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Sample records for glypican-1 controls brain

  1. Improvements in the order, isotropy and electron density of glypican-1 crystals by controlled dehydration

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    Awad, Wael [Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Svensson Birkedal, Gabriel [Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, 221 84 Lund (Sweden); Thunnissen, Marjolein M. G. M. [Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lund University, Box 188, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mani, Katrin [Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, 221 84 Lund (Sweden); Logan, Derek T., E-mail: derek.logan@biochemistry.lu.se [Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2013-12-01

    The anisotropy of crystals of glypican-1 was significantly reduced by controlled dehydration using the HC1 device, allowing the building of previously disordered parts of the structure. The use of controlled dehydration for improvement of protein crystal diffraction quality is increasing in popularity, although there are still relatively few documented examples of success. A study has been carried out to establish whether controlled dehydration could be used to improve the anisotropy of crystals of the core protein of the human proteoglycan glypican-1. Crystals were subjected to controlled dehydration using the HC1 device. The optimal protocol for dehydration was developed by careful investigation of the following parameters: dehydration rate, final relative humidity and total incubation time T{sub inc}. Of these, the most important was shown to be T{sub inc}. After dehydration using the optimal protocol the crystals showed significantly reduced anisotropy and improved electron density, allowing the building of previously disordered parts of the structure.

  2. Glypican-1 mediates both prion protein lipid raft association and disease isoform formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Taylor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In prion diseases, the cellular form of the prion protein, PrP(C, undergoes a conformational conversion to the infectious isoform, PrP(Sc. PrP(C associates with lipid rafts through its glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor and a region in its N-terminal domain which also binds to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs. We show that heparin displaces PrP(C from rafts and promotes its endocytosis, suggesting that heparin competes with an endogenous raft-resident HSPG for binding to PrP(C. We then utilised a transmembrane-anchored form of PrP (PrP-TM, which is targeted to rafts solely by its N-terminal domain, to show that both heparin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C can inhibit its association with detergent-resistant rafts, implying that a GPI-anchored HSPG targets PrP(C to rafts. Depletion of the major neuronal GPI-anchored HSPG, glypican-1, significantly reduced the raft association of PrP-TM and displaced PrP(C from rafts, promoting its endocytosis. Glypican-1 and PrP(C colocalised on the cell surface and both PrP(C and PrP(Sc co-immunoprecipitated with glypican-1. Critically, treatment of scrapie-infected N2a cells with glypican-1 siRNA significantly reduced PrP(Sc formation. In contrast, depletion of glypican-1 did not alter the inhibitory effect of PrP(C on the beta-secretase cleavage of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein. These data indicate that glypican-1 is a novel cellular cofactor for prion conversion and we propose that it acts as a scaffold facilitating the interaction of PrP(C and PrP(Sc in lipid rafts.

  3. Glypican1 identifies cancer exosomes and facilitates early detection of cancer

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    Melo, Sonia A.; Luecke, Linda B.; Kahlert, Christoph; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Gammon, Seth T.; Kaye, Judith; LeBleu, Valerie S.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Weitz, Juergen; Rahbari, Nuh; Reissfelder, Christoph; Pilarsky, Christian; Fraga, Mario F.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Kalluri, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer cell-derived exosomes in circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identified a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer cell-derived exosomes. GPC1+ circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of cancer patients and mice with cancer. GPC1+ crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreas cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreas disease from patients with early and late stage pancreas cancer. Levels of GPC1+ crExos correlate with tumor burden and survival in patients pre- and post-surgical tumor resection. GPC1+ crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreas tumors driven by oncogenic KRAS contained RNA with specific KRAS mutation, and it emerges as a reliable biomarker for the detection of PanIN lesions despite negative signal by MRI in mice. GPC1+ crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreas cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy. PMID:26106858

  4. Nucleolin is a nuclear target of heparan sulfate derived from glypican-1

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    Cheng, Fang; Belting, Mattias; Fransson, Lars-Åke; Mani, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The recycling, S-nitrosylated heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan glypican-1 releases anhydromannose (anMan)-containing HS chains by a nitrosothiol-catalyzed cleavage in endosomes that can be constitutive or induced by ascorbate. The HS-anMan chains are then transported to the nucleus. A specific nuclear target for HS-anMan has not been identified. We have monitored endosome-to-nucleus trafficking of HS-anMan by deconvolution and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy using an anMan-specific monoclonal antibody in non-growing, ascorbate-treated, and growing, untreated, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts and hypoxia-exposed Alzheimer mouse Tg2576 fibroblasts and human U87 glioblastoma cells. In all cells, nuclear HS-anMan targeted a limited number of sites of variable size where it colocalized with DNA and nucleolin, an established marker for nucleoli. HS-anMan also colocalized with ethynyl uridine-tagged nascent RNA and two acetylated forms of histone H3. Acute hypoxia increased the formation of HS-anMan in both Tg2576 and U87 cells. A portion of HS-anMan colocalized with nucleolin at small discrete sites, while most of the nucleolin and nascent RNA was dispersed. In U87 cells, HS-anMan, nucleolin and nascent RNA reassembled after prolonged hypoxia. Nucleolar HS may modulate synthesis and/or release of rRNA.

  5. Nucleolin is a nuclear target of heparan sulfate derived from glypican-1

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    Cheng, Fang [Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division of Neuroscience, Glycobiology Group, Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Belting, Mattias [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Oncology and Pathology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Fransson, Lars-Åke [Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division of Neuroscience, Glycobiology Group, Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Mani, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.mani@med.lu.se [Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division of Neuroscience, Glycobiology Group, Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden)

    2017-05-01

    The recycling, S-nitrosylated heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan glypican-1 releases anhydromannose (anMan)-containing HS chains by a nitrosothiol-catalyzed cleavage in endosomes that can be constitutive or induced by ascorbate. The HS-anMan chains are then transported to the nucleus. A specific nuclear target for HS-anMan has not been identified. We have monitored endosome-to-nucleus trafficking of HS-anMan by deconvolution and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy using an anMan-specific monoclonal antibody in non-growing, ascorbate-treated, and growing, untreated, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts and hypoxia-exposed Alzheimer mouse Tg2576 fibroblasts and human U87 glioblastoma cells. In all cells, nuclear HS-anMan targeted a limited number of sites of variable size where it colocalized with DNA and nucleolin, an established marker for nucleoli. HS-anMan also colocalized with ethynyl uridine-tagged nascent RNA and two acetylated forms of histone H3. Acute hypoxia increased the formation of HS-anMan in both Tg2576 and U87 cells. A portion of HS-anMan colocalized with nucleolin at small discrete sites, while most of the nucleolin and nascent RNA was dispersed. In U87 cells, HS-anMan, nucleolin and nascent RNA reassembled after prolonged hypoxia. Nucleolar HS may modulate synthesis and/or release of rRNA.

  6. Suppression of amyloid beta A11 antibody immunoreactivity by vitamin C: possible role of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides derived from glypican-1 by ascorbate-induced, nitric oxide (NO)-catalyzed degradation.

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    Cheng, Fang; Cappai, Roberto; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D; Svensson, Gabriel; Multhaup, Gerd; Fransson, Lars-Åke; Mani, Katrin

    2011-08-05

    Amyloid β (Aβ) is generated from the copper- and heparan sulfate (HS)-binding amyloid precursor protein (APP) by proteolytic processing. APP supports S-nitrosylation of the HS proteoglycan glypican-1 (Gpc-1). In the presence of ascorbate, there is NO-catalyzed release of anhydromannose (anMan)-containing oligosaccharides from Gpc-1-nitrosothiol. We investigated whether these oligosaccharides interact with Aβ during APP processing and plaque formation. anMan immunoreactivity was detected in amyloid plaques of Alzheimer (AD) and APP transgenic (Tg2576) mouse brains by immunofluorescence microscopy. APP/APP degradation products detected by antibodies to the C terminus of APP, but not Aβ oligomers detected by the anti-Aβ A11 antibody, colocalized with anMan immunoreactivity in Tg2576 fibroblasts. A 50-55-kDa anionic, sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable, anMan- and Aβ-immunoreactive species was obtained from Tg2576 fibroblasts using immunoprecipitation with anti-APP (C terminus). anMan-containing HS oligo- and disaccharide preparations modulated or suppressed A11 immunoreactivity and oligomerization of Aβ42 peptide in an in vitro assay. A11 immunoreactivity increased in Tg2576 fibroblasts when Gpc-1 autoprocessing was inhibited by 3-β[2(diethylamino)ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one (U18666A) and decreased when Gpc-1 autoprocessing was stimulated by ascorbate. Neither overexpression of Gpc-1 in Tg2576 fibroblasts nor addition of copper ion and NO donor to hippocampal slices from 3xTg-AD mice affected A11 immunoreactivity levels. However, A11 immunoreactivity was greatly suppressed by the subsequent addition of ascorbate. We speculate that temporary interaction between the Aβ domain and small, anMan-containing oligosaccharides may preclude formation of toxic Aβ oligomers. A portion of the oligosaccharides are co-secreted with the Aβ peptides and deposited in plaques. These results support the notion that an inadequate supply of vitamin C could contribute to late onset AD

  7. Glypican-1-antibody-conjugated Gd-Au nanoclusters for FI/MRI dual-modal targeted detection of pancreatic cancer.

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    Huang, Xin; Fan, Chengqi; Zhu, Huanhuan; Le, Wenjun; Cui, Shaobin; Chen, Xin; Li, Wei; Zhang, Fulei; Huang, Yong; Sh, Donglu; Cui, Zheng; Shao, Chengwei; Chen, Bingdi

    2018-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a poor prognosis with high mortality, due to the lack of effective early diagnostic and prognostic tools. In order to target and diagnose PC, we developed a dual-modal imaging probe using Glypican-1 (GPC-1) antibody conjugated with Gd-Au nanoclusters (NCs; Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1). GPC-1 is a type of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, which is often highly expressed in PC. The probe was successfully prepared with a hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 13.5 to 24.4 nm. Spectral characteristics showed absorption at 280 nm and prominent emission at 650 nm. Confocal microscopic imaging showed effective detection of GPC-1 highly expressed PC cells by Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1, which was consistent with flow cytometry results. In vitro relaxivity characterization demonstrated that the r1 value of the probe was 17.722 s -1 mM -1 Gd, which was almost 4 times higher compared with that of Gd-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (DTPA; r1 value =4.6 s -1 mM -1 Gd). Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1 exhibited similar magnetic resonance (MR) signals when compared to Gd-DTPA even at lower Gd concentrations. Much higher MR signals were registered in PC cells (COLO-357) compared with normal cells (293T). Furthermore, Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1 could effectively detect PC cells in vivo by dual-modal fluorescence imaging/magnetic resonance imaging (FI/MRI) at 30 minutes postinjection. In addition, Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1 did not show significant biotoxicity to normal cells at tested concentrations both in vitro and in vivo. Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1 has demonstrated to be a promising dual-modal FI/MRI contrast agent for targeted diagnosis of PC.

  8. Glypican-1-antibody-conjugated Gd–Au nanoclusters for FI/MRI dual-modal targeted detection of pancreatic cancer

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    Zhu, Huanhuan; Le, Wenjun; Cui, Shaobin; Chen, Xin; Li, Wei; Zhang, Fulei; Huang, Yong; Sh, Donglu; Cui, Zheng; Shao, Chengwei; Chen, Bingdi

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a poor prognosis with high mortality, due to the lack of effective early diagnostic and prognostic tools. Materials and methods In order to target and diagnose PC, we developed a dual-modal imaging probe using Glypican-1 (GPC-1) antibody conjugated with Gd–Au nanoclusters (NCs; Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1). GPC-1 is a type of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, which is often highly expressed in PC. The probe was successfully prepared with a hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 13.5 to 24.4 nm. Results Spectral characteristics showed absorption at 280 nm and prominent emission at 650 nm. Confocal microscopic imaging showed effective detection of GPC-1 highly expressed PC cells by Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1, which was consistent with flow cytometry results. In vitro relaxivity characterization demonstrated that the r1 value of the probe was 17.722 s−1 mM−1 Gd, which was almost 4 times higher compared with that of Gd-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (DTPA; r1 value =4.6 s−1 mM−1 Gd). Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1 exhibited similar magnetic resonance (MR) signals when compared to Gd-DTPA even at lower Gd concentrations. Much higher MR signals were registered in PC cells (COLO-357) compared with normal cells (293T). Furthermore, Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1 could effectively detect PC cells in vivo by dual-modal fluorescence imaging/magnetic resonance imaging (FI/MRI) at 30 minutes postinjection. In addition, Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1 did not show significant biotoxicity to normal cells at tested concentrations both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Gd-Au-NC-GPC-1 has demonstrated to be a promising dual-modal FI/MRI contrast agent for targeted diagnosis of PC. PMID:29750031

  9. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  10. Brain control and information transfer.

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    Tehovnik, Edward J; Chen, Lewis L

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we examine the importance of having a body as essential for the brain to transfer information about the outside world to generate appropriate motor responses. We discuss the context-dependent conditioning of the motor control neural circuits and its dependence on the completion of feedback loops, which is in close agreement with the insights of Hebb and colleagues, who have stressed that for learning to occur the body must be intact and able to interact with the outside world. Finally, we apply information theory to data from published studies to evaluate the robustness of the neuronal signals obtained by bypassing the body (as used for brain-machine interfaces) versus via the body to move in the world. We show that recording from a group of neurons that bypasses the body exhibits a vastly degraded level of transfer of information as compared to that of an entire brain using the body to engage in the normal execution of behaviour. We conclude that body sensations provide more than just feedback for movements; they sustain the necessary transfer of information as animals explore their environment, thereby creating associations through learning. This work has implications for the development of brain-machine interfaces used to move external devices.

  11. Self-Control and the Developing Brain

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    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Obradovic, Jelena; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2009-01-01

    Self-control is a skill that children need to succeed academically, socially, and emotionally. Brain regions essential to self-control are immature at birth and develop slowly throughout childhood. From ages 3 to 6 years, as these brain regions become more mature, children show improved ability to control impulses, shift their attention flexibly,…

  12. Study on Control of Brain Temperature for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

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    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    The brain hypothermia treatment is an attractive therapy for the neurologist because of its neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients. The present paper deals with the possibility of controlling the brain and other viscera in different temperatures from the viewpoint of system control. It is theoretically attempted to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment to cool only the head but to warm the body by using the simple apparatus such as the cooling cap, muffler and warming blanket. For this purpose, a biothermal system concerning the temperature difference between the brain and the other thoracico-abdominal viscus is synthesized from the biothermal model of hypothermic patient. The output controllability and the asymptotic stability of the system are examined on the basis of its structure. Then, the maximum temperature difference to be realized is shown dependent on the temperature range of the apparatus and also on the maximum gain determined from the coefficient matrices A, B and C of the biothermal system. Its theoretical analysis shows the realization of difference of about 2.5°C, if there is absolutely no constraint of the temperatures of the cooling cap, muffler and blanket. It is, however, physically unavailable. Those are shown by simulation example of the optimal brain temperature regulation using a standard adult database. It is thus concluded that the surface cooling and warming apparatus do no make it possible to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment, because the brain temperature cannot be cooled lower than those of other viscera in an appropriate temperature environment. This study shows that the ever-proposed good method of clinical treatment is in principle impossible in the actual brain hypothermia treatment.

  13. When "altering brain function" becomes "mind control".

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    Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. "Under what conditions does 'altering brain function' qualify as 'mind control'?" In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

  14. Flexible brain network reconfiguration supporting inhibitory control.

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    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Banich, Marie T

    2015-08-11

    The ability to inhibit distracting stimuli from interfering with goal-directed behavior is crucial for success in most spheres of life. Despite an abundance of studies examining regional brain activation, knowledge of the brain networks involved in inhibitory control remains quite limited. To address this critical gap, we applied graph theory tools to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected while a large sample of adults (n = 101) performed a color-word Stroop task. Higher demand for inhibitory control was associated with restructuring of the global network into a configuration that was more optimized for specialized processing (functional segregation), more efficient at communicating the output of such processing across the network (functional integration), and more resilient to potential interruption (resilience). In addition, there were regional changes with right inferior frontal sulcus and right anterior insula occupying more central positions as network hubs, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex becoming more tightly coupled with its regional subnetwork. Given the crucial role of inhibitory control in goal-directed behavior, present findings identifying functional network organization supporting inhibitory control have the potential to provide additional insights into how inhibitory control may break down in a wide variety of individuals with neurological or psychiatric difficulties.

  15. Brain heparan sulphate proteoglycans are altered in developing foetus when exposed to in-utero hyperglycaemia.

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    Sandeep, M S; Nandini, C D

    2017-08-01

    In-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition affects the growth and development of the organism. The brain is one of the first organs that start to develop during embryonic period and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are one of the key molecules involved in its development. But studies on the effect of hyperglycaemic conditions on brain GAGs/PGs are few and far between. We, therefore, looked into the changes in brain GAGs and PGs at various developmental stages of pre- and post-natal rats from non-diabetic and diabetic mothers as well as in adult rats induced with diabetes using a diabetogenic agent, Streptozotocin. Increased expression of GAGs especially that of heparan sulphate class in various developmental stages were observed in the brain as a result of in-utero hyperglycaemic condition but not in that of adult rats. Changes in disaccharides of heparan sulphate (HS) were observed in various developmental stages. Furthermore, various HSPGs namely, syndecans-1 and -3 and glypican-1 were overexpressed in offspring from diabetic mother. However, in adult diabetic rats, only glypican-1 was overexpressed. The offsprings from diabetic mothers became hyperphagic at the end of 8 weeks after birth which can have implications in the long run. Our results highlight the likely impact of the in-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition on brain GAGs/PGs compared to diabetic adult rats.

  16. Brain mechanisms that control sleep and waking

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    Siegel, Jerome

    This review paper presents a brief historical survey of the technological and early research that laid the groundwork for recent advances in sleep-waking research. A major advance in this field occurred shortly after the end of World War II with the discovery of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) as the neural source in the brain stem of the waking state. Subsequent research showed that the brain stem activating system produced cortical arousal via two pathways: a dorsal route through the thalamus and a ventral route through the hypothalamus and basal forebrain. The nuclei, pathways, and neurotransmitters that comprise the multiple components of these arousal systems are described. Sleep is now recognized as being composed of two very different states: rapid eye movements (REMs) sleep and non-REM sleep. The major findings on the neural mechanisms that control these two sleep states are presented. This review ends with a discussion of two current views on the function of sleep: to maintain the integrity of the immune system and to enhance memory consolidation.

  17. Brain-controlled body movement assistance devices and methods

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    Leuthardt, Eric C.; Love, Lonnie J.; Coker, Rob; Moran, Daniel W.

    2017-01-10

    Methods, devices, systems, and apparatus, including computer programs encoded on a computer storage medium, for brain-controlled body movement assistance devices. In one aspect, a device includes a brain-controlled body movement assistance device with a brain-computer interface (BCI) component adapted to be mounted to a user, a body movement assistance component operably connected to the BCI component and adapted to be worn by the user, and a feedback mechanism provided in connection with at least one of the BCI component and the body movement assistance component, the feedback mechanism being configured to output information relating to a usage session of the brain-controlled body movement assistance device.

  18. Glial and neuronal control of brain blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attwell, David; Buchan, Alastair M; Charpak, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes. Knowledge of how these cells control blood flow is crucial for understanding how neural computation is powered, for interpreting functional imaging scans of brains, and for developing treatments for neurological disorders. It is now...... in our understanding of cerebral blood flow control have important implications for the development of new therapeutic approaches....

  19. Experiencing Brain-Computer Interface Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, B.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are systems that extract information from the user’s brain activity and employ it in some way in an interactive system. While historically BCIs were mainly catered towards paralyzed or otherwise physically handicapped users, the last couple of years applications with

  20. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

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    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  1. Antecedent control in the treatment of brain-injured clients.

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    Zencius, A H; Wesolowski, M D; Burke, W H; McQuade, P

    1989-01-01

    Three brain-injured clients failed to respond significantly to consequence management programmes designed to increase attendance, use of a cane, and to reduce unauthorized breaks. When antecedent stimulus control procedures were applied, attendance and use of a cane increased and unauthorized breaks decreased. The study shows that antecedent control may be the treatment of choice when treating brain-injured clients with memory loss.

  2. Wireless brain-machine interface using EEG and EOG: brain wave classification and robot control

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    Oh, Sechang; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) links a user's brain activity directly to an external device. It enables a person to control devices using only thought. Hence, it has gained significant interest in the design of assistive devices and systems for people with disabilities. In addition, BMI has also been proposed to replace humans with robots in the performance of dangerous tasks like explosives handling/diffusing, hazardous materials handling, fire fighting etc. There are mainly two types of BMI based on the measurement method of brain activity; invasive and non-invasive. Invasive BMI can provide pristine signals but it is expensive and surgery may lead to undesirable side effects. Recent advances in non-invasive BMI have opened the possibility of generating robust control signals from noisy brain activity signals like EEG and EOG. A practical implementation of a non-invasive BMI such as robot control requires: acquisition of brain signals with a robust wearable unit, noise filtering and signal processing, identification and extraction of relevant brain wave features and finally, an algorithm to determine control signals based on the wave features. In this work, we developed a wireless brain-machine interface with a small platform and established a BMI that can be used to control the movement of a robot by using the extracted features of the EEG and EOG signals. The system records and classifies EEG as alpha, beta, delta, and theta waves. The classified brain waves are then used to define the level of attention. The acceleration and deceleration or stopping of the robot is controlled based on the attention level of the wearer. In addition, the left and right movements of eye ball control the direction of the robot.

  3. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  4. Theory of feedback controlled brain stimulations for Parkinson's disease

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    Sanzeni, A.; Celani, A.; Tiana, G.; Vergassola, M.

    2016-01-01

    Limb tremor and other debilitating symptoms caused by the neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease are currently treated by administering drugs and by fixed-frequency deep brain stimulation. The latter interferes directly with the brain dynamics by delivering electrical impulses to neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. While deep brain stimulation has shown therapeutic benefits in many instances, its mechanism is still unclear. Since its understanding could lead to improved protocols of stimulation and feedback control, we have studied a mathematical model of the many-body neural network dynamics controlling the dynamics of the basal ganglia. On the basis of the results obtained from the model, we propose a new procedure of active stimulation, that depends on the feedback of the network and that respects the constraints imposed by existing technology. We show by numerical simulations that the new protocol outperforms the standard ones for deep brain stimulation and we suggest future experiments that could further improve the feedback procedure.

  5. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  6. Cerebral control and survival after stereotactic radiotherapy of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Elmar Till

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study, including 275 patients who underwent stereotactic radiotherapy due to brain metastases between 2003 and 2008, investigates influencing factors regarding cerebral control and survival, symptomatic effects and a potential benefit for patients older than 70 years. We were able to identify risk factors for remote brain failure which leads to a therapeutic recommendation. Furthermore we confirm a positive symptomatic effect and a benefit of stereotactic readiotherapy for patients over 70 years.

  7. Glial and neuronal control of brain blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attwell, David; Buchan, Alastair M; Charpak, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes. Knowledge of how these cells control blood flow is crucial for understanding how neural computation is powered, for interpreting functional imaging scans of brains, and for developing treatments for neurological disorders. It is now...... recognized that neurotransmitter-mediated signalling has a key role in regulating cerebral blood flow, that much of this control is mediated by astrocytes, that oxygen modulates blood flow regulation, and that blood flow may be controlled by capillaries as well as by arterioles. These conceptual shifts...

  8. Control channels in the brain and their influence on brain executive functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglei; Choa, Fow-Sen; Hong, Elliot; Wang, Zhiguang; Islam, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    In a computer network there are distinct data channels and control channels where massive amount of visual information are transported through data channels but the information streams are routed and controlled by intelligent algorithm through "control channels". Recent studies on cognition and consciousness have shown that the brain control channels are closely related to the brainwave beta (14-40 Hz) and alpha (7-13 Hz) oscillations. The high-beta wave is used by brain to synchronize local neural activities and the alpha oscillation is for desynchronization. When two sensory inputs are simultaneously presented to a person, the high-beta is used to select one of the inputs and the alpha is used to deselect the other so that only one input will get the attention. In this work we demonstrated that we can scan a person's brain using binaural beats technique and identify the individual's preferred control channels. The identified control channels can then be used to influence the subject's brain executive functions. In the experiment, an EEG measurement system was used to record and identify a subject's control channels. After these channels were identified, the subject was asked to do Stroop tests. Binaural beats was again used to produce these control-channel frequencies on the subject's brain when we recorded the completion time of each test. We found that the high-beta signal indeed speeded up the subject's executive function performance and reduced the time to complete incongruent tests, while the alpha signal didn't seem to be able to slow down the executive function performance.

  9. Brain Computer Interface-Controlling Devices Utilizing The Alpha Brain Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Hundia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the development and testing of an interface system whereby one can control external devices by voluntarily controlling alpha waves that is through eye movement. Such a system may be used for the control of prosthetics robotic arms and external devices like wheelchairs using the alpha brain waves and the Mu rhythm. The response generated through the movement of the eye detecting and controlling the amplitude of the alpha brain waves is interfaced and processed to control Robotic systems and smart home control. In order to measure the response of alpha waves over different lobes of the brain initially I measured these signals over 32 regions using silver chloride plated electrodes. By the opening and the closure of the eyes and the movement in the up-down left-right directions and processing these movements measuring them over the occipital region I was able to differentiate the amplitude of the alpha waves generated due to these several movements. In the First session testing period subjects were asked to close and open their eyes and they were able to control limited movements of a Robot and a prosthetic arm. In the Second 2session the movement of the eyes was also considered left-right up-down along with the opening and closure during this time span they were able to control more dimensions of the robot several devices at the same time using different eye movements.

  10. TORCing up metabolic control in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietakangas, Ville; Cohen, Stephen M

    2008-05-01

    Transducer of regulated CREB activity 2 (TORC2) is a coactivator of CREB and an important regulator of energy balance in mammals through control of gluconeogenesis in the liver. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Wang and coworkers (2008) report an intriguing role for Drosophila TORC in the neuronal regulation of metabolism.

  11. Time Course of Brain Network Reconfiguration Supporting Inhibitory Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Tzvetan; Westner, Britta U; Silton, Rebecca L; Sass, Sarah M; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A

    2018-05-02

    Hemodynamic research has recently clarified key nodes and links in brain networks implementing inhibitory control. Although fMRI methods are optimized for identifying the structure of brain networks, the relatively slow temporal course of fMRI limits the ability to characterize network operation. The latter is crucial for developing a mechanistic understanding of how brain networks shift dynamically to support inhibitory control. To address this critical gap, we applied spectrally resolved Granger causality (GC) and random forest machine learning tools to human EEG data in two large samples of adults (test sample n = 96, replication sample n = 237, total N = 333, both sexes) who performed a color-word Stroop task. Time-frequency analysis confirmed that recruitment of inhibitory control accompanied by slower behavioral responses was related to changes in theta and alpha/beta power. GC analyses revealed directionally asymmetric exchanges within frontal and between frontal and parietal brain areas: top-down influence of superior frontal gyrus (SFG) over both dorsal ACC (dACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dACC control over middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and frontal-parietal exchanges (IFG, precuneus, MFG). Predictive analytics confirmed a combination of behavioral and brain-derived variables as the best set of predictors of inhibitory control demands, with SFG theta bearing higher classification importance than dACC theta and posterior beta tracking the onset of behavioral response. The present results provide mechanistic insight into the biological implementation of a psychological phenomenon: inhibitory control is implemented by dynamic routing processes during which the target response is upregulated via theta-mediated effective connectivity within key PFC nodes and via beta-mediated motor preparation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hemodynamic neuroimaging research has recently clarified regional structures in brain networks supporting inhibitory control. However, due to

  12. Control of a mobile robot through brain computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Jimenez Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper poses a control interface to command the movement of a mobile robot according to signals captured from the user's brain. These signals are acquired and interpreted by Emotiv EPOC device, a 14-electrode type sensor which captures electroencephalographic (EEG signals with high resolution, which, in turn, are sent to a computer for processing. One brain-computer interface (BCI was developed based on the Emotiv software and SDK in order to command the mobile robot from a distance. Functionality tests are performed with the sensor to discriminate shift intentions of a user group, as well as with a fuzzy controller to hold the direction in case of concentration loss. As conclusion, it was possible to obtain an efficient system for robot movements by brain commands.

  13. A PET study on brain control of micturition in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, BFM; Willemsen, ATM; Holstege, G

    Although the brain plays a crucial role in the control of micturition, little is known about the structures involved. Identification of these areas is important because their dysfunction is thought to cause urge incontinence, a major problem in the elderly. In the cat, three areas in the brainstem

  14. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi eNaito

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available How very long-term (over many years motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while he rotated his right ankle at 1Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar’s brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  15. Cerebral autoregulation control of blood flow in the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This Brief provides a comprehensive introduction to the control of blood flow in the brain. Beginning with the basic physiology of autoregulation, the author goes on to discuss measurement techniques, mathematical models, methods of analysis, and relevant clinical conditions, all within this single volume. The author draws together this disparate field, and lays the groundwork for future research directions. The text gives an up-to-date review of the state of the art in cerebral autoregulation, which is particularly relevant as cerebral autoregulation moves from the laboratory to the bedside. Cerebral Autoregulation will be useful to researchers in the physical sciences such as mathematical biology, medical physics, and biomedical engineering whose work is concerned with the brain. Researchers in the medical sciences and clinicians dealing with the brain and blood flow, as well as industry professionals developing techniques such as ultrasound, MRI, and CT will also find this Brief of interest.

  16. Brain and behavioral inhibitory control of kindergartners facing negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitory control (IC) - one of the most critical functions underlying a child's ability to self-regulate - develops significantly throughout the kindergarten years. Experiencing negative emotions imposes challenges on executive functioning and may specifically affect IC. In this study, we examined kindergartners' IC and its related brain activity during a negative emotional situation: 58 children (aged 5.5-6.5 years) performed an emotion-induction Go/NoGo task. During this task, we recorded children's performance and brain activity, focusing on the fronto-central N2 component in the event-related potential (ERP) and the power of its underlying theta frequency. Compared to Go trials, inhibition of NoGo trials was associated with larger N2 amplitudes and theta power. The negative emotional experience resulted in better IC performance and, at the brain level, in larger theta power. Source localization of this effect showed that the brain activity related to IC during the negative emotional experience was principally generated in the posterior frontal regions. Furthermore, the band power measure was found to be a more sensitive index for children's inhibitory processes than N2 amplitudes. This is the first study to focus on kindergartners' IC while manipulating their emotional experience to induce negative emotions. Our findings suggest that a kindergartner's experience of negative emotion can result in improved IC and increases in associated aspects of brain activity. Our results also suggest the utility of time-frequency analyses in the study of brain processes associated with response inhibition in young children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Control of Hepatic Glucose Metabolism by Islet and Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jennifer M.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) and inability of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP), both contribute to hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Growing evidence suggests that insulin can inhibit HGP not only through a direct effect on the liver, but also via a mechanism involving the brain. Yet the notion that insulin action in the brain plays a physiological role in the control of HGP continues to be controversial. Although studies in dogs suggest that the direct hepatic effect of insulin is sufficient to explain day-to-day control of HGP, a surprising outcome has been revealed by recent studies in mice investigating whether the direct hepatic action of insulin is necessary for normal HGP: when hepatic insulin signaling pathway was genetically disrupted, HGP was maintained normally even in the absence of direct input from insulin. Here we present evidence that points to a potentially important role of the brain in the physiological control of both HGU and HGP in response to input from insulin as well as other hormones and nutrients. PMID:25200294

  18. An optical brain computer interface for environmental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Bunce, Scott; Onaral, Banu

    2011-01-01

    A brain computer interface (BCI) is a system that translates neurophysiological signals detected from the brain to supply input to a computer or to control a device. Volitional control of neural activity and its real-time detection through neuroimaging modalities are key constituents of BCI systems. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new BCI design that utilizes intention-related cognitive activity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using functional near infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy. fNIR is a noninvasive, safe, portable and affordable optical technique with which to monitor hemodynamic changes, in the brain's cerebral cortex. Because of its portability and ease of use, fNIR is amenable to deployment in ecologically valid natural working environments. We integrated a control paradigm in a computerized 3D virtual environment to augment interactivity. Ten healthy participants volunteered for a two day study in which they navigated a virtual environment with keyboard inputs, but were required to use the fNIR-BCI for interaction with virtual objects. Results showed that participants consistently utilized the fNIR-BCI with an overall success rate of 84% and volitionally increased their cerebral oxygenation level to trigger actions within the virtual environment.

  19. Region based Brain Computer Interface for a home control application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman Aydin, Eda; Bay, Omer Faruk; Guler, Inan

    2015-08-01

    Environment control is one of the important challenges for disabled people who suffer from neuromuscular diseases. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) provides a communication channel between the human brain and the environment without requiring any muscular activation. The most important expectation for a home control application is high accuracy and reliable control. Region-based paradigm is a stimulus paradigm based on oddball principle and requires selection of a target at two levels. This paper presents an application of region based paradigm for a smart home control application for people with neuromuscular diseases. In this study, a region based stimulus interface containing 49 commands was designed. Five non-disabled subjects were attended to the experiments. Offline analysis results of the experiments yielded 95% accuracy for five flashes. This result showed that region based paradigm can be used to select commands of a smart home control application with high accuracy in the low number of repetitions successfully. Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was not observed between the level accuracies.

  20. Speaking and cognitive distractions during EEG-based brain control of a virtual neuroprosthesis-arm

    OpenAIRE

    Foldes, Stephen T; Taylor, Dawn M

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems have been developed to provide paralyzed individuals the ability to command the movements of an assistive device using only their brain activity. BCI systems are typically tested in a controlled laboratory environment were the user is focused solely on the brain-control task. However, for practical use in everyday life people must be able to use their brain-controlled device while mentally engaged with the cognitive responsibilities of daily a...

  1. Mindcontrol: A web application for brain segmentation quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavan, Anisha; Datta, Esha; M McDonough, Ian; Madan, Christopher R; Jordan, Kesshi; Henry, Roland G

    2018-04-15

    Tissue classification plays a crucial role in the investigation of normal neural development, brain-behavior relationships, and the disease mechanisms of many psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Ensuring the accuracy of tissue classification is important for quality research and, in particular, the translation of imaging biomarkers to clinical practice. Assessment with the human eye is vital to correct various errors inherent to all currently available segmentation algorithms. Manual quality assurance becomes methodologically difficult at a large scale - a problem of increasing importance as the number of data sets is on the rise. To make this process more efficient, we have developed Mindcontrol, an open-source web application for the collaborative quality control of neuroimaging processing outputs. The Mindcontrol platform consists of a dashboard to organize data, descriptive visualizations to explore the data, an imaging viewer, and an in-browser annotation and editing toolbox for data curation and quality control. Mindcontrol is flexible and can be configured for the outputs of any software package in any data organization structure. Example configurations for three large, open-source datasets are presented: the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project (FCP), the Consortium for Reliability and Reproducibility (CoRR), and the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) Collection. These demo applications link descriptive quality control metrics, regional brain volumes, and thickness scalars to a 3D imaging viewer and editing module, resulting in an easy-to-implement quality control protocol that can be scaled for any size and complexity of study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain Ceramide Metabolism in the Control of Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of energy balance by the central nervous system (CNS is a key actor of energy homeostasis in mammals, and deregulations of the fine mechanisms of nutrient sensing in the brain could lead to several metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Indeed, while neuronal activity primarily relies on glucose (lactate, pyruvate, the brain expresses at high level enzymes responsible for the transport, utilization and storage of lipids. It has been demonstrated that discrete neuronal networks in the hypothalamus have the ability to detect variation of circulating long chain fatty acids (FA to regulate food intake and peripheral glucose metabolism. During a chronic lipid excess situation, this physiological lipid sensing is impaired contributing to type 2 diabetes in predisposed subjects. Recently, different studies suggested that ceramides levels could be involved in the regulation of energy balance in both hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic areas. Moreover, under lipotoxic conditions, these ceramides could play a role in the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. In this review we aimed at describing the potential role of ceramides metabolism in the brain in the physiological and pathophysiological control of energy balance.

  3. Controlling the brain : How electrical stimulation can be used as an effective treatment for many brain disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dongen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Our brain is the center of our nervous system. Literally everything we do, from eating an apple to solving a Schrödinger equation, is controlled by it. Usually we don’t give much thought to the fact our brain is so utterly important, but imagine something starts to go drastically wrong inside the

  4. A brain-computer interface controlled mail client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Wang, Cong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a brain-computer interface (BCI) based mail client. This system is controlled by hybrid features extracted from scalp-recorded electroencephalographic (EEG). We emulate the computer mouse by the motor imagery-based mu rhythm and the P300 potential. Furthermore, an adaptive P300 speller is included to provide text input function. With this BCI mail client, users can receive, read, write mails, as well as attach files in mail writing. The system has been tested on 3 subjects. Experimental results show that mail communication with this system is feasible.

  5. Observability and Controllability of Networks: Symmetry in Representations of Brains and Controllers for Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Steven

    Observability and controllability are essential concepts to the design of predictive observer models and feedback controllers of networked systems. We present a numerical and group representational framework, to quantify the observability and controllability of nonlinear networks with explicit symmetries that shows the connection between symmetries and nonlinear measures of observability and controllability. In addition to the topology of brain networks, we have advanced our ability to represent network nodes within the brain using conservation principles and more accurate biophysics that unifies the dynamics of spikes, seizures, and spreading depression. Lastly, we show how symmetries in controller design can be applied to infectious disease epidemics. NIH Grants 1R01EB014641, 1DP1HD086071.

  6. Brain-specific transcriptional regulator T-brain-1 controls brain wiring and neuronal activity in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzyy-Nan eHuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available T-brain-1 (TBR1 is a brain-specific T-box transcription factor. In 1995, Tbr1 was first identified from a subtractive hybridization that compared mouse embryonic and adult telencephalons. Previous studies of Tbr1–/– mice have indicated critical roles for TBR1 in the development of the cerebral cortex, amygdala and olfactory bulb. Neuronal migration and axonal projection are two important developmental features controlled by TBR1. Recently, recurrent de novo disruptive mutations in the TBR1 gene have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Human genetic studies have identified TBR1 as a high-confidence risk factor for ASDs. Because only one allele of the TBR1 gene is mutated in these patients, Tbr1+/– mice serve as a good genetic mouse model to explore the mechanism by which de novo TBR1 mutation leads to ASDs. Although neuronal migration and axonal projection defects of cerebral cortex are the most prominent phenotypes in Tbr1–/– mice, these features are not found in Tbr1+/– mice. Instead, inter- and intra-amygdalar axonal projections and NMDAR expression and activity in amygdala are particularly susceptible to Tbr1 haploinsufficiency. The studies indicated that both abnormal brain wiring (abnormal amygdalar connections and excitation/inhibition imbalance (NMDAR hypoactivity, two prominent models for ASD etiology, are present in Tbr1+/– mice. Moreover, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK was found to interact with TBR1. The CASK-TBR1 complex had been shown to directly bind the promoter of the Grin2b gene, which is also known as Nmdar2b, and upregulate Grin2b expression. This molecular function of TBR1 provides an explanation for NMDAR hypoactivity in Tbr1+/– mice. In addition to Grin2b, cell adhesion molecules-including Ntng1, Cdh8 and Cntn2-are also regulated by TBR1 to control axonal projections of amygdala. Taken together, the studies of Tbr1 provide an integrated picture of ASD

  7. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, J.D.; Craib, K.J.; Choi, B.C.; Miller, A.B.; Risch, H.A.; Howe, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  8. Executive and Language Control in the Multilingual Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pak-Hin Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1, English (L2, and Mandarin (L3 speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T’s executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.

  9. Executive and language control in the multilingual brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Abutalebi, Jubin; Lam, Karen Sze-Yan; Weekes, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1), English (L2), and Mandarin (L3) speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T's executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.

  10. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  11. Modeling Pediatric Brain Trauma: Piglet Model of Controlled Cortical Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Jennifer C Munoz; Keeley, Kristen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dodge, Carter P

    2016-01-01

    The brain has different responses to traumatic injury as a function of its developmental stage. As a model of injury to the immature brain, the piglet shares numerous similarities in regards to morphology and neurodevelopmental sequence compared to humans. This chapter describes a piglet scaled focal contusion model of traumatic brain injury that accounts for the changes in mass and morphology of the brain as it matures, facilitating the study of age-dependent differences in response to a comparable mechanical trauma.

  12. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaosheng, Luan; Pengyong,; Xiqin, Sun; Wei, Wang; Huisheng, Liu; Wen, Zhou [88 Hospital PLA, Taian, SD (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1992-11-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed.

  13. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaosheng; Pengyong; Sun Xiqin; Wang Wei; Liu Huisheng; Zhou Wen

    1992-01-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed

  14. Controlling the brain: How electrical stimulation can be used as an effective treatment for many brain disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dongen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Our brain is the center of our nervous system. Literally everything we do, from eating an apple to solving a Schrödinger equation, is controlled by it. Usually we don’t give much thought to the fact our brain is so utterly important, but imagine something starts to go drastically wrong inside the brain. Not being able to solve a Schrödinger equation might not be a big problem for the majority of people, but eating an apple is.

  15. Role of brain hemispheric dominance in anticipatory postural control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioncoloni, David; Rosignoli, Deborah; Feurra, Matteo; Rossi, Simone; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cerebral functions are asymmetrically represented in the two hemispheres. Moreover, dexterity and coordination of the distal segment of the dominant limbs depend on cortico-motor lateralization. In this study, we investigated whether postural control may be also considered a lateralized hemispheric brain function. To this aim, 15 young subjects were tested in standing position by measuring center of pressure (COP) shifts along the anteroposterior axis (COP-Y) during dynamic posturography before and after continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) intervention applied to the dominant or non-dominant M1 hand area as well as to the vertex. We show that when subjects were expecting a forward platform translation, the COP-Y was positioned significantly backward or forward after dominant or non-dominant M1 stimulation, respectively. We postulate that cTBS applied on M1 may have disrupted the functional connectivity between intra- and interhemispheric areas implicated in the anticipatory control of postural stability. This study suggests a functional asymmetry between the two homologous primary motor areas, with the dominant hemisphere playing a critical role in the selection of the appropriate postural control strategy.

  16. Ultrasound-controlled neuronavigator-guided brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, J; Louhisalmi, Y; Alakuijala, J; Oikarinen, J

    1993-07-01

    The development of a unique neurosurgical navigator is described and a preliminary series of seven cases of intracerebral lesions approached with the assistance of this neuronavigation system under ultrasound control is presented. The clinical series included five low-grade astrocytomas, one chronic intracerebral hematoma, and one porencephalic cyst. Management procedures included biopsy in all cases, drainage of the hematoma, and endoscopy and fenestration for the cyst. The features of the neuronavigation system are interactive reconstructions of preoperative computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data, corresponding intraoperative ultrasound images, versatility of the interchangeable end-effector instruments, graphic presentation of instruments on the reconstructed images, and voice control of the system. The principle of a common axis in the reconstructed images served to align the navigational pointer, biopsy guide, endoscope guide, ultrasound transducer, and surgical microscope to the brain anatomy. Intraoperative ultrasound imaging helped to verify the accuracy of the neuronavigator and check the results of the procedures. The arm of the neuronavigation system served as a holder for instruments, such as the biopsy guide, endoscope guide, and ultrasound transducer, in addition to functioning as a navigational pointer. Also, the surgical microscope was aligned with the neuronavigator for inspection and biopsy of the hematoma capsule to rule out tumor etiology. Voice control freed the neurosurgeon from manual exercises during start-up and calibration of the system.

  17. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian; Parsapoor, Amir; Moallem, Mehdi; Lucas, Caro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  18. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsapoor, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapoor@yahoo.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lucas, Caro, E-mail: lucas@ut.ac.i [Centre of Excellence for Control and Intelligent Processing, Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  19. Graph Analysis of Functional Brain Networks for Cognitive Control of Action in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Heitger, Marcus H.; Leunissen, Inge; Dhollander, Thijs; Sunaert, Stefan; Dupont, Patrick; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury show clear impairments in behavioural flexibility and inhibition that often persist beyond the time of injury, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that patients with traumatic brain injury typically show increased and more broadly…

  20. Seizure Control and Memory Impairment Are Related to Disrupted Brain Functional Integration in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Yun Seo; Jung, A-Reum; Chung, Hwa-Kyoung; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Hyang Woon

    2017-01-01

    Brain functional integration can be disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the clinical relevance of this disruption is not completely understood. The authors hypothesized that disrupted functional integration over brain regions remote from, as well as adjacent to, the seizure focus could be related to clinical severity in terms of seizure control and memory impairment. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, the authors mapped functional brain networks and assessed changes in a network parameter of brain functional integration, efficiency, to examine the distribution of disrupted functional integration within and between brain regions. The authors assessed whether the extent of altered efficiency was influenced by seizure control status and whether the degree of altered efficiency was associated with the severity of memory impairment. Alterations in the efficiency were observed primarily near the subcortical region ipsilateral to the seizure focus in TLE patients. The extent of regional involvement was greater in patients with poor seizure control: it reached the frontal, temporal, occipital, and insular cortices in TLE patients with poor seizure control, whereas it was limited to the limbic and parietal cortices in TLE patients with good seizure control. Furthermore, TLE patients with poor seizure control experienced more severe memory impairment, and this was associated with lower efficiency in the brain regions with altered efficiency. These findings indicate that the distribution of disrupted brain functional integration is clinically relevant, as it is associated with seizure control status and comorbid memory impairment.

  1. Brain glucose sensing, glucokinase and neural control of metabolism and islet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunnowo-Bada, E O; Heeley, N; Brochard, L; Evans, M L

    2014-09-01

    It is increasingly apparent that the brain plays a central role in metabolic homeostasis, including the maintenance of blood glucose. This is achieved by various efferent pathways from the brain to periphery, which help control hepatic glucose flux and perhaps insulin-stimulated insulin secretion. Also, critically important for the brain given its dependence on a constant supply of glucose as a fuel--emergency counter-regulatory responses are triggered by the brain if blood glucose starts to fall. To exert these control functions, the brain needs to detect rapidly and accurately changes in blood glucose. In this review, we summarize some of the mechanisms postulated to play a role in this and examine the potential role of the low-affinity hexokinase, glucokinase, in the brain as a key part of some of this sensing. We also discuss how these processes may become altered in diabetes and related metabolic diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  3. Intrinsic control of electroresponsive properties of transplanted mammalian brain neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Yarom, Y

    1985-01-01

    The present study presents the first analysis of neurons in mammalian brain transplants based on intracellular recording. The results, obtained in brain slices including both donor and host tissue, showed that neuronal precursor cells in embryonic transplants retained their ability to complete...... their normal differentiation of cell-type-specific electroresponsive properties. Distortions in cell aggregation and synaptic connectivity did not affect this aspect of neuronal differentiation....

  4. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each ac...

  5. Neurophotonics: optical methods to study and control the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L V; Fedotov, I V; Fedotov, A B; Zheltikov, A M; Anokhin, K V

    2015-01-01

    Methods of optical physics offer unique opportunities for the investigation of brain and higher nervous activity. The integration of cutting-edge laser technologies and advanced neurobiology opens a new cross-disciplinary area of natural sciences – neurophotonics – focusing on the development of a vast arsenal of tools for functional brain diagnostics, stimulation of individual neurons and neural networks, and the molecular engineering of brain cells aimed at the diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative and psychic diseases. Optical fibers help to confront the most challenging problems in brain research, including the analysis of molecular-cellular mechanisms of the formation of memory and behavior. New generation optical fibers provide new solutions for the development of fundamentally new, unique tools for neurophotonics and laser neuroengineering – fiber-optic neuroendoscopes and neurointerfaces. These instruments broaden research horizons when investigating the most complex brain functions, enabling a long-term multiplex detection of fluorescent protein markers, as well as photostimulation of neuronal activity in deep brain areas in living, freely moving animals with an unprecedented spatial resolution and minimal invasiveness. This emerging technology opens new horizons for understanding learning and long-term memory through experiments with living, freely moving mammals. Here, we present a brief review of this rapidly growing field of research. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Neurophotonics: optical methods to study and control the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Fedotov, I. V.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    Methods of optical physics offer unique opportunities for the investigation of brain and higher nervous activity. The integration of cutting-edge laser technologies and advanced neurobiology opens a new cross-disciplinary area of natural sciences - neurophotonics - focusing on the development of a vast arsenal of tools for functional brain diagnostics, stimulation of individual neurons and neural networks, and the molecular engineering of brain cells aimed at the diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative and psychic diseases. Optical fibers help to confront the most challenging problems in brain research, including the analysis of molecular-cellular mechanisms of the formation of memory and behavior. New generation optical fibers provide new solutions for the development of fundamentally new, unique tools for neurophotonics and laser neuroengineering - fiber-optic neuroendoscopes and neurointerfaces. These instruments broaden research horizons when investigating the most complex brain functions, enabling a long-term multiplex detection of fluorescent protein markers, as well as photostimulation of neuronal activity in deep brain areas in living, freely moving animals with an unprecedented spatial resolution and minimal invasiveness. This emerging technology opens new horizons for understanding learning and long-term memory through experiments with living, freely moving mammals. Here, we present a brief review of this rapidly growing field of research.

  7. Development of a cerebral circulation model for the automatic control of brain physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuki, T

    2015-01-01

    In various clinical guidelines of brain injury, intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain temperature (BT) are essential targets for precise management for brain resuscitation. In addition, the integrated automatic control of BT, ICP, and CBF is required for improving therapeutic effects and reducing medical costs and staff burden. Thus, a new model of cerebral circulation was developed in this study for integrative automatic control. With this model, the CBF and cerebral perfusion pressure of a normal adult male were regionally calculated according to cerebrovascular structure, blood viscosity, blood distribution, CBF autoregulation, and ICP. The analysis results were consistent with physiological knowledge already obtained with conventional studies. Therefore, the developed model is potentially available for the integrative control of the physiological state of the brain as a reference model of an automatic control system, or as a controlled object in various control simulations.

  8. Corpus callosum thickness on mid-sagittal MRI as a marker of brain volume: a pilot study in children with HIV-related brain disease and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Ackermann, Christelle; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark; Tomazos, Nicollette; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Mauff, Katya; Pettifor, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Corpus callosum thickness measurement on mid-sagittal MRI may be a surrogate marker of brain volume. This is important for evaluation of diseases causing brain volume gain or loss, such as HIV-related brain disease and HIV encephalopathy. To determine if thickness of the corpus callosum on mid-sagittal MRI is a surrogate marker of brain volume in children with HIV-related brain disease and in controls without HIV. A retrospective MRI analysis in children (<5 years old) with HIV-related brain disease and controls used a custom-developed semi-automated tool, which divided the midline corpus callosum and measured its thickness in multiple locations. Brain volume was determined using volumetric analysis. Overall corpus callosum thickness and thickness of segments of the corpus callosum were correlated with overall and segmented (grey and white matter) brain volume. Forty-four children (33 HIV-infected patients and 11 controls) were included. Significant correlations included overall corpus callosum (mean) and total brain volume (P = 0.05); prefrontal corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02); premotor corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.04) and white matter volume (P = 0.02), premotor corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02) and sensory corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.02). Corpus callosum thickness correlates with brain volume both in HIV-infected patients and controls. (orig.)

  9. Corpus callosum thickness on mid-sagittal MRI as a marker of brain volume: a pilot study in children with HIV-related brain disease and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Ackermann, Christelle [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark [Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children' s Hospital, Children' s Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tomazos, Nicollette [University of Cape Town, Faculty of Commerce, Department of Management Studies, Cape Town (South Africa); Spottiswoode, Bruce [University of Cape Town, MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, Cape Town (South Africa); Mauff, Katya [University of Cape Town, Department of Statistical Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Pettifor, John M. [University of the Witwatersrand, MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Witwatersrand (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Corpus callosum thickness measurement on mid-sagittal MRI may be a surrogate marker of brain volume. This is important for evaluation of diseases causing brain volume gain or loss, such as HIV-related brain disease and HIV encephalopathy. To determine if thickness of the corpus callosum on mid-sagittal MRI is a surrogate marker of brain volume in children with HIV-related brain disease and in controls without HIV. A retrospective MRI analysis in children (<5 years old) with HIV-related brain disease and controls used a custom-developed semi-automated tool, which divided the midline corpus callosum and measured its thickness in multiple locations. Brain volume was determined using volumetric analysis. Overall corpus callosum thickness and thickness of segments of the corpus callosum were correlated with overall and segmented (grey and white matter) brain volume. Forty-four children (33 HIV-infected patients and 11 controls) were included. Significant correlations included overall corpus callosum (mean) and total brain volume (P = 0.05); prefrontal corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02); premotor corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.04) and white matter volume (P = 0.02), premotor corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02) and sensory corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.02). Corpus callosum thickness correlates with brain volume both in HIV-infected patients and controls. (orig.)

  10. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L

    2014-03-13

    The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

  11. The iconic memory skills of brain injury survivors and non-brain injured controls after visual scanning training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, J T; Browning, R T; Vantrease, C M; Bittle, S T

    1994-01-01

    Previous research suggests that traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in impairment of iconic memory abilities.We would like to acknowledge the contribution of Jeffrey D. Vantrease, who wrote the software program for the Iconic Memory procedure and measurement. This raises serious implications for brain injury rehabilitation. Most cognitive rehabilitation programs do not include iconic memory training. Instead it is common for cognitive rehabilitation programs to focus on attention and concentration skills, memory skills, and visual scanning skills.This study compared the iconic memory skills of brain-injury survivors and control subjects who all reached criterion levels of visual scanning skills. This involved previous training for the brain-injury survivors using popular visual scanning programs that allowed them to visually scan with response time and accuracy within normal limits. Control subjects required only minimal training to reach normal limits criteria. This comparison allows for the dissociation of visual scanning skills and iconic memory skills.The results are discussed in terms of their implications for cognitive rehabilitation and the relationship between visual scanning training and iconic memory skills.

  12. Study Reveals Brain Biology behind Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    A new neuroscience twist on a classic psychology study offers some clues to what makes one student able to buckle down for hours of homework before a test while his classmates party. The study published in the September 2011 edition of "Proceedings of the National Academy of Science," suggests environmental cues may "hijack" the brain's mechanisms…

  13. Brain antibodies in the cortex and blood of people with schizophrenia and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, L J; Sinclair, D; Boerrigter, D; Naude, K; Fung, S J; Brown, D; Catts, V S; Tooney, P; O'Donnell, M; Lenroot, R; Galletly, C; Liu, D; Weickert, T W; Shannon Weickert, C

    2017-08-08

    The immune system is implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, with elevated proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs found in the brains of ~40% of individuals with the disorder. However, it is not clear if antibodies (specifically immunoglobulin-γ (IgG)) can be found in the brain of people with schizophrenia and if their abundance relates to brain inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels. Therefore, we investigated the localization and abundance of IgG in the frontal cortex of people with schizophrenia and controls, and the impact of proinflammatory cytokine status on IgG abundance in these groups. Brain IgGs were detected surrounding blood vessels in the human and non-human primate frontal cortex by immunohistochemistry. IgG levels did not differ significantly between schizophrenia cases and controls, or between schizophrenia cases in 'high' and 'low' proinflammatory cytokine subgroups. Consistent with the existence of IgG in the parenchyma of human brain, mRNA and protein of the IgG transporter (FcGRT) were present in the brain, and did not differ according to diagnosis or inflammatory status. Finally, brain-reactive antibody presence and abundance was investigated in the blood of living people. The plasma of living schizophrenia patients and healthy controls contained antibodies that displayed positive binding to Rhesus macaque cerebellar tissue, and the abundance of these antibodies was significantly lower in patients than controls. These findings suggest that antibodies in the brain and brain-reactive antibodies in the blood are present under normal circumstances.

  14. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalay Kouprina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  15. Brain-Activity-Driven Real-Time Music Emotive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Sergio; Ramirez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Active music listening has emerged as a study field that aims to enable listeners to interactively control music. Most of active music listening systems aim to control music aspects such as playback, equalization, browsing, and retrieval, but few of them aim to control expressive aspects of music to convey emotions. In this study our aim is to enrich the music listening experience by allowing listeners to control expressive parameters in music performances using their perceived emotional stat...

  16. Erythropoietin in traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nichol, Alistair

    2015-02-08

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a possible beneficial effect of erythropoietin in improving outcomes in the traumatic brain injury cohort. However, there are concerns regarding the association of erythropoietin and thrombosis in the critically ill. A large-scale, multi-centre, blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, randomised trial is currently underway to address this hypothesis.

  17. Addiction: Decreased reward sensitivity and increased expectation sensitivity conspire to overwhelm the brain's control circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S.; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank; Baler, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Based on brain imaging findings, we present a model according to which addiction emerges as an imbalance in the information processing and integration among various brain circuits and functions. The dysfunctions reflect (a) decreased sensitivity of reward circuits, (b) enhanced sensitivity of memory circuits to conditioned expectations to drugs and drug cues, stress reactivity, and (c) negative mood, and a weakened control circuit. Although initial experimentation with a drug of abuse is larg...

  18. Evidence for an inhibitory-control theory of the reasoning brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we first describe our general inhibitory-control theory and, then, we describe how we have tested its specific hypotheses on reasoning with brain imaging techniques in adults and children. The innovative part of this perspective lies in its attempt to come up with a brain-based synthesis of Jean Piaget's theory on logical algorithms and Daniel Kahneman's theory on intuitive heuristics.

  19. Attention, predictions and expectations, and their violation: attentional control in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Vossel, Simone; Geng, Joy J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    In the complex scenes of everyday life, our brains must select from among many competing inputs for perceptual synthesis—so that only the most relevant are fully processed and irrelevant (distracting) information is suppressed. At the same time, we must remain responsive to salient events outside our current focus of attention—and balancing these two processing modes is a fundamental task our brain constantly needs to solve.This Research Topic examines how attentional control is guided by sen...

  20. Monitoring and control of amygdala neurofeedback involves distributed information processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Christian; Zähringer, Jenny; Ruf, Matthias; Gerchen, Martin Fungisai; Mall, Stephanie; Hendler, Talma; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2018-03-30

    Brain-computer interfaces provide conscious access to neural activity by means of brain-derived feedback ("neurofeedback"). An individual's abilities to monitor and control feedback are two necessary processes for effective neurofeedback therapy, yet their underlying functional neuroanatomy is still being debated. In this study, healthy subjects received visual feedback from their amygdala response to negative pictures. Activation and functional connectivity were analyzed to disentangle the role of brain regions in different processes. Feedback monitoring was mapped to the thalamus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), ventral striatum (VS), and rostral PFC. The VS responded to feedback corresponding to instructions while rPFC activity differentiated between conditions and predicted amygdala regulation. Control involved the lateral PFC, anterior cingulate, and insula. Monitoring and control activity overlapped in the VS and thalamus. Extending current neural models of neurofeedback, this study introduces monitoring and control of feedback as anatomically dissociated processes, and suggests their important role in voluntary neuromodulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Multidimensional control using a mobile-phone based brain-muscle-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Scott; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2011-01-01

    Many well-known brain-computer interfaces measure signals at the brain, and then rely on the brain's ability to learn via operant conditioning in order to control objects in the environment. In our lab, we have been developing brain-muscle-computer interfaces, which measure signals at a single muscle and then rely on the brain's ability to learn neuromuscular skills via operant conditioning. Here, we report a new mobile-phone based brain-muscle-computer interface prototype for severely paralyzed persons, based on previous results from our group showing that humans may actively create specified power levels in two separate frequency bands of a single sEMG signal. Electromyographic activity on the surface of a single face muscle (Auricularis superior) is recorded with a standard electrode. This analog electrical signal is imported into an Android-based mobile phone. User-modulated power in two separate frequency band serves as two separate and simultaneous control channels for machine control. After signal processing, the Android phone sends commands to external devices via Bluetooth. Users are trained to use the device via biofeedback, with simple cursor-to-target activities on the phone screen.

  2. Brain insulin controls adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Thomas; O’Hare, James; Diggs-Andrews, Kelly; Schweiger, Martina; Cheng, Bob; Lindtner, Claudia; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Vempati, Prashant; Su, Kai; Dighe, Shveta; Milsom, Thomas; Puchowicz, Michelle; Scheja, Ludger; Zechner, Rudolf; Fisher, Simon J.; Previs, Stephen F.; Buettner, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY White adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Unrestrained WAT lipolysis results in increased fatty acid release leading to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, while impaired de novo lipogenesis in WAT decreases the synthesis of insulin sensitizing fatty acid species like palmitoleate. Here we show that insulin infused into the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of Sprague Dawley rats increases WAT lipogenic protein expression, and inactivates hormone sensitive lipase (Hsl) and suppresses lipolysis. Conversely, mice that lack the neuronal insulin receptor exhibit unrestrained lipolysis and decreased de novo lipogenesis in WAT. Thus, brain and in particular hypothalamic insulin action play a pivotal role in WAT functionality. PMID:21284985

  3. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Changes Velopharyngeal Control in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Michael J.; Barlow, Steven M.; Lyons, Kelly E.; Pahwa, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Adequate velopharyngeal control is essential for speech, but may be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) improves limb function in PD, but the effects on velopharyngeal control remain unknown. We tested whether STN DBS would change aerodynamic measures of velopharyngeal…

  4. Hemodynamic control of in patients with concomitant hypertensive disease during brain aneurysm clipping

    OpenAIRE

    Dzyuba, D.O.; Melnik, A.F.; Yavorsky, F.A.

    2018-01-01

    The article describes the state of the problem of hemodynamic control during brain aneurysm clipping in concomitant hypertensive disease. Author studies hemodynamic control by using magnesia therapy with the addition of clonidine solution and infusion of urapidil solution. Based on the results of the study, the advantages of urapidil infusion are given.

  5. Jet Engine Control Using Ethernet with a BRAIN (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Brendan; Paulitsch, Michael; Benson, Dewey; Behbahani, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    .... However, achieving a distributed architecture that supports the increasing computational demands of engine control and prognostics strategies whilst surviving in the harsh on-engine environment...

  6. Dysregulated Translational Control: From Brain Disorders to Psychoactive Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eSantini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a plethora of studies utilizing pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic approaches have shown that precise translational control is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity and the formation of long-term memory. Moreover, more recent studies indicate that alterations in translational control are a common pathophysiological feature of human neurological disorders, including developmental disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, translational control mechanisms are susceptible to modification by psychoactive drugs. Taken together, these findings point to a central role for translational control in the regulation of synaptic function and behavior.

  7. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Kwang Ki; Yoon, Yup Yoon; Seo, Hyung Suk

    2009-01-01

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p 2 , 715.4 ± 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 ± 108, 844.1 ± 85) and the HCs (563.2 ± 75, 818.9 ± 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  8. Human brain expansion during evolution is independent of fire control and cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alianda Maira Cornélio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available What makes humans unique? This question has fascinated scientists and philosophers for centuries and it is still a matter of intense debate. Nowadays, human brain expansion during evolution has been acknowledged to explain our empowered cognitive capabilities. The drivers for such accelerated expansion remain, however, largely unknown. In this sense, studies have suggested that the cooking of food could be a pre-requisite for the expansion of brain size in early hominins. However, this appealing hypothesis is only supported by a mathematical model suggesting that the increasing number of neurons in the brain would constrain body size among primates due to a limited amount of calories obtained from diets. Here, we show, by using a similar mathematical model, that a tradeoff between body mass and the number of brain neurons imposed by dietary constraints during hominin evolution is unlikely. Instead, the predictable number of neurons in the hominin brain varies much more in function of foraging efficiency than body mass. We also review archeological data to show that the expansion of the brain volume in the hominin lineage is described by a linear function independent of evidences of fire control, and therefore, thermal processing of food does not account for this phenomenon. Finally, we report experiments in mice showing that thermal processing of meat does not increase its caloric availability in mice. Altogether, our data indicate that cooking is neither sufficient nor necessary to explain hominin brain expansion.

  9. Human Brain Expansion during Evolution Is Independent of Fire Control and Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornélio, Alianda M; de Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben E; de Bittencourt Brum, Ricardo; Queiroz, Claudio M; Costa, Marcos R

    2016-01-01

    What makes humans unique? This question has fascinated scientists and philosophers for centuries and it is still a matter of intense debate. Nowadays, human brain expansion during evolution has been acknowledged to explain our empowered cognitive capabilities. The drivers for such accelerated expansion remain, however, largely unknown. In this sense, studies have suggested that the cooking of food could be a pre-requisite for the expansion of brain size in early hominins. However, this appealing hypothesis is only supported by a mathematical model suggesting that the increasing number of neurons in the brain would constrain body size among primates due to a limited amount of calories obtained from diets. Here, we show, by using a similar mathematical model, that a tradeoff between body mass and the number of brain neurons imposed by dietary constraints during hominin evolution is unlikely. Instead, the predictable number of neurons in the hominin brain varies much more in function of foraging efficiency than body mass. We also review archeological data to show that the expansion of the brain volume in the hominin lineage is described by a linear function independent of evidence of fire control, and therefore, thermal processing of food does not account for this phenomenon. Finally, we report experiments in mice showing that thermal processing of meat does not increase its caloric availability in mice. Altogether, our data indicate that cooking is neither sufficient nor necessary to explain hominin brain expansion.

  10. Toward brain-actuated car applications: Self-paced control with a motor imagery-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhou, Zongtan; Yin, Erwei; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Jingsheng; Liu, Yadong; Hu, Dewen

    2016-10-01

    This study presented a paradigm for controlling a car using an asynchronous electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) and presented the experimental results of a simulation performed in an experimental environment outside the laboratory. This paradigm uses two distinct MI tasks, imaginary left- and right-hand movements, to generate a multi-task car control strategy consisting of starting the engine, moving forward, turning left, turning right, moving backward, and stopping the engine. Five healthy subjects participated in the online car control experiment, and all successfully controlled the car by following a previously outlined route. Subject S1 exhibited the most satisfactory BCI-based performance, which was comparable to the manual control-based performance. We hypothesize that the proposed self-paced car control paradigm based on EEG signals could potentially be used in car control applications, and we provide a complementary or alternative way for individuals with locked-in disorders to achieve more mobility in the future, as well as providing a supplementary car-driving strategy to assist healthy people in driving a car. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reward-based hypertension control by a synthetic brain-dopamine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössger, Katrin; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2013-11-05

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic trigger-controlled devices that can reprogram mammalian cells to interface with complex metabolic activities. In the brain, the neurotransmitter dopamine coordinates communication with target neurons via a set of dopamine receptors that control behavior associated with reward-driven learning. This dopamine transmission has recently been suggested to increase central sympathetic outflow, resulting in plasma dopamine levels that correlate with corresponding brain activities. By functionally rewiring the human dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) via the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to synthetic promoters containing cAMP response element-binding protein 1(CREB1)-specific cAMP-responsive operator modules, we have designed a synthetic dopamine-sensitive transcription controller that reversibly fine-tunes specific target gene expression at physiologically relevant brain-derived plasma dopamine levels. Following implantation of circuit-transgenic human cell lines insulated by semipermeable immunoprotective microcontainers into mice, the designer device interfaced with dopamine-specific brain activities and produced a systemic expression response when the animal's reward system was stimulated by food, sexual arousal, or addictive drugs. Reward-triggered brain activities were able to remotely program peripheral therapeutic implants to produce sufficient amounts of the atrial natriuretic peptide, which reduced the blood pressure of hypertensive mice to the normal physiologic range. Seamless control of therapeutic transgenes by subconscious behavior may provide opportunities for treatment strategies of the future.

  12. Evidence for a Heritable Brain Basis to Deviance-Promoting Deficits in Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, James R; Venables, Noah C; Hicks, Brian M; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Classic criminological theories emphasize the role of impaired self-control in behavioral deviancy. Reduced amplitude of the P300 brain response is reliably observed in individuals with antisocial and substance-related problems, suggesting it may serve as a neurophysiological indicator of deficiencies in self-control that confer liability to deviancy. The current study evaluated the role of self-control capacity - operationalized by scores on a scale measure of trait disinhibition - in mediating the relationship between P300 brain response and behavioral deviancy in a sample of adult twins ( N =419) assessed for symptoms of antisocial/addictive disorders and P300 brain response. As predicted, greater disorder symptoms and higher trait disinhibition scores each predicted smaller P300 amplitude, and trait disinhibition mediated observed relations between antisocial/addictive disorders and P300 response. Further, twin modeling analyses revealed that trait disinhibition scores and disorder symptoms reflected a common genetic liability, and this genetic liability largely accounted for the observed phenotypic relationship between antisocial-addictive problems and P300 brain response. These results provide further evidence that heritable weaknesses in self-control capacity confer liability to antisocial/addictive outcomes and that P300 brain response indexes this dispositional liability.

  13. Automatic Incubator-type Temperature Control System for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    An automatic air-cooling incubator is proposed to replace the manual water-cooling blanket to control the brain tissue temperature for brain hypothermia treatment. Its feasibility is theoretically discussed as follows: First, an adult patient with the cooling incubator is modeled as a linear dynamical patient-incubator biothermal system. The patient is represented by an 18-compartment structure and described by its state equations. The air-cooling incubator provides almost same cooling effect as the water-cooling blanket, if a light breeze of speed around 3 m/s is circulated in the incubator. Then, in order to control the brain temperature automatically, an adaptive-optimal control algorithm is adopted, while the patient-blanket therapeutic system is considered as a reference model. Finally, the brain temperature of the patient-incubator biothermal system is controlled to follow up the given reference temperature course, in which an adaptive algorithm is confirmed useful for unknown environmental change and/or metabolic rate change of the patient in the incubating system. Thus, the present work ensures the development of the automatic air-cooling incubator for a better temperature regulation of the brain hypothermia treatment in ICU.

  14. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxu Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top–down and bottom–up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  15. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Zhang, Zuting; Lv, Zeping; Jing, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR) scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top-down and bottom-up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  16. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in primary brain tumor patients: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Tamasauskas, Sarunas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Sliauzys, Albertas; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-12-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54.31±13.68years; 68% women) gender and age matched controls were obtained. The most common brain tumor diagnoses were meningioma (41%), glioblastoma (20%) and pituitary adenoma (16%). Right and left 2D:4D ratios, and right minus left 2D:4D (D r-l ) were compared between patients and controls, and were correlated with age. Right and left 2D:4D ratios were significantly lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to controls (t=-4.28, pbrain tumor patients and controls (p=0.27). In meningioma and glioma patients, age at presentation correlated negatively with left 2D:4D ratio (rho=-0.42, p=0.01 and rho=-0.36, p=0.02, respectively) and positively with D r-l (rho=0.45, p=0.009 and rho=0.65, p=0.04, respectively). Right and left hand 2D:4D ratios are lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to healthy individuals suggesting greater prenatal testosterone and lower prenatal estrogen exposure in brain tumor patients. Greater age at presentation is associated with greater D r-l and with lower left 2D:4D ratio of meningioma and glioma patients. Due to small sample size our results should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electroencephalography(EEG)-based instinctive brain-control of a quadruped locomotion robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wenchuan; Huang, Dandan; Luo, Xin; Pu, Huayan; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence and bionic control have been applied in electroencephalography (EEG)-based robot system, to execute complex brain-control task. Nevertheless, due to technical limitations of the EEG decoding, the brain-computer interface (BCI) protocol is often complex, and the mapping between the EEG signal and the practical instructions lack of logic associated, which restrict the user's actual use. This paper presents a strategy that can be used to control a quadruped locomotion robot by user's instinctive action, based on five kinds of movement related neurophysiological signal. In actual use, the user drives or imagines the limbs/wrists action to generate EEG signal to adjust the real movement of the robot according to his/her own motor reflex of the robot locomotion. This method is easy for real use, as the user generates the brain-control signal through the instinctive reaction. By adopting the behavioral control of learning and evolution based on the proposed strategy, complex movement task may be realized by instinctive brain-control.

  19. A balance of activity in brain control and reward systems predicts self-regulatory outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Richard B.; Chen, Pin-Hao A.; Huckins, Jeremy F.; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous neuroimaging work has shown that increased reward-related activity following exposure to food cues is predictive of self-control failure. The balance model suggests that self-regulation failures result from an imbalance in reward and executive control mechanisms. However, an open question is whether the relative balance of activity in brain systems associated with executive control (vs reward) supports self-regulatory outcomes when people encounter tempting cues in daily lif...

  20. Neural control of finger movement via intracortical brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Z. T.; Schroeder, K. E.; Vu, P. P.; Bullard, A. J.; Tat, D. M.; Nu, C. S.; Vaskov, A.; Nason, S. R.; Thompson, D. E.; Bentley, J. N.; Patil, P. G.; Chestek, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a promising source of prosthesis control signals for individuals with severe motor disabilities. Previous BMI studies have primarily focused on predicting and controlling whole-arm movements; precise control of hand kinematics, however, has not been fully demonstrated. Here, we investigate the continuous decoding of precise finger movements in rhesus macaques. Approach. In order to elicit precise and repeatable finger movements, we have developed a novel behavioral task paradigm which requires the subject to acquire virtual fingertip position targets. In the physical control condition, four rhesus macaques performed this task by moving all four fingers together in order to acquire a single target. This movement was equivalent to controlling the aperture of a power grasp. During this task performance, we recorded neural spikes from intracortical electrode arrays in primary motor cortex. Main results. Using a standard Kalman filter, we could reconstruct continuous finger movement offline with an average correlation of ρ  =  0.78 between actual and predicted position across four rhesus macaques. For two of the monkeys, this movement prediction was performed in real-time to enable direct brain control of the virtual hand. Compared to physical control, neural control performance was slightly degraded; however, the monkeys were still able to successfully perform the task with an average target acquisition rate of 83.1%. The monkeys’ ability to arbitrarily specify fingertip position was also quantified using an information throughput metric. During brain control task performance, the monkeys achieved an average 1.01 bits s-1 throughput, similar to that achieved in previous studies which decoded upper-arm movements to control computer cursors using a standard Kalman filter. Significance. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of brain control of finger-level fine motor skills. We believe

  1. Driving the brain towards creativity and intelligence: A network control theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Yoed N; Medaglia, John D; Beaty, Roger E; Chen, Qunlin; Betzel, Richard F; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Qiu, Jiang

    2018-01-04

    High-level cognitive constructs, such as creativity and intelligence, entail complex and multiple processes, including cognitive control processes. Recent neurocognitive research on these constructs highlight the importance of dynamic interaction across neural network systems and the role of cognitive control processes in guiding such a dynamic interaction. How can we quantitatively examine the extent and ways in which cognitive control contributes to creativity and intelligence? To address this question, we apply a computational network control theory (NCT) approach to structural brain imaging data acquired via diffusion tensor imaging in a large sample of participants, to examine how NCT relates to individual differences in distinct measures of creative ability and intelligence. Recent application of this theory at the neural level is built on a model of brain dynamics, which mathematically models patterns of inter-region activity propagated along the structure of an underlying network. The strength of this approach is its ability to characterize the potential role of each brain region in regulating whole-brain network function based on its anatomical fingerprint and a simplified model of node dynamics. We find that intelligence is related to the ability to "drive" the brain system into easy to reach neural states by the right inferior parietal lobe and lower integration abilities in the left retrosplenial cortex. We also find that creativity is related to the ability to "drive" the brain system into difficult to reach states by the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inferior frontal junction) and higher integration abilities in sensorimotor areas. Furthermore, we found that different facets of creativity-fluency, flexibility, and originality-relate to generally similar but not identical network controllability processes. We relate our findings to general theories on intelligence and creativity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stereotactic radiotherapy following surgery for brain metastasis: Predictive factors for local control and radionecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, M; Martin, S; Delpon, G; Clément, K; Campion, L; Thillays, F

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate local control and adverse effects after postoperative hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with brain metastasis. We reviewed patients who had hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (7.7Gy×3 prescribed to the 70% isodose line, with 2mm planning target volume margin) following resection from March 2008 to January 2014. The primary endpoint was local failure defined as recurrence within the surgical cavity. Secondary endpoints were distant failure rates and the occurrence of radionecrosis. Out of 95 patients, 39.2% had metastatic lesions from a non-small cell lung cancer primary tumour. The median Graded Prognostic Assessment score was 3 (48% of patients). One-year local control rates were 84%. Factors associated with improved local control were no cavity enhancement on pre-radiation MRI (P<0.00001), planning target volume less than 12cm 3 (P=0.005), Graded Prognostic Assessment score 2 or above (P=0.009). One-year distant cerebral control rates were 56%. Thirty-three percent of patients received whole brain radiation therapy. Histologically proven radionecrosis of brain tissue occurred in 7.2% of cases. The size of the preoperative lesion and the volume of healthy brain tissue receiving 21Gy (V 21 ) were both predictive of the incidence of radionecrosis (P=0.010 and 0.036, respectively). Adjuvant hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to the postoperative cavity in patients with brain metastases results in excellent local control in selected patients, helps delay the use of whole brain radiation, and is associated with a relatively low risk of radionecrosis. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A balance of activity in brain control and reward systems predicts self-regulatory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B; Chen, Pin-Hao A; Huckins, Jeremy F; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2017-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging work has shown that increased reward-related activity following exposure to food cues is predictive of self-control failure. The balance model suggests that self-regulation failures result from an imbalance in reward and executive control mechanisms. However, an open question is whether the relative balance of activity in brain systems associated with executive control (vs reward) supports self-regulatory outcomes when people encounter tempting cues in daily life. Sixty-nine chronic dieters, a population known for frequent lapses in self-control, completed a food cue-reactivity task during an fMRI scanning session, followed by a weeklong sampling of daily eating behaviors via ecological momentary assessment. We related participants' food cue activity in brain systems associated with executive control and reward to real-world eating patterns. Specifically, a balance score representing the amount of activity in brain regions associated with self-regulatory control, relative to automatic reward-related activity, predicted dieters' control over their eating behavior during the following week. This balance measure may reflect individual self-control capacity and be useful for examining self-regulation success in other domains and populations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Control of a nursing bed based on a hybrid brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nengneng Peng; Rui Zhang; Haihua Zeng; Fei Wang; Kai Li; Yuanqing Li; Xiaobin Zhuang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an intelligent nursing bed system which is controlled by a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) involving steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and P300. Specifically, the hybrid BCI includes an asynchronous brain switch based on SSVEP and P300, and a P300-based BCI. The brain switch is used to turn on/off the control system of the electric nursing bed through idle/control state detection, whereas the P300-based BCI is for operating the nursing bed. At the beginning, the user may focus on one group of flashing buttons in the graphic user interface (GUI) of the brain switch, which can simultaneously evoke SSVEP and P300, to switch on the control system. Here, the combination of SSVEP and P300 is used for improving the performance of the brain switch. Next, the user can control the nursing bed using the P300-based BCI. The GUI of the P300-based BCI includes 10 flashing buttons, which correspond to 10 functional operations, namely, left-side up, left-side down, back up, back down, bedpan open, bedpan close, legs up, legs down, right-side up, and right-side down. For instance, he/she can focus on the flashing button "back up" in the GUI of the P300-based BCI to activate the corresponding control such that the nursing bed is adjusted up. Eight healthy subjects participated in our experiment, and obtained an average accuracy of 93.75% and an average false positive rate (FPR) of 0.15 event/min. The effectiveness of our system was thus demonstrated.

  5. Excessive sleep need following traumatic brain injury: a case-control study of 36 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerauer, Michael; Valko, Philipp O; Werth, Esther; Baumann, Christian R

    2013-12-01

    Increased sleep need following traumatic brain injury, referred to in this study as post-traumatic pleiosomnia, is common, but so far its clinical impact and therapeutic implications have not been characterized. We present a case-control study of 36 patients with post-traumatic pleiosomnia, defined by an increased sleep need of at least 2 h per 24 h after traumatic brain injury, compared to 36 controls. We assessed detailed history, sleep-activity patterns with sleep logs and actigraphy, nocturnal sleep with polysomnography and daytime sleep propensity with multiple sleep latency tests. Actigraphy recordings revealed that traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients had longer estimated sleep durations than controls (10.8 h per 24 h, compared to 7.3 h). When using sleep logs, TBI patients underestimated their sleep need. During nocturnal sleep, patients had higher amounts of slow-wave sleep than controls (20 versus 13.8%). Multiple sleep latency tests revealed excessive daytime sleepiness in 15 patients (42%), and 10 of them had signs of chronic sleep deprivation. We conclude that post-traumatic pleiosomnia may be even more frequent than reported previously, because affected patients often underestimate their actual sleep need. Furthermore, these patients exhibit an increase in slow-wave sleep which may reflect recovery mechanisms, intrinsic consequences of diffuse brain damage or relative sleep deprivation. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 {+-} 3, post 6 {+-} 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 {+-} 2, post 3 {+-} 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  7. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 ± 3, post 6 ± 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 ± 2, post 3 ± 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  8. Motor control of handwriting in the developing brain: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmis, Sarah; Danna, Jeremy; Velay, Jean-Luc; Longcamp, Marieke

    This review focuses on the acquisition of writing motor aspects in adults, and in 5-to 12-year-old children without learning disabilities. We first describe the behavioural aspects of adult writing and dominant models based on the notion of motor programs. We show that handwriting acquisition is characterized by the transition from reactive movements programmed stroke-by-stroke in younger children, to an automatic control of the whole trajectory when the motor programs are memorized at about 10 years old. Then, we describe the neural correlates of adult writing, and the changes that could occur with learning during childhood. The acquisition of a new skill is characterized by the involvement of a network more restricted in space and where neural specificity is increased in key regions. The cerebellum and the left dorsal premotor cortex are of fundamental importance in motor learning, and could be at the core of the acquisition of handwriting.

  9. Brain Computer Interface for Micro-controller Driven Robot Based on Emotiv Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Parth Gargava; Krishna Asawa

    2017-01-01

    A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is developed to navigate a micro-controller based robot using Emotiv sensors. The BCI system has a pipeline of 5 stages- signal acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction, classification and CUDA inter- facing. It shall aid in serving a prototype for physical movement of neurological patients who are unable to control or operate on their muscular movements. All stages of the pipeline are designed to process bodily actions like eye blinks to command naviga...

  10. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissman

    2015-12-01

    Discussion: The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders.

  11. Intraoperative MRI to control the extent of brain tumor surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauth, M.; Sartor, K.; Wirtz, C.R.; Tronnier, V.M.; Staubert, A.; Kunze, S.

    1998-01-01

    Intraoperative MRI definitely showed residual tumor in 6 of the 18 patients and resulted in ambiguous findings in 3 patients. In 7 patients surgery was continued. Early postoperative MRI showed residual tumor in 3 patients and resulted in uncertain findings in 2 patients. The rate of patients in whom complete removal of enhancing tumor could be achieved was 50% at the time of the intraoperative MR examination and 72% at the time of the early postoperative MR control. The difference in proportion of patients with 'complete tumor removal' between the groups who had been operated on using neuronavigation (NN) and intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) and those who had been operated on using only modern neurosurgical techniques except NN and ioMRI was statistically highly significant (Fisher exact test; P=0.008). Four different types of surgically induced contrast enhancement were observed. These phenomena carry different confounding potentials with residual tumor. Conclusion: Our preliminary experience with intraoperative MRI in patients with enhancing intraaxial tumors is encouraging. Combined use of neuronavigation and intraoperative MRI was able to increase the proportion of patients in whom complete removal of the enhancing parts of the tumor was achieved. Surgically induced enhancement requires careful analysis of the intraoperative MRI in order not to confuse it with residual tumor. (orig.) [de

  12. Leukemia and brain tumors in Norwegian railway workers, a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynes, T; Jynge, H; Vistnes, A I

    1994-04-01

    In an attempt to assess whether exposure to electromagnetic fields on Norwegian railways induces brain tumors or leukemia, the authors conducted a nested case-control study of railway workers based on incident cases from the Cancer Registry of Norway in a cohort of 13,030 male Norwegian railway workers who had worked on either electric or non-electric railways. The cohort comprised railway line, outdoor station, and electricity workers. The case series comprised 39 men with brain tumors and 52 men with leukemia (follow-up, 1958-1990). Each case was matched on age with four or five controls selected from the same cohort. The exposure of each study subject to electric and magnetic fields was evaluated from cumulative exposure measures based on present measurements and historical data. Limited information on potential confounders such as creosote, solvents, and herbicides was also collected; information on whether the subject had smoked was obtained by interviews with the subjects or work colleagues. The case-control analysis showed that men employed on electric railways, compared with non-electric ones, had an odds ratio for leukemia of 0.70 (adjusted for smoking) and an odds ratio for brain tumor of 0.87. No significant trend was shown for exposure to either magnetic or electric fields. These results do not support an association between exposure to 16 2/3-Hertz electric or magnetic fields and the risk for leukemia or brain tumors.

  13. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  14. Goal selection versus process control in a brain-computer interface based on sensorimotor rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Audrey S; He, Bin

    2009-02-01

    In a brain-computer interface (BCI) utilizing a process control strategy, the signal from the cortex is used to control the fine motor details normally handled by other parts of the brain. In a BCI utilizing a goal selection strategy, the signal from the cortex is used to determine the overall end goal of the user, and the BCI controls the fine motor details. A BCI based on goal selection may be an easier and more natural system than one based on process control. Although goal selection in theory may surpass process control, the two have never been directly compared, as we are reporting here. Eight young healthy human subjects participated in the present study, three trained and five naïve in BCI usage. Scalp-recorded electroencephalograms (EEG) were used to control a computer cursor during five different paradigms. The paradigms were similar in their underlying signal processing and used the same control signal. However, three were based on goal selection, and two on process control. For both the trained and naïve populations, goal selection had more hits per run, was faster, more accurate (for seven out of eight subjects) and had a higher information transfer rate than process control. Goal selection outperformed process control in every measure studied in the present investigation.

  15. Brain responses to sound intensity changes dissociate depressed participants and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen, Elisa M; Astikainen, Piia

    2017-07-01

    Depression is associated with bias in emotional information processing, but less is known about the processing of neutral sensory stimuli. Of particular interest is processing of sound intensity which is suggested to indicate central serotonergic function. We tested weather event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to occasional changes in sound intensity can dissociate first-episode depressed, recurrent depressed and healthy control participants. The first-episode depressed showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant sounds compared to recurrent depression group and control participants. In addition, both depression groups, but not the control group, showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant than standard sounds. Whether these manifestations of sensory over-excitability in depression are directly related to the serotonergic neurotransmission requires further research. The method based on ERPs to sound intensity change is fast and low-cost way to objectively measure brain activation and holds promise as a future diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of visual motion perception for prospective control: Brain and behavioural studies in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Agyei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioural and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioural data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control.

  17. Control of a visual keyboard using an electrocorticographic brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusienski, Dean J; Shih, Jerry J

    2011-05-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are devices that enable severely disabled people to communicate and interact with their environments using their brain waves. Most studies investigating BCI in humans have used scalp EEG as the source of electrical signals and focused on motor control of prostheses or computer cursors on a screen. The authors hypothesize that the use of brain signals obtained directly from the cortical surface will more effectively control a communication/spelling task compared to scalp EEG. A total of 6 patients with medically intractable epilepsy were tested for the ability to control a visual keyboard using electrocorticographic (ECOG) signals. ECOG data collected during a P300 visual task paradigm were preprocessed and used to train a linear classifier to subsequently predict the intended target letters. The classifier was able to predict the intended target character at or near 100% accuracy using fewer than 15 stimulation sequences in 5 of the 6 people tested. ECOG data from electrodes outside the language cortex contributed to the classifier and enabled participants to write words on a visual keyboard. This is a novel finding because previous invasive BCI research in humans used signals exclusively from the motor cortex to control a computer cursor or prosthetic device. These results demonstrate that ECOG signals from electrodes both overlying and outside the language cortex can reliably control a visual keyboard to generate language output without voice or limb movements.

  18. A brain-controlled lower-limb exoskeleton for human gait training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Weihai; Pei, Zhongcai; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-10-01

    Brain-computer interfaces have been a novel approach to translate human intentions into movement commands in robotic systems. This paper describes an electroencephalogram-based brain-controlled lower-limb exoskeleton for gait training, as a proof of concept towards rehabilitation with human-in-the-loop. Instead of using conventional single electroencephalography correlates, e.g., evoked P300 or spontaneous motor imagery, we propose a novel framework integrated two asynchronous signal modalities, i.e., sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs) and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs). We executed experiments in a biologically inspired and customized lower-limb exoskeleton where subjects (N = 6) actively controlled the robot using their brain signals. Each subject performed three consecutive sessions composed of offline training, online visual feedback testing, and online robot-control recordings. Post hoc evaluations were conducted including mental workload assessment, feature analysis, and statistics test. An average robot-control accuracy of 80.16% ± 5.44% was obtained with the SMR-based method, while estimation using the MRCP-based method yielded an average performance of 68.62% ± 8.55%. The experimental results showed the feasibility of the proposed framework with all subjects successfully controlled the exoskeleton. The current paradigm could be further extended to paraplegic patients in clinical trials.

  19. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury Increases Cortical Glutamate Network Activity by Compromising GABAergic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, David; Walker, Kendall; Andresen, Lauren; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Hampton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Dulla, Chris G

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for developing pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Although disruptions in brain circuitry are associated with TBI, the precise mechanisms by which brain injury leads to epileptiform network activity is unknown. Using controlled cortical impact (CCI) as a model of TBI, we examined how cortical excitability and glutamatergic signaling was altered following injury. We optically mapped cortical glutamate signaling using FRET-based glutamate biosensors, while simultaneously recording cortical field potentials in acute brain slices 2-4 weeks following CCI. Cortical electrical stimulation evoked polyphasic, epileptiform field potentials and disrupted the input-output relationship in deep layers of CCI-injured cortex. High-speed glutamate biosensor imaging showed that glutamate signaling was significantly increased in the injured cortex. Elevated glutamate responses correlated with epileptiform activity, were highest directly adjacent to the injury, and spread via deep cortical layers. Immunoreactivity for markers of GABAergic interneurons were significantly decreased throughout CCI cortex. Lastly, spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency decreased and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current increased after CCI injury. Our results suggest that specific cortical neuronal microcircuits may initiate and facilitate the spread of epileptiform activity following TBI. Increased glutamatergic signaling due to loss of GABAergic control may provide a mechanism by which TBI can give rise to post-traumatic epilepsy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of multicomponent training of cognitive control on cognitive function and brain activation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoyoung; Chey, Jeanyung; Lee, Sanghun

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in cognitive functions and brain activation after multicomponent training of cognitive control in non-demented older adults, utilizing neuropsychological tests and fMRI. We developed and implemented a computerized Multicomponent Training of Cognitive Control (MTCC), characterized by task variability and adaptive procedures, in order to maximize training effects in cognitive control and transfer to other cognitive domains. Twenty-seven community-dwelling adults, aged 64-77 years, without any history of neurological or psychiatric problems, participated in this study (14 in the training group and 13 in the control group). The MTCC was administered to the participants assigned to the training group for 8 weeks, while those in the control group received no training. Neuropsychological tests and fMRI were administered prior to and after the training. Trained participants showed improvements in cognitive control, recognition memory and general cognitive functioning. Furthermore, the MTCC led to an increased brain activation of the regions adjacent to the baseline cognitive control-related areas in the frontoparietal network. Future studies are necessary to confirm our hypothesis that MTCC improves cognitive functioning of healthy elderly individuals by expanding their frontoparietal network that is involved in cognitive control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Research of controlling of smart home system based on P300 brain-computer interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjia; Yang, Chengjie

    2014-08-01

    Using electroencephalogram (EEG) signal to control external devices has always been the research focus in the field of brain-computer interface (BCI). This is especially significant for those disabilities who have lost capacity of movements. In this paper, the P300-based BCI and the microcontroller-based wireless radio frequency (RF) technology are utilized to design a smart home control system, which can be used to control household appliances, lighting system, and security devices directly. Experiment results showed that the system was simple, reliable and easy to be populirised.

  3. Smaller brain size likely in young adults (<40 years old) with depressive symptoms compared to healthy controls. A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Michito; Sato, Takamichi; Kawaguchi, Etsuko; Shibata, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the brain size of young patients with depressive symptoms is smaller than that of healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively evaluated brain size by calculating the ratio of the brain area to that of the skull (the brain-to-skull ratio) on routine MRI scans including the splenium of the corpus callosum obtained from 19 patients <40 years old with depressive symptoms in 2009. The controls were 12 healthy individuals <40 years old who underwent MRI for medical examinations. The mean brain-to-skull ratio of the control group was 0.850±0.022 (range 0.822-0.889), and that of the patient group was 0.819±0.041 (range 0.756-0.878). An unpaired t-test showed a significant difference in the brain-to-skull ratios between these groups (P=0.011). In particular, in 7 of the 19 patients with longer duration of illness and more severe symptoms, the brain-to-skull ratio was 89%-92% of the mean ratio of the control group. The brain size of young patients with depressive symptoms appears to be smaller than that of healthy controls. (author)

  4. Cognitive rehabilitation of attention deficits in traumatic brain injury using action video games: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vakili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the utility and efficacy of a novel eight-week cognitive rehabilitation programme developed to remediate attention deficits in adults who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI, incorporating the use of both action video game playing and a compensatory skills programme. Thirty-one male TBI patients, aged 18–65 years, were recruited from 2 Australian brain injury units and allocated to either a treatment or waitlist (treatment as usual control group. Results showed improvements in the treatment group, but not the waitlist control group, for performance on the immediate trained task (i.e. the video game and in non-trained measures of attention and quality of life. Neither group showed changes to executive behaviours or self-efficacy. The strengths and limitations of the study are discussed, as are the potential applications and future implications of the research.

  5. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network. PMID:25673742

  6. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Increased brain connectivity and activation after cognitive rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia; Peña, Javier; Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Alberto; Lucas-Jiménez, Olaia; Gómez-Esteban, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Beldarrain, Maria Ángeles; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated efficacy in improving cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about cerebral changes associated with an integrative cognitive rehabilitation in PD. To assess structural and functional cerebral changes in PD patients, after attending a three-month integrative cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP). Forty-four PD patients were randomly divided into REHACOP group (cognitive rehabilitation) and a control group (occupational therapy). T1-weighted, diffusion weighted and functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) during resting-state and during a memory paradigm (with learning and recognition tasks) were acquired at pre-treatment and post-treatment. Cerebral changes were assessed with repeated measures ANOVA 2 × 2 for group x time interaction. During resting-state fMRI, the REHACOP group showed significantly increased brain connectivity between the left inferior temporal lobe and the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared to the control group. Moreover, during the recognition fMRI task, the REHACOP group showed significantly increased brain activation in the left middle temporal area compared to the control group. During the learning fMRI task, the REHACOP group showed increased brain activation in the left inferior frontal lobe at post-treatment compared to pre-treatment. No significant structural changes were found between pre- and post-treatment. Finally, the REHACOP group showed significant and positive correlations between the brain connectivity and activation and the cognitive performance at post-treatment. This randomized controlled trial suggests that an integrative cognitive rehabilitation program can produce significant functional cerebral changes in PD patients and adds evidence to the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation programs in the therapeutic approach for PD.

  8. How does a specific learning and memory system in the mammalian brain gain control of behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert J; Hong, Nancy S

    2013-11-01

    This review addresses a fundamental, yet poorly understood set of issues in systems neuroscience. The issues revolve around conceptualizations of the organization of learning and memory in the mammalian brain. One intriguing, and somewhat popular, conceptualization is the idea that there are multiple learning and memory systems in the mammalian brain and they interact in different ways to influence and/or control behavior. This approach has generated interesting empirical and theoretical work supporting this view. One issue that needs to be addressed is how these systems influence or gain control of voluntary behavior. To address this issue, we clearly specify what we mean by a learning and memory system. We then review two types of processes that might influence which memory system gains control of behavior. One set of processes are external factors that can affect which system controls behavior in a given situation including task parameters like the kind of information available to the subject, types of training experience, and amount of training. The second set of processes are brain mechanisms that might influence what memory system controls behavior in a given situation including executive functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex; switching mechanisms mediated by ascending neurotransmitter systems, the unique role of the hippocampus during learning. The issue of trait differences in control of different learning and memory systems will also be considered in which trait differences in learning and memory function are thought to potentially emerge from differences in level of prefrontal influence, differences in plasticity processes, differences in ascending neurotransmitter control, differential access to effector systems like motivational and motor systems. Finally, we present scenarios in which different mechanisms might interact. This review was conceived to become a jumping off point for new work directed at understanding these issues. The outcome of

  9. Visual perception affected by motivation and alertness controlled by a noninvasive brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, Vladimir A; Runnova, Anastasia E; Zhuravlev, Maksim O; Makarov, Vladimir V; Nedayvozov, Vladimir; Grubov, Vadim V; Pchelintceva, Svetlana V; Hramov, Alexander E; Pisarchik, Alexander N

    2017-01-01

    The influence of motivation and alertness on brain activity associated with visual perception was studied experimentally using the Necker cube, which ambiguity was controlled by the contrast of its ribs. The wavelet analysis of recorded multichannel electroencephalograms (EEG) allowed us to distinguish two different scenarios while the brain processed the ambiguous stimulus. The first scenario is characterized by a particular destruction of alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) with a simultaneous increase in beta-wave activity (20-30 Hz), whereas in the second scenario, the beta rhythm is not well pronounced while the alpha-wave energy remains unchanged. The experiments were carried out with a group of financially motivated subjects and another group of unpaid volunteers. It was found that the first scenario occurred mainly in the motivated group. This can be explained by the increased alertness of the motivated subjects. The prevalence of the first scenario was also observed in a group of subjects to whom images with higher ambiguity were presented. We believe that the revealed scenarios can occur not only during the perception of bistable images, but also in other perceptual tasks requiring decision making. The obtained results may have important applications for monitoring and controlling human alertness in situations which need substantial attention. On the base of the obtained results we built a brain-computer interface to estimate and control the degree of alertness in real time.

  10. Visual perception affected by motivation and alertness controlled by a noninvasive brain-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A Maksimenko

    Full Text Available The influence of motivation and alertness on brain activity associated with visual perception was studied experimentally using the Necker cube, which ambiguity was controlled by the contrast of its ribs. The wavelet analysis of recorded multichannel electroencephalograms (EEG allowed us to distinguish two different scenarios while the brain processed the ambiguous stimulus. The first scenario is characterized by a particular destruction of alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz with a simultaneous increase in beta-wave activity (20-30 Hz, whereas in the second scenario, the beta rhythm is not well pronounced while the alpha-wave energy remains unchanged. The experiments were carried out with a group of financially motivated subjects and another group of unpaid volunteers. It was found that the first scenario occurred mainly in the motivated group. This can be explained by the increased alertness of the motivated subjects. The prevalence of the first scenario was also observed in a group of subjects to whom images with higher ambiguity were presented. We believe that the revealed scenarios can occur not only during the perception of bistable images, but also in other perceptual tasks requiring decision making. The obtained results may have important applications for monitoring and controlling human alertness in situations which need substantial attention. On the base of the obtained results we built a brain-computer interface to estimate and control the degree of alertness in real time.

  11. Perceptual relearning of binocular fusion after hypoxic brain damage: four controlled single-case treatment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Anna-Katharina; Schmidt, Lena; Kuhn, Caroline; Summ, Miriam; Adams, Michaela; Garbacenkaite, Ruta; Leonhardt, Eva; Reinhart, Stefan; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxic brain damage is characterized by widespread, diffuse-disseminated brain lesions, which may cause severe disturbances in binocular vision, leading to diplopia and loss of stereopsis, for which no evaluated treatment is currently available. The study evaluated the effects of a novel binocular vision treatment designed to improve binocular fusion and stereopsis as well as to reduce diplopia in patients with cerebral hypoxia. Four patients with severely reduced convergent fusion, stereopsis, and reading duration due to hypoxic brain damage were treated in a single-subject baseline design, with three baseline assessments before treatment to control for spontaneous recovery (pretherapy), an assessment immediately after a treatment period of 6 weeks (posttherapy), and two follow-up tests 3 and 6 months after treatment to assess stability of improvements. Patients received a novel fusion and dichoptic training using 3 different devices designed to slowly increase fusional and disparity angle. After the treatment, all 4 patients improved significantly in binocular fusion, subjective reading duration until diplopia emerged, and 2 of 4 patients improved significantly in local stereopsis. No significant changes were observed during the pretherapy baseline period and the follow-up period, thus ruling out spontaneous recovery and demonstrating long-term stability of treatment effects. This proof-of-principle study indicates a substantial treatment-induced plasticity after hypoxia in the relearning of binocular vision and offers a viable treatment option. Moreover, it provides new hope and direction for the development of effective rehabilitation strategies to treat neurovisual deficits resulting from hypoxic brain damage.

  12. On the need to better specify the concept of control in brain-computer-interfaces/neurofeedback research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eWood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at a better specification of the concept of control in brain-computer-interfaces (BCI and neurofeedback research, we propose to distinguish self-control of brain activity from the broader concept of BCI control, since the first describes a neurocognitive phenomenon and is only one of the many components of BCI control. Based on this distinction, we developed a framework based on dual-processes theory that describes the cognitive determinants of self-control of brain activity as the interplay of automatic vs. controlled information processing. Further, we distinguish between cognitive processes that are necessary and sufficient to achieve a given level of self-control of brain activity and those which are not. We discuss that those cognitive processes which are not necessary for the learning process can hamper self-control because they cannot be completely turned-off at any time. This framework aims at a comprehensive description of the cognitive determinants of the acquisition of self-control of brain activity underlying those classes of BCI which require the user to achieve regulation of brain activity as well as neurofeedback learning.

  13. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618.

  14. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age and a popular puzzle game (Tetris. Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the healthy young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields

  15. Brain limbic system-based intelligent controller application to lane change manoeuvre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changwon; Langari, Reza

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the application of a novel neuromorphic control strategy for lane change manoeuvres in the highway environment. The lateral dynamics of a vehicle with and without wind disturbance are derived and utilised to implement a control strategy based on the brain limbic system. To show the robustness of the proposed controller, several disturbance conditions including wind, uncertainty in the cornering stiffness, and changes in the vehicle mass are investigated. To demonstrate the performance of the suggested strategy, simulation results of the proposed method are compared with the human driver model-based control scheme, which has been discussed in the literature. The simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed controller in energy efficiency, driving comfort, and robustness.

  16. Driving safety after brain damage: follow-up of twenty-two patients with matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R T; Golden, R S; Butter, J; Tepper, D; Rothke, S; Holmes, J; Sahgal, V

    1990-02-01

    Driving after brain damage is a vital issue, considering the large number of patients who suffer from cerebrovascular and traumatic encephalopathy. The ability to operate a motor vehicle is an integral part of independence for most adults and so should be preserved whenever possible. The physician may estimate a patient's ability to drive safely based on his own examination, the evaluation of a neuropsychologist, and a comprehensive driving evaluation--testing, driving simulation, behind-the-wheel observation--with a driving specialist. This study sought to evaluate the ability of brain-damaged individuals to operate a motor vehicle safely at follow-up. These patients had been evaluated (by a physician, a neuropsychologist, and a driving specialist) and were judged able to operate a motor vehicle safely after their cognitive insult. Twenty-two brain-damaged patients who were evaluated at our institution were successfully followed up to five years (mean interval of 2.67 years). Patients were interviewed by telephone. Their driving safely was compared with a control group consisting of a close friend or spouse of each patient. Statistical analysis revealed no difference between patient and control groups in the type of driving, the incidence of speeding tickets, near accidents, and accidents, and the cost of vehicle damage when accidents occurred. The patient group was further divided into those who had, and those who had not experienced driving difficulties so that initial neuropsychologic testing could be compared. No significant differences were noted in any aspect of the neuropsychologic test battery. We conclude that selected brain-damaged patients who have passed a comprehensive driving assessment as outlined were as fit to drive as were their normal matched controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Tetherless near-infrared control of brain activity in behaving animals using fully implantable upconversion microdevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Lin, Xudong; Chen, Xi; Chen, Xian; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Wenchong; Liao, Qinghai; Duan, Xin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ming; Wang, Feng; He, Jufang; Shi, Peng

    2017-10-01

    Many nanomaterials can be used as sensors or transducers in biomedical research and they form the essential components of transformative novel biotechnologies. In this study, we present an all-optical method for tetherless remote control of neural activity using fully implantable micro-devices based on upconversion technology. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were used as transducers to convert near-infrared (NIR) energy to visible light in order to stimulate neurons expressing different opsin proteins. In our setup, UCNPs were packaged in a glass micro-optrode to form an implantable device with superb long-term biocompatibility. We showed that remotely applied NIR illumination is able to reliably trigger spiking activity in rat brains. In combination with a robotic laser projection system, the upconversion-based tetherless neural stimulation technique was implemented to modulate brain activity in various regions, including the striatum, ventral tegmental area, and visual cortex. Using this system, we were able to achieve behavioral conditioning in freely moving animals. Notably, our microscale device was at least one order of magnitude smaller in size (∼100 μm in diameter) and two orders of magnitude lighter in weight (less than 1 mg) than existing wireless optogenetic devices based on light-emitting diodes. This feature allows simultaneous implantation of multiple UCNP-optrodes to achieve modulation of brain function to control complex animal behavior. We believe that this technology not only represents a novel practical application of upconversion nanomaterials, but also opens up new possibilities for remote control of neural activity in the brains of behaving animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Local tumour control and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlke, Oliver; Wucherpfennig, David; Prokic, Vesna [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Fels, Franziska [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); St. Josefs Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenburg (Germany); Frings, Lars [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Egger, Karl [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Weyerbrock, Astrid [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg (Germany); Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-16

    Hippocampal-avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) for multiple brain metastases may prevent treatment-related cognitive decline, compared to standard WBRT. Additionally, simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) on individual metastases may further improve the outcome. Here, we present initial data concerning local tumour control (LTC), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), toxicity and safety for this new irradiation technique. Twenty patients, enrolled between 2011 and 2013, were treated with HA-WBRT (30 Gy in 12 fractions, D{sub 98} {sub %} to hippocampus ≤ 9 Gy) and a SIB (51 Gy) on multiple (2-13) metastases using a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) approach based on 2-4 arcs. Metastases were evaluated bidimensionally along the two largest diameters in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighed MRI. Median follow-up was 40 weeks. The median time to progression of boosted metastases has not been reached yet, corresponding to a LTC rate of 73 %. Median intracranial PFS was 40 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year PFS of 45.3 %. Median OS was 71.5 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year OS of 60 %. No obvious acute or late toxicities grade > 2 (NCI CTCAE v4.03) were observed. D{sub mean} to the bilateral hippocampi was 6.585 Gy ± 0.847 (α/β = 2 Gy). Two patients developed a new metastasis in the area of hippocampal avoidance. HA-WBRT (simultaneous integrated protection, SIP) with SIB to metastases is a safe and tolerable regime that shows favorable LTC for patients with multiple brain metastases, while it has the potential to minimize the side-effect of cognitive deterioration. (orig.) [German] Die Hippocampus-schonende Ganzhirnbestrahlung (HS-GHB) kann im Vergleich zur Standard-GHB die Verschlechterung der neurokognitiven Funktion verhindern. Zusaetzlich vermag ein simultan integrierter Boost (SIB) auf die Metastasen die Prognose der betroffenen Patienten weiter zu verbessern. In dieser Studie praesentieren wir erste Ergebnisse

  19. Establishment of minimal positive-control conditions to ensure brain safety during rapid development of emergency vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyekyung; Kim, Kwang Ho; Park, Min Young; Kim, Kyeongryun; Ko, Bokyeong; Seo, Hyung Seok; Kim, Byoung Soo; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yi, Sun Shin

    2017-08-31

    With the increase in international human and material exchanges, contagious and infectious epidemics are occurring. One of the effective methods of epidemic inhibition is the rapid development and supply of vaccines. Considering the safety of the brain during vaccine development is very important. However, manuals for brain safety assays for new vaccines are not uniform or effective globally. Therefore, the aim of this study is to establish a positive-control protocol for an effective brain safety test to enhance rapid vaccine development. The blood-brain barrier's tight junctions provide selective defense of the brain; however, it is possible to destroy these important microstructures by administering lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), thereby artificially increasing the permeability of brain parenchyma. In this study, test conditions are established so that the degree of brain penetration or brain destruction of newly developed vaccines can be quantitatively identified. The most effective conditions were suggested by measuring time-dependent expressions of tight junction biomarkers (zonula occludens-1 [ZO-1] and occludin) in two types of mice (C57BL/6 and ICR) following exposure to two types of LPS ( Salmonella and Escherichia ). In the future, we hope that use of the developed positive-control protocol will help speed up the determination of brain safety of novel vaccines.

  20. Soft brain-machine interfaces for assistive robotics: A novel control approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiatti, Lucia; Tessadori, Jacopo; Barresi, Giacinto; Mattos, Leonardo S; Ajoudani, Arash

    2017-07-01

    Robotic systems offer the possibility of improving the life quality of people with severe motor disabilities, enhancing the individual's degree of independence and interaction with the external environment. In this direction, the operator's residual functions must be exploited for the control of the robot movements and the underlying dynamic interaction through intuitive and effective human-robot interfaces. Towards this end, this work aims at exploring the potential of a novel Soft Brain-Machine Interface (BMI), suitable for dynamic execution of remote manipulation tasks for a wide range of patients. The interface is composed of an eye-tracking system, for an intuitive and reliable control of a robotic arm system's trajectories, and a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) unit, for the control of the robot Cartesian stiffness, which determines the interaction forces between the robot and environment. The latter control is achieved by estimating in real-time a unidimensional index from user's electroencephalographic (EEG) signals, which provides the probability of a neutral or active state. This estimated state is then translated into a stiffness value for the robotic arm, allowing a reliable modulation of the robot's impedance. A preliminary evaluation of this hybrid interface concept provided evidence on the effective execution of tasks with dynamic uncertainties, demonstrating the great potential of this control method in BMI applications for self-service and clinical care.

  1. Occupational risk factors for brain cancer: a population-based case-control study in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T; Cantor, K P; Zhang, Y; Keim, S; Lynch, C F

    2001-04-01

    A number of occupations and industries have been inconsistently associated with the risk of brain cancer. To further explore possible relationships, we conducted a population-based case-control study of brain glioma in the state of Iowa, involving 375 histologically confirmed incident cases and 2434 population-based controls. Among men, the industries and/or occupations that had a significantly increased risk for employment of more than 10 years included roofing, siding, and sheet metalworking; newspaper work; rubber and plastics products, particularly tires and inner tubes; miscellaneous manufacturing industries; wholesale trade of durable goods, grain, and field beans; cleaning and building service occupations; miscellaneous mechanics and repairers; and janitors and cleaners. Subjects who worked in plumbing, heating, and air conditioning; electrical services; gasoline service stations; and military occupations also experienced a significantly increased risk. Among women, significant excess risk was observed for occupations in agricultural services and farming, apparel and textile products, electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing, various retail sales, record-keeping, and restaurant service. Workers in industries with a potential for gasoline or motor exhaust exposures experienced a non-significant excess risk of brain glioma.

  2. Reconfiguration of brain network architecture to support executive control in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Courtney L; Turner, Gary R; Adnan, Areeba; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by declines in executive control abilities and changes in underlying brain network architecture. Here, we examined brain networks in young and older adults during a task-free resting state and an N-back task and investigated age-related changes in the modular network organization of the brain. Compared with young adults, older adults showed larger changes in network organization between resting state and task. Although young adults exhibited increased connectivity between lateral frontal regions and other network modules during the most difficult task condition, older adults also exhibited this pattern of increased connectivity during less-demanding task conditions. Moreover, the increase in between-module connectivity in older adults was related to faster task performance and greater fractional anisotropy of the superior longitudinal fasciculus. These results demonstrate that older adults who exhibit more pronounced network changes between a resting state and task have better executive control performance and greater structural connectivity of a core frontal-posterior white matter pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Affective Aspects of Perceived Loss of Control and Potential Implications for Brain-Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissmann, Sebastian; Zander, Thorsten O; Faller, Josef; Brönstrup, Jonas; Kelava, Augustin; Gramann, Klaus; Gerjets, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) focus on detecting single aspects of user states (e.g., motor imagery) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in order to use these aspects as control input for external systems. This communication can be effective, but unaccounted mental processes can interfere with signals used for classification and thereby introduce changes in the signal properties which could potentially impede BCI classification performance. To improve BCI performance, we propose deploying an approach that potentially allows to describe different mental states that could influence BCI performance. To test this approach, we analyzed neural signatures of potential affective states in data collected in a paradigm where the complex user state of perceived loss of control (LOC) was induced. In this article, source localization methods were used to identify brain dynamics with source located outside but affecting the signal of interest originating from the primary motor areas, pointing to interfering processes in the brain during natural human-machine interaction. In particular, we found affective correlates which were related to perceived LOC. We conclude that additional context information about the ongoing user state might help to improve the applicability of BCIs to real-world scenarios.

  4. Affective Aspects of Perceived Loss of Control and Potential Implications for Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Grissmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs focus on detecting single aspects of user states (e.g., motor imagery in the electroencephalogram (EEG in order to use these aspects as control input for external systems. This communication can be effective, but unaccounted mental processes can interfere with signals used for classification and thereby introduce changes in the signal properties which could potentially impede BCI classification performance. To improve BCI performance, we propose deploying an approach that potentially allows to describe different mental states that could influence BCI performance. To test this approach, we analyzed neural signatures of potential affective states in data collected in a paradigm where the complex user state of perceived loss of control (LOC was induced. In this article, source localization methods were used to identify brain dynamics with source located outside but affecting the signal of interest originating from the primary motor areas, pointing to interfering processes in the brain during natural human-machine interaction. In particular, we found affective correlates which were related to perceived LOC. We conclude that additional context information about the ongoing user state might help to improve the applicability of BCIs to real-world scenarios.

  5. Focus on Brain Angiotensin III and Aminopeptidase A in the Control of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Wright

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic renin-angiotensin system (RAS was initially described as a hormone system designed to mediate cardiovascular and body water regulation. The discovery of a brain RAS composed of the necessary functional components (angiotensinogen, peptidases, angiotensins, and specific receptor proteins independent of the peripheral system significantly expanded the possible physiological and pharmacological functions of this system. This paper first describes the enzymatic pathways resulting in active angiotensin ligands and their interaction with AT1, AT2, and mas receptor subtypes. Recent evidence points to important contributions by brain angiotensin III (AngIII and aminopeptidases A (APA and N (APN in sustaining hypertension. Next, we discuss current approaches to the treatment of hypertension followed by novel strategies that focus on limiting the binding of AngII and AngIII to the AT1 receptor subtype by influencing the activity of APA and APN. We conclude with thoughts concerning future treatment approaches to controlling hypertension and hypotension.

  6. Functional magnetic resonance imaging-controlled neuronavigator-guided brain surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, J; Nishizaki, T; Tokumaru, T; Uesugi, S; Yamashita, K; Ito, H; Suzuki, M

    2001-05-01

    The effectiveness of functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI)-controlled and navigator-guided brain surgery for a patient with a recurrent astrocytoma is demonstrated. Preoperative f-MRI was performed in order to identify the motor area and ensure that the tumour was in the left prefrontal area. A more aggressive operation was planned for the recurrent tumour. The f-MRI data were input to the MKM navigation system and during the operation the contours of the tumour and motor area were visualised b y the microscope of the navigation system. The tumour and surrounding gliotic brain tissue were removed completely. The diagnosis was a grade III astrocytoma. The combination of the navigation system and f-MRI was useful for preoperative design of the surgical strategy, and tumour orientation during the operation, enabling aggressive surgery to be performed without functional deficits ensuing. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. MRI-controlled interstitial ultrasound brain therapy: An initial in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Djin, W. Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Lipsman, Nir; Bronskill, Michael; Schwartz, Michael; Kucharczyk, Walter; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-11-01

    The recent emergence at the clinical level of minimally-invasive focal therapy such as laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) has demonstrated promise in the management of brain metastasis [1], although control over the spatial pattern of heating is limited. Delivery of HIFU from minimally-invasive applicators enables high spatial control of the heat deposition in biological tissues, large treatment volumes and high treatment rate in well chosen conditions [2,3]. In this study, the feasibility of MRI-guided interstitial ultrasound therapy in brain was studies in-vivo in a porcine model. A prototype system originally developed for transurethral ultrasound therapy [4,5,6] was used in this study. Two burr holes of 12 mm in diameter were created in the animal's skull to allow the insertion of the therapeutic ultrasound applicator (probe) into the brain at two locations (right and left frontal lobe). A 4-element linear ultrasound transducer (f = 8 MHz) was mounted at the tip of a 25-cm linear probe (6 mm in diameter). The target boundary was traced to cover in 2D a surface compatible with the treatment of a 2 cm brain tumor. Acoustic power of each element and rotation rate of the device were adjusted in real-time based on MR-thermometry feedback control to optimize heat deposition at the target boundary [2,4,5]. Two MRT-controlled ultrasound brain treatments per animal have been performed using a maximal surface acoustic power of 10W.cm-2. In all cases, it was possible to increase accurately the temperature of the brain tissues in the targeted region over the 55°C threshold necessary for the creation of irreversible thermal lesion. Tissue changes were visible on T1w contrast-enhanced images immediately after treatment. These changes were also evident on T2w FSE images taken 2 hours after the 1st treatment and correlated well with the temperature image. On average, the targeted volume was 4.7 ± 2.3 cm3 and the 55°C treated volume was 6.7 ± 4.4 cm3. The volumetric

  8. Elevated Ictal Brain Network Ictogenicity Enables Prediction of Optimal Seizure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho A. Lopes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that mathematical models can be used to analyze brain networks by quantifying how likely they are to generate seizures. In particular, we have introduced the quantity termed brain network ictogenicity (BNI, which was demonstrated to have the capability of differentiating between functional connectivity (FC of healthy individuals and those with epilepsy. Furthermore, BNI has also been used to quantify and predict the outcome of epilepsy surgery based on FC extracted from pre-operative ictal intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG. This modeling framework is based on the assumption that the inferred FC provides an appropriate representation of an ictogenic network, i.e., a brain network responsible for the generation of seizures. However, FC networks have been shown to change their topology depending on the state of the brain. For example, topologies during seizure are different to those pre- and post-seizure. We therefore sought to understand how these changes affect BNI. We studied peri-ictal iEEG recordings from a cohort of 16 epilepsy patients who underwent surgery and found that, on average, ictal FC yield higher BNI relative to pre- and post-ictal FC. However, elevated ictal BNI was not observed in every individual, rather it was typically observed in those who had good post-operative seizure control. We therefore hypothesize that elevated ictal BNI is indicative of an ictogenic network being appropriately represented in the FC. We evidence this by demonstrating superior model predictions for post-operative seizure control in patients with elevated ictal BNI.

  9. A low power flash-FPGA based brain implant micro-system of PID control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijuan Xia; Fattah, Nabeel; Soltan, Ahmed; Jackson, Andrew; Chester, Graeme; Degenaar, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a low power flash FPGA based micro-system can provide a low power programmable interface for closed-loop brain implant inter- faces. The proposed micro-system receives recording local field potential (LFP) signals from an implanted probe, performs closed-loop control using a first order control system, then converts the signal into an optogenetic control stimulus pattern. Stimulus can be implemented through optoelectronic probes. The long term target is for both fundamental neuroscience applications and for clinical use in treating epilepsy. Utilizing our device, closed-loop processing consumes only 14nJ of power per PID cycle compared to 1.52μJ per cycle for a micro-controller implementation. Compared to an application specific digital integrated circuit, flash FPGA's are inherently programmable.

  10. Beyond intuitive anthropomorphic control: recent achievements using brain computer interface technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A.; Fifer, Matthew; Rich, Matthew; Pino, Johnathan; Wester, Brock; Johannes, Matthew; Dohopolski, Chris; Helder, John; D'Angelo, Denise; Beaty, James; Bensmaia, Sliman; McLoughlin, Michael; Tenore, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) research has progressed rapidly, with BCIs shifting from animal tests to human demonstrations of controlling computer cursors and even advanced prosthetic limbs, the latter having been the goal of the Revolutionizing Prosthetics (RP) program. These achievements now include direct electrical intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the brain to provide human BCI users feedback information from the sensors of prosthetic limbs. These successes raise the question of how well people would be able to use BCIs to interact with systems that are not based directly on the body (e.g., prosthetic arms), and how well BCI users could interpret ICMS information from such devices. If paralyzed individuals could use BCIs to effectively interact with such non-anthropomorphic systems, it would offer them numerous new opportunities to control novel assistive devices. Here we explore how well a participant with tetraplegia can detect infrared (IR) sources in the environment using a prosthetic arm mounted camera that encodes IR information via ICMS. We also investigate how well a BCI user could transition from controlling a BCI based on prosthetic arm movements to controlling a flight simulator, a system with different physical dynamics than the arm. In that test, the BCI participant used environmental information encoded via ICMS to identify which of several upcoming flight routes was the best option. For both tasks, the BCI user was able to quickly learn how to interpret the ICMSprovided information to achieve the task goals.

  11. Using the Electrocorticographic Speech Network to Control a Brain-Computer Interface in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthardt, Eric C.; Gaona, Charles; Sharma, Mohit; Szrama, Nicholas; Roland, Jarod; Freudenberg, Zac; Solis, Jamie; Breshears, Jonathan; Schalk, Gerwin

    2013-01-01

    Electrocorticography (ECoG) has emerged as a new signal platform for brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. Classically, the cortical physiology that has been commonly investigated and utilized for device control in humans has been brain signals from sensorimotor cortex. Hence, it was unknown whether other neurophysiological substrates, such as the speech network, could be used to further improve on or complement existing motor-based control paradigms. We demonstrate here for the first time that ECoG signals associated with different overt and imagined phoneme articulation can enable invasively monitored human patients to control a one-dimensional computer cursor rapidly and accurately. This phonetic content was distinguishable within higher gamma frequency oscillations and enabled users to achieve final target accuracies between 68 and 91% within 15 minutes. Additionally, one of the patients achieved robust control using recordings from a microarray consisting of 1 mm spaced microwires. These findings suggest that the cortical network associated with speech could provide an additional cognitive and physiologic substrate for BCI operation and that these signals can be acquired from a cortical array that is small and minimally invasive. PMID:21471638

  12. Temporal coding of brain patterns for direct limb control in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Mueller-Putz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For individuals with a high spinal cord injury (SCI not only the lower limbs, but also the upper extremities are paralyzed. A neuroprosthesis can be used to restore the lost hand and arm function in those tetraplegics. The main problem for this group of individuals, however, is the reduced ability to voluntarily operate device controllers. A Brain-Computer Interface provides a non-manual alternative to conventional input devices by translating brain activity patterns into control commands. We show that the temporal coding of individual mental imagery pattern can be used to control two independent degrees of freedom – grasp and elbow function - of an artificial robotic arm by utilizing a minimum number of EEG scalp electrodes. We describe the procedure from the initial screening to the final application. From eight naïve subjects participating on-line feedback experiments, four were able to voluntarily control an artificial arm by inducing one motor imagery pattern derived from one EEG derivation only.

  13. Addiction: decreased reward sensitivity and increased expectation sensitivity conspire to overwhelm the brain's control circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank; Baler, Ruben

    2010-09-01

    Based on brain imaging findings, we present a model according to which addiction emerges as an imbalance in the information processing and integration among various brain circuits and functions. The dysfunctions reflect (a) decreased sensitivity of reward circuits, (b) enhanced sensitivity of memory circuits to conditioned expectations to drugs and drug cues, stress reactivity, and (c) negative mood, and a weakened control circuit. Although initial experimentation with a drug of abuse is largely a voluntary behavior, continued drug use can eventually impair neuronal circuits in the brain that are involved in free will, turning drug use into an automatic compulsive behavior. The ability of addictive drugs to co-opt neurotransmitter signals between neurons (including dopamine, glutamate, and GABA) modifies the function of different neuronal circuits, which begin to falter at different stages of an addiction trajectory. Upon exposure to the drug, drug cues or stress this results in unrestrained hyperactivation of the motivation/drive circuit that results in the compulsive drug intake that characterizes addiction.

  14. Brain IGF-1 receptors control mammalian growth and lifespan through a neuroendocrine mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Kappeler

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations that decrease insulin-like growth factor (IGF and growth hormone signaling limit body size and prolong lifespan in mice. In vertebrates, these somatotropic hormones are controlled by the neuroendocrine brain. Hormone-like regulations discovered in nematodes and flies suggest that IGF signals in the nervous system can determine lifespan, but it is unknown whether this applies to higher organisms. Using conditional mutagenesis in the mouse, we show that brain IGF receptors (IGF-1R efficiently regulate somatotropic development. Partial inactivation of IGF-1R in the embryonic brain selectively inhibited GH and IGF-I pathways after birth. This caused growth retardation, smaller adult size, and metabolic alterations, and led to delayed mortality and longer mean lifespan. Thus, early changes in neuroendocrine development can durably modify the life trajectory in mammals. The underlying mechanism appears to be an adaptive plasticity of somatotropic functions allowing individuals to decelerate growth and preserve resources, and thereby improve fitness in challenging environments. Our results also suggest that tonic somatotropic signaling entails the risk of shortened lifespan.

  15. FGFR3 regulates brain size by controlling progenitor cell proliferation and apoptosis during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis-Broadgate, Suzanne L; Thomson, Rachel E; Pellicano, Francesca; Tartaglia, Michael A; Pontikis, Charlie C; Cooper, Jonathan D; Iwata, Tomoko

    2005-03-01

    Mice with the K644E kinase domain mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) (EIIa;Fgfr3(+/K644E)) exhibited a marked enlargement of the brain. The brain size was increased as early as E11.5, not secondary to the possible effect of Fgfr3 activity in the skeleton. Furthermore, the mutant brains showed a dramatic increase in cortical thickness, a phenotype opposite to that in FGF2 knockout mice. Despite this increased thickness, cortical layer formation was largely unaffected and no cortical folding was observed during embryonic days 11.5-18.5 (E11.5-E18.5). Measurement of cortical thickness revealed an increase of 38.1% in the EIIa;Fgfr3(+/K644E) mice at E14.5 and the advanced appearance of the cortical plate was frequently observed at this stage. Unbiased stereological analysis revealed that the volume of the ventricular zone (VZ) was increased by more than two fold in the EIIa;Fgfr3(+/K644E) mutants at E14.5. A relatively mild increase in progenitor cell proliferation and a profound decrease in developmental apoptosis during E11.5-E14.5 most likely accounts for the dramatic increase in total telecephalic cell number. Taken together, our data suggest a novel function of Fgfr3 in controlling the development of the cortex, by regulating proliferation and apoptosis of cortical progenitors.

  16. Adolescent drinking and brain morphometry: A co-twin control analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylia Wilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental changes in structure and functioning are thought to make the adolescent brain particularly sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol. Although alcohol use disorders are relatively rare in adolescence, the initiation of alcohol use, including problematic use, becomes increasingly prevalent during this period. The present study examined associations between normative drinking (alcohol initiation, binge drinking, intoxication and brain morphometry in a sample of 96 adolescent monozygotic twins. A priori regions of interest included 11 subcortical and 20 cortical structures implicated in the existing empirical literature as associated with normative alcohol use in adolescence. In addition, co-twin control analyses were used to disentangle risk for alcohol use from consequences of alcohol exposure on the developing brain. Results indicated significant associations reflecting preexisting vulnerability toward problematic alcohol use, including reduced volume of the amygdala, increased volume of the cerebellum, and reduced cortical volume and thickness in several frontal and temporal regions, including the superior and middle frontal gyri, pars triangularis, and middle and inferior temporal gyri. Results also indicated some associations consistent with a neurotoxic effect of alcohol exposure, including reduced volume of the ventral diencephalon and the middle temporal gyrus.

  17. Creative thinking as orchestrated by semantic processing versus cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. Conceptual expansion refers to the ability to widen one’s conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while overcoming knowledge constraints refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition.

  18. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity controls systemic cytokine levels through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Parrish, William R.; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Ochani, Mahendar; Puerta, Margot; Ochani, Kanta; Chavan, Sangeeta; Al-Abed, Yousef; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The excessive release of cytokines by the immune system contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Recent advances in understanding the biology of cytokine toxicity led to the discovery of the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway,” defined as neural signals transmitted via the vagus nerve that inhibit cytokine release through a mechanism that requires the alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Vagus nerve regulation of peripheral functions is controlled by brain nuclei and neural networks, but despite considerable importance, little is known about the molecular basis for central regulation of the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report that brain acetylcholinesterase activity controls systemic and organ specific TNF production during endotoxemia. Peripheral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine significantly reduced serum TNF levels through vagus nerve signaling, and protected against lethality during murine endotoxemia. Administration of a centrally-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist abolished the suppression of TNF by galantamine, indicating that suppressing acetylcholinesterase activity, coupled with central muscarinic receptors, controls peripheral cytokine responses. Administration of galantamine to α7nAChR knockout mice failed to suppress TNF levels, indicating that the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is required for the anti-inflammatory effect of galantamine. These findings show that inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase suppresses systemic inflammation through a central muscarinic receptor-mediated and vagal- and α7nAChR-dependent mechanism. Our data also indicate that a clinically used centrally-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor can be utilized to suppress abnormal inflammation to therapeutic advantage. PMID:18639629

  19. Radiosurgery for brain metastases: relationship of dose and pattern of enhancement to local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, C.-Y.; Sneed, Penny K.; Shu, H.-K.G.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; McDermott, Michael W.; Chang, Susan; Nowak, Peter; Petti, Paula L.; Smith, Vernon; Verhey, Lynn J.; Ho, Maria; Park, Elaine; Wara, William M.; Gutin, Philip H.; Larson, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to analyze dose, initial pattern of enhancement, and other factors associated with freedom from progression (FFP) of brain metastases after radiosurgery (RS). Methods and Materials: All brain metastases treated with gamma-knife RS at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1991 to 1994 were reviewed. Evaluable lesions were those with follow-up magnetic resonance or computed tomographic imaging. Actuarial FFP was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, measuring FFP from the date of RS to the first imaging study showing tumor progression. Controlled lesions were censored at the time of the last imaging study. Multivariate analyses were performed using a stepwise Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Of 261 lesions treated in 119 patients, 219 lesions in 100 patients were evaluable. Major histologies included adenocarcinoma (86 lesions), melanoma (77), renal cell carcinoma (21), and carcinoma not otherwise specified (17). The median prescribed RS dose was 18.5 Gy (range, 10-22) and the median tumor volume was 1.3 ml (range, 0.02-30.9). The initial pattern of contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 68% of lesions, heterogeneous in 12%, and ring-enhancing in 19%. The actuarial FFP was 82% at 6 months and 77% at 1 year for all lesions, and 93 and 90%, respectively, for 145 lesions receiving ≥ 18 Gy. Multivariate analysis showed that longer FFP was significantly associated with higher prescribed RS dose, a homogeneous pattern of contrast enhancement, and a longer interval between primary diagnosis and RS. Adjusted for these factors, adenocarcinomas had longer FFP than melanomas. No significant differences in FFP were noted among lesions undergoing RS for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (119 lesions), RS alone as initial treatment (45), or RS boost (55). Conclusion: A minimum prescribed radiosurgical dose ≥ 18 Gy yields excellent local control of brain metastases. The influence of pattern of enhancement on local control, a

  20. Controlling absence seizures by deep brain stimulus applied on substantia nigra pars reticulata and cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Qingyun

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a typical neural disease in nervous system, and the control of seizures is very important for treating the epilepsy. It is well known that the drug treatment is the main strategy for controlling the epilepsy. However, there are about 10–15 percent of patients, whose seizures cannot be effectively controlled by means of the drug. Alternatively, the deep brain stimulus (DBS) technology is a feasible method to control the serious seizures. However, theoretical explorations of DBS are still absent, and need to be further made. Presently, we will explore to control the absence seizures by introducing the DBS to a basal ganglia thalamocortical network model. In particular, we apply DBS onto substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the cortex to explore its effects on controlling absence seizures, respectively. We can find that the absence seizure can be well controlled within suitable parameter ranges by tuning the period and duration of current stimulation as DBS is implemented in the SNr. And also, as the DBS is applied onto the cortex, it is shown that for the ranges of present parameters, only adjusting the duration of current stimulation is an effective control method for the absence seizures. The obtained results can have better understanding for the mechanism of DBS in the medical treatment.

  1. Goal selection versus process control while learning to use a brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Audrey S.; Rose, Minn L.; He, Bin

    2011-06-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to accomplish a task without requiring motor output. Two major control strategies used by BCIs during task completion are process control and goal selection. In process control, the user exerts continuous control and independently executes the given task. In goal selection, the user communicates their goal to the BCI and then receives assistance executing the task. A previous study has shown that goal selection is more accurate and faster in use. An unanswered question is, which control strategy is easier to learn? This study directly compares goal selection and process control while learning to use a sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI. Twenty young healthy human subjects were randomly assigned either to a goal selection or a process control-based paradigm for eight sessions. At the end of the study, the best user from each paradigm completed two additional sessions using all paradigms randomly mixed. The results of this study were that goal selection required a shorter training period for increased speed, accuracy, and information transfer over process control. These results held for the best subjects as well as in the general subject population. The demonstrated characteristics of goal selection make it a promising option to increase the utility of BCIs intended for both disabled and able-bodied users.

  2. The Controlled Cortical Impact Model of Experimental Brain Trauma: Overview, Research Applications, and Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osier, Nicole; Dixon, C Edward

    2016-01-01

    Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a commonly used and highly regarded model of brain trauma that uses a pneumatically or electromagnetically controlled piston to induce reproducible and well-controlled injury. The CCI model was originally used in ferrets and it has since been scaled for use in many other species. This chapter will describe the historical development of the CCI model, compare and contrast the pneumatic and electromagnetic models, and summarize key short- and long-term consequences of TBI that have been gleaned using this model. In accordance with the recent efforts to promote high-quality evidence through the reporting of common data elements (CDEs), relevant study details-that should be reported in CCI studies-will be noted.

  3. EXiO-A Brain-Controlled Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouga, Tristan; Zhuang, Katie Z; Olivier, Jeremy; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Bouri, Mohamed; Bleuler, Hannes

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances in the field of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have demonstrated enormous potential to shape the future of rehabilitation and prosthetic devices. Here, a lower-limb exoskeleton controlled by the intracortical activity of an awake behaving rhesus macaque is presented as a proof-of-concept for a locomotorBMI. A detailed description of the mechanical device, including its innovative features and first experimental results, is provided. During operation, BMI-decoded position and velocity are directly mapped onto the bipedal exoskeleton's motions, which then move the monkey's legs as the monkey remains physicallypassive. To meet the unique requirements of such an application, the exoskeleton's features include: high output torque with backdrivable actuation, size adjustability, and safe user-robot interface. In addition, a novel rope transmission is introduced and implemented. To test the performance of the exoskeleton, a mechanical assessment was conducted, which yielded quantifiable results for transparency, efficiency, stiffness, and tracking performance. Usage under both brain control and automated actuation demonstrates the device's capability to fulfill the demanding needs of this application. These results lay the groundwork for further advancement in BMI-controlled devices for primates including humans.

  4. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David G; Schriber, Roberta A; Fassbender, Catherine; Atherton, Olivia; Krafft, Cynthia; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-12-01

    Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolescents participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based correlational analyses were conducted using regions of interest in bilateral NAcc. The earlier that adolescents initiated substance use, the stronger the connectivity between bilateral NAcc and right dorsolateral PFC, right dorsomedial PFC, right pre-supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule, and left medial temporal gyrus. The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2011-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

  6. Acquired self-control of insula cortex modulates emotion recognition and brain network connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sergio; Lee, Sangkyun; Soekadar, Surjo R; Caria, Andrea; Veit, Ralf; Kircher, Tilo; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2013-01-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) is a novel technique that has allowed subjects to achieve self-regulation of circumscribed brain regions. Despite its anticipated therapeutic benefits, there is no report on successful application of this technique in psychiatric populations. The objectives of the present study were to train schizophrenia patients to achieve volitional control of bilateral anterior insula cortex on multiple days, and to explore the effect of learned self-regulation on face emotion recognition (an extensively studied deficit in schizophrenia) and on brain network connectivity. Nine patients with schizophrenia were trained to regulate the hemodynamic response in bilateral anterior insula with contingent rtfMRI neurofeedback, through a 2-weeks training. At the end of the training stage, patients performed a face emotion recognition task to explore behavioral effects of learned self-regulation. A learning effect in self-regulation was found for bilateral anterior insula, which persisted through the training. Following successful self-regulation, patients recognized disgust faces more accurately and happy faces less accurately. Improvements in disgust recognition were correlated with levels of self-activation of right insula. RtfMRI training led to an increase in the number of the incoming and outgoing effective connections of the anterior insula. This study shows for the first time that patients with schizophrenia can learn volitional brain regulation by rtfMRI feedback training leading to changes in the perception of emotions and modulations of the brain network connectivity. These findings open the door for further studies of rtfMRI in severely ill psychiatric populations, and possible therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of hormone therapy on brain structure: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Kejal; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G; Zuk, Samantha M; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Gleason, Carey E; Wharton, Whitney; Dowling, N Maritza; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L; Shuster, Lynne T; Bailey, Kent R; Rocca, Walter A; Jack, Clifford R; Asthana, Sanjay; Miller, Virginia M

    2016-08-30

    To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on brain structure in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in recently postmenopausal women. Participants (aged 42-56 years, within 5-36 months past menopause) in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study were randomized to (1) 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (2) 50 μg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol, or (3) placebo pills and patch for 48 months. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. MRI and cognitive testing were performed in a subset of participants at baseline, and at 18, 36, and 48 months of randomization (n = 95). Changes in whole brain, ventricular, and white matter hyperintensity volumes, and in global cognitive function, were measured. Higher rates of ventricular expansion were observed in both the CEE and the 17β-estradiol groups compared to placebo; however, the difference was significant only in the CEE group (p = 0.01). Rates of ventricular expansion correlated with rates of decrease in brain volume (r = -0.58; p ≤ 0.001) and with rates of increase in white matter hyperintensity volume (r = 0.27; p = 0.01) after adjusting for age. The changes were not different between the CEE and 17β-estradiol groups for any of the MRI measures. The change in global cognitive function was not different across the groups. Ventricular volumes increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received CEE compared to placebo but without changes in cognitive performance. Because the sample size was small and the follow-up limited to 4 years, the findings should be interpreted with caution and need confirmation. This study provides Class I evidence that brain ventricular volume increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received oral CEE compared to placebo. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  9. Expression of novel Alzheimer's disease risk genes in control and Alzheimer's disease brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste M Karch

    Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD etiology is influenced by complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Large-scale genome wide association studies (GWAS for LOAD have identified 10 novel risk genes: ABCA7, BIN1, CD2AP, CD33, CLU, CR1, EPHA1, MS4A6A, MS4A6E, and PICALM. We sought to measure the influence of GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and gene expression levels on clinical and pathological measures of AD in brain tissue from the parietal lobe of AD cases and age-matched, cognitively normal controls. We found that ABCA7, CD33, and CR1 expression levels were associated with clinical dementia rating (CDR, with higher expression being associated with more advanced cognitive decline. BIN1 expression levels were associated with disease progression, where higher expression was associated with a delayed age at onset. CD33, CLU, and CR1 expression levels were associated with disease status, where elevated expression levels were associated with AD. Additionally, MS4A6A expression levels were associated with Braak tangle and Braak plaque scores, with elevated expression levels being associated with more advanced brain pathology. We failed to detect an association between GWAS SNPs and gene expression levels in our brain series. The minor allele of rs3764650 in ABCA7 is associated with age at onset and disease duration, and the minor allele of rs670139 in MS4A6E was associated with Braak tangle and Braak plaque score. These findings suggest that expression of some GWAS genes, namely ABCA7, BIN1, CD33, CLU, CR1 and the MS4A family, are altered in AD brains.

  10. Reduced Metabolism in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and 18 FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% ± 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% ± 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  11. Reduced metabolism in brain "control networks" following cocaine-cues exposure in female cocaine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved.To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and ¹⁸FDG between female (n = 10 and male (n = 16 active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes versus a cocaine-cues video.Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05; females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6%±10 whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5%±18. SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001 whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45 (only at p<0.005. The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001 in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10, anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32, posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31, inferior parietal (BA 40 and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus.Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from "control networks" (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition. This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  12. Effects of reward and punishment on brain activations associated with inhibitory control in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijten, Maartje; O'Connor, David A; Rossiter, Sarah; Franken, Ingmar H A; Hester, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Susceptibility to use of addictive substances may result, in part, from a greater preference for an immediate small reward relative to a larger delayed reward or relative insensitivity to punishment. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the neural basis of inhibiting an immediately rewarding stimulus to obtain a larger delayed reward in smokers. We also investigated whether punishment could modulate inhibitory control. The Monetary Incentive Go/NoGo (MI-Go/NoGo) task was administered that provided three types of reward outcomes contingent upon inhibitory control performance over rewarding stimuli: inhibition failure was either followed by no monetary reward (neutral condition), a small monetary reward with immediate feedback (reward condition) or immediate monetary punishment (punishment condition). In the reward and punishment conditions, successful inhibitory control resulted in larger delayed rewards. Community sample of smokers in the Melbourne (Australia) area. Nineteen smokers were compared with 17 demographically matched non-smoking controls. Accuracy, reaction times and brain activation associated with the MI-Go/NoGo task. Smokers showed hyperactivation in the right insula (P rewarding stimulus to obtain a larger delayed reward, and during inhibition of neutral stimuli. Group differences in brain activity were not significant in the punishment condition in the right insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, most probably as a result of increased activation in non-smoking controls. Compared with non-smokers, smokers showed increased neural activation when resisting immediately rewarding stimuli and may be less sensitive to punishment as a strategy to increase control over rewarding stimuli. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Optimal feedback control successfully explains changes in neural modulations during experiments with brain-machine interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eZacksenhouse

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments with brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs indicate that the extent of neural modulations increased abruptly upon starting to operate the interface, and especially after the monkey stopped moving its hand. In contrast, neural modulations that are correlated with the kinematics of the movement remained relatively unchanged. Here we demonstrate that similar changes are produced by simulated neurons that encode the relevant signals generated by an optimal feedback controller during simulated BMI experiments. The optimal feedback controller relies on state estimation that integrates both visual and proprioceptive feedback with prior estimations from an internal model. The processing required for optimal state estimation and control were conducted in the state-space, and neural recording was simulated by modeling two populations of neurons that encode either only the estimated state or also the control signal. Spike counts were generated as realizations of doubly stochastic Poisson processes with linear tuning curves. The model successfully reconstructs the main features of the kinematics and neural activity during regular reaching movements. Most importantly, the activity of the simulated neurons successfully reproduces the observed changes in neural modulations upon switching to brain control. Further theoretical analysis and simulations indicate that increasing the process noise during normal reaching movement results in similar changes in neural modulations. Thus we conclude that the observed changes in neural modulations during BMI experiments can be attributed to increasing process noise associated with the imperfect BMI filter, and, more directly, to the resulting increase in the variance of the encoded signals associated with state estimation and the required control signal.

  14. Optimal feedback control successfully explains changes in neural modulations during experiments with brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamini, Miri; Zacksenhouse, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments with brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) indicate that the extent of neural modulations increased abruptly upon starting to operate the interface, and especially after the monkey stopped moving its hand. In contrast, neural modulations that are correlated with the kinematics of the movement remained relatively unchanged. Here we demonstrate that similar changes are produced by simulated neurons that encode the relevant signals generated by an optimal feedback controller during simulated BMI experiments. The optimal feedback controller relies on state estimation that integrates both visual and proprioceptive feedback with prior estimations from an internal model. The processing required for optimal state estimation and control were conducted in the state-space, and neural recording was simulated by modeling two populations of neurons that encode either only the estimated state or also the control signal. Spike counts were generated as realizations of doubly stochastic Poisson processes with linear tuning curves. The model successfully reconstructs the main features of the kinematics and neural activity during regular reaching movements. Most importantly, the activity of the simulated neurons successfully reproduces the observed changes in neural modulations upon switching to brain control. Further theoretical analysis and simulations indicate that increasing the process noise during normal reaching movement results in similar changes in neural modulations. Thus, we conclude that the observed changes in neural modulations during BMI experiments can be attributed to increasing process noise associated with the imperfect BMI filter, and, more directly, to the resulting increase in the variance of the encoded signals associated with state estimation and the required control signal.

  15. Control of Drosophila Type I and Type II central brain neuroblast proliferation by bantam microRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Ruifen; Cohen, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell self-renewal by microRNAs is emerging as an important mechanism controlling tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that bantam microRNA controls neuroblast number and proliferation in the Drosophila central brain. Bantam also supports proliferat......Post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell self-renewal by microRNAs is emerging as an important mechanism controlling tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that bantam microRNA controls neuroblast number and proliferation in the Drosophila central brain. Bantam also supports...

  16. [Arm Motor Function Recovery during Rehabilitation with the Use of Hand Exoskeleton Controlled by Brain-Computer Interface: a Patient with Severe Brain Damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukova, E V; Pavlova, O G; Kurganskaya, M E; Bobrov, P D; Turbina, L G; Frolov, A A; Davydov, V I; Sil'tchenko, A V; Mokienko, O A

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of motor function recovery in a patient with severe brain damage in the course of neurorehabilitation using hand exoskeleton controlled by brain-computer interface. For estimating the motor function of paretic arm, we used the biomechanical analysis of movements registered during the course of rehabilitation. After 15 weekly sessions of hand exoskeleton control, the following results were obtained: a) the velocity profile of goal-directed movements of paretic hand became bell-shaped, b) the patient began to extend and abduct the hand which was flexed and adducted in the beginning of rehabilitation, and c) the patient began to supinate the forearm which was pronated in the beginning of rehabilitation. The first result is an evidence of the general improvement of the quality of motor control, while the second and third results prove that the spasticity of paretic arm has decreased.

  17. Perceived difficulty in use of everyday technology in persons with acquired brain injury of different severity: a comparison with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpour, Mandana; Kottorp, Anders; Nygård, Louise; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2014-07-01

    To compare the perceived difficulty in use of everyday technology in persons with acquired brain injury with different levels of severity of disability with that of controls. This comparison study recruited 2 samples of persons with acquired brain injury and controls, comprising a total of 161 participants, age range 18-64 years. The long and short versions of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire and the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale were used to evaluate participants. Persons with acquired brain injury demonstrated lower mean levels of perceived ability in use of everyday technology than controls (F = 21.84, degrees of freedom = 1, p technology between persons with severe disability and good recovery, between persons with severe disability and controls, and between persons with moderate disability and controls. No significant mean difference was found between persons with severe disability and moderate disability, between persons with moderate disability and good recovery, and between persons with good recovery and controls. Perceived difficulty in using everyday technology is significantly increased among persons with acquired brain injury with severe to moderate disability compared with controls. Rehabilitation services should consider the use of everyday technology in order to increase participation in everyday activities after acquired brain injury.

  18. Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation Improves Higher Control of the Oculomotor System in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniades, Chrystalina A; Rebelo, Pedro; Kennard, Christopher; Aziz, Tipu Z; Green, Alexander L; FitzGerald, James J

    2015-09-23

    The frontal cortex and basal ganglia form a set of parallel but mostly segregated circuits called cortico-basal ganglia loops. The oculomotor loop controls eye movements and can direct relatively simple movements, such as reflexive prosaccades, without external help but needs input from "higher" loops for more complex behaviors. The antisaccade task requires the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is part of the prefrontal loop. Information flows from prefrontal to oculomotor circuits in the striatum, and directional errors in this task can be considered a measure of failure of prefrontal control over the oculomotor loop. The antisaccadic error rate (AER) is increased in Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has no effect on the AER, but a previous case suggested that DBS of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) might. Our aim was to compare the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on the AER. We tested eye movements in 14 human DBS patients and 10 controls. GPi DBS substantially reduced the AER, restoring lost higher control over oculomotor function. Interloop information flow involves striatal neurons that receive cortical input and project to pallidum. They are normally silent when quiescent, but in PD they fire randomly, creating noise that may account for the degradation in interloop control. The reduced AER with GPi DBS could be explained by retrograde stimulation of striatopallidal axons with consequent activation of inhibitory collaterals and reduction in background striatal firing rates. This study may help explain aspects of PD pathophysiology and the mechanism of action of GPi DBS. Significance statement: Parkinson's disease causes symptoms including stiffness, slowness of movement, and tremor. Electrical stimulation of specific areas deep in the brain can effectively treat these symptoms, but exactly how is not fully understood. Part of the cause of such symptoms may be impairments in the way information flows

  19. Brain reflections: A circuit-based framework for understanding information processing and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Gabriele

    2018-03-01

    Here, I propose a view of the architecture of the human information processing system, and of how it can be adapted to changing task demands (which is the hallmark of cognitive control). This view is informed by an interpretation of brain activity as reflecting the excitability level of neural representations, encoding not only stimuli and temporal contexts, but also action plans and task goals. The proposed cognitive architecture includes three types of circuits: open circuits, involved in feed-forward processing such as that connecting stimuli with responses and characterized by brief, transient brain activity; and two types of closed circuits, positive feedback circuits (characterized by sustained, high-frequency oscillatory activity), which help select and maintain representations, and negative feedback circuits (characterized by brief, low-frequency oscillatory bursts), which are instead associated with changes in representations. Feed-forward activity is primarily responsible for the spread of activation along the information processing system. Oscillatory activity, instead, controls this spread. Sustained oscillatory activity due to both local cortical circuits (gamma) and longer corticothalamic circuits (alpha and beta) allows for the selection of individuated representations. Through the interaction of these circuits, it also allows for the preservation of representations across different temporal spans (sensory and working memory) and their spread across the brain. In contrast, brief bursts of oscillatory activity, generated by novel and/or conflicting information, lead to the interruption of sustained oscillatory activity and promote the generation of new representations. I discuss how this framework can account for a number of psychological and behavioral phenomena. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Kwang Ki; Yoon, Yup Yoon [Dongguk University Medical Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p < 0.01). The CC area and brain volume in AD patients (498.7 +- 72 mm{sup 2}, 715.4 +- 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 +- 108, 844.1 +- 85) and the HCs (563.2 +- 75, 818.9 +- 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  1. Using a cVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface to Control a Virtual Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechmann, Hannes; Finke, Andrea; Ritter, Helge

    2016-06-01

    Brain-computer interfaces provide a means for controlling a device by brain activity alone. One major drawback of noninvasive BCIs is their low information transfer rate, obstructing a wider deployment outside the lab. BCIs based on codebook visually evoked potentials (cVEP) outperform all other state-of-the-art systems in that regard. Previous work investigated cVEPs for spelling applications. We present the first cVEP-based BCI for use in real-world settings to accomplish everyday tasks such as navigation or action selection. To this end, we developed and evaluated a cVEP-based on-line BCI that controls a virtual agent in a simulated, but realistic, 3-D kitchen scenario. We show that cVEPs can be reliably triggered with stimuli in less restricted presentation schemes, such as on dynamic, changing backgrounds. We introduce a novel, dynamic repetition algorithm that allows for optimizing the balance between accuracy and speed individually for each user. Using these novel mechanisms in a 12-command cVEP-BCI in the 3-D simulation results in ITRs of 50 bits/min on average and 68 bits/min maximum. Thus, this work supports the notion of cVEP-BCIs as a particular fast and robust approach suitable for real-world use.

  2. Combinatorial control of messenger RNAs by Pumilio, Nanos and Brain Tumor Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvola, René M; Weidmann, Chase A; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Goldstrohm, Aaron C

    2017-11-02

    Eukaryotes possess a vast array of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that affect mRNAs in diverse ways to control protein expression. Combinatorial regulation of mRNAs by RBPs is emerging as the rule. No example illustrates this as vividly as the partnership of 3 Drosophila RBPs, Pumilio, Nanos and Brain Tumor, which have overlapping functions in development, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fertility and neurologic processes. Here we synthesize 30 y of research with new insights into their molecular functions and mechanisms of action. First, we provide an overview of the key properties of each RBP. Next, we present a detailed analysis of their collaborative regulatory mechanism using a classic example of the developmental morphogen, hunchback, which is spatially and temporally regulated by the trio during embryogenesis. New biochemical, structural and functional analyses provide insights into RNA recognition, cooperativity, and regulatory mechanisms. We integrate these data into a model of combinatorial RNA binding and regulation of translation and mRNA decay. We then use this information, transcriptome wide analyses and bioinformatics predictions to assess the global impact of Pumilio, Nanos and Brain Tumor on gene regulation. Together, the results support pervasive, dynamic post-transcriptional control.

  3. A binary motor imagery tasks based brain-computer interface for two-dimensional movement control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Cao, Lei; Maysam, Oladazimi; Li, Jie; Xie, Hong; Su, Caixia; Birbaumer, Niels

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Two-dimensional movement control is a popular issue in brain-computer interface (BCI) research and has many applications in the real world. In this paper, we introduce a combined control strategy to a binary class-based BCI system that allows the user to move a cursor in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. Users focus on a single moving vector to control 2D movement instead of controlling vertical and horizontal movement separately. Approach. Five participants took part in a fixed-target experiment and random-target experiment to verify the effectiveness of the combination control strategy under the fixed and random routine conditions. Both experiments were performed in a virtual 2D dimensional environment and visual feedback was provided on the screen. Main results. The five participants achieved an average hit rate of 98.9% and 99.4% for the fixed-target experiment and the random-target experiment, respectively. Significance. The results demonstrate that participants could move the cursor in the 2D plane effectively. The proposed control strategy is based only on a basic two-motor imagery BCI, which enables more people to use it in real-life applications.

  4. Neurofeedback Control of the Human GABAergic System Using Non-invasive Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koganemaru, Satoko; Mikami, Yusuke; Maezawa, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Satoshi; Ikoma, Katsunori; Mima, Tatsuya

    2018-06-01

    Neurofeedback has been a powerful method for self-regulating brain activities to elicit potential ability of human mind. GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool that can evaluate the GABAergic system within the primary motor cortex (M1) using paired-pulse stimuli, short intracortical inhibition (SICI). Herein we investigated whether neurofeedback learning using SICI enabled us to control the GABAergic system within the M1 area. Forty-five healthy subjects were randomly divided into two groups: those receiving SICI neurofeedback learning or those receiving no neurofeedback (control) learning. During both learning periods, subjects made attempts to change the size of a circle, which was altered according to the degree of SICI in the SICI neurofeedback learning group, and which was altered independent of the degree of SICI in the control learning group. Results demonstrated that the SICI neurofeedback learning group showed a significant enhancement in SICI. Moreover, this group showed a significant reduction in choice reaction time compared to the control group. Our findings indicate that humans can intrinsically control the intracortical GABAergic system within M1 and can thus improve motor behaviors by SICI neurofeedback learning. SICI neurofeedback learning is a novel and promising approach to control our neural system and potentially represents a new therapy for patients with abnormal motor symptoms caused by CNS disorders. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain Computer Interface for Micro-controller Driven Robot Based on Emotiv Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Gargava

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Brain Computer Interface (BCI is developed to navigate a micro-controller based robot using Emotiv sensors. The BCI system has a pipeline of 5 stages- signal acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction, classification and CUDA inter- facing. It shall aid in serving a prototype for physical movement of neurological patients who are unable to control or operate on their muscular movements. All stages of the pipeline are designed to process bodily actions like eye blinks to command navigation of the robot. This prototype works on features learning and classification centric techniques using support vector machine. The suggested pipeline, ensures successful navigation of a robot in four directions in real time with accuracy of 93 percent.

  6. Brain glucose utilization in systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric symptoms: a controlled positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, A. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Weiner, S.M. [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Peter, H.H. [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Mueller-Brand, J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Goetze, M. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Moser, E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Gutfleisch, J. [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Hoegerle, S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Juengling, F.D. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Nitzsche, E.U. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    In contrast to morphological imaging [such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography], functional imaging may be of advantage in the detection of brain abnormalities in cases of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we studied 13 patients (aged 40{+-}14 years, 11 female, 2 male) with neuropsychiatric SLE who met four of the American Rheumatism Association criteria for the classification of SLE. Ten clinically and neurologically healthy volunteers served as controls (aged 40{+-}12 years, 5 female, 5 male). Both groups were investigated using fluorine-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography (PET) and cranial MRI. The normal controls and 11 of the 13 patients showed normal MRI scans. However, PET scan was abnormal in all 13 SLE patients. Significant group-to-group differences in the glucose metabolic index (GMI=region of interest uptake/global uptake at the level of the basal ganglia and thalamus) were found in the parieto-occipital region on both sides: the GMI of the parieto-occipital region on the right side was 0.922{+-}0.045 in patients and 1.066{+-}0.081 in controls (P<0.0001, Mann Whitney U test), while on the left side it was 0.892{+-}0.060 in patients and 1.034{+-}0.051 in controls (P=0.0002). Parieto-occipital hypometabolism is a conspicuous finding in mainly MRI-negative neuropsychiatric SLE. As the parieto-occipital region is located at the boundary of blood supply of all three major arteries, it could be the most vulnerable zone of the cerebrum and may be affected at an early stage of the cerebrovascular disease. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Brain glucose utilization in systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric symptoms: a controlled positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, A.; Weiner, S.M.; Peter, H.H.; Mueller-Brand, J.; Goetze, M.; Moser, E.; Gutfleisch, J.; Hoegerle, S.; Juengling, F.D.; Nitzsche, E.U.

    1997-01-01

    In contrast to morphological imaging [such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography], functional imaging may be of advantage in the detection of brain abnormalities in cases of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we studied 13 patients (aged 40±14 years, 11 female, 2 male) with neuropsychiatric SLE who met four of the American Rheumatism Association criteria for the classification of SLE. Ten clinically and neurologically healthy volunteers served as controls (aged 40±12 years, 5 female, 5 male). Both groups were investigated using fluorine-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography (PET) and cranial MRI. The normal controls and 11 of the 13 patients showed normal MRI scans. However, PET scan was abnormal in all 13 SLE patients. Significant group-to-group differences in the glucose metabolic index (GMI=region of interest uptake/global uptake at the level of the basal ganglia and thalamus) were found in the parieto-occipital region on both sides: the GMI of the parieto-occipital region on the right side was 0.922±0.045 in patients and 1.066±0.081 in controls (P<0.0001, Mann Whitney U test), while on the left side it was 0.892±0.060 in patients and 1.034±0.051 in controls (P=0.0002). Parieto-occipital hypometabolism is a conspicuous finding in mainly MRI-negative neuropsychiatric SLE. As the parieto-occipital region is located at the boundary of blood supply of all three major arteries, it could be the most vulnerable zone of the cerebrum and may be affected at an early stage of the cerebrovascular disease. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Kenji; Makizako, Hyuma; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Suzukawa, Megumi

    2017-05-30

    Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults. A total of 24 elderly women (75-83 years old) were randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a control group. Those in the intervention group attended 3 months of biweekly 90-min sessions focused on aerobic exercise, strength training, and physical therapy. We monitored changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism during walking in both groups using positron emission tomography (PET) and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). All subjects completed the 3-month experiment and the adherence to the exercise program was 100%. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed a significantly greater step length in the right foot after 3 months of physical activity. The FDG-PET assessment revealed a significant post-intervention increase in regional glucose metabolism in the left posterior entorhinal cortex, left superior temporal gyrus, and right superior temporopolar area in the intervention group. Interestingly, the control group showed a relative increase in regional glucose metabolism in the left premotor and supplemental motor areas, left and right somatosensory association cortex, and right primary visual cortex after the 3-month period. We found no significant differences in FDG uptake between the intervention and control groups before vs. after the intervention. Exercise training increased activity in specific brain regions, such as the precuneus and entorhinal cortices, which play an important role in episodic and spatial memory. Further

  9. Intrinsic brain connectivity predicts impulse control disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, Alessandro; De Micco, Rosa; Giordano, Alfonso; di Nardo, Federica; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Siciliano, Mattia; De Stefano, Manuela; Russo, Antonio; Esposito, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2017-12-01

    Impulse control disorders can be triggered by dopamine replacement therapies in patients with PD. Using resting-state functional MRI, we investigated the intrinsic brain network connectivity at baseline in a cohort of drug-naive PD patients who successively developed impulse control disorders over a 36-month follow-up period compared with patients who did not. Baseline 3-Tesla MRI images of 30 drug-naive PD patients and 20 matched healthy controls were analyzed. The impulse control disorders' presence and severity at follow-up were assessed by the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Single-subject and group-level independent component analysis was used to investigate functional connectivity differences within the major resting-state networks. We also compared internetwork connectivity between patients. Finally, a multivariate Cox regression model was used to investigate baseline predictors of impulse control disorder development. At baseline, decreased connectivity in the default-mode and right central executive networks and increased connectivity in the salience network were detected in PD patients with impulse control disorders at follow-up compared with those without. Increased default-mode/central executive internetwork connectivity was significantly associated with impulse control disorders development (P impulse control disorders while on dopaminergic treatment. We hypothesize that these divergent cognitive and limbic network connectivity changes could represent a potential biomarker and an additional risk factor for the emergence of impulse control disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Toward brain-computer interface based wheelchair control utilizing tactually-evoked event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe disabilities, e.g. due to neurodegenerative disease, depend on technology that allows for accurate wheelchair control. For those who cannot operate a wheelchair with a joystick, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) may offer a valuable option. Technology depending on visual or auditory input may not be feasible as these modalities are dedicated to processing of environmental stimuli (e.g. recognition of obstacles, ambient noise). Herein we thus validated the feasibility of a BCI based on tactually-evoked event-related potentials (ERP) for wheelchair control. Furthermore, we investigated use of a dynamic stopping method to improve speed of the tactile BCI system. Methods Positions of four tactile stimulators represented navigation directions (left thigh: move left; right thigh: move right; abdomen: move forward; lower neck: move backward) and N = 15 participants delivered navigation commands by focusing their attention on the desired tactile stimulus in an oddball-paradigm. Results Participants navigated a virtual wheelchair through a building and eleven participants successfully completed the task of reaching 4 checkpoints in the building. The virtual wheelchair was equipped with simulated shared-control sensors (collision avoidance), yet these sensors were rarely needed. Conclusion We conclude that most participants achieved tactile ERP-BCI control sufficient to reliably operate a wheelchair and dynamic stopping was of high value for tactile ERP classification. Finally, this paper discusses feasibility of tactile ERPs for BCI based wheelchair control. PMID:24428900

  11. Brain-Machine Interface control of a robot arm using actor-critic rainforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Mahmoudi, Babak; Geng, Shijia; Prins, Noeline; Sanchez, Justin C

    2012-01-01

    Here we demonstrate how a marmoset monkey can use a reinforcement learning (RL) Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) to effectively control the movements of a robot arm for a reaching task. In this work, an actor-critic RL algorithm used neural ensemble activity in the monkey's motor cortext to control the robot movements during a two-target decision task. This novel approach to decoding offers unique advantages for BMI control applications. Compared to supervised learning decoding methods, the actor-critic RL algorithm does not require an explicit set of training data to create a static control model, but rather it incrementally adapts the model parameters according to its current performance, in this case requiring only a very basic feedback signal. We show how this algorithm achieved high performance when mapping the monkey's neural states (94%) to robot actions, and only needed to experience a few trials before obtaining accurate real-time control of the robot arm. Since RL methods responsively adapt and adjust their parameters, they can provide a method to create BMIs that are robust against perturbations caused by changes in either the neural input space or the output actions they generate under different task requirements or goals.

  12. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential…

  13. Building the Brain's "Air Traffic Control" System: How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function. Working Paper 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Being able to focus, hold, and work with information in mind, filter distractions, and switch gears is like having an air traffic control system at a busy airport to manage the arrivals and departures of dozens of planes on multiple runways. In the brain, this air traffic control mechanism is called executive functioning, a group of skills that…

  14. Selective insulin resistance in homeostatic and cognitive control brain areas in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Impaired brain insulin action has been linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, the central nervous effects of insulin in obese humans still remain ill defined, and no study thus far has evaluated the specific brain areas affected by insulin resistance. In 25 healthy lean and 23 overweight/obese participants, we performed magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and 15 and 30 min after application of intranasal insulin or placebo. Additionally, participants explicitly rated pictures of high-caloric savory and sweet food 60 min after the spray for wanting and liking. In response to insulin compared with placebo, we found a significant CBF decrease in the hypothalamus in both lean and overweight/obese participants. The magnitude of this response correlated with visceral adipose tissue independent of other fat compartments. Furthermore, we observed a differential response in the lean compared with the overweight/obese group in the prefrontal cortex, resulting in an insulin-induced CBF reduction in lean participants only. This prefrontal cortex response significantly correlated with peripheral insulin sensitivity and eating behavior measures such as disinhibition and food craving. Behaviorally, we were able to observe a significant reduction for the wanting of sweet foods after insulin application in lean men only. Brain insulin action was selectively impaired in the prefrontal cortex in overweight and obese adults and in the hypothalamus in participants with high visceral adipose tissue, potentially promoting an altered homeostatic set point and reduced inhibitory control contributing to overeating behavior. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  15. Histone deacetylases control neurogenesis in embryonic brain by inhibition of BMP2/4 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Shakèd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone-modifying enzymes are essential for a wide variety of cellular processes dependent upon changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs lead to the compaction of chromatin and subsequent silencing of gene transcription, and they have recently been implicated in a diversity of functions and dysfunctions in the postnatal and adult brain including ocular dominance plasticity, memory consolidation, drug addiction, and depression. Here we investigate the role of HDACs in the generation of neurons and astrocytes in the embryonic brain. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a variety of HDACs are expressed in differentiating neural progenitor cells, we have taken a pharmacological approach to inhibit multiple family members. Inhibition of class I and II HDACs in developing mouse embryos with trichostatin A resulted in a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and a modest increase in neurogenesis in the cortex. An identical effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of HDACs in in vitro-differentiating neural precursors derived from the same brain regions. A reduction in neurogenesis in ganglionic eminence-derived neural precursors was accompanied by an increase in the production of immature astrocytes. We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells. HDACs function at the transcriptional level by inhibiting and promoting, respectively, the expression of Bmp2 and Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibition of the BMP2/4 signaling pathway restored normal levels of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis to both ganglionic eminence- and cortex-derived cultures in which HDACs were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a transcriptionally-based regulation of BMP2/4 signaling by HDACs both in vivo and in vitro that is critical for neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and that modulates cortical

  16. A case-control study of brain structure and behavioral characteristics in 47,XXX syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenroot, R K; Blumenthal, J D; Wallace, G L; Clasen, L S; Lee, N R; Giedd, J N

    2014-11-01

    Trisomy X, the presence of an extra X chromosome in females (47,XXX), is a relatively common but under-recognized chromosomal disorder associated with characteristic cognitive and behavioral features of varying severity. The objective of this study was to determine whether there were neuroanatomical differences in girls with Trisomy X that could relate to cognitive and behavioral differences characteristic of the disorder during childhood and adolescence. MRI scans were obtained on 35 girls with Trisomy X (mean age 11.4, SD 5.5) and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cognitive and behavioral testing was also performed. Trisomy X girls underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview. Regional brain volumes and cortical thickness were compared between the two groups. Total brain volume was significantly decreased in subjects with Trisomy X, as were all regional volumes with the exception of parietal gray matter. Differences in cortical thickness had a mixed pattern. The subjects with Trisomy X had thicker cortex in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and right medial temporal lobe, but decreased cortical thickness in both lateral temporal lobes. The most common psychiatric disorders present in this sample of Trisomy X girls included anxiety disorders (40%), attention-deficit disorder (17%) and depressive disorders (11%). The most strongly affected brain regions are consistent with phenotypic characteristics such as language delay, poor executive function and heightened anxiety previously described in population-based studies of Trisomy X and also found in our sample. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Brain glutamate in anorexia nervosa: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy case control study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Beata R; Pike, Alexandra; Sharpley, Ann L; Ayton, Agnes; Park, Rebecca J; Cowen, Philip J; Emir, Uzay E

    2017-02-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality. There are no established pharmacological treatments and the neurobiology of the condition is poorly understood. Previous studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown that AN may be associated with reductions in indices of brain glutamate; however, at conventional field strengths (≤3 T), it is difficult to separate glutamate from its precursor and metabolite, glutamine. The objective of the present study was to use high field (7 T) MRS to measure concentrations of glutamate, in three separate brain voxels, in women with AN. We studied 13 female participants with AN and 12 healthy female controls who underwent MRS scanning at 7 T with voxels placed in anterior cingulate cortex, occipital cortex and putamen. Neurometabolites were calculated using the unsuppressed water signal as a reference and corrected for individual cerebrospinal fluid concentration in the voxel. We found that participants with AN had significantly lower concentrations of glutamate in all three voxels (mean reduction 8%, p = 0.002) but glutamine levels were not altered. Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, creatine, GABA and glutathione were also unchanged. However, inositol was lower in AN participants in anterior cingulate (p = 0.022) and occipital cortex (p = 0.002). Women with AN apparently have widespread reductions in brain glutamate. Further work will be needed to assess if this change has pathophysiological relevance or whether it is a consequence of the many physical changes produced in AN by food restriction.

  18. Brain-relevant antibodies in first-episode psychosis: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Beck, Katherine; McCormack, Ruaidhri; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Coutinho, Ester; Jacobson, Leslie; Lang, Bethan; Sainz-Fuertes, Ricardo; Papanastasiou, Evangelos; Di Forti, Marta; Nicholson, Tim; Vincent, Angela; Murray, Robin M

    2018-06-01

    There has been much recent excitement about the possibility that some cases of psychosis may be wholly due to brain-reactive antibodies, with antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex reported in a few patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Participants were recruited from psychiatric services in South London, UK, from 2009 to 2011 as part of the Genetics and Psychosis study. We conducted a case-control study to examine NMDAR and VGKC-complex antibody levels and rates of antibody positivity in 96 patients presenting with FEP and 98 controls matched for age and sex. Leucine-rich glioma inactiviated-1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein (CASPR) antibodies were also measured. Notably, patients with suspicion of organic disease were excluded. VGKC-complex antibodies were found in both cases (n = 3) and controls (n = 2). NMDAR antibody positivity was seen in one case and one control. Either LGI1-Abs or CASPR2-Abs were found in three cases and three controls. Neuronal antibody staining, consistent with the above results or indicating potential novel antigens, was overall positive in four patients but also in six controls. Overall, antibody positivity was at low levels only and not higher in cases than in controls. This case-control study of the prevalence of antibodies in FEP does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that FEP is associated with an immune-mediated process in a subgroup of patients. Nevertheless, as other bio-clinical factors may influence the effect of such antibodies in a given individual, and patients with organic neurological disease may be misdiagnosed as FEP, the field requires more research to put these findings in context.

  19. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: Interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Gruber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated behaviour exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioural control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum, amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioural responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive, but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum. The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the basal ganglia to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioural and neural

  20. Oscillatory brain activity related to control mechanisms during laboratory-induced reactive aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike M Krämer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior is a common reaction in humans after an interpersonal provocation, but little is known about the underlying brain mechanisms. The present study analyzed oscillatory brain activity while participants were involved in an aggressive interaction to examine the neural processes subserving the associated decision and evaluation processes. Participants were selected from a larger sample because of their high scores in trait aggressiveness. We used a competitive reaction time task that induces aggressive behavior through provocation. Each trial is separated in a decision phase, during which the punishment for the opponent is set, and an outcome phase, during which the actual punishment is applied or received. We observed provocation-related differences during the decision phase in the theta band which differed depending on participants’ aggressive behavior: High provocation was associated with an increased frontal theta response in participants refraining from retaliation, but with reduced theta power in those who got back to the opponent. Moreover, more aggressive decisions after being punished were associated with a decrease of frontal theta power. Non-aggressive and aggressive participants differed also in their outcome-related response: Being punished led to an increased frontal theta power compared to win trials in the latter only, pointing to differences in evaluation processes associated with their different behavioral reactions. The data thus support previous evidence for a role of prefrontal areas in the control of reactive aggression and extend behavioral studies on associations between aggression or violence and impaired prefrontal functions.

  1. Curing "moral disability": brain trauma and self-control in Victorian science and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillace, Brandy L

    2013-12-01

    While, historically, the disabled body has appeared in literature as "monstrous," burgeoning psychological theories of the Victorian period predicated an unusual shift. In a culture of sexual anxiety and fears of devolution and moral decay, the physically disabled and "weak" are portrayed as strangely free from moral corruption. Unlike the cultural link between deviance and disability witnessed in the medical literature and eugenic approach to generation, authors of narrative fiction-particularly Charles Dickens, but Wilkie Collins, Charlotte Yonge, and others as well-portray disabled characters as "purified," and trauma itself as potentially sanitizing. This present paper argues that such constructions were made possible by developments in the treatment of insanity. "Curing 'Moral Disability': Brain Trauma and Self-Control in Victorian Fiction," examines the concept of trauma-as-cure. Throughout the Victorian period, case studies on brain trauma appeared in widely circulated journals like the Lancet, concurrently with burgeoning theories about psychological disturbance and "moral insanity." While not widely practiced until the early twentieth century, attempts at surgical "cures" aroused curiosity and speculation-the traumatic event that could free sufferers from deviance. This work provides a unique perspective on representations of disability as cure in the nineteenth century as a means of giving voice to the marginalized, disabled, and disempowered.

  2. Radiation control in the intensive care unit for high intensity iridium-192 brain implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewchand, W.; Drzymala, R.E.; Amin, P.P.; Salcman, M.; Salazar, O.M.

    1987-01-01

    A bedside lead cubicle was designed to minimize the radiation exposure of intensive care unit staff during routine interstitial brain irradiation by removable, high intensity iridium-192. The cubicle shields the patient without restricting intensive care routines. The design specifications were confirmed by exposure measurements around the shield with an implanted anthropomorphic phantom simulating the patient situation. The cubicle reduces the exposure rate around an implant patient by as much as 90%, with the exposure level not exceeding 0.1 mR/hour/mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir. Evaluation of data accumulated for the past 3 years has shown that the exposure levels of individual attending nurses are 0.12 to 0.36 mR/mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir per 12-hour shift. The corresponding range for entire nursing teams varies between 0.18 and 0.26. A radiation control index (exposure per mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir per nurse-hour) is thus defined for individual nurses and nursing teams; this index is a significant guide to the planning of nurse rotations for brain implant patients with various 192 Ir loads. The bedside shield reduces exposure from 192 Ir implants by a factor of about 20, as expected, and the exposure from the lower energy radioisotope iodine-125 is barely detectable

  3. Molecular control of brain size: Regulators of neural stem cell life, death and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Bertrand; Hermanson, Ola

    2010-01-01

    The proper development of the brain and other organs depends on multiple parameters, including strictly controlled expansion of specific progenitor pools. The regulation of such expansion events includes enzymatic activities that govern the correct number of specific cells to be generated via an orchestrated control of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, differentiation, cell death etc. Certain proteins in turn exert direct control of these enzymatic activities and thus progenitor pool expansion and organ size. The members of the Cip/Kip family (p21Cip1/p27Kip1/p57Kip2) are well-known regulators of cell cycle exit that interact with and inhibit the activity of cyclin-CDK complexes, whereas members of the p53/p63/p73 family are traditionally associated with regulation of cell death. It has however become clear that the roles for these proteins are not as clear-cut as initially thought. In this review, we discuss the roles for proteins of the Cip/Kip and p53/p63/p73 families in the regulation of cell cycle control, differentiation, and death of neural stem cells. We suggest that these proteins act as molecular interfaces, or 'pilots', to assure the correct assembly of protein complexes with enzymatic activities at the right place at the right time, thereby regulating essential decisions in multiple cellular events.

  4. Molecular control of brain size: Regulators of neural stem cell life, death and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Bertrand [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Cancer Centrum Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Ola, E-mail: ola.hermanson@ki.se [Linnaeus Center in Developmental Biology for Regenerative Medicine (DBRM), Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    The proper development of the brain and other organs depends on multiple parameters, including strictly controlled expansion of specific progenitor pools. The regulation of such expansion events includes enzymatic activities that govern the correct number of specific cells to be generated via an orchestrated control of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, differentiation, cell death etc. Certain proteins in turn exert direct control of these enzymatic activities and thus progenitor pool expansion and organ size. The members of the Cip/Kip family (p21Cip1/p27Kip1/p57Kip2) are well-known regulators of cell cycle exit that interact with and inhibit the activity of cyclin-CDK complexes, whereas members of the p53/p63/p73 family are traditionally associated with regulation of cell death. It has however become clear that the roles for these proteins are not as clear-cut as initially thought. In this review, we discuss the roles for proteins of the Cip/Kip and p53/p63/p73 families in the regulation of cell cycle control, differentiation, and death of neural stem cells. We suggest that these proteins act as molecular interfaces, or 'pilots', to assure the correct assembly of protein complexes with enzymatic activities at the right place at the right time, thereby regulating essential decisions in multiple cellular events.

  5. Self-concept and self-esteem after acquired brain injury: a control group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.

  6. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transferring brain-computer interfaces beyond the laboratory: successful application control for motor-disabled users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Robert; Perdikis, Serafeim; Tonin, Luca; Biasiucci, Andrea; Tavella, Michele; Creatura, Marco; Molina, Alberto; Al-Khodairy, Abdul; Carlson, Tom; Millán, José D R

    2013-10-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are no longer only used by healthy participants under controlled conditions in laboratory environments, but also by patients and end-users, controlling applications in their homes or clinics, without the BCI experts around. But are the technology and the field mature enough for this? Especially the successful operation of applications - like text entry systems or assistive mobility devices such as tele-presence robots - requires a good level of BCI control. How much training is needed to achieve such a level? Is it possible to train naïve end-users in 10 days to successfully control such applications? In this work, we report our experiences of training 24 motor-disabled participants at rehabilitation clinics or at the end-users' homes, without BCI experts present. We also share the lessons that we have learned through transferring BCI technologies from the lab to the user's home or clinics. The most important outcome is that 50% of the participants achieved good BCI performance and could successfully control the applications (tele-presence robot and text-entry system). In the case of the tele-presence robot the participants achieved an average performance ratio of 0.87 (max. 0.97) and for the text entry application a mean of 0.93 (max. 1.0). The lessons learned and the gathered user feedback range from pure BCI problems (technical and handling), to common communication issues among the different people involved, and issues encountered while controlling the applications. The points raised in this paper are very widely applicable and we anticipate that they might be faced similarly by other groups, if they move on to bringing the BCI technology to the end-user, to home environments and towards application prototype control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Feedback control policies employed by people using intracortical brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Francis R.; Pandarinath, Chethan; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Murphy, Brian A.; Memberg, William D.; Blabe, Christine H.; Saab, Jad; Walter, Benjamin L.; Sweet, Jennifer A.; Miller, Jonathan P.; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Bolu Ajiboye, A.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. When using an intracortical BCI (iBCI), users modulate their neural population activity to move an effector towards a target, stop accurately, and correct for movement errors. We call the rules that govern this modulation a ‘feedback control policy’. A better understanding of these policies may inform the design of higher-performing neural decoders. Approach. We studied how three participants in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial used an iBCI to control a cursor in a 2D target acquisition task. Participants used a velocity decoder with exponential smoothing dynamics. Through offline analyses, we characterized the users’ feedback control policies by modeling their neural activity as a function of cursor state and target position. We also tested whether users could adapt their policy to different decoder dynamics by varying the gain (speed scaling) and temporal smoothing parameters of the iBCI. Main results. We demonstrate that control policy assumptions made in previous studies do not fully describe the policies of our participants. To account for these discrepancies, we propose a new model that captures (1) how the user’s neural population activity gradually declines as the cursor approaches the target from afar, then decreases more sharply as the cursor comes into contact with the target, (2) how the user makes constant feedback corrections even when the cursor is on top of the target, and (3) how the user actively accounts for the cursor’s current velocity to avoid overshooting the target. Further, we show that users can adapt their control policy to decoder dynamics by attenuating neural modulation when the cursor gain is high and by damping the cursor velocity more strongly when the smoothing dynamics are high. Significance. Our control policy model may help to build better decoders, understand how neural activity varies during active iBCI control, and produce better simulations of closed-loop iBCI movements.

  9. Control of a brain-computer interface using stereotactic depth electrodes in and adjacent to the hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusienski, D. J.; Shih, J. J.

    2011-04-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a device that enables severely disabled people to communicate and interact with their environments using their brain waves. Most research investigating BCI in humans has used scalp-recorded electroencephalography or intracranial electrocorticography. The use of brain signals obtained directly from stereotactic depth electrodes to control a BCI has not previously been explored. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from bilateral stereotactic depth electrodes implanted in and adjacent to the hippocampus were used to control a P300 Speller paradigm. The ERPs were preprocessed and used to train a linear classifier to subsequently predict the intended target letters. The classifier was able to predict the intended target character at or near 100% accuracy using fewer than 15 stimulation sequences in the two subjects tested. Our results demonstrate that ERPs from hippocampal and hippocampal adjacent depth electrodes can be used to reliably control the P300 Speller BCI paradigm.

  10. Brain-Computer Interface application: auditory serial interface to control a two-class motor-imagery-based wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Angevin, Ricardo; Velasco-Álvarez, Francisco; Fernández-Rodríguez, Álvaro; Díaz-Estrella, Antonio; Blanca-Mena, María José; Vizcaíno-Martín, Francisco Javier

    2017-05-30

    Certain diseases affect brain areas that control the movements of the patients' body, thereby limiting their autonomy and communication capacity. Research in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces aims to provide patients with an alternative communication channel not based on muscular activity, but on the processing of brain signals. Through these systems, subjects can control external devices such as spellers to communicate, robotic prostheses to restore limb movements, or domotic systems. The present work focus on the non-muscular control of a robotic wheelchair. A proposal to control a wheelchair through a Brain-Computer Interface based on the discrimination of only two mental tasks is presented in this study. The wheelchair displacement is performed with discrete movements. The control signals used are sensorimotor rhythms modulated through a right-hand motor imagery task or mental idle state. The peculiarity of the control system is that it is based on a serial auditory interface that provides the user with four navigation commands. The use of two mental tasks to select commands may facilitate control and reduce error rates compared to other endogenous control systems for wheelchairs. Seventeen subjects initially participated in the study; nine of them completed the three sessions of the proposed protocol. After the first calibration session, seven subjects were discarded due to a low control of their electroencephalographic signals; nine out of ten subjects controlled a virtual wheelchair during the second session; these same nine subjects achieved a medium accuracy level above 0.83 on the real wheelchair control session. The results suggest that more extensive training with the proposed control system can be an effective and safe option that will allow the displacement of a wheelchair in a controlled environment for potential users suffering from some types of motor neuron diseases.

  11. Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.

  12. Plasticity of Hippocampal Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance: Missing the Synaptic Control in the Epileptic Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bonansco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is the capacity generated by experience to modify the neural function and, thereby, adapt our behaviour. Long-term plasticity of glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission occurs in a concerted manner, finely adjusting the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I balance. Imbalances of E/I function are related to several neurological diseases including epilepsy. Several evidences have demonstrated that astrocytes are able to control the synaptic plasticity, with astrocytes being active partners in synaptic physiology and E/I balance. Here, we revise molecular evidences showing the epileptic stage as an abnormal form of long-term brain plasticity and propose the possible participation of astrocytes to the abnormal increase of glutamatergic and decrease of GABAergic neurotransmission in epileptic networks.

  13. Importance of the gut-brain axis in the control of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migrenne, Stéphanie; Marsollier, Nicolas; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe

    2006-12-01

    Adult mammals finely match glucose production to glucose utilization, thus allowing glycaemia to be maintained in a physiological range of 0.8-1.2mg/dl whatever the energetic status of the mammal (i.e. fed or fasted, rested or exercised). To accomplish this, peripheral signals originating from the gut 'inform' the central nervous system, which in turn is able to monitor the status of both peripheral glucose stores and ongoing fuel availability. Indeed, both secretion and action of hormones regulating endogenous glucose production and utilization are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. These gut signals are either hormonal (e.g. glucagon-like peptide-1, ghrelin and cholecystokinine) or neuronal (e.g. afferent vagus nerve fibres). Recent data, combined with the development of incretin analogues for treatment of diabetes, highlight the importance of the gut-brain axis, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin, in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  14. Long-Term Functional and Psychosocial Outcomes After Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury: A Case-Controlled Comparison to Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbinson, Meredith; Zarshenas, Sareh; Cullen, Nora K

    2017-12-01

    Despite the increasing rate of survival from hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI), there is a paucity of evidence on the long-term functional outcomes after inpatient rehabilitation among these nontrauma patients compared to patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To compare functional and psychosocial outcomes of patients with HIBI to those of case-matched patients with TBI 4-11 years after brain insult. Retrospective, matched case-controlled study. Data at the time of rehabilitation admission and discharge were collected as part of a larger acquired brain injury (ABI) database at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (TRI) between 1999 and 2009. This study consisted of 11 patients with HIBI and 11 patients with TBI that attended the neuro-rehabilitation day program at TRI during a similar time frame and were matched on age, admission Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, and acute care length of stay (ALOS). At 4-11 years following brain insult, patients were reassessed using the FIM, Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9), and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory 4 (MPAI-4). At follow-up, patients with HIBI had significantly lower FIM motor and cognitive scores than patients with TBI (75.3 ± 20.6 versus 88.1 ± 4.78, P MPAI-4 at follow-up (P < .05). The study results suggest that patients with HIBI achieve less long-term functional improvements compared to patients with TBI. Further research is warranted to compare the components of inpatient rehabilitation while adjusting for demographics and clinical characteristics between these 2 groups of patients. III. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Resting-state brain networks in patients with Parkinson's disease and impulse control disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, Alessandro; Santangelo, Gabriella; De Micco, Rosa; Giordano, Alfonso; Raimo, Simona; Amboni, Marianna; Esposito, Fabrizio; Barone, Paolo; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Vitale, Carmine

    2017-09-01

    To investigate intrinsic neural networks connectivity changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). Fifteen patients with PD with ICD (ICD+), 15 patients with PD without ICD (ICD-) and 24 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in the study. To identify patients with and without ICD and/or punding, we used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI) and a clinical interview based on diagnostic criteria for each symptom. All patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological evaluation. Whole brain structural and functional imaging was performed on a 3T GE MR scanner. Statistical analysis of functional data was completed using BrainVoyager QX software. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to test whether between-group differences in resting-state connectivity were related to structural abnormalities. The presence of ICD symptoms was associated with an increased connectivity within the salience and default-mode networks, as well as with a decreased connectivity within the central executive network (p < .05 corrected). ICD severity was correlated with both salience and default mode networks connectivity changes only in the ICD+ group. VBM analysis did not reveal any statistically significant differences in local grey matter volume between ICD+ and ICD- patients and between all patients and HC (p < .05. FWE). The presence of a disrupted connectivity within the three core neurocognitive networks may be considered as a potential neural correlate of ICD presence in patients with PD. Our findings provide additional insights into the mechanisms underlying ICD in PD, confirming the crucial role of an abnormal prefrontal-limbic-striatal homeostasis in their development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Whole-brain diffusion-tensor changes in parkinsonian patients with impulse control disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Bin; Lee, Jee-Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Song, In Chan; Lee, Dong Soo; Jeon, Beom Seok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in diffusion-tensor images associated with medication-related impulse control disorder (ICD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing chronic dopamine-replacement therapy. Nineteen PD patients, comprising 10 with ICD (PD-ICD) and 9 without ICD (PD-nonICD), and 18 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) with no cognitive or other psychiatric disorders were analyzed. All subjects underwent 3-T magnetic resonance diffusion-tensor imaging. For all PD patients, clinical data on PD duration, antiparkinsonian medication dosages, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination were collected. Whole-brain voxel-based measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were analyzed. In comparison with HCs, the PD-nonICD subjects had low FA at the bilateral orbitofrontal areas. While the PD-ICD subjects exhibited no such difference, their FA was significantly elevated at the anterior corpus callosum. Analysis of FA between the two PD groups revealed that FA in the anterior corpus callosum, right internal capsule posterior limbs, right posterior cingulum, and right thalamic radiations were significantly higher (corrected p<0.05) in the PD-ICD than in the PD-nonICD patients. MD did not differ between the PD-ICD and PD-nonICD groups in any brain regions. The PD-ICD patients appear to have relatively preserved white-matter integrity in the regions involved in reward-related behaviors compared to PD-nonICD patients. Further investigation is required to determine whether the difference in FA between PD-ICD and PD-nonICD patients reflects microstructural differences in the pathological progression of PD or is secondary to ICD.

  17. Designing Closed-Loop Brain-Machine Interfaces Using Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs are broadly defined as systems that establish direct communications between living brain tissue and external devices, such as artificial arms. By sensing and interpreting neuronal activities to actuate an external device, BMI-based neuroprostheses hold great promise in rehabilitating motor disabled subjects, such as amputees. In this paper, we develop a control-theoretic analysis of a BMI-based neuroprosthetic system for voluntary single joint reaching task in the absence of visual feedback. Using synthetic data obtained through the simulation of an experimentally validated psycho-physiological cortical circuit model, both the Wiener filter and the Kalman filter based linear decoders are developed. We analyze the performance of both decoders in the presence and in the absence of natural proprioceptive feedback information. By performing simulations, we show that the performance of both decoders degrades significantly in the absence of the natural proprioception. To recover the performance of these decoders, we propose two problems, namely tracking the desired position trajectory and tracking the firing rate trajectory of neurons which encode the proprioception, in the model predictive control framework to design optimal artificial sensory feedback. Our results indicate that while the position trajectory based design can only recover the position and velocity trajectories, the firing rate trajectory based design can recover the performance of the motor task along with the recovery of firing rates in other cortical regions. Finally, we extend our design by incorporating a network of spiking neurons and designing artificial sensory feedback in the form of a charged balanced biphasic stimulating current.

  18. Readability assessment of concussion and traumatic brain injury publications by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Preetinder S; Gill, Tejkaran S; Kamath, Ashwini; Whisnant, Billy

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy is associated with a person’s capacity to find, access, contextualize, and understand information needed for health care-related decisions. The level of health literacy thus has an influence on an individual’s health status. It can be argued that low health literacy is associated with poor health status. Health care literature (eg, pamphlets, brochures, postcards, posters, forms) are published by public and private organizations worldwide to provide information to the general public. The ability to read, use, and understand is critical to the successful application of knowledge disseminated by this literature. This study assessed the readability, suitability, and usability of health care literature associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Suitability Assessment of Materials indices were used to assess 40 documents obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The documents analyzed were targeted towards the general public. It was found that in order to be read properly, on average, these documents needed more than an eleventh grade/high school level education. This was consistent with the findings of other similar studies. However, the qualitative Suitability Assessment of Materials index showed that, on average, usability and suitability of these documents was superior. Hence, it was concluded that formatting, illustrations, layout, and graphics play a pivotal role in improving health care-related literature and, in turn, promoting health literacy. Based on the comprehensive literature review and assessment of the 40 documents associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury, recommendations have been made for improving the readability, suitability, and usability of health care-related documents. The recommendations are

  19. On the control of brain-computer interfaces by users with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Billinger, Martin; Laparra-Hernández, José; Aloise, Fabio; García, Mariano Lloria; Faller, Josef; Scherer, Reinhold; Müller-Putz, Gernot

    2013-09-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed as a potential assistive device for individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) to assist with their communication needs. However, it is unclear how well-suited BCIs are to individuals with CP. Therefore, this study aims to investigate to what extent these users are able to gain control of BCIs. This study is conducted with 14 individuals with CP attempting to control two standard online BCIs (1) based upon sensorimotor rhythm modulations, and (2) based upon steady state visual evoked potentials. Of the 14 users, 8 are able to use one or other of the BCIs, online, with a statistically significant level of accuracy, without prior training. Classification results are driven by neurophysiological activity and not seen to correlate with occurrences of artifacts. However, many of these users' accuracies, while statistically significant, would require either more training or more advanced methods before practical BCI control would be possible. The results indicate that BCIs may be controlled by individuals with CP but that many issues need to be overcome before practical application use may be achieved. This is the first study to assess the ability of a large group of different individuals with CP to gain control of an online BCI system. The results indicate that six users could control a sensorimotor rhythm BCI and three a steady state visual evoked potential BCI at statistically significant levels of accuracy (SMR accuracies; mean ± STD, 0.821 ± 0.116, SSVEP accuracies; 0.422 ± 0.069). Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of brain activity during a Stroop inhibitory task by the kind of cognitive control required.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Grandjean

    Full Text Available This study used a proportion congruency manipulation in the Stroop task in order to investigate, at the behavioral and brain substrate levels, the predictions derived from the Dual Mechanisms of Control (DMC account of two distinct modes of cognitive control depending on the task context. Three experimental conditions were created that varied the proportion congruency: mostly incongruent (MI, mostly congruent (MC, and mostly neutral (MN contexts. A reactive control strategy, which corresponds to transient interference resolution processes after conflict detection, was expected for the rare conflicting stimuli in the MC context, and a proactive strategy, characterized by a sustained task-relevant focus prior to the occurrence of conflict, was expected in the MI context. Results at the behavioral level supported the proactive/reactive distinction, with the replication of the classic proportion congruent effect (i.e., less interference and facilitation effects in the MI context. fMRI data only partially supported our predictions. Whereas reactive control for incongruent trials in the MC context engaged the expected fronto-parietal network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex, proactive control in the MI context was not associated with any sustained lateral prefrontal cortex activations, contrary to our hypothesis. Surprisingly, incongruent trials in the MI context elicited transient activation in common with incongruent trials in the MC context, especially in DLPFC, superior parietal lobe, and insula. This lack of sustained activity in MI is discussed in reference to the possible involvement of item-specific rather than list-wide mechanisms of control in the implementation of a high task-relevant focus.

  1. Readability assessment of concussion and traumatic brain injury publications by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill PS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Preetinder S Gill,1 Tejkaran S Gill,2 Ashwini Kamath,3 Billy Whisnant41College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI; 2College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; 3School of Information, University of Texas, Austin, TX; 4College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USAAbstract: Health literacy is associated with a person’s capacity to find, access, contextualize, and understand information needed for health care-related decisions. The level of health literacy thus has an influence on an individual’s health status. It can be argued that low health literacy is associated with poor health status. Health care literature (eg, pamphlets, brochures, postcards, posters, forms are published by public and private organizations worldwide to provide information to the general public. The ability to read, use, and understand is critical to the successful application of knowledge disseminated by this literature. This study assessed the readability, suitability, and usability of health care literature associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Suitability Assessment of Materials indices were used to assess 40 documents obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The documents analyzed were targeted towards the general public. It was found that in order to be read properly, on average, these documents needed more than an eleventh grade/high school level education. This was consistent with the findings of other similar studies. However, the qualitative Suitability Assessment of Materials index showed that, on average, usability and suitability of these documents was superior. Hence, it was concluded that formatting, illustrations, layout, and graphics play a pivotal role in improving

  2. Cortical excitability correlates with the event-related desynchronization during brain-computer interface control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Blanchard, Caroline; Holmes, Nicholas P.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on motor control have been suggested as tools for stroke rehabilitation. Some initial successes have been achieved with this approach, however the mechanism by which they work is not yet fully understood. One possible part of this mechanism is a, previously suggested, relationship between the strength of the event-related desynchronization (ERD), a neural correlate of motor imagination and execution, and corticospinal excitability. Additionally, a key component of BCIs used in neurorehabilitation is the provision of visual feedback to positively reinforce attempts at motor control. However, the ability of visual feedback of the ERD to modulate the activity in the motor system has not been fully explored. Approach. We investigate these relationships via transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered at different moments in the ongoing ERD related to hand contraction and relaxation during BCI control of a visual feedback bar. Main results. We identify a significant relationship between ERD strength and corticospinal excitability, and find that our visual feedback does not affect corticospinal excitability. Significance. Our results imply that efforts to promote functional recovery in stroke by targeting increases in corticospinal excitability may be aided by accounting for the time course of the ERD.

  3. Behavioral and Brain Activity Indices of Cognitive Control Deficits in Binge Drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Molnar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking is prevalent among young adults and is a public issue of increasing importance. Its initiation and maintenance are associated with deficits in the capacity to inhibit automatic processing in favor of non-habitual responses. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine behavioral and brain activity indices of cognitive control during the Stroop task as a function of binge drinking. Heavy episodic drinkers (HED reported consuming 5+/6+ drinks in two hours at least five times in the past six months and were compared to light drinkers (LED who reported two or fewer binge episodes but were matched on demographics, intelligence and family history of alcoholism. Greater conflict-induced activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and thalamus was observed in HED participants and it was positively correlated with alcohol intake and alcohol-related harmful consequences. HEDs maintained intact accuracy but at a cost of prolonged reaction times to high-conflict trials and increased ratings of task difficulty. Greater activation of the areas implicated in cognitive control is consistent with compensatory network expansion to meet higher cognitive demands. These results provide further insight into degradation of cognitive control in HEDs which may benefit development of detection and prevention strategies.

  4. Design of a Mobile Brain Computer Interface-Based Smart Multimedia Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kevin C.; Lin, Bor-Shing; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-01-01

    Music is a way of expressing our feelings and emotions. Suitable music can positively affect people. However, current multimedia control methods, such as manual selection or automatic random mechanisms, which are now applied broadly in MP3 and CD players, cannot adaptively select suitable music according to the user’s physiological state. In this study, a brain computer interface-based smart multimedia controller was proposed to select music in different situations according to the user’s physiological state. Here, a commercial mobile tablet was used as the multimedia platform, and a wireless multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) acquisition module was designed for real-time EEG monitoring. A smart multimedia control program built in the multimedia platform was developed to analyze the user’s EEG feature and select music according his/her state. The relationship between the user’s state and music sorted by listener’s preference was also examined in this study. The experimental results show that real-time music biofeedback according a user’s EEG feature may positively improve the user’s attention state. PMID:25756862

  5. Self-paced brain-computer interface control of ambulation in a virtual reality environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po T.; King, Christine E.; Chui, Luis A.; Do, An H.; Nenadic, Zoran

    2012-10-01

    Objective. Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leaves affected individuals unable to ambulate. Electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) controlled lower extremity prostheses may restore intuitive and able-body-like ambulation after SCI. To test its feasibility, the authors developed and tested a novel EEG-based, data-driven BCI system for intuitive and self-paced control of the ambulation of an avatar within a virtual reality environment (VRE). Approach. Eight able-bodied subjects and one with SCI underwent the following 10-min training session: subjects alternated between idling and walking kinaesthetic motor imageries (KMI) while their EEG were recorded and analysed to generate subject-specific decoding models. Subjects then performed a goal-oriented online task, repeated over five sessions, in which they utilized the KMI to control the linear ambulation of an avatar and make ten sequential stops at designated points within the VRE. Main results. The average offline training performance across subjects was 77.2±11.0%, ranging from 64.3% (p = 0.001 76) to 94.5% (p = 6.26×10-23), with chance performance being 50%. The average online performance was 8.5±1.1 (out of 10) successful stops and 303±53 s completion time (perfect = 211 s). All subjects achieved performances significantly different than those of random walk (p prosthesis systems may be feasible.

  6. Effects of adult attachment and emotional distractors on brain mechanisms of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stacie L; Bost, Kelly K; Roisman, Glenn I; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Engels, Anna S; Choi, Eunsil; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy

    2010-12-01

    Using data from 34 participants who completed an emotion-word Stroop task during functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the effects of adult attachment on neural activity associated with top-down cognitive control in the presence of emotional distractors. Individuals with lower levels of secure-base-script knowledge--reflected in an adult's inability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--demonstrated more activity in prefrontal cortical regions associated with emotion regulation (e.g., right orbitofrontal cortex) and with top-down cognitive control (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and superior frontal gyrus). Less efficient performance and related increases in brain activity suggest that insecure attachment involves a vulnerability to distraction by attachment-relevant emotional information and that greater cognitive control is required to attend to task-relevant, nonemotional information. These results contribute to the understanding of mechanisms through which attachment-related experiences may influence developmental adaptation.

  7. Design of a Mobile Brain Computer Interface-Based Smart Multimedia Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Tseng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Music is a way of expressing our feelings and emotions. Suitable music can positively affect people. However, current multimedia control methods, such as manual selection or automatic random mechanisms, which are now applied broadly in MP3 and CD players, cannot adaptively select suitable music according to the user’s physiological state. In this study, a brain computer interface-based smart multimedia controller was proposed to select music in different situations according to the user’s physiological state. Here, a commercial mobile tablet was used as the multimedia platform, and a wireless multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG acquisition module was designed for real-time EEG monitoring. A smart multimedia control program built in the multimedia platform was developed to analyze the user’s EEG feature and select music according his/her state. The relationship between the user’s state and music sorted by listener’s preference was also examined in this study. The experimental results show that real-time music biofeedback according a user’s EEG feature may positively improve the user’s attention state.

  8. Childhood brain tumours and use of mobile phones: comparison of a case–control study with incidence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Denis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first case–control study on mobile phone use and brain tumour risk among children and adolescents (CEFALO study has recently been published. In a commentary published in Environmental Health, Söderqvist and colleagues argued that CEFALO suggests an increased brain tumour risk in relation to wireless phone use. In this article, we respond and show why consistency checks of case–control study results with observed time trends of incidence rates are essential, given the well described limitations of case–control studies and the steep increase of mobile phone use among children and adolescents during the last decade. There is no plausible explanation of how a notably increased risk from use of wireless phones would correspond to the relatively stable incidence time trends for brain tumours among children and adolescents observed in the Nordic countries. Nevertheless, an increased risk restricted to heavy mobile phone use, to very early life exposure, or to rare subtypes of brain tumours may be compatible with stable incidence trends at this time and thus further monitoring of childhood brain tumour incidence rate time trends is warranted.

  9. The effect of souvenaid on functional brain network organisation in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: a randomised controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke de Waal

    Full Text Available Synaptic loss is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Disturbed organisation of large-scale functional brain networks in AD might reflect synaptic loss and disrupted neuronal communication. The medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect, is designed to enhance synapse formation and function and has been shown to improve memory performance in patients with mild AD in two randomised controlled trials.To explore the effect of Souvenaid compared to control product on brain activity-based networks, as a derivative of underlying synaptic function, in patients with mild AD.A 24-week randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multi-country study.179 drug-naïve mild AD patients who participated in the Souvenir II study.Patients were randomised 1∶1 to receive Souvenaid or an iso-caloric control product once daily for 24 weeks.In a secondary analysis of the Souvenir II study, electroencephalography (EEG brain networks were constructed and graph theory was used to quantify complex brain structure. Local brain network connectivity (normalised clustering coefficient gamma and global network integration (normalised characteristic path length lambda were compared between study groups, and related to memory performance.THE NETWORK MEASURES IN THE BETA BAND WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT BETWEEN GROUPS: they decreased in the control group, but remained relatively unchanged in the active group. No consistent relationship was found between these network measures and memory performance.The current results suggest that Souvenaid preserves the organisation of brain networks in patients with mild AD within 24 weeks, hypothetically counteracting the progressive network disruption over time in AD. The results strengthen the hypothesis that Souvenaid affects synaptic integrity and function. Secondly, we conclude that advanced EEG analysis, using the mathematical framework of graph theory, is useful and

  10. The effect of souvenaid on functional brain network organisation in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Hanneke; Stam, Cornelis J; Lansbergen, Marieke M; Wieggers, Rico L; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H; Scheltens, Philip; Maestú, Fernando; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic loss is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disturbed organisation of large-scale functional brain networks in AD might reflect synaptic loss and disrupted neuronal communication. The medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect, is designed to enhance synapse formation and function and has been shown to improve memory performance in patients with mild AD in two randomised controlled trials. To explore the effect of Souvenaid compared to control product on brain activity-based networks, as a derivative of underlying synaptic function, in patients with mild AD. A 24-week randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multi-country study. 179 drug-naïve mild AD patients who participated in the Souvenir II study. Patients were randomised 1∶1 to receive Souvenaid or an iso-caloric control product once daily for 24 weeks. In a secondary analysis of the Souvenir II study, electroencephalography (EEG) brain networks were constructed and graph theory was used to quantify complex brain structure. Local brain network connectivity (normalised clustering coefficient gamma) and global network integration (normalised characteristic path length lambda) were compared between study groups, and related to memory performance. THE NETWORK MEASURES IN THE BETA BAND WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT BETWEEN GROUPS: they decreased in the control group, but remained relatively unchanged in the active group. No consistent relationship was found between these network measures and memory performance. The current results suggest that Souvenaid preserves the organisation of brain networks in patients with mild AD within 24 weeks, hypothetically counteracting the progressive network disruption over time in AD. The results strengthen the hypothesis that Souvenaid affects synaptic integrity and function. Secondly, we conclude that advanced EEG analysis, using the mathematical framework of graph theory, is useful and feasible for

  11. Risk Factors for Preoperative Seizures and Loss of Seizure Control in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Metastatic Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Adela; Weingart, Jon D; Gallia, Gary L; Lim, Michael; Brem, Henry; Bettegowda, Chetan; Chaichana, Kaisorn L

    2017-08-01

    Metastatic brain tumors are the most common brain tumors in adults. Patients with metastatic brain tumors have poor prognoses with median survival of 6-12 months. Seizures are a major presenting symptom and cause of morbidity and mortality. In this article, risk factors for the onset of preoperative seizures and postoperative seizure control are examined. Adult patients who underwent resection of one or more brain metastases at a single institution between 1998 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Of 565 patients, 114 (20.2%) patients presented with seizures. Factors independently associated with preoperative seizures were preoperative headaches (P = 0.044), cognitive deficits (P = 0.031), more than 2 intracranial metastatic tumors (P = 0.013), temporal lobe location (P = 0.031), occipital lobe location (P = 0.010), and bone involvement by tumor (P = 0.029). Factors independently associated with loss of seizure control after surgical resection were preoperative seizures (P = 0.001), temporal lobe location (P = 0.037), lack of postoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.010), subtotal resection of tumor (P = 0.022), and local recurrence (P = 0.027). At last follow-up, the majority of patients (93.8%) were seizure-free. Thirty patients (5.30%) in total had loss of seizure control, and only 8 patients (1.41%) who did not have preoperative seizures presented with new-onset seizures after surgical resection of their metastases. The brain is a common site for metastases from numerous primary cancers, such as breast and lung. The identification of factors associated with onset of preoperative seizures as well as seizure control postoperatively could aid management strategies for patients with metastatic brain tumors. Patients with preoperative seizures who underwent resection tended to have good seizure control after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria

    2016-01-01

    supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were...... complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents....

  13. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation System for Ankle Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Christine E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many neurological conditions, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury, can cause chronic gait function impairment due to foot-drop. Current physiotherapy techniques provide only a limited degree of motor function recovery in these individuals, and therefore novel therapies are needed. Brain-computer interface (BCI is a relatively novel technology with a potential to restore, substitute, or augment lost motor behaviors in patients with neurological injuries. Here, we describe the first successful integration of a noninvasive electroencephalogram (EEG-based BCI with a noninvasive functional electrical stimulation (FES system that enables the direct brain control of foot dorsiflexion in able-bodied individuals. Methods A noninvasive EEG-based BCI system was integrated with a noninvasive FES system for foot dorsiflexion. Subjects underwent computer-cued epochs of repetitive foot dorsiflexion and idling while their EEG signals were recorded and stored for offline analysis. The analysis generated a prediction model that allowed EEG data to be analyzed and classified in real time during online BCI operation. The real-time online performance of the integrated BCI-FES system was tested in a group of five able-bodied subjects who used repetitive foot dorsiflexion to elicit BCI-FES mediated dorsiflexion of the contralateral foot. Results Five able-bodied subjects performed 10 alternations of idling and repetitive foot dorsifiexion to trigger BCI-FES mediated dorsifiexion of the contralateral foot. The epochs of BCI-FES mediated foot dorsifiexion were highly correlated with the epochs of voluntary foot dorsifiexion (correlation coefficient ranged between 0.59 and 0.77 with latencies ranging from 1.4 sec to 3.1 sec. In addition, all subjects achieved a 100% BCI-FES response (no omissions, and one subject had a single false alarm. Conclusions This study suggests that the integration of a noninvasive BCI with a lower

  15. Brain-computer interface controlled functional electrical stimulation system for ankle movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, An H; Wang, Po T; King, Christine E; Abiri, Ahmad; Nenadic, Zoran

    2011-08-26

    Many neurological conditions, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury, can cause chronic gait function impairment due to foot-drop. Current physiotherapy techniques provide only a limited degree of motor function recovery in these individuals, and therefore novel therapies are needed. Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a relatively novel technology with a potential to restore, substitute, or augment lost motor behaviors in patients with neurological injuries. Here, we describe the first successful integration of a noninvasive electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCI with a noninvasive functional electrical stimulation (FES) system that enables the direct brain control of foot dorsiflexion in able-bodied individuals. A noninvasive EEG-based BCI system was integrated with a noninvasive FES system for foot dorsiflexion. Subjects underwent computer-cued epochs of repetitive foot dorsiflexion and idling while their EEG signals were recorded and stored for offline analysis. The analysis generated a prediction model that allowed EEG data to be analyzed and classified in real time during online BCI operation. The real-time online performance of the integrated BCI-FES system was tested in a group of five able-bodied subjects who used repetitive foot dorsiflexion to elicit BCI-FES mediated dorsiflexion of the contralateral foot. Five able-bodied subjects performed 10 alternations of idling and repetitive foot dorsifiexion to trigger BCI-FES mediated dorsifiexion of the contralateral foot. The epochs of BCI-FES mediated foot dorsifiexion were highly correlated with the epochs of voluntary foot dorsifiexion (correlation coefficient ranged between 0.59 and 0.77) with latencies ranging from 1.4 sec to 3.1 sec. In addition, all subjects achieved a 100% BCI-FES response (no omissions), and one subject had a single false alarm. This study suggests that the integration of a noninvasive BCI with a lower-extremity FES system is feasible. With additional modifications

  16. Phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of whole-brain irradiation with concomitant chloroquine for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Puentes, Luis L; Gonzalez-Pinedo, Marcelino; Crismatt, Alejando; Ortega-Gomez, Alette; Gamboa-Vignolle, Carlos; Nuñez-Gomez, Rodrigo; Dorantes-Gallareta, Yusmiren; Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Arrieta, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, has a lysosomotropic effect associated with increased radiationsensibility, which is mediated by the leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, increased apoptosis, autophagy and increased oxidative stress in vitro. In this phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of radiosensibilization using CLQ concomitant with 30 Gray (Gy) of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) to treat patients with brain metastases (BM) from solid tumors. Seventy-three eligible patients were randomized. Thirty-nine patients received WBI (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks) concomitant with 150 mg of CLQ for 4 weeks (the CLQ arm). Thirty-four patients received the same schedule of WBI concomitant with a placebo for 4 weeks (the control arm). All the patients were evaluated for quality of life (QoL) using the EORTC Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) (Mexican version) before beginning radiotherapy and one month later. The overall response rate (ORR) was 54% for the CLQ arm and 55% for the control arm (p=0.92). The progression-free survival of brain metastases (BMPFS) rates at one year were 83.9% (95% CI 69.4-98.4) for the CLQ arm and 55.1% (95% CI 33.6-77.6) for the control arm. Treatment with CLQ was independently associated with increased BMPFS (RR 0.31,95% CI [0.1-0.9], p=0.046).The only factor that was independently associated with increased overall survival (OS) was the presence of< 4 brain metastases (RR 1.9, 95% CI [1.12-3.3], p=0.017). WBI was associated with improvements in cognitive and emotional function but also with worsened nausea in both patients groups. No differences in QoL or toxicity were found between the study arms. Treatment with CLQ plus WBI improved the control of BM (compared with the control arm) with no increase in toxicity; however, CLQ did not improve the RR or OS. A phase III clinical trial is warranted to confirm these findings

  17. Automatic motor task selection via a bandit algorithm for a brain-controlled button

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruitet, Joan; Carpentier, Alexandra; Munos, Rémi; Clerc, Maureen

    2013-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on sensorimotor rhythms use a variety of motor tasks, such as imagining moving the right or left hand, the feet or the tongue. Finding the tasks that yield best performance, specifically to each user, is a time-consuming preliminary phase to a BCI experiment. This study presents a new adaptive procedure to automatically select (online) the most promising motor task for an asynchronous brain-controlled button. Approach. We develop for this purpose an adaptive algorithm UCB-classif based on the stochastic bandit theory and design an EEG experiment to test our method. We compare (offline) the adaptive algorithm to a naïve selection strategy which uses uniformly distributed samples from each task. We also run the adaptive algorithm online to fully validate the approach. Main results. By not wasting time on inefficient tasks, and focusing on the most promising ones, this algorithm results in a faster task selection and a more efficient use of the BCI training session. More precisely, the offline analysis reveals that the use of this algorithm can reduce the time needed to select the most appropriate task by almost half without loss in precision, or alternatively, allow us to investigate twice the number of tasks within a similar time span. Online tests confirm that the method leads to an optimal task selection. Significance. This study is the first one to optimize the task selection phase by an adaptive procedure. By increasing the number of tasks that can be tested in a given time span, the proposed method could contribute to reducing ‘BCI illiteracy’.

  18. Effects of STN and GPi deep brain stimulation on impulse control disorders and dopamine dysregulation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Moum

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders (ICDs and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS are important behavioral problems that affect a subpopulation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and typically result in markedly diminished quality of life for patients and their caregivers. We aimed to investigate the effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN and internal globus pallidus (GPi deep brain stimulation (DBS on ICD/DDS frequency and dopaminergic medication usage.A retrospective chart review was performed on 159 individuals who underwent unilateral or bilateral PD DBS surgery in either STN or GPi. According to published criteria, pre- and post-operative records were reviewed to categorize patients both pre- and post-operatively as having ICD, DDS, both ICD and DDS, or neither ICD nor DDS. Group differences in patient demographics, clinical presentations, levodopa equivalent dose (LED, and change in diagnosis following unilateral/bilateral by brain target (STN or GPi DBS placement were examined.28 patients met diagnostic criteria for ICD or DDS pre- or post-operatively. ICD or DDS classification did not differ by GPi or STN target stimulation. There was no change in DDS diagnosis after unilateral or bilateral stimulation. For ICD, diagnosis resolved in 2 of 7 individuals after unilateral or bilateral DBS. Post-operative development of these syndromes was significant; 17 patients developed ICD diagnoses post-operatively with 2 patients with pre-operative ICD developing DDS post-operatively.Unilateral or bilateral DBS did not significantly treat DDS or ICD in our sample, even though a few cases of ICD resolved post-operatively. Rather, our study provides preliminary evidence that DDS and ICD diagnoses may emerge following DBS surgery.

  19. Randomized controlled trial of peer mentoring for individuals with traumatic brain injury and their significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Robin A; Rapport, Lisa J; Wertheimer, Jeffrey; Koviak, Carole

    2012-08-01

    To examine the efficacy of a peer-mentoring program for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their significant others, and to determine the relationship of this mentoring program to 3 main outcomes: (1) emotional well-being; (2) post-TBI quality of life; and (3) community integration. Randomized controlled trial. Midwestern rehabilitation hospital. Persons with TBI (n=96) and significant others/caregivers (n=62). Persons with TBI and friends/caregivers who knew the person prior to their injury were randomly assigned to a treatment (mentored) or no-treatment (no mentoring) control group immediately prior to discharge from the rehabilitation unit and were mentored for up to 2 years. Peer Mentoring Questionnaire; Brief Symptom Inventory-18; Family Assessment Device; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations; Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test; Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey; and Community Integration Measure. Eighty-eight percent of individuals who were involved in the mentoring program reported positive experiences. t tests revealed that among persons with TBI, individuals who received mentoring had significantly better behavioral control and less chaos in the living environment (P=.04), lower alcohol use (P=.01), less emotion-focused (P=.04) and avoidance coping (P=.03), and good physical quality of life (P=.04) compared with those who did not receive mentoring. Among significant others, mentored individuals demonstrated greater community integration (P=.03) than the nonmentored control group. Mentoring can be an effective way to benefit mood and healthy coping after TBI, and it can help to prevent maladaptive behaviors, such as substance abuse and behavioral dyscontrol, in the living situation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Controlled ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption using passive acoustic emissions monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas D Arvanitis

    Full Text Available The ability of ultrasonically-induced oscillations of circulating microbubbles to permeabilize vascular barriers such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB holds great promise for noninvasive targeted drug delivery. A major issue has been a lack of control over the procedure to ensure both safe and effective treatment. Here, we evaluated the use of passively-recorded acoustic emissions as a means to achieve this control. An acoustic emissions monitoring system was constructed and integrated into a clinical transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound system. Recordings were analyzed using a spectroscopic method that isolates the acoustic emissions caused by the microbubbles during sonication. This analysis characterized and quantified harmonic oscillations that occur when the BBB is disrupted, and broadband emissions that occur when tissue damage occurs. After validating the system's performance in pilot studies that explored a wide range of exposure levels, the measurements were used to control the ultrasound exposure level during transcranial sonications at 104 volumes over 22 weekly sessions in four macaques. We found that increasing the exposure level until a large harmonic emissions signal was observed was an effective means to ensure BBB disruption without broadband emissions. We had a success rate of 96% in inducing BBB disruption as measured by in contrast-enhanced MRI, and we detected broadband emissions in less than 0.2% of the applied bursts. The magnitude of the harmonic emissions signals was significantly (P<0.001 larger for sonications where BBB disruption was detected, and it correlated with BBB permeabilization as indicated by the magnitude of the MRI signal enhancement after MRI contrast administration (R(2 = 0.78. Overall, the results indicate that harmonic emissions can be a used to control focused ultrasound-induced BBB disruption. These results are promising for clinical translation of this technology.

  1. Real-Time Control of an Articulatory-Based Speech Synthesizer for Brain Computer Interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Bocquelet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Restoring natural speech in paralyzed and aphasic people could be achieved using a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI controlling a speech synthesizer in real-time. To reach this goal, a prerequisite is to develop a speech synthesizer producing intelligible speech in real-time with a reasonable number of control parameters. We present here an articulatory-based speech synthesizer that can be controlled in real-time for future BCI applications. This synthesizer converts movements of the main speech articulators (tongue, jaw, velum, and lips into intelligible speech. The articulatory-to-acoustic mapping is performed using a deep neural network (DNN trained on electromagnetic articulography (EMA data recorded on a reference speaker synchronously with the produced speech signal. This DNN is then used in both offline and online modes to map the position of sensors glued on different speech articulators into acoustic parameters that are further converted into an audio signal using a vocoder. In offline mode, highly intelligible speech could be obtained as assessed by perceptual evaluation performed by 12 listeners. Then, to anticipate future BCI applications, we further assessed the real-time control of the synthesizer by both the reference speaker and new speakers, in a closed-loop paradigm using EMA data recorded in real time. A short calibration period was used to compensate for differences in sensor positions and articulatory differences between new speakers and the reference speaker. We found that real-time synthesis of vowels and consonants was possible with good intelligibility. In conclusion, these results open to future speech BCI applications using such articulatory-based speech synthesizer.

  2. Impulse control behaviors and subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Aristide; Romagnolo, Alberto; Rizzi, Laura; Rizzone, Mario Giorgio; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lanotte, Michele; Mandybur, George; Duker, Andrew P; Espay, Alberto J; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    To determine the clinical and demographic correlates of persistent, remitting, and new-onset impulse control behaviors (ICBs) before and after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared the pre- and post-surgical prevalence of ICBs, classified as impulse control disorders (ICD), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), and punding in 150 consecutive PD STN-DBS-treated patients and determined the association with motor, cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuropsychiatric endpoints. At baseline (before STN-DBS), ICBs were associated with younger age (p = 0.045) and male gender (85 %; p = 0.001). Over an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 2.1 years of chronic STN-DBS there was an overall trend for reduction in ICBs (from 17.3 to 12.7 %; p = 0.095) with significant improvement in hypersexuality (12-8.0 %; p = 0.047), gambling (10.7-5.3 %; p = 0.033), and DDS (4.7-0 %; p disorders; persistent ICB in those with obsessive-compulsive traits. PD-related ICBs exhibit a complex outcome after STN-DBS, with a tendency for overall reduction but with age, gender, dopaminergic therapy, and neuropsychiatric features exerting independent effects.

  3. Progesterone for Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zeng

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy and safety of progesterone administrated in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI.PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, ISRCTN registry and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing progesterone and placebo administrated in acute TBI patients. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes were unfavorable outcomes and adverse events. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of progesterone administrated in patients with acute TBI.A total of 6 studies met inclusion criteria, involving 2,476 patients. The risk of bias was considered to be low in 4 studies but high in the other 2 studies. The results of meta-analysis indicated progesterone did not reduce the mortality (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.57-1.20 or unfavorable outcomes (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.78-1.02 of acute TBI patients in comparison with placebo. Sensitivity analysis yielded consistent results. Progesterone was basically safe and well tolerated in TBI patients with the exception of increased risk of phlebitis or thrombophlebitis (RR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.96-4.66.Despite some modest bias, present evidence demonstrated that progesterone was well tolerated but did not reduce the mortality or unfavorable outcomes of adult patients with acute TBI.

  4. Design and Implementation of a Brain Computer Interface System for Controlling a Robotic Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, D.; Zoumis, S.; Asvestas, P.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design and implementation of a brain-computer interface (BCI) system that can control a robotic claw. The system is based on the Emotiv Epoc headset, which provides the capability of simultaneous recording of 14 EEG channels, as well as wireless connectivity by means of the Bluetooth protocol. The system is initially trained to decode what user thinks to properly formatted data. The headset communicates with a personal computer, which runs a dedicated software application, implemented under the Processing integrated development environment. The application acquires the data from the headset and invokes suitable commands to an Arduino Uno board. The board decodes the received commands and produces corresponding signals to a servo motor that controls the position of the robotic claw. The system was tested successfully on a healthy, male subject, aged 28 years. The results are promising, taking into account that no specialized hardware was used. However, tests on a larger number of users is necessary in order to draw solid conclusions regarding the performance of the proposed system.

  5. Visual memory and visual mental imagery recruit common control and sensory regions of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D; Thompson, William L; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    Separate lines of research have shown that visual memory and visual mental imagery are mediated by frontal-parietal control regions and can rely on occipital-temporal sensory regions of the brain. We used fMRI to assess the degree to which visual memory and visual mental imagery rely on the same neural substrates. During the familiarization/study phase, participants studied drawings of objects. During the test phase, words corresponding to old and new objects were presented. In the memory test, participants responded "remember," "know," or "new." In the imagery test, participants responded "high vividness," "moderate vividness," or "low vividness." Visual memory (old-remember) and visual imagery (old-high vividness) were commonly associated with activity in frontal-parietal control regions and occipital-temporal sensory regions. In addition, visual memory produced greater activity than visual imagery in parietal and occipital-temporal regions. The present results suggest that visual memory and visual imagery rely on highly similar--but not identical--cognitive processes.

  6. Brain Endothelial Cells Control Fertility through Ovarian-Steroid–Dependent Release of Semaphorin 3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Andrea; Casoni, Filippo; Vanacker, Charlotte; Langlet, Fanny; Hobo, Barbara; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Gallet, Sarah; Hanchate, Naresh Kumar; Mazur, Danièle; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Verhaagen, Joost; Ciofi, Philippe; Bouret, Sébastien G.; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle and promotes axonal sprouting in hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neuropeptide controlling reproduction. Both the inhibition of Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling and the conditional deletion of Nrp1 in GnRH neurons counteract Sema3A-induced axonal sprouting. Furthermore, the localized intracerebral infusion of Nrp1- or Sema3A-neutralizing antibodies in vivo disrupts the ovarian cycle. Finally, the selective neutralization of endothelial-cell Sema3A signaling in adult Sema3a loxP/loxP mice by the intravenous injection of the recombinant TAT-Cre protein alters the amplitude of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, likely by perturbing GnRH release into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Our results identify a previously unknown function for 65 kDa Sema3A-Nrp1 signaling in the induction of axonal growth, and raise the possibility that endothelial cells actively participate in synaptic plasticity in specific functional domains of the adult central nervous system, thus controlling key physiological functions such as reproduction. PMID:24618750

  7. Brain endothelial cells control fertility through ovarian-steroid-dependent release of semaphorin 3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobini, Paolo; Parkash, Jyoti; Campagne, Céline; Messina, Andrea; Casoni, Filippo; Vanacker, Charlotte; Langlet, Fanny; Hobo, Barbara; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Gallet, Sarah; Hanchate, Naresh Kumar; Mazur, Danièle; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Verhaagen, Joost; Ciofi, Philippe; Bouret, Sébastien G; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle and promotes axonal sprouting in hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neuropeptide controlling reproduction. Both the inhibition of Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling and the conditional deletion of Nrp1 in GnRH neurons counteract Sema3A-induced axonal sprouting. Furthermore, the localized intracerebral infusion of Nrp1- or Sema3A-neutralizing antibodies in vivo disrupts the ovarian cycle. Finally, the selective neutralization of endothelial-cell Sema3A signaling in adult Sema3aloxP/loxP mice by the intravenous injection of the recombinant TAT-Cre protein alters the amplitude of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, likely by perturbing GnRH release into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Our results identify a previously unknown function for 65 kDa Sema3A-Nrp1 signaling in the induction of axonal growth, and raise the possibility that endothelial cells actively participate in synaptic plasticity in specific functional domains of the adult central nervous system, thus controlling key physiological functions such as reproduction.

  8. Brain endothelial cells control fertility through ovarian-steroid-dependent release of semaphorin 3A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giacobini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1 guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle and promotes axonal sprouting in hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, the neuropeptide controlling reproduction. Both the inhibition of Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling and the conditional deletion of Nrp1 in GnRH neurons counteract Sema3A-induced axonal sprouting. Furthermore, the localized intracerebral infusion of Nrp1- or Sema3A-neutralizing antibodies in vivo disrupts the ovarian cycle. Finally, the selective neutralization of endothelial-cell Sema3A signaling in adult Sema3aloxP/loxP mice by the intravenous injection of the recombinant TAT-Cre protein alters the amplitude of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, likely by perturbing GnRH release into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Our results identify a previously unknown function for 65 kDa Sema3A-Nrp1 signaling in the induction of axonal growth, and raise the possibility that endothelial cells actively participate in synaptic plasticity in specific functional domains of the adult central nervous system, thus controlling key physiological functions such as reproduction.

  9. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horschig, J.M.; Oosterheert, W.; Oostenveld, R.; Jensen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the

  10. A Brain Computer Interface for Robust Wheelchair Control Application Based on Pseudorandom Code Modulated Visual Evoked Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohebbi, Ali; Engelsholm, Signe K.D.; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study, a novel and minimalistic Brain Computer Interface (BCI) based wheelchair control application was developed. The system was based on pseudorandom code modulated Visual Evoked Potentials (c-VEPs). The visual stimuli in the scheme were generated based on the Gold code...

  11. Extending brain-training to the affective domain: increasing cognitive and affective executive control through emotional working memory training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schweizer

    Full Text Available So-called 'brain-training' programs are a huge commercial success. However, empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness and generalizability remains equivocal. This study investigated whether brain-training (working memory [WM] training improves cognitive functions beyond the training task (transfer effects, especially regarding the control of emotional material since it constitutes much of the information we process daily. Forty-five participants received WM training using either emotional or neutral material, or an undemanding control task. WM training, regardless of training material, led to transfer gains on another WM task and in fluid intelligence. However, only brain-training with emotional material yielded transferable gains to improved control over affective information on an emotional Stroop task. The data support the reality of transferable benefits of demanding WM training and suggest that transferable gains across to affective contexts require training with material congruent to those contexts. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that intensive cognitively demanding brain-training can improve not only our abstract problem-solving capacity, but also ameliorate cognitive control processes (e.g. decision-making in our daily emotive environments.

  12. Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Pennington

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC as well as light drinking controls (CON, the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU, and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive

  13. Efficacy of the resilience and adjustment intervention after traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Marwitz, Jennifer H; Sima, Adam P; Mills, Ana; Hsu, Nancy H; Lukow, Herman R

    2018-05-24

    Examine a psychoeducational and skill-building intervention's effectiveness for individuals after traumatic brain injury (TBI), using a two-arm, parallel, randomized, controlled trial with wait-listed control. The Resilience and Adjustment Intervention (RAI) targets adjustment challenges and emphasizes education, skill-building and psychological support. Overall, 160 outpatients were randomly assigned to a treatment or wait-list control (WLC) group. The manualized treatment was delivered in seven 1-h sessions. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures included the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4), Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) and 13-Item Stress Test. After adjusting for injury severity, education and time postinjury, the RAI group (N = 75) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in resilience (effect size = 1.03) compared to the WLC group (N = 73). Participants in the RAI group demonstrated more favourable scores on the MPAI-4 Adjustment and Ability Indices, BSI-18 and the 13-item Stress Test. However, only the CD-RISC and BSI-18 demonstrated a clinically significant difference. In addition, RAI participants demonstrated maintenance of gains from pre-treatment to 3-month follow-up; however, only the BSI-18 maintained a clinically significant difference. Investigation provided evidence that a resilience-focused intervention can improve psychological health and adjustment after TBI. Additional research is needed to ascertain the longer term benefits of intervention and the efficacy of alternative delivery methods (e.g., via telephone, Internet).

  14. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jonas Grahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS.Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a smart neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and

  15. Participation in the workforce after a traumatic brain injury: a matter of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Annica E M; Haugstad, Tor; Berg, Marie; Johansson, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore individual experience in developing a mastery of daily activities and roles after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the objective of returning to work. Eight 30-60-year-old men, employed at the time of injury, were each interviewed three times over a 6-month period. Ten to 21 months after the injuries, four participants had returned to work at least part time. Grounded theory was adapted for analyses. A single core category emerged: a desire for control: focusing on high-priority issues. Still, 2 years after injury, the participants were uncertain about their abilities with respect to what was expected of them at work. They felt they would do better as time progressed. The participants' uncertainty about their efficacy cast doubt on their beliefs in improving their skills, balancing daily activities and work. They wondered about the sustainability of their health and efficacy at work. Wanting to control their own improvement, the participants asked for counselling in strategies and techniques to help with their progress. This issue could be taken into account in follow-up rehabilitation programmes. Additionally, the workplace might be the ideal context in which to develop the structures and routines necessary to master life in general. Two years after injury, the participants remained uncertain about their abilities with respect to what was expected of them at work. The participants felt they would do better as time progressed. The participants, wanting to control their own improvement, sought counselling to help sort out their priorities and found it could contribute to help with their progress in finding a suitable balance between daily activities and work. A consequence of our main finding, in a multidisciplinary context, is that counselling in structures and routines with respect to work-related tasks should be considered to be an integral part of any rehabilitation programme after TBI.

  16. Study Design for a Case Control Investigation of Cellular Telephones and Other Risk Factors for Brain Tumors in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inskip, P.D.; Hatch, E.E.; Stewart, P.A.; Heineman, E.F.; Ziegler, R.G.; Dosemeci, M.; Parry, D.; Rothman, N.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wilcosky, T.C.; Watson, D.J.; Shapiro, W.R.; Selker, R.G.; Fine, H.A.; Black, P. McL.; Loeffler, J.S.; Linet, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of brain tumours is poorly understood. Due, in part, to public concern about a postulated relationship between the use of cellular telephones or other increasingly prevalent environmental exposures and the incidence of brain cancer in adults, the National Cancer Institute is collaborating with three US hospitals in a comprehensive case control study of malignant and benign brain tumours. Factors under consideration include use of cellular phones and other wireless communication devices, workplace exposures to chemical agents and electromagnetic fields, dietary factors, family history of tumours, genetic determinants of susceptibility, home appliance use, reproductive history and hormonal exposures, viruses, medical and dental exposure to ionising radiation, and other aspects of medical history. Approximately 800 newly diagnosed brain tumour cases and 800 controls were enrolled at hospitals in Boston, Phoenix and Pittsburgh from 1994 to 1998. Cases include all adults (age ≥ 18 y) newly diagnosed with a histologically confirmed intracranial glioma, histologically confirmed intracranial meningioma or acoustic neuroma. Controls are patients admitted to the same hospitals as the cases, and treated for any of a variety of non-malignant conditions. Key features of the study include its large size, the emphasis on rapid ascertainment of incident cases and interview of study subjects rather than surrogate respondents, the use of detailed, job-specific questions developed by industrial hygienists to ascertain occupational exposures, and the storage of blood samples for future evaluation of inherited susceptibility, biomarkers of exposure and gene environment interactions. (author)

  17. THE EFFECTS OF NINTENDO WII® ON THE POSTURAL CONTROL OF PATIENTS AFFECTED BY ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vicario Mendez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature demonstrates that postural control after suffering a brain injury can actually relate to its functional prognosis. Postural control is a result of complex interactions of different body systems that co-operate in order to control the position of the body in the space and is determined by the functional task as well as by the environment in which it is developed. The use in rehabilitation of Nintendo's Wii® gives some results on motor functions. This study analyses the effects of the Nintendo Wii® console on postural control during the execution of an everyday life task consisting of getting up and walking three meters.

  18. Glymphatic clearance controls state-dependent changes in brain lactate concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Lu, Minh Lon; Yang, Ezra

    2017-01-01

    Brain lactate concentration is higher during wakefulness than in sleep. However, it is unknown why arousal is linked to an increase in brain lactate and why lactate declines within minutes of sleep. Here, we show that the glymphatic system is responsible for state-dependent changes in brain lacta......-lymphatic clearance. This analysis provides fundamental new insight into brain energy metabolism by demonstrating that glucose that is not fully oxidized can be exported as lactate via glymphatic-lymphatic fluid transport.......Brain lactate concentration is higher during wakefulness than in sleep. However, it is unknown why arousal is linked to an increase in brain lactate and why lactate declines within minutes of sleep. Here, we show that the glymphatic system is responsible for state-dependent changes in brain lactate...... concentration. Suppression of glymphatic function via acetazolamide treatment, cisterna magna puncture, aquaporin 4 deletion, or changes in body position reduced the decline in brain lactate normally observed when awake mice transition into sleep or anesthesia. Concurrently, the same manipulations diminished...

  19. Placebo-controlled trial of amantadine for severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacino, Joseph T; Whyte, John; Bagiella, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness after traumatic brain injury. Preliminary studies have suggested that amantadine may promote functional recovery.......Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness after traumatic brain injury. Preliminary studies have suggested that amantadine may promote functional recovery....

  20. Prognostic factors for survival and intracerebral control after irradiation for brain metastases from gynecological cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rades, Dirk; Fischer, Dorothea; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Schild, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    The most appropriate treatment for the individual patient with brain metastases from gynecological cancer is unclear. Most of these patients receive whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone. Prognostic factors predicting the outcomes of these patients may guide the physician to select the appropriate

  1. Aberrant brain response after auditory deviance in PTSD compared to trauma controls: An EEG study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bangel, Katrin A.; van Buschbach, Susanne; Smit, Dirk J. A.; Mazaheri, Ali; Olff, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Part of the symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are alterations in arousal and reactivity which could be related to a maladaptive increase in the automated sensory change detection system of the brain. In the current EEG study we investigated whether the brain's response to a

  2. We have got you 'covered': how the meninges control brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Julie A; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2011-06-01

    The meninges have traditionally been viewed as specialized membranes surrounding and protecting the adult brain from injury. However, there is increasing evidence that the fetal meninges play important roles during brain development. Through the release of diffusible factors, the meninges influence the proliferative and migratory behaviors of neural progenitors and neurons in the forebrain and hindbrain. Meningeal cells also secrete and organize the pial basement membrane (BM), a critical anchor point for the radially oriented fibers of neuroepithelial stem cells. With its emerging role in brain development, the potential that defects in meningeal development may underlie certain congenital brain abnormalities in humans should be considered. In this review, we will discuss what is known about assembly of the fetal meninges and review the role of meningeal-derived proteins in mouse and human brain development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of incentives, age, and behavior on brain activation during inhibitory control: A longitudinal fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Paulsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated changes in brain function supporting inhibitory control under age-controlled incentivized conditions, separating age- and performance-related activation in an accelerated longitudinal design including 10- to 22-year-olds. Better inhibitory control correlated with striatal activation during neutral trials, while Age X Behavior interactions in the striatum indicated that in the absence of extrinsic incentives, younger subjects with greater reward circuitry activation successfully engage in greater inhibitory control. Age was negatively correlated with ventral amygdala activation during Loss trials, suggesting that amygdala function more strongly mediates bottom-up processing earlier in development when controlling the negative aspects of incentives to support inhibitory control. Together, these results indicate that with development, reward-modulated cognitive control may be supported by incentive processing transitions in the amygdala, and from facilitative to obstructive striatal function during inhibitory control.

  4. Measuring inhibitory control in children and adults: brain imaging and mental chronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., “fast thinking” in Daniel Kahneman’s words). The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics) by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children’s conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number-conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need “prefrontal pedagogy” in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases) in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative priming paradigm). We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks. PMID:24994993

  5. Control of epileptic seizures in WAG/Rij rats by means of brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Vladimir V.; Maksimenko, Vladimir A.; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Lüttjohann, Annika; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2018-02-01

    The main issue of epileptology is the elimination of epileptic events. This can be achieved by a system that predicts the emergence of seizures in conjunction with a system that interferes with the process that leads to the onset of seizure. The prediction of seizures remains, for the present, unresolved in the absence epilepsy, due to the sudden onset of seizures. We developed an algorithm for predicting seizures in real time, evaluated it and implemented it into an online closed-loop brain stimulation system designed to prevent typical for the absence of epilepsy of spike waves (SWD) in the genetic rat model. The algorithm correctly predicts more than 85% of the seizures and the rest were successfully detected. Unlike the old beliefs that SWDs are unpredictable, current results show that they can be predicted and that the development of systems for predicting and preventing closed-loop capture is a feasible step on the way to intervention to achieve control and freedom from epileptic seizures.

  6. A wirelessly controlled implantable LED system for deep brain optogenetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mark A.; Go, Vinson; Murphy, Tracy; Fu, Quanhai; Morizio, James; Yin, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years optogenetics has rapidly become an essential technique in neuroscience. Its temporal and spatial specificity, combined with efficacy in manipulating neuronal activity, are especially useful in studying the behavior of awake behaving animals. Conventional optogenetics, however, requires the use of lasers and optic fibers, which can place considerable restrictions on behavior. Here we combined a wirelessly controlled interface and small implantable light-emitting diode (LED) that allows flexible and precise placement of light source to illuminate any brain area. We tested this wireless LED system in vivo, in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in striatonigral neurons expressing D1-like dopamine receptors. In all mice tested, we were able to elicit movements reliably. The frequency of twitches induced by high power stimulation is proportional to the frequency of stimulation. At lower power, contraversive turning was observed. Moreover, the implanted LED remains effective over 50 days after surgery, demonstrating the long-term stability of the light source. Our results show that the wireless LED system can be used to manipulate neural activity chronically in behaving mice without impeding natural movements. PMID:25713516

  7. Measuring inhibitory control in children and adults: brain imaging and mental chronometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eHoudé

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., fast thinking in Daniel Kahneman’s words. The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children’s conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need prefrontal pedagogy in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative-priming paradigm. We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks.

  8. Measuring inhibitory control in children and adults: brain imaging and mental chronometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., "fast thinking" in Daniel Kahneman's words). The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics) by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children's conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number-conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need "prefrontal pedagogy" in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases) in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative priming paradigm). We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks.

  9. Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaching and grasping in primates depend on the coordination of neural activity in large frontoparietal ensembles. Here we demonstrate that primates can learn to reach and grasp virtual objects by controlling a robot arm through a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMIc that uses multiple mathematical models to extract several motor parameters (i.e., hand position, velocity, gripping force, and the EMGs of multiple arm muscles from the electrical activity of frontoparietal neuronal ensembles. As single neurons typically contribute to the encoding of several motor parameters, we observed that high BMIc accuracy required recording from large neuronal ensembles. Continuous BMIc operation by monkeys led to significant improvements in both model predictions and behavioral performance. Using visual feedback, monkeys succeeded in producing robot reach-and-grasp movements even when their arms did not move. Learning to operate the BMIc was paralleled by functional reorganization in multiple cortical areas, suggesting that the dynamic properties of the BMIc were incorporated into motor and sensory cortical representations.

  10. Ofd1 controls dorso-ventral patterning and axoneme elongation during embryonic brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D'Angelo

    Full Text Available Oral-facial-digital type I syndrome (OFDI is a human X-linked dominant-male-lethal developmental disorder caused by mutations in the OFD1 gene. Similar to other inherited disorders associated to ciliary dysfunction OFD type I patients display neurological abnormalities. We characterized the neuronal phenotype that results from Ofd1 inactivation in early phases of mouse embryonic development and at post-natal stages. We determined that Ofd1 plays a crucial role in forebrain development, and in particular, in the control of dorso-ventral patterning and early corticogenesis. We observed abnormal activation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh, a major pathway modulating brain development. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated that early Ofd1 inactivation results in the absence of ciliary axonemes despite the presence of mature basal bodies that are correctly orientated and docked. Ofd1 inducible-mediated inactivation at birth does not affect ciliogenesis in the cortex, suggesting a developmental stage-dependent role for a basal body protein in ciliogenesis. Moreover, we showed defects in cytoskeletal organization and apical-basal polarity in Ofd1 mutant embryos, most likely due to lack of ciliary axonemes. Thus, the present study identifies Ofd1 as a developmental disease gene that is critical for forebrain development and ciliogenesis in embryonic life, and indicates that Ofd1 functions after docking and before elaboration of the axoneme in vivo.

  11. Postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery compared with whole brain radiotherapy for resected metastatic brain disease (NCCTG N107C/CEC·3): a multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul D; Ballman, Karla V; Cerhan, Jane H; Anderson, S Keith; Carrero, Xiomara W; Whitton, Anthony C; Greenspoon, Jeffrey; Parney, Ian F; Laack, Nadia N I; Ashman, Jonathan B; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Hadjipanayis, Costas G; Urbanic, James J; Barker, Fred G; Farace, Elana; Khuntia, Deepak; Giannini, Caterina; Buckner, Jan C; Galanis, Evanthia; Roberge, David

    2017-08-01

    Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the standard of care to improve intracranial control following resection of brain metastasis. However, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the surgical cavity is widely used in an attempt to reduce cognitive toxicity, despite the absence of high-level comparative data substantiating efficacy in the postoperative setting. We aimed to establish the effect of SRS on survival and cognitive outcomes compared with WBRT in patients with resected brain metastasis. In this randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial, adult patients (aged 18 years or older) from 48 institutions in the USA and Canada with one resected brain metastasis and a resection cavity less than 5·0 cm in maximal extent were randomly assigned (1:1) to either postoperative SRS (12-20 Gy single fraction with dose determined by surgical cavity volume) or WBRT (30 Gy in ten daily fractions or 37·5 Gy in 15 daily fractions of 2·5 Gy; fractionation schedule predetermined for all patients at treating centre). We randomised patients using a dynamic allocation strategy with stratification factors of age, duration of extracranial disease control, number of brain metastases, histology, maximal resection cavity diameter, and treatment centre. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation. The co-primary endpoints were cognitive-deterioration-free survival and overall survival, and analyses were done by intention to treat. We report the final analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01372774. Between Nov 10, 2011, and Nov 16, 2015, 194 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to SRS (98 patients) or WBRT (96 patients). Median follow-up was 11·1 months (IQR 5·1-18·0). Cognitive-deterioration-free survival was longer in patients assigned to SRS (median 3·7 months [95% CI 3·45-5·06], 93 events) than in patients assigned to WBRT (median 3·0 months [2·86-3·25], 93 events; hazard ratio [HR] 0·47 [95% CI 0·35-0·63]; p<0·0001

  12. A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system to use arbitrary Windows applications by directly controlling mouse and keyboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuler, Martin

    2015-08-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) allows to control a computer by brain activity only, without the need for muscle control. In this paper, we present an EEG-based BCI system based on code-modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEPs) that enables the user to work with arbitrary Windows applications. Other BCI systems, like the P300 speller or BCI-based browsers, allow control of one dedicated application designed for use with a BCI. In contrast, the system presented in this paper does not consist of one dedicated application, but enables the user to control mouse cursor and keyboard input on the level of the operating system, thereby making it possible to use arbitrary applications. As the c-VEP BCI method was shown to enable very fast communication speeds (writing more than 20 error-free characters per minute), the presented system is the next step in replacing the traditional mouse and keyboard and enabling complete brain-based control of a computer.

  13. Brain-machine interfaces for controlling lower-limb powered robotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongtian; Eguren, David; Azorín, José M.; Grossman, Robert G.; Phat Luu, Trieu; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Lower-limb, powered robotics systems such as exoskeletons and orthoses have emerged as novel robotic interventions to assist or rehabilitate people with walking disabilities. These devices are generally controlled by certain physical maneuvers, for example pressing buttons or shifting body weight. Although effective, these control schemes are not what humans naturally use. The usability and clinical relevance of these robotics systems could be further enhanced by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). A number of preliminary studies have been published on this topic, but a systematic understanding of the experimental design, tasks, and performance of BMI-exoskeleton systems for restoration of gait is lacking. Approach. To address this gap, we applied standard systematic review methodology for a literature search in PubMed and EMBASE databases and identified 11 studies involving BMI-robotics systems. The devices, user population, input and output of the BMIs and robot systems respectively, neural features, decoders, denoising techniques, and system performance were reviewed and compared. Main results. Results showed BMIs classifying walk versus stand tasks are the most common. The results also indicate that electroencephalography (EEG) is the only recording method for humans. Performance was not clearly presented in most of the studies. Several challenges were summarized, including EEG denoising, safety, responsiveness and others. Significance. We conclude that lower-body powered exoskeletons with automated gait intention detection based on BMIs open new possibilities in the assistance and rehabilitation fields, although the current performance, clinical benefits and several key challenging issues indicate that additional research and development is required to deploy these systems in the clinic and at home. Moreover, rigorous EEG denoising techniques, suitable performance metrics, consistent trial reporting, and more clinical trials are needed to advance the

  14. Optimal control of directional deep brain stimulation in the parkinsonian neuronal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qingyun

    2016-07-01

    The effect of conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) on debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be limited because it can only yield the spherical field. And, some side effects are clearly induced with influencing their adjacent ganglia. Recent experimental evidence for patients with Parkinson's disease has shown that a novel DBS electrode with 32 independent stimulation source contacts can effectively optimize the clinical therapy by enlarging the therapeutic windows, when it is applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This is due to the selective activation in clusters of various stimulation contacts which can be steered directionally and accurately on the targeted regions of interest. In addition, because of the serious damage to the neural tissues, the charge-unbalanced stimulation is not typically indicated and the real DBS utilizes charge-balanced bi-phasic (CBBP) pulses. Inspired by this, we computationally investigate the optimal control of directional CBBP-DBS from the proposed parkinsonian neuronal network of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. By appropriately tuning stimulation for different neuronal populations, it can be found that directional steering CBBP-DBS paradigms are superior to the spherical case in improving parkinsonian dynamical properties including the synchronization of neuronal populations and the reliability of thalamus relaying the information from cortex, which is in a good agreement with the physiological experiments. Furthermore, it can be found that directional steering stimulations can increase the optimal stimulation intensity of desynchronization by more than 1 mA compared to the spherical case. This is consistent with the experimental result with showing that there exists at least one steering direction that can allow increasing the threshold of side effects by 1 mA. In addition, we also simulate the local field potential (LFP) and dominant frequency (DF) of the STN neuronal population induced by the activation

  15. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  16. Glymphatic clearance controls state-dependent changes in brain lactate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Lu, Minh Lon; Yang, Ezra; Peng, Weiguo; Mestre, Humberto; Hitomi, Emi; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2017-06-01

    Brain lactate concentration is higher during wakefulness than in sleep. However, it is unknown why arousal is linked to an increase in brain lactate and why lactate declines within minutes of sleep. Here, we show that the glymphatic system is responsible for state-dependent changes in brain lactate concentration. Suppression of glymphatic function via acetazolamide treatment, cisterna magna puncture, aquaporin 4 deletion, or changes in body position reduced the decline in brain lactate normally observed when awake mice transition into sleep or anesthesia. Concurrently, the same manipulations diminished accumulation of lactate in cervical, but not in inguinal lymph nodes when mice were anesthetized. Thus, our study suggests that brain lactate is an excellent biomarker of the sleep-wake cycle and increases further during sleep deprivation, because brain lactate is inversely correlated with glymphatic-lymphatic clearance. This analysis provides fundamental new insight into brain energy metabolism by demonstrating that glucose that is not fully oxidized can be exported as lactate via glymphatic-lymphatic fluid transport.

  17. Enhanced prefrontal functional–structural networks to support postural control deficits after traumatic brain injury in a pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibai Diez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI affects structural connectivity, triggering the reorganization of structural–functional circuits in a manner that remains poorly understood. We focus here on brain network reorganization in relation to postural control deficits after TBI. We enrolled young participants who had suffered moderate to severe TBI, comparing them to young, typically developing control participants. TBI patients (but not controls recruited prefrontal regions to interact with two separated networks: (1 a subcortical network, including parts of the motor network, basal ganglia, cerebellum, hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate gyrus, and precuneus; and (2 a task-positive network, involving regions of the dorsal attention system, together with dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal regions. We also found that the increased prefrontal connectivity in TBI patients was correlated with some postural control indices, such as the amount of body sway, whereby patients with worse balance increased their connectivity in frontal regions more strongly. The increased prefrontal connectivity found in TBI patients may provide the structural scaffolding for stronger cognitive control of certain behavioral functions, consistent with the observations that various motor tasks are performed less automatically following TBI and that more cognitive control is associated with such actions. Using a new hierarchical atlas whose modules are relevant for both structure and function, we found increased structural and functional connectivity in prefrontal regions in TBI patients as compared to controls, in addition to a general pattern of overall decreased connectivity across the TBI brain. Although this increased prefrontal connectivity reflected interactions between brain areas when participants were at rest, the enhanced connectivity was found to be negatively correlated with active behavior such as postural control performance. Thus our findings, obtained

  18. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Akitsuki, Yuko; Shigemune, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Tsukiura, Takashi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on cognitive functions in the elderly. Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed). Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed) in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  19. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on cognitive functions in the elderly.Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed. Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention.Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet.UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  20. Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for the Upper Limb: Combining Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related ROM and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton) in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. NMES was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD) and electromyography (EMG) activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e., induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p = 0.028) or EMG (p = 0.021) modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related ROM (p = 0.009) and the movement-related brain modulation (p = 0.019). Combining a hybrid BMI with neuromuscular stimulation

  1. Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for the Upper Limb: Combining Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related ROM and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton) in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. NMES was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD) and electromyography (EMG) activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e., induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p = 0.028) or EMG (p = 0.021) modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related ROM (p = 0.009) and the movement-related brain modulation (p = 0.019). Combining a hybrid BMI with neuromuscular stimulation

  2. Childhood maltreatment is associated with a sex-dependent functional reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Amanda; Tripathi, Shanti P; Mletzko, Tanja; Young, Jonathan; Cisler, Josh M; James, G Andrew; Kilts, Clinton D

    2014-04-01

    Childhood adversity represents a major risk factor for drug addiction and other mental disorders. However, the specific mechanisms by which childhood adversity impacts human brain organization to confer greater vulnerability for negative outcomes in adulthood is largely unknown. As an impaired process in drug addiction, inhibitory control of behavior was investigated as a target of childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect). Forty adults without Axis-I psychiatric disorders (21 females) completed a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while performing a stop-signal task. A group independent component analysis identified a putative brain inhibitory control network. Graph theoretical analyses and structural equation modeling investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment on the functional organization of this neural processing network. Graph theory outcomes revealed sex differences in the relationship between network functional connectivity and inhibitory control which were dependent on the severity of childhood maltreatment exposure. A network effective connectivity analysis indicated that a maltreatment dose-related negative modulation of dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) activity by the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) predicted better response inhibition and lesser attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females, but poorer response inhibition and greater ADHD symptoms in males. Less inhibition of the right IFC by dACC in males with higher CTQ scores improved inhibitory control ability. The childhood maltreatment-related reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network provides sex-dependent mechanisms by which childhood adversity may confer greater risk for drug use and related disorders and by which adaptive brain responses protect individuals from this risk factor. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  4. ALFY-Controlled DVL3 Autophagy Regulates Wnt Signaling, Determining Human Brain Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Kadir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly is a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder of reduced head circumference and brain volume, with fewer neurons in the cortex of the developing brain due to premature transition between symmetrical and asymmetrical cellular division of the neuronal stem cell layer during neurogenesis. We now show through linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing, that a dominant mutation in ALFY, encoding an autophagy scaffold protein, causes human primary microcephaly. We demonstrate the dominant effect of the mutation in drosophila: transgenic flies harboring the human mutant allele display small brain volume, recapitulating the disease phenotype. Moreover, eye-specific expression of human mutant ALFY causes rough eye phenotype. In molecular terms, we demonstrate that normally ALFY attenuates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway via autophagy-dependent removal specifically of aggregates of DVL3 and not of Dvl1 or Dvl2. Thus, autophagic attenuation of Wnt signaling through removal of Dvl3 aggregates by ALFY acts in determining human brain size.

  5. Brain Machine Interfaces for Robotic Control in Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR will study the application of a brain machine interface (BMI) to enable crew to remotely operate and monitor robots from inside a flight vehicle, habitat...

  6. Human Brain Expansion during Evolution Is Independent of Fire Control and Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Corn?lio, Alianda M.; de Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben E.; de Bittencourt Brum, Ricardo; Queiroz, Claudio M.; Costa, Marcos R.

    2016-01-01

    What makes humans unique? This question has fascinated scientists and philosophers for centuries and it is still a matter of intense debate. Nowadays, human brain expansion during evolution has been acknowledged to explain our empowered cognitive capabilities. The drivers for such accelerated expansion remain, however, largely unknown. In this sense, studies have suggested that the cooking of food could be a pre-requisite for the expansion of brain size in early hominins. However, this appeal...

  7. Brain-computer interface controlled gaming: evaluation of usability by severely motor restricted end-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Elisa Mira; Höhne, Johannes; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Tangermann, Michael; Kübler, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Connect-Four, a new sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) based brain-computer interface (BCI) gaming application, was evaluated by four severely motor restricted end-users; two were in the locked-in state and had unreliable eye-movement. Following the user-centred approach, usability of the BCI prototype was evaluated in terms of effectiveness (accuracy), efficiency (information transfer rate (ITR) and subjective workload) and users' satisfaction. Online performance varied strongly across users and sessions (median accuracy (%) of end-users: A=.65; B=.60; C=.47; D=.77). Our results thus yielded low to medium effectiveness in three end-users and high effectiveness in one end-user. Consequently, ITR was low (0.05-1.44bits/min). Only two end-users were able to play the game in free-mode. Total workload was moderate but varied strongly across sessions. Main sources of workload were mental and temporal demand. Furthermore, frustration contributed to the subjective workload of two end-users. Nevertheless, most end-users accepted the BCI application well and rated satisfaction medium to high. Sources for dissatisfaction were (1) electrode gel and cap, (2) low effectiveness, (3) time-consuming adjustment and (4) not easy-to-use BCI equipment. All four end-users indicated ease of use as being one of the most important aspect of BCI. Effectiveness and efficiency are lower as compared to applications using the event-related potential as input channel. Nevertheless, the SMR-BCI application was satisfactorily accepted by the end-users and two of four could imagine using the BCI application in their daily life. Thus, despite moderate effectiveness and efficiency BCIs might be an option when controlling an application for entertainment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The BRAIN TRIAL: a randomised, placebo controlled trial of a Bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist (Anatibant in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rätsep Indrek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral oedema is associated with significant neurological damage in patients with traumatic brain injury. Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator that may contribute to cerebral oedema by increasing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the non-peptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Anatibant in the treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury. During the course of the trial, funding was withdrawn by the sponsor. Methods Adults with traumatic brain injury and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less, who had a CT scan showing an intracranial abnormality consistent with trauma, and were within eight hours of their injury were randomly allocated to low, medium or high dose Anatibant or to placebo. Outcomes were Serious Adverse Events (SAE, mortality 15 days following injury and in-hospital morbidity assessed by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, the Disability Rating Scale (DRS and a modified version of the Oxford Handicap Scale (HIREOS. Results 228 patients out of a planned sample size of 400 patients were randomised. The risk of experiencing one or more SAEs was 26.4% (43/163 in the combined Anatibant treated group, compared to 19.3% (11/57 in the placebo group (relative risk = 1.37; 95% CI 0·76 to 2·46. All cause mortality in the Anatibant treated group was 19% and in the placebo group 15.8% (relative risk 1.20, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.36. The mean GCS at discharge was 12.48 in the Anatibant treated group and 13.0 in the placebo group. Mean DRS was 11.18 Anatibant versus 9.73 placebo, and mean HIREOS was 3.94 Anatibant versus 3.54 placebo. The differences between the mean levels for GCS, DRS and HIREOS in the Anatibant and placebo groups, when adjusted for baseline GCS, showed a non-significant trend for worse outcomes in all three measures. Conclusion This trial did not reach the planned sample size of 400 patients and consequently, the study power to detect an increase in

  9. The BRAIN TRIAL: a randomised, placebo controlled trial of a Bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist (Anatibant) in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Haleema; Andrews, Peter; Asser, Toomas; Balica, Laura; Boeriu, Cristian; Quintero, Juan Diego Ciro; Dewan, Yashbir; Druwé, Patrick; Fletcher, Olivia; Frost, Chris; Hartzenberg, Bennie; Mantilla, Jorge Mejia; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco; Pachl, Jan; Ravi, Ramalingam R; Rätsep, Indrek; Sampaio, Cristina; Singh, Manmohan; Svoboda, Petr; Roberts, Ian

    2009-12-03

    Cerebral oedema is associated with significant neurological damage in patients with traumatic brain injury. Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator that may contribute to cerebral oedema by increasing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the non-peptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Anatibant in the treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury. During the course of the trial, funding was withdrawn by the sponsor. Adults with traumatic brain injury and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less, who had a CT scan showing an intracranial abnormality consistent with trauma, and were within eight hours of their injury were randomly allocated to low, medium or high dose Anatibant or to placebo. Outcomes were Serious Adverse Events (SAE), mortality 15 days following injury and in-hospital morbidity assessed by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and a modified version of the Oxford Handicap Scale (HIREOS). 228 patients out of a planned sample size of 400 patients were randomised. The risk of experiencing one or more SAEs was 26.4% (43/163) in the combined Anatibant treated group, compared to 19.3% (11/57) in the placebo group (relative risk = 1.37; 95% CI 0.76 to 2.46). All cause mortality in the Anatibant treated group was 19% and in the placebo group 15.8% (relative risk 1.20, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.36). The mean GCS at discharge was 12.48 in the Anatibant treated group and 13.0 in the placebo group. Mean DRS was 11.18 Anatibant versus 9.73 placebo, and mean HIREOS was 3.94 Anatibant versus 3.54 placebo. The differences between the mean levels for GCS, DRS and HIREOS in the Anatibant and placebo groups, when adjusted for baseline GCS, showed a non-significant trend for worse outcomes in all three measures. This trial did not reach the planned sample size of 400 patients and consequently, the study power to detect an increase in the risk of serious adverse events was reduced. This trial

  10. Stereotactic Radiosurgery of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastases: Prospective Evaluation of Target Margin on Tumor Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Clara Y.H.; Chang, Steven D.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Adler, John R.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Lieberson, Robert E.; Soltys, Scott G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Given the neurocognitive toxicity associated with whole-brain irradiation (WBRT), approaches to defer or avoid WBRT after surgical resection of brain metastases are desirable. Our initial experience with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) targeting the resection cavity showed promising results. We examined the outcomes of postoperative resection cavity SRS to determine the effect of adding a 2-mm margin around the resection cavity on local failure (LF) and toxicity. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 120 cavities in 112 patients treated from 1998-2009. Factors associated with LF and distant brain failure (DF) were analyzed using competing risks analysis, with death as a competing risk. The overall survival (OS) rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method; variables associated with OS were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards and log rank tests. Results: The 12-month cumulative incidence rates of LF and DF, with death as a competing risk, were 9.5% and 54%, respectively. On univariate analysis, expansion of the cavity with a 2-mm margin was associated with decreased LF; the 12-month cumulative incidence rates of LF with and without margin were 3% and 16%, respectively (P=.042). The 12-month toxicity rates with and without margin were 3% and 8%, respectively (P=.27). On multivariate analysis, melanoma histology (P=.038) and number of brain metastases (P=.0097) were associated with higher DF. The median OS time was 17 months (range, 2-114 months), with a 12-month OS rate of 62%. Overall, WBRT was avoided in 72% of the patients. Conclusion: Adjuvant SRS targeting the resection cavity of brain metastases results in excellent local control and allows WBRT to be avoided in a majority of patients. A 2-mm margin around the resection cavity improved local control without increasing toxicity compared with our prior technique with no margin.

  11. Brain networks of the imaginative mind: Dynamic functional connectivity of default and cognitive control networks relates to openness to experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E; Chen, Qunlin; Christensen, Alexander P; Qiu, Jiang; Silvia, Paul J; Schacter, Daniel L

    2018-02-01

    Imagination and creative cognition are often associated with the brain's default network (DN). Recent evidence has also linked cognitive control systems to performance on tasks involving imagination and creativity, with a growing number of studies reporting functional interactions between cognitive control and DN regions. We sought to extend the emerging literature on brain dynamics supporting imagination by examining individual differences in large-scale network connectivity in relation to Openness to Experience, a personality trait typified by imagination and creativity. To this end, we obtained personality and resting-state fMRI data from two large samples of participants recruited from the United States and China, and we examined contributions of Openness to temporal shifts in default and cognitive control network interactions using multivariate structural equation modeling and dynamic functional network connectivity analysis. In Study 1, we found that Openness was related to the proportion of scan time (i.e., "dwell time") that participants spent in a brain state characterized by positive correlations among the default, executive, salience, and dorsal attention networks. Study 2 replicated and extended the effect of Openness on dwell time in a correlated brain state comparable to the state found in Study 1, and further demonstrated the robustness of this effect in latent variable models including fluid intelligence and other major personality factors. The findings suggest that Openness to Experience is associated with increased functional connectivity between default and cognitive control systems, a connectivity profile that may account for the enhanced imaginative and creative abilities of people high in Openness to Experience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of edaravone on radiation-induced brain necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yamei; Rong, Xiaoming; Hu, Weihan; Li, Guoqian; Yang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Jianhua; Xu, Pengfei; Luo, Jinjun

    2014-11-01

    Excessive generation of free radicals plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on radiation-induced brain necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eligible patients were randomized 1:1 to the control group and the edaravone group (intravenous 30 mg twice per day for 2 weeks). Both groups received intravenous conventional steroid therapy and were monitored by brain MRI and LENT/SOMA scales prior to the entry of the trial and at 3-months after completing the trial. The primary end point was a 3-month response rate of the proportional changes determined by MRI. The trial is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01865201. Between 2009 and 2012, we enrolled 154 patients. Of whom 137 were eligible for analysis. The volumes of necrosis estimated on T(2)-weighted image showed that 55.6 % edaravone-treated patients (40 out of 72) showed edema decreases ≥25 %, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (35.4 %, 23 out of 65, p = 0.025). Forty-four patients treated with edaravone (61.1 %) reported improvement in neurologic symptoms and signs evaluated by LENT/SOMA scales, while the rate was 38.5 % in the control group (p = 0.006). MRI of the edaravone group showed a significant decrease in area of T(1)-weighted contrast enhancement (1.67 ± 4.69 cm(2), p = 0.004) and the T(2)-weighted edema (5.08 ± 10.32 cm(2), p = 0.000). Moreover, compared with those in control group, patients with edaravone exhibited significantly better radiological improvement measured by T(2)-weighted image (p = 0.042). Administration of edaravone, in adjunct to steroid regimen, might provide a better outcome in patients with radiation-induced brain necrosis.

  13. An approach for brain-controlled prostheses based on Scene Graph Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Hanzhe; Zhang, Liming; Lu, Zhufeng; Chen, Jiangcheng

    2018-08-01

    Brain control technology can restore communication between the brain and a prosthesis, and choosing a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) paradigm to evoke electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an essential step for developing this technology. In this paper, the Scene Graph paradigm used for controlling prostheses was proposed; this paradigm is based on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) regarding the Scene Graph of a subject's intention. A mathematic model was built to predict SSVEPs evoked by the proposed paradigm and a sinusoidal stimulation method was used to present the Scene Graph stimulus to elicit SSVEPs from subjects. Then, a 2-degree of freedom (2-DOF) brain-controlled prosthesis system was constructed to validate the performance of the Scene Graph-SSVEP (SG-SSVEP)-based BCI. The classification of SG-SSVEPs was detected via the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) approach. To assess the efficiency of proposed BCI system, the performances of traditional SSVEP-BCI system were compared. Experimental results from six subjects suggested that the proposed system effectively enhanced the SSVEP responses, decreased the degradation of SSVEP strength and reduced the visual fatigue in comparison with the traditional SSVEP-BCI system. The average signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SG-SSVEP was 6.31 ± 2.64 dB, versus 3.38 ± 0.78 dB of traditional-SSVEP. In addition, the proposed system achieved good performances in prosthesis control. The average accuracy was 94.58% ± 7.05%, and the corresponding high information transfer rate (IRT) was 19.55 ± 3.07 bit/min. The experimental results revealed that the SG-SSVEP based BCI system achieves the good performance and improved the stability relative to the conventional approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain Oscillatory Correlates of Altered Executive Functioning in Positive and Negative Symptomatic Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Barbara; Minarik, Tamas; Griesmayr, Birgit; Stelzig-Schoeler, Renate; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Sauseng, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Working Memory and executive functioning deficits are core characteristics of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Electrophysiological research indicates that altered patterns of neural oscillatory mechanisms underpinning executive functioning are associated with the psychiatric disorder. Such brain oscillatory changes have been found in local amplitude differences at gamma and theta frequencies in task-specific cortical areas. Moreover, interregional interactions are also disrupted as signified by decreased phase coherence of fronto-posterior theta activity in schizophrenia patients. However, schizophrenia is not a one-dimensional psychiatric disorder but has various forms and expressions. A common distinction is between positive and negative symptomatology but most patients have both negative and positive symptoms to some extent. Here, we examined three groups-healthy controls, predominantly negative, and predominantly positive symptomatic schizophrenia patients-when performing a working memory task with increasing cognitive demand and increasing need for executive control. We analyzed brain oscillatory activity in the three groups separately and investigated how predominant symptomatology might explain differences in brain oscillatory patterns. Our results indicate that differences in task specific fronto-posterior network activity (i.e., executive control network) expressed by interregional phase synchronization are able to account for working memory dysfunctions between groups. Local changes in the theta and gamma frequency range also show differences between patients and healthy controls, and more importantly, between the two patient groups. We conclude that differences in oscillatory brain activation patterns related to executive processing can be an indicator for positive and negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, changes in cognitive and especially executive functioning in patients are expressed by alterations in a task-specific fronto

  15. Statistical analysis plan for the Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury trial: a randomised controlled trial of erythropoietin versus placebo in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Presneill, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI) trial aims to determine whether the administration of erythropoietin to patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury improves patient-centred outcomes.

  16. Usability and Performance Measure of a Consumer-grade Brain Computer Interface System for Environmental Control by Neurological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Deravi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic brain injury patients and the current financial constraints in healthcare budgets, there is a need for a more intelligent way to realise the current practice of neuro-rehabilitation service provision. Brain-computer Interface (BCI systems have the potential to address this issue to a certain extent only if carefully designed research can demonstrate that these systems are accurate, safe, cost-effective, are able to increase patient/carer satisfaction and enhance their quality of life. Therefore, one of the objectives of the proposed study was to examine whether participants (patients with brain injury and a sample of reference population were able to use a low cost BCI system (Emotiv EPOC to interact with a computer and to communicate via spelling words. Patients participated in the study did not have prior experience in using BCI headsets so as to measure the user experience in the first-exposure to BCI training. To measure emotional arousal of participants we used an ElectroDermal Activity Sensor (Qsensor by Affectiva. For the signal processing and feature extraction of imagery controls the Cognitive Suite of Emotiv's Control Panel was used. Our study reports the key findings based on data obtained from a group of patients and a sample reference population and presents the implications for the design and development of a BCI system for communication and control. The study also evaluates the performance of the system when used practically in context of an acute clinical environment

  17. Role of dexmedetomidine in stress control in traumatic brain injury and its influence on neuroendocrine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-shen LUO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the role of dexmedetomidine in stress control in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI and its influence on neuroendocrine system. Methods Ninety moderate or severe TBI patients (GCS 6-13 were admitted to ICU from May 2009 to January 2012, and they were divided into three groups according to the order of admission. Patients in group A (n=32 received 0.5-1.0μg/kg dexmedetomidine within 30min, maintained with 0.2-0.6μg/(kg.h dexmedetomidine for 24h, and morphine was administered by intravenous injection when necessary; patients in group B (n=31 received a 0.5-2.0mg/kg loading dose of propofol within 10min, maintained with 1.0-3.0mg/(kg.h for 72h, and morphine was administered by intravenous injection when necessary; patients in group C (n=27 received an intramuscular injection of pethidine or other optional drugs as control. A comprehensive evaluation was performed using Riker sedation-agitation scale combined with physiological and physical response indicators. The blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, tidal volume, arterial blood gas, plasma cortisol, plasma β-endorphin (β-EP, peripheral WBC count and blood glucose were measured and compared in 3 groups. Results The sedation rate of single-drug (i.e., without morphine administration in groups A, B and C was 86.7%, 80.6% and 77.8% respectively, and no significant difference was found among 3 groups (P>0.05. The mean arterial blood pressure at 30 min after administration was lower than that before administration in group A (P0.05. The WBC count and plasma cortisol level at 24h after treatment were lower than those before administration of the drugs in group A (P0.05. Conclusions Dexmedetomidine could alleviate the stress as a result of moderate and severe TBI, and its anti-stress and sedative effects were similar to those of propofol, but it is necessary to monitor the blood pressure. β-EP may play a coordinating role in the early stage of effect

  18. Creative music therapy to promote brain structure, function, and neurobehavioral outcomes in preterm infants: a randomized controlled pilot trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Friederike Barbara; Bucher, Hans-Ulrich; Bassler, Dirk; Hagmann, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of neurological impairment and deficits in cognition, motor function, and behavioral problems. Limited studies indicate that multi-sensory experiences support brain development in preterm infants. Music appears to promote neurobiological processes and neuronal learning in the human brain. Creative music therapy (CMT) is an individualized, interactive therapeutic approach based on the theory and methods of Nordoff and Robbins. CMT may promote brain development in preterm infants via concurrent interaction and meaningful auditory stimulation. We hypothesize that preterm infants who receive creative music therapy during neonatal intensive care admission will have developmental benefits short- and long-term brain function. A prospective, randomized controlled single-center pilot trial involving 60 clinically stable preterm infants under 32 weeks of gestational age is conducted in preparation for a multi-center trial. Thirty infants each are randomized to either standard neonatal intensive care or standard care with CMT. Music therapy intervention is approximately 20 min in duration three times per week. A trained music therapist sings for the infants in lullaby style, individually entrained and adjusted to the infant's rhythm and affect. Primary objectives of this study are feasibility of protocol implementation and investigating the potential mechanism of efficacy for this new intervention. To examine the effect of this new intervention, non-invasive, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods at corrected age and standardized neurodevelopmental assessments using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition at a corrected age of 24 months and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children at 5 years will be performed. All assessments will be performed and analyzed by blinded experts. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled clinical trial to systematically examine possible

  19. Brain-state classification and a dual-state decoder dramatically improve the control of cursor movement through a brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Nicholas A.; Ruiz-Torres, Ricardo; Perreault, Eric J.; Miller, Lee E.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. It is quite remarkable that brain machine interfaces (BMIs) can be used to control complex movements with fewer than 100 neurons. Success may be due in part to the limited range of dynamical conditions under which most BMIs are tested. Achieving high-quality control that spans these conditions with a single linear mapping will be more challenging. Even for simple reaching movements, existing BMIs must reduce the stochastic noise of neurons by averaging the control signals over time, instead of over the many neurons that normally control movement. This forces a compromise between a decoder with dynamics allowing rapid movement and one that allows postures to be maintained with little jitter. Our current work presents a method for addressing this compromise, which may also generalize to more highly varied dynamical situations, including movements with more greatly varying speed. Approach. We have developed a system that uses two independent Wiener filters as individual components in a single decoder, one optimized for movement, and the other for postural control. We computed an LDA classifier using the same neural inputs. The decoder combined the outputs of the two filters in proportion to the likelihood assigned by the classifier to each state. Main results. We have performed online experiments with two monkeys using this neural-classifier, dual-state decoder, comparing it to a standard, single-state decoder as well as to a dual-state decoder that switched states automatically based on the cursor’s proximity to a target. The performance of both monkeys using the classifier decoder was markedly better than that of the single-state decoder and comparable to the proximity decoder. Significance. We have demonstrated a novel strategy for dealing with the need to make rapid movements while also maintaining precise cursor control when approaching and stabilizing within targets. Further gains can undoubtedly be realized by optimizing the performance of the

  20. Managing Epileptic Seizures by Controlling the Brain Driver Nodes: A Complex Network View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakouie, Fatemeh, E-mail: fbakouie@aut.ac.ir [Neural and Cognitive Sciences Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cybernetics and Modeling of Biological Systems Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharibzadeh, Shahriar, E-mail: fbakouie@aut.ac.ir [Neural and Cognitive Sciences Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Towhidkhah, Farzad [Cybernetics and Modeling of Biological Systems Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-12

    The brain is a complex biological organization. In its hierarchy, different components, from neurons to functional cognitive circuits are interacting with each other. As a result of cooperation between neurons in the lower levels of this hierarchy, high level cognitive functions emerge (Stam and Reijneveld, 2007). In order to uncover the complexity of these higher functions, understanding the interaction rules in the lower level may be useful. In this level, there are lots of components which connect to each other (with a special structure) and exchange their information (in a specific manner). In this regard, complex network approach will be an influential way to study brain organization. The brain connectivity structure is suggested as a basis for emergence of its complex functions (Rubinov et al., 2009). For example, brain network analysis shows that its connectivity has the “small-worldness” feature, i.e., low characteristic path length and high clustering coefficient (Sporns et al., 2004). It has been seen that “synchronization” (as a collective dynamical behavior) occurs more rapidly in networks with small-world structure (Watts and Strogatz, 1998). Hence, we are able to use structural information (i.e., the pattern of connectivity between elements of the system) for understanding the functional pattern of the organization. Moreover, it is suggested that synchronization is the main mechanism for information exchange between different brain regions (Womelsdorf et al.,).

  1. Managing Epileptic Seizures by Controlling the Brain Driver Nodes: A Complex Network View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakouie, Fatemeh; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Towhidkhah, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    The brain is a complex biological organization. In its hierarchy, different components, from neurons to functional cognitive circuits are interacting with each other. As a result of cooperation between neurons in the lower levels of this hierarchy, high level cognitive functions emerge (Stam and Reijneveld, 2007). In order to uncover the complexity of these higher functions, understanding the interaction rules in the lower level may be useful. In this level, there are lots of components which connect to each other (with a special structure) and exchange their information (in a specific manner). In this regard, complex network approach will be an influential way to study brain organization. The brain connectivity structure is suggested as a basis for emergence of its complex functions (Rubinov et al., 2009). For example, brain network analysis shows that its connectivity has the “small-worldness” feature, i.e., low characteristic path length and high clustering coefficient (Sporns et al., 2004). It has been seen that “synchronization” (as a collective dynamical behavior) occurs more rapidly in networks with small-world structure (Watts and Strogatz, 1998). Hence, we are able to use structural information (i.e., the pattern of connectivity between elements of the system) for understanding the functional pattern of the organization. Moreover, it is suggested that synchronization is the main mechanism for information exchange between different brain regions (Womelsdorf et al.,).

  2. Challenges of proper placebo control for non-invasive brain stimulation in clinical and experimental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nick J; Gold, Edward; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Bracewell, R Martyn

    2013-10-01

    A range of techniques are now available for modulating the activity of the brain in healthy people and people with neurological conditions. These techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (tCS, which includes direct and alternating current), create magnetic or electrical fields that cross the intact skull and affect neural processing in brain areas near to the scalp location where the stimulation is delivered. TMS and tCS have proved to be valuable tools in behavioural neuroscience laboratories, where causal involvement of specific brain areas in specific tasks can be shown. In clinical neuroscience, the techniques offer the promise of correcting abnormal activity, such as when a stroke leaves a brain area underactive. As the use of brain stimulation becomes more commonplace in laboratories and clinics, we discuss the safety and ethical issues inherent in using the techniques with human participants, and we suggest how to balance scientific integrity with the safety of the participant. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Quadcopter control in three-dimensional space using a noninvasive motor imagery based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Karl; Cassady, Kaitlin; Doud, Alexander; Shades, Kaleb; Rogin, Eitan; He, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Objective At the balanced intersection of human and machine adaptation is found the optimally functioning brain-computer interface (BCI). In this study, we report a novel experiment of BCI controlling a robotic quadcopter in three-dimensional physical space using noninvasive scalp EEG in human subjects. We then quantify the performance of this system using metrics suitable for asynchronous BCI. Lastly, we examine the impact that operation of a real world device has on subjects’ control with comparison to a two-dimensional virtual cursor task. Approach Five human subjects were trained to modulate their sensorimotor rhythms to control an AR Drone navigating a three-dimensional physical space. Visual feedback was provided via a forward facing camera on the hull of the drone. Individual subjects were able to accurately acquire up to 90.5% of all valid targets presented while travelling at an average straight-line speed of 0.69 m/s. Significance Freely exploring and interacting with the world around us is a crucial element of autonomy that is lost in the context of neurodegenerative disease. Brain-computer interfaces are systems that aim to restore or enhance a user’s ability to interact with the environment via a computer and through the use of only thought. We demonstrate for the first time the ability to control a flying robot in the three-dimensional physical space using noninvasive scalp recorded EEG in humans. Our work indicates the potential of noninvasive EEG based BCI systems to accomplish complex control in three-dimensional physical space. The present study may serve as a framework for the investigation of multidimensional non-invasive brain-computer interface control in a physical environment using telepresence robotics. PMID:23735712

  4. Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Sawai, Fuyuki; Yamamoto, Yuta [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)] [and others

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans` ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI ({Delta}CHI), iCMI ({Delta}iCMI), and ER ({Delta}ER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year ({Delta}BF) were also determined. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly correlated with {Delta}BF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  5. Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Sawai, Fuyuki; Yamamoto, Yuta

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans' ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI (ΔCHI), iCMI (ΔiCMI), and ER (ΔER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year (ΔBF) were also determined. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly correlated with ΔBF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  6. Cerebral Metabolism and the Role of Glucose Control in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago Blanco, Manuel M; Prashant, Giyarpuram N; Vespa, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews key concepts of cerebral glucose metabolism, neurologic outcomes in clinical trials, the biology of the neurovascular unit and its involvement in secondary brain injury after traumatic brain insults, and current scientific and clinical data that demonstrate a better understanding of the biology of metabolic dysfunction in the brain, a concept now known as cerebral metabolic energy crisis. The use of neuromonitoring techniques to better understand the pathophysiology of the metabolic crisis is reviewed and a model that summarizes the triphasic view of cerebral metabolic disturbance supported by existing scientific data is outlined. The evidence is summarized and a template for future research provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel; Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife

  8. Out-of-Hospital Hypertonic Resuscitation Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Eileen M.; May, Susanne; Brasel, Karen J.; Schreiber, Martin; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Newgard, Craig; Slutsky, Arthur; Coimbra, Raul; Emerson, Scott; Minei, Joseph P.; Bardarson, Berit; Kudenchuk, Peter; Baker, Andrew; Christenson, Jim; Idris, Ahamed; Davis, Daniel; Fabian, Timothy C.; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Callaway, Clifton; Williams, Carolyn; Banek, Jane; Vaillancourt, Christian; van Heest, Rardi; Sopko, George; Hata, J. Steven; Hoyt, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Hypertonic fluids restore cerebral perfusion with reduced cerebral edema and modulate inflammatory response to reduce subsequent neuronal injury and thus have potential benefit in resuscitation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids improves neurologic outcome following severe TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 114 North American emergency medical services agencies within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, conducted between May 2006 and May 2009 among patients 15 years or older with blunt trauma and a prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less who did not meet criteria for hypovolemic shock. Planned enrollment was 2122 patients. Intervention A single 250-mL bolus of 7.5% saline/6% dextran 70 (hypertonic saline/dextran), 7.5% saline (hypertonic saline), or 0.9% saline (normal saline) initiated in the out-of-hospital setting. Main Outcome Measure Six-month neurologic outcome based on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) (dichotomized as >4 or ≤4). Results The study was terminated by the data and safety monitoring board after randomization of 1331 patients, having met prespecified futility criteria. Among the 1282 patients enrolled, 6-month outcomes data were available for 1087 (85%). Baseline characteristics of the groups were equivalent. There was no difference in 6-month neurologic outcome among groups with regard to proportions of patients with severe TBI (GOSE ≤4) (hypertonic saline/dextran vs normal saline: 53.7% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.2% [95% CI, −4.5% to 9.0%]; hypertonic saline vs normal saline: 54.3% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.9% [95% CI, −4.0% to 9.7%]; P=.67). There were no statistically significant differences in distribution of GOSE category or Disability Rating Score by treatment group. Survival at 28 days was 74.3% with hypertonic saline

  9. GABAergic Control of Nigrostriatal and Mesolimbic Dopamine in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Nikolaus

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study assessed the effects of the GABAA receptor (R agonist muscimol (MUS, and the GABAAR antagonist bicuculline (BIC on neocortical and subcortical radioligand binding to dopamine D2/3Rs in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat.Methods: D2/3R binding was measured with small animal SPECT in baseline and after challenge with either 1 mg/kg MUS or 1 mg/kg BIC, using [123I]IBZM as radioligand. Motor/exploratory behaviors were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to radioligand administration. Anatomical information was gained with a dedicated small animal MRI tomograph. Based on the Paxinos rat brain atlas, regions of interest were defined on SPECT-MRI overlays. Estimations of the binding potentials in baseline and after challenges were obtained by computing ratios of the specifically bound compartments to the cerebellar reference region.Results: After MUS, D2/3R binding was significantly reduced in caudateputamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, substania nigra/ventral tegmental area, and posterior hippocampus relative to baseline (0.005 ≤ p ≤ 0.012. In all these areas, except for the thalamus, D2/3R binding was negatively correlated with grooming in the first half and positively correlated with various motor/exploratory behaviors in the second half of the testing session. After BIC, D2/3R binding was significantly elevated in caudateputamen (p = 0.022 and thalamus (p = 0.047 relative to baseline. D2/3R binding in caudateputamen and thalamus was correlated negatively with sitting duration and sitting frequency and positively with motor/exploratory behaviors in the first half of the testing time.Conclusions: Findings indicate direct GABAergic control over nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine levels in relation to behavioral action. This may be of relevance for neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety disorder and schizophrenia, which are characterized by both dopaminergic and GABAergic dysfunction.

  10. Automatic quality control in clinical (1)H MRSI of brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa de Barros, Nuno; McKinley, Richard; Knecht, Urspeter; Wiest, Roland; Slotboom, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    MRSI grids frequently show spectra with poor quality, mainly because of the high sensitivity of MRS to field inhomogeneities. These poor quality spectra are prone to quantification and/or interpretation errors that can have a significant impact on the clinical use of spectroscopic data. Therefore, quality control of the spectra should always precede their clinical use. When performed manually, quality assessment of MRSI spectra is not only a tedious and time-consuming task, but is also affected by human subjectivity. Consequently, automatic, fast and reliable methods for spectral quality assessment are of utmost interest. In this article, we present a new random forest-based method for automatic quality assessment of (1)H MRSI brain spectra, which uses a new set of MRS signal features. The random forest classifier was trained on spectra from 40 MRSI grids that were classified as acceptable or non-acceptable by two expert spectroscopists. To account for the effects of intra-rater reliability, each spectrum was rated for quality three times by each rater. The automatic method classified these spectra with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.976. Furthermore, in the subset of spectra containing only the cases that were classified every time in the same way by the spectroscopists, an AUC of 0.998 was obtained. Feature importance for the classification was also evaluated. Frequency domain skewness and kurtosis, as well as time domain signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in the ranges 50-75 ms and 75-100 ms, were the most important features. Given that the method is able to assess a whole MRSI grid faster than a spectroscopist (approximately 3 s versus approximately 3 min), and without loss of accuracy (agreement between classifier trained with just one session and any of the other labelling sessions, 89.88%; agreement between any two labelling sessions, 89.03%), the authors suggest its implementation in the clinical routine. The method presented in this article was implemented

  11. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horschig, Jörn M; Oosterheert, Wouter; Oostenveld, Robert; Jensen, Ole

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the direction of attention from the magnetoencephalogram by a template matching classifier and provided the classification outcome to the subject in real-time using a novel graphical user interface. Training data for the templates were obtained from a Posner-cueing task conducted just before the BCI task. Eleven subjects participated in four sessions each. Eight of the subjects achieved classification rates significantly above chance level. Subjects were able to significantly increase their performance from the first to the second session. Individual patterns of posterior alpha power remained stable throughout the four sessions and did not change with increased performance. We conclude that posterior alpha power can successfully be used as a control signal in brain-computer interfaces. We also discuss several ideas for further improving the setup and propose future research based on solid hypotheses about behavioral consequences of modulating neuronal oscillations by brain computer interfacing.

  12. Maintenance of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Hypertension: A Novel Benefit of Exercise Training for Autonomic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Buttler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a complex multicellular structure acting as selective barrier controlling the transport of substances between these compartments. Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic hypertension is accompanied by BBB dysfunction, deficient local perfusion and plasma angiotensin II (Ang II access into the parenchyma of brain areas related to autonomic circulatory control. Knowing that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR exhibit deficient autonomic control and brain Ang II hyperactivity and that exercise training is highly effective in correcting both, we hypothesized that training, by reducing Ang II content, could improve BBB function within autonomic brain areas of the SHR. After confirming the absence of BBB lesion in the pre-hypertensive SHR, but marked fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC, 10 kD leakage into the brain parenchyma of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, nucleus of the solitary tract, and rostral ventrolateral medulla during the established phase of hypertension, adult SHR, and age-matched WKY were submitted to a treadmill training (T or kept sedentary (S for 8 weeks. The robust FITC leakage within autonomic areas of the SHR-S was largely reduced and almost normalized since the 2nd week of training (T2. BBB leakage reduction occurred simultaneously and showed strong correlations with both decreased LF/HF ratio to the heart and reduced vasomotor sympathetic activity (power spectral analysis, these effects preceding the appearance of resting bradycardia (T4 and partial pressure fall (T8. In other groups of SHR-T simultaneously infused with icv Ang II or saline (osmotic mini-pumps connected to a lateral ventricle cannula we proved that decreased local availability of this peptide and reduced microglia activation (IBA1 staining are crucial mechanisms conditioning the restoration of BBB integrity. Our data also revealed that Ang II-induced BBB lesion was faster within the PVN (T2, suggesting

  13. Irradiation induced changes in endogenous regional distribution of catecholamines in rat brain and possible control through combined radioprotective treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.H.M.; Elsayed, M.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Maklaad, Y.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study has been conducted aiming to evaluate the protective role of imidazole serotonin or their combination, on the radiation induced changes in the endogenous catecholamine contents in various areas of rat's brain : cortex, striatum, cerebellum, pons and medulla and thalamus and hypothalamus. Whole body gamma-irradiation (6 Gy) resulted in significant progressive decreases of catecholamine (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) contents, as investigated one and seven days post exposure. Administration of imidazole or serotonin showed to control radiation induced changes in catecholamine contents. Higher protection with lower potential risk of toxicity could be achieved by administration of lower doses of combined agents. The data suggest that, the endogenous concentration of catecholamines in the brain may play an important role in diagnosing the radiation hazard and evaluating the protective capacity of pharmacologic radioprotective. 2 figs

  14. Model-based rational feedback controller design for closed-loop deep brain stimulation of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelic, P.; Schiff, S. J.; Sinha, A.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. To explore the use of classical feedback control methods to achieve an improved deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithm for application to Parkinson's disease (PD). Approach. A computational model of PD dynamics was employed to develop model-based rational feedback controller design. The restoration of thalamocortical relay capabilities to patients suffering from PD is formulated as a feedback control problem with the DBS waveform serving as the control input. Two high-level control strategies are tested: one that is driven by an online estimate of thalamic reliability, and another that acts to eliminate substantial decreases in the inhibition from the globus pallidus interna (GPi) to the thalamus. Control laws inspired by traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) methodology are prescribed for each strategy and simulated on this computational model of the basal ganglia network. Main Results. For control based upon thalamic reliability, a strategy of frequency proportional control with proportional bias delivered the optimal control achieved for a given energy expenditure. In comparison, control based upon synaptic inhibitory output from the GPi performed very well in comparison with those of reliability-based control, with considerable further reduction in energy expenditure relative to that of open-loop DBS. The best controller performance was amplitude proportional with derivative control and integral bias, which is full PID control. We demonstrated how optimizing the three components of PID control is feasible in this setting, although the complexity of these optimization functions argues for adaptive methods in implementation. Significance. Our findings point to the potential value of model-based rational design of feedback controllers for Parkinson's disease.

  15. TLR2 and TLR9 synergistically control herpes simplex virus infection in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise N; Reinert, Line S; Malmgaard, Lene

    2008-01-01

    toward HSV-2 infection. After a systemic infection, the cytokine serum response was markedly reduced in the double knockout mice, but only partly affected in either strain of the single knockout mice. This was supported by in vitro data showing that HSV-induced cytokine expression relayed on TLR2 and TLR...... stimulate innate antiviral activities, thereby protecting against HSV infection in the brain....

  16. Brain endothelial cells control fertility through ovarian-steroid-dependent release of semaphorin 3A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacobini, Paolo; Parkash, Jyoti; Campagne, Céline; Messina, Andrea; Casoni, Filippo; Vanacker, Charlotte; Langlet, Fanny; Hobo, Barbara; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Gallet, Sarah; Hanchate, Naresh Kumar; Mazur, Danièle; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Verhaagen, J.; Ciofi, Philippe; Bouret, Sébastien G; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent

    Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle

  17. Predictors of Individual Tumor Local Control After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; DeWees, Todd; Simpson, Joseph R.; Huang, Jiayi; Drzymala, Robert E.; Barani, Igor J.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Rich, Keith M.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Robinson, Clifford G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control rates and predictors of individual tumor local control for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Between June 1998 and May 2011, 401 brain metastases in 228 patients were treated with Gamma Knife single-fraction SRS. Local failure was defined as an increase in lesion size after SRS. Local control was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify an optimal cutpoint for conformality index relative to local control. A P value <.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Median age was 60 years (range, 27-84 years). There were 66 cerebellar metastases (16%) and 335 supratentorial metastases (84%). The median prescription dose was 20 Gy (range, 14-24 Gy). Median overall survival from time of SRS was 12.1 months. The estimated local control at 12 months was 74%. On multivariate analysis, cerebellar location (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94, P=.009), larger tumor volume (HR 1.09, P<.001), and lower conformality (HR 0.700, P=.044) were significant independent predictors of local failure. Conformality index cutpoints of 1.4-1.9 were predictive of local control, whereas a cutpoint of 1.75 was the most predictive (P=.001). The adjusted Kaplan-Meier 1-year local control for conformality index ≥1.75 was 84% versus 69% for conformality index <1.75, controlling for tumor volume and location. The 1-year adjusted local control for cerebellar lesions was 60%, compared with 77% for supratentorial lesions, controlling for tumor volume and conformality index. Conclusions: Cerebellar tumor location, lower conformality index, and larger tumor volume were significant independent predictors of local failure after SRS for brain metastases from NSCLC. These results warrant further investigation in a prospective

  18. Donepezil for Irradiated Brain Tumor Survivors: A Phase III Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Stephen R; Case, L Doug; Peiffer, Ann; Naughton, Michelle M; Chan, Michael D; Stieber, Volker W; Moore, Dennis F; Falchuk, Steven C; Piephoff, James V; Edenfield, William J; Giguere, Jeffrey K; Loghin, Monica E; Shaw, Edward G

    2015-05-20

    Neurotoxic effects of brain irradiation include cognitive impairment in 50% to 90% of patients. Prior studies have suggested that donepezil, a neurotransmitter modulator, may improve cognitive function. A total of 198 adult brain tumor survivors ≥ 6 months after partial- or whole-brain irradiation were randomly assigned to receive a single daily dose (5 mg for 6 weeks, 10 mg for 18 weeks) of donepezil or placebo. A cognitive test battery assessing memory, attention, language, visuomotor, verbal fluency, and executive functions was administered before random assignment and at 12 and 24 weeks. A cognitive composite score (primary outcome) and individual cognitive domains were evaluated. Of this mostly middle-age, married, non-Hispanic white sample, 66% had primary brain tumors, 27% had brain metastases, and 8% underwent prophylactic cranial irradiation. After 24 weeks of treatment, the composite scores did not differ significantly between groups (P = .48); however, significant differences favoring donepezil were observed for memory (recognition, P = .027; discrimination, P = .007) and motor speed and dexterity (P = .016). Significant interactions between pretreatment cognitive function and treatment were found for cognitive composite (P = .01), immediate recall (P = .05), delayed recall (P = .004), attention (P = .01), visuomotor skills (P = .02), and motor speed and dexterity (P < .001), with the benefits of donepezil greater for those who were more cognitively impaired before study treatment. Treatment with donepezil did not significantly improve the overall composite score, but it did result in modest improvements in several cognitive functions, especially among patients with greater pretreatment impairments. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. A dual-task home-based rehabilitation programme for improving balance control in patients with acquired brain injury: a single-blind, randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirone, Eliana; Goria, Paolo Filiberto; Anselmino, Arianna

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of a dual-task home-based rehabilitation programme on balance impairments among adult patients with acquired brain injury. Single-blind, randomized controlled pilot study. Single rehabilitation centre. Sixteen participants between 12 and 18 months post-acquired brain injury with balance impairments and a score task home-based programme six days a week for seven weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Balance Evaluation System Test; secondary measures were the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale and Goal Attainment Scaling. At the end of the pilot study, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in Balance Evaluation System Test scores (17.87, SD 6.05) vs. the control group (5.5, SD 3.53; P = 0.008, r = 0.63). There was no significant difference in improvement in Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale scores between the intervention group (25.25, SD 25.51) and the control group (7.00, SD 14.73; P = 0.11, r = 0.63). There was no significant improvement in Goal Attainment Scaling scores in the intervention (19.37, SD 9.03) vs. the control group (16.28, SD 6.58; P = 0.093, r = 0.63). This pilot study shows the safety, feasibility and short-term benefit of a dual-task home-based rehabilitation programme to improve balance control in patients with acquired brain injury. A sample size of 26 participants is required for a definitive study.

  20. The medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in mild Alzheimer's disease: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijpma, Anne; van der Graaf, Marinette; Lansbergen, Marieke M; Meulenbroek, Olga; Cetinyurek-Yavuz, Aysun; Sijben, John W; Heerschap, Arend; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2017-07-26

    Synaptic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease and may be countered by increased intake of nutrients that target brain phospholipid metabolism. In this study, we explored whether the medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Thirty-four drug-naive patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (Mini Mental State Examination score ≥20) were enrolled in this exploratory, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Before and after 4-week intervention with Souvenaid or an isocaloric control product, phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed to assess surrogate measures of phospholipid synthesis and breakdown (phosphomonoesters [PME] and phosphodiesters [PDEs]), neural integrity (N-acetyl aspartate), gliosis (myo-inositol), and choline metabolism (choline-containing compounds [tCho]). The main outcome parameters were PME and PDE signal intensities and the PME/PDE ratio. MRS data from 33 patients (60-86 years old; 42% males; Souvenaid arm n = 16; control arm n = 17) were analyzed. PME/PDE and tCho were higher after 4 weeks of Souvenaid compared with control (PME/PDE least squares [LS] mean difference [95% CI] 0.18 [0.06-0.30], p = 0.005; tCho LS mean difference [95% CI] 0.01 [0.00-0.02], p = 0.019). No significant differences were observed in the other MRS outcome parameters. MRS reveals that Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in mild Alzheimer's disease, in line with findings in preclinical studies. Netherlands Trial Register, NTR3346 . Registered on 13 March 2012.

  1. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  2. Randomized controlled trial of a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program: effects on memory, mood, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Keri; Mowszowski, Loren; Cockayne, Nicole; Norrie, Louisa; Paradise, Matthew; Hermens, Daniel F; Lewis, Simon J G; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in the ageing population and absence of a cure for dementia, cost-effective prevention strategies for those 'at risk' of dementia including those with depression and/or mild cognitive impairment are urgently required. This study evaluated the efficacy of a multifaceted Healthy Brain Ageing Cognitive Training (HBA-CT) program for older adults 'at risk' of dementia. Using a single-blinded design, 64 participants (mean age = 66.5 years, SD = 8.6) were randomized to an immediate treatment (HBA-CT) or treatment-as-usual control arm. The HBA-CT intervention was conducted twice-weekly for seven weeks and comprised group-based psychoeducation about cognitive strategies and modifiable lifestyle factors pertaining to healthy brain ageing, and computerized cognitive training. In comparison to the treatment-as-usual control arm, the HBA-CT program was associated with improvements in verbal memory (p = 0.03), self-reported memory (p = 0.03), mood (p = 0.01), and sleep (p = 0.01). While the improvements in memory (p = 0.03) and sleep (p = 0.02) remained after controlling for improvements in mood, only a trend in verbal memory improvement was apparent after controlling for sleep. The HBA-CT program improves cognitive, mood, and sleep functions in older adults 'at risk' of dementia, and therefore offers promise as a secondary prevention strategy.

  3. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

  4. Controlling the error on target motion through real-time mesh adaptation: Applications to deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Huu Phuoc; Tomar, Satyendra; Courtecuisse, Hadrien; Audette, Michel; Cotin, Stéphane; Bordas, Stéphane P A

    2018-05-01

    An error-controlled mesh refinement procedure for needle insertion simulations is presented. As an example, the procedure is applied for simulations of electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation. We take into account the brain shift phenomena occurring when a craniotomy is performed. We observe that the error in the computation of the displacement and stress fields is localised around the needle tip and the needle shaft during needle insertion simulation. By suitably and adaptively refining the mesh in this region, our approach enables to control, and thus to reduce, the error whilst maintaining a coarser mesh in other parts of the domain. Through academic and practical examples we demonstrate that our adaptive approach, as compared with a uniform coarse mesh, increases the accuracy of the displacement and stress fields around the needle shaft and, while for a given accuracy, saves computational time with respect to a uniform finer mesh. This facilitates real-time simulations. The proposed methodology has direct implications in increasing the accuracy, and controlling the computational expense of the simulation of percutaneous procedures such as biopsy, brachytherapy, regional anaesthesia, or cryotherapy. Moreover, the proposed approach can be helpful in the development of robotic surgeries because the simulation taking place in the control loop of a robot needs to be accurate, and to occur in real time. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Hybrid neuroprosthesis for the upper limb: combining brain-controlled neuromuscular stimulation with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Grimm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related range of motion and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD and electromyography (EMG activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e. induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p=0.028 or EMG (p=0.021 modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related range of motion (p=0.009 and the movement-related brain modulation (p=0

  6. Post-stroke Rehabilitation Training with a Motor-Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)-Controlled Hand Exoskeleton: A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Alexander A; Mokienko, Olesya; Lyukmanov, Roman; Biryukova, Elena; Kotov, Sergey; Turbina, Lydia; Nadareyshvily, Georgy; Bushkova, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Repeated use of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) providing contingent sensory feedback of brain activity was recently proposed as a rehabilitation approach to restore motor function after stroke or spinal cord lesions. However, there are only a few clinical studies that investigate feasibility and effectiveness of such an approach. Here we report on a placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial that investigated whether stroke survivors with severe upper limb (UL) paralysis benefit from 10 BCI training sessions each lasting up to 40 min. A total of 74 patients participated: median time since stroke is 8 months, 25 and 75% quartiles [3.0; 13.0]; median severity of UL paralysis is 4.5 points [0.0; 30.0] as measured by the Action Research Arm Test, ARAT, and 19.5 points [11.0; 40.0] as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, FMMA. Patients in the BCI group ( n = 55) performed motor imagery of opening their affected hand. Motor imagery-related brain electroencephalographic activity was translated into contingent hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand. In a control group ( n = 19), hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand were independent of brain electroencephalographic activity. Evaluation of the UL clinical assessments indicated that both groups improved, but only the BCI group showed an improvement in the ARAT's grasp score from 0 [0.0; 14.0] to 3.0 [0.0; 15.0] points ( p exoskeleton-assisted physical therapy can improve post-stroke rehabilitation outcomes. Both maximum and mean values of the percentage of successfully decoded imagery-related EEG activity, were higher than chance level. A correlation between the classification accuracy and the improvement in the upper extremity function was found. An improvement of motor function was found for patients with different duration, severity and location of the stroke.

  7. The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: Progress Beyond Communication and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Acqualagna, Laura; Dähne, Sven; Haufe, Stefan; Schultze-Kraft, Matthias; Sturm, Irene; Ušćumlic, Marija; Wenzel, Markus A; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of fundamental results about neurocognitive processes and advancements in decoding mental states from ongoing brain signals has brought forth a whole range of potential neurotechnological applications. In this article, we review our developments in this area and put them into perspective. These examples cover a wide range of maturity levels with respect to their applicability. While we assume we are still a long way away from integrating Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology in general interaction with computers, or from implementing neurotechnological measures in safety-critical workplaces, results have already now been obtained involving a BCI as research tool. In this article, we discuss the reasons why, in some of the prospective application domains, considerable effort is still required to make the systems ready to deal with the full complexity of the real world.

  8. The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: Progress Beyond Communication and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blankertz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of fundamental results about neurocognitive processes and advancements in decoding mental states from ongoing brain signals has brought forth a whole range of potential neurotechnological applications. In this article, we review our developments in this area and put them into perspective. These examples cover a wide range of maturity levels with respect to their applicability. While we assume we are still a long way away from integrating Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technology in general interaction with computers, or from implementing neurotechnological measures in safety-critical workplaces, results have already now been obtained involving a BCI as research tool. In this article, we discuss the reasons why, in some of the prospective application domains, considerable effort is still required to make the systems ready to deal with the full complexity of the real world.

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Platonin, a Therapeutic Immunomodulating Medicine, on Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice after Controlled Cortical Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Lin Yen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide and leads to persistent cognitive, sensory, motor dysfunction, and emotional disorders. TBI-caused primary injury results in structural damage to brain tissues. Following the primary injury, secondary injuries which are accompanied by neuroinflammation, microglial activation, and additional cell death subsequently occur. Platonin, a cyanine photosensitizing dye, has been used to treat trauma, ulcers, and some types of acute inflammation. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of platonin against TBI were explored in a controlled cortical impact (CCI injury model in mice. Treatment with platonin (200 µg/kg significantly reduced the neurological severity score, general locomotor activity, and anxiety-related behavior, and improved the rotarod performance of CCI-injured mice. In addition, platonin reduced lesion volumes, the expression of cleaved caspase-3, and microglial activation in TBI-insulted brains. Platonin also suppressed messenger (mRNA levels of caspase-3, caspase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. On the other hand, free radical production after TBI was obviously attenuated in platonin-treated mice. Treatment with platonin exhibited prominent neuroprotective properties against TBI in a CCI mouse model through its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-free radical capabilities. This evidence collectively indicates that platonin may be a potential therapeutic medicine for use with TBIs.

  10. Image processing and Quality Control for the first 10,000 brain imaging datasets from UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Almagro, Fidel; Jenkinson, Mark; Bangerter, Neal K; Andersson, Jesper L R; Griffanti, Ludovica; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Jbabdi, Saad; Hernandez-Fernandez, Moises; Vallee, Emmanuel; Vidaurre, Diego; Webster, Matthew; McCarthy, Paul; Rorden, Christopher; Daducci, Alessandro; Alexander, Daniel C; Zhang, Hui; Dragonu, Iulius; Matthews, Paul M; Miller, Karla L; Smith, Stephen M

    2018-02-01

    UK Biobank is a large-scale prospective epidemiological study with all data accessible to researchers worldwide. It is currently in the process of bringing back 100,000 of the original participants for brain, heart and body MRI, carotid ultrasound and low-dose bone/fat x-ray. The brain imaging component covers 6 modalities (T1, T2 FLAIR, susceptibility weighted MRI, Resting fMRI, Task fMRI and Diffusion MRI). Raw and processed data from the first 10,000 imaged subjects has recently been released for general research access. To help convert this data into useful summary information we have developed an automated processing and QC (Quality Control) pipeline that is available for use by other researchers. In this paper we describe the pipeline in detail, following a brief overview of UK Biobank brain imaging and the acquisition protocol. We also describe several quantitative investigations carried out as part of the development of both the imaging protocol and the processing pipeline. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Glymphatic fluid transport controls paravascular clearance of AAV vectors from the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murlidharan, Giridhar; Crowther, Andrew; Reardon, Rebecca A.; Song, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for gene therapy of CNS disorders. However, host factors that influence the spread, clearance, and transduction efficiency of AAV vectors in the brain are not well understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that fluid flow mediated by aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels located on astroglial end feet is essential for exchange of solutes between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. This phenomenon, which is essential for interstitial clearance of solutes from the CNS, has been termed glial-associated lymphatic transport or glymphatic transport. In the current study, we demonstrate that glymphatic transport profoundly affects various aspects of AAV gene transfer in the CNS. Altered localization of AQP4 in aged mouse brains correlated with significantly increased retention of AAV vectors in the parenchyma and reduced systemic leakage following ventricular administration. We observed a similar increase in AAV retention and transgene expression upon i.c.v. administration in AQP4–/– mice. Consistent with this observation, fluorophore-labeled AAV vectors showed markedly reduced flux from the ventricles of AQP4–/– mice compared with WT mice. These results were further corroborated by reduced AAV clearance from the AQP4-null brain, as demonstrated by reduced transgene expression and vector genome accumulation in systemic organs. We postulate that deregulation of glymphatic transport in aged and diseased brains could markedly affect the parenchymal spread, clearance, and gene transfer efficiency of AAV vectors. Assessment of biomarkers that report the kinetics of CSF flux in prospective gene therapy patients might inform variable treatment outcomes and guide future clinical trial design. PMID:27699236

  12. Modulation of brain glutamate dehydrogenase as a tool for controlling seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasgado Lourdes A. Vega

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate (Glu is a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in epilepsy. Glu is synthesized by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, E.C. 1.4.1.3 and dysfunction of the enzymatic activity of GDH is associated with brain pathologies. The main goal of this work is to establish the role of GDH in the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs such as valproate (VALP, diazepam (DIAZ and diphenylhydantoin (DPH and its repercussions on oxygen consumption. Oxidative deamination of Glu and reductive amination of aketoglutarate (αK in mice brain were investigated. Our results show that AEDs decrease GDH activity and oxygen consumption in vitro. In ex vivo experiments, AEDs increased GDH activity but decreased oxygen consumption during Glu oxidative deamination. VALP and DPH reversed the increase in reductive amination of αK caused by the chemoconvulsant pentylenetetrazol. These results suggest that AEDs act by modulating brain GDH activity, which in turn decreased oxygen consumption. GDH represents an important regulation point of neuronal excitability, and modulation of its activity represents a potential target for metabolic treatment of epilepsy and for the development of new AEDs.

  13. Steady-State VEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface Control in an Immersive 3D Gaming Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of an effective EEG-based brain-computer interface design for binary control in a visually elaborate immersive 3D game. The BCI uses the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP generated in response to phase-reversing checkerboard patterns. Two power-spectrum estimation methods were employed for feature extraction in a series of offline classification tests. Both methods were also implemented during real-time game play. The performance of the BCI was found to be robust to distracting visual stimulation in the game and relatively consistent across six subjects, with 41 of 48 games successfully completed. For the best performing feature extraction method, the average real-time control accuracy across subjects was 89%. The feasibility of obtaining reliable control in such a visually rich environment using SSVEPs is thus demonstrated and the impact of this result is discussed.

  14. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  15. NeuroSPECT assessment of ischemic penumbra in acute brain infarct: control of intra-arterial thrombolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, F.J.; Mena, I.; Contreras, I.; Soto, F.; Ducci, H.; Fruns, M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Brain infarct is the most common cause of incapacity in adults, the second cause of dementia and the 2nd or 3rd cause of death. Acute brain infarct is a medical emergency potentially reversible if treated with thrombolysis in the first hours of evolution. Thrombolysis is now an approved and efficacious method of treatment for acute ischemic stroke. During the first 3 hours of evolution, intravenous administration of plasminogen activator (tPA) can be performed. The window of time of treatment is expanded to 6 hours with the intra-arterial super selective route for thrombolysis. Aim: The aim of this study was to define levels of reversible ischemia (penumbra) demonstrated by statistically evaluated HMPAO Tc99m NeuroSPECT performed before and after intra-arterial thrombolysis in the treatment of acute infarct. Materials and Methods: 21 patients were treated during the first 6 hours of evolution of an acute ischemic stroke with the following protocol. 1) Admission, and complete neurological evaluation. 2) Brain CT scan to rule hemorrhage or established infarct. 3) I.V injection of 1100MBq Tc99m HMPAO (Ceretec tm) 4) Conventional cerebral angiography and intra-arterial thrombolysis and/or angioplasty/stenting if necessary. 5) NeuroSPECT assessment of ischemic penumbra. 6) Control at 24 hrs with NeuroSPECT. NeuroSPECT image acquisition is performed immediately following arterial thrombolysis with a dual Head Camera, SHR collimators and conventional protocol. Image processing was performed using the Segami Software, as previously reported in Alasbimn Journal2 (7): April 2000. http://www.alasbimnjournal.cl. The analysis consists of 1) Tallairach brain volume normalization. 2) Voxel by voxel comparison of the individual brain cortex uptake normalized to the maximum in the cortex with a normal database of 24 age-matched controls. Results: The results are expressed in standard deviations (S.D.) below the normal mean. Normal mean is 72% + 6. Only voxels between

  16. Quadcopter control in three-dimensional space using a noninvasive motor imagery-based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Karl; Cassady, Kaitlin; Doud, Alexander; Shades, Kaleb; Rogin, Eitan; He, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Objective. At the balanced intersection of human and machine adaptation is found the optimally functioning brain-computer interface (BCI). In this study, we report a novel experiment of BCI controlling a robotic quadcopter in three-dimensional (3D) physical space using noninvasive scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in human subjects. We then quantify the performance of this system using metrics suitable for asynchronous BCI. Lastly, we examine the impact that the operation of a real world device has on subjects' control in comparison to a 2D virtual cursor task. Approach. Five human subjects were trained to modulate their sensorimotor rhythms to control an AR Drone navigating a 3D physical space. Visual feedback was provided via a forward facing camera on the hull of the drone. Main results. Individual subjects were able to accurately acquire up to 90.5% of all valid targets presented while travelling at an average straight-line speed of 0.69 m s-1. Significance. Freely exploring and interacting with the world around us is a crucial element of autonomy that is lost in the context of neurodegenerative disease. Brain-computer interfaces are systems that aim to restore or enhance a user's ability to interact with the environment via a computer and through the use of only thought. We demonstrate for the first time the ability to control a flying robot in 3D physical space using noninvasive scalp recorded EEG in humans. Our work indicates the potential of noninvasive EEG-based BCI systems for accomplish complex control in 3D physical space. The present study may serve as a framework for the investigation of multidimensional noninvasive BCI control in a physical environment using telepresence robotics.

  17. Control of an Ambulatory Exoskeleton with a Brain-Machine Interface for Spinal Cord Injury Gait Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larraz, Eduardo; Trincado-Alonso, Fernando; Rajasekaran, Vijaykumar; Pérez-Nombela, Soraya; Del-Ama, Antonio J; Aranda, Joan; Minguez, Javier; Gil-Agudo, Angel; Montesano, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The closed-loop control of rehabilitative technologies by neural commands has shown a great potential to improve motor recovery in patients suffering from paralysis. Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) can be used as a natural control method for such technologies. BMI provides a continuous association between the brain activity and peripheral stimulation, with the potential to induce plastic changes in the nervous system. Paraplegic patients, and especially the ones with incomplete injuries, constitute a potential target population to be rehabilitated with brain-controlled robotic systems, as they may improve their gait function after the reinforcement of their spared intact neural pathways. This paper proposes a closed-loop BMI system to control an ambulatory exoskeleton-without any weight or balance support-for gait rehabilitation of incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The integrated system was validated with three healthy subjects, and its viability in a clinical scenario was tested with four SCI patients. Using a cue-guided paradigm, the electroencephalographic signals of the subjects were used to decode their gait intention and to trigger the movements of the exoskeleton. We designed a protocol with a special emphasis on safety, as patients with poor balance were required to stand and walk. We continuously monitored their fatigue and exertion level, and conducted usability and user-satisfaction tests after the experiments. The results show that, for the three healthy subjects, 84.44 ± 14.56% of the trials were correctly decoded. Three out of four patients performed at least one successful BMI session, with an average performance of 77.6 1 ± 14.72%. The shared control strategy implemented (i.e., the exoskeleton could only move during specific periods of time) was effective in preventing unexpected movements during periods in which patients were asked to relax. On average, 55.22 ± 16.69% and 40.45 ± 16.98% of the trials (for healthy subjects and

  18. A passive brain-computer interface application for the mental workload assessment on professional air traffic controllers during realistic air traffic control tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, P; Borghini, G; Di Flumeri, G; Colosimo, A; Pozzi, S; Babiloni, F

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been a fast-growing concept in the neuroscience field. The passive brain-computer interface (p-BCI) systems allow to improve the human-machine interaction (HMI) in operational environments, by using the covert brain activity (eg, mental workload) of the operator. However, p-BCI technology could suffer from some practical issues when used outside the laboratories. In particular, one of the most important limitations is the necessity to recalibrate the p-BCI system each time before its use, to avoid a significant reduction of its reliability in the detection of the considered mental states. The objective of the proposed study was to provide an example of p-BCIs used to evaluate the users' mental workload in a real operational environment. For this purpose, through the facilities provided by the École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse (France), the cerebral activity of 12 professional air traffic control officers (ATCOs) has been recorded while performing high realistic air traffic management scenarios. By the analysis of the ATCOs' brain activity (electroencephalographic signal-EEG) and the subjective workload perception (instantaneous self-assessment) provided by both the examined ATCOs and external air traffic control experts, it has been possible to estimate and evaluate the variation of the mental workload under which the controllers were operating. The results showed (i) a high significant correlation between the neurophysiological and the subjective workload assessment, and (ii) a high reliability over time (up to a month) of the proposed algorithm that was also able to maintain high discrimination accuracies by using a low number of EEG electrodes (~3 EEG channels). In conclusion, the proposed methodology demonstrated the suitability of p-BCI systems in operational environments and the advantages of the neurophysiological measures with respect to the subjective ones. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropsychological deficits and morphological MRI brain scan abnormalities in apparently health non-encephalopathic patients with cirrhosis; A controlled Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.; De Lacey, G.; Dunk, A.A.; Sinclair, T.S.; Mowat, M.A.G.; Brunt, P.W. (Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Deans, H. (Aberdeen Univ. (UK). Dept. of Medical Physics (United Kingdom)); Crawford, J.R. (Aberdeen University Medical School (United Kingdom). Department of Psychology (United Kingdom)); Besson, J.A.O. (Aberdeen University Medical School (United Kingdom). Department of Mental Health (United Kingdom))

    1989-11-01

    By means of psychometric testing, we have determined the frequency of latent hepatic encephalopathy in a group of 19 cirrhotics with no clinical evidence of encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed in order to determine whether morphological cerebral abnormalities were associated with latent encephalopathy. Nineteen age and educationally matched patient with normal liver function acted as controls. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between cirrhotics and controls were found in tests of short-term visual memory and speed of reaction to light (cirrhotics 326 ( 132 ms vs. controls 225 ) 36 ms), sound (cirrhotics 361 ( 152 ms vs. controls 236 ) 52 ms) and choice (cirrhotics 651 ( 190 ms vs. controls 406 ) 101 ms) stimuli (all values mean S.D.). Reitan trail test performance, however, was similar in both groups. ( Trail A: cirrhotics 43 ( 19 s vs. controls 35 ) 13 s; Trail B: cirrhotics 105 ( 66 s vs. controls 93 ) 36 s.) In patients with cirrhosis, MRI revealed statistically significant increases in the maximum fissure width of right frontal sulci, light and left parietal sulci, inter-hemispheric fissure width and in bicaudafe index. These changes, indicating cerebral atrophy, were largely confined to alcoholics. There was poor correlation between measurements of cerebral morphology and neuropsychological performance, only 10% of associations achieving statistical significance. (author). 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs.

  20. Using Neural Pattern Classifiers to Quantify the Modularity of Conflict–Control Mechanisms in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiefeng; Egner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Resolving conflicting sensory and motor representations is a core function of cognitive control, but it remains uncertain to what degree control over different sources of conflict is implemented by shared (domain general) or distinct (domain specific) neural resources. Behavioral data suggest conflict–control to be domain specific, but results from neuroimaging studies have been ambivalent. Here, we employed multivoxel pattern analyses that can decode a brain region's informational content, allowing us to distinguish incidental activation overlap from actual shared information processing. We trained independent sets of “searchlight” classifiers on functional magnetic resonance imaging data to decode control processes associated with stimulus-conflict (Stroop task) and ideomotor-conflict (Simon task). Quantifying the proportion of domain-specific searchlights (capable of decoding only one type of conflict) and domain-general searchlights (capable of decoding both conflict types) in each subject, we found both domain-specific and domain-general searchlights, though the former were more common. When mapping anatomical loci of these searchlights across subjects, neural substrates of stimulus- and ideomotor-specific conflict–control were found to be anatomically consistent across subjects, whereas the substrates of domain-general conflict–control were not. Overall, these findings suggest a hybrid neural architecture of conflict–control that entails both modular (domain specific) and global (domain general) components. PMID:23402762

  1. Using neural pattern classifiers to quantify the modularity of conflict-control mechanisms in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiefeng; Egner, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    Resolving conflicting sensory and motor representations is a core function of cognitive control, but it remains uncertain to what degree control over different sources of conflict is implemented by shared (domain general) or distinct (domain specific) neural resources. Behavioral data suggest conflict-control to be domain specific, but results from neuroimaging studies have been ambivalent. Here, we employed multivoxel pattern analyses that can decode a brain region's informational content, allowing us to distinguish incidental activation overlap from actual shared information processing. We trained independent sets of "searchlight" classifiers on functional magnetic resonance imaging data to decode control processes associated with stimulus-conflict (Stroop task) and ideomotor-conflict (Simon task). Quantifying the proportion of domain-specific searchlights (capable of decoding only one type of conflict) and domain-general searchlights (capable of decoding both conflict types) in each subject, we found both domain-specific and domain-general searchlights, though the former were more common. When mapping anatomical loci of these searchlights across subjects, neural substrates of stimulus- and ideomotor-specific conflict-control were found to be anatomically consistent across subjects, whereas the substrates of domain-general conflict-control were not. Overall, these findings suggest a hybrid neural architecture of conflict-control that entails both modular (domain specific) and global (domain general) components. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Artistic Brain-Computer Interfaces: State-of-the-Art of Control Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadeson, Amy; Nijholt, Antinus; Nam, Chang S.

    2015-01-01

    Artistic BCI applications offer a new modality for humans to express themselves creatively. In this survey we reviewed the available literature on artistic BCIs by classifying four types of user control afforded by the available applications: selective control, passive control, direct control and

  3. Post-stroke Rehabilitation Training with a Motor-Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI-Controlled Hand Exoskeleton: A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Frolov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeated use of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs providing contingent sensory feedback of brain activity was recently proposed as a rehabilitation approach to restore motor function after stroke or spinal cord lesions. However, there are only a few clinical studies that investigate feasibility and effectiveness of such an approach. Here we report on a placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial that investigated whether stroke survivors with severe upper limb (UL paralysis benefit from 10 BCI training sessions each lasting up to 40 min. A total of 74 patients participated: median time since stroke is 8 months, 25 and 75% quartiles [3.0; 13.0]; median severity of UL paralysis is 4.5 points [0.0; 30.0] as measured by the Action Research Arm Test, ARAT, and 19.5 points [11.0; 40.0] as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, FMMA. Patients in the BCI group (n = 55 performed motor imagery of opening their affected hand. Motor imagery-related brain electroencephalographic activity was translated into contingent hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand. In a control group (n = 19, hand exoskeleton-driven opening movements of the affected hand were independent of brain electroencephalographic activity. Evaluation of the UL clinical assessments indicated that both groups improved, but only the BCI group showed an improvement in the ARAT's grasp score from 0 [0.0; 14.0] to 3.0 [0.0; 15.0] points (p < 0.01 and pinch scores from 0.0 [0.0; 7.0] to 1.0 [0.0; 12.0] points (p < 0.01. Upon training completion, 21.8% and 36.4% of the patients in the BCI group improved their ARAT and FMMA scores respectively. The corresponding numbers for the control group were 5.1% (ARAT and 15.8% (FMMA. These results suggests that adding BCI control to exoskeleton-assisted physical therapy can improve post-stroke rehabilitation outcomes. Both maximum and mean values of the percentage of successfully decoded imagery-related EEG activity, were higher

  4. Control of an ambulatory exoskeleton with a brain-machine interface for spinal cord injury gait rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo López-Larraz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The closed-loop control of rehabilitative technologies by neural commands has shown a greatpotential to improve motor recovery in patients suffering from paralysis. Brain-machine interfaces(BMI can be used as a natural control method for such technologies. BMI provide a continuousassociation between the brain activity and peripheral stimulation, with the potential to induceplastic changes in the nervous system. Paraplegic patients, and especially the ones with incompleteinjuries, constitute a potential target population to be rehabilitated with brain-controlledrobotic systems, as they may improve their gait function after the reinforcement of their sparedintact neural pathways. This paper proposes a closed-loop BMI system to control an ambulatoryexoskeleton–without any weight or balance support–for gait rehabilitation of incomplete spinalcord injury (SCI patients. The integrated system was validated with three healthy subjects, andits viability in a clinical scenario was tested with four SCI patients. Using a cue-guided paradigm,the electroencephalographic signals of the subjects were used to decode their gait intention, andto trigger the movements of the exoskeleton. We designed a protocol with a special emphasison safety, since patients with poor balance were required to stand and walk. We continuouslymonitored their fatigue and exertion levels, and conducted usability and user-satisfaction testsafter the experiments. The results show that, for the three healthy subjects, 84.44□14.56% ofthe trials were correctly decoded. Three out of the four patients performed at least one successfulBMI session, with an average performance of 77.61□14.72%. The shared control strategyimplemented (i.e., the exoskeleton could only move during specific periods of time was effectivein preventing unexpected movements during periods in which patients were asked to relax. On average, 55.22□16.69% and 40.45□16.98% of the trials (for healthy subjects and

  5. Effect of the Mediterranean diet on cognition and brain morphology and function: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radd-Vagenas, Sue; Duffy, Shantel L; Naismith, Sharon L; Brew, Bruce J; Flood, Victoria M; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-03-01

    Observational studies of the Mediterranean diet suggest cognitive benefits, potentially reducing dementia risk. We performed the first published review to our knowledge of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating Mediterranean diet effects on cognition or brain morphology and function, with an additional focus on intervention diet quality and its relation to "traditional" Mediterranean dietary patterns. We searched 9 databases from inception (final update December 2017) for RCTs testing a Mediterranean compared with alternate diet for cognitive or brain morphology and function outcomes. Analyses were based on 66 cognitive tests and 1 brain function outcome from 5 included studies (n = 1888 participants). The prescribed Mediterranean diets varied considerably between studies, particularly with regards to quantitative food advice. Only 8/66 (12.1%) of individual cognitive outcomes at trial level significantly favored a Mediterranean diet for cognitive performance, with effect sizes (ESs) ranging from small (0.32) to large (1.66), whereas 2 outcomes favored controls. Data limitations precluded a meta-analysis. Of 8 domain composite cognitive scores from 2 studies, the 3 (Memory, Frontal, and Global function) from PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) were significant, with ESs ranging from 0.39 to 1.29. A posttest comparison at a second PREDIMED site found that the Mediterranean diet modulates the effect of several genotypes associated with dementia risk for some cognitive outcomes, with mixed results. Finally, the risk of low-plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor was reduced by 78% (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.90) in those who consumed a Mediterranean diet compared to control diet at 3 y in this trial. There was no benefit of the Mediterranean diet for incident cognitive impairment or dementia. Five RCTs of the Mediterranean diet and cognition have been published to date. The data are mostly nonsignificant, with small ESs. However, the

  6. Effects of partial volume correction on discrimination between very early Alzheimer's dementia and controls using brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Tanaka, Fumiko; Asada, Takashi; Yamashita, Fumio; Nakano, Seigo; Takasaki, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in discriminating between patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the very early stage and age-matched controls before and after partial volume correction (PVC). Three-dimensional MRI was used for PVC. We randomly divided the subjects into two groups. The first group, comprising 30 patients and 30 healthy volunteers, was used to identify the brain area with the most significant decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients compared with normal controls based on the voxel-based analysis of a group comparison. The second group, comprising 31 patients and 31 healthy volunteers, was used to study the improvement in diagnostic accuracy provided by PVC. A Z score map for a SPECT image of a subject was obtained by comparison with mean and standard deviation SPECT images of the healthy volunteers for each voxel after anatomical standardization and voxel normalization to global mean or cerebellar values using the following equation: Z score = ([control mean]-[individual value])/(control SD). Analysis of receiver operating characteristics curves for a Z score discriminating AD and controls in the posterior cingulate gyrus, where a significant decrease in rCBF was identified in the first group, showed that the PVC significantly enhanced the accuracy of the SPECT diagnosis of very early AD from 73.9% to 83.7% with global mean normalization. The PVC mildly enhanced the accuracy from 73.1% to 76.3% with cerebellar normalization. This result suggests that early diagnosis of AD requires PVC in a SPECT study. (orig.)

  7. CONTROL OF A ROBOTIC ARM THROUGH A BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACE WITH MUTUAL LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    ALEXANDRE ORMIGA GALVAO BARBOSA

    2010-01-01

    Esse trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de uma interface cérebro-máquina (Brain Machine Interface - BMI) como um meio alternativo de comunicação para uso na robótica. O trabalho engloba o projeto e construção de um eletroencefalógrafo (EEG), assim como o desenvolvimento de todos os algoritmos computacionais e demais técnicas necessárias para o reconhecimento de atividades mentais. A interface cérebro-máquina desenvolvida é utilizada para comandar os movimentos de um manipulador robótico MA2...

  8. The impact of goal-oriented task design on neurofeedback learning for brain-computer interface control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, S R; Tremblay, A; Boe, S G; Bardouille, T

    2018-02-01

    Neurofeedback training teaches individuals to modulate brain activity by providing real-time feedback and can be used for brain-computer interface control. The present study aimed to optimize training by maximizing engagement through goal-oriented task design. Participants were shown either a visual display or a robot, where each was manipulated using motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography signals. Those with the robot were instructed to quickly navigate grid spaces, as the potential for goal-oriented design to strengthen learning was central to our investigation. Both groups were hypothesized to show increased magnitude of these signals across 10 sessions, with the greatest gains being seen in those navigating the robot due to increased engagement. Participants demonstrated the predicted increase in magnitude, with no differentiation between hemispheres. Participants navigating the robot showed stronger left-hand MI increases than those with the computer display. This is likely due to success being reliant on maintaining strong MI-related signals. While older participants showed stronger signals in early sessions, this trend later reversed, suggesting greater natural proficiency but reduced flexibility. These results demonstrate capacity for modulating neurofeedback using MI over a series of training sessions, using tasks of varied design. Importantly, the more goal-oriented robot control task resulted in greater improvements.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT). Comparing with multi-infarct dementia (MID), and aged control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Kitani, M; Tsunematsu, T

    1987-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID.

  10. Brain systems underlying attentional control and emotional distraction during working memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Maryam; Peira, Nathalie; Persson, Jonas

    2014-02-15

    Goal-directed behavior requires that cognitive operations can be protected from emotional distraction induced by task-irrelevant emotional stimuli. The brain processes involved in attending to relevant information while filtering out irrelevant information are still largely unknown. To investigate the neural and behavioral underpinnings of attending to task-relevant emotional stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli, we used fMRI to assess brain responses during attentional instructed encoding within an emotional working memory (WM) paradigm. We showed that instructed attention to emotion during WM encoding resulted in enhanced performance, by means of increased memory performance and reduced reaction time, compared to passive viewing. A similar performance benefit was also demonstrated for recognition memory performance, although for positive pictures only. Functional MRI data revealed a network of regions involved in directed attention to emotional information for both positive and negative pictures that included medial and lateral prefrontal cortices, fusiform gyrus, insula, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the amygdala. Moreover, we demonstrate that regions in the striatum, and regions associated with the default-mode network were differentially activated for emotional distraction compared to neutral distraction. Activation in a sub-set of these regions was related to individual differences in WM and recognition memory performance, thus likely contributing to performing the task at an optimal level. The present results provide initial insights into the behavioral and neural consequences of instructed attention and emotional distraction during WM encoding. © 2013.

  11. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

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    Soledad eBallesteros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time, attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness, immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM and executive control (shifting strategy did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02007616http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02007616

  12. Brain changes in long-term zen meditators using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging: a controlled study.

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    Nicolás Fayed

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This work aimed to determine whether (1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. (1H-MRS (1.5 T of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA by MR-DTI. RESULTS: Myo-inositol (mI was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019. We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = -0.452; p = .045, NAA (r = -0.617; p = .003 and NAA/Cr (r = -0.448; P = .047 in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = -0.4850, p = .0066. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators.

  13. Training-induced improvements in postural control are accompanied by alterations in cerebellar white matter in brain injured patients

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    David Drijkoningen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether balance control in young TBI patients can be promoted by an 8-week balance training program and whether this is associated with neuroplastic alterations in brain structure. The cerebellum and cerebellar peduncles were selected as regions of interest because of their importance in postural control as well as their vulnerability to brain injury. Young patients with moderate to severe TBI and typically developing (TD subjects participated in balance training using PC-based portable balancers with storage of training data and real-time visual feedback. An additional control group of TD subjects did not attend balance training. Mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were determined with diffusion MRI scans and were acquired before, during (4 weeks and at completion of training (8 weeks together with balance assessments on the EquiTest® System (NeuroCom which included the Sensory Organization Test, Rhythmic Weight Shift and Limits of Stability protocols. Following training, TBI patients showed significant improvements on all EquiTest protocols, as well as a significant increase in mean diffusivity in the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Moreover, in both training groups, diffusion metrics in the cerebellum and/or cerebellar peduncles at baseline were predictive of the amount of performance increase after training. Finally, amount of training-induced improvement on the Rhythmic Weight Shift test in TBI patients was positively correlated with amount of change in fractional anisotropy in the inferior cerebellar peduncle. This suggests that training-induced plastic changes in balance control are associated with alterations in the cerebellar white matter microstructure in TBI patients.

  14. Training-induced improvements in postural control are accompanied by alterations in cerebellar white matter in brain injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijkoningen, David; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leunissen, Inge; Vander Linden, Catharine; Leemans, Alexander; Sunaert, Stefan; Duysens, Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether balance control in young TBI patients can be promoted by an 8-week balance training program and whether this is associated with neuroplastic alterations in brain structure. The cerebellum and cerebellar peduncles were selected as regions of interest because of their importance in postural control as well as their vulnerability to brain injury. Young patients with moderate to severe TBI and typically developing (TD) subjects participated in balance training using PC-based portable balancers with storage of training data and real-time visual feedback. An additional control group of TD subjects did not attend balance training. Mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were determined with diffusion MRI scans and were acquired before, during (4 weeks) and at completion of training (8 weeks) together with balance assessments on the EquiTest® System (NeuroCom) which included the Sensory Organization Test, Rhythmic Weight Shift and Limits of Stability protocols. Following training, TBI patients showed significant improvements on all EquiTest protocols, as well as a significant increase in mean diffusivity in the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Moreover, in both training groups, diffusion metrics in the cerebellum and/or cerebellar peduncles at baseline were predictive of the amount of performance increase after training. Finally, amount of training-induced improvement on the Rhythmic Weight Shift test in TBI patients was positively correlated with amount of change in fractional anisotropy in the inferior cerebellar peduncle. This suggests that training-induced plastic changes in balance control are associated with alterations in the cerebellar white matter microstructure in TBI patients.

  15. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    OpenAIRE

    Vienneau Danielle; Infanger Denis; Feychting Maria; Schüz Joachim; Schmidt Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti Giorgio; Klæboe Lars; Kuehni Claudia E; Tynes Tore; Von der Weid Nicolas; Lannering Birgitta; Röösli Martin

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight length maternal age) birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction preterm delivery birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking working dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7 19 year olds. The multinational case control study in Denmark Sweden Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (particip...

  16. Toward the restoration of hand use to a paralyzed monkey: brain-controlled functional electrical stimulation of forearm muscles.

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    Eric A Pohlmeyer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of hand use is considered by many spinal cord injury survivors to be the most devastating consequence of their injury. Functional electrical stimulation (FES of forearm and hand muscles has been used to provide basic, voluntary hand grasp to hundreds of human patients. Current approaches typically grade pre-programmed patterns of muscle activation using simple control signals, such as those derived from residual movement or muscle activity. However, the use of such fixed stimulation patterns limits hand function to the few tasks programmed into the controller. In contrast, we are developing a system that uses neural signals recorded from a multi-electrode array implanted in the motor cortex; this system has the potential to provide independent control of multiple muscles over a broad range of functional tasks. Two monkeys were able to use this cortically controlled FES system to control the contraction of four forearm muscles despite temporary limb paralysis. The amount of wrist force the monkeys were able to produce in a one-dimensional force tracking task was significantly increased. Furthermore, the monkeys were able to control the magnitude and time course of the force with sufficient accuracy to track visually displayed force targets at speeds reduced by only one-third to one-half of normal. Although these results were achieved by controlling only four muscles, there is no fundamental reason why the same methods could not be scaled up to control a larger number of muscles. We believe these results provide an important proof of concept that brain-controlled FES prostheses could ultimately be of great benefit to paralyzed patients with injuries in the mid-cervical spinal cord.

  17. Sex genes for genomic analysis in human brain: internal controls for comparison of probe level data extraction.

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    Ellis Steven P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic studies of complex tissues pose unique analytical challenges for assessment of data quality, performance of statistical methods used for data extraction, and detection of differentially expressed genes. Ideally, to assess the accuracy of gene expression analysis methods, one needs a set of genes which are known to be differentially expressed in the samples and which can be used as a "gold standard". We introduce the idea of using sex-chromosome genes as an alternative to spiked-in control genes or simulations for assessment of microarray data and analysis methods. Results Expression of sex-chromosome genes were used as true internal biological controls to compare alternate probe-level data extraction algorithms (Microarray Suite 5.0 [MAS5.0], Model Based Expression Index [MBEI] and Robust Multi-array Average [RMA], to assess microarray data quality and to establish some statistical guidelines for analyzing large-scale gene expression. These approaches were implemented on a large new dataset of human brain samples. RMA-generated gene expression values were markedly less variable and more reliable than MAS5.0 and MBEI-derived values. A statistical technique controlling the false discovery rate was applied to adjust for multiple testing, as an alternative to the Bonferroni method, and showed no evidence of false negative results. Fourteen probesets, representing nine Y- and two X-chromosome linked genes, displayed significant sex differences in brain prefrontal cortex gene expression. Conclusion In this study, we have demonstrated the use of sex genes as true biological internal controls for genomic analysis of complex tissues, and suggested analytical guidelines for testing alternate oligonucleotide microarray data extraction protocols and for adjusting multiple statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes. Our results also provided evidence for sex differences in gene expression in the brain prefrontal cortex

  18. A Brain-Machine Interface Based on ERD/ERS for an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton Control

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    Zhichuan Tang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To recognize the user’s motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME or motor imagery (MI. The results indicate that the accuracies of ME sessions are higher than those of MI sessions, and left hand versus both feet paradigm achieves a better classification performance, which would be used in the online-control phase. In the online-control phase, the trained decoder is tested in two scenarios (wearing or without wearing the exoskeleton. The MI and ME sessions wearing the exoskeleton achieve mean classification accuracy of 84.29% ± 2.11% and 87.37% ± 3.06%, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the proposed BMI is effective to control the upper-limb exoskeleton, and provides a practical method by non-invasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior for clinical applications.

  19. Implementation of an Embedded Web Server Application for Wireless Control of Brain Computer Interface Based Home Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Eda Akman; Bay, Ömer Faruk; Güler, İnan

    2016-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) based environment control systems could facilitate life of people with neuromuscular diseases, reduces dependence on their caregivers, and improves their quality of life. As well as easy usage, low-cost, and robust system performance, mobility is an important functionality expected from a practical BCI system in real life. In this study, in order to enhance users' mobility, we propose internet based wireless communication between BCI system and home environment. We designed and implemented a prototype of an embedded low-cost, low power, easy to use web server which is employed in internet based wireless control of a BCI based home environment. The embedded web server provides remote access to the environmental control module through BCI and web interfaces. While the proposed system offers to BCI users enhanced mobility, it also provides remote control of the home environment by caregivers as well as the individuals in initial stages of neuromuscular disease. The input of BCI system is P300 potentials. We used Region Based Paradigm (RBP) as stimulus interface. Performance of the BCI system is evaluated on data recorded from 8 non-disabled subjects. The experimental results indicate that the proposed web server enables internet based wireless control of electrical home appliances successfully through BCIs.

  20. A Brain-Machine Interface Based on ERD/ERS for an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhichuan; Sun, Shouqian; Zhang, Sanyuan; Chen, Yumiao; Li, Chao; Chen, Shi

    2016-12-02

    To recognize the user's motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME) or motor imagery (MI). The results indicate that the accuracies of ME sessions are higher than those of MI sessions, and left hand versus both feet paradigm achieves a better classification performance, which would be used in the online-control phase. In the online-control phase, the trained decoder is tested in two scenarios (wearing or without wearing the exoskeleton). The MI and ME sessions wearing the exoskeleton achieve mean classification accuracy of 84.29% ± 2.11% and 87.37% ± 3.06%, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the proposed BMI is effective to control the upper-limb exoskeleton, and provides a practical method by non-invasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior for clinical applications.

  1. Does Sleep Bruxism Contribute to Headache-Related Disability After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury? A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Arbour, Caroline; Khoury, Samar; Giguère, Jean-François; Denis, Ronald; De Beaumont, Louis; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2017-01-01

    To explore whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients have a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) and a higher level of orofacial muscle activity than healthy controls and whether orofacial muscle activity in the context of mild TBI (mTBI) increases the risk for headache disability. Sleep laboratory recordings of 24 mTBI patients (15 males, 9 females; mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 38 ± 11 years) and 20 healthy controls (8 males, 12 females; 31 ± 9 years) were analyzed. The primary variables included degree of headache disability, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) index (as a biomarker of SB), and masseter and mentalis muscle activity during quiet sleep periods. A significantly higher prevalence of moderate to severe headache disability was observed in mTBI patients than in controls (50% vs 5%; P = .001). Although 50% and 25% of mTBI patients had a respective RMMA index of ≥ 2 episodes/hour and ≥ 4 episodes/hour, they did not present more evidence of SB than controls. No between-group differences were found in the amplitude of RMMA or muscle tone. Logistic regression analyses suggested that while mTBI is a strong predictor of moderate to severe headache disability, RMMA frequency is a modest but significant mediator of moderate to severe headache disability in both groups (odds ratios = 21 and 2, respectively). Clinicians caring for mTBI patients with poorly controlled headaches should screen for SB, as it may contribute to their condition.

  2. Protective/detoxicative function of metallothionein in the rat brain and blood induced by controlled cadmium doses

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    H. N. Shiyntum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmiumclassified as a major carcinogen is considered a poisonous and unwanted heavy metal to a lot of tissues in many organisms. Of many publications already available, the general consensus is that the cadmium attenuating element is metallothionein (MT through its interchangeable mechanism with Zn triggered by the presence of Cd, providing binding sites for Cd ions. MT was first discovered in the kidney cortex of the horse; it represents a low molecular weight protein, rich in cysteine residues which effectively bind with metals. Its functions consist in detoxification of heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, cadmium, homeostasis of essential metals including copper and zinc, anti-oxidation against reactive oxygen species, protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress, cell survival, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and increase of proliferation. In this work, we sought to highlight the protective function of MT in the brain and serum of rats by means of detoxification under induced effects of controlled Cd doses. We have done this by exposing Wistar rats to Cd at different doses in drinking water at different time intervals. In two independent experiments, 58 rats were subjected to 0.1 or 1.0 µg Cd2+/kg of body weight for 15 or 36 days under different conditions. The obtained data indicates the different functioning systems for the brain and the blood for MT metabolism under Cd effect. Our results indicate significant loss of metallothionein level in the brain and important increases in the amount of MT in serum proving that even minimal ingestion of toxic Cd is enough to trigger the release of MT protein in blood.

  3. Approaches to brain stress testing: BOLD magnetic resonance imaging with computer-controlled delivery of carbon dioxide.

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    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An impaired vascular response in the brain regionally may indicate reduced vascular reserve and vulnerability to ischemic injury. Changing the carbon dioxide (CO(2 tension in arterial blood is commonly used as a cerebral vasoactive stimulus to assess the cerebral vascular response, changing cerebral blood flow (CBF by up to 5-11 percent/mmHg in normal adults. Here we describe two approaches to generating the CO(2 challenge using a computer-controlled gas blender to administer: i a square wave change in CO(2 and, ii a ramp stimulus, consisting of a continuously graded change in CO(2 over a range. Responses were assessed regionally by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 8 patients with known cerebrovascular disease (carotid stenosis or occlusion and 2 healthy subjects. The square wave stimulus was used to study the dynamics of the vascular response, while the ramp stimulus assessed the steady-state response to CO(2. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR maps were registered by color coding and overlaid on the anatomical scans generated with 3 Tesla MRI to assess the corresponding BOLD signal change/mmHg change in CO(2, voxel-by-voxel. Using a fractal temporal approach, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA maps of the processed raw BOLD signal per voxel over the same CO(2 range were generated. Regions of BOLD signal decrease with increased CO(2 (coded blue were seen in all of these high-risk patients, indicating regions of impaired CVR. All patients also demonstrated regions of altered signal structure on DFA maps (Hurst exponents less than 0.5; coded blue indicative of anti-persistent noise. While 'blue' CVR maps remained essentially stable over the time of analysis, 'blue' DFA maps improved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This combined dual stimulus and dual analysis approach may be complementary in identifying vulnerable brain regions and thus constitute a regional as

  4. Store-Operated Calcium Entries Control Neural Stem Cell Self-Renewal in the Adult Brain Subventricular Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichini, Florence; Terrié, Elodie; Arnault, Patricia; Harnois, Thomas; Magaud, Christophe; Bois, Patrick; Constantin, Bruno; Coronas, Valérie

    2018-05-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the major stem cell niche in the brain of adult mammals. Within this region, neural stem cells (NSC) proliferate, self-renew and give birth to neurons and glial cells. Previous studies underlined enrichment in calcium signaling-related transcripts in adult NSC. Because of their ability to mobilize sustained calcium influxes in response to a wide range of extracellular factors, store-operated channels (SOC) appear to be, among calcium channels, relevant candidates to induce calcium signaling in NSC whose cellular activities are continuously adapted to physiological signals from the microenvironment. By Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate that SVZ cells express molecular actors known to build up SOC, namely transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) and Orai1, as well as their activator stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). Calcium imaging reveals that SVZ cells display store-operated calcium entries. Pharmacological blockade of SOC with SKF-96365 or YM-58483 (also called BTP2) decreases proliferation, impairs self-renewal by shifting the type of SVZ stem cell division from symmetric proliferative to asymmetric, thereby reducing the stem cell population. Brain section immunostainings show that TRPC1, Orai1, and STIM1 are expressed in vivo, in SOX2-positive SVZ NSC. Injection of SKF-96365 in brain lateral ventricle diminishes SVZ cell proliferation and reduces the ability of SVZ cells to form neurospheres in vitro. The present study combining in vitro and in vivo approaches uncovers a major role for SOC in the control of SVZ NSC population and opens new fields of investigation for stem cell biology in health and disease. Stem Cells 2018;36:761-774. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  5. Icotinib versus whole-brain irradiation in patients with EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer and multiple brain metastases (BRAIN): a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Ji; Zhou, Caicun; Huang, Yisheng; Feng, Jifeng; Lu, Sun; Song, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Chengping; Chen, Gongyan; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yan, Hong Hong; Tan, Fen Lai; Zhong, Wenzhao; Wu, Yi-Long

    2017-09-01

    For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple brain metastases, whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is a standard-of-care treatment, but its effects on neurocognition are complex and concerning. We compared the efficacy of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), icotinib, versus WBI with or without chemotherapy in a phase 3 trial of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and multiple brain metastases. We did a multicentre, open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial (BRAIN) at 17 hospitals in China. Eligible participants were patients with NSCLC with EGFR mutations, who were naive to treatment with EGFR-TKIs or radiotherapy, and had at least three metastatic brain lesions. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either icotinib 125 mg orally (three times per day) or WBI (30 Gy in ten fractions of 3 Gy) plus concurrent or sequential chemotherapy for 4-6 cycles, until unacceptable adverse events or intracranial disease progression occurred. The randomisation was done by the Chinese Thoracic Oncology Group with a web-based allocation system applying the Pocock and Simon minimisation method; groups were stratified by EGFR gene mutation status, treatment line (first line or second line), brain metastases only versus both intracranial and extracranial metastases, and presence or absence of symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Clinicians and patients were not masked to treatment assignment, but individuals involved in the data analysis did not participate in the treatments and were thus masked to allocation. Patients receiving icotinib who had intracranial progression only were switched to WBI plus either icotinib or chemotherapy until further progression; those receiving icotinib who had extracranial progression only were switched to icotinib plus chemotherapy. Patients receiving WBI who progressed were switched to icotinib until further progression. Icotinib could be continued beyond progression if a clinical benefit

  6. Navigation-synchronized multimodal control wheelchair from brain to alternative assistive technologies for persons with severe disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puanhvuan, Dilok; Khemmachotikun, Sarawin; Wechakarn, Pongsakorn; Wijarn, Boonyanuch; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-04-01

    Currently, electric wheelchairs are commonly used to improve mobility in disabled people. In severe cases, the user is unable to control the wheelchair by themselves because his/her motor functions are disabled. To restore mobility function, a brain-controlled wheelchair (BCW) would be a promising system that would allow the patient to control the wheelchair by their thoughts. P300 is a reliable brain electrical signal, a component of visual event-related potentials (ERPs), that could be used for interpreting user commands. This research aimed to propose a prototype BCW to allowed severe motor disabled patients to practically control a wheelchair for use in their home environment. The users were able to select from 9 possible destination commands in the automatic mode and from 4 directional commands (forward, backward, turn left and right) in the shared-control mode. These commands were selected via the designed P300 processing system. The wheelchair was steered to the desired location by the implemented navigation system. Safety of the user was ensured during wheelchair navigation due to the included obstacle detection and avoidance features. A combination of P300 and EOG was used as a hybrid BCW system. The user could fully operate the system such as enabling P300 detection system, mode shifting and stop/cancelation command by performing a different consecutive blinks to generate eye blinking patterns. The results revealed that the prototype BCW could be operated in either of the proposed modes. With the new design of the LED-based P300 stimulator, the average accuracies of the P300 detection algorithm in the shared-control and automatic modes were 95.31 and 83.42% with 3.09 and 3.79 bits/min, respectively. The P300 classification error was acceptable, as the user could cancel an incorrect command by blinking 2 times. Moreover, the proposed navigation system had a flexible design that could be interfaced with other assistive technologies. This research developed

  7. Functional Brain Networks Associated with Cognitive Control, Cocaine Dependence and Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Stevens, Michael C.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine dependence often evidence poor cognitive control. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate networks of functional connectivity underlying cognitive control in cocaine dependence and examine the relationship of the networks to the disorder and its treatment. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to fMRI data to investigate if regional activations underlying cognitive control processes operate in functional networks, and whether these networks...

  8. Brain metabolite changes on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarac, K.; Alkan, A.; Baysal, T.; Akinci, A.; Aslan, M.; Oezcan, C.

    2005-01-01

    The metabolite changes in the brains of children with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). A total of 30 subjects and 14 age-matched healthy volunteers underwent single-voxel MRS (TE: 136). The duration of disease, medication, presence of hypoglycaemia episodes and the level of haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) in the patients were noted. Voxels were placed in the pons, left basal ganglion (LBG) and left posterior parietal white matter (PPWM). N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatinine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. The average HbA1c level was 11.9±3.4 (8.2-19.4). The average number of keto-acidosis episodes was 1.9±2.2 (0-9) and the average number of daily insulin injections was 2.8±0.97 (2-4). MRS revealed lower NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in the pons and lower NAA/Cr ratio in the PPWM of patients with DM than in control subjects. No significant correlation was observed between the number of hypoglycaemia episodes and metabolite ratios. Metabolic abnormalities have been observed by MRS in the brain of poorly controlled type 1 DM children. These metabolic changes, in particular in the pons region, include a decrease in NAA, indicating neuronal loss or functional impairment, and likely explanations for a decrease in Cho may be dynamic changes in membrane lipids and/or decreased membrane turnover. (orig.)

  9. Brain metabolite changes on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarac, K.; Alkan, A.; Baysal, T. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Akinci, A.; Aslan, M. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Malatya (Turkey); Oezcan, C. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Malatya (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    The metabolite changes in the brains of children with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). A total of 30 subjects and 14 age-matched healthy volunteers underwent single-voxel MRS (TE: 136). The duration of disease, medication, presence of hypoglycaemia episodes and the level of haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) in the patients were noted. Voxels were placed in the pons, left basal ganglion (LBG) and left posterior parietal white matter (PPWM). N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatinine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. The average HbA1c level was 11.9{+-}3.4 (8.2-19.4). The average number of keto-acidosis episodes was 1.9{+-}2.2 (0-9) and the average number of daily insulin injections was 2.8{+-}0.97 (2-4). MRS revealed lower NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in the pons and lower NAA/Cr ratio in the PPWM of patients with DM than in control subjects. No significant correlation was observed between the number of hypoglycaemia episodes and metabolite ratios. Metabolic abnormalities have been observed by MRS in the brain of poorly controlled type 1 DM children. These metabolic changes, in particular in the pons region, include a decrease in NAA, indicating neuronal loss or functional impairment, and likely explanations for a decrease in Cho may be dynamic changes in membrane lipids and/or decreased membrane turnover. (orig.)

  10. Communication and control by listening: towards optimal design of a two-class auditory streaming brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jeremy Hill

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most brain-computer interface (BCI systems require users to modulate brain signals in response to visual stimuli. Thus, they may not be useful to people with limited vision, such as those with severe paralysis. One important approach for overcoming this issue is auditory streaming, an approach whereby a BCI system is driven by shifts of attention between two dichotically presented auditory stimulus streams. Motivated by the long-term goal of translating such a system into a reliable, simple yes-no interface for clinical usage, we aim to answer two main questions. First, we asked which of two previously-published variants provides superior performance: a fixed-phase (FP design in which the streams have equal period and opposite phase, or a drifting-phase (DP design where the periods are unequal. We found FP to be superior to DP (p = 0.002: average performance levels were 80% and 72% correct, respectively. We were also able to show, in a pilot with one subject, that auditory streaming can support continuous control and neurofeedback applications: by shifting attention between ongoing left and right auditory streams, the subject was able to control the position of a paddle in a computer game. Second, we examined whether the system is dependent on eye movements, since it is known that eye movements and auditory attention may influence each other, and any dependence on the ability to move one’s eyes would be a barrier to translation to paralyzed users. We discovered that, despite instructions, some subjects did make eye movements that were indicative of the direction of attention. However, there was no correlation, across subjects, between the reliability of the eye movement signal and the reliability of the BCI system, indicating that our system was configured to work independently of eye movement. Together, these findings are an encouraging step forward toward BCIs that provide practical communication and control options for the most severely

  11. Immediate effect of a functional wrist orthosis for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Michelle; Novak, Iona; Lannin, Natasha; Galea, Claire

    2017-10-28

    Two-group randomized controlled trial. Upper limb orthoses worn during functional tasks are commonly used in pediatric neurologic rehabilitation, despite a paucity of high-level evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a customized functional wrist orthosis, when placed on the limb, leads to an immediate improvement in hand function for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury. A 2-group randomized controlled trial involving 30 children was conducted. Participants were randomized to either receive a customized functional wrist orthosis (experimental, n = 15) or not receive an orthosis (control, n = 15). The box and blocks test was administered at baseline and repeated 1 hour after experimental intervention, with the orthosis on if randomized to the orthotic group. After intervention, there were no significant differences on the box and blocks test between the orthotic group (mean, 10.13; standard deviation, 11.476) and the no orthotic group (mean, 14.07; standard deviation, 11.106; t[28], -0.954; P = .348; and 95% confidence interval, -12.380 to 4.513). In contrast to the findings of previous studies, our results suggest that a functional wrist orthosis, when supporting the joint in a 'typical' position, may not lead to an immediate improvement in hand function. Wearing a functional wrist orthosis did not lead to an immediate improvement in the ability of children with cerebral palsy or brain injury to grasp and release. Further research is needed combining upper limb orthoses with task-specific training and measuring outcomes over the medium to long term. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. All rights reserved.

  12. Communication and control by listening: toward optimal design of a two-class auditory streaming brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N Jeremy; Moinuddin, Aisha; Häuser, Ann-Katrin; Kienzle, Stephan; Schalk, Gerwin

    2012-01-01

    Most brain-computer interface (BCI) systems require users to modulate brain signals in response to visual stimuli. Thus, they may not be useful to people with limited vision, such as those with severe paralysis. One important approach for overcoming this issue is auditory streaming, an approach whereby a BCI system is driven by shifts of attention between two simultaneously presented auditory stimulus streams. Motivated by the long-term goal of translating such a system into a reliable, simple yes-no interface for clinical usage, we aim to answer two main questions. First, we asked which of two previously published variants provides superior performance: a fixed-phase (FP) design in which the streams have equal period and opposite phase, or a drifting-phase (DP) design where the periods are unequal. We found FP to be superior to DP (p = 0.002): average performance levels were 80 and 72% correct, respectively. We were also able to show, in a pilot with one subject, that auditory streaming can support continuous control and neurofeedback applications: by shifting attention between ongoing left and right auditory streams, the subject was able to control the position of a paddle in a computer game. Second, we examined whether the system is dependent on eye movements, since it is known that eye movements and auditory attention may influence each other, and any dependence on the ability to move one's eyes would be a barrier to translation to paralyzed users. We discovered that, despite instructions, some subjects did make eye movements that were indicative of the direction of attention. However, there was no correlation, across subjects, between the reliability of the eye movement signal and the reliability of the BCI system, indicating that our system was configured to work independently of eye movement. Together, these findings are an encouraging step forward toward BCIs that provide practical communication and control options for the most severely paralyzed users.

  13. Detachment of Chain-Forming Neuroblasts by Fyn-Mediated Control of cell-cell Adhesion in the Postnatal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Kazuma; Sawada, Masato; Hikita, Takao; Seto, Yayoi; Kaneko, Naoko; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Dohi, Natsuki; Homma, Natsumi; Osaga, Satoshi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Akaike, Toshihiro; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Sobue, Kazuya; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2018-05-09

    In the rodent olfactory system, neuroblasts produced in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the postnatal brain migrate tangentially in chain-like cell aggregates toward the olfactory bulb (OB) through the rostral migratory stream (RMS). After reaching the OB, the chains are dissociated and the neuroblasts migrate individually and radially toward their final destination. The cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling cell-cell adhesion during this detachment remain unclear. Here we report that Fyn, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, regulates the detachment of neuroblasts from chains in the male and female mouse OB. By performing chemical screening and in vivo loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments, we found that Fyn promotes somal disengagement from the chains and is involved in neuronal migration from the RMS into the granule cell layer of the OB. Fyn knockdown or Dab1 (disabled-1) deficiency caused p120-catenin to accumulate and adherens junction-like structures to be sustained at the contact sites between neuroblasts. Moreover, a Fyn and N-cadherin double-knockdown experiment indicated that Fyn regulates the N-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion between neuroblasts. These results suggest that the Fyn-mediated control of cell-cell adhesion is critical for the detachment of chain-forming neuroblasts in the postnatal OB. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the postnatal brain, newly born neurons (neuroblasts) migrate in chain-like cell aggregates toward their destination, where they are dissociated into individual cells and mature. The cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the detachment of neuroblasts from chains are not understood. Here we show that Fyn, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, promotes the somal detachment of neuroblasts from chains, and that this regulation is critical for the efficient migration of neuroblasts to their destination. We further show that Fyn and Dab1 (disabled-1) decrease the cell-cell adhesion between chain-forming neuroblasts

  14. The effect of neurofeedback on a brain wave and visual perception in stroke: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwi-Young; Kim, Kitae; Lee, Byounghee; Jung, Jinhwa

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated a brain wave and visual perception changes in stroke subjects using neurofeedback (NFB) training. [Subjects] Twenty-seven stroke subjects were randomly allocated to the NFB (n = 13) group and the control group (n=14). [Methods] Two expert therapists provided the NFB and CON groups with traditional rehabilitation therapy in 30 thirst-minute sessions over the course of 6 weeks. NFB training was provided only to the NFB group. The CON group received traditional rehabilitation therapy only. Before and after the 6-week intervention, a brain wave test and motor free visual perception test (MVPT) were performed. [Results] Both groups showed significant differences in their relative beta wave values and attention concentration quotients. Moreover, the NFB group showed a significant difference in MVPT visual discrimination, form constancy, visual memory, visual closure, spatial relation, raw score, and processing time. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that NFB training is more effective for increasing concentration and visual perception changes than traditional rehabilitation. In further studies, detailed and diverse investigations should be performed considering the number and characteristics of subjects, and the NFB training period.

  15. Body representations in the human brain revealed by kinesthetic illusions and their essential contributions to motor control and corporeal awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo; Amemiya, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    The human brain can generate a continuously changing postural model of our body. Somatic (proprioceptive) signals from skeletal muscles and joints contribute to the formation of the body representation. Recent neuroimaging studies of proprioceptive bodily illusions have elucidated the importance of three brain systems (motor network, specialized parietal systems, right inferior fronto-parietal network) in the formation of the human body representation. The motor network, especially the primary motor cortex, processes afferent input from skeletal muscles. Such information may contribute to the formation of kinematic/dynamic postural models of limbs, thereby enabling fast online feedback control. Distinct parietal regions appear to play specialized roles in the transformation/integration of information across different coordinate systems, which may subserve the adaptability and flexibility of the body representation. Finally, the right inferior fronto-parietal network, connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, is consistently recruited when an individual experiences various types of bodily illusions and its possible roles relate to corporeal awareness, which is likely elicited through a series of neuronal processes of monitoring and accumulating bodily information and updating the body representation. Because this network is also recruited when identifying one's own features, the network activity could be a neuronal basis for self-consciousness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. 99mTc-Daunorubicin a potential brain imaging and theranostic agent: synthesis, quality control, characterization, biodistribution and scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, A.R.; Bokhari, T.H.; Roohi, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Sohaib, M.

    2013-01-01

    Daunorubicin is a chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the anthracycline family used for the treatment of many type of cancers when doxorubicin or other less effective drugs cannot be used. The aim of the present study was labeling of Daunorubicin with 99m Tc, quality control, characterization, and biodistribution of radiolabeled Daunorubicin. Labeling efficiency was determined by ascending paper chromatography. All the experiments were performed at room temperature (25 °C ± 2 °C). More than 96% labeling efficiency with 99m Tc was achieved at pH 5–6, 2–4 μg stannous chloride and 300 μg of ligand in few minutes. The characterization of the compound was performed by using HPLC, electrophoresis and shake flask assay. Electrophoresis indicates that Tc-99 m-Daunorubicin is neutral, HPLC confirms the single specie of the labeled compound, while shake flask assay confirms high lipophilicity. The biodistribution studies of 99m Tc-Daunorubicin were performed in rats. Significantly higher accumulation of 99m Tc-Daunorubicin was seen in brain of normal rats. Scintigraphy was also indicating higher accumulation of 99m Tc-Daunorubicin in brain of normal rabbits.

  17. Temporal Genetic Modifications after Controlled Cortical Impact—Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury through a Systematic Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hao Wong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a primary injury caused by external physical force and also a secondary injury caused by biological processes such as metabolic, cellular, and other molecular events that eventually lead to brain cell death, tissue and nerve damage, and atrophy. It is a common disease process (as opposed to an event that causes disabilities and high death rates. In order to treat all the repercussions of this injury, treatment becomes increasingly complex and difficult throughout the evolution of a TBI. Using high-throughput microarray data, we developed a systems biology approach to explore potential molecular mechanisms at four time points post-TBI (4, 8, 24, and 72 h, using a controlled cortical impact (CCI model. We identified 27, 50, 48, and 59 significant proteins as network biomarkers at these four time points, respectively. We present their network structures to illustrate the protein–protein interactions (PPIs. We also identified UBC (Ubiquitin C, SUMO1, CDKN1A (cyclindependent kinase inhibitor 1A, and MYC as the core network biomarkers at the four time points, respectively. Using the functional analytical tool MetaCore™, we explored regulatory mechanisms and biological processes and conducted a statistical analysis of the four networks. The analytical results support some recent findings regarding TBI and provide additional guidance and directions for future research.

  18. Closed-Loop Hybrid Gaze Brain-Machine Interface Based Robotic Arm Control with Augmented Reality Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interface (BMI can be used to control the robotic arm to assist paralysis people for performing activities of daily living. However, it is still a complex task for the BMI users to control the process of objects grasping and lifting with the robotic arm. It is hard to achieve high efficiency and accuracy even after extensive trainings. One important reason is lacking of sufficient feedback information for the user to perform the closed-loop control. In this study, we proposed a method of augmented reality (AR guiding assistance to provide the enhanced visual feedback to the user for a closed-loop control with a hybrid Gaze-BMI, which combines the electroencephalography (EEG signals based BMI and the eye tracking for an intuitive and effective control of the robotic arm. Experiments for the objects manipulation tasks while avoiding the obstacle in the workspace are designed to evaluate the performance of our method for controlling the robotic arm. According to the experimental results obtained from eight subjects, the advantages of the proposed closed-loop system (with AR feedback over the open-loop system (with visual inspection only have been verified. The number of trigger commands used for controlling the robotic arm to grasp and lift the objects with AR feedback has reduced significantly and the height gaps of the gripper in the lifting process have decreased more than 50% compared to those trials with normal visual inspection only. The results reveal that the hybrid Gaze-BMI user can benefit from the information provided by the AR interface, improving the efficiency and reducing the cognitive load during the grasping and lifting processes.

  19. Closed-Loop Hybrid Gaze Brain-Machine Interface Based Robotic Arm Control with Augmented Reality Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yanxin; Wu, Changcheng; Song, Aiguo; Liu, Jia; Ji, Peng; Xu, Baoguo; Zhu, Lifeng; Li, Huijun; Wen, Pengcheng

    2017-01-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) can be used to control the robotic arm to assist paralysis people for performing activities of daily living. However, it is still a complex task for the BMI users to control the process of objects grasping and lifting with the robotic arm. It is hard to achieve high efficiency and accuracy even after extensive trainings. One important reason is lacking of sufficient feedback information for the user to perform the closed-loop control. In this study, we proposed a method of augmented reality (AR) guiding assistance to provide the enhanced visual feedback to the user for a closed-loop control with a hybrid Gaze-BMI, which combines the electroencephalography (EEG) signals based BMI and the eye tracking for an intuitive and effective control of the robotic arm. Experiments for the objects manipulation tasks while avoiding the obstacle in the workspace are designed to evaluate the performance of our method for controlling the robotic arm. According to the experimental results obtained from eight subjects, the advantages of the proposed closed-loop system (with AR feedback) over the open-loop system (with visual inspection only) have been verified. The number of trigger commands used for controlling the robotic arm to grasp and lift the objects with AR feedback has reduced significantly and the height gaps of the gripper in the lifting process have decreased more than 50% compared to those trials with normal visual inspection only. The results reveal that the hybrid Gaze-BMI user can benefit from the information provided by the AR interface, improving the efficiency and reducing the cognitive load during the grasping and lifting processes. PMID:29163123

  20. Role of mTORC1 Controlling Proteostasis after Brain Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Perez-Alvarez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intense efforts are being undertaken to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms triggered after brain ischemia and to develop effective pharmacological treatments. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are complex and not completely understood. One of the main problems is the fact that the ischemic damage is time-dependent and ranges from negligible to massive, involving different cell types such as neurons, astrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells, and some blood-derived cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, etc.. Thus, approaching such a complicated cellular response generates a more complex combination of molecular mechanisms, in which cell death, cellular damage, stress and repair are intermixed. For this reason, animal and cellular model systems are needed in order to dissect and clarify which molecular mechanisms have to be promoted and/or blocked. Brain ischemia may be analyzed from two different perspectives: that of oxygen deprivation (hypoxic damage per se and that of deprivation of glucose/serum factors. For investigations of ischemic stroke, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO is the preferred in vivo model, and uses two different approaches: transient (tMCAO, where reperfusion is permitted; or permanent (pMCAO. As a complement to this model, many laboratories expose different primary cortical neuron or neuronal cell lines to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. This ex vivo model permits the analysis of the impact of hypoxic damage and the specific response of different cell types implicated in vivo, such as neurons, glia or endothelial cells. Using in vivo and neuronal OGD models, it was recently established that mTORC1 (mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex-1, a protein complex downstream of PI3K-Akt pathway, is one of the players deregulated after ischemia and OGD. In addition, neuroprotective intervention either by estradiol or by specific AT2R agonists shows an important regulatory role for the mTORC1 activity, for

  1. The medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in mild Alzheimer's disease: results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.; Graaf, M. van der; Lansbergen, M.M.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Cetinyurek-Yavuz, A.; Sijben, J.W.; Heerschap, A.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Synaptic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease and may be countered by increased intake of nutrients that target brain phospholipid metabolism. In this study, we explored whether the medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in patients

  2. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  3. Can intubation harm the brain in critical care situations? A new simple technique may provide a method for controlling brain temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, N.; Baptiste, K.E.; Madsen, F.

    2002-01-01

    Many animal species are able to keep the brain temperature some degrees centigrade lower than the deep body temperature when exposed to environmental heat stress. The lower temperature is based on cooling of the nasal venous blood through the respiratory airflow and local counter-current transfer...... of heat between venous and arterial blood in the cavernous sinus-carotid artery complex. Anaesthetized, intubated animals do not have any air flow through the nasal cavities. However, when the nasal cavities were flushed with oxygen, the deep brain temperature dropped within minutes and returned...... to previous values when the oxygen flushing was stopped. Cooling was found in animals with a rete a similar cooling mechanism is present in man (no rete) under mirabile (pigs), and in animals without a rete (rats). intensive care, a simple flushing of the nasal cavities with gas will protect the brain against...

  4. Attenuation of insulin-evoked responses in brain networks controlling appetite and reward in insulin resistance: the cerebral basis for impaired control of food intake in metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Karen; Reed, Laurence J; Dunn, Joel T; Bingham, Emma; Hopkins, David; Marsden, Paul K; Amiel, Stephanie A

    2006-11-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is a global challenge. A possible mechanism linking insulin resistance and weight gain would be attenuation of insulin-evoked responses in brain areas relevant to eating in systemic insulin resistance. We measured brain glucose metabolism, using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, in seven insulin-sensitive (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] = 1.3) and seven insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR = 6.3) men, during suppression of endogenous insulin by somatostatin, with and without an insulin infusion that elevated insulin to 24.6 +/- 5.2 and 23.2 +/- 5.8 mU/l (P = 0.76), concentrations similar to fasting levels of the resistant subjects and approximately threefold above those of the insulin-sensitive subjects. Insulin-evoked change in global cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was reduced in insulin resistance (+7 vs. +17.4%, P = 0.033). Insulin was associated with increased metabolism in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex and with decreased metabolism in right amygdala/hippocampus and cerebellar vermis (P reward. Diminishing the link be-tween control of food intake and energy balance may contribute to development of obesity in insulin resistance.

  5. Molecular mechanisms controlling brain development: an overview of neuroepithelial secondary organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Claudia; Pombero, Ana; García-Lopez, Raquel; Gimeno, Lourdes; Echevarria, Diego; Martínez, Salvador

    2010-01-01

    The vertebrate Central Nervous System (CNS) originates from the embryonic dorsal ectoderm. Differentiation of the neural epithelium from the ectoderm and the formation of the neural plate constitute the first phase of a complex process called neurulation which culminates in the formation of the neural tube, the anlage of the CNS in sauropsids and mammals (for review see Smith and Schoenwolf, 1997; Colas and Schoenwolf, 2001). At neural plate and neural tube stages, local signaling centers in the neuroepithelium, known as secondary organizers, refine the antero-posterior specification of different neural territories (for review see Echevarria et al., 2003; Stern et al.,2006; Woltering and Durston, 2008). In this review, we will describe the principle aspects of CNS development in birds and mammals, starting from early stages of embryogenesis (gastrulation and neurulation) and culminating with the formation of a variety of different regions which contribute to the structural complexity of the brain (regionalization and morphogenesis). We will pay special attention to the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neural tube regionalization and the key role played by localized secondary organizers in the patterning of neural primordