potato varieties in relation to their appropriateness for boiling, oven-frying or mashing. The reproducibility of appropriateness was studied by including the effect of two growing conditions and yearly variation combined with internal references. The potato varieties, tested by 31 evaluators in two years, showed three groupings differing in appropriateness, which could be explained by a few sensory attributes: yellowness, mealiness, creaminess and butter taste. The physicochemical data showed a large variation of 23-25% in dry matter content, amylose content and starch granule size and an extreme variation in texture hardness. High reproducibility was found in the ranking of potatoes across years and culinary preparations. Hence, if a variety was judged well appropriate for boiled potatoes, it was also judged well appropriate as mashed or oven-fried potatoes. This study showed the relevance of using sensory descriptors appropriateness in an objective manner. A few sensory descriptors can be used in consumer-labelling appropriateness of potatoes. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Root morphology of several potato varieties - infected Meloidogyne spp. and addition of organic matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, K.; Lubis, A. M.; Siregar, L. A. M.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This research was aimed to determine root morphology of several potato varieties which were applied by organic materials into the planting medium inoculated nematodes. The research was conducted at Research Station of Horticulture in Berastagi, Sumatera Utara on May to November 2016. The randomized block design was used with two factors; the first factor was K1 = Positive control (no use compost / inoculation of nematodes) K2 = Negative control (no use compost / no inoculation of nematodes) K3 = Using compost mucuna and inoculation of nematode, K4 = Using compost peanuts and inoculation of nematodes and the second factor was potato varieties (Tenggo, Maglia, and Margahayu). The results showed that organic matters increased the shoot fresh weight, the root fresh weight, the tubers weight and the number of tubers, root diameter, root lenght. However, organic matters also increased the number of nematodes. Varieties of Tenggo and Maglia showed significant affect to all observed characters. The interaction of the two treatments had significant affect to the shoot fresh weight, the number of root-knot, and the number of tubers, root lenght. However, no significant affect was observed in root wet weight, and tuber weight.

  19. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A; Ingham, Russ E

    2013-09-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. 'Russet Burbank,' 'Desiree,' 'Modac,' 'Norland,' 'Umatilla,' and 'Yukon Gold' were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties 'Maris Piper,' 'Atlantic,' and 'Satina,' all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD

  20. Preservation by Irradiation of three varieties of Colombian Potatoes (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleta, S.

    1986-01-01

    This is first study performed in the Gamma Facility of the Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares, in Bogota, Colombia, related to the Food Irradiation Programme. The study was made with: Parda Pastusa, ICA Guantiva, and ICA Purace, selected as the most important varieties of colombian potatoes. A complete study prior to the irradiation exposure was made in order to determine the optimum irradiation package. Different dose treatments, chemical and physical changes and organoleptic tests, were studied in this work. The work was performed in the early 1980s

  1. CLONAL MICROPROPAGATION OF POTATO VARIETIES BY WESTERN SIBERIA SELECTION– THE NEW FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Miakisheva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is sanctified urgent need to use methods of modern biotechnology in primary seed farming of potatoes in the territory of the Russian Federation. Lack of required amount of good quality planting material is a major factor limiting stable high yield. The crop of potatoes, annually produced in Russia, significantly below global, and does not meet genetic capabilities of the species. Many viral infections tend to accumulate in the tubers, reducing their quality and keeping quality during storage. For the first time peculiarities of clonal micropropagation and in vitro culture of early-maturing potato varieties Lubava Russian breeding (agricultural research Institute of the city of Kemerovo, the Kemerovo region of the Russian Federation. At the stage of introduction to the culture of the parameters, providing pure cultures using lizoformin as sterilizing compounds. At the stage of actually breeding to obtain plants-regenerants of a certain morphological structure was studied the influence of certain components of the nutrient medium. The influence of agar, sucrose and vitamins such morphological indicators of development of regenerated plants as number of internodes and plant height. In the rooting stage the effect of different of growth regulators auxin nature: α-naphthyloxy acid, β-indoleacetic acid and β-indolebutyric acid, in concentrations of 0.1-5 μm. Selected concentrations of these compounds, the introduction of which in the nutrient medium provided the maximum indices of rhisogenesis: the number and length of roots. At the stage of adaptation to non-sterile growing conditions ex vitro the efficiency of the hydroponic plants, filled with a liquid nutrient solution. A successful stage adaptation has characterizability 100% survival rate of plants and increase the morphological characteristics of regenerants.

  2. Concentrations of free amino acids and sugars in nine potato varieties: effects of storage and relationship with acrylamide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Nigel G; Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Gillatt, Peter N; Hartley, Lee; Elmore, J Stephen; Mottram, Donald S

    2012-12-05

    Acrylamide forms during cooking and processing predominately from the reaction of free asparagine and reducing sugars in the Maillard reaction. The identification of low free asparagine and reducing sugar varieties of crops is therefore an important target. In this study, nine varieties of potato (French fry varieties Maris Piper (from two suppliers), Pentland Dell, King Edward, Daisy, and Markies; and chipping varieties Lady Claire, Lady Rosetta, Saturna, and Hermes) grown in the United Kingdom in 2009 were analyzed at monthly intervals through storage from November 2009 to July 2010. Acrylamide formation was measured in heated flour and chips fried in oil. Analysis of variance revealed significant interactions between varieties nested within type (French fry and chipping) and storage time for most free amino acids, glucose, fructose, and acrylamide formation. Acrylamide formed in chips correlated significantly with acrylamide formed in flour and with chip color. There were significant correlations between glucose or total reducing sugar concentration and acrylamide formation in both variety types, but with fructose the correlation was much stronger for chipping than for French fry varieties. Conversely, there were significant correlations with acrylamide formation for both total free amino acid and free asparagine concentration in the French fry but not chipping varieties. The study showed the potential of variety selection for preventing unacceptable levels of acrylamide formation in potato products and the variety-dependent effect of long-term storage on acrylamide risk. It also highlighted the complex relationship between precursor concentration and acrylamide risk in potatoes.

  3. The behaviour of certain potato varieties and lines towards the attack of the Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the behaviour of some potato varieties and lines towards the attack of the Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary fungus under the field conditions of the Potato Research and Development Station, Targu-Secuiesc. During the observed period (2001-2003 the appearance of new forms of attack was registered, for example the attack on the stem, on the leaf petioles, as well as a greater number of infected tubers. The greatest number of blighted stems belonged to the varieties Sante and Ostara, and the smallest one was registered in the case of the variety Lady Roseta, followed by Desiree and Nemere. The results prove that there is a direct relationship between the frequency of the attack on the stems and that of the blighted tubers in the case of every variety, except for the varieties Lady Roseta and Nemere at which the smallest number of infected tubers was registered.

  4. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS) has properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking me...

  5. Rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) varieties using HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebot, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    When a raw sweet potato root is analysed, only sucrose, glucose and fructose are present but during cooking, starch is hydrolysed into maltose giving the sweet flavour to cooked roots. This study aimed at developing an HPTLC protocol for the rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in four commercial varieties and to compare them to 243 hybrids grouped by flesh colour (white, orange, purple). In commercial varieties, mean maltose content varied from 10.26 to 15.60% and total sugars from 17.83 to 27.77% on fresh weight basis. Hybrids showed significant variation in maltose content within each group, with means ranging from 7.65% for white-fleshed, to 8.53% in orange- and 11.98% in purple-fleshed. Total mean sugars content was 20.24, 22.11 and 26.84% respectively for white, orange and purple flesh hybrids. No significant correlations were detected between individual sugars but maltose and total sugars content were highly correlated. Compared to the best commercial variety ( Baby ), 25 hybrids (10.3%) presented a higher maltose content and 40 (16.5%) showed a higher total sugars content. HPTLC was observed as an attractive, cost efficient, high-throughput technique for quantitating maltose and total sugars in sweet potatoes. Perspectives for improving sweet potato quality for consumers' requirements are also discussed.

  6. Results concerning the analysis of the reaction products resulting from genomic dna amplification using agarose gel electrophoresis for potatoes studied old varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BACIU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The author is currently involved in collecting, making an inventory, evaluation and preservation the old varieties from the Western part of Romania. In this paper 8 potato old varieties collected during 20 years and 2 varieties from National Institute of Research and Development for potato and Sugar Beet Brasov are presented. The preservation was carried out in vivo and in vitro. Important changes were observed during this time. In our work we identified many gaps in the knowledge and understanding of the origin of transformations. We made a comparison between two big areas of potato growth: Apuseni Mountains [5] and the Maramures County [3]. In these areas the potato represents the main food in winter. This work opens opportunities for future researches in the field of political and ethical decisions for potato gene pool conservation. Soon the exchange of genetic resources will be a diplomatic issue.

  7. Evaluation of content and estimation of daily intake of cadmium and lead in several varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, G; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found.

  8. Effect of intercropping varieties of sweet potato and okra in an ultisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike in 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons to access the productivity of three sweet potato cultivars intercropped with three okra cultivars. Intercropping generally increased okra plant height while intercropping ...

  9. Effect of intercropping varieties of sweet potato and okra in an ultisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... 2Department of Agronomy, College of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michael ... Land equivalent ratio was higher with intercropping TAE 38 okra and TIS ... to the use of low yield crop cultivars, resulting in low yield ... The top soil (0 - 20 cm) texture of .... sweet potato conserved soil moisture and reduced weed.

  10. RODUCTION COSTS AND PROFITABILITY OF THREE POTATO VARIETIES: LORD, VINETA AND JELLY IN YEARS 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz KUTA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper Farm incomes in Poland vary substantially, which is entirely confirmed by the results of agricultural accounting in Polish FADN. The income is influenced by a range of factors of which the most important are natural conditions, the farm production potential, production intensity as well as subsidies under the Common Agricultural Policy. The increase in potato production on the European market has caused a low price level. In some countries the decline in prices was even 15% in 2010. The decline in prices led to the decline in profitability of potato production because low prices obtained by producers entailed higher costs of potato production. This work shows research results from years 2011-2013. The aim of the research was to compare the profitability of edible potato production on an individual farm in the Lódz Province in the early and late harvesting of the analysed years. The data needed to estimate the profitability were obtained based on the data included in the report which an individual farm runs in order to determine the profitability of the application of new cultivation technique or new varieties. Based on the obtained data, direct and indirect costs as well as profit were calculated. The profitability estimated on the basis of the data collected from the farmer was compared to the profitability which would be achieved by the farmer on the basis of the percentage of direct and indirect costs provided by the Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics. The profitability calculated on the basis of indicators of the Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics was lower than the profitability estimated on the basis of the data obtained from the analysis of the farm financial report.

  11. Yield and Nitrogen Assimilation of Potato Varieties (Solanum tuberosum L.) as Affected by Saline Water Irrigation and Organic Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdy, A.; Gadalla, A.M.; El-Kholi, A.F.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Ismail, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in lysimeter under controlled greenhouse conditions. Saline water was applied in different levels, i.e. fresh water, 3 and 6 dS/m. Organic manure were applied to soil at rates of 0, 2.6 and 5.2 kg/m2. Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Labelled urea (10% a.e.) was applied at rate of 200 kg N/ha. 15 N technique was used to evaluate N-uptake and fertilizer efficiency. Comparison held between the two potato varieties indicated that higher reduction in shoot dry weight was recorded with Nicola variety than Spunta one which irrigated with 6 dS/m water salinity level. Addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 organic rate induced an increase in N uptake with fresh water and 3 dS/m salinity then tended to decrease with 6 dS/m level as compared to the untreated control. Concerning the nitrogen fertilization, data of 15 N analysis showed that, water salinity levels combined with organic addition rates were frequently affected the nitrogen derived from fertilizer and consequently the fertilizer use efficiency. Most of nitrogen was derived from the applied nitrogen fertilizer with maximum accumulation in tuber rather than shoots or roots of both potato varieties. Gradual increase of tuber starch with increasing salinity levels was noticed with addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 of organic matter. In general, Spunta variety showed some superiority in tuber starch over those of Nicola variety tuber

  12. The Effect of Different Storage Temperatures on the Agronomic Characteristics and Yield of Two Varieties of Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H Jalali

    2016-10-01

    , one treatment of 80 degree-day (T5, and control treatment (T6 on agronomic characteristics and yield of Marfona and Ramus cultivars was investigated by using a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Kabootar Abad Agriculture Research Center of Isfahan. Period of 10 days and 12 ° C were found in all treatments. For example, in the treatment of T3, the tissue repair process that is carried out for 10 days at 12 ° C to 80 GDD is received by the tubers (8 × 10, 8 for the reason that, 4 ° C is base temperature and should be minus of 12. Salable and non-salable yield, number of stems produced, emergence rate, the number of tubers per plant, tubers weight and the tubers size were measured in this study. Results and Discussion The results of this study showed that the effect of temperature treatment and the interaction of temperature treatment and cultivar on yield and yield components were considered statistically significant. Marfona cultivar and use of T3 treatment with 51733 kg ha-1 had the highest tuber yield. However, there was not significant difference between this treatment and use of T2 treatment, and also using of Ramus cultivar and T3 and T4 temperature storage. For both cultivars used in this study, T3 treatment produced maximum number of stems per plant. Harvest index was fluctuated at different temperature treatments from 63.5 to 76.1 percent in the Ramos cultivar, and from 64 to 79.6 percent in Marfona cultivar. In summary, management of storage temperature can increase potato crop yields, especially in areas with short growing seasons. It seems that effects of physiological age differ between cultivars and different varieties of potatoes have different abilities to produce tuber yields in response to different heat treatments. Increasing of total tuber yield, especially as affected by thermal temperature storage application higher than 500 GDD was reported in some studies such as Knowles and Botar (1992 in

  13. Using the GENESYS model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on gene escape from GM rape varieties to evaluate and design cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow in rapeseed is a process taking place both in space and over the years and cannot be studied exclusively by field trials. Consequently, the GENESYS model was developed to quantify the effects of cropping systems on transgene escape from rapeseed crops to rapeseed volunteers in neighbour plots and in the subsequent crops. In the present work, this model was used to evaluate the risk of rape harvest contamination by extraneous genes in various farming systems in case of co-existing GM, conventional and organic crops. When 50 % of the rape varieties in the region were transgenic, the rate of GM seeds in non-GM crop harvests on farms with large fields was lower than the 0.9 % purity threshold proposed by the EC for rape crop production (food and feed harvests, but on farms with smaller fields, the threshold was exceeded. Harvest impurity increased in organic farms, mainly because of their small field size. The model was then used to evaluate the consequences of changes in farming practices and to identify those changes reducing harvest contamination. The effects of these changes depended on the field pattern and farming system. The most efficient practices in limiting harvest impurity comprised improved set-aside management by sowing a cover crop in spring on all set-aside fields in the region, permanently banning rape crops and set-aside around seed production fields and (for non-GM farmers clustering farm fields to reduce gene inflow from neighbour fields.

  14. The Effect of Temperature, Potato Varieties, and The Origin Of Cyst on The Reproductive Biology of Globodera rostochiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurjanah Nurjanah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis [Wollenweber] Behrens is a nematode species of worldwide regulatory concern. This nematode caused serious economic of potato losses in Indonesia. This research studied by factorial designed to evaluated the effect of temperature (10, 20, and 30ºC, potato varieties (`Granola´, `Margahayu´, and `Cipanas´, and origin of cyst (West, Central, and East Java on reproductive biology of G. rostochiensis in the growth chamber. The research was conducted by observed of produced the new cyst number, reproduction fitness, survival, fecundity, and multiplication of G. rostochiensis. The result showed that all of the potato varieties were infected by G. rostochiensis when they were grown at the temperature ranging of 20 and 30ºC but not at 10ºC. The optimum temperature for maximum number of cysts with the highest reproduction factor, survival, fecundity and multiplication rate for all populations was 20ºC. The origin of cyst did not have any effect on the reproductive rate. The temperature of 20ºC provided is best environment for the life of G. rostochiensis on Granola.   INTISARI Nematoda sista kentang (Globodera rostochiensis [Wollenweber] Behrens adalah spesies nematoda yang mendapatkan perhatian khusus di seluruh dunia. G. rostochiensis menyebabkan kerugian ekonomi yang serius pada pertanaman kentang di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh perbedaan suhu (10, 20, dan 30ºC, varietas kentang (Granola, Cipanas, dan Margahayu, dan asal sista (Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, dan Jawa Timur terhadap biologi reproduksi G. rostochiensis di growth chamber menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap jumlah sista baru, kemampuan reproduksi, daya tahan hidup, keperidian dan multiplikasi G. rostochiensis. Seluruh varietas kentang yang diuji terserang G. rostochiensis pada suhu 20 dan 30ºC kecuali pada suhu 10ºC. Kisaran suhu optimum untuk memperoleh jumlah sista baru yang maksimum

  15. Effect of Different Irrigation and Planting Methods on Water Productivity and Health of Commercial Varieties of Potato

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    H. R Salemi

    2016-07-01

    ., Cary, NC. The probability level of 0.05 (Duncan's test also was selected. Results and Discussion An analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted on the irrigation systems and planting methods using PROC GLM (SAS 9.1, SAS institute Ltd., USA. Duncan’s multiple range tests at 0.05 probability level was used for paired mean comparison. The Results provided in two years show that the effect of irrigation systems × year (P≤0.05 and cultivars × year (P≤0.01 on (Tuber-yield, the consumption water and cultivars reactions to common diseases were found to be significant. There is no interaction between irrigation and planting methods, Variety × planting methods, Variety × irrigation, irrigation × Variety × planting methods and irrigation × Variety × planting methods × Year for (Tuber-yield, the consumption water and cultivate reactions to common diseases. On the contrary, the effects of the irrigation system treatments on the Tuber-yield and water productivity were significant (p≤0.05. The effects of variety on Tuber-yield and water productivity were not significantly (P≥0.05 detected. Sprinkler irrigation method with 26152 kg ha-1 of production mean was preferred significantly to tape irrigation method with 23974 kg/ha of production mean. Tape irrigation leaded to the highest mean of WP equal to 4.69 kg m-3. Two years comparison of yield mean showed no significant difference between Agria and Marfuna potato cultivars. The two year comparison results of yield means using different planting methods indicated that one row planting method (24839 kg ha-1 was preferred significantly comparing to two row planting methods (22927 kg ha-1. Evaluation of tuber infection by ordinary scab and rhizoctonia showed that the highest mean of infection way observed in furrow method and the lowest one was observed in tape method of irrigation. Scab infection in furrow irrigation was 47% higher than sprinkler irrigation and 78% higher than tape irrigation. Conclusions During the

  16. Impact of heat-moisture and annealing treatments on physicochemical properties and digestibility of starches from different colored sweet potato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Phan Thanh Bao; Ngoc, Luu Bui Bao; Hoa, Phan Ngoc; Tien, Nguyen Ngoc Thanh; Hung, Pham Van

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the change in physicochemical properties and digestibility of starches isolated from colored sweet potato varieties under heat-moisture treatment (HMT) or annealing treatment (ANN). The results showed that morphology and X-ray diffraction patterns of the sweet potato starches remained unchanged after the HMT or ANN. The HMT significantly reduced peak viscosity, breakdown and setback and significantly increased pasting temperature, trough and final viscosities of the sweet potato starches. The swelling powers and solubility of the heat-moisture treated starches were significantly lower than those of the native or annealed starches. The decreased rapid digestible starch and the increased slowly digestible and resistant starch contents of the sweet potato starches after HMT or ANN as compared to those of the native starches were observed. The resistant starch (RS) contents of the heat-moisture treated sweet potato starches were in a range of 30.6-39.3%, significantly higher than those of the annealed starches (28.8-32.0%). The strong impact of the HMT on physicochemical properties and RS formation of the sweet potato starches compared to the ANN might be due to the high stability of the occurred interactions between starch molecules and amylopectin chains during treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  18. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  19. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola G Zuno-Floriano

    Full Text Available One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  20. Breeding of a new potato variety ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ with high eating quality, high carotenoid content, and resistance to diseases and pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yu; Mori, Kazuyuki; Matsuo, Yuuki; Mukojima, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Sobaru, Norio; Tamiya, Seiji; Nakao, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuya; Watanuki, Hitomi; Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Chaya, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is a new potato variety bred from a cross between ‘Saikai 35’ as a female parent and ‘Saikai 33’ as a male. ‘Saikai 35’ is resistant to bacterial wilt, contains the H1 and Rychc genes for resistance to the potato cyst nematode (PCN) and potato virus Y (PVY), respectively, and has high carotenoid content, while ‘Saikai 33’ has large and high-yielding tubers and is resistant to both bacterial wilt and PCN. The carotenoid content of ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is higher than that of ‘Dejima’, a common double cropping variety. The taste quality of steamed ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is comparable to that of ‘Inca-no-mezame’ tubers, which has high levels of carotenoid, and superior to ‘Nishiyutaka’, another popular double cropping variety. ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is suitable for French fries, because its tuber has high starch content. The marketable yield of ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ was higher than that of ‘Inca-no-mezame’ in spring cropping, although it was lower than that of ‘Nishiyutaka’ in double cropping regions. ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ tubers are larger on average than ‘Inca-no-mezame’ tubers in spring cropping. Moreover, the ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ variety is resistant to PCN and PVY, and exhibits a high level of resistance to bacterial wilt. PMID:28744186

  1. Breeding of a new potato variety 'Nagasaki Kogane' with high eating quality, high carotenoid content, and resistance to diseases and pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yu; Mori, Kazuyuki; Matsuo, Yuuki; Mukojima, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Sobaru, Norio; Tamiya, Seiji; Nakao, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuya; Watanuki, Hitomi; Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Chaya, Masataka

    2017-06-01

    'Nagasaki Kogane' is a new potato variety bred from a cross between 'Saikai 35' as a female parent and 'Saikai 33' as a male. 'Saikai 35' is resistant to bacterial wilt, contains the H1 and Ry chc genes for resistance to the potato cyst nematode (PCN) and potato virus Y (PVY), respectively, and has high carotenoid content, while 'Saikai 33' has large and high-yielding tubers and is resistant to both bacterial wilt and PCN. The carotenoid content of 'Nagasaki Kogane' is higher than that of 'Dejima', a common double cropping variety. The taste quality of steamed 'Nagasaki Kogane' is comparable to that of 'Inca-no-mezame' tubers, which has high levels of carotenoid, and superior to 'Nishiyutaka', another popular double cropping variety. 'Nagasaki Kogane' is suitable for French fries, because its tuber has high starch content. The marketable yield of 'Nagasaki Kogane' was higher than that of 'Inca-no-mezame' in spring cropping, although it was lower than that of 'Nishiyutaka' in double cropping regions. 'Nagasaki Kogane' tubers are larger on average than 'Inca-no-mezame' tubers in spring cropping. Moreover, the 'Nagasaki Kogane' variety is resistant to PCN and PVY, and exhibits a high level of resistance to bacterial wilt.

  2. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content – A 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore...... for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional...... concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption....

  3. Exploring the yield gap of orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties on smallholder farmers' fields in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van D.; Franke, A.C.

    2018-01-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) can contribute to combating vitamin A deficiency and establishing more resilient cropping systems in sub-Saharan Africa. There is limited understanding of the factors that affect yield and quality of OFSP on smallholder farmers' fields. This study aimed to assess

  4. Population dynamics and damage caused by the leaf miner Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on seven potato processing varieties grown in temperate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Carmona, D.; Vincini, A.M.; Monterubbianesi, G.; Caldiz, D.

    2010-01-01

    The leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard is considered a key pest for potatoes in Argentina. Population dynamics and leaf damage caused by the leafminer on seven selected potato processing varieties were assessed at Balcarce during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. Adult population dynamic was monitored using yellow sticky traps, while leaf damage (punctures and mines) was assessed using a damage index scale from low to severe. Liriomyza huidobrensis adults were present throughout the growing season and the population increased along crop development. The same was true for all varieties regarding larval damage, being low on early crop stages and severe late in the season. Varieties were grouped in two different categories according to damage scale index. Shepody, Kennebec, Frital and Innovator showed a higher damage index when compared with Santana, Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank, which exhibited a lower damage. Moreover, it could be assumed that damage was related to the foliage greenness, with light green colored varieties (Shepody, Kennebec, Frital and Innovator) being more attractive and affected by L. huidobrensis. (author)

  5. Phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity of the native Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum L. Huagalina variety in La Libertad - Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rojas-Padilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato is grown and consumed throughout the world for their particular calori fi c nutritional value and vitamin C, but it also contai ns phytochemicals (secondary metabolites that have been studied and found to have positive effects in preventing degenerative diseases in human health, such as hypertensive activity , and also atherosclerosis , type 2 diabetes, liver fibrosis, Alzheimer's d isease, macular degeneration and cancer. We aimed to identify and quantify p henolic compounds in potatoes grown on El Zuro (EZ and Huayatan Alto (HA in Santiago de Chuco, La Libertad, Peru. The field trials were carried out in EZ (altitude 3750 m.a.s.l. and HA (altitude 3150 m.a.s.l. employing organic and inorganic fertilization respectively. Ext raction from the peel and flesh was obtained separately , with the following solution: 50% methanol, 50% deionized water and 0.5% acetic acid. The sample was inj ected into the system UPLC - MS / MS, using ESI ionization ( Electrospray Ionization and fifteen external reference standards. Thirteen metabolites were detected in the flesh and potato peel. The highest content of secondary metabolites (mg/100 g DW were: Chlorogenic acid (476.82 ± 63.58, neochlorogenic acid (87.90 ± 19.42 caffeic acid (77.53 ± 14.49 and vanillin (11.52 ± 1.38. The PCA ( Principal Components Analysis scores show that the highest concentration of metabolites was found in the peel of bot h cultivars. We concluded that the native potato Huagalina contains the genes expressed in different biosynthetic pathways of the metabolites found in this study .

  6. AGRO-BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF POTATO VARIETIES ON LIGHT-BROWN SOILS ASTRAKHAN REGION AT WATERING SPRINKLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Tyutyuma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of varieties collection of different ecological-geographic origin on light-brown soils in the summer planting and watering irrigation. The promising, high-yielding varieties for cultivation in the Astrakhan region were selected.

  7. Growth, yield and quality attributes of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kufri chandramukhi) under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide and ozone and their interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to study the growth and yield responses of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) to different levels of carbon dioxide (382 and 570ppm) and ozone (50 and 70ppb) in combinations using open top chambers (OTCs). Plants were exposed to three ozone levels in combination with ambient CO2 and two ozone levels at elevated CO2. Significant increments in leaf area and total biomass were observed under elevated CO2 in combination with ambient O3 (ECO2+AO3) and elevated O3 (ECO2+EO3), compared to the plants grown under ambient concentrations (ACO2+AO3). Yield measured as fresh weight of potato also increased significantly under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3. Yield, however, reduced under ambient (ACO2+AO3) and elevated ozone (ACO2+EO3) compared to ACO2 (filtered chamber). Number, fresh and dry weights of tubers of size 35-50mm and>50mm used for direct consumption and industrial purposes, respectively increased maximally under ECO2+AO3. Ambient as well as elevated levels of O3 negatively affected the growth parameters and yield mainly due to reductions in number and weight of tubers of sizes >35mm. The quality of potato tubers was also modified under different treatments. Starch content increased and K, Zn and Fe concentrations decreased under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3 compared to ACO2+AO3. Starch content reduced under ACO2+AO3 and ACO2+EO3 treatments compared to ACO2. These results clearly suggest that elevated CO2 has provided complete protection to ambient O3 as the potato yield was higher under ECO2+AO3 compared to ACO2. However, ambient CO2 is not enough to protect the plants under ambient O3 levels. Elevated CO2 also provided protection against elevated O3 by improving the yield. Quality of tubers is modified by both CO2 and O3, which have serious implications on human health at present and in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Diversity Analysis of Two in vitro and Irradiated Potato Varieties Expressed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman El-FIKI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Potato buds cvs. ҅Valor’ and ‘Spunta’ were cultured in vitro on MS solid medium with 0.2 mg -1 BAP. The resulting plantlets were irradiated with gamma radiation doses 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. Irradiated segments were transferred onto fresh MS with BAP and plantlets survival percentage was calculated after eight weeks. Gamma radiation caused the death of 3.8% to 81% in cv. ҅Spunta’ and 2.9% to 83.9% in cv. ҅Valor’. Microtubers produced from irradiated plantlets were decreased with increasing gamma radiation doses, with notable changes in shape, size and numbers. The proline contents in irradiated plantlets were steady increase with gamma radiation doses. The genomic DNA of the two cultivars and ten radiation treatments was amplified with 10 RAPD primers that generated 53 polymorphic bands. The highest number of genetic identity was 0.9672 showed between irradiated plantlets with 20 and 30 Gy in cv. ҅Valor’. However, the highest genetic distance was 0.3995 observed between irradiated plantlets with dose 20 Gy in cv. ҅Valor’ and 30 Gy in cv. ҅Spunta’. The dendrogram generated by cluster analysis distinguished the irradiated plantlets genetically.

  9. Effect of Storage Temperature on Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, UPLC Phenolic Acid Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleven Potato (Solanum tuberosum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hubert Yamdeu Galani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Storage of potato tubers at low temperature affects their metabolism and may alter their phytochemical properties. There is a need to elucidate the changes in antioxidant compounds, activity and enzymes during storage of tubers. Eleven Indian potato varieties were evaluated for antioxidant parameters, after 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at room temperature, 15 °C and 4 °C. Total phenolics (0.0786–0.1546 mg gallic acid equivalents⋅g−1 FW and vitamin C content (0.0828–0.2416 mg⋅g−1 FW varied among the varieties and were different with storage temperature; their levels fluctuated during storage but remained above the initial level until the last day of observation. Phenolic acid profiling by UPLC identified 12 compounds among which the most abundant was chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Except para-coumaric acid which decreased at 4 °C, all the phenolic acids increased with storage. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid mostly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.456, 0.482, 0.588 and 0.620, respectively. Antioxidant activity against both DPPH and ABTS radicals increased during the initial days of storage and then dropped to a level comparable or lower than the original value, irrespective of the storage temperature. Correlation study revealed that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid mostly contributed to antioxidant activity. Activity of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, increased initially but then decreased to values lower than the initial level and were not influenced by storage temperature. Correlation with antioxidant activity indicated that the enhancement of reactive oxygen scavenging species in cold stored tubers could result mainly from ascorbate peroxidase activity. Our results demonstrate that storage temperature adversely influences the metabolism and the content of

  10. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  11. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  12. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  13. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  14. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  15. Chemical composition, nitrogen degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in vines harvested from four tropical sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, R; Mlambo, V; Mangwe, M C; Dlamini, B J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of vines from four sweet potato varieties (Tia Nong 57, Tia Nong 66, Ligwalagwala and Kenya) as alternative feed resources for ruminant livestock. The chemical composition [neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN)], in vitro ruminal nitrogen (N) degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in the vines, harvested at 70 and 110 days after planting (DAP), were determined. Variety and harvesting stage did not (p > 0.05) influence CP and NDF content of the vines. Concentration of CP ranged from 104.9 to 212.2 g/kg DM, while NDF ranged from 439.4 to 529.2 g/kg DM across harvesting stages and varieties. Nitrogen degradability (ND) at 70 and 110 DAP was highest (p ruminal cumulative gas production parameters (a, b and c). The in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins, as measured by increment in gas production parameters upon PEG inclusion, had a maximum value of 18.2%, suggesting low to moderate antinutritional tannin activity. Ligwalagwala vines, with highly degradable N, would be the best protein supplement to use during the dry season when ruminant animals consume low N basal diets and maintenance is an acceptable production objective. Tia Nong 66 and Kenya varieties, with less degradable N, may be more suitable for use as supplements for high-producing animals such as dairy goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Kakiziba, GM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kakiziba, GM. Vol 1, No 1 (2008) - Articles Marketing Communications: How Strategic Advertising Enhances Good Customer Relations and Assures Brand Loyalty – The Case of Celtel, Tanzania Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2071-2162. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  17. Variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L.. I - Comportamento de 12 variedades procedentes da Holanda, Alemanha e Suécia Behavior of twelve potato varieties from European sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatadas experiências com 12 variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., recebidas da Holanda (Prinslander, Irene, Froma e Barima, Alemanha (Merkur, Sabina, Linda e Concordia e Suécia Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran e Jätte-Bintje. Essas experiências, em número de seis, das quais três no chamado período "da sêca" (março-julho e três no "das águas" (setembro-janeiro, foram executadas nas localidades de Campinas, Louveira o Capão Bonito, no Estado de São Paulo. Ficou evidenciado o seguinte: a dado o bom estado de brotação dos tubérculos, as porcentagens de falhas no plantio "da sêca" foram baixas; já no plantio "das águas", as variedades de brotação lenta, como "Voran" e "Sabina", falharam muito; b "Prinslander" e "Konsuragis" resistiram bem à sêca prolongada, e "Barima" o "Linda" mostraram ser muito sensíveis; c "Linda", "Voran" e "Merkur", principalmente a primeira destas, apresentaram boa resistência a Phytophthora infestans, e "Jätte-Bintje" foi muito suscetível; "Voran", "Irene", "Prinslander" e "Barima" não ofereceram resistência a Alternaria solani; d "Merkur" e "Konsuragis" foram as mais produtivas para as duas épocas de plantio, sendo que "nas águas", "Eigenheimer", "Barima", "Concordia" e Jätte-Bintje", também produziram bem. Outros aspectos relacionados com variedades foram estudados.Twelve potato varieties imported from Holland (Prinslander, Irene, Froma, and Barima, Germany (Merkur, Sabina, Linda, and Concordia, and Sweden (Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran, and Jätte-Bintje were compared in six experiments carried out at three different localities in the state of São Paulo (Campinas, Louveira, and Capão Bonito. The experiments were planted twice a year, once during the so-called dry season (March lo July, and another time during the rainy season (September to March. The following results were obtained: a plantings made in the dry season had a good stand, whereas this was

  18. Breeding and development of Globodera-resistant potato varieties with long tuber shape and russet skin for production in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis, and G. pallida,) have been identified in the U.S. and are under quarantine regulations, with a third newly identified species (G. ellingtonae) not categorized as a quarantined pest. Management of G. rostochiensis in the state of New York...

  19. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  20. Levels of potential bioactive compounds including carotenoids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, and expression of their cognate biosynthetic genes vary significantly in different varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown under uniform cultural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcarcel, Jesus; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; O'Brien, Nora M

    2016-02-01

    In addition to their high carbohydrate content, potatoes are also an important dietary source of vitamin C and bioactive secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which have been suggested to play a role in human health. The expression of genes encoding key enzymes involved in the synthesis of these compounds was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared to the accumulation of the corresponding product in seven potato varieties showing contrasting levels of metabolite accumulation. Strong positive correlations were found between phenolic content in the flesh of tubers and transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. The expression of PAL and CHS was also related to that of AN1, a transcription factor involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, suggesting that these genes are regulated in a coordinated manner. No clear relationship was found between transcript levels of phytoene synthase (PSY) or L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) genes and total carotenoid or vitamin C accumulation, respectively. Data indicate that levels of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds in potato are controlled primarily by PAL and CHS gene expression. Transcript levels of PSY and GLDH did not control accumulation of carotenoids or vitamin C. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Detection of irradiated potatoes by conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherz, H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the author shows that the conductivity of irradiated potatoes measured by a sticking electrode depend on the irradiation dose and is independent on the potato variety. The measured values remain constant over a six month storage period

  2. Chromium in potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard-Gilbert, K.; Blincoe, C.

    1989-01-01

    Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined, and tubes were labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate ( 51 Cr). A labeled chromium complex was isolated from preparations of raw, baked, or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 μg of Cr/g tissue, respectively. There was no correlation between the two, nor did they respond similarly to changes of variety or locations. No significant differences were apparent in relative migration of the isolated complexes except between raw and cooked extrinsically labeled preparations

  3. GmDREB1 overexpression affects the expression of microRNAs in GM wheat seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyan Jiang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulators of gene expression that act on many different molecular and biochemical processes in eukaryotes. To date, miRNAs have not been considered in the current evaluation system for GM crops. In this study, small RNAs from the dry seeds of a GM wheat line overexpressing GmDREB1 and non-GM wheat cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, 23 differentially expressed miRNAs in dry seeds were identified and confirmed between GM wheat and a non-GM acceptor. Notably, more differentially expressed tae-miRNAs between non-GM wheat varieties were found, indicating that the degree of variance between non-GM cultivars was considerably higher than that induced by the transgenic event. Most of the target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs between GM wheat and a non-GM acceptor were associated with abiotic stress, in accordance with the product concept of GM wheat in improving drought and salt tolerance. Our data provided useful information and insights into the evaluation of miRNA expression in edible GM crops.

  4. The world of "GM-free".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Vivian; Brookes, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The rapid global development of agricultural production systems using seeds derived from genetic modification (GM) has been paralleled by the growth of attempts to keep at least a part of the world's agriculture and food as free from GM-crops and their products as possible. The ideal for some proponents of such "GM-free" activity would be a total absence, usually styled "zero content"; others, perhaps more realistically, opt for a definition usually not precisely defined that allows for minimal trace levels of GM material. The reasons for wanting "GM-free" agriculture and its products are varied; they include philosophical and religious beliefs, concern for human (and animal) health--and for "the environment"-as well as commercial and political interests. With such a variety of motivations, and in the absence of legal rulings, the definitions of "GM-free" vary according to inclination and circumstances. Whatever the precise meaning, the maintenance of a "GM-free" product stream in a world where GM crop production is widespread requires the establishment of identity preservation and segregation systems in which traceability and testing are cornerstones. Inevitably these have cost implications for the supply chain and/or the ultimate consumer. In a number of countries different forms of "GM-free" labels exist for some products; the style of such labels is variable with schemes and labels typically voluntary or privately organized. In more recent years, some governments have begun to regularize the definition and meaning of "GM-free." We conclude our analysis by exploring consumer reactions both to "GM-free" and to "GM-free" labels, and ask who ultimately benefits from preserving a product stream substantially or entirely devoid of GM-content.

  5. The Formation of GM-free and GM Coasean Clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Wesseler, Justus

    2017-01-01

    The unintended presence of traces of genetically modified (GM) crops in the harvests of non-GM crops plays a prominent role in the debate over the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. One way to address the issue is the formation of GM-free or GM-only clubs. We model the decisions of individual

  6. Biotech/GM crops in horticulture: plum cv. HoneySweet resistant to plum pox virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. By 2011, genetically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha. Only 114.507 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.490 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Currently, developing c...

  7. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA TEPUNG UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batatas VARIETAS SUKUH DENGAN VARIASI PROSES PENEPUNGAN [Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Sukuh Variety Sweet Potatoes (Ipomea batatas Flours Made with Various Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifena Honestin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato has considerable potencies to support food diversification program based on flour and starch product. Various processing methods in the flour processing show great effect on alteration of the physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour. This research investigated the effects of different flour processing methods on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour. The results showed that processing method had a significant effect on water content, bulk density, colour (L, a, b, microscopic properties of starch granule, water absorption index, water soluble index and pasting properties of the sweet potato flour.

  8. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in

  9. Altered Tuber Yield in Genetically Modified High-Amylose and Oil Potato Lines Is Associated With Changed Whole-Plant Nitrogen Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Pourazari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for improved crop quality traits can affect non-target traits related to growth and resource use, and these effects may vary in different cultivation conditions (e. g., greenhouse vs. field. The objectives of this study are to investigate the growth and whole-plant nitrogen (N economy of two genetically modified (GM potato lines compared to their non-GM parental varieties and when grown in different cultivation conditions. A high-amylose GM potato line and its parent were grown under field and greenhouse conditions for one growing season in Sweden; and a GM oil potato line and its parent were grown in greenhouse conditions only. Tuber yield, above ground biomass, N uptake efficiency and other plant N economy traits were assessed. In both cultivation conditions, the GM lines produced between 1.5 and two times more tubers as compared with their parents. In the greenhouse, fresh tuber yield and N uptake efficiency were unaffected by the genetic modifications, but the GM-lines produced less tuber biomass per plant-internal N compared to their parents. In the field, the fresh tuber yield was 40% greater in the high-amylose line as compared with its parent; the greater fresh tuber yield in the high-amylose GM line was accomplished by higher water allocation to the harvested tubers, and associated with increased N recovery from soil (+20%, N uptake efficiency (+53%, tuber N content (+20%, and N accumulation (+120% compared with the non-GM parent. The cultivation conditions influenced the yield and N economy. For example, the final fresh above-ground plant biomass and N pool were considerably higher in the greenhouse conditions, whilst the tuber yield was higher in the field conditions. In conclusion, the genetic modification inducing high accumulation of amylose in potato tubers affected several non-target traits related to plant N economy, and increased the plant N uptake and accumulation efficiency of the field-grown plants. Due to strongly

  10. Altered Tuber Yield in Genetically Modified High-Amylose and Oil Potato Lines Is Associated With Changed Whole-Plant Nitrogen Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourazari, Fereshteh; Andersson, Mariette; Weih, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Breeding for improved crop quality traits can affect non-target traits related to growth and resource use, and these effects may vary in different cultivation conditions (e. g., greenhouse vs. field). The objectives of this study are to investigate the growth and whole-plant nitrogen (N) economy of two genetically modified (GM) potato lines compared to their non-GM parental varieties and when grown in different cultivation conditions. A high-amylose GM potato line and its parent were grown under field and greenhouse conditions for one growing season in Sweden; and a GM oil potato line and its parent were grown in greenhouse conditions only. Tuber yield, above ground biomass, N uptake efficiency and other plant N economy traits were assessed. In both cultivation conditions, the GM lines produced between 1.5 and two times more tubers as compared with their parents. In the greenhouse, fresh tuber yield and N uptake efficiency were unaffected by the genetic modifications, but the GM-lines produced less tuber biomass per plant-internal N compared to their parents. In the field, the fresh tuber yield was 40% greater in the high-amylose line as compared with its parent; the greater fresh tuber yield in the high-amylose GM line was accomplished by higher water allocation to the harvested tubers, and associated with increased N recovery from soil (+20%), N uptake efficiency (+53%), tuber N content (+20%), and N accumulation (+120%) compared with the non-GM parent. The cultivation conditions influenced the yield and N economy. For example, the final fresh above-ground plant biomass and N pool were considerably higher in the greenhouse conditions, whilst the tuber yield was higher in the field conditions. In conclusion, the genetic modification inducing high accumulation of amylose in potato tubers affected several non-target traits related to plant N economy, and increased the plant N uptake and accumulation efficiency of the field-grown plants. Due to strongly increased

  11. Producer Surplus Distributions in GM Crops: The Ignored Impacts of Roundup Ready Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Huso, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Release of a genetically modified (GM) crop variety would lower prices of competing pesticides used on conventional varieties. This causes an increase in surplus for those farmers who adopt the GM variety, as well as for those who plant the conventional variety. A Cournot model was developed to determine the equilibrium quantities of conventional pesticides. A market with conventional wheat was compared to a market with both conventional and GM wheat varieties to identify price decreases of t...

  12. Preservation of potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouani, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1987-01-01

    In Algeria, potatoes are a major food item in nutrition habits. Because of lack of cold storage facilities, losses can reach up to 40% of the total output of summer harvest. This paper describes the first experiments on the application of gamma irradiation for the preservation of local varieties of potatoes. Losses are strongly reduced by inhibition sprouting effect of irradiation and reduction of sugars content has no significant influence on the acceptability of irradiated potatoes

  13. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  14. Gm crops: between biological risk and environmental and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes) from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral) to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM) have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteron insects (ILR) or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium). the first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, conferring resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides

  15. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Potatoes were used to study the metabolic stress effects in irradiated vegetable products. The changes of the contents of specific target compounds (glycoalkaloids, phenolic acids and coumarins) in alcoholic extracts of gamma irradiated potatoes were studied for metabolic irradiation stress. Doses of up to 3 kGy were applied to potatoes of several varieties. (Auth.)

  16. Increasing genetic gain by reducing ploidy in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    While potato cultivars in major world production regions are tetraploid, wild and cultivated potatoes in the crop’s center of origin range from diploid to hexaploid. Landrace potato varieties cannot be distinguished based on ploidy. Contrary to popular belief, tetraploidy does not appear to be neces...

  17. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light colored flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Sweet potato fries are a common preparation in most African homes. Its leaves are a common side ...

  18. GM food technology abroad and its implications for Australia and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann

    2004-01-01

    The potential economic benefits from agricultural biotechnology adoption by ANZ need to be weighed against any likely loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms. This paper uses the global GTAP model to estimate effects of other countries' GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The benefits to ANZ from adopting GM crops under a variety of scenarios are positive even in the presence of the ...

  19. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    and variety, suggesting that the orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties responded similarly to nutrient ... fleshed ones, can help alleviate vitamin A deficiency .... LSD (0.05) for variety (V) mean. = 14.8 .... Information System, Working Paper #2.

  20. Postharvest changes in glycoalkaloid content of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; McDonald, G M

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes contain antinutritional and potentially toxic compounds including inhibitors of digestive enzymes, hemagglutinins, and glycoalkaloids. Solanum glycoalkaloids are reported to inhibit cholinesterase, disrupt cell membranes, and induce teratogenicity. In this overview, we describe the role of potatoes in the human diet, reported changes in glycoalkaloid content of fresh and processed potatoes during storage, under the influence of light and radiation, following mechanical damage, and as a result of food processing. Also covered are safety aspects and suggested research needs to develop a protocol that can be adopted by the potato producers and processors to minimize post-harvest synthesis of glycoalkaloids in potatoes. Reducing the glycoalkaloid content of potatoes will provide a variety of benefits extending from the farm to processing, shipping, marketing, and consumption of potatoes and potato products. A commercially available ELISA kit is described which permits rapid assay of glycoalkaloid content of parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and peel, as well as processed potato products including french fries, chips, and skins. Understanding the multiple overlapping aspects of glycoalkaloids in the plant and in the diet will permit controlling postharvest glycoalkaloid production for the benefit of the producer and consumer.

  1. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  2. The Formation of GM-free and GM Coasean Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Wesseler, Justus

    2018-01-01

    The unintended presence of traces of genetically modified (GM) crops in the harvests of non-GM crops plays a prominent role in the debate over the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. One way to address the issue is the formation of GM-free or GM-only clubs. We model the decisions of individual...... farmers to cultivate either GM or non-GM crops and combine this with a game theoretic model of club formation to investigate the feasibility of such clubs. We consider two liability regimes: GM farmers are liable or they are not.We consider two benchmarks: Nash equilibrium without negotiations......, they reach 95% of an efficient allocation. This holds independent of the property rights system and provides strong support for coexistence policies based on ex-post liability such as in the US and Spain....

  3. The potato chips and dry mashed as products of potato rational processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mazur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The percentage of potato processing for food products in the former Soviet Union decreased to 1%, at the same time in some countries of Europe and the USA the share of potato processing is 60-80%. Numerous works have shown the economic feasibility of potato processing for food products. Materials and methods. In laboratory and industrial conditions of the open stock company «Mashpishcheprod» (Maryina Gorka, Minsk region, Belarus researches have been conducted on increase of efficiency of technological processes potato processing. Sampling, preparation and conducting of tests were performed by standard and special methods of analysis. Results and discussion. Potato varieties suitable for the production of dry mashed potatoes and potatocrisps have been determined, acclimatization before processing ensures minimumthe content of the reducing sugars, which provide high quality of the finished product. Studies have shown that the process of kneading potato at temperatures close to cooking temperature is optimal, in which the process of destruction cells is hardly taking place. Pneumatic dryers for drying boiled potato provide high product quality due to the low temperature of heating and short contact of a powdered product with a drying agent. However, the contents of damaged cells in the finished product do not exceed 1.3-2.6%. The optimum modes and parameters of potato crisps production have been defined, the processes of cutting, blanching, treatment with salt, drying and roasting have been scientifically grounded, that provide a finished product with fat content not more than 27.7%. Conclusion. Economic expediency of processing the following varieties of potato Desire, Temp, Synthesis for dry mashed potato and potato crisps has been proved. The processes of kneading and drying potato are decisive stages of the processing, because they determine the number of destroyedcells in the finished product. Optimal parameters of production

  4. Glycoalkaloids in potatoes: Content of glycoalkaloids in potatoes for consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Jensen, Udo; Schmidt, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    mg/kg. Thus the aim of this study was to make a survey of the distribution and contents of TGA in potatoes on the Danish market, including many different and relevant varieties during a 6-year period. A total of 386 samples of potato tubers were analysed for α-solanine and α-chaconine by extraction...... with acetic acid and determination by RP-HPLC with UV-detection at 202 nm. The results not only confirmed that contents above 100 mg TGA/kg in potato tubers frequently occurred in some years, but also showed the possibility of finding lower contents in the same varieties other years. This led to the cautious...

  5. Eficiencia de uso del nitrógeno en variedades de papa para industria cultivadas en el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires Nitrogen use efficiency in potato processing varieties grown in the southeast of Buenos Aires province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Giletto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la eficiencia de utilización del N (EUN, la eficiencia fisiológica (EFN y la eficiencia agronómica de uso del N (EAN en las variedades Innovator, Russet Burbank, Bannock Russet y Gem Russet bajo disponibilidades de N de 235, 311, 383 y 407 kg N ha-1. Innovator y Russet Burbank fueron las variedades que presentaron la mayor EAN (175,1 y 175,5 kg de tubérculo kg N-1; respectivamente y a su vez las que presentaron una mejor respuesta al agregado de N. Innovator presentó mayor requerimiento de N que Russet Burbank; en tanto que Bannock Russet y Gem Russet presentaron menor EAN (147,5 y 135,6 kg tubérculos kg N-1; respectivamente, no respondiendo al agregado de N en cuanto a la producción de tubérculos. La menor EAN en Bannock Russet se debió a la menor EUN, pero en Gem Russet fue consecuencia de una menor EFN. Sin embargo, dado que estas últimas dos variedades poseen tubérculos con mejor calidad industrial que Russet Burbank, es de interés recabar mayor información respecto a sus requerimientos y estrategias de manejo.The purpose of this work was to determine nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE, nitrogen physiological efficiency (NPE and nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE in contrasting potato varieties Innovator, Russet Burbank, Bannock Russet and Gem Russet with different nitrogen availability (235, 311, 383 and 407 kg N ha-1. Innovator and Russet Burbank showed greater NAE (175,1 and 175,5 kg of tuber kg N-1 and their response to applied N was higher than in other cultivars. Innovator required more nitrogen than Russet Burbank, while. Bannock Russet and Gem Russet showed a lower NAE (147,5 and 135,6 kg of tuber kg N-1 and they did not respond to the applied nitrogen to produce tuber. Bannock Russet showed a lower NAE as a consequence of it low NUE but Gem Russet presented a low NAE as a consequence of it low NPE. However, both cultivars showed a higher processing quality than Russet Burbank

  6. Mutagenicity studies on alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Yoshiharu; Hogetsu, Daisuke; Okuyama, Norio; Manabe, Takashi; Sasagawa, Tatsuru.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes of the ''Danshaku'' variety and their chemical aspects were studied. The final concentrate of alcohol extracts from potatoes showed pH values of 3 -- 4. The o-quinones or ''radiotoxins'' reported by Kuzin, et al. were not detected in the alcohol extracts from potatoes of this variety by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, paper chromatography and the model enzymatic experiment. (author)

  7. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.

  8. OBSERVAÇÕES SOBRE DEGENERESCÊNCIA E COMPORTAMENTO EM DIFERENTES ÉPOCAS DE PLANTIO DE QUATRO VARIEDADES DE BATATA (Solanum Tuberosum L. COMMENTS ON DEGENERATION AND BEHAVIOR AT DIFFERENT PLANTING DATES OF FOUR POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As variedades de batata DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA foram plantadas em duas gerações, a primeira na seca e a segunda, nas águas de 1971, em Goiânia. Para o primeiro plantio, usaram-se batatas-sementes importadas, para o segundo, as filhas destas. HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA produziram mais na segunda geração do que na primeira, devido às melhores condições da época chuvosa. A produção da DELTA-A praticamente não variou nas duas épocas. HANSA foi significantemente superior às outras, em produção total, nas duas épocas e em produção de tubérculos comerciáveis (acima de 33 mm, na época chuvosa. Neste período, seus tubérculos grandes, (acima de 40 mm apresentaram-se com superdesenvolvimento de lenticelas e manchados internamente, ficando comercialmente desvalorizados. A variedade HYDRA destacou-se das demais pela produção de batatas grandes, principalmente na seca. Mostrou-se, porém, muito suscetível à sarna comum, cujo ataque inutilizou grande parte de seus tubérculos. TONDRA foi a variedade que melhor se adaptou ao período chuvoso. Produziu duas vezes mais tubérculos comerciáveis e quase três vezes mais tubérculos grandes, que na seca.

    The four potato varieties DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA and TONDRA were tested in the dry and in the rainy season of 1971, in Goiânia. Imported certified seed potatoes were used for the first planting and the harvested tubers, for the second. All varieties, except DELTA-A, yielded more in the rainy than in the dry season. This difference was found to be caused by the better water supply during the rainy season. There was no significant influence of the season on the production of DELTA-A. HANSA produced in both seasons significantly more in total weight than the other varieties and more marketable potatoes (over 33 mm in the rainy season. But the large

  9. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable....... We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...

  10. The assessment of field trials in GMO research around the world and their possible integration in field trials for variety registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, M M; van de Wiel, C C M; Kleter, G A; Visser, R G F; Kok, E J

    2018-05-04

    Most regulations worldwide stipulate that a new genetically modified (GM) crop event has to be compared to its closest non-GM counterpart as a corner stone of the pre-market risk assessment. To this end the GM crop and its comparator should be grown in field trials for a phenotypic comparison as well as for subsequent detailed analysis of the composition of the two crop varieties. A more in-depth globally harmonised approach for the conduct of these field trials is lacking. Only a few countries have formulated detailed protocols for the set-up of GM field trials. In some countries, commercial non-GM reference varieties need to be included in a field study to compile reliable data that indicate the range of natural variation for the compounds tested at the specific location. Detailed analysis of pre-market assessment reports have so far not shown the added value of including these reference varieties in the field trials. In all cases where specific values were found to be outside of the range of the reference varieties, it proved possible to draw conclusions on the part of the pre-market risk assessment that relates to the compositional analysis, on the basis of already available compositional data. With the increasing quality of several databases on compositional data of a growing number of crop species, it seems unlikely that reference varieties will become more important on future occasions. It was furthermore investigated whether this part of the risk assessment can be related to field trial requirements for variety registration with the explicit intention of reducing the data burden on producers of new GM plant varieties. Field trials for variety registration so far include an assessment of phenotypic characteristics that do not cover safety aspects, with the exception of establishment of the glycoalkaloid content in potatoes in the Netherlands and Sweden. It may, however, under certain conditions be relatively easy to exchange data from compositional

  11. Modifying glycoalkaloid content in transgenic potato – Metabolome impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolite profiling has been used to assess the potential for unintended composition changes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers, which have been genetically modified (GM) to reduce glycoalkaloid content via the independent down-regulation of three genes SGT1, SGT2 and SGT3 known t...

  12. Comparative analysis of transformed potato microtubers and its non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid progress of transgenic biotechnology has significantly promoted the development and production of genetically modified (GM) crops. The aim of this study was to compare some compositional analysis and genetic variation of transformed potato microtubers (Solanum tuberosum L. Desiree) line (which harbor ...

  13. Comparison of two GM maize varieties with a near-isogenic non-GM variety using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, E.; Lezar, S.; Anttonen, M.J.; Dijk, van J.P.; Rohlig, R.M.; Kok, E.J.; Engel, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    P>The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of four nontargeted analytical methodologies in the detection of unintended effects that could be derived during genetic manipulation of crops. Three profiling technologies were used to compare the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of two

  14. Comparison of two GM maize varieties with a near-isogenic non-GM variety using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of four nontargeted analytical methodologies in the detection of unintended effects that could be derived during genetic manipulation of crops. Three profiling technologies were used to compare...

  15. Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Yamaguchi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Among the available transformation methods reported on sweet potato, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is more successful and desirable. Stem explants have shown to be ideal for the transformation of sweet potato because of their ready availability as explants, the simple transformation process, and high-frequency-regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Under the two-step kanamycin-hygromycin selection method and using the appropriate explants type (stem explants), the efficiency of transformation can be considerably improved in cv. Beniazuma. The high efficiency in the transformation of stem explants suggests that the transformation protocol described in this chapter warrants testing for routine stable transformation of diverse varieties of sweet potato.

  16. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content in sweet potato roots and potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kawashima, K.

    1982-01-01

    The sucrose content in both potato tubers and sweet potato roots was considerably increased by gamma-irradiation. The maximum increase was achieved by an irradiation dose of 3 to 4 kGy for potatoes and 0.8 to 2 kGy for sweet potatoes. Cooling treatment (15°C, 2 weeks) for sweet potato roots also enhanced the sucrose content (almost 2 times) but was not additive to the irradiation treatment; the maximum sucrose content in irradiated sweet potato roots was in the range of 7 to 12% irrespective of the cooling treatment, depending on the variety of sweet potatoes. Irradiation made the sucrose content in the roots 2 to 4 times higher

  17. Safety of GM crops: compositional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Philip D; Culler, Angela Hendrickson; Ridley, William P; Walker, Kate

    2013-09-04

    The compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment program for these materials. The variety and complexity of genetically engineered traits and modes of action that will be used in GM crops in the near future, as well as our expanded knowledge of compositional variability and factors that can affect composition, raise questions about compositional analysis and how it should be applied to evaluate the safety of traits. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a nonprofit foundation whose mission is to provide science that improves public health and well-being by fostering collaboration among experts from academia, government, and industry, convened a workshop in September 2012 to examine these and related questions, and a series of papers has been assembled to describe the outcomes of that meeting.

  18. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    , tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel...... concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However, in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved....

  19. Dissection of the major late blight resistance cluster on potato linkage group IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokossou, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Potato is consumed worldwide and represents the fourth most important staple food crop after rice and wheat. Potato cultivars display a large variety of color, shape, taste, cooking properties and starch content but are all derived from the same species; Solanum tuberosum. Potato breeding is an

  20. Economic feasibility study of potato preservation by irradiation in saudi arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsara, A A; Abulfaraj, W H; Mamoon, A M; Kamal, S E [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    Comprehensive studies were carried out to investigate the economic feasibility of the preservation of potato crop by cobalt-60 gamma irradiation sprout inhibition by potato irradiation was approved by international organization and concerned authorities in many countries. The dose level range authorized for potato sprout inhibition extends from about 80-150 Gy depending on potato variety, time of irradiation after harvest, and post irradiation storage temperature. Sprout inhibition is most effective by irradiation after harvest, and after healing of any inflicted injuries, that when the potatoes are dormant. Irradiation at the recommended doses minimizes storage losses of potatoes that are refrigerated or stored on shelves. Despite the limited data available, an attempt was made to quantify the monetary value of preserving potato by irradiation. With economy scale taken in consideration, potato preservation by irradiation is economically feasible since at the local consumption rates there will be lot of potatoes that ned storage for off season use. 5 tabs.

  1. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  2. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  3. Are GM Crops for Yield and Resilience Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Matthew J; Nuccio, Michael L; Basu, Shib Sankar

    2018-01-01

    Crop yield improvements need to accelerate to avoid future food insecurity. Outside Europe, genetically modified (GM) crops for herbicide- and insect-resistance have been transformative in agriculture; other traits have also come to market. However, GM of yield potential and stress resilience has yet to impact on food security. Genes have been identified for yield such as grain number, size, leaf growth, resource allocation, and signaling for drought tolerance, but there is only one commercialized drought-tolerant GM variety. For GM and genome editing to impact on yield and resilience there is a need to understand yield-determining processes in a cell and developmental context combined with evaluation in the grower environment. We highlight a sugar signaling mechanism as a paradigm for this approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals but there is no direct evidence that this substance causes cancer in humans. In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably...... potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30-2300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato slices in a NaCI solution in relation to acrylamide formation in the prepared potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, width: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170...

  5. Storage of irradiated potatoes under artificially humidified conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Thomas, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Potatoes of the BPI, Up-to-Date, and Pimpernel varieties have been irradiated and stored for sixteen weeks at a relative humidity of 69 per cent to counteract shrinkage caused by low humidity. Moisture loss is reduced by approximately one-quarter compared with storage at ambient humidity (average 42 per cent), and the appearance of the potatoes is considerably improved. The higher humidity causes very few changes in either chemical or physical properties of the potato, except for a slight increase in reducing sugars which is not sufficiently large to preclude the use of the potatoes for processing

  6. Effect of Organic Potato Farming on Human and Environmental Health and Benefits from New Plant Breeding Techniques. Is It Only a Matter of Public Acceptance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacifico

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming practices are commonly thought to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture and to preserve the naturalness of the products. Herein, we report the effect of crop management practices on nutritional and toxicological value of potato tubers. Comparative studies are often controversial and the results are dependent on genotype and methodological approach. Targeted analysis and “omics” strategies are discussed, pointing at the nutritional aspects and the corresponding biological and molecular processes involved. Organic farming supporters still do not accept the use of genetic modification to produce new varieties suited for organic agriculture and crop improvement by genetic engineering still sparks hot debate among various scientific and social factions whose major concern is the possible existence of unintended effects both on human and world health. In this context, the advent of “new plant breeding techniques” has reignited the discussion on genetic engineering and on the compatibility of the new technologies with an eco-friendly agriculture. Could cisgenic and genome-edited potatoes be new good options for organic agriculture? We discuss how these approaches can be used to address food security challenges and to overcome specific problems based on the biological characteristics of potato tubers, producing new varieties that can improve farmers’ profit with a lower impact on public opinion. However, political, ethical, and social fears will probably persist much longer, mainly in Italy, historically a fiercely anti-GM country with a European leadership in organic food production and export.

  7. Detection of genetically modified organisms in foreign-made processed foods containing corn and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Sagi, Naoki; Satoh, Masaki; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Satoh, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kamata, Kunihiro; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2005-06-01

    Investigations of the validity of labeling regarding genetically modified (GM) products were conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for foreign-made processed foods made from corn and potato purchased in the Tokyo area and in the USA. Several kinds of GM crops were detected in 12 of 32 samples of processed corn samples. More than two GM events for which safety reviews have been completed in Japan were simultaneously detected in 10 samples. GM events MON810 and Bt11 were most frequently detected in the samples by qualitative PCR methods. MON810 was detected in 11 of the 12 samples, and Bt11 was detected in 6 of the 12 samples. In addition, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one of the 12 samples. On the other hand, CBH351, for which the safety assessment was withdrawn in Japan, was not detected in any of the 12 samples. A trial quantitative analysis was performed on six of the GM maize qualitatively positive samples. The estimated amounts of GM maize in these samples ranged from 0.2 to 2.8%, except for one sample, which contained 24.1%. For this sample, the total amount found by event-specific quantitative analysis was 23.8%. Additionally, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one sample of 21 potato-processed foods, although GM potatoes were not detected in any sample.

  8. Moving beyond the GM debate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottoline Leyser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture.

  9. Presence and Distribution of Economically Important Potato Viruses in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zindović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out, in the period 2002-2004 in order to determine the presence and distribution of potato viruses at 12 different locations and on 9 different potato varieties grown in Montenegro. The research included collecting of samples in seed potato crops and testing of six economically important potato viruses: Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus A (PVA i Potato virus M (PVM. Using the direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA and commercial antisera specific for six potato viruses, it was found that PVY was the most frequent virus during the three-year research period. The second frequent virus was PVS, followed by PVA, PLRV, PVM and PVX. Single and mixed infections were detected, and the most prevalent were the single infections of PVY. Also, in the period 2002-2004, PVY had the highest distribution and the number of present viruses was different at different localities and on different potato varieties. Further investigations were related to detailed characterization of the most prevalent virus (PVY, which is at the same time economically the most important one. Serological characterization of PVY was performed utilizing DAS-ELISA kit with commercial monoclonal antibodies specific for detection of the three strain groups of PVY, and the two straingroups - necrotic (PVYN/PVYNTN and common (PVYO, were identified. Necrotic strains were prevalent in 2002 and 2004, while in 2003 PVYO was the most frequent strain in virus population. The presence of stipple streak strain (PVYC was not detected in any of the testedsamples.

  10. Application of gamma irradiation for storage potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaee, M.; Almasi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Since deficiency of controlled store in Iran and environmental problems of chemical material the use of gamma irradiation to control sprouting and increase the length of storage time of potatoes has been proposed as an alternative to cold storage or the use of chemical sprout suppressants. In this study potatoes of Agria Variety were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 KGY and stored along with the unirradiated controls at 12±3°C for a period of more than 6 month from October to April .After 4 month of storage the sprouting ranged from 5 to 12% in irradiated potatoes and 45 to 74% in unirradiated samples and after 6 month the unirradiated potatoes were discarded because of heavy sprouting and rotting. The rot attack was approximately double in unirradiated samples. It was found that losses through dehydration were 10.3 to 15.1 % in the irradiated potatoes. Also a comparative study of reducing and non-reducing sugars, vitamin-C content, total sugar, starch and protein was carried out between unirradiated and irradiated samples. The results suggested the efficacy of Gamma irradiation for ensuring availability of the storing quality of potato during lean periods from October to April. (author)

  11. The present state of research and exploitation of biotech (GM) crops in horticulture: results of research on plum cv. 'HoneySweet' resistant to plum pox virus (Sharka) and the deregulation of this cultivar in the CR & Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha in 2011. Only 114.57 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.90 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. Currently, developing count...

  12. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Velvis, H; Zachow, C; Berg, G; Van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4

  13. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F.; Velvis, H.; Zachow, C.; Berg, G.; Elsas, van J.D.; Sessitsch, A.

    2006-01-01

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4

  14. Mutation breeding on potato by using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Potato breeding is one of the most frequent cases in terms of production and growing distinct after cultivation of cereals. The utilization of potato increases everyday since the nodes of potato are available for using fresh food and also chipping, producing starch, alcohol as well as animal feed. At the present day, potatoes are more significant as a result of uses of them. The most productive country in potato is china. According to data 2007, Turkey produces 4280 million ton potatoes every year. Potato is in the group of nodule plants. Even though potato production is frequent every place in Turkey, the most productive place is Central part of Turkey especially Nigde and Nevsehir. 43.2% of production is obtained in these cities. According to 2007 data, potato production area 158.500 ha in Turkey. The most significant input is seed for potato since potatoes are reduced by nodes as being vegetative. Even though amount of used seed is predicated on aim, ecologic circumstances, breed, is 200-300 kg/da. Seed registration certification system have been started since 1972 in potato. Until 2007, 68 variety breed were registered but all of them except. Pasinler and Nif are brought from abroad. Pasinler and Nif which are cultivated in Turkey does not hold a place among seed program. There is no domestic breed in potato - seed. For that reason, mutant diversities, which are highly acclimatized to adapt, fertile, substantial against diseases, pests and substantial for storage, are aimed to grow to provide them for farmers. These diversities also must have different elaboration periods and highly weedy starch to being useful for industries. In this study, we used Marfona potato variety which has been grown in large areas for a long time in Turkey. Marfona potato which is registered in 1991 in our country is in middle-early maturity growing group, also it has light yellow as well as peel with its white bloom and big node. Marfona which is highly substantial against virus

  15. Responses of potatoes plants inoculated with arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was set to examine the impact of the foliar litter (Hardwickia binata and Azadirachta indica) and an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus on the development of two varieties of potato plants (Aida, Atlas). Three litter doses (0, 25 and 50 g) were applied to the pots after bedding plantlets. The plants were ...

  16. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  17. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Henrik eHebelstrup

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved.

  18. Scaling Up the Production of More Nutritious Yellow Potatoes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Researchers will scale up improved yellow potato varieties that -yield 15% more than other varieties -are ... -have nearly 20% more iron and zinc than the most cultivated Colombian variety The project will deliver these ...

  19. Seed Potato Production and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan ÖZTÜRK; Taşkın POLAT

    2017-01-01

    Our country has different agricultural regions showed different ecological properties in terms of climate and soil characteristics increase the plant variety. Within this variety the potato is one of the most important plants for agriculture and economic of our country, also it is an important food source for human. It is important to use productive and quality seed for healthy agricultural production. With the using of good quality seed, can be obtained about 20% increase in yield. Certified...

  20. Irradiation processing of potatoes, onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Starr, A.; Wahid, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, studies have been conducted on irradiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic involving different varieties, harvesting season and storage life. As a result of these investigations, optimum conditions were established for each crop. The effect of irradiation and storage on sprouting, rottage and weight loss of potatoes is presented. The sprouting initiated in the unirradiated samples after 2 months reaching 51, 80 and 100% on 4, 5 and 6 months storage respectively. Weight losses were observed in the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (A.B.)

  1. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  2. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-02

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  3. Avaliação das qualidades culinárias de batatinhas alemãs cultivadas sob diferentes condições de clima solo no estado de São Paulo Culinary quality avaliation of german potatoes varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo José Boock

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as qualidades culinárias de 18 cultivares alemães de batatinha - Solanum tuberosum L. - utilizando nas determinações tubérculos provenientes de ensaios de competição de cultivares, instalados em quatro diferentes regiões batateiras do Estado de São Paulo. Os cultivares lux, ômega, sálvia, baku, rubin e ceres apresentaram os teores mais elevados de matéria seca e fécula, mas levando-se em conta os resultados da produção de tubérculos, os que apresentaram valores acima da média foram: baku, ômega, lux, palma, ulla, bola, wiebke, topi, prima e ceres. Nas provas culinárias, os que se mostraram mais indicados para o preparo de saladas foram: ceres, rubin, prinzess, umbra, sálvia, prima, palma, jetta, gelbling, wiebke, ulla, ática, broca e lux. No preparo de "chips" e "french-fried", ômega classificou-se no grupo ótimo. No grupo bom para "chips" tivemos ceres, umbra e rubin. No bom para "french-fried", classificaram-se os três cultivares citados como bons para "chips" mais ou seguintes: jetta, prinzess, ulla e palma. Os métodos utilizados nas determinações aproximaram-se dos caseiros, mas forneceram informações valiosas sobre as principais qualidades culinárias dos cultivares em estudo.Eighteen German potato varieties were tested for their cooking qualities, with tubers provenients from four field trials settled in different potato regions of the State of São Paulo. The highest dry matter and starch content, per unit of weight were lux, ômega, sálvia, baku, rubin and ceres. Per unity of area, the values of baku, ômega, lux, palma, ulla, bola, wiebke, topi, prinzess and ceres were higher than the average. For salad purpose, the best results were from ceres, rubin, prinzess, umbra, sálvia, prima, palma, jetta, gelbling, wiebke, ulla, atica, broca and lux. Omega was the best one for making chips and French-fried. Ceres, umbra and rubin also gave good chips. All these cultivars, more jetta, prinzess, ulla

  4. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    changes in the level of natural constituents beyond normal variation, and on the characteristics of the GM food and feed, and (ii) the possible occurrence of unintended (unexpected) effects in GM plants due to genetic modification. In order to identify these effects a comparative phenotypic and molecular analysis of the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart is carried out, in parallel with a targeted analysis of single specific compounds, which represent important metabolic pathways in the plant like macro and micro nutrients, known anti-nutrients and toxins. Significant differences may be indicative of the occurrence of unintended effects, which require further investigation. Section 2 provides an overview of studies performed for the safety and nutritional assessment of whole food and feed. Extensive experience has been built up in recent decades from the safety and nutritional testing in animals of irradiated foods, novel foods and fruit and vegetables. These approaches are also relevant for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. Many feeding trials have been reported in which GM foods like maize, potatoes, rice, soybeans and tomatoes have been fed to rats or mice for prolonged periods, and parameters such as body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, organ weights, histopathology etc have been measured. The food and feed under investigation were derived from GM plants with improved agronomic characteristics like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. The majority of these experiments did not indicate clinical effects or histopathological abnormalities in organs or tissues of exposed animals. In some cases adverse effects were noted, which were difficult to interpret due to shortcomings in the studies. Many studies have also been carried out with feed derived from GM plants with agronomic input traits in target animal species to assess the nutritive value of the feed and their performance potential. Studies in sheep, pigs

  5. Potatoes, pathogens and pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into

  6. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S. [Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that {sup 137}Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of {sup 137}Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The

  7. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.

    2004-01-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that 137 Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of 137 Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The experimental potato

  8. Sprout inhibition of potatoes by electron irradiation, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Junichiro; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shinichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Tsujii, Yukio; Hori, Shiro

    1982-01-01

    Sprouting of potatoes are inhibited usually by the gamma-ray irradiation. The buds of potatoes exist in a very thin layer near surface of each tuber. So the inhibition will be performed sufficiently by surface irradiation using electron beams. To irradiate all surfaces of each potato uniformly, the authors prepare a new apparatus which is a conveyer passing under an electron beam scanner of accelerator rotating the potatoes by many rotating rollers. The sprout inhibition experiment of potatoes was performed by following three methods to obtain the performance of this apparatus, and the results were compared. 1) turn over irradiation method --- potatoes were arranged in one layer in plastic baskets and were irradiated on the conveyor. After irradiation, the potatoes were turned over and were irradiated again. 2) rotating irradiation method --- potatoes were rotated on the rotating roller apparatus set on the conveyer and were passed under the electron beam scanner. 3) rotating irradiation method with an improved rotating roller apparatus --- the rotating rollers have many protuberances on their surface to irradiate all of potato surface more uniform. 550 keV electron beams by Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator were used for the irradiation and the irradiated dose was 5 to 20 krad. 40 pieces of potates, ''Danshaku'' variety yielded in June 1981, were irradiated for each dose in the beginning of August. Prior to these irradiation experiments, the dose and dose uniformity were checked by the agar color dosimeters. After the irradiation, potatoes were stored in natural condition and their sprouting was observed. The potatoes irradiated by the improved rotating roller apparatus were almost completely sprout-inhibited by 20 krad irradiation. (author)

  9. Potato processing scenario in India: Industrial constraints, future projections, challenges ahead and remedies - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, R S; Pandey, S K; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, S V; Kumar, Parveen

    2010-03-01

    Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) processing industry has emerged fast due to economic liberalization coupled with growing urbanization, expanding market options and development of indegenous processing varieties. India's first potato processing varieties 'Kufri Chipsona-1' and 'Kufri Chipsona-2' were developed in 1998, followed by an improved processing variety 'Kufri Chipsona-3' in 2005 for the Indian plains and first chipping variety 'Kufri Himsona' for the hills. These varieties have >21% tuber dry matter content, contain low reducing sugars (products. The availability of these varieties and standardization of storage techniques for processing potatoes at 10-12°C with sprout suppressant isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate have revolutionized the processing scenario within a short span of 10 years. Currently about 4% of total potato produce is being processed in organized and unorganized sector. Potato processing industry mainly comprises 4 segments: potato chips, French fries, potato flakes/powder and other processed products. However, potato chips still continue to be the most popular processed product. The major challenge facing the industries lies in arranging round the year supply of processing varieties at reasonable price for their uninterrupted operation, besides several others which have been discussed at length and addressed with concrete solutions.

  10. Impacts on the metabolome of down-regulating polyphenol oxidase in transgenic potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Estima) genetically modified (GM) to reduce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and enzymatic discolouration were assessed for changes in the metabolome using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Gas Chromatography (GC)-MS. Metabolome changes ...

  11. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  12. New co-operative potato distilleries - interesting and useful information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreipe, H

    1970-01-01

    Impressions and accounts of a series of new cooperative potato distilleries in north and north-west Germany are reported. Design and operation of the plants are described, and economic aspects of waste utilization and alcohol production are discussed. Indications of the starch content and yield of different varieties of potato mainly cultivated for distilleries are given. 100 kg of potatoes with 16% starch normally yield 10 l. of ethyl alcohol, which is sold at a guaranteed price. The protein in the residue is digestible and has a high feed value.

  13. Use of induced mutations for potato improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, H.; Das, B.; Subramanyam, K.N.; Chandra, R.; Upadhya, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The investigations aim at the utilization of induced mutations for potato improvement. The effect of γ-rays was tested on selfed seeds and hybrid seeds as well as on tubers of several potato varieties. Chemical mutagens have been successfully employed to produce daylength neutral clones. An attempt to induce resistance against Pseudomonas solanacearum did not give conclusive results. Potato improvement in relation of yield and other characters of economic significance like maturity and attributes of tubers has been handicapped by several technical considerations world over. The crux of the problem lies in the narrow genetic base (variability) for potato breeders to work with. The use of mutation breeding, therefore, offers a good tool for this. Improvement by mutation breeding for the quantitative characters besides the resistance to disease and pest has been demonstrated in other crops like white mustard variety Primex (Anderson and Olsson, 1954), barley (Gustafsson, 1965) and peanut (Gregory, 1956). Keeping these in view and the success we had in isolating photoperiod insensitive types (Upadhaya et al, 1973, 1974) study was enlarged to use mutagens to increase as wide a spectrum as possible of the variability for quantative and qualitative characters. (author)

  14. Bacterial community profiling in the rhizosphere of field grown GM and non-GM maize

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bumunang, EW

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in GM sample and 76% in the non-GM. To compare bacterial functional community in GM and non-GM soil, Biolog GN2 microplate, a sole carbon substrate utilization profile, was used and no significant difference was observed. Based on analytical profile...

  15. Rethinking Research for Genetically Modified (GM) Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Ling; Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests a rethinking of the existing research about Genetically Modified (GM) food. Since the first batch of GM food was commercialised in the UK market, GM food rapidly received and lost media attention in the UK. Disagreement on GM food policy between the US and the EU has also drawn scholarly attention to this issue. Much research has been carried out intending to understand people-s views about GM food and the shaping of these views. This paper was based o...

  16. You Say Potato!

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Elgy

    2001-01-01

    "If we are what we eat, as they are forever telling, then we're mostly potato" sayd travel writer, journalist and enthusiastic cook Elgy Gillespie Now Elgy has drawn on her travel experiences and her love of food to gather over 100 potato recipes from Ireland and around the world" Taken from the back cover. Published by Wolfhound Press Ltd., 68 Mountjoy Square, Dublin in 2001. Illustrated by Rebecca Wildsmith. Cover illustration Eva Byrne, cover photograph Richard Gibson, cover design W...

  17. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important staple crop and many varieties have been released into farmers' fields in Nigeria, but no reliable means in tracking their identity, thus causing multiple naming of these varieties among farmers. The objective of the study is to establish objectively and reliable means of identifying released, local ...

  18. New varieties of potato can feed the poor | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... ... resistance to late blight, good abiotic stress performance, nutritional value, ... The work has identified several metabolites related to disease ... the transfer of genes between closely related organisms of the same species.

  19. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  1. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  2. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of browning during deep-fat frying of blanched and unblanched potato chips by using the dynamic method and to find a relationship between browning development and acrylamide formation. Prior to frying, potato slices were blanched in hot water...... at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...... were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical...

  3. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic

  4. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  5. Detection of Glycoalkaloids and Chlorophyll in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to detect and quantify chlorophyll (Chl) and total glycoalkaloid concentrations (TGA) in potatoes. To create a set of tubers with different concentrations of Chl and TGA, potatoes of four varieties were wounded...

  6. Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.

  7. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herron Caroline M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically Modified (GM crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Methods Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Results Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. Conclusion This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they

  8. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christopher P; Newell, James N; Herron, Caroline M; Nawabu, Haidari

    2010-07-12

    Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female) and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they believe use of GM biotechnology is an appropriate way in which

  9. Structure of potato starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Potato starch granules consist primarily of two tightly packed polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which amount for 20-30%, is the principal linear component, but a fraction is in fact slightly branched. Amylopectin is typically the major component and is extensively branched...... chains extending from the clusters. A range of enzymes is involved in the biosynthesis of the cluster structures and linear segments. These are required for sugar activation, chain elongation, branching, and trimming of the final branching pattern. As an interesting feature, potato amylopectin...... is substituted with low amounts of phosphate groups monoesterified to the C-3 and the C-6 carbons of the glucose units. They seem to align well in the granular structure and have tremendous effects on starch degradation in the potato and functionality of the refined starch. A specific dikinase catalyzes...

  10. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  11. Status of the Potato Processing Industry in Kenya: Result of a Survey in Nairobi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walingo, A.M.; Kabira, J.N.; Ewell, P.T.

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted in Nairobi showed that potato chips (French fries)and potato crisps (Chips) were the most common potato products on the market. Potato varieties preferred for the preparations of potato chips were the long types, mainly Nyayo (41%) and Roslin tana (38%). The Red-skinned Kerr's pink (22%) and white-skinned Dutch Robijn (78%) were preferred for crisps. Processors for crisps are more demanding on the quality and types of fresh potatoes used than crisps. Tuber immaturity was a common problem adversely affecting processors' profit margins due to high oil absorption particularly in chips, now a common lunch-time snack in Nairobi. The quality of products on the market could be improved further

  12. Color development and acrylamide content of pre-dried potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; León, Jorge; Mery, Domingo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the development of color formation in pre-dried potato slices during frying and acrylamide formation in the final potato chips. Color measurement was done by using an inexpensive computer vision technique which allowed quantifying representatively...... and precisely the color of complex surfaces such as those of potato chips in L*a*b* units from RGB images. Prior to frying, potato slices (Desiree variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were blanched in hot water at 85 degrees C for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were considered as the control. Slices of the same...... dimensions were blanched as in the previous step, and then air-dried until reaching a moisture content of 60% (wet basis). These samples were called pre-dried potato slices. Potato slices were fried at 120 degrees C, 140 degrees C, 160 degrees C and 180 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar...

  13. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU

  14. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  15. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  16. Effect of Deficit irrigation on the Productivity of Processing Potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.M.; Atallah, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    The area under potatoes in Lebanon has extended to over 15.000 ha to form 17% of irrigated arable land. More farmers rely on processing varieties for prices and marketing reasons. Studies focused so far on irrigation and fertilization of table potatoes. The current recommendations indicate excess N fertilizer input exceeding 600 kg N/ha in the form of compound fertilizers. Potato is irrigated with macro sprinklers with a water input reaching 850 mm/season. Water mismanagement and shortage eventually influence the yield quantity and quality of processing potatoes. Therefore, deficit irrigation is an important water saving tool regarding the increasing pressure on limited water resources in the dry areas. Information on potato response to water stress imposed at different crop stages is available. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of continuous deficit irrigation imposed from the stage of maximum plant development-flowering stage until physiological maturity on the performance of processing potato (Santana) and water and fertilizer use efficiency. Fertilizer placement and irrigation were done through fertigation using drip system. A neutron probe was used to assess water consumption from the soil. The 15 N methodology was used to follow the N recovery as affected by water deficit

  17. Preservation of potatoes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khattak, Y.I.; Khan, R.

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes (Varieties: Cardinal and Patrones) were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 kGy in Co-60 irradiator and stored at 20 degree centigrade for a period of 4 months. There was 5 and 3 percent rotting in control and 9 and 5 percent rotting in irradiated tubers in Cardinal and Patrones respectively at the end of 4 months storage period. The sprouting percentage at the end of 4 months was 51 and 59 in unirradiated tubers in Cardinal and Patrones varieties whereas no sprouting was observed in the irradiated potatoes in both the varieties. The weight loss was more (8.3 and 6.6%) in the control than the irradiated tubers (6.7 and 5.7%) in Cardinal and Patrones varieties at the end of 4 months storage period. Effect of radiation and storage was significant on ascorbic acid but negligible on sugars. Sensory quality was improved as a result of radiation treatment. The cost economics for food irradiation based on a source strength of 59 kCi was Rs. 290 per tone

  18. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic variation for yield, leaf area index, period of maximum soil cover, sensitivity for N-shortage and nitrogen efficiency under low input circumstances was found. However, in these experiments varietie...

  19. GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance. Organic agriculture practices provide a more sustainable way of producing healthy food; however, the lower yields often associated with those practices, making the resultant healthy food more expensive, open the criticism that such practices will not be able to feed human populations. Evolutionary plant breeding offers the possibility of using the evolutionary potential of crops to our advantage by producing a continuous flow of varieties better adapted to organic systems, to climate change and to the ever changing spectrum of pests, without depending on chemical control.

  20. Possibilities of sweet potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] value chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is one of the most important food security promoted root crops in the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, the crop is still neglected and underutilized in Benin Republic. To establish baseline data for its better utilization for upgrading its value chain, 10 selected local varieties (01 cream, ...

  1. Towards the development of sweet potato-based couscous for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato processing and consumption patterns are very limited in Benin. The present study aimed to suggest a new utilization of the crop as food. Roots from a white flesh variety were processed into flour and later into couscous. This couscous was steam-cooked following the same procedure as a wheat-based ...

  2. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Sweet potato is an important staple crop and many varieties have been released into farmers' fields in Nigeria, ..... Tib 4 is distinct and did not form cluster while ... V. P HP P P W. Tis 2154. 5. DG DG V V. V. 1 NL. V. NP NP P P W. Tib 11. 6. P. P.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Local and Introduced Sweet Potato [Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore conducted to estimate the genetic diversity of 114 Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] accessions obtained from Nigeria, Asia, Latin America and Local collections along with two improved varieties. Accessions were planted in 2012/13 cropping season at Haramaya University, eastern Ethiopia ...

  4. Global value of GM rice: a review of expected agronomic and consumer benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demont, Matty; Stein, Alexander J

    2013-06-25

    Unlike the other major crops, no genetically modified (GM) varieties of rice have been commercialized at a large scale. Within the next 2-3 years new transgenic rice varieties could be ready for regulatory approval and subsequent commercialization, though. Given the importance of rice as staple crop for many of the world's poorest people, this will have implications for the alleviation of poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Thus, policy-makers need to be aware of the potential benefits of GM rice. We provide an overview of the literature and discuss the evidence on expected agronomic and consumer benefits of genetically engineered rice. We find that while GM rice with improved agronomic traits could deliver benefits similar to already commercialized biotechnology crops, expected benefits of consumer traits could be higher by an order of magnitude. By aggregating the expected annual benefits, we estimate the global value of GM rice to be US$64 billion per year. This is only an indicative value, as more GM varieties will become available in future. Nevertheless, such a figure can help guide policy-makers when deciding on the approval or funding of biotechnology crops and it may also raise awareness among consumers about what is at stake for their societies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of potato minitubers using advanced environmental control technologies developed for growing plants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Development of plant growth systems for use in outer space have been modified for use on earth as the backbone of a new system for rapid growth of potato minitubers. The automation of this new biotechnology provides for a fully controllable method of producing pathogen-free nuclear stock potato minitubers from tissue cultured clones of varieties of potato in a biomanufacturing facility. These minitubers are the beginning stage of seed potato production. Because the new system provides for pathogen-free minitubers by the tens-of-millions, rather than by the thousands which are currently produced in advanced seed potato systems, a new-dimension in seed potato development, breeding and multiplication has been achieved. The net advantage to earth-borne agricultural farming systems will be the elimination of several years of seed multiplication from the current system, higher quality potato production, and access to new potato varieties resistant to diseases and insects which will eliminate the need for chemical controls.

  6. Marketing Maine Tablestock Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald; Grajewski, Gregory; Hinman, Don; Prater, Marvin E.; Taylor, April

    2010-01-01

    The Marketing Services Division of USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was asked by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Program Leader and ARS’s New England Soil and Water Research Laboratory personnel to help with existing efforts to assist Maine fresh potato farmers in their search for alternative marketing strategies, and reverse the recent decline in the profitability of their operations. ARS researchers previously had conducted an exhaustive study defining possibl...

  7. Molecular contest between potato and the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida: modulation of Gpa2-mediated resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koropacka, K.B.

    2010-01-01

    Gpa2 recognition specificity
    Among all the multicellular animals, nematodes are the most numerous. In soil, a high variety
    of free living nematodes feeding on bacteria can be found as well as species that parasitize
    insects, animals or plants. The potato cyst nematode (PCN)

  8. Physiopathological function of hematoside (GM3 ganglioside)

    OpenAIRE

    INOKUCHI, Jin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Since I was involved in the molecular cloning of GM3 synthase (SAT-I), which is the primary enzyme for the biosynthesis of gangliosides in 1998, my research group has been concentrating on our efforts to explore the physiological and pathological implications of gangliosides especially for GM3. During the course of study, we demonstrated the molecular pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance focusing on the interaction between insulin receptor and gangliosides in membrane microd...

  9. Exploratory sensory profiling of three culinary preparations of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Helene F; Tønning, Erik; Thybo, Anette K

    2011-01-15

    A consumer-oriented description of potato quality with regard to culinary preparation could increase potato consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory attributes in 11 potato varieties grown at two locations and used for three culinary preparations. Sensory evaluation of the potatoes served either as boiled, oven-fried or mashed were performed using 15-19 descriptors for appearance, flavour and texture attributes. A principal component analysis revealed that 45% of the variation in the sensory data was related to variety differences, which was ascribed to variation in appearance, dry matter content and texture. Growing location also significantly affected appearance and texture. The sensory panel judged the sensory attributes 'yellowness', 'hardness', 'adhesiveness' and 'moistness' to be important quality descriptors in all three culinary preparations. Internal references showed the high reproducibility of the sensory evaluations. The potatoes grown in a sandy location had higher content of dry matter compared to those grown in a clay location, affecting the quality. This study showed that it was possible to do reliable and reproducible sensory profiles in a potato material with a large span in quality. Sensory information based on few attributes can be used to describe culinary quality of potato varieties. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Technology of the radio-inhibition of the germination of potatoes. Report on the semi-industrial scale tests, 1970--71 and 1971--72 seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandret, F.

    1973-12-31

    Semi-industrial experiments on the radiopreservation of potatoes were conducted in Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, and the Netherlands. General conditions of the experiments, such as variety of potatoes, treatment for sprout inhibition, and storage time are discussed. Determinations were made on weight loss and per cent of usable tubers. Culinary evaluations were made and changes in chemical composition during storage were noted. Evaluations were made of the quality of potato chips and other finished potato products. Legal aspects of potato irradiation are discussed. (HLW)

  11. The Wiphala Genomics: the deployment of molecular markers in small-scale potato crop systems in the Bolivian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente, D.

    2008-01-01

    The deployment of molecular markers in the small-scale potato systems in the Bolivian Andes takes place within two contradictory understandings of potato biodiversity. On the one hand, biodiversity is understood as raw material; farmers' varieties have no intrinsic value, value is added by breeders

  12. Hybridization of two biotypes of Lilioceris cheni will not hinder biological control of air potato, Dioscorea bulbifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreales: Dioscoreaceae), air potato, is a perennial vine native to Asia and Africa that is invasive in Florida and other parts of the southeastern United States. Air potato vines can grow more than 20 meters long and outcompete native vegetation in a variety of habitats....

  13. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  14. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  15. 5 CFR 531.243 - Promotion of a GM employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion of a GM employee. 531.243... Promotion of a GM employee. (a) Upon promotion, an employee's status as a GM employee ends, as provided in § 531.241(b). (b) When an employee loses status as a GM employee because of a temporary promotion and is...

  16. Danish farmer’s perception of GM-crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Janus; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 185 farmer’s perception of GM-crops in Denmark. The respondent’s attitude to GM-crops mainly reflects a conservative view of the adoption of GM-crops. Among farmers only the exciting crops in rotation is seen as their future potential GM-crops. Findings from...

  17. The Inter-genebank Potato Database and the dimensions of available wild potato germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huamán, Z.; Hoekstra, R.; Bamberg, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Association of Potato Inter-genebank Collaborators (APIC) constructed a database of all wild potato holdings of the most important potato genebanks in Europe, the United States, Peru, and Argentina. The Inter-genebank Potato Database (IPD) now contains data of 11,819 wild potato accessions

  18. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is...

  19. Birationally rigid varieties. I. Fano varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhlikov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The theory of birational rigidity of rationally connected varieties generalises the classical rationality problem. This paper gives a survey of the current state of this theory and traces its history from Noether's theorem and the Lueroth problem to the latest results on the birational superrigidity of higher-dimensional Fano varieties. The main components of the method of maximal singularities are considered.

  20. Potatoes in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  1. Acrylamide generation in pre-treated potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide formation in potato slices fried at two different temperatures ( 170 and 190 degrees C) was investigated under different pre-processing conditions. Potato slices (Saturna variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were either fried at 170 degrees C per 5 min or 190 degrees C per 3.5 min...... to reach a final moisture content of 1.8 g water/100g ( wet basis). Prior to frying, potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) Raw slices without any pre-treatment were considered as the control; (ii) Blanching: which was accomplished in 2 temperature-time combinations: 60 degrees C....... Acrylamide content in potato chips was determined after frying at 170 or 190 degrees C. Frying at 190 degrees C increased by almost 130 percent the acrylamide content of all the pre-treated samples ( average value) fried at 170 degrees C. Soaking of blanched potato slices in the 3 g/100 g of NaCl solution...

  2. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  3. Development and quality characteristics of nutritionally enhanced potato legume based wari- an Indian traditional savoury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhpreet; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2016-04-01

    The present study was carried out to develop waris from potato and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic, physicochemical, phytochemical and shelf life quality. Wari is a partially fermented legume based savoury, used as adjunct in vegetable curries. In this study, potato (boiled and dehydrated) was used to supplement black gram or urad dhal waris. Two processing cultivars (Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chandramukhi) and one commonly grown cultivar (Kufri Pukhraj) were evaluated for processing into waris. Based on preliminary sensory trails, waris with potato (70 %) and urad dhal (30 %) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these waris were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Storage stability of the waris was assessed by storing the product at room temperature for a period of 12 months. Results were compared with dhal waris (control). Protein content was significantly higher in control waris compared to potato supplemented waris. Bioactive compounds including ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity measured as DPPH radical scavenging activity increased significantly on incorporation of potato. Between the cultivars, waris enriched with Kufri Pukhraj, a table variety which is considered unfit for processing, displayed the highest phytochemical content and total antioxidant activity. Sensory evaluation indicated higher overall acceptability scores of potato enriched waris compared to control waris. Between the treatments i.e. boiled mash and dehydrated flour, waris supplemented with boiled potato mash showed a significantly higher content of phytochemicals and total antioxidant activity compared to potato flour waris. However no significant difference was observed in sensory quality of the product prepared either with fresh potato mash or potato flour. Storage studies showed that the potato waris can be stored safely for 12 months with its nutrient constituents intact.

  4. FARMER'S PROFITABILITY OF POTATO CULTIVATION AT RANGPUR DISTRICT: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Ahmed Mukul

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is predominantly an agricultural country. Agriculture is the indispensable culture of Bangladesh. Agriculture has a enceinte contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of the country. Earlier more than 50% of GDP came from this sector. Various types of crops are produced in this country. These crops might have been categorized into two-food crops and cash crops. Potato is one of the food-stuff of the most people of the world as well as Bangladesh. Potato crop is being treated as foremost crop. This study was conducted to approximation the cost of production and profitability of potato producers at Rangpur district. Data collected from 30 farmers using simple random sampling technique. The potato farmers showed individual differences in their socio-economic characteristics and absolute majority of them belonged to young age category (20-35 years having medium family size, illiterate, medium farm size (0.34-1.0 acre, (1-10 years farming experience. Most of the respondents used cardinal variety of potato seed and sell their output at home. Farmers who sell potato in the market were more profitable than others. The study also designates that the large farmers were most profitable compared to others. Major problem faced by the potato farmers were lower price of potato during harvesting period, price fluctuation , shortage of capital, high charge of cold storage, lack of good quality seed, perish ability of potato, poor storage facility, higher price of inputs and lack of marketing facility etc. Proper steps should be postulated by Government to puzzle out this problem. The determinations of the study will generate basic economic data on the production practices of potato. At long last it will be helpful to the planners and policy makers in contriving micro or macro level policy for the enlargement of potato production in the country.

  5. Study of some factors affecting potato microtuber production in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Jawdat, D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of variety, growth regulators, sucrose, and low doses of gamma irradiation on the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers in vitro were investigated. Nodal segments from virus free explants of 3 potato varieties were placed on six different media and irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.5, 5, 10, 15 Gy).Potato varieties used in the study differed in their ability to produce microtubers. Variety Diamant was the best in microtuber production followed by Draga and Spunta. Kinetin played a significant role in inducing tuberization in vitro especially at a concentration of 4 mg -1 . Tuberization was also enhanced by sucrose especially when its level was increased from 3% to 6%. Irradiating the explants with 2.5 Gy of gamma radiation leads to a significant increase in number of microtubers (34% increase over the control). Weight of microtubers was not significantly influenced by low doses of gamma irradiation or media components. Draga microtubers were the largest followed by Diamant and Spunta. Microtubers resembled mature tubers in shape (Spunta was elongated and Draga and Diamant were round). Size of microtubers was crucial for sprouting in vivo. It is suggested that only microtubers larger than 250 mg (5 mm in diameter) can be used to produce minitubers in vivo. Since 2.5 Gy is a low dose, it can be used to enhance tuberization in vitro without fear of genetic changes in the used varieties. (author)

  6. Test results of the experimental laser device for potato tubers radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrik, S.S.; Korzun, O.S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of 3 year investigation of the influence of the presowing low intensity laser radiation treatment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers with the help of laser device with various spectral composition and exposition on plant growth, development and productivity and potato tubers quality and starch content in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. Presowing tubers treatment of potato cultivars Sante, Yavar and Arkhideya was realized by He-Ne, Ar-, Cu (in course of 3 and 5 minutes) and CO2 (in course of 5 seconds) lasers. Research results have shown that presowing treatment with CO2 laser promoted the higher (on 1,7-6,6%) potato germination capacity in comparison with the control variant without radiation treatment. Height of potato plants of Sante variety after radiation treatment fell behind the control ones. Haulm quantity per one plant and yield quality did not depend on radiation treatment Treatment with CO2 laser exercised the stimulatory action on productivity of Sante variety without changing the starch content in tubers. Tuber weight increased up to 0,4 kg (0,2 kg in the control variant). Similar effect for Arkhideya and Yavar varieties was obtained after Cu-laser treatment in course of 5 minutes. Radiation treatment with He-Ne laser caused the increased starch accumulation (on 0,4-0,6% in comparison with the control variant) in potato tubers of all studied varieties

  7. Willingness-to-Accept and Willingness-to-Pay for GM and Non-GM Food: UK Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Wanki; Rimal, Arbindra; Balasubramanian, Siva K.

    2004-01-01

    Our research elicited UK consumers¡¯ willingness-to-accept (WTA) discount in exchange for giving up non-GM food and willingness-to-pay (WTP) premium to purchase non-GM food. Eliciting only WTP does not provide sufficient information for determining substitutability between GM and non-GM food. Results indicate that there is a strong demand for non-GM food in the UK, but a non-negligible segment expressed their willingness to substitute non-GM food with GM version either without discount (12 %)...

  8. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods & Teaching Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Vanessa S.; Tobin, Allan J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes instructional materials developed to address two major needs in biology education--how to form scientific opinions and providing a link between students and literature. Presents two essays, rats and potatoes and butterflies and corn, introduces students to article searching, reading peer-reviewed scientific studies, writing, critical…

  9. Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IN Abdullahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11061 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35

  10. Comparative study of the nutritional quality of potato-wheat steamed and baked breads made with four potato flour cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingli; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang; Fauconnier, Maire Laure

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the nutritional quality of steamed and baked breads containing 35% potato flour from four potato cultivars. Compared with traditional wheat varieties, potato-wheat steamed and baked breads contained higher dietary fiber (1.87-fold), K (2.68-fold), vitamin C (28.56-fold), and total polyphenol (1.90-fold) contents and greater antioxidant activity (1.23-fold). Moreover, the estimated glycemic index of potato-wheat breads ranged from 61.20 (Hongmei-wheat baked bread) to 67.36 (Atlantic-wheat steamed bread), which was lower than that of wheat steamed bread (70.22) and baked bread (70.62). In terms of nutritional value, Hongmei was the optimum cultivar, followed by Blue Congo, Shepody, and Atlantic. For the same cultivar, the nutritional value of steamed bread was higher than that of baked bread. In conclusion, potato flour is a potential wheat flour supplement that improves the nutritional and functional properties of breads.

  11. Measurements of potato tubers gamma-ray irradiated in nitrogen gas or carbondioxide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Dohmaru, Takaaki; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Furuta, Jun-ichiro.

    1984-01-01

    In this report the respiration of the potato tubers irradiated in nitrogen gas or carbondioxide gas was studied. Potato tubers of common Japanese variety, ''Danshaku'' were used for the examination. Potato tubers of about 2kg were put into each of Triple-Nylon bags and the bags were sealed after replacement of air in bags with nitrogen or carbondioxide gases. More than 16 hours after sealing of bags, the γ-dose ( 60 Co) of 150 Gy or 250 Gy were given to the potato tubers in bags at the dose rate of 10 4 R/h. After irradiation, all bags were opened in air and amounts of CO 2 released by respiration of tubers were measured with Hitachi gas chromatograph analyser Type 023. The amounts of CO 2 released from the potato tubers irradiated in open air is shown in Fig. 2. The results show that there is an initial lag period of several hours, followed by a rapid increase in the respiration, after which the CO 2 release was gradually decreased. Potato tubers irradiated in nitrogen gas show a similar release of CO 2 on time scale to the potato tubers irradiated in open air, but the total amounts of CO 2 are approximately half of those of the potato tubers irradiated in open air (Figs. 3 and 4). (J.P.N.)

  12. GM plants, farmers and the public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The controversy in Europe over genetically manipulated (GM) foods has been conceived largely as a conflict between a reluctant public and a more enthusiastic agri-food sector. As a result, the political focus has been on the public to the neglect of other actors, such as the farmers, whose willin...

  13. The GM foods debate in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The debate on genetically modified (GM) foods has been led on multiple levels in Europe, including such diverse frames of reference as economic policy and international trade, environmental risk, bioethics, consumer protection and food safety. The shifting frames of reference are traced over...

  14. The loss from underutilizing GM technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilberman, David; Kaplan, Scott; Wesseler, Justus

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a framework based on a real-option approach to assess the economics of delaying the introduction of genetically modified (GM) technologies in agriculture due to concerns about their unintended effects (unexpected environmental side effects). We applied our framework to

  15. High Density GEOSAT/GM Altimeter Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The high density Geosat/GM altimeter data south of 30 S have finally arrived. In addition, ERS-1 has completed more than 6 cycles of its 35-day repeat track. These...

  16. Selection of maintaining, method for keeping of biologial purity, patternship and health, regarding viruses infection of distinguished potato breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza MIKE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A large number of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines disappeared as an effect of nonfavourable climatically conditions and especially by viruses diseases, as well as other biological and viruses degeneration. To avoid the negative effect of degeneration on potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines, the method of selection for maintaining and multiplication of potato is applying in Romania in the frame of National Center for Maintaining of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines Apa Rosie, Covasna County, which belong to the Station for Research and Development of Potato, Targu Secuiesc, Covasna County.In this center are maintained and multiplied all distinguished varieties and breeding centers from Romania (National Institute for research and Development of Potato and Sugar beet Brasov, Research and Development Station for Agriculture Suceava, Research and Development Station for Potato Targu Secuiesc, Research and development Station for Potato Miercurea Ciuc.Using the method of selection for maintaining it is possible an early identification of somatic mutations, disease (especially viruses infection by visual elimination or by serological testing.The viruses’ infection of potato leads to disturbed the metabolism of plants and produces anatomical – morphological alters as: mosaic, crinkle, rolling, browning of leaves and plants deformation.The disturbing of plant metabolism has as negative effect the reduction of vegetation period, decreasing the yield capacity, depreciation of physical and chemical quality of tubers.The genetically complex structure of cultivated potato (2n = 4x = 48 and strong segregation of long – expected characters in the obtained future progeny by sexual hybridization, complicated many times by nonfavourable linkage, are the backgrounds for initiation of maintain selection.

  17. A temporal assessment of nematode community structure and diversity in the rhizosphere of cisgenic Phytophthora infestans-resistant potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Vilma; Phelan, Sinead; Mullins, Ewen

    2016-12-01

    Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere. The goal of this project was to begin to address this knowledge gap in regards to a GM potato line, cisgenically engineered for resistance to Phytophthora infestans (responsible organism of the Irish potato famine causing late blight disease). For this, a 3 year (2013, 2014, 2015) field experimental study was completed, containing two conventional genotypes (cvs. Desiree and Sarpo Mira) and a cisgenic genotype (cv. Desiree + Rpi-vnt1). Each potato genotype was treated with different disease management strategies (weekly chemical applications and corresponding no spray control). Hence affording the opportunity to investigate the temporal impact of potato genotype, disease management strategy (and their interaction) on the potato rhizosphere nematode community. Nematode structure and diversity were measured through established indices, accounts and taxonomy with factors recording a significant effect limited to the climatic conditions across the three seasons of the study and chemical applications associated with the selected disease management strategy. Based on the metrics studied, the cultivation of the cisgenic potato genotype exerted no significant effect (P > 0.05) on nematode community diversity or structure. The disease management treatments led to a reduction of specific trophic groups (e.g. Predacious c-p = 4), which of interest appeared to be counteracted by a potato genotype with vigorous growth phenotype

  18. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47 mg/larvae/day and 12.46 mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ali, M. E.; Khan, A. A.; Akanda, A. M.; Uddin, Md. Kamal; Hashim, U.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5%) antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7%) of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers. PMID:22645446

  20. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5% antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7% of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers.

  1. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper Foged; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum 'Folva') and their proteome investigated. Proteins...... manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more "extreme" proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...

  2. Climate change and potato cropping in the Peruvian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, J.; Lhomme, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on potatoes cropping in the Peruvian highlands (Altiplano) is assessed using climate projections for 2071-2100, obtained from the HadRM3P regional atmospheric model of the Hadley Centre. The atmospheric model is run under two different special report on emission scenarios: high CO2 concentration (A2) and moderate CO2 concentration (B2) for four locations situated in the surroundings of Lake Titicaca. The two main varieties of potato cultivated in the area are studied: the Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum) and the bitter potato ( Solanum juzepczukii). A simple process-oriented model is used to quantify the climatic impacts on crops cycles and yields by combining the effects of temperature on phenology, of radiation and CO2 on maximum yield and of water balance on yield deficit. In future climates, air temperature systematically increases, precipitation tends to increase at the beginning of the rainy season and slightly decreases during the rest of the season. The direct effects of these climatic changes are earlier planting dates, less planting failures and shorter crop cycles in all the four locations and for both scenarios. Consequently, the harvesting dates occur systematically earlier: roughly in January for the Andean potato instead of March in the current situation and in February for the bitter potato instead of April. Overall, yield deficits will be higher under climate change than in the current climate. There will be a strong negative impact on yields for S. tuberosum (stronger under A2 scenario than under B2); the impact on S. juzepczukii yields, however, appears to be relatively mixed and not so negative.

  3. Rheology of Potato flour Mixes and Wheat to Make Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices

  4. Assessing the effects of cultivating genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant varieties of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on populations of field arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Osamu; Shi, Kun; Iimura, Keiji; Takamizo, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the effects of cultivating two genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybean varieties (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) derived from Event 40-3-2 and a Japanese conventional variety on arthropods under field conditions, with weed control using glyphosate and conventional weed control for two years. Plant height and dry weight of the conventional variety were significantly larger than those of the GM varieties, but the GM varieties bore more pods than the conventional variety. We found arthropods of nine taxonomic orders (Araneae, Acari, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) on the plants. The arthropod incidence (number per plant unit weight pooled for each taxonomic order) on the soybean stems and leaves generally did not differ significantly between the GM and conventional varieties. However, the incidence of Thysanoptera and total incidence (all orders combined) were greater on the GM variety in the second year. The weed control regimes had no significant influence on the arthropod incidence on the soybean stems and leaves. The number of flower-inhabiting Thysanoptera (the dominant arthropod in the flowers) was not significantly different between the GM and conventional varieties. Asphondylia yushimai (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was more numerous on the pods of the GM variety in both years. Neither the soybean variety nor the weed control regime significantly affected the density of soil macro-organisms. However, the glyphosate weed control affected arthropods between the rows of plants by decreasing the abundances of Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and diversity of arthropods. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  5. Biomineralization of a calcifying ureolytic bacterium Microbacterium sp. GM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojing Xu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of this research provide evidence that Microbacterium sp. GM-1 can biologically induce calcification and suggest that strain GM-1 may play a potential role in the synthesis of new biominerals and in bioremediation or biorecovery.

  6. The potential contribution of bread buns fortified with beta-carotene-rich sweet potato in Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jan W; van Jaarsveld, Paul J

    2008-06-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato is an efficacious source of vitamin A. Substituting wheat flour with orange-fleshed sweet potato in processed products could reduce foreign exchange outlays, create new markets for producers, and result in increased vitamin A consumption among consumers provided there is adequate retention of beta-carotene during processing. To explore whether substituting 38% of wheat flour (by weight) in bread buns ("golden bread") with boiled and mashed orange-fleshed sweet potato from fresh roots or rehydrated chips would produce economically viable beta-carotene-rich products acceptable to Mozambican rural consumers. Modified local recipes maximized sweet potato content within the limits of consumer acceptability. Sensitivity analysis determined parameters underlying economic viability. Two samples each of buns from five varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato were analyzed for beta-carotene content. Processed products with at least 15 microg/g product of trans-beta-carotene were considered good sources of vitamin A. Golden bread made from fresh roots of medium-intensity orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties met the good source criterion, but bread from lighter-intensity sweet potato varieties did not. Bread from rehydrated dried chips was not economically viable. Consumers strongly preferred golden bread over pure wheat flour bread because of its heavier texture and attractive appearance. The ratio of the price of wheat flour to that of raw sweet potato root varied from 3.1 to 3.5 among the bakers, whose increase in profit margins ranged from 54% to 92%. Golden bread is a good source of beta-carotene and is economically viable when the price ratio of wheat flour to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato root is at least 1.5. Widespread adoption during sweet potato harvesting periods is feasible; year-round availability requires storage.

  7. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  8. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperature oscillation suppression of GM cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okidono, K.; Oota, T.; Kurihara, H.; Sumida, T.; Nishioka, T.; Kato, H.; Matsumura, M.; Sasaki, O.

    2012-12-01

    GM cryocooler is a convenient refrigerator to achieve low temperatures about 4 K, while it is not suitable for precise measurements because of the large temperature oscillation of typically about 0.3 K. To resolve this problem, we have developed an adapter (He-pot) with a simple structure as possible. From the thermodynamic consideration, both heat capacity and thermal conductance should be large in order to reduce the temperature oscillation without compromising cooling power. Optimal structure of the He-pot is a copper cylinder filled with high pressure He-gas at room temperature. This can reduce the temperature oscillation to less than 10 mK below a certain temperature TH without compromising cooling power. TH are 3.8 and 4.5 for filled He-gas pressures of 90 and 60 atm, respectively. By using this He-pot, GM cryocooler can be applied to such as precise physical property measurements and THz detection.

  10. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...: This final rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No... Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This action modifies the Committee membership structure by amending...

  11. Differentiating the consumer benefits from labeling of GM food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Hobbs, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Although recurrent evidence is found that consumers have different willingness to pay for GM and non-GM products, there is disagreement in the scientific community about the size of consumer benefits from GM labeling. In this article we use a theoretical model based on a standard constant elasticity

  12. Genetics Home Reference: GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Tay-Sachs disease, variant AB General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) ... AB variant Activator Deficiency/GM2 Gangliosidosis Activator-deficient Tay-Sachs disease GM2 Activator Deficiency Disease GM2 gangliosidosis, type AB ...

  13. Natural History of Infantile GM2 Gangliosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Annette E.; Giannikopoulos, Ourania A.; Hayden, Doug; Kubilus, Kim; Tifft, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: GM2 gangliosidoses are caused by an inherited deficiency of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase and result in ganglioside accumulation in the brain. Onset during infancy leads to rapid neurodegeneration and death before 4 years of age. We set out to quantify the rate of functional decline in infantile GM2 gangliosidosis on the basis of patient surveys and a comprehensive review of existing literature. METHODS: Patients with infantile GM2 gangliosidosis (N = 237) were surveyed via questionnaire by the National Tay Sachs & Allied Diseases Association (NTSAD). These data were supplemented by survival data from the NTSAD database and a literature survey. Detailed retrospective surveys from 97 patients were available. Five patients who had received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were evaluated separately. The mortality rate of the remaining 92 patients was comparable to that of the 103 patients from the NTSAD database and 121 patients reported in the literature. RESULTS: Common symptoms at onset were developmental arrest (83%), startling (65%), and hypotonia (60%). All 55 patients who had learned to sit without support lost that ability within 1 year. Individual functional measures correlated with each other but not with survival. Gastric tube placement was associated with prolonged survival. Tay Sachs and Sandhoff variants did not differ. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was not associated with prolonged survival. CONCLUSIONS: We studied the timing of regression in 97 cases of infantile GM2 gangliosidosis and conclude that clinical disease progression does not correlate with survival, likely because of the impact of improved supportive care over time. However, functional measures are quantifiable and can inform power calculations and study design of future interventions. PMID:22025593

  14. Morphological characterization of the local potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... agronomical characteristics of the genotypes were described according to the criteria developed for potato .... potato tubers were stored at 4°C and 80% moisture storage con- ...... Starch and Sugar Plant Production, Turkey VII.

  15. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  16. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists ( Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea ) and fungi ( Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes ). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  17. Radiation hormesis in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) part 1: Laboratory research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Arthur, V.; Wiendl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the results of irradiation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers of two varieties. Bintje and Baraka, with gamma radiations of Cobalt-60 at a dose of: 0.0. 2.5. 5.0 and 7.5 Gy, at the dose rate of 150 Gy per hour. Twenty eight potatoes of each variety were irradiated with each dose. Half of these potatoes were planted individually into aluminium cages of about 15 X 10 X 3 cm, using circa 120 ml of vermiculite in each cage, immediately after radiation. After seven days the rest of the potatoes was planted under the same conditions. The whole experiment was conducted into a chamber under dark conditions and temperature between 23 and 27 centigrade. Almost every two or three days each potato received circa 50 ml of plain water. After 143 to 154 days of irradiation the experiment was finished, and the following parameter were determined. Weight of potatoes without sprouts or roots; number of the eyes on which occurred sprouting; length of the longest sprout of its respective eye; humid weight of the sprouts; dry weight of the sprouts; humid weight of the roots; dry weight of the roots. (author). 19 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Ralstonia solanacearum – a New Threat to Potato Production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević-Marčić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ware potatoes (a total of 1127 samples from localities in Serbia during two consecutive years resulted in detection and identification of R. solanacearum in 17 tuber samples. The monitoring detected the causal agent of bacterial wilt and brown rot of potato in three districts of Vojvodina province. In 2011, the infection by R. solanacearum was confirmed in 7 samples of ware potato tubers (varieties – Saturna, Pirol, Hermes, Panda in West Bačka and South Bačka Districts. In 2012, the infection by R. solanacearum was confirmed in 10 potato tuber samples (Lady Claire, Desiree, Panda, Red Fantasy and Vineta varieties from two districts: South Bačka and Central Banat. Bacterial strains obtained from positive samples were identified as R. solanacearum biovar 2 using PCR/RFLP analysis, pathogenicity test on tomato transplants, and nutritional, enzymatic and biovar determination tests. To our best knowledge, these are the only findings of R. solanacearum infection in ware potatoes in Serbia. R. solanacearum was not detected in tomato or any other host plant tested in this study. Furthermore, the bacterium was not found in any of the water samples tested, including those originating from areas in which the bacterium was found in ware potato samples.

  19. Potato Organic Farming in Batu City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Sulistiono, Rudi; Sudiarso, Sudiarso; Soemarno, Soemarno

    2013-01-01

    Organic potato cultivation was an effort to improve declining quality of potato agroecosystems and to preserve soil fertility. This study was conducted to analyze pattern of farming system and land management on the area of organic potatoes in Batu city. Research was conducted by the survey method, respondents were determined by the method of stratified cluster sampling. Farmer respondents were experienced organic potato farmer and as "expert leaders". Results show that the mindset of farmer...

  20. Environmental stress is the major cause of transcriptomic and proteomic changes in GM and non-GM plants

    KAUST Repository

    Batista, Rita

    2017-08-31

    The approval of genetically modified (GM) crops is preceded by years of intensive research to demonstrate safety to humans and environment. We recently showed that in vitro culture stress is the major factor influencing proteomic differences of GM vs. non-GM plants. This made us question the number of generations needed to erase such

  1. Environmental stress is the major cause of transcriptomic and proteomic changes in GM and non-GM plants

    KAUST Repository

    Batista, Rita; Fonseca, Cá tia; Planchon, Sé bastien; Negrã o, Só nia; Renaut, Jenny; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2017-01-01

    The approval of genetically modified (GM) crops is preceded by years of intensive research to demonstrate safety to humans and environment. We recently showed that in vitro culture stress is the major factor influencing proteomic differences of GM vs. non-GM plants. This made us question the number of generations needed to erase such

  2. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  3. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  4. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the fried potato chips and French fries French fries. Blanching reduced in potato chips on average 76 percent and 68 percent of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50 degrees C for 70 minutes......) of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively) with French fry acrylamide content....

  5. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes...

  6. Potato proteins : their properties and nutritive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labib, A.I.

    1962-01-01

    Physical and biological investigations were carried out on the nitrogenous substances in the potato tuber. The importance of the potato as a food was considered in the introduction. By paper electrophoresis proteins in potato tuber sap could be separated into at least six fractions. The protein

  7. Varieties of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, G. L.

    The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…

  8. Computing Tropical Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.

    2005-01-01

    The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...

  9. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  10. Genetically modified (GM) crops: milestones and new advances in crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kamthan, Mohan; Datta, Asis

    2016-09-01

    New advances in crop genetic engineering can significantly pace up the development of genetically improved varieties with enhanced yield, nutrition and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetically modified (GM) crops can act as powerful complement to the crops produced by laborious and time consuming conventional breeding methods to meet the worldwide demand for quality foods. GM crops can help fight malnutrition due to enhanced yield, nutritional quality and increased resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, several biosafety issues and public concerns are associated with cultivation of GM crops developed by transgenesis, i.e., introduction of genes from distantly related organism. To meet these concerns, researchers have developed alternative concepts of cisgenesis and intragenesis which involve transformation of plants with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization, respectively. Recombinase technology aimed at site-specific integration of transgene can help to overcome limitations of traditional genetic engineering methods based on random integration of multiple copy of transgene into plant genome leading to gene silencing and unpredictable expression pattern. Besides, recently developed technology of genome editing using engineered nucleases, permit the modification or mutation of genes of interest without involving foreign DNA, and as a result, plants developed with this technology might be considered as non-transgenic genetically altered plants. This would open the doors for the development and commercialization of transgenic plants with superior phenotypes even in countries where GM crops are poorly accepted. This review is an attempt to summarize various past achievements of GM technology in crop improvement, recent progress and new advances in the field to develop improved varieties aimed for better consumer acceptance.

  11. Intensity of panicle malformation in mango (mangifera indica L.) varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, I.A.; Abbasi, N.A.; Anwar, R.; Chatha, Z.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mango germplasm comprising of forty three varieties was evaluated for the level of the panicle malformation disease intensity. The intensity varied significantly among the genotypes. Out tested varieties four were tolerant, 27 were moderately tolerant, five were moderately susceptible while seven were recorded highly susceptible to malformation. Disease incidence frequency was highest in Lab-e-Mashooq (68.70 %) followed by G.M. Wala (64.28 %) and lowest in Sensation (7.20%) and Gulab Khas (7.8 %). The lowest affected varieties may be used for incorporating their tolerance in the other commercial varieties through breeding program. The incidence rate was higher (38.69%) in six commercial varieties under Central Punjab ecological conditions than that of (26.70%) in the Southern (Multan) region. However, the tolerance in genotypes seems specific to ecological regions and the growers of the highly susceptible varieties should be very careful and regular in carrying the control measures. (author)

  12. Impact of GM crops on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet E

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of GM crops on biodiversity has been a topic of interest both in general as well as specifically in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Agricultural biodiversity has been defined at levels from genes to ecosystems that are involved or impacted by agricultural production (www.cbd.int/agro/whatis.shtml). After fifteen years of commercial cultivation, a substantial body of literature now exists addressing the potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This review takes a biodiversity lens to this literature, considering the impacts at three levels: the crop, farm and landscape scales. Within that framework, this review covers potential impacts of the introduction of genetically engineered crops on: crop diversity, biodiversity of wild relatives, non-target soil organisms, weeds, land use, non-target above-ground organisms, and area-wide pest suppression. The emphasis of the review is peer-reviewed literature that presents direct measures of impacts on biodiversity. In addition, possible impacts of changes in management practises such as tillage and pesticide use are also discussed to complement the literature on direct measures. The focus of the review is on technologies that have been commercialized somewhere in the world, while results may emanate from non-adopting countries and regions. Overall, the review finds that currently commercialized GM crops have reduced the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, through enhanced adoption of conservation tillage practices, reduction of insecticide use and use of more environmentally benign herbicides and increasing yields to alleviate pressure to convert additional land into agricultural use.

  13. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  14. Gamma-ray effect on sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Ciofu, R.; Stroia, L.; Ghering, A.; Ferdes, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results on modification occurred in biochemical properties of sweet potato (Ipomea batatus L.) after gamma irradiation. Two varieties, named Victoria Ianb (a white variety) and Portocaliu (a red variety), were selected and acclimatized for the agrometeorological conditions of Romania. The samples consist of roots from both usual and experimental crops. They were irradiated in batch, one week after harvesting, with a ICPR Co-60 gamma-ray source by approx. 370 TBq, dose range 100-500 Gy, dose rate 100±5 Gy/hour, dose uniformity ±5%, temperature 10 o C, 80±5% relative humidity (rh). The irradiation doses received were checked using the Fricke ferrous sulphate dosimeter procedure. The roots were kept two months at relative darkness, 6-11 o C, 60-75% rh and analyzed from time to time (initial, 5, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days). The following parameters are analyzed by conventional methods: total and reducing sugars (in De equivalent, %, on dry weight basis), starch content and the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes. The red variety had a better behaviour towards irradiation that the white one. The sugar contents (both total and reducing), as well as starch, varied more in the white variety. The sugar metabolizing enzyme activities were influenced by both irradiation and storage conditions. Their activities were maximal at 200 and 300 Gy, and decreased significantly at higher doses. The activities also decreased in time, their variations being higher at lower doses (100 and 200 Gy). The results showed no significant influence of gamma irradiation on storage life. The modifications induced in sugar contents and enzyme activities had maximal effects at 200-300 Gy. (author)

  15. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt.

  16. Africa's inevitable walk to genetically modified (GM) crops: opportunities and challenges for commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, James A; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Misra, Manjit K; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2013-01-25

    High relative poverty levels in Africa are attributed to the continent's under performing agriculture. Drought, low-yielding crop varieties, pests and diseases, poor soils, low fertilizer use, limited irrigation and lack of modern technologies are among the problems that plague African agriculture. Genetically modified (GM) crops may possess attributes that can help overcome some of these constraints, but have yet to be fully embraced in the mix of technology solutions for African agriculture. Cognizant of this, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt are steadily growing GM crops on a commercial scale. Countries like Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda are increasingly field-testing these crops with the view to commercialize them. These countries show strong government support for GM technology. Progress by these first adopter nations provides an insight as to how GM crops are increasingly being viewed as one of the ways in which the continent can invigorate the agriculture sector and achieve food security. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be

  18. Shihoro irradiation plant for potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Kenji

    1985-01-01

    There have been rapid moves toward the commercialization of food irradiation around the world since November, 1980, when a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO expert committee made a recommendation on the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. The bold US move toward the commercialization has had a great impact. Ahead of these move around the world, Japan built a commercial irradiation plant in 1974, which has been operated for inhibiting the sprouting of potatoes. This plant was built in Shihoro, Hokkaido, and two thirds of the 400 million yen construction cost was provided by the Government and Hokkaido authorities for five agricultural cooperative associations of four local townships. Since then, the plant has been under the joint management of these cooperatives. The aim and circumstance of the plant construction are described. The mechanism of the plant with conveyors, a turntable and a Co-60 source of 300,000 Ci is shown. The plant processes 15 tons of potatoes per hour with the dose from 60 to 150 Gy. Potato bruise and irradiation effect, irradiation time and effect, and post-irradiation storage temperature and potato quality are reported. (Kako, I.)

  19. Genome edited animals: Learning from GM crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ann

    2017-06-01

    Genome editing of livestock is poised to become commercial reality, yet questions remain as to appropriate regulation, potential impact on the industry sector and public acceptability of products. This paper looks at how genome editing of livestock has attempted to learn some of the lessons from commercialisation of GM crops, and takes a systemic approach to explore some of the complexity and ambiguity in incorporating genome edited animals in a food production system. Current applications of genome editing are considered, viewed from the perspective of past technological applications. The question of what is genome editing, and can it be considered natural is examined. The implications of regulation on development of different sectors of livestock production systems are studied, with a particular focus on the veterinary sector. From an EU perspective, regulation of genome edited animals, although not necessarily the same as for GM crops, is advocated from a number of different perspectives. This paper aims to open up new avenues of research on genome edited animals, extending from the current primary focus on science and regulation, to engage with a wider-range of food system actors.

  20. Characterization of Rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM and non-GM maizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Wihkochombom Bumunang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to examine the rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM maize and its non-GM counterpart. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected at 30 days after sowing (DAS and at post-harvest from two experimental fields in Gauteng, South Africa. Total rhizobacteria (cfu/g in GM and non-GM soil samples was not significantly different across the different media 30 DAS and at post-harvest. Rhizobacterial isolates obtained were biochemically characterized using the analytical profile index. Species of Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Sphingomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella and Bacillus were screened in vitro for plant growth promoting traits such as, ammonia production, catalase activity, indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, hydrogen cyanide production and antifungal activity. All the 32 rhizobacterial strains tested in this study were positive for catalase activity, ammonia production and IAA production; 90.6% were positive for phosphate solubilisation, 34.3% for indicate antifungal activity but none for hydrogen cyanide production. These findings contributed to the quest for potential biofertilizers and biocontrol agents for sustainable agriculture.

  1. Global powertrains - the GM case; Globale Antriebssysteme - Die Strategie von GM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, R.J. [General Motors Powertrain Europe, Turin (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In today's environment the development of vehicles is confronted with very high customer expectations and legislative restrictions, which can only be fulfilled with a high technological effort and profound know how. These challenges are further increased due to the diversity of markets with regional preferences and increased cost and demand for energy. At the same time it is a principle for General Motors to offer our customers a sustainable and economical individual mobility. The worldwide development strategy of GM powertrain is following exactly this philosophy: efficient and and cost-effective technologies are being developed for gasoline and diesel engines in order to fulfill all of todays and all prognosed future requirements. Based on this GM has defined it's longterm strategy, the march to zero, which includes alternative propulsion systems with the ultimate goal of the neutral emission vehicle with ensured energy supply. With a unique worldwide development network GM is in an optimal position to take on this challenge. Already today GM is successfully using the synergies of competence centers all over the world for the global development strategy. Modern powertrains are based on a common structure but allow regional adaptation to all markets by using a modular system. This development philosophy is one of the cornerstones for General Motors position as the world's largest carmaker. (orig.)

  2. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  3. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  4. Identification of genes related to drought in native potatoes using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lozano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent advent RNA sequencing technology (RNA-Seq, a massively parallel sequencing method for transcriptome analysis, provides an opportunity to understand the expression profile of plants in response to biotic and abiotic stress. In this study, the mRNA was sequencing from leaves and roots of two native potato varieties at different levels of drought. Fifty-base-pair reads from whole mRNAs were mapped to the potato genomic sequence: 75 – 82% mapped uniquely to the genome, 6 – 14% mapped to several locations in the genome and 9 – 12% had no match in the genome. Comparing expression profiles, 887 to 1925 genes were found to be induced/repressed by drought in the sensible variety and 998 to 1995 in the tolerant. This research provides valuable information for future studies and deeper understanding of the molecular mechanism of drought resistance in potato and related species.

  5. Extensive Analysis of GmFTL and GmCOL Expression in Northern Soybean Cultivars in Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guangyu; Xu, Kun; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhu, Jinlong; Lu, Mingyang; Chen, Fulu; Liu, Linpo; Xi, Zhang-Ying; Bachmair, Andreas; Chen, Qingshan; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is a highly conserved florigen gene among flowering plants. Soybean genome encodes six homologs of FT, which display flowering activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their contributions to flowering time in different soybean cultivars, especially in field conditions, are unclear. We employed six soybean cultivars with different maturities to extensively investigate expression patterns of GmFTLs (Glycine max FT-like) and GmCOLs (Glycine max CO-like) in the field conditions. The results show that GmFTL3 is an FT homolog with the highest transcript abundance in soybean, but other GmFTLs may also contribute to flower induction with different extents, because they have more or less similar expression patterns in developmental-, leaf-, and circadian-specific modes. And four GmCOL genes (GmCOL1/2/5/13) may confer to the expression of GmFTL genes. Artificial manipulation of GmFTL expression by transgenic strategy (overexpression and RNAi) results in a distinct change in soybean flowering time, indicating that GmFTLs not only impact on the control of flowering time, but have potential applications in the manipulation of photoperiodic adaptation in soybean. Additionally, transgenic plants show that GmFTLs play a role in formation of the first flowers and in vegetative growth.

  6. Pivotal Roles of GM-CSF in Autoimmunity and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Aoi; Usui, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor, which stimulates the proliferation of granulocytes and macrophages from bone marrow precursor cells. In autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, Th17 cells have been considered as strong inducers of tissue inflammation. However, recent evidence indicates that GM-CSF has prominent proinflammatory functions and that this growth factor (not IL-17) is critical for the pathogenicity of CD4+ T cells. Therefore, the mechanism of GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cell differentiation and the role of GM-CSF in the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are gaining increasing attention. This review summarizes the latest knowledge of GM-CSF and its relationship with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The potential therapies targeting GM-CSF as well as their possible side effects have also been addressed in this review. PMID:25838639

  7. Complex Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Peternell, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf

    1992-01-01

    The Bayreuth meeting on "Complex Algebraic Varieties" focussed on the classification of algebraic varieties and topics such as vector bundles, Hodge theory and hermitian differential geometry. Most of the articles in this volume are closely related to talks given at the conference: all are original, fully refereed research articles. CONTENTS: A. Beauville: Annulation du H(1) pour les fibres en droites plats.- M. Beltrametti, A.J. Sommese, J.A. Wisniewski: Results on varieties with many lines and their applications to adjunction theory.- G. Bohnhorst, H. Spindler: The stability of certain vector bundles on P(n) .- F. Catanese, F. Tovena: Vector bundles, linear systems and extensions of (1).- O. Debarre: Vers uns stratification de l'espace des modules des varietes abeliennes principalement polarisees.- J.P. Demailly: Singular hermitian metrics on positive line bundles.- T. Fujita: On adjoint bundles of ample vector bundles.- Y. Kawamata: Moderate degenerations of algebraic surfaces.- U. Persson: Genus two fibra...

  8. Seeds of Doubt: North American farmers' experiences of GM crops

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick, Hugh; Meziani, Gundula

    2002-01-01

    The picture the biotechnology industry has painted of GM crops in North America is one of unqualified success, after six years of commercial growing. The objective of this report was to assess whether this image is accurate and if not what problems have occurred. We present interviews with North American farmers about their experiences of GM soya, maize and oilseed rape, and review of some of the independent research. The evidence we have gathered demonstrates that GM food crops are far f...

  9. DNA marker-assisted evaluation of potato genotypes for potential resistance to potato cyst nematode pathotypes not yet invading into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tsuda, Shogo; Nishinaka, Mio; Tamiya, Seiji

    2012-06-01

    One of major objectives of crop breeding is conferring resistance to diseases and pests. However, large-scale phenotypic evaluation for many diseases and pests is difficult because strict controls are required to prevent their spread. Detection of disease resistance genes by using DNA markers may be an alternative approach to select potentially resistant accessions. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeders in Japan extensively use resistance gene H1, which confers nearly absolute resistance to potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) pathotype Ro1, the only pathotype found in Japan. However, considering the possibility of accidental introduction of the other pathotypes, breeding of resistant varieties is an important strategy to prevent infestation by non-invading pathotypes in Japan. In this study, to evaluate the prevalence of resistance genes in Japanese genetic resources, we developed a multiplex PCR method that simultaneously detects 3 resistance genes, H1, Gpa2 and Gro1-4. We revealed that many Japanese varieties possess not only H1 but Gpa2, which are potentially resistant to other pathotypes of potato cyst nematode. On the other hand, no genotype was found to have the Gro1-4, indicating importance of introduction of varieties having Gro1-4. Our results demonstrate the applicability of DNA-marker assisted evaluation of resistant potato genotypes without phenotypic evaluation.

  10. Effect of irradiation on vitamin C content of strawberries and potatoes in combination with storage and with further cooking in potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.D.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    The vitamin C content of four varieties of strawberry was determined before and after treatment with ionising radiation at doses of 1, 2 or 3 kGy and after storage for 5 and 10 days at 6°C, and also in potatoes which, having been allowed a period of one month to recover from the effects of post-harvest stress, were irradiated at a sprout inhibition dose of 0.15 kGy, followed by storage and cooking. Total ascorbic acid (TAA), ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) concentrations were measured using the technique of ion-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. Results from analysis of the strawberry samples showed the DHAA content increased immediately following irradiation and must, therefore, be taken into account when reporting vitamin C levels in irradiated produce. In addition it was observed that whilst irradiation did affect the vitamin C concentration in all varieties of strawberry, the change was small in comparison with the large variations observed between varieties. With regard to potatoes results showed that, whilst irradiation, storage and cooking all had the effect of reducing vitamin C concentration, irradiated samples stored for 5 months had similar or marginally higher levels than their non-irradiated counterparts. Cooking did not markedly reduce TAA content of irradiated potatoes compared to non-irradiated potatoes and it was also noted that microwave cooking was more destructive than boiling in lightly salted water

  11. Spontaneous transfer of ganglioside GM1 between phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Thompson, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    The transfer kinetics of the negatively charged glycosphingolipid II 3 -N-acetylneuraminosyl-gangliotetraosylceramide (GM 1 ) were investigated by monitoring tritiated GM 1 movement between donor and acceptor vesicles. After appropriate incubation times at 45 0 C, donor and acceptor vesicles were separated by molecular sieve chromatography. Donors were small unilamellar vesicles produced by sonication, whereas acceptors were large unilamellar vesicles produced by either fusion or ethanol injection. Initial GM 1 transfer to acceptors followed first-order kinetics with a half-time of about 40 h assuming that GM 1 is present in equal mole fractions in the exterior and interior surfaces of the donor vesicle bilayer and that no glycolipid flip-flop occurs. GM 1 net transfer was calculated relative to that of [ 14 C]cholesteryl oleate, which served as a nontransferable marker in the donor vesicles. Factors affecting the GM 1 interbilayer transfer rate included phospholipid matrix composition, initial GM 1 concentration in donor vesicles, and the GM 1 distribution in donor vesicles with respect to total lipid symmetry. The findings provide evidence that GM 1 is molecularly dispersed at low concentrations within liquid-crystalline phospholipid bilayers

  12. Epithelial GM-CSF induction by Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2009-08-01

    The main cytokine induced by the interaction of oral epithelial cells with C. glabrata is granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); however, the mechanisms regulating this response are unknown. Based on previously published information on the interactions of C. albicans with oral epithelial cells, we hypothesized that interaction with viable C. glabrata triggers GM-CSF synthesis via NF-kappaB activation. We found that C. glabrata-induced GM-CSF synthesis was adhesion-dependent, enhanced by endocytosis, and required fungal viability. NF-kappaB activation was noted during interaction of epithelial cells with C. glabrata, and pre-treatment with an NF-kappaB inhibitor partly inhibited GM-CSF synthesis. Blocking TLR4 with anti-TLR4 antibody did not inhibit GM-CSF production. In contrast, an anti-CDw17 antibody triggered significant inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and GM-CSF synthesis. beta-glucans did not stimulate GM-CSF synthesis, suggesting that the CDw17/NF-kappaB/GM-CSF pathway may be beta-glucan-independent. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of GM-CSF induction by C. glabrata.

  13. Viscoelastic properties of sweet potato complementary porridges as influenced by endogenous amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabubuya, Agnes; Namutebi, Agnes; Byaruhanga, Yusuf; Schuller, Reidar B; Narvhus, Judith; Wicklund, Trude

    2017-11-01

    Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) roots contain amylolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze starch thus having the potential to affect the viscosity of sweet potato porridges provided the appropriate working conditions for the enzymes are attained. In this study, the effect of sweet potato variety, postharvest handling conditions, freshly harvested and room/ambient stored roots (3 weeks), and slurry solids content on the viscoelastic properties of complementary porridges prepared using amylase enzyme activation technique were investigated. Five temperatures (55°C, 65°C, 70°C, 75°C, and 80°C) were used to activate sweet potato amylases and the optimum temperature was found to be 75°C. Stored sweet potato roots had higher soluble solids (⁰Brix) content in the pastes compared to fresh roots. In all samples, activation of amylases at 75°C caused changes in the viscoelastic parameters: phase angle (tan δ) and complex viscosity (η * ). Postharvest handling conditions and slurry solids content significantly affected the viscoelastic properties of the porridges with flours from stored roots yielding viscous (liquid-like) porridges and fresh roots producing elastic (solid-like) porridges. Increase in slurry solids content caused reduction in the phase angle values and increase in the viscosity of the sweet potato porridges. The viscosity of the porridges decreased with storage of sweet potato roots. These results provide a possibility for exploiting sweet potato endogenous amylases in the preparation of complementary porridges with both drinkable viscosities and appropriate energy and nutrient densities for children with varying energy needs.

  14. The Varieties of Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nottelmann, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses varieties of ignorance divided according to kind (what the subject is ignorant of), degree, and order (e.g. ignorance of ignorance equals second-order ignorance). It provides analyses of notions such as factual ignorance, erotetic ignorance (ignorance of answers to question...

  15. Morphism of Varieties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nagaraj, D. S. (IMSc, Chennai)

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... a notion of nearness of points in the set is defined. The maps are set maps .... of same degree. X6 + 17X is a degree 6 polynomial in one variable. ..... My current area of research is to study of morphisms of varieties: Given two ...

  16. Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes and associated damage to potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, J.

    1993-01-01

    Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes (PCN; Globoderarostochiensis (Woll.) Skarbilovich and G. pallida Stone) and their interactions with potato plants are insufficiently understood to explain variations of population

  17. Assessing biosafety of GM plants containing lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Pedersen, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    insects. However, since the cry genes are not active against all insects, e.g. sap-sucking insects, other genes coding for proteins such as lectins show promise of complementing the cry genes for insect resistance. As with other novel plants, lectin-expressing plants will need to be assessed...... for their potential risks to human and animal health and the environment. The expressed lectin protein should be assessed on its own for potential toxicity and allergenicity as for any other new protein. Although not many lectins have been thoroughly tested for their toxicity, our evaluation suggests that most...... of the lectins that are potentially useful for insect resistance will pose no health risk in genetically modified (GM) plants. Since some lectins are known for their toxicity to humans, the insertion of lectin genes in food crop plants will have to be assessed carefully. It is expected that in some cases...

  18. TALE nucleases and next generation GM crops.

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2011-04-01

    Site-specific and adaptable DNA binding domains are essential modules to develop genome engineering technologies for crop improvement. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) proteins are used to provide a highly specific and adaptable DNA binding modules. TALE chimeric nucleases (TALENs) were used to generate site-specific double strand breaks (DSBs) in vitro and in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mammalian and plant cells. The genomic DSBs can be generated at predefined and user-selected loci and repaired by either the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology dependent repair (HDR). Thus, TALENs can be used to achieve site-specific gene addition, stacking, deletion or inactivation. TALE-based genome engineering tools should be powerful to develop new agricultural biotechnology approaches for crop improvement. Here, we discuss the recent research and the potential applications of TALENs to accelerate the generation of genomic variants through targeted mutagenesis and to produce a non-transgenic GM crops with the desired phenotype.

  19. Evaluation of Indigenous Potato Challisha (Solanum tuberosum L. Cv. Challisha Somaclonals Tolerance to Salinity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanaullah Biswas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato is one of the most important food crops in the world. It is generally sensitive to salinity and likes to grow in neutral soil. On the other hand, salinity is increasing alarmingly in the ever changing climatic conditions. Thus, the selection of salt tolerant potato cultivars is necessary to keep pace the production of potato. To select salt tolerant cultivars, here we attempt to compare the salinity level between indigenous and modern cultivars. In vitro selection of local and modern potato cultivars were investigated with five levels of NaCl (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM. The indigenous potato Challisha and modern cultivars Diamant and Felsina were used as plant materials. Significant differences were noticed among the cultivars in response to different levels of NaCl. Plant growth and root development were gradually reduced with increased concentration of NaCl. All three cultivars were survived well with exhibiting different growth status up to 60 mM NaCl, but they performed poorly at 120 mM of NaCl. Cultivar Challisha performed better regarding shoot length, root length, the number of nodes per plantlet and the fresh weight per plant up to 90 mM of NaCl. Thus, we can conclude that local indigenous variety Challisha is salt tolerant comparing with the modern cultivated varieties.

  20. Recent Advances in Solanum Potato Improvement In Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews the major production constraints for extension of potato production and the role of potato ... Viable, commercial seed schemes and appropriate low cost storage methods are ..... national Potato Centre (CIP), Lima, (Peru). In-.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Urek; S Širca; Stare Geric; B Dolničar; P Strajnar

    2008-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultiva...

  2. THE EFFECTS OF OXIDANT AIR POLLUTANTS ON SOYBEANS, SNAP BEANS AND POTATOES

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past 5 years the impact of photochemical oxidants on soybeans and snap beans in Maryland and on potatoes in Virginia and Delaware was assessed with open-top chambers. The mean yields of four selected soybean varieties grown in open-top chambers with carbon-filtered air...

  3. Preservation of potatoes and onions by irradiation and chemical treatments. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhavat, A.; Zare, Z.; Kudva, M.G.; Chopra, K.L.; Shariat Panahi, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Preservation of potatoes and onions is an urgent need in Iran, and an attempt has been made to gain experience in this field by applying ionizing radiation and chemicals. 60 Co gamma radiation doses of 5, 10, 12 and 15krad for three local varieties of potatoes and of 3, 6 and 9krad for one variety of onions, salicylic acid concentrations of 500, 1500 and 2500ppm, and combinations of different doses of radiation and salicylic acid were tried. Upon irradiation with doses of 12-15krad a significant reduction in the losses due to sprouting, rotting and dehydration was observed for all three varieties of potatoes after a storage period of nine months. Chemical treatment alone proved ineffective. Some doses of a combined treatment with salicylic acid plus irradiation yielded good results, but they need confirmation by further investigation. Organoleptic tests were carried out on two varieties of potatoes. Due to a delay in starting the treatment of onions after harvest, a high percentage had already begun to sprout and so the results obtained are only approximate values. (author)

  4. Preservation of Potatoes and Onions by Irradiation and Chemical Treatments. A Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhavat, A.; Zare, Z.; Kudva, M. G.; Chopra, K. L.; Shariat Panahi, J. M. [Center for Research and for Application Of Radioisotopes, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1978-04-15

    Preservation of potatoes and onions is an urgent need in Iran, and an attempt has been made to gain experience in this field by applying ionizing radiation and chemicals. {sup 60}Co gamma radiation doses of 5, 10, 12 and 15 krad for three local varieties of potatoes and of 3, 6 and 9 krad for one variety of onions, salicylic acid concentrations of 500, 1500 and 2500 ppm, and combinations of different doses of radiation and salicylic acid were tried. Upon irradiation with doses of 12-15 krad a significant reduction in the losses due to sprouting, rotting and dehydration was observed for all three varieties of potatoes after a storage period of nine months. Chemical treatment alone proved ineffective. Some doses of a combined treatment with salicylic acid plus irradiation yielded good results, but they need confirmation by further investigation. Organoleptic tests were carried out on two varieties of potatoes. Due to a delay in starting the treatment of onions after harvest, a high percentage had already begun to sprout and so the results obtained are only approximate values. (author)

  5. A survey of viral status on potatoes grown in Eritrea and in vitro virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... and in vitro virus elimination of a local variety 'Tsaeda embaba'. Biniam ... production of potato worldwide stands at 328,000,936. Metric tonnes .... 20/18oC day/night temperatures and 16 h photoperiod supplied with. Osram L .... Number of virus-free Tsaeda embaba plants produced at different treatments ...

  6. Genetic variance partitioning and genome-wide prediction with allele dosage information in autotetraploid potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato breeding cycles typically last 6-7 years because of the modest seed multiplication rate and large number of traits required of new varieties. Genomic selection has the potential to increase genetic gain per unit of time, through higher accuracy and/or a shorter cycle. Both possibilities were ...

  7. Unintended effects of a Phytophtora-resistant cisgenic potato clone on the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and its parasitoid Aphidius ervi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cascone, P.; Radkova, M.; Arpaia, S.; Errico, S.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Magarelli, R.A.; Djilianov, D.; Guerrieri, E.

    2018-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants may show unintended differences compared to the original varieties, due to the modification process. Such differences might in some cases affect non-target organisms linked to the crop into an agro-ecosystem. In this paper, we aimed to study interactions of two

  8. GM2-ganglioside metabolism in hexosaminidase A deficiency states: determination in situ using labeled GM2 added to fibroblast cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, S.S.; Krusell, A.; Krusell, J.; Lyerla, T.A.; Kolodny, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between hexosaminidase A (HEX A) activity and GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis in atypical clinical situations of HEX A deficiency, we have developed a simple method to assess GM2-ganglioside metabolism in cultured fibroblasts utilizing GM2 labeled with tritium in the sphingosine portion of the molecule. The radioactive lipid is added to the media of cultured skin fibroblasts, and after 10 days the cells are thoroughly washed, then harvested, and their lipid composition analyzed by HPLC. The degree of hydrolysis of the ingested GM2 is determined by comparing the amount of radioactive counts recovered in undegraded substrate with total cellular radioactivity. A deficiency in GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis was demonstrated in seven HEX A-deficient adults with neurological signs and in two healthy-appearing adolescents with older affected siblings. In each case, an analysis of endogenous monosialoganglioside composition revealed an increase in GM2-ganglioside, confirming the presence of a block in the metabolism of GM2. No defect in GM2-catabolism was found in four other healthy individuals with HEX A deficiency. This method of assay is especially helpful in the evaluation of atypical cases of HEX A deficiency for the definitive diagnosis of GM2-gangliosidosis

  9. Functional analysis of structurally related soybean GmWRKY58 and GmWRKY76 in plant growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan; Chi, Yingjun; Wang, Ze; Zhou, Yuan; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors constitute a large protein superfamily with a predominant role in plant stress responses. In this study we report that two structurally related soybean WRKY proteins, GmWRKY58 and GmWRKY76, play a critical role in plant growth and flowering. GmWRKY58 and GmWRKY76 are both Group III WRKY proteins with a C2HC zinc finger domain and are close homologs of AtWRKY70 and AtWRKY54, two well-characterized Arabidopsis WRKY proteins with an important role in plant responses to...

  10. Greatly reduced phylogenetic structure in the cultivated potato clade of potatoes, Solanum section Petota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species boundaries of wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, are controversial with most of the taxonomic problems in a clade containing cultivated potatoes. We here provide the first in-depth phylogenetic study of the cultivated potato clade to explore possible causes of these pr...

  11. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 948 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee locally...

  12. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Sugiyama, Junnichi; Otobe, Kazuki; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1993-01-01

    The impedance ratio at 5kHz to 50kHz (Z 6K /Z 50K ) determined at 22degC at an apical region of potato tuber which was pre-incubated at 22degC for 3 days or longer resulted in the best detection of radian treatment. Irradiated potatoes of 10 cultivars could be detected with this method, and potatoes 'Danshaku' commercially irradiated at Shihoro could be distinguished from unirradiated 'Danshaku'. (author)

  13. Hygiene assessment of irradiated potato mutagenic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uralova, M.; Grunt, J.; Patzeltova, N.

    1977-01-01

    Albino rat males were fed on gamma-irradiated potatoes for one month and mated with two intact female rats each. The dominant lethal mutation method was then used for the study of possible mutagenic activity of the irradiated potatoes. No statistically significant differences were observed and no mutagenic activity was found. Thus, the test showed that potatoes irradiated with a dose of 10 krad of gamma radiation does not present genetic hazards for albino rats. (L.O.)

  14. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  15. Birationally rigid varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhlikov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Birational rigidity is a striking and mysterious phenomenon in higher-dimensional algebraic geometry. It turns out that certain natural families of algebraic varieties (for example, three-dimensional quartics) belong to the same classification type as the projective space but have radically different birational geometric properties. In particular, they admit no non-trivial birational self-maps and cannot be fibred into rational varieties by a rational map. The origins of the theory of birational rigidity are in the work of Max Noether and Fano; however, it was only in 1970 that Iskovskikh and Manin proved birational superrigidity of quartic three-folds. This book gives a systematic exposition of, and a comprehensive introduction to, the theory of birational rigidity, presenting in a uniform way, ideas, techniques, and results that so far could only be found in journal papers. The recent rapid progress in birational geometry and the widening interaction with the neighboring areas generate the growing interest ...

  16. Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedniece, Vivita; Spalvins, Kriss; Ivanovs, Kaspars; Pubule, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-12-01

    The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.

  17. Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priedniece Vivita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.

  18. MARKETING MECHANISMS TO FACILITATE CO-EXISTENCE OF GM AND NON-GM CROPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Benjamin; Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L.

    2006-01-01

    Development of genetically modified (GM) and specialty crops has had a great impact on the grain handling industry during recent years. Added costs associated with handling these crops have become an important issue for grain handlers. For this study, data were collected from a survey of elevators in the Upper Midwest. The information focused on segregation practices, time requirements, and costs. This study shows the different costs (grading and handling) associated with segregation practice...

  19. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures.

  20. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  1. Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed potato lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots. In the United States, seed potato improvement starts with the individual seed potato grower. The seed grower also has resources that are available from university e...

  2. Elisa development for detection of glyphosat resistant gm soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Геннадійович Спиридонов

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During research we have utilized recombinant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS, conferring resistance to glyphosate for GM soybean, for the hen immunization and obtaining specific yolk antibodies IgY. Stages of ELISA development that can detect at least 0,1 % of GM-soybean resistant to glyphosate were present

  3. Societal aspects of foods derived from GM crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekmann, V.; Frewer, L.F.; Lassen, J.

    2004-01-01

    from soy plants genetically modified to resist the herbicide Round-Up, represented the first large scale marketing of GM foods in Europe. Other applications of biotechnology soon followed: events, such as the attempted commercialisation of GM maize and other commodities, focused public attention...

  4. Output pulse height distribution of the GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou; Xiong Jianping

    1995-01-01

    The GM counters are the radiation detectors most in use. It has special advantages compared with other detectors. This paper introduces the output pulse height distribution of the GM counters, gives the measuring instruments and methods. The measuring results, some discussions, and useful conclusion are given as well

  5. Consumer awareness and attitudes toward GM foods in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 604 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, in November and December 2003, at three points of sale (supermarkets, kiosks, and posho mills) to determine consumer awareness and attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods. Above a third (38%) of the respondents were aware of GM crops, mostly ...

  6. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.

  7. Exploitation of molecular profiling techniques for GM food safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Kok, E.J.; Engel, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Several strategies have been developed to identify unintended alterations in the composition of genetically modified (GM) food crops that may occur as a result of the genetic modification process. These include comparative chemical analysis of single compounds in GM food crops and their conventional

  8. Putting GM technologies to work: public research pipelines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Can public policies and research institutions in African countries provide safe and useful genetically modified (GM) food crops? This is an urgent question, recognizing that advancing GM food crops can be difficult, affected by global debate, and various regulatory protocols. Reaching farmers has been achieved in several ...

  9. Effect of plant spacing and variety on weed and performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    1College of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State,. Nigeria. 2National ... Key words: Plant spacing, variety, yield, orange-fleshed, sweet potato, Nigeria. Introduction ... fertiliser (15:15:15) at 400kg/ha was ..... Sattelmacher, B. 2001. Plant ... rapa) plant density influence Tartary.

  10. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) as a model for investigating the safety of GM feed ingredients (soya and maize); performance, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissener, Nini H; Johannessen, Lene E; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R; Berdal, Knut G; Nordgreen, Andreas; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    A 20-d zebrafish (Danio rerio) feeding trial, in which a near doubling of fish weight was achieved, was conducted with GM feed ingredients to evaluate feed intake, growth, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA. A partial aim of the study was to assess zebrafish as a model organism in GM safety assessments. Roundup Ready soya (RRS), YieldGard Bt maize (MON810) and their non-modified, maternal, near-isogenic lines were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Soya variety and maize variety were the main factors, both with two levels; non-GM and GM. Compared with fish fed non-GM maize, those fed GM maize exhibited significantly better growth, had lower mRNA transcription levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and a tendency (non-significant) towards lower transcription of heat shock protein 70 in liver. Sex of the fish and soya variety had significant interaction effects on total RNA yield from the whole liver and transcription of SOD-1, suggesting that some diet component affecting males and females differently was present in different levels in the GM and the non-GM soya used in the present study. Dietary DNA sequences were detected in all of the organs analysed, but not all of the samples. Soya and maize rubisco (non-transgenic, multicopy genes) were most frequently detected, while MON810 transgenic DNA fragments were detected in some samples and RRS fragments were not detected. In conclusion, zebrafish shows promise as a model for this application.

  11. Reduced expression of granule proteins during extended survival of eosinophils in splenocyte culture with GM-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seul Hye; Na, Hye Young; Sohn, Moah; Han, Sun Murray; Choi, Wanho; In, Hyunju; Hong, Sookyung; Jeon, Hyejin; Seo, Jun-Young; Ahn, Jongcheol; Park, Chae Gyu

    2016-05-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifaceted hematopoietic cytokine and the culture of mouse bone marrow with GM-CSF produces a variety of myeloid cells including granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In the present study, we cultured mouse splenocytes with GM-CSF and examined the changes in hematopoietic cell populations over a week. Most of the splenic hematopoietic cells disappeared significantly from culture within 6days with or without the presence of GM-CSF. Among the splenic granulocyte populations, only eosinophils fully survived throughout the culture with GM-CSF for more than a week. During 10days of culture with GM-CSF, splenic eosinophils maintained their morphology as well as most of their surface molecules at high levels, including CCR3 and Siglec F. Meanwhile, the expression of mRNAs encoding major basic protein-1 (MBP-1) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), two major eosinophil-derived granule proteins, was diminished significantly from the cultured eosinophils. EPO assays also revealed that eosinophils in culture for more than 5days retained 30% or less EPO activity compared to those in uncultured splenocytes. In contrast, culture of splenocytes with GM-CSF did not change the capacity of eosinophils to migrate in response to eotaxin-1. Our results indicate that mouse splenic eosinophils are effectively cultured for lengthy periods while their expression of eosinophil-derived granule proteins is specifically suppressed. The relevance of these findings to eosinophilic inflammatory response is discussed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Media attention to GM food cases: An innovation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, Steven M; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-02-01

    Media attention to genetically modified (GM) foods has been described as negative, especially in Europe. At the turn of the century appreciation of GM foods was at an all-time low in Europe. Food manufacturers are still careful in the use, development and communication of GM based food products, and their caution influences innovation processes. In this study we explore the link between media attention and innovation practice. Media attention to three specific high-profile GM food cases is described and linked to innovation practice. We elucidate the order of events in these cases and show that publics could only to a limited extent have formed an opinion on GM based food products based on scientifically valid data through written English media. Innovators in food biotechnology may benefit from this knowledge for future product development and marketing, and we suggest that innovation may benefit from early stakeholder involvement and communication activities.

  13. Ganglioside GM1 spontaneous transfer between phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Sugar, I.P.; Thompson, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The transfer kinetics of the monosiaylated glycosphingolipid, GM 1 , between different size phospholipid vesicles was measured using molecular sieve chromatography. At desired time intervals, small unilamellar donor vesicles were separated from large unilamellar acceptor vesicles by elution from a Sephacryl S-500 column [ 3 H]-GM 1 net transfer was calculated relative to [ 14 C]-cholesteryl oleate, which served as a nontransferable marker in the donor vesicles. The initial GM 1 transfer rate between 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles at 45 0 C deviated slightly from first order kinetics and possessed a half time of 3.6 days. This transfer half time is an order of magnitude shorter than that observed from the desiaylated derivative of GM 1 . The transfer kinetics are consistent with the authors recent electron microscopic results suggesting a molecular distribution of GM 1 in liquid-crystalline phosphatidylcholine bilayers

  14. Retrospective view of North American potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding in the 20th and 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Candice N; Hirsch, Cory D; Felcher, Kimberly; Coombs, Joseph; Zarka, Dan; Van Deynze, Allen; De Jong, Walter; Veilleux, Richard E; Jansky, Shelley; Bethke, Paul; Douches, David S; Buell, C Robin

    2013-06-21

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid, has been bred for distinct market classes, including fresh market, pigmented, and processing varieties. Breeding efforts have relied on phenotypic selection of populations developed from intra- and intermarket class crosses and introgressions of wild and cultivated Solanum relatives. To retrospectively explore the effects of potato breeding at the genome level, we used 8303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to genotype a 250-line diversity panel composed of wild species, genetic stocks, and cultivated potato lines with release dates ranging from 1857 to 2011. Population structure analysis revealed four subpopulations within the panel, with cultivated potato lines grouping together and separate from wild species and genetic stocks. With pairwise kinship estimates clear separation between potato market classes was observed. Modern breeding efforts have scarcely changed the percentage of heterozygous loci or the frequency of homozygous, single-dose, and duplex loci on a genome level, despite concerted efforts by breeders. In contrast, clear selection in less than 50 years of breeding was observed for alleles in biosynthetic pathways important for market class-specific traits such as pigmentation and carbohydrate composition. Although improvement and diversification for distinct market classes was observed through whole-genome analysis of historic and current potato lines, an increased rate of gain from selection will be required to meet growing global food demands and challenges due to climate change. Understanding the genetic basis of diversification and trait improvement will allow for more rapid genome-guided improvement of potato in future breeding efforts.

  15. Effect of nitrates and sucrose on the in vitro propagation of three cultivars of venezuelan potatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melangel Tacoronte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of native potato varieties is a current priority in Venezuela, given their value as a genetic resource of high nutritional quality. Unfortunately, native potato varieties were progressively replaced by exotic commercial, varieties. To date, the limited existing germplasm of native potato varieties is impoverished and of low quality, due to its continual reutilization in crop cycles. Nevertheless, efforts can be made to recover and standardize the production of quality propagules under adequate sanitary conditions. The aim of this study was to assay the effect of varying concentrations of nitrates and saccharose in tissue culture media of three Venezuelan varieties "Cucuba", "Arbolona Negra" and "Rosada". Unimodal segments were planted and incubated using a photoperiod of 16 h light (76 μmol photon m-2 s-1 at 19 ± 1 ºC. The experiment was designed following a standard factor analysis, consisting of three treatments, parting from the basic Murashige & Skoog (MS medium and data were submitted to an multifactor ANOVA. Our findings indicate significant statistical differences amongst all of the treatments assayed, confirming that all of the varieties reached maximum physiological response under increasing concentrations of nitrates. Such was the case with 1.98 g L-1 ammonium nitrate and 2.28 g L-1 potassium nitrate using a concentration of saccharose 20g L-1. Mean shoot and root lengths under optimal concentrations were 5.82 cm and 3.0 cm, respectively. In contrast, MS basic culture media represented the treatment of least growth induction; yielding un rooted shoots of a mean length of 2.94 cm. Of these three native varieties, "Cucuba" proved to have the highest growth rates. All of the Vitroplantlets were then transferred to liquid MS media, with a saccharose concentration of 8 %, originating microtubers after 90 days. We conclude that these findings may be of use for massive in vitro production of native potato varieties.

  16. Characteristics of starch breads enriched with red potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gumul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch breads may often be low in nutritional value, in comparison to traditional products, as they contain less dietary fibre, protein and micro and macro elements. As an effect a risk of mineral deficiencies and digestive problems caused by lack of dietary fibre could be expected in persons adhering to gluten free diet. To eliminate such problems, a continuous research on gluten-free bread nutritional enrichment, has been done in recent years. Raw material used to enrich gluten free products should include: inulin, lupine, radish, soy, lucerne sprouts, oilseeds, different type of dried fruits. Among the most commonly used raw materials, there are flours from gluten free cereals and pseudocereals such as buckwheat, amaranth and maize are very popular. It seem that valuable alternative could be considered a red, purple or pink potatoes as starch breads additives. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect addition of freeze-dried color potatoes on crude fiber, polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids and nutritional value of gluten free breads. It could be concluded, that freeze-dried color (red, purple, pink potatoes enriched the gluten free breads (starch breads with health promoting bioactive components, like polyphenols, and highly valuable protein. The most promising additive was Magenta Love red potato variety lyophilisates, because gluten free breads enriched with this component were characterized by high protein content and the highest content of free and bound polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins. The presence of all these components increased the nutritional and pro-health value of gluten free product as starch bread.

  17. Cloning and functional characterization of SAD genes in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Bian, Chun Song; Xu, Jian Fei; Pang, Wan Fu; Liu, Jie; Duan, Shao Guang; Lei, Zun-Guo; Jiwan, Palta; Jin, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD) were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8) against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD) was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato.

  18. Cloning and functional characterization of SAD genes in potato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD, locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8 against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato.

  19. Morphological and molecular identification of potato cyst nematode populations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oro Violeta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarantine species such as potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida are present in Serbia since 1999 and 2005, respectively. These nematodes are sibling species and their morphological identification is complex due to their morphometric overlap. The cysts from the localities of Kladnica, Šanac, Gojna Gora and Milatovići were grown on susceptible potato varieties and their morphological differences have been discussed. To avoid ambiguities in species morphological designation a duplex PCR method was chosen for a rapid and accurate species identification. The whole procedure, from DNA extraction to DNA isolation, can be performed in a single day. .

  20. Genetic improvement of sweet potato through somatic embyrogenesis and in vitro induction of mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnino, A; Thinh, N T; Santangelo, E; Mini, P [Centro Ricerche Energia, ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Mutation breeding is a promising option for the genetic improvement of sweet potato. Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration was investigated in twenty-two sweet potato varieties of different origin. Plant regeneration was found to depend on the genotype and composition of the induction medium. The regeneration through somatic embryogenesis induced morphological and physiological changes among the regenerated plants. The irradiation with 30 to 50 Gy of meristems before culture on induction medium inhibited somatic embryogenesis. A number of accessions were evaluated in field trials and showed wide differences in yield. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs.

  1. Genetic improvement of sweet potato through somatic embyrogenesis and in vitro induction of mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, A.; Thinh, N.T.; Santangelo, E.; Mini, P.

    1997-01-01

    Mutation breeding is a promising option for the genetic improvement of sweet potato. Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration was investigated in twenty-two sweet potato varieties of different origin. Plant regeneration was found to depend on the genotype and composition of the induction medium. The regeneration through somatic embryogenesis induced morphological and physiological changes among the regenerated plants. The irradiation with 30 to 50 Gy of meristems before culture on induction medium inhibited somatic embryogenesis. A number of accessions were evaluated in field trials and showed wide differences in yield. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs

  2. Carotenoids and β-carotene in orange fleshed sweet potato: A possible solution to vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Nusrat, Tania; Begum, Parveen; Ahsan, Monira

    2016-05-15

    The present study, in line with a plant-food-based approach to address vitamin A deficiency, reports the analysis of total carotenoids, and trans- and cis-β-carotenes, in different varieties of raw and boiled orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP). Carotenoids were isolated using acetone-petroleum ether extraction followed by spectrophotometric determination. trans- and cis-β-Carotenes were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC method using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile:methanol:2-propanol in the ratio of 85:15:33 with 0.01% ammonium acetate. Intra-varietal difference in carotenoids as well as trans- and cis-β-carotenes were noted in both the raw and boiled potatoes. Carotenoid content was found to be higher in the raw potatoes compared to the boiled samples from the same variety. Amongst the OFSP varieties, Kamalasundari (BARI SP-2) was found to contain the most carotenoids in both the raw and boiled samples. β-Carotene was significantly higher in the Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 varieties. trans-β-Carotene was found to be the major carotenoid in all of the raw potatoes, but boiling was associated with an increase in cis-β-carotene and a decrease in the trans isomer. Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 orange-fleshed sweet potatoes have the potential to be used as food-based supplements to reduce vitamin A deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Unintended Consequences of Technological Change: Winners and Losers from GM Technologies and the Policy Response in the Organic Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Smyth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is often said that innovations create winners and losers. All innovations are somewhat disruptive, but some have more distributed effects. We have a sense of who the winners are and how much they gain. Yet, how much do losers actually lose? Organic farmers frequently like to publicly announce that they are the losers following the commercialization of genetically modified (GM crops, yet consumers in search of non-GM products have helped increase demand for organic products, something that would not have occurred in the absence of GM crops. Are organic farmers really losers? This article lays out the argument that were it not for the commercialization of GM crop varieties in the mid-1990s, organic production and food sectors would not be at the level they enjoy today. That is, the commercialization of GM crops has made the organic industry better off than had GM crops not been commercialized. Theoretical modelling of the organic benefits is complemented by supportive market data. The article concludes that in spite of numerous vocal offerings about the adverse impacts suffered by the organic industry due to GM crop production, the organic industry has gained significantly from that which they vociferously criticize.

  4. Reducing Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans and Improving Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Tuber Yield with Pre-Harvest Application of Calcium Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewubnesh Wendimu Seifu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pre-harvest application of calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and combined application of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate (1:1 was evaluated in reducing the severity of P. infestans and improving potato tuber yield. Pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of combination of two potato varieties (Shenkola and Gera and three types of calcium nutrients (calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate, each at three levels (5, 10, and 15 g per liter per plant and the control treatment (0 g of calcium nutrients. In comparison to the control treatment, the application of calcium nutrients significantly decreased the severity of late blight disease and improved potato tuber yield. The effect of calcium nutrients on the severity of late blight disease and potato tuber yield differed among the two potato varieties. The maximum severity reduction (60% was noticed in the Gera potato variety with the application of calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate (1:1, supplied at 15 g per plant. However, the highest average tuber yield was obtained with the application of calcium nitrate at 15 g per plant, and average tuber yield was increased by 77% in both potato varieties. Hence, foliar application of either calcium nitrate alone or calcium nitrate mixed with calcium chloride was found to be more efficient than the application of calcium chloride alone. This result suggests that the nitrate ion present in the calcium nitrate may make a difference in terms of reducing the severity of late blight disease and improving potato tuber yield. The lowered severity of late blight disease and the increased tuber yield in potato plants sprayed with calcium nutrients may be because of the higher accumulation of calcium in the plant tissue.

  5. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...

  6. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  7. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.

  8. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  9. Ensuring the genetic diversity of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunities for advances in the potato crop through genetics are great, since potato has many needs for improvement, and many related species with the traits required are available. Genebanks provide a centralized and specialized resource for providing the services of acquisition, classification, ...

  10. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Otobe, K.; Sugiyama, J.

    1996-01-01

    Potato is one of the major food items to be treated with ionising radiation and potatoes are irradiated on a large scale in several countries. Every year around 15,000 t of potatoes are irradiated at doses of 60 to 150 Gy (average dose is about 100 Gy) in Japan. Although various methods to detect irradiated potatoes have been investigated, no established method has been reported. Measuring electrical conductivity or impedance of potatoes has been reported as a promising method for the detection of irradiated potatoes. In previous studies it has been found that the ratio of impedance magnitude at 50 kHz to that at 5 kHz, measured immediately after puncturing a potato tuber, is dependent upon the dose applied to the tuber, independent of storage temperature and stable during storage after irradiation. The aim of this study was to establish the optimum conditions for impedance measurement and to examine the applicability of the impedance measuring method to various cultivars (cv.) of potatoes. (author)

  11. Top 5 exotic clones for potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated relatives of potato feature prominently in breeding programs. In this short article, I describe five exotic clones that have promising traits for the future of the US potato industry. They include M6, an inbred line of S. chacoense that provides a source of genes for self-compati...

  12. Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

  13. Introduction to Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    1993-01-01

    The book represents an introduction to the theory of abelian varieties with a view to arithmetic. The aim is to introduce some of the basics of the theory as well as some recent arithmetic applications to graduate students and researchers in other fields. The first part contains proofs of the Abel-Jacobi theorem, Riemann's relations and the Lefschetz theorem on projective embeddings over the complex numbers in the spirit of S. Lang's book Introduction to algebraic and abelian functions. Then the Jacobians of Fermat curves as well as some modular curves are discussed. Finally, as an application, Faltings' proof of the Mordell conjecture and its intermediate steps, the Tate conjecture and the Shafarevich conjecture, are sketched. - H. Lange for MathSciNet.

  14. Varieties of online gatekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    News media organizations like newspapers and broadcasters have long functioned as gatekeepers between news and audiences, but with the rise of digital media, the search engines and social networking sites that are central to how most people find news online increasingly complement news media...... in different ways and for different purposes. The three varieties are (1) editorially-based gatekeeping processes (typically defining what information is displayed as news on news media websites), (2) link-based gatekeeping processes (the core of how search engines like Google select what information......). I show that news media websites remain amongst the most important gateways to news online, but also demonstrate how they are supplemented by other “second-order gatekeepers” (Singer, 2013) like search engines and social networking sites. While these rarely produce original content defined as “news...

  15. Optimization of GM(1,1) power model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dang; Sun, Yu-ling; Song, Bo

    2013-10-01

    GM (1,1) power model is the expansion of traditional GM (1,1) model and Grey Verhulst model. Compared with the traditional models, GM (1,1) power model has the following advantage: The power exponent in the model which best matches the actual data values can be found by certain technology. So, GM (1,1) power model can reflect nonlinear features of the data, simulate and forecast with high accuracy. It's very important to determine the best power exponent during the modeling process. In this paper, according to the GM(1,1) power model of albino equation is Bernoulli equation, through variable substitution, turning it into the GM(1,1) model of the linear albino equation form, and then through the grey differential equation properly built, established GM(1,1) power model, and parameters with pattern search method solution. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the new methods with the example of simulating and forecasting the promotion rates from senior secondary schools to higher education in China.

  16. The research on the failure regularity of GM counter tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiyuan; Huai Guangli; Xie Bo; Zhang Hao

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of GM counter tubes should be described by useful time before failure-life and failure rate during life. A new method to study the failure regularity of GM counter tubes is advanced and adopted. The essential point of the method is that after the GM counter tubes of the instruments in use is tested, both the performance parameters and other information of the GM counter tubes and the instruments collected are recorded. Then database is created. Failure criterion is ascertained. The GM counter tubes are inspected to determine whether they are failure. Failure mode should be decided if the GM counter tubes failure. The GM counter tubes with the same useful year come together to make up a subsample. According to the relevant information, the number of the subsample is restored to the number of the sample that initially put into use. Then the number of failure sample is counted and at the same time the distribution of failure mode is got. The parameter m, γ, t 0 of Weibull distribution function are calculated with method of linear fit. Thus mean life, failure rate and other character values are obtained. Using this method, useful life and failure rate are determined. The conclusion is that the useful life is 18-20 years and the failure rate is 5 x 10 -6 and 4 x 10 -6 /h respectively during the course

  17. Effect of radiation on the nutritive value of post irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringsulaka, Vachira.

    1983-12-01

    Harvested fresh potatoes of Spunta variety, were irradiated at 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 gray and then stored at three temperatures; room temperature (30+-5 deg C) with 55-65 percent R.H., and 15 deg C and 10 deg C both with 85-95 percent R.H. The biochemical assay of total sugar, protein, and vitamin C were conducted for the determination of changing in nutritive value. The results of the experiment are as follows. Both non-irradiated and irradiated potatoes, stored at room temperature with 55-65 percent R.H., showed higher changing in percentage of total sugar and vitamin C, but only slightly changing in protein was observed. Furthermore, no significant difference was found in nutritive value between irradiated and non-irradiated potatoes stored at 15 deg C and 10 deg C with 85-95 percent R.H

  18. Effect of potato (Solanum tuberosum addition on dough properties, sensory qualities and resistant starch content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lidia IANCU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the effects of adding different varieties of boiled potatoes-pasta (PP, Impala (I and Orchestra (O, to wheat flour in bread making. These potato varieties were used to replace wholemeal 1250 type flour (F1 and hard wheat semolina flour (F2 in different concentrations: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. The rheological properties of dough with added potato were assessed by means of the flour-graphic technique. The study also determined the amount of resistant starch (RS, non-resistant starch (n-RS, total starch (TS and moisture content of the potato bread. The results showed that the water absorption (WA in the potato dough containing salt and yeast decreased by 28.8% (F2-I-PP, and by 41.2% (F1-I-PP respectively. The same happened with the dough development time, dough stability and quality number. We found out that the degree of dough softening was increased, as was the moisture content of the bread, which went from 47.7% (O-PP-F2 to 50.3% (I-PP-F1. The level of the ten analyzed sensory properties led to the conclusion that, by adding up to 20% PP, we enhance the bread quality. The RS content increased by 5.1 g/100 g d.m. for F1 bread for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. In F2 bread, the RS content increased by up to 5.11g/100 g d.m. for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. Given the method of analysis, RS may be a mixture of RS2 (natural granule starch and RS3 (retrograde or non crystalline retrograde. Therefore, potato bread is very healthy and recommended for its nutritional benefits.

  19. The effect of UV-C stimulation of potato tubers and soaking of potato strips in water on density differences of intermediates for French-fry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol Zygmunt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of UV-C stimulation of potato tubers and immersing of potato strips in water on differences in density of intermediate products for French-fry production. The density difference used for description of the experiment was defined as a relationship between the post-treatment density and pre-treatment density. The study was conducted on tubers of the Innovator variety. The studies of density changes induced by absorption of water involved measurements of the mass of potato strips in air and in water. Potato strips measured 10 × 10 mm and 60 mm in length. The strips were cut lengthwise along the longest tuber axis set between the proximal and distal tuber end. Water absorption was investigated by immersing strips in water (1 at a temperature of 20°C for 15 min and (2 at 40°C for 20 min. In addition, the study included the group (3 where strips were blanched at a temperature of 90°C for 2 min and a control group (0 which was not immersed in water. Potato tubers were irradiated by UV-C in the following ways: (1 irradiation on one side for 30 min, (2 irradiation on both sides for 15 min each, (0 control group (no irradiation. The studies were conducted at two dates: (0 after harvest and (1 after 3-month storage. Laboratory and storage experiments were conducted in 2016-2017. The density difference was statistically significantly influenced by storage time, UV-C stimulation and immersion conditions of potato strips. The density difference increased with the increase in storage duration of tubers, immersion duration of strips, water temperature (up to starch gelification temperature and UV-C stimulation.

  20. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  1. Parenteral administration of GM1 ganglioside to presenile Alzheimer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svennerholm, L; Gottfries, C G; Blennow, K; Fredman, P; Karlsson, I; Maansson, J -E [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Gothenburg University (Sweden); Toffano, G; Wallin, A [Fidia Research Laboratories, Abano Terme (Italy)

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic parameters of GM1 ganglioside were examined in 16 patients (mean age 64 {plus minus} 5 years) with Alzheimer's disease. The ganglioside was given intramuscularly and subcutaneously. The maximum GM1 blood level was reached after 48-72 h, the subcutaneous route leading to the highest blood levels, but the individual variability was relatively large. When 100 mg GM1 ganglioside was given daily for a week, maximum serum values of 15 to 20 {sup m}u{sup m}ol/l were found in 3 patients. The elimination half-life from serum was 60-75 h. (author).

  2. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper

    We are testing the hypothesis that oxidized peptides are released from stressed mitochondria and contribute to retrograde signalling (Møller IM & Sweetlove LJ 2010 Trends Plant Sci 15, 370-374). However, there is a large gap between the number of experimentally verified mitochondrial proteins (~450......) and in silico-predicted mitochondrial proteins (2000-3000). Thus, before starting to look for oxidized peptides, we wanted to expand the current compendium of plant mitochondrial proteins while obtaining what could be termed the "baseline proteome" from our model organelle, the potato tuber mitochondrion. Its...

  3. Obtaining of potato microtubers cv. ‘Andinita’ in Temporary Immersion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Igarza Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA, Venezuela, is producing potato seed by biotechnology in its National Seed Plan. The seeds needed are greater than the installed capacity. The acquisition of temporary immersion system (ITS enables developing research in the production of seed potatoes to ensure quality, efficiency and reduced production costs. The purchase of seeds will decrease and contribute to food security and sovereignty of the country. This work was aimed to obtain potato microtubers cv. ‘Andinita’ in SIT. In vitro plants propagated by organogenesis and SIT in 10 liters capacity were used. Explants (100 were inoculated per pot. After five weeks in multiplication a change of culture medium was carried out to induce tuberization. Three immersion frequencies were tested. Plant height was measured and the number of microtubers and fresh dough was quantified. Potato microtubers cv. ‘Andinita’ in SIT were obtained. The best results were achieved with immersions every four hours, averaging five to seven microtubers per plant (approximately 600 microtubers per culture vessel, with sizes between 4 and 16 mm, with an average of 3 g fresh weight, which ensured budding efficiency and allow direct field planting. This result constitutes the first report of the use of SIT for propagation of potatoes in Venezuela. This is a new possibility to use SIT in other varieties. Key words: shoot tip, immersion frequency, seed

  4. Impact of vacuum frying on quality of potato crisps and frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Beverly; Hradecky, Jaromir; Hurkova, Kamila; Forstova, Veronika; Vaclavik, Lukas; Hajslova, Jana

    2018-02-15

    This research was focused on a critical assessment of vacuum frying as a technology enabling minimization of acrylamide formation in potato crisps and reducing undesirable chemical changes that occur in frying oil at high temperatures. The potato slices were fried in rapeseed oil under vacuum at 125°C and atmospheric pressure at 165°C. The experiments were performed on two potato varieties, Saturna and Impala. Vacuum frying reduced the formation of acrylamide by 98% and also other Maillard reaction products, specifically alkylpyrazines. Concurrently a lower extent of oxidative changes was observed in the frying oil, while 3-MCPD esters decreased fairly quickly during conventional frying. Sensory characteristics of the vacuum and conventionally fried potato crisps were evaluated by a 23-member panel. The majority of panellists preferred the flavour of 'conventional crisps', while only a few of them appreciated potato-like fresh flavour of 'vacuum crisps' and classified this product as 'tasty'. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. evaluation of selected composted organic sources on potato plant grown in sandy soil using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, A.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    the main point of this study is the evaluation of organic compost as a source of nutrient demand by potatoes cultivated in light texture soil under drip irrigation system. the composted materials either applied alone or in combination with mineral fertilizer have an effective role on potato yields and nutrients management under field scale. so, many objectives were achieved. the valuable results obtained in the present study could be summarized as follows: part one: composting experiment contains ph changes of composted materials, EC changes with time, nitrogen content in composted materials, change of c/n ratio with time, organic matter content of the composted materials, phosphorus content in composted materials,. part two: potato field experiment contains .dry matter yield, tuber dry weight, tuber yield, nutrients uptake by potato varieties,. part three contains . application of 15 N isotope dilution technique, nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), nitrogen derived from organic compost (% Ndf comp),nitrogen derived from soil (% Ndfs), fertilizer use efficiency (% FUE), 15 N recovered by potatoes.

  6. Impedance measurement of irradiated potatoes: a method to identify radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The potato is firmly established in many parts of the world as a major staple food. Then, radiation processing of potato is approved in many countries for sprouting inhibition and extension of shelf life in a dose range from about 0.01 to 0.15 kGy of 60 Co. The use of electrical conductance methods for the detection of Salmonella, some virus or the action of herbicides on plant has been reported and differences have been observed between instruments in respect of the magnitude of conductance change or rates of change in conductance response. A reliable technique to identify potatoes or other food products has not been established so far, though several methods have been reported. Electrical impedance might thus serve for characterization of unirradiated and irradiated tissues and cells. In this work, potato tubers from an European variety, named Bintje, grown in Sao Paulo State were employed. Potatoes were punctured with steel electrodes and impedance measured at different frequencies (1 k Hz-100 k Hz) by passing 3-5 m A alternating current through it. The impedance ratio of 50 k Hz/5 k Hz calculated from ten replicate samples decreases with the increment of the dose when doses of O 0.75 and 0.15 kGy from a Gamma Cell 220 were utilized. The impedance measurement were slightly affected by the place of puncture. (author)

  7. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee...

  8. Improving seed potato quality in Ethiopia: a value chain perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, use of low-quality seed potatoes by the majority of potato growers is
    associated with underdevelopment of the seed potato value chains. Three seed potato systems are present in Ethiopia: the informal seed system, the alternative seed system and the formal seed system. This chapter

  9. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  10. Development of functional markers associated with phenotypic characteristics for identification of soy variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, M.; Castro, A; Capdevielle, F.

    2013-01-01

    The organization of agricultural systems requires the verification of the genetic identity and purity of cultivars. The increase in the number of soy varieties to be evaluated, and the narrow genetic base of soybean cultivars, make the identification using phenotypic descriptors very difficult. The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) has recognized the utility of molecular markers associated with descriptive phenotypic characteristics. With the goal of developing this kind of markers, six genic or genomic S SR were selected in silico (Sat286, Satt229, GmPrx1, GMES1173, Satt571 and Gm Hi), plus two previously reported markers (GmF35H and SoyF3H). All were evaluated in 35 soybean cultivars. The SSRs GmPrx1 and Gm Hi selected for seed coat peroxidase and hilum color respectively were monomorphic. The mean Polymorphism Information Content (PI C) value within the selected group of polymorphic markers was 0.48 with an average of 3.12 allele per locus. GmF35H discriminated the soybean varieties according to the flower color (white and purple). Discrimination tests showed a high percentage of accurate classification of growth habit (95.8%) and pubescence color (80.6%) with Sat286 and Soy F3H, respectively. The classification values for pod color (74.2%) and leaflet size (73.5%) were intermediate using GMES1173 and Satt571, respectively. The marker Satt229 was not discriminating for flowering time (50%) and maturity (42.8%). Molecular markers selected in or close to sequences of interest can be integrated into a genetic identification system as complementary markers to the classic phenotypic descriptors of soybean varieties

  11. Calibration procedure for a potato crop growth model using information from across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidmann, Tove; Tofteng, Charlotte; Abrahamsen, Per

    2008-01-01

    for adaptation of the Daisy model to new potato varieties or for the improvement of the existing parameter set. The procedure is then, as a starting point, to focus the calibration process on the recommended list of parameters to change. We demonstrate this approach by showing the procedure for recalibrating...... three varieties using all relevant data from the sites. We believe these new parameterisations to be more robust, because they indirectly were based on information from the six different sites. We claim that this procedure combines both local and specific modeller expertise in a way that results in more......In the FertOrgaNic EU project, 3 years of field experiments with drip irrigation and fertigation were carried out at six different sites across Europe, involving seven different varieties of potato. The Daisy model, which simulates plant growth together with water and nitrogen dynamics, was used...

  12. Melting properties and Lintnerisation of potato starch with different degrees of phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Lintner dextrins were prepared from size fractionated potato starch granules from two potato varieties (90BKG22 and Lady Rosetta) that contain high or low natural content of esterified phosphate, respectively. The time course of hydrolysis showed the typical two-phase kinetics, with a maximal...... degree of hydrolysis of between 74% and 81% after 30 days of hydrolysis, except for the fraction of smallest granules of the low phosphorylated variety (low P), which was hydrolysed to 98%. The relative amount of retained glucose-6-P in the Lintner dextrins was 18.6% for the low P variety and 46...... peak became low and broad during the time course of hydrolysis, with rise in enthalpy change, indicating a strong dependency on the amorphous region of the granules, After annealing the same fractions showed the typical raise in gelatinisation temperature and narrowing of gelatinisation peak...

  13. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  14. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  15. Varieties of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Jonathan W

    2015-06-01

    Clinical reasoning comprises a variety of different modes of inference. The modes that are practiced will be influenced by the sociological characteristics of the clinical settings and the tasks to be performed by the clinician. This article presents C.S. Peirce's typology of modes of inference: deduction, induction and abduction. It describes their differences and their roles as stages in scientific argument. The article applies the typology to reasoning in clinical settings. The article describes their differences, and their roles as stages in scientific argument. It then applies the typology to reasoning in typical clinical settings. Abduction is less commonly taught or discussed than induction and deduction. However, it is a common mode of inference in clinical settings, especially when the clinician must try to make sense of a surprising phenomenon. Whether abduction is followed up with deductive and inductive verification is strongly influenced by situational constraints and the cognitive and psychological stamina of the clinician. Recognizing the inevitability of abduction in clinical practice and its value to discovery is important to an accurate understanding of clinical reasoning. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen french fried potatoes 78/g; dried instant mashed potatoes, 1.1 x 10(3)/g; and potato salad, 3.6 x 10(3)/g. Mean values of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were less than 10/g. PMID:6758695

  17. Risk, regulation and biotechnology: the case of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2014-07-03

    The global regulation of products of biotechnology is increasingly divided. Regulatory decisions for genetically modified (GM) crops in North America are predictable and efficient, with numerous countries in Latin and South America, Australia and Asia following this lead. While it might have been possible to argue that Europe's regulations were at one time based on real concerns about minimizing risks and ensuring health and safety, it is increasingly apparent that the entire European Union (EU) regulatory system for GM crops and foods is now driven by political agendas. Countries within the EU are at odds with each other as some have commercial production of GM crops, while others refuse to even develop regulations that could provide for the commercial release of GM crops. This divide in regulatory decision-making is affecting international grain trade, creating challenges for feeding an increasing global population.

  18. A new G-M counter dead time model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Gardner, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid G-M counter dead time model was derived by combining the idealized paralyzable and non-paralyzable models. The new model involves two parameters, which are the paralyzable and non-paralyzable dead times. The dead times used in the model are very closely related to the physical dead time of the G-M tube and its resolving time. To check the validity of the model, the decaying source method with 56 Mn was used. The corrected counting rates by the new G-M dead time model were compared with the observed counting rates obtained from the measurement and gave very good agreement within 5% up to 7x10 4 counts/s for a G-M tube with a dead time of about 300 μs

  19. Image recognition on raw and processed potato detection: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan-nan; Lü, Cheng-xu; Zhang, Jun-ning; Li, Ya-shuo; Zeng, Zhen; Mao, Wen-hua; Jiang, Han-lu; Yang, Bing-nan

    2018-02-01

    Objective: Chinese potato staple food strategy clearly pointed out the need to improve potato processing, while the bottleneck of this strategy is technology and equipment of selection of appropriate raw and processed potato. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advanced raw and processed potato detection methods. Method: According to consult research literatures in the field of image recognition based potato quality detection, including the shape, weight, mechanical damage, germination, greening, black heart, scab potato etc., the development and direction of this field were summarized in this paper. Result: In order to obtain whole potato surface information, the hardware was built by the synchronous of image sensor and conveyor belt to achieve multi-angle images of a single potato. Researches on image recognition of potato shape are popular and mature, including qualitative discrimination on abnormal and sound potato, and even round and oval potato, with the recognition accuracy of more than 83%. Weight is an important indicator for potato grading, and the image classification accuracy presents more than 93%. The image recognition of potato mechanical damage focuses on qualitative identification, with the main affecting factors of damage shape and damage time. The image recognition of potato germination usually uses potato surface image and edge germination point. Both of the qualitative and quantitative detection of green potato have been researched, currently scab and blackheart image recognition need to be operated using the stable detection environment or specific device. The image recognition of processed potato mainly focuses on potato chips, slices and fries, etc. Conclusion: image recognition as a food rapid detection tool have been widely researched on the area of raw and processed potato quality analyses, its technique and equipment have the potential for commercialization in short term, to meet to the strategy demand of development potato as

  20. Cell kinetics of GM-CFC in the steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, M.P.; MacVittie, T.J.; Dodgen, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of cell turnover for myeloid/monocyte cells that form colonies in agar (GM-CFC) were measured through the progressive increase in their sensitivity to 313-nm light during a period of cell labeling with BrdCyd. Two components of cell killing with distinctly separate labeling kinetics revealed both the presence of two generations within the GM-CFC compartment and the properties of the kinetics of the precursors of the GM-CFC. These precursors of the GM-CFC were not assayable in a routine GM-CFC assay when pregnant mouse uterus extract and mouse L-cell-conditioned medium were used to stimulate colony formation but were revealed by the labeling kinetics of the assayable GM-CFC. Further, these precursor cells appeared to enter the assayable GM-CFC population from a noncycling state. This was evidenced by the failure of the majority of these cells to incorporate BrdCyd during five days of infusion. The half-time for cell turnover within this precursor compartment was measured to be approximately 5.5 days. Further, these normally noncycling cells proliferated rapidly in response to endotoxin. High-proliferative-potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC) were tested as a candidate for this precursor population. The results of the determination of the kinetics for these cells showed that the HPP-CFC exist largely in a Go state, existing at an average rate of once every four days. The slow turnover time for these cells and their response to endotoxin challenge are consistent with a close relationship between the HPP-CFC and the Go pool of cells that is the direct precursor of the GM-CFC

  1. The Global Pipeline of GM crops: an outlook for 2020

    OpenAIRE

    PARISI CLAUDIA; TILLIE PASCAL; RODRIGUEZ CEREZO Emilio

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the worldwide pipeline of genetically modified (GM) crops that are likely to be commercialized and cultivated by farmers in the short to medium term. The database presented has been built by collecting information about the status of GM crops both in the regulatory pipeline of national biotechnology agencies and in the advanced phase of development by technology providers. Particular attention will be given to the 2020 outlook of new crops and traits, with a special fo...

  2. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  4. Delivery of GM-CSF to Protect against Influenza Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Hillberry, Zachary; Chen, Han; Feng, Yan; Fletcher, Kalyn; Neuenschwander, Pierre; Shams, Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Background Since adaptive immunity is thought to be central to immunity against influenza A virus (IAV) pneumonias, preventive strategies have focused primarily on vaccines. However, vaccine efficacy has been variable, in part because of antigenic shift and drift in circulating influenza viruses. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of innate immunity in protecting against influenza. Methods Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) contributes to maturation of mononuclear phagocytes, enhancing their capacity for phagocytosis and cytokine production. Results Overexpression of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the lung of transgenic mice provides remarkable protection against IAV, which depends on alveolar macrophages (AM). In this study, we report that pulmonary delivery of GM-CSF to wild type young and aged mice abrogated mortality from IAV. Conclusion We also demonstrate that protection is species specific and human GM-CSF do not protect the mice nor stimulates mouse immunity. We also show that IAV-induced lung injury is the culprit for side-effects of GM-CSF in treating mice after IAV infection, and introduce a novel strategy to deliver the GM-CSF to and retain it in the alveolar space even after IAV infection. PMID:25923215

  5. The distinct properties of natural and GM cry insecticidal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Jonathan R; Love, Madeleine; Hilbeck, Angelika

    2017-04-01

    The Cry toxins are a family of crystal-forming proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Their mode of action is thought to be to create pores that disrupt the gut epithelial membranes of juvenile insects. These pores allow pathogen entry into the hemocoel, thereby killing the insect. Genes encoding a spectrum of Cry toxins, including Cry mutants, Cry chimaeras and other Cry derivatives, are used commercially to enhance insect resistance in genetically modified (GM) crops. In most countries of the world, such GM crops are regulated and must be assessed for human and environmental safety. However, such risk assessments often do not test the GM crop or its tissues directly. Instead, assessments rely primarily on historical information from naturally occurring Cry proteins and on data collected on Cry proteins (called 'surrogates') purified from laboratory strains of bacteria engineered to express Cry protein. However, neither surrogates nor naturally occurring Cry proteins are identical to the proteins to which humans or other nontarget organisms are exposed by the production and consumption of GM plants. To-date there has been no systematic survey of these differences. This review fills this knowledge gap with respect to the most commonly grown GM Cry-containing crops approved for international use. Having described the specific differences between natural, surrogate and GM Cry proteins this review assesses these differences for their potential to undermine the reliability of risk assessments. Lastly, we make specific recommendations for improving risk assessments.

  6. Delivery of GM-CSF to Protect against Influenza Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Subramaniam

    Full Text Available Since adaptive immunity is thought to be central to immunity against influenza A virus (IAV pneumonias, preventive strategies have focused primarily on vaccines. However, vaccine efficacy has been variable, in part because of antigenic shift and drift in circulating influenza viruses. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of innate immunity in protecting against influenza.Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF contributes to maturation of mononuclear phagocytes, enhancing their capacity for phagocytosis and cytokine production.Overexpression of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in the lung of transgenic mice provides remarkable protection against IAV, which depends on alveolar macrophages (AM. In this study, we report that pulmonary delivery of GM-CSF to wild type young and aged mice abrogated mortality from IAV.We also demonstrate that protection is species specific and human GM-CSF do not protect the mice nor stimulates mouse immunity. We also show that IAV-induced lung injury is the culprit for side-effects of GM-CSF in treating mice after IAV infection, and introduce a novel strategy to deliver the GM-CSF to and retain it in the alveolar space even after IAV infection.

  7. GM foods and the misperception of risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, George; Allum, Nick; Wagner, Wolfgang; Kronberger, Nicole; Torgersen, Helge; Hampel, Juergen; Bardes, Julie

    2004-02-01

    Public opposition to genetically modified (GM) food and crops is widely interpreted as the result of the public's misperception of the risks. With scientific assessment pointing to no unique risks from GM crops and foods, a strategy of accurate risk communication from trusted sources has been advocated. This is based on the assumption that the benefits of GM crops and foods are self-evident. Informed by the interpretation of some qualitative interviews with lay people, we use data from the Eurobarometer survey on biotechnology to explore the hypothesis that it is not so much the perception of risks as the absence of benefits that is the basis of the widespread rejection of GM foods and crops by the European public. Some respondents perceive both risks and benefits, and may be trading off these attributes along the lines of a rational choice model. However, for others, one attribute-benefit-appears to dominate their judgments: the lexicographic heuristic. For these respondents, their perception of risk is of limited importance in the formation of attitudes toward GM food and crops. The implication is that the absence of perceived benefits from GM foods and crops calls into question the relevance of risk communication strategies for bringing about change in public opinion.

  8. Nutritive value of selected variety breads and pastas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranhotra, G S; Gelroth, J A; Novak, F A; Bock, M A; Winterringer, G L; Matthews, R H

    1984-03-01

    Nine types of commercially produced variety breads, plain bagels, corn tortillas, and three types of pasta products were obtained from each of four cities, New York, San Francisco, Atlanta, and Kansas City. Proximate components and 12 minerals and vitamins were determined in these and in cooked pasta products. Available carbohydrate and energy values were calculated. On the average, French, Italian, and pita breads were lower in moisture than other breads. Protein in bread products averaged between 7.6% and 10.4% and in cooked pastas and tortillas between 4.4% and 5.3%. Bagels averaged 10.2% protein. Insoluble dietary fiber in whole wheat bread averaged 5.6%; for most products, dietary fiber values were five- to eightfold higher than crude fiber values. Pasta products and tortillas were virtually free of sodium. Sodium in bread products averaged between 379 and 689 mg/100 gm. Although all pasta products and most bread products were enriched, calcium was often not included. Iron averaged from 2.16 to 3.29 mg/100 gm in bread products and 3.10 to 4.24 mg/100 gm in dry pasta products. Products made with unrefined or less-refined flours and/or containing germ and bran tended to be high in phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and manganese, and, to a lesser extent, in copper. A good portion of potassium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin in pasta products was lost during cooking.

  9. Polyphenols and phenolic acids in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Musilová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is one of the most important food crops in the world. They are rich in polyphenols, proteins, vitamins, minerals and some functional microcomponents. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds, which can protect the human body from the oxidative stress which may cause many diseases including cancer, aging and cardiovascular problems.The polyphenol content is two to three times higher than in some common vegetables. Total polyphenols (determined spectrophotometrically and phenolic acids (i.e. caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and isomers - using high performance liquid chromatography contents were determined in three varieties of sweet potatoes (O´Henry - white, Beauregard-orange and 414-purple. Phenolic compounds contents were determined in raw peeled roots, jackets of raw roots and water steamed sweet potato roots. For all analysis lyophilised samples were used. Total polyphenol content ranged from 1161 (O´Henry, flesh-raw to 13998 (414, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter, caffeic acid content from the non-detected values (414, flesh-raw to 320.7 (Beauregard, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter and 3-caffeoylquinic acid content from 57.57 (O´Henry, flesh-raw to 2392 (414, peel-raw mg.kg-1 dry matter. Statistically significant differences (p ≤0.05 existed between varieties, morphological parts of the root, or raw and heat-treated sweet potato in phenolic compounds contents.

  10. Identification of irradiated potatoes by impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Antaryami; Wadhawan, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical impedance of potatoes irradiated at 60, 90, 150 and 1000 Gy was measured using various frequencies of alternating current. The impedance of the irradiated potatoes was higher than the unirradiated potatoes particularly in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 kHz. The ratio of the impedance at 5 kHz to that at 50 Hz (Z5k/Z50) was found to be the best indicator for detection of radiation treatment. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  11. Initiating genomic selection in tetraploid potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrisdóttir, Elsa; Janss, Luc; Byrne, Stephen

    Breeding for more space and resource efficient crops is important to feed the world’s increasing population. Potatoes produce approximately twice the amount of calories per hectare compared to cereals. The traditional “mate and phenotype” breeding approach is costly and time-consuming; however......, the completion of the genome sequence of potato has enabled the application of genomics-assisted breeding technologies. Genomic selection using genome-wide molecular markers is becoming increasingly applicable to crops as the genotyping costs continue to reduce and it is thus an attractive breeding alternative...... selection, can be obtained with good prediction accuracies in tetraploid potato....

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed...... oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety...... in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation....

  13. Characterization of a new GmFAD3A allele in Brazilian CS303TNKCA soybean cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Claudio Costa; Bueno, Rafael Delmond; da Matta, Loreta Buuda; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Scarpelli; Mayrink, Danyelle Barbosa; Piovesan, Newton Deniz; Sediyama, Carlos Sigueyuki; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista; Cardinal, Andrea J; Dal-Bianco, Maximiller

    2018-05-01

    We molecularly characterized a new mutation in the GmFAD3A gene associated with low linolenic content in the Brazilian soybean cultivar CS303TNKCA and developed a molecular marker to select this mutation. Soybean is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Soybean oil has 13% palmitic acid, 4% stearic acid, 20% oleic acid, 55% linoleic acid and 8% linolenic acid. Breeding programs are developing varieties with high oleic and low polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic) to improve the oil oxidative stability and make the varieties more attractive for the soy industry. The main goal of this study was to characterize the low linoleic acid trait in CS303TNKCA cultivar. We sequenced CS303TNKCA GmFAD3A, GmFAD3B and GmFAD3C genes and identified an adenine point deletion in the GmFAD3A exon 5 (delA). This alteration creates a premature stop codon, leading to a truncated protein with just 207 residues that result in a non-functional enzyme. Analysis of enzymatic activity by heterologous expression in yeast support delA as the cause of low linolenic acid content in CS303TNKCA. Thus, we developed a TaqMan genotyping assay to associate delA with low linolenic acid content in segregating populations. Lines homozygous for delA had a linolenic acid content of 3.3 to 4.4%, and the variation at this locus accounted for 50.83 to 73.70% of the phenotypic variation. This molecular marker is a new tool to introgress the low linolenic acid trait into elite soybean cultivars and can be used to combine with high oleic trait markers to produce soybean with enhanced economic value. The advantage of using CS303TNKCA compared to other lines available in the literature is that this cultivar has good agronomic characteristics and is adapted to Brazilian conditions.

  14. Categorical Cell Decomposition of Quantized Symplectic Algebraic Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Bellamy, Gwyn; Dodd, Christopher; McGerty, Kevin; Nevins, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We prove a new symplectic analogue of Kashiwara’s equivalence from D–module\\ud theory. As a consequence, we establish a structure theory for module categories over\\ud deformation-quantizations that mirrors, at a higher categorical level, the BiałynickiBirula\\ud stratification of a variety with an action of the multiplicative group Gm . The\\ud resulting categorical cell decomposition provides an algebrogeometric parallel to the\\ud structure of Fukaya categories of Weinstein manifolds. From it,...

  15. Comparison of Resistance Index Some Potato Cultivars to the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say (Col.: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghassemi-Kahrizeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Potato, Solanum tuberosum L. is an important crop with 5.24 million tons of production on 210,000 hectares of irrigated land in Iran. Several pests attack the potato crop which among them the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say, is the most important defoliating pest of potato throughout the world and Iran and considerably reduce crop yield. Growers rely on pesticides to control this pest in the field but this insect is well known for its rapid resistance development to pesticides, so that it has developed field resistance to nearly all insecticides used against it and it is now resistant to more than 40 chemical insecticides. The problems of insecticide resistance, combined with continuing environmental concerns associated with chemical pesticide use, have provided a considerable stimulus over the past 50 years for the development of alternative control methods. Host plant resistance is considered to be an important part of integrated pest management (IPM system of this pest, which is compatible with sustainable control methods and can reduce the use of chemical insecticides .With the aim of identifying the existence of resistance resources, a study was conducted to evaluate and comparison the resistance index (PRI of 33 potatocultivarsto the Colorado potato beetle. Detected resistant variety (ies could be used as a resistance source for IPM programs of this pest. Materials and Methods: Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to compare resistance index (PRI of 33 potato cultivars to the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say, in Naghadeh region during 2007-2008. In a choice test, the numbers of attracted beetles to each cultivar was determined as antixenosis index in the field. Also, Percentage of larval and pupal mortality were determined and used as the antibiosis index under greenhouse conditions. To evaluate the tolerance index, infested and non infested plots were planted and

  16. In vitro screening of potato genotypes for osmotic stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelmesa Dandena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is a cool season crop which is susceptible to both drought and heat stresses. Lack of suitable varieties of the crop adapted to drought-prone areas of the lowland tropics deprives farmers living in such areas the opportunity to produce and use the crop as a source of food and income. As a step towards developing such varieties, the present research was conducted to evaluate different potato genotypes for osmotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions and identify drought tolerant genotypes for future field evaluation. The experiment was carried out at the Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany, by inducing osmotic stress using sorbitol at two concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 M in the culture medium. A total of 43 genotypes collected from different sources (27 advanced clones from CIP, nine improved varieties, and seven farmers’ cultivars were used in a completely randomized design with four replications in two rounds. Data were collected on root and shoot growth. The results revealed that the main effects of genotype, sorbitol treatment, and their interactions significantly (P < 0.01 influenced root and shoot growthrelated traits. Under osmotic stress, all the measured root and shoot growth traits were significantly correlated. The dendrogram obtained from the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean allowed grouping of the genotypes into tolerant, moderately tolerant, and susceptible ones to a sorbitol concentration of 0.2 M in the culture medium. Five advanced clones (CIP304350.100, CIP304405.47, CIP392745.7, CIP388676.1, and CIP388615.22 produced shoots and rooted earlier than all other genotypes, with higher root numbers, root length, shoot and root mass under osmotic stress conditions induced by sorbitol. Some of these genotypes had been previously identified as drought-tolerant under field conditions, suggesting the capacity of the in vitro evaluation method to predict drought stress tolerant

  17. Isoflavone Malonyltransferases GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 Differently Modify Isoflavone Glucosides in Soybean (Glycine max under Various Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Malonylated isoflavones are the major forms of isoflavonoids in soybean plants, the genes responsible for their biosyntheses are not well understood, nor their physiological functions. Here we report a new benzylalcohol O-acetyltransferase, anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase, deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase (BAHD family isoflavone glucoside malonyltransferase GmIMaT1, and GmIMaT3, which is allelic to the previously characterized GmMT7 and GmIF7MaT. Biochemical studies showed that recombinant GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 enzymes used malonyl-CoA and several isoflavone 7-O-glucosides as substrates. The Km values of GmIMaT1 for glycitin, genistin, and daidzin were 13.11, 23.04, and 36.28 μM, respectively, while these of GmIMaT3 were 12.94, 26.67, and 30.12 μM, respectively. Transgenic hairy roots overexpressing both GmIMaTs had increased levels of malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin, and contents of daidzin and glycitin increased only in GmIMaT1-overexpression lines. The increased daidzein and genistein contents were detected only in GmIMaT3-overexpression lines. Knockdown of GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 reduced malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin contents, and affected other isoflavonoids differently. GmIMaT1 is primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum while GmIMaT3 is primarily in the cytosol. By examining their transcript changes corresponding to the altered isoflavone metabolic profiles under various environmental and hormonal stresses, we probed the possible functions of GmIMaTs. Two GmIMaTs displayed distinct tissue expression patterns and respond differently to various factors in modifying isoflavone 7-O-glucosides under various stresses.

  18. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  19. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  20. physiological mechanisms for potato dormancy release

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    of deep dormancy, during which potato seeds do not germinate after ... dormancy period and sprouting behaviour are major criteria ... develop once sprouting begins; such as changes ...... an example of plant information processing. Plant Cell ...

  1. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  2. Heat toxicant contaminant mitigation in potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Maria; Cortes, Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Heating foods immersed in oil during frying provides many attractive sensorial attributes including taste, flavor and color. However, some toxic compounds formed during frying of potatoes such as furan and acrylamide may constitute an increased cancer risk for consumers. The objective of this work...... was to mitigate the furan and acrylamide formation in potato chips without increasing their oil uptake by optimizing the blanching treatment before final frying. Potato slices were blanched in order to simultaneously leach out ascorbic acid and reducing sugars, the most important precursors of furan...... and acrylamide generation in thermally treated starchy foods. A central composite design was implemented to optimize the temperature-time blanching conditions under which furan, acrylamide and oil content in potato chips were minimized. The optimum blanching conditions were 64 degrees C and 17 min in which...

  3. Pure homology of algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We show that for a complete complex algebraic variety the pure component of homology coincides with the image of intersection homology. Therefore pure homology is topologically invariant. To obtain slightly more general results we introduce "image homology" for noncomplete varieties.

  4. Confirmation of a predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Osamu; Koyano, Satoru; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-04-01

    Some GM crops including MON863 corn and stack varieties contain Cry3Bb1 protein. Cry3Bb1 is very important from the standpoint of assessing the safety of GM crops. In this study Cry3Bb1 was assessed from the standpoint of possible binding to IgE from allergy patients. First, an ELISA that was improved in our laboratory was used to test serum samples from 13 corn allergy patients in the United States with recombinant Cry3Bb1 expressed in Escherichia coli, and serum samples from 55 patients in Japan with various food allergies were also assayed. Two samples from the Japanese allergy patients were suspected of being positive, but Western blotting analysis with purified Cry3Bb1 indicated that the binding between IgE and Cry3Bb1 was nonspecific. Ultimately, no specific binding between IgE and recombinant Cry3Bb1 was detected. Next, all proteins extracted from MON863 corn and non-GM corn were probed with IgE antibodies in serum samples from the corn allergy patients by Western blotting, but the staining patterns of MON863 and non-GM corn were similar, meaning that unintended allergic reactions to MON863 are unlikely to occur. Our study provides additional information that confirms the predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 in people with existing food allergies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation sterilization of potato starch and Sedonik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Ismatov, N.B.; Saidov, R.P. et al.

    2016-01-01

    The raw material of pharmaceutical preparations potato starch and sedative means of Sedonik are sterilized at the electron's accelerator Electronics U-003. It is established that at 20.3 kGy absorbed dose and electron's energy 3 - 5 MeV the results of microbiological analysis showed sterility of potato starch and Sedonik and correspondence of their physical-optical properties to the requirements of normative documents. (authors)

  6. Global field experiments for potato simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi

    2018-01-01

    A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels, tempera......A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels...

  7. On singularities of lattice varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Toric varieties associated with distributive lattices arise as a fibre of a flat degeneration of a Schubert variety in a minuscule. The singular locus of these varieties has been studied by various authors. In this article we prove that the number of diamonds incident on a lattice point $\\a$ in a product of chain lattices is more than or equal to the codimension of the lattice. Using this we also show that the lattice varieties associated with product of chain lattices is smooth.

  8. Absorption of nutrients in the MNF-80 potato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalceta, Gilberto; Alvarado, Alfredo; Saldias, Miren

    2005-01-01

    Absorption curves of nutrients of MNF-80 potato variety cycle were determined at the Irazu (3000 masl) and Juan Vinas (1500 masl) sites, planted on Andisols of medium fertility status. Tissue samples were taken every 15 days after planting; separated into aerial biomass, tuber and root, to estimate dry weight and nutrient contents. At Juan Vinas the crop matured after 80-90 days, contrasting with 135 days at Irazu, due to temperature, total radiation, and growth rate reductions at the higher elevation. Higher amounts of absorbed K and N in both farms (>100 kg ha -1 ) were followed by smaller amounts of P, Ca, Mg y S (8-20 kg ha -1 ). At the Irazu site, the potato yielded 36 t ha -1 , and absorbed 110, 15, 166, 12, 10 and 11 kg ha -1 on N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, respectively. Also, 904, 68, 162, 317 and 42 g ha -1 of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B, respectively. At the Juan Vinas site, the potato yielded 28 t ha -1 , and absorbed 133, 8, 173, 22, 10 and 10 Kg ha -1 of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, respectively. Also, 1097, 68, 181, 651 and 84 g ha -1 of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B, respectively. At the Irazu site most of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S were absorbed up to 60 days after planting, and except for Ca, the other elements showed a second peak of absorption at the end of the crop cycle. At the Juan Vinas site only one peak of absorption was observed up to 45 days after planting. (author) [es

  9. Effect of potato used as a trap crop on potato cyst nematodes and other soil pathogens and on the growth of a subsequent main potato crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.

    2000-01-01

    A field experiment in which main-crop potatoes were grown every other year was conducted on a sandy soil from 1994 to 1999. The aim of the experiment was to control soil-borne pathogens of potato with ecologically sound methods. Potato grown as a trap crop from the end of April to the end of June (8

  10. Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of 18 Potato Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Bolandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Introducing potato cultivars with high yield, early maturing and desirable quality have a key role in food security, decreasing the fluctuation of the price and the store costs and also providing fresh crops throughout the year. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plant is one of leading agricultural products in the world with 365 million ton glands in year stands in fourth place after wheat, rice and corn. The main objective of the breeding program is yield. Increase in plant yield in the past due to the gradual elimination of defects visible by experts and today the new criteria for selection are based on principles of morphological and functional characteristics associated with the plant. Variety is one of the effective factors on plant growth and development on potato that yields components of potato is heavily dependent on it. Yield increasing in each variety affect the genetic and natural structure of variety. Nine clones of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kennebec from sources in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania, and the commercially grown clone, clone 1, which was imported from Vancouver, were multiplied from pathogen-tested seed and compared in 3 Victorian potato districts during 2 seasons. The results showed that differences exist in total and size grade yield and tuber number and appearance between clones of a cultivar. They further highlight the importance of selection work to maintain desirable characteristics of established cultivars and to remove mutants with undesirable characteristics. The results of the study, Hassanpanah and Hassanabadi (2012 showed that the clones 397003-7, 396151-27, 397045-100 and Savalan (check produced higher total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant, plant height, main stem number per plant, tuber size average and stable tuber yield. These clones produced high and mid-uniform tuber, tuber inner crack and tuber inner ring, mid-late maturity and mid and high dry in comparison

  11. Influence of γ-irradiation on drying of slice potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Chao Yan; Fu Junjie; Wang Jianping

    2001-01-01

    A new technology is introduced to dry food products by hot-air after pretreated by irradiation. The influence of different dosage of irradiation, temperature of hot air, thickness of the slice potato on the rate of dehydration temperature of irradiated potato were studied. A conclusion is reached that the 3 factors, irradiation dosage, hot-air temperature and thickness of slice potato, affect the rate of dehydration and temperature of slice potato. The higher the dosage is, the greater the rate of dehydration of potato becomes, and the higher the temperature of the slice potato gets. (authors)

  12. Application of Azolla and intermittent irrigation to improve the productivity and nutrient contents of local black rice variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulandjari; Yunindanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Black rice is a local rice variety that contains a high level of anthocyanin pigment. Anthocyanin has been reported to be very effective in reducing cholesterol levels as well as cancer cell invasion. One of the main problems in rice cultivation is lack of water. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has shown to be able to increase rice productivity by increasing the number of tillers. This system is known as a water-efficient cultivation. Other rice cultivation barrier is related to the use of nitrogen fertilizer. One of replacement of nitrogen fertilizer is by adding azolla. The objective of this research was identifying growth and yield of organic black rice with intermittent irrigation and application of azolla. The plant material used was black rice Cempo variety from Sleman, Yogyakarta. This experiment utilized 4 dosages of azolla as the first treatment: 100 gm-2, 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2. The second treatment was water supply consisted of continuous flooded 2 cm; flooded 2 cm every 3 days; flooded 2 cm every 6 days. The results depicted that the application of azolla was able to increase the growth of black rice. Azolla of 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2 and intermittent 3 days to 6 days generated higher dry grain, anthocyanin and antioxidant. Azolla 200 gm-2 with intermittent irrigation 3 days could be a good combination to improve plant growth, yield and properties of local black rice.

  13. GM organisms threaten organic systems: towards sustainability, coexistence and organic seed

    OpenAIRE

    Boelt, B.; Deleuran, L.C.; Phelps, B.

    2005-01-01

    Until now commercial genetically modified (GM) crops – soy, corn, canola and cotton - and their products have not been successfully segregated from organic or conventional non-GM production systems. Where GM crops are grown, GM contamination may be inevitable. However, physical and legal control measures imposed before the introduction of GM crops may help protect organic standards, supply chain integrity, certification and client confidence, but this is not yet fully tested. IFOAM’s approach...

  14. Potato crop growth as influenced by potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and abiotic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that

  15. Localization of potato leafroll virus in leaves of secondarily-infected potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Blank, de C.M.; Peters, D.; Lent, van J.W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) antigen was localized by immunogold labelling in semi-thin leaf sections of secondarily-infected potato plants cv. Bintje. Viral antigen was present in all cell types of the phloem tissue. but occurred most abundantly in the companion cells. Detectable amounts of PLRV

  16. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  17. Infection of potato plants with potato leafroll virus changes attraction and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.E.; Garzo, E.; Verbeek, M.; Vosman, B.; Dicke, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a persistently transmitted circulative virus that depends on aphids for spreading. The primary vector of PLRV is the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Solanum tuberosum L. potato cv. Kardal (Solanaceae) has a

  18. Molecular and genetic characterization of the Ry adg locus on chromosome XI from Andigena potatoes conferring extreme resistance to potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María Del Rosario; Vidalon, Laura Jara; Montenegro, Juan D; Riccio, Cinzia; Guzman, Frank; Bartolini, Ida; Ghislain, Marc

    2018-05-31

    We have elucidated the Andigena origin of the potato Ry adg gene on chromosome XI of CIP breeding lines and developed two marker assays to facilitate its introgression in potato by marker-assisted selection. Potato virus Y (PVY) is causing yield and quality losses forcing farmers to renew periodically their seeds from clean stocks. Two loci for extreme resistance to PVY, one on chromosome XI and the other on XII, have been identified and used in breeding. The latter corresponds to a well-known source of resistance (Solanum stoloniferum), whereas the one on chromosome XI was reported from S. stoloniferum and S. tuberosum group Andigena as well. To elucidate its taxonomic origin in our breeding lines, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of tightly linked markers (M45, M6) and screened 251 landraces of S. tuberosum group Andigena for the presence of this gene. Our results indicate that the PVY resistance allele on chromosome XI in our breeding lines originated from S. tuberosum group Andigena. We have developed two marker assays to accelerate the introgression of Ry adg gene into breeding lines by marker-assisted selection (MAS). First, we have multiplexed RYSC3, M6 and M45 DNA markers flanking the Ry adg gene and validated it on potato varieties with known presence/absence of the Ry adg gene and a progeny of 6,521 individuals. Secondly, we developed an allele-dosage assay particularly useful to identify multiplex Ry adg progenitors. The assay based on high-resolution melting analysis at the M6 marker confirmed Ry adg plex level as nulliplex, simplex and duplex progenitors and few triplex progenies. These marker assays have been validated and can be used to facilitate MAS in potato breeding.

  19. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts

  20. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Condori

    Full Text Available Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme. The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the

  1. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D’Amico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1H-NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM foods is discussed. Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor" over-expressing the Arabidopsis KNAT1 gene is presented as a case study. Twenty-two water-soluble metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, sugars present in leaves of conventional and GM lettuce were monitored by NMR and quantified at two developmental stages. The NMR spectra did not reveal any difference in metabolite composition between the GM lettuce and the wild type counterpart. Statistical analyses of metabolite variables highlighted metabolism variation as a function of leaf development as well as the transgene. A main effect of the transgene was in altering sugar metabolism.

  2. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amzal Billy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Results Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM plant variety and a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment of the equivalence between the GM variety and a group of reference plant varieties which have a history of safe use. It is proposed to present the results of both difference and equivalence testing for all relevant plant characteristics simultaneously in one or a few graphs, as an aid for further interpretation in safety assessment. A procedure is suggested to derive equivalence limits from the observed results for the reference plant varieties using a specific implementation of the linear mixed model. Three different equivalence tests are defined to classify any result in one of four equivalence classes. The performance of the proposed methods is investigated by a simulation study, and the methods are illustrated on compositional data from a field study on maize grain. Conclusions A clear distinction of practical relevance is shown between difference and equivalence testing. The proposed tests are shown to have appropriate performance characteristics by simulation, and the proposed simultaneous graphical representation of results was found to be helpful for the interpretation of results from a practical field trial data set.

  3. GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, I M; Edwards, J W; Carman, J A; Haynes, J I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between genetically modified (GM) crops and health, based on histopathological investigations of the digestive tract in rats. We reviewed published long-term feeding studies of crops containing one or more of three specific traits: herbicide tolerance via the EPSPS gene and insect resistance via cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes. These genes are commonly found in commercialised GM crops. Our search found 21 studies for nine (19%) out of the 47 crops approved for human and/or animal consumption. We could find no studies on the other 38 (81%) approved crops. Fourteen out of the 21 studies (67%) were general health assessments of the GM crop on rat health. Most of these studies (76%) were performed after the crop had been approved for human and/or animal consumption, with half of these being published at least nine years after approval. Our review also discovered an inconsistency in methodology and a lack of defined criteria for outcomes that would be considered toxicologically or pathologically significant. In addition, there was a lack of transparency in the methods and results, which made comparisons between the studies difficult. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates an incomplete picture regarding the toxicity (and safety) of GM products consumed by humans and animals. Therefore, each GM product should be assessed on merit, with appropriate studies performed to indicate the level of safety associated with them. Detailed guidelines should be developed which will allow for the generation of comparable and reproducible studies. This will establish a foundation for evidence-based guidelines, to better determine if GM food is safe for human and animal consumption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Generalized shrunken type-GM estimator and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C Z; Du, Y L

    2014-01-01

    The parameter estimation problem in linear model is considered when multicollinearity and outliers exist simultaneously. A class of new robust biased estimator, Generalized Shrunken Type-GM Estimation, with their calculated methods are established by combination of GM estimator and biased estimator include Ridge estimate, Principal components estimate and Liu estimate and so on. A numerical example shows that the most attractive advantage of these new estimators is that they can not only overcome the multicollinearity of coefficient matrix and outliers but also have the ability to control the influence of leverage points

  5. Generalized shrunken type-GM estimator and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. Z.; Du, Y. L.

    2014-03-01

    The parameter estimation problem in linear model is considered when multicollinearity and outliers exist simultaneously. A class of new robust biased estimator, Generalized Shrunken Type-GM Estimation, with their calculated methods are established by combination of GM estimator and biased estimator include Ridge estimate, Principal components estimate and Liu estimate and so on. A numerical example shows that the most attractive advantage of these new estimators is that they can not only overcome the multicollinearity of coefficient matrix and outliers but also have the ability to control the influence of leverage points.

  6. Gm typing by immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene RFLP analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jazwinska, E C; Dunckley, H; Propert, D N; Gatenby, P A; Serjeantson, S W

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate a means of assigning Gm allotypes to Caucasians by RFLP analysis. A single immunoglobulin heavy-chain gamma-4 cDNA probe (HU gamma 4) was hybridized with genomic DNA digested separately with two restriction enzymes, TaqI and PvuII. Results showed excellent correlation (P less than .001) between serologically defined Gm allotypes G1m(1), G1m(2), G2m(23), and G1m;G3m (3;5,10) and RFLPs identified with the (HU gamma 4) probe. We conclude that it is now po...

  7. Recent development status of compact 2 K GM cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Q.; Xu, M. Y.; Tsuchiya, A.; Li, R.

    2015-12-01

    To meet the growing demand for a compact cooling solution for superconducting electronic devices, we developed a two-stage 2 K GM cryocooler and a cryostat system, which can reach 46.3 K / 2.2 K on the first and second stages under no-load conditions. Nevertheless, with several innovative technologies applied, the total length of the expander cylinder is reduced to under 70% of the smallest conventional 4 K GM cryocooler. In this paper we will present the design method, including material selection and structure design with detailed explanation, which has been confirmed by both simulation and experiment.

  8. Development and Validation of a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Method for the Prediction of Acrylamide Content in French-Fried Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedipe, Oluwatosin E; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Truong, Van-Den; Yencho, G Craig

    2016-03-02

    This study investigated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict acrylamide content in French-fried potato. Potato flour spiked with acrylamide (50-8000 μg/kg) was used to determine if acrylamide could be accurately predicted in a potato matrix. French fries produced with various pretreatments and cook times (n = 84) and obtained from quick-service restaurants (n = 64) were used for model development and validation. Acrylamide was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and reflectance spectra (400-2500 nm) of each freeze-dried sample were captured on a Foss XDS Rapid Content Analyzer-NIR spectrometer. Partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and PLS regression modeling demonstrated that NIRS could accurately detect acrylamide content as low as 50 μg/kg in the model potato matrix. Prediction errors of 135 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.98) and 255 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.93) were achieved with the best PLS models for acrylamide prediction in Russet Norkotah French-fried potato and multiple samples of unknown varieties, respectively. The findings indicate that NIRS can be used as a screening tool in potato breeding and potato processing research to reduce acrylamide in the food supply.

  9. PENGARUH ISOTERM SORPSI AIR TERHADAP STABILITAS BERAS UBI [Effect of Moisture Sorption Isotherm to Stability of “Sweet Potato Rice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widowati1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available “Sweet Potato Rice” stability as a dry food product was determined by water activity (aw and equilibrium moisture content (Me. This relationship is known as moisture sorption isotherm. This research were aimed 1 to study moisture sorption isotherm of “Sweet Potato Rice” from sweet potato flour (Cangkuang variety and native/heat moisture treatment (HMT starch which was stored at the range of aw:0.06 - 0.96 and 28oC; 2 to determine an appropriate model for describing product moisture sorption isotherm and 3 to predict “Sweet Potato Rice” shelf of life. Experimental design used was a random complete design with two factor, namely: 1 sweet potato starch: native and HMT, and 2 packaging material: polyethylene (PE and polypropylene (PP.The result showed that the moisture sorption isotherm profiles were sigmoid. Smith equation was the best model which described moisture sorption isotherm with R2= 0,991-0,993 for adsorption and R2= 0,964-0,971 for desorption. Shelf life test showed that “Sweet Potato Rice” from Cangkuang flour and modified starch had longer shelf life (5.67 months when packed in PP bag and 2.3 months when packed in PE bag; while shelf life artificial sweet potato made from Cangkuang flour and native starch was 4.24 months when packed in PP bag and 1.72 months when packed in PE bag.

  10. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenado, Helena P; Orílio, Anelise F; Márquez-Martín, Belén; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae), known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV), Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV). Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06) of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato) and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  11. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena P Trenado

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae, known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV, Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV. Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06 of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  12. Development of wheat varieties with reduced contents of celiac-immunogenic epitopes through conventional and GM strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Jouanin, A.A.; Schaart, J.G.; Visser, R.G.F.; Cockram, J.; Leigh, F.; Wallington, E.; Boyd, L.A.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Meer, van der I.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cereals, especially wheat, may cause several food-related diseases, of which gluten intolerance (coeliac disease, CD) is the best defined: specific immunogenic epitopes, nine amino acid-long peptide sequences, have been identified from various gluten proteins. These may activate T cells, causing

  13. Beta-conglycinin and gut histology of sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-GM soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is reported that the soybean protein (Beta-conglycinin) might cause inflammation of the distal intestine and stimulate endogenous cholecystokinin release that suppresses food intake in fish. We are studying the effects of meals made from new strains of non-GMO soybeans with high protein and redu...

  14. A Drosophila protein family implicated in pheromone perception is related to Tay-Sachs GM2-activator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, Elena; Xu, Aiguo; Lin, Heping; Pikielny, Claudio W

    2009-01-02

    Low volatility, lipid-like cuticular hydrocarbon pheromones produced by Drosophila melanogaster females play an essential role in triggering and modulating mating behavior, but the chemosensory mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Recently, we showed that the CheB42a protein, which is expressed in only 10 pheromone-sensing taste hairs on the front legs of males, modulates progression to late stages of male courtship behavior in response to female-specific cuticular hydrocarbons. Here we report that expression of all 12 genes in the CheB gene family is predominantly or exclusively gustatory-specific, and occurs in many different, often non-overlapping patterns. Only the Gr family of gustatory receptor genes displays a comparable variety of gustatory-specific expression patterns. Unlike Grs, however, expression of all but one CheB gene is sexually dimorphic. Like CheB42a, other CheBs may therefore function specifically in gustatory perception of pheromones. We also show that CheBs belong to the ML superfamily of lipid-binding proteins, and are most similar to human GM2-activator protein (GM2-AP). In particular, GM2-AP residues involved in ligand binding are conserved in CheBs but not in other ML proteins. Finally, CheB42a is specifically secreted into the inner lumen of pheromone-sensing taste hairs, where pheromones interact with membrane-bound receptors. We propose that CheB proteins interact directly with lipid-like Drosophila pheromones and modulate their detection by the gustatory signal transduction machinery. Furthermore, as loss of GM2-AP in Tay-Sachs disease prevents degradation of GM2 gangliosides and results in neurodegeneration, the function of CheBs in pheromone response may involve biochemical mechanisms critical for lipid metabolism in human neurons.

  15. A Drosophila Protein Family Implicated in Pheromone Perception Is Related to Tay-Sachs GM2-Activator Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, Elena; Xu, Aiguo; Lin, Heping; Pikielny, Claudio W.

    2009-01-01

    Low volatility, lipid-like cuticular hydrocarbon pheromones produced by Drosophila melanogaster females play an essential role in triggering and modulating mating behavior, but the chemosensory mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Recently, we showed that the CheB42a protein, which is expressed in only 10 pheromone-sensing taste hairs on the front legs of males, modulates progression to late stages of male courtship behavior in response to female-specific cuticular hydrocarbons. Here we report that expression of all 12 genes in the CheB gene family is predominantly or exclusively gustatory-specific, and occurs in many different, often non-overlapping patterns. Only the Gr family of gustatory receptor genes displays a comparable variety of gustatory-specific expression patterns. Unlike Grs, however, expression of all but one CheB gene is sexually dimorphic. Like CheB42a, other CheBs may therefore function specifically in gustatory perception of pheromones. We also show that CheBs belong to the ML superfamily of lipid-binding proteins, and are most similar to human GM2-activator protein (GM2-AP). In particular, GM2-AP residues involved in ligand binding are conserved in CheBs but not in other ML proteins. Finally, CheB42a is specifically secreted into the inner lumen of pheromone-sensing taste hairs, where pheromones interact with membrane-bound receptors. We propose that CheB proteins interact directly with lipid-like Drosophila pheromones and modulate their detection by the gustatory signal transduction machinery. Furthermore, as loss of GM2-AP in Tay-Sachs disease prevents degradation of GM2 gangliosides and results in neurodegeneration, the function of CheBs in pheromone response may involve biochemical mechanisms critical for lipid metabolism in human neurons. PMID:18952610

  16. Determinants of Sweet Potato Value Addition among Smallholder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sweet potato harvested significantly increased farmers' decision to add value by 0.494 ... (2004), bulkiness and perishability affect post- ..... credit makes it possible for farmers to purchase .... Promotion of the Sweet Potato for the Food Industry.

  17. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... systems, inadequate seed production and ... informal sources of seed potato, despite ..... Directorate General for International. Co-operation (DGIC), Brussels,. Belgium. 1540pp.

  18. Effects of sodium metabisulphite and citric acid on the shelf life of fresh cut sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgroppo, S. C.; Vergara, L. E.; Tenev, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    Minimally processed vegetables are products susceptible to chemical and biological changes, thus becoming highly perishable. During sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) processing, some deteriorative reactions occur affecting quality, mainly change of color. The purpose of this research is to avoid or minimize this deterioration, so the effects of application of chemical agents to fresh cut and refrigerated stored sweet potatoes were studied, evaluating the occurrence of major organoleptic, physicochemical and nutritional changes and assessing the sensory acceptability. Tests were done with sweet potato variety Colorada Correntina, which were treated with sodium metabisulphite/citric acid (pH = 2.91), arranged in polystyrene trays film, coated with PVC, and stored at 5 degree centigrade and 10 degree centigrade. Variations on the titratable acidity, pH, total sugars and ascorbic acid were registered and the surface color was evaluated through digital image analysis. The final product acceptability was determined through sensory evaluation and microbiological counts carried out at the beginning and at the end of the assays. During storage, there were slight changes in physicochemical characteristics such as absorbic acid and sugar content and in surface color as well. The microbial counts were lower than the fixed levels established by the Spanish legislature. The sensory attributes were rated as acceptable by consumers. Finally it is possible to assert that sweet potato Colorada Correntina minimally processed and treated with sodium metabisulphite 2%/citric acid can be preserved, packaged and stored at 5 degree centigrade for 14 days. (Author) 34 refs.

  19. Lucerne varieties for continuous grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    severe grazing with heifers in two cutting/grazing managements. Two new varieties, Verbena and Camporegio, and an older variety Luzelle were established in 2009 in pure stands and in two different mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Camporegio had the lowest yield, the lowest competitive...... strength, the lowest plant density in spring, and the density was most reduced during grazing. The results could not confirm significant differences between the new and the older varieties. The results for Luzelle were generally between Verbena and Camporegio. The varieties did not differ in herbage...

  20. Engineering documentation of the GM counter at the RB reactor; Tehnicka dokumentacija GM brojaca na reaktoru RB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M; Petronijevic, M; Vranic, S; Jevremovic, M; Ilic, I [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1986-07-01

    A GM counting device was completed. It is meant for absolute and relative measurements of beta and gamma activities of the irradiated samples as well as for determining the radiation transmission properties of the materials. This report shows technical and operation characteristics of the device. Realizovan je GM brojacki uredjaj koji je namenjen za apsolutna i relativan merenja beta i gama akrivnosti ozracenih uzoraka kao i za odredjivanje transmisionih karakteristika materijala za ova zracenja. U radu su prokazane tehnicke i radne karakteristike uredjaja. (author)

  1. WASTE-FREE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DRY MASHED POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. According to data on norms of consumption of vegetable production of scientific research institute of Food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, potatoes win first place with norm of 120 kg a year on the person. In this regard much attention is paid to processing of potatoes that allows to prolong the term of its validity, and also to reduce the capacity of storages and to reduce transport transportations as 1 kg of a dry potatoes produсt is equivalent 7-8 kg of fresh potatoes. Thus industrial processing of potatoes on dry mashed potatoes allows to reduce losses of potatoes at storage and transportation, there is a possibility of enrichment of products vitamins and other useful components, its nutrition value remains better, conditions for complex processing of raw materials with full recycling and creations of stocks of products from potatoes on a crop failure case are created. Dry mashed potatoes are a product of long storage. On the basis of studying of the production technology of mashed potatoes the analysis of technological processes as sources of creation of waste, and the directions of recovery of secondary raw materials for complex waste-free technology of processing of potatoes are defined is provided. The waste-free technological scheme of processing of potatoes and production of dry instant mashed potatoes on the basis of dehydration and moisture thermal treatment a component providing recovery of secondary carbohydrate content raw materials in the form of waste of the main production is developed. The main stages of production of dry instant mashed potatoes are described. It is offered the technological scheme of a production line of mashed potatoes on the basis of waste-free technology. Advantages of the offered waste-free production technology of dry instant mashed potatoes with processing of secondary starch-containing raw materials are given.

  2. WEED MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cleón de Castro Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review shows instructions to potatoes' farmer about behavior of the weeds and how to manage them so as to minimize loss of productivity through the use of control strategies for potato crop. The prevention consists in adoption of practices that prevents entry of unwanted species of weeds in the planting site. The control reduces the infestation of these species, but this practice does not eradicate them completely. However, it needs to control the weeds before the area preparation for planting the tubers until complete closure of the soil by shoots of potatoes during the critical period. After covering the soil, the potato crop does not suffer negative interference caused by weeds. The cultural practices include a good plane for harvest, plant crop rotation, the planting of appropriate plants for covering the soil, the ideal space to the planting and the correct time to potato planting. The control must be efficient to reduce the number of weeds in the area to avoid economic losses to farmers. It is necessary to establish weed management strategies in order to maintain sustainable farming systems, preserving the environment and quality of life of the farmer.

  3. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  4. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  5. Characterization of the soybean GmALMT family genes and the function of GmALMT5 in response to phosphate starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenting; Wu, Weiwei; Peng, Junchu; Li, Jiaojiao; Lin, Yan; Wang, Yanan; Tian, Jiang; Sun, Lili; Liang, Cuiyue; Liao, Hong

    2018-03-01

    A potential mechanism to enhance utilization of sparingly soluble forms of phosphorus (P) is the root secretion of malate, which is mainly mediated by the ALMT gene family in plants. In this study, a total of 34 GmALMT genes were identified in the soybean genome. Expression patterns diverged considerably among GmALMTs in response to phosphate (Pi) starvation in leaves, roots and flowers, with expression altered by P availability in 26 of the 34 GmALMTs. One root-specific GmALMT whose expression was significantly enhanced by Pi-starvation, GmALMT5, was studied in more detail to determine its possible role in soybean P nutrition. Analysis of GmALMT5 tissue expression patterns, subcellular localization, and malate exudation from transgenic soybean hairy roots overexpressing GmALMT5, demonstrated that GmALMT5 is a plasma membrane protein that mediates malate efflux from roots. Furthermore, both growth and P content of transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing GmALMT5 were significantly increased when sparingly soluble Ca-P was used as the external P source. Taken together, these results indicate that members of the soybean GmALMT gene family exhibit diverse responses to Pi starvation. One member of this family, GmALMT5, might contribute to soybean P efficiency by enhancing utilization of sparingly soluble P sources under P limited conditions. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  7. The Environmental Benefits and Costs of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Scatasta, S.; Fall, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are still being hotly debated, and the interests served in this discussion arena are often far from those of science and social

  8. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Lucht

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer’s attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion—including calls for labeling of GM food—in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers’ concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers’ attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values.

  9. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1H NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM) foodstuff is discussed. The study of transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor") over-expressing the KNAT1 gene from Arabidopsis is presented as a novel study-case. The 1H NMR metabolic profiling was carried out. Twenty-two wat...

  10. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer’s attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion—including calls for labeling of GM food—in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers’ concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers’ attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values. PMID:26264020

  11. Potential benefits of genetic modification (GM) technology for food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the perception of farmers towards potential adoption of genetic modification (GM) technology for improving health, food security and agricultural productivity using a semi-structured interview. A total sample of 54 small-scale farmers participated in 6 focus group meetings (FGMs) and 23 in-depth interviews at ...

  12. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Jan M

    2015-07-30

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths-also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops-of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer's attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion-including calls for labeling of GM food-in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers' concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers' attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values.

  13. Performance stability of potato genotypes under rainfed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YDessalegn

    The prevailing average monthly maximum temperature is higher in the irrigated potato production system than in the rainfed system. The average monthly minimum temperature is low and causes frost injury to the plant during the irrigated potato production system. Therefore, irrigated potato production is affected both by the.

  14. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be...

  15. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  16. Molecular and genetic analyses of potato cyst nematode resistance loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the genomic localisation and organisation of loci that harbour resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis . Resistance to the potato cyst nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis is an important aspect in potato breeding. To gain

  17. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  18. Evaluation of five pre-emergence herbicides for volunteer potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volunteer potatoes can cause significant weed problems in crops following potatoes as large numbers of potato tubers remain behind in the field after mechanical harvesting. These volunteer plants can create havoc with rotation programs and serve as a source of pests and diseases. The aim of this project was to identify a ...

  19. Developmental dynamics of Globodera ellingtonae in field-grown potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globodera ellingtonae is a recently described nematode parasite of potato, which is closely related to the economically-significant potato cyst nematodes, G. rostochiensis and G. pallida. Because of the close relationship of G. ellingtonae to the potato cyst nematodes, a greater understanding of its...

  20. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  1. Irradiation of potatoes for long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srapenjanz, R.

    1976-01-01

    In the USSR gamma irradiation of potatoes is used for extending the storage life. The properties of potatoes are not changed, and the irradiation procedure is lower in cost than chemical treatments for sprout inhibition. Finally, a brief outline is given of investigations on sprout inhibition of potatoes in other socialist countries

  2. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a...

  4. Calcium soil amendment increases resistance of potato to blackleg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that calcium soil amendments reduce blackleg and soft rot diseases under Zimbabwe's growing seasons in red fersiallitic soils. Compound S produces better results in potato production than compound D and farmers should be encouraged to use compound S when growing potatoes. Key words: potato ...

  5. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service is making corrections to its Potato Research and... potatoes by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (Customs). This document also corrects Customs' name within...

  6. Reduction of greening in potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.; Thomas, A.C.; Brodrick, H.T.

    1976-01-01

    Potatoes which are exposed to light gradually turn green at the surface due to the formation of chlorophyll. Since these potatoes are unattractive to the consumer, various methods have been used to delay the rate of greening. This paper describes a method whereby potatoes were irradiated within one week of harvest and then exposed to continuous fluorescent light

  7. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...

  8. Pinpointing the weed sources of potato psyllid in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major challenge in controlling zebra chip disease of potatoes is our inability to predict what potato fields are likely to be colonized by potato psyllid, the vector of the pathogen that causes zebra chip. Researchers at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Wapato, WA developed a novel method to identify w...

  9. Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. How does a potato plant form tubers?

    Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large

  10. Tropical varieties, maps and gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a relatively new field of mathematics that studies the tropicalization map: a map that assigns a certain type of polyhedral complex, called a tropical variety, to an embedded algebraic variety. In a sense, it translates algebraic geometric statements into combinatorial ones. An

  11. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  12. Improvement of potato based cropping patterns by inclusion of short duration Mungbean and T. Aman rice in Monga prone areas of Rangpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Islam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to compare the improved cropping patterns against the farmers existing potato based cropping patterns having no mungbean/brown manure crop for higher yield, economic return and income generation in agricultural field in the off period following RCBD design with three replications at farmer’s field at Paikan Gangachara, Rangpur district during September- October. The treatments (cropping patterns were T1 = T. aman rice (BINA 7 - Potato - Mungbean (BARI mungbean 6 (Improved pattern, T2 = T. aman rice (BR11 - Potato - Fallow (Farmers pattern, T3 = T. aman rice (BINA 7 - Potato + Maize intercrop - Mungbean (Improved pattern and T4 = T. aman rice (BR11 - Potato / Maize relay (Farmers pattern. The highest yield (4.16 t ha-1 was recorded in T2 (BR11 which is statistically at par with T4 (4.15 t ha-1 but higher than the other treatments. Early planting sole potato (T1 gave highest yield (26.10 t ha-1 which was significantly higher than all other treatments. Late planting sole potato (T2, intercropped early potato (T3 and relay potato (T4 showed similar yield (23.61 – 24.79 t ha-1. Intercropped (T3 and Relay (T4 maize did not vary significantly in the studied parameters and yields were 8.21 and 7.92 t ha-1, respectively. Mungbean after sole potato (T1 gave higher number of pods/plant (17.25, and yield (1.47 t ha-1 which is significantly higher than those of T3 (14.89 and 1.28 t ha-1, respectively. Highest gross return (GR (Tk. 417720 and gross margin (GM (Tk. 220220 were calculated in improved pattern T3 and the lowest of those (Tk. 289670, Tk. 146020 in farmers pattern T2 . The other improved pattern T3 was the second highest performer considering GR and GM. But BCR (2.21 was highest in T1 and second highest in T3. The results indicated that the improved patterns (T1, T3 were better than farmers pattern (T2, T4. The improved pattern (T1 gave GR Tk. 67890 and GM Tk. 51785 higher than farmers pattern (T2. Similarly, the

  13. Coadministration of cruzipain and GM-CSF DNAs, a new immunotherapeutic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Natacha; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Bivona, Augusto E; De Marzi, Mauricio C; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccine research and development are especially important in Chagas disease considering the characteristics of the chronic infection and the number of people in the Americas living with a parasite infection for decades. We have previously reported the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella enterica (S) carrying plasmid encoding cruzipain (SCz) to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In the present work we investigated whether Cz DNA vaccine immunotherapy could be effective in controlling an ongoing T. cruzi infection in mice. We here report the intramuscular administration of naked Cz DNA or the oral administration of Salmonella as Cz DNA delivery system as therapeutic vaccines in mice during acute or chronic infection. The coadministration of a plasmid encoding GM-CSF improved vaccine performance, indicating that the stimulation of innate immune cells is needed in the event of an ongoing infection. These therapeutic vaccines were able to address the response to a protective and sustained Th1 biased profile not only against Cz but also against a variety of parasite antigens. The combined therapeutic vaccine during the chronic phase of infection prevents tissue pathology as shown by a reduced level of enzyme activity characteristic of tissue damage and a tissue status compatible with normal tissue. The obtained results suggest that immunotherapy with Cz and GM-CSF DNAs, either alone or in combination with other drug treatments, may represent a promising alternative for Chagas disease therapy.

  14. EPICS controlled sample mounting robots at the GM/CA CAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, O.A. [GM/CA-CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Bldg. 436D, Argonne, IL 60439-4861 (United States)], E-mail: makarov@anl.gov; Benn, R.; Corcoran, S.; Devarapalli, S.; Fischetti, R.; Hilgart, M.; Smith, W.W.; Stepanov, S.; Xu, S. [GM/CA-CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Bldg. 436D, Argonne, IL 60439-4861 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    GM/CA CAT at Sector 23 of the advanced photon source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction [R.F. Fischetti, et al., GM/CA canted undulator beamlines for protein crystallography, Acta Crystallogr. A 61 (2005) C139]. The facility consists of three beamlines; two based on canted undulators and one on a bending magnet. The scientific and technical goals of the CAT emphasize streamlined, efficient throughput for a variety of sample types, sizes and qualities, representing the cutting edge of structural biology research. For this purpose all three beamlines are equipped with the ALS-style robots [C.W.Cork, et al. Status of the BCSB automated sample mounting and alignment system for macromolecular crystallography at the Advanced Light Source, SRI-2003, San-Francisco, CA, USA, August 25-29, 2003] for an automated mounting of cryo-protected macromolecular crystals. This report summarizes software and technical solutions implemented with the first of the three operational robots at beamline 23-ID-B. The automounter's Dewar can hold up to 72 or 96 samples residing in six Rigaku ACTOR magazines or ALS-style pucks, respectively. Mounting of a crystal takes approximately 2 s, during which time the temperature of the crystal is maintained near that of liquid nitrogen.

  15. PROTEINS OF POTATOES IN RELATION TO THE CONTENT OF CADMIUM IN THEIR TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the work the influence of cadmium in soil on the range of cumulating in tubers of potatoes and in proteins of potatoes grown under model conditions of pot trial experiment and under the real conditions of locality Imeľ in Danube Lowland was surveyed. Under conditions of pot trial the increased contents in tubers positively correlated with contents of cadmium applied into soil; the highest content of Cd was assessed in variety Junior (from 0.211 mg.kg-1 FM in 1st variant to 0.715 mg.kg-1 FM in 4th variant. The influence of increased content of Cd was manifested statistically significant in the content of proteins also in the content of Cd in protein fractions (1st var. 0.026 (Asterix – 0.045 (Agria mg.kg-1 FM; 2nd var. 0.047 (Livera – 0.085 (Asterix mg.kg-1 FM; 3rd var. 0.06 (Livera – 0.117 (Junior mg.kg-1 FM; 4th var. 0.068 (Livera – 0.142 (Asterix mg.kg-1 FM. Contents of Cd in potatoes from locality Imeľ did not exceed the value 0.1 mg.kg-1 FM defined in PK SR. The average contents of proteins were in range from 1.19 % (Victoria to 1.489 % (Adora, the average content of Cd cumulated in proteins was the highest in variety Vivaldi (1.317 μg.kg-1 FM. Positive correlation was confirmed between the content of Cd in potato tubers and in proteins only in Livera variety. doi:10.5219/74

  16. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influence of tube volume on measurement uncertainty of GM counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka Đ.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available GM counters are often used in radiation detection since they generate a strong signal which can be easily detected. The working principal of a GM counter is based on the interaction of ionizing radiation with the atoms and molecules of the gas present in the counter's tube. Free electrons created as a result of this interaction become initial electrons, i. e. start an avalanche process which is detected as a pulse of current. This current pulse is independent of the energy imparted on the gas, that being the main difference between a GM counter and the majority of other radiation detectors. In literature, the dependence on the incidence of radiation energy, tube's orientation and characteristics of the reading system are quoted as the main sources of measurement uncertainty of GM counters. The aim of this paper is to determine the dependence of measurement uncertainty of a GM counter on the volume of its counter's tube. The dependence of the pulse current on the size of the counter's tube has, therefore, been considered here, both in radial and parallel geometry. The initiation and expansion of the current pulse have been examined by means of elementary processes of electrical discharge such as the Markov processes, while the changes in the counter's tube volume were put to test by the space - time enlargement law. The random variable known as the 'current pulse in the counter's tube' (i. e. electrical breakdown of the electrode configuration has also been taken into account and an appropriate theoretical distribution statistically determined. Thus obtained theoretical results were then compared to corresponding experimental results established in controlled laboratory conditions.

  18. GM's road to hydrogen powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauling, D. [General Motors, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    General Motor's (GM) long term vision is to remove the automobile from environmental and energy debates. Auto emissions comprise of smog (volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and particulates) and greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide). In the 1970s, GM introduced the catalytic converter to reduce smog forming emissions by more than 99 per cent. This presentation included a pie chart depicting the Canadian contribution to smog forming emissions by sector in 2005. New vehicles were shown to contribute 0.1 per cent. The author stated that the auto sector is the only sector that is significantly reducing smog in Canada and cautioned that the size of vehicle and volume of fuel consumed does not correlate to smog forming emissions. The Car Heaven Program was launched in July 2000 as a partnership between the Clean Air Foundation and various corporate partners including GM Canada. The objective of the program was to accelerate the retirement of older, highly polluting vehicles and switching consumers to more fuel efficient vehicles which will reduce GHG emissions. The program has been conducted in lower mainland British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Quebec and Atlantic Canada. In terms of GHG contribution by sector, new vehicles were shown to contribute 1 per cent. GM's advanced propulsion technology strategy was also presented with reference to hybrid electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells, battery electric vehicles, internal combustion engines and E-Flex systems. It was noted that GM has a broad portfolio of fuel efficient vehicles. The company's total vehicle approach to advanced technology vehicles and fuel efficiency was outlined, including it's ethanol capable vehicle technology, hybrid strategy, and fuel cell propulsion system. tabs., figs.

  19. The “potato road” and biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general opinion about the introduction of potato in Europe is the one regarding the direction from South America to Spain and subsequent distribution to other continents. Some historical data point out an alternative road. The potato spread from its place of origin to other continents in the light of parasite-host relationship, relying on nematode molecular data, is discussed in the present work. Biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents is in congruence with historical records. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007

  20. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, A.; Capri, E.

    2007-01-01

    of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant...... of the chemical. The findings of this study provide a convenient method to estimate the diffusion of nonvolatile organic chemicals through various plant materials. The application to a radial diffusion model suggests that "growth dilution" renders the concentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in potatoes...... below their equilibrium partitioning level. This is in agreement with field results for the bioconcentration of PAHs in potatoes....

  1. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  2. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  3. ANALYSIS OF INTERACTION OF PLANT GENOTYPE AND STRAIN AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS IN BREEDING OF POTATO RESISTANCE TO COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis I Bogomaz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of potato transformation depends on plant genotype and bacterial strain. Genotypes with high regeneration ability have high transformation ability. It is shown, that transgenosis of Bt gene increases potato resistance to collorado potato beetle, transgenosis of ipt gene does not influence on resistance.

  4. Effect of Cover Crop Residues on Some Physicochemical Properties of Soil and Emergence Rate of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crop residues on speed of seed  potato emergence and percentage of organic carbon, soil specific weight and soil temperature. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu-AliSinaUniversity, in 2008-2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Winter cover crops consisted of rye, barley and oilseed rape, each one with common plant density (rye and barley at 190 kg.ha-1 and oilseed rape at 9 kg.ha-1 and triple plant densities(rye and barley 570 kg.ha-1 and oilseed rape, 27 kg.ha-1 and control (without cover crop. The results showed that rye and barley with triple plant densities produced higher biomass (1503.5 and 1392.2 g/m2, respectively than other treatments.Soil physicochemical properties were affected significantly by using cover crops. Rye, barley, and oilseed rape with triple rate and rye with common rape of plant densities produced, the highest organic carbon. Green manure of rye and barley with triple and rye with common rate plant densities, reduced soil specific weights by 17.3, 18 and 18 percent as compared with the control treatment (without cover crop planting. Rye and barley with triple plant densities increased average soil temperature by 12 and 11 percent respectively in comparison with control treatment. These treatments increased speed of seed potato emergence by 20 and 12 percent respectively as compared with that of control treatment, respectively. Other treatments showed no significant difference as compared to control. Cover crop residues increased plants speed of seed potato emergence through improving soil conditions.

  5. Safety assessment of biotechnology used in animal production, including genetically modified (GM) feed and GM animals - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Kok, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the large-scale commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the mid-nineties, it has continuously increased. This has occurred in particular in non-European countries from which these crops may be exported as commodities to Europe and other markets. Before

  6. Characterization of human lymphoid cell lines GM9947 and GM9948 as intra- and interlaboratory reference standards for DNA typing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregeau, C.J.; Elliott, J.C.; Fourney, R.M. [RCMP Central Forensic Laboratory, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-07-20

    The incorporation of reference DNA is crucial to the validation of any DNA typing protocol. Currently, reference DNA standards are restricted to molecular size DNA ladders and/or tumor cell line DNA. Either of these, however, presents some limitations. We have rigorously characterized two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized human lymphoid cell lines-GM9947 (female) and GM9948 (male)-to determine their suitability as alternative in-line standards for three widely employed allele profiling strategies. Twenty-one highly polymorphic VNTR-based allelic systems (7 RFLPs, 2 AmpFLPs, and 12 STRs) distributed over 12 chromosomes were scrutinized along with 3 gender-based discriminatory systems. The genetic stability of each locus was confirmed over a period of 225 in vitro population doublings. Allele size estimates and degree of informativeness for each of the 21 VNTR systems were compiled. The reproducibility of allele scoring by traditional RFLP analyses, using both cell lines as reference standards, was also verified by an interlaboratory validation study involving 13 analysts from two geographically distinct forensic laboratories. Taken together, our data indicate that GM9947 and GM9948 genomic DNAs could be adopted as reliable reference standards for DNA typing. 82 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; McCuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  8. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  9. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  10. Effect of radiation on potato susceptibility to plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The average world production of potatoes is about 7 billion bushels, having a value nearly, if not quite, equal to that of wheat. Hence, it has for years been recognized as the world's leading food crop (Thompson, 1949). Potato is the world's leading vegetable crop and rivals wheat in total value. There is probably no food article in daily diet of the white race more common than the potato. Potato tuber contains nearly 80 per cent water in it's uncooked state. Most of the remainder consists of about 2 per cent protein and 18 per cent starch. The potato is one of the cheapest and most common sources of carbohydrate food

  11. Studies on potato irradiation in the G.D.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, Th.; Huebner, G.; Grahn, Ch.; Doellstaedt, R.

    1990-01-01

    The studies of potato irradiation have been conducted in the framework of the National Food Irradiation Research Project for 4 years. Although in the G.D.R. the use of chemical sprout inhibitors is allowed, potato irradiation can be an alternative technique for potato processing. Before irradiation a wound healing period of approx. 2 weeks is absolutely necessary to protect the potatoes from Fusarium. The method that presents the minimum risk of damage is irradiation in containers. Economic evaluations for the irradiation of potatoes are also made. (author)

  12. The economic and environmental cost of delayed GM crop adoption: The case of Australia's GM canola moratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biden, Scott; Smyth, Stuart J; Hudson, David

    2018-01-02

    Incorporating socio-economic considerations (SECs) into national biosafety regulations regarding genetically modified (GM) crops have opportunity costs. Australia approved the cultivation of GM canola through a science-based risk assessment in 2003, but allowed state moratoria to be instituted based on potential trade impacts over the period 2004 to 2008 and 2010 in the main canola growing states. This analysis constructs a counterfactual assessment using Canadian GM canola adoption data to create an S-Curve of adoption in Australia to measure the environmental and economic opportunity costs of Australia's SEC-based moratoria between 2004 and 2014. The environmental impacts are measured through the amount of chemical active ingredients applied during pest management, the Environmental Impact Quotient indicator, and greenhouse gas emissions. The economic impacts are measured through the variable costs of the weed control programs, yield and the contribution margin. The environmental opportunity costs from delaying the adoption of GM canola in Australia include an additional 6.5 million kilograms of active ingredients applied to canola land; a 14.3% increase in environmental impact to farmers, consumers and the ecology; 8.7 million litres of diesel fuel burned; and an additional 24.2 million kilograms of greenhouse gas (GHG) and compound emissions released. The economic opportunity costs of the SEC-based moratoria resulted in foregone output of 1.1 million metric tonnes of canola and a net economic loss to canola farmers' of AU$485.6 million. The paper provides some of the first quantified, post-adoption evidence on the opportunity cost and environmental impacts of incorporating SECs into GM crop regulation.

  13. Cucumis sativus L, Nasim variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... practice for reducing water consumption and improving product quality. ... Since cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L, Nasim variety) is considered as the main and ... to a significant yield increase (P<0.001), while MAD of 50% had the least yield.

  14. Export Variety and Country Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau

    2004-01-01

    The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization...

  15. Feasibility of Radiation Processing for Post-Harvest Storage of Potatoes Under Tropical Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A. N.; Padwal-Desai, S. R.; Ghanekar, A. S.; Shirsat, S. G.; Pendharkar, M. B.; Nair, P. M.; Nadkarni, G. B. [Biochemistry and Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-04-15

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10 krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 Degree-Sign C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 Degree-Sign C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 Degree-Sign C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 Degree-Sign C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  16. Yield Evaluation of Nutrient-rich Potato Clones in High Hill of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Prasad Luitel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the yield of nutrient-rich potato clones in high-hill districts: Dolakha and Jumla of Nepal during the years 2013 and 2014, respectively. Fourteen potato clones were tested as on-station and on-farm experiments at both districts, and those fourteen clones were compared to ‘Lady Rosita’ and ‘Jumli Local’ respectively as the check varieties in the first year experiment, 2013. Eight promising clones were selected from the first year experiment, and were evaluated and compared with same local varieties in the consecutive year, 2014. Two clones namely; CIP 395112.32 (19.3 tha-1 and CIP 393073.179 (17.8 tha-1 exhibited superior marketable tuber yield than that of ‘Lady Rosita’(14.2 tha-1 in Dolakha and five CIP clones namely; 395112.32 (25.5 tha-1, 393073.179 (22.5 tha-1, 394611.112 (20.9 tha-1, 390478.9 (19.9 tha-1 and 395017.229 (17.0 tha-1 showed higher marketable tuber yield than ‘Jumli Local’(14.5 tha-1. Based on two years’ phenotypic and tuber yield result, clones CIP 395112.32 and CIP 393073.179 are recommended to potato growers at high hills of Nepal for commercial cultivation.

  17. Feasibility of radiation processing for post-harvest storage of potatoes under tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A.N.; Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Shirsat, S.G.; Pendharkar, M.B.; Nair, P.M.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 0 C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 0 C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 0 C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 0 C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation-induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  18. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Mineral Oil on Potato Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Andrew; Alyokhin, Andrei

    2018-05-28

    Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). All three species showed negative behavioral responses to oil-treated potato foliage. Oil treatment also increased aphid mortality. Colorado potato beetle mortality was not affected, but developing on oil-treated potato plants resulted in prolonged development and smaller adults. Additionally, oil acted synergistically with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae); Colorado potato beetle larvae were killed more rapidly when sprayed with both products compared with when sprayed with B. bassiana alone. Based on these results, mineral oil has the potential for expanded use in potato IPM programs.

  19. Varietal performance of potato on induction and development of microtuber in response to sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sadek Hossain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture techniques are the most momentous and extensively method to produce disease-free quality plantlets and microtubers in potato. In spite of this, there has been a lack of research information into in vitro microtuberization for seed tuber production program in Bangladesh. In this experiment, we assessed the appropriateness of different concentrations of sucrose with especial accent on their effects for induction and development of microtuber in potato varieties. In vitro plantlets of three potato varieties; Asterix, Granola, and Diamant were treated with eight level of sucrose as 0, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14% for 70 days of incubation producing microtuber. Asterix induces microtuber after 10.69 days, it was statistically shorter duration than other two varieties. Tuberization did not occur without sucrose and were required a minimum (8.92 days with 8% sucrose, while it delayed with either increasing or decreasing rate of sucrose concentration. A single number of microtuber was not formed in absence of sucrose after 28 days of incubation. Microtuber plantlet−1 was the highest more or less in all varieties at harvest with 8% sucrose concentration. Hundred percent of microtuber below 250 mg induced in 3% sucrose concentration and from then the microtuber grade induction decreased with the increase of sucrose concentration. >500 mg grade microtuber produced by Granola (47.95% with 10% sucrose while Diamant produced 50.15% above 500 mg grade microtuber with 14% sucrose. It is also noticeable by Astrerix variety where >500 mg microtuber were produced about 46.95% with 8% sucrose.

  20. The potential of soil fungi associated with potato rhizosphere to control root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) on potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, E.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, AR; Hasanuddin

    2018-02-01

    The root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of important pathogens on potato crops in North Sumatra, Indonesia. This nematode causes significant crop losses on potatoes directly and indirectly. The effect of fungal isolates (Trichoderma sp. 1, Mucor sp.1, Aspergillus sp. 2, Mucor sp. 2) that were isolated from rhizosphere of potato in North Sumatra were studied in green house experiments on the growth of potato and the reproduction of the nematode (Meloidogyne spp). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. 1 caused a significant gall reduction, while Mucor sp.1 and Mucor sp.2 could improve the growth of potato.

  1. Evolution of risk assessment strategies for food and feed uses of stacked GM events

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Catherine; Brune, Phil; McDonald, Justin; Nesbitt, Monique; Sauve, Alaina; Storck?Weyhermueller, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Data requirements are not harmonized globally for the regulation of food and feed derived from stacked genetically modified (GM) events, produced by combining individual GM events through conventional breeding. The data required by some regulatory agencies have increased despite the absence of substantiated adverse effects to animals or humans from the consumption of GM crops. Data from studies conducted over a 15?year period for several stacked GM event maize (Zea mays L.) products (...

  2. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  3. WAY OF PRE-PLANTING TREATMENT OF EARLY-RIPENNING POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Semibratskaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of pre-planting treatment of early-ripening potato increasing the volume of production in the Eastern forest-Steppe of Ukraine is presented. This technology is referred to development of organic-mineral container, which covers the surface of tubers and remains there until planting. During this period, the substance of the substrate has a direct impact on growth of apical points of tubers that stimulate its germination and development of root system, and prevent the breaking of sprouts. Comparative data of time of seedling emergence and yield of different potato varieties are presented.

  4. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  5. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  6. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    lay eggs in soil cracks and on exposed tubers (Radcliffe ... Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in ..... specific adaptation of the set of olfactory receptors on the.

  7. Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It

  8. Potato developments in a changing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.U.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The papers in this book reflect societal and commercial changes such as consumer behaviour and marketing aspects in relation to fresh and processed potatoes in western, central and eastern Europe. Seed trade between western and central Europe is entering a new stage with altered inspection

  9. ( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.

  10. Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mungan, Carl E

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics

  11. Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungan, Carl E [Physics Department, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402-5002 (United States)], E-mail: mungan@usna.edu

    2009-05-15

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics.

  12. Global field experiments for potato simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymundo, Rubi; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Condori, Bruno; Bowen, Walter; Wolf, Joost; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Dong, Qiaoxue; Zotarelli, Lincoln; Gastelo, Manuel; Alva, Ashok; Travasso, Maria; Arora, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    A large field potato experimental data set has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels,

  13. Resistance to Black Dot in Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black dot fungus can colonize tubers on the surface, in the stolon end, or in a combination of both.On the surface the fungus is prevalent as sclerotia, and in the stolon end the fungus colonizes the vascular tissuesas hyphae. The fungus is introduced to non-infested soils mostly by infected potato ...

  14. Comparing methods of ploidy estimation in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploidy manipulation and the resulting need for rapid ploidy screening is an important part of a potato research and breeding program. Determining ploidy by counting chromosomes or measuring DNA in individual cells is definitive, but takes time, technical skills and equipment. We tested three predi...

  15. Pink eye in potato is problematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall of 2017 was a challenging harvest season for potato growers in Central Wisconsin because of the less-than-ideal patterns of temperature and precipitation. Late September had several days with high temperatures above 85'F that shut down most harvest operations. Early October brought in quite a f...

  16. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  17. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonu

    Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.

  18. Engineering resistance against potato virus Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available,

  19. Hairy nightshade as a potential Potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) inoculum source in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Alvarez, J M

    2008-09-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, is a solanaceous weed found abundantly in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems. It serves as a reservoir for one of the important potato viruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus), and its most important vector, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Laboratory research indicated an increased green peach aphid settling and performance on S. sarrachoides than on potato. It also revealed that green peach aphids transmitted PLRV more efficiently from S. sarrachoides to potato than from potato to potato. To test the efficiency of S. sarrachoides as an inoculum source in the field, a two season (2004 and 2005) trial was conducted at Kimberly, Idaho. Two inoculum sources, PLRV-infected potato and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides, were compared in this trial. Green peach aphid density and temporal and spatial PLRV spread were monitored at weekly intervals. Higher densities of green peach aphids were observed on plots with S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources (PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato) than on plots without S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources. PLRV infection in plots with PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides was similar to or slightly higher than in plots with PLRV-infected potato as an inoculum source. Temporal and spatial PLRV spread was similar in plots with either inoculum source. Thus, S. sarrachoides is as efficient as or a better PLRV inoculum source than potato.

  20. Expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements by GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, K.; Arandjic, D.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Osmokrovic, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with possible ways of obtaining expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements for four types of GM counters with a same counter's tube, in cases when the contributors of these uncertainties are cosmic background radiation and induced overvoltage phenomena. Nowadays, as a consequence of electromagnetic radiation, the latter phenomenon is especially marked in urban environments. Based on experimental results obtained, it has been established that the uncertainties of an influenced random variable 'number of pulses from background radiation' and 'number of pulses induced by overvoltage' depend on the technological solution of the counter's reading system and contribute in different ways to the expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements of the applied types of GM counters. (author)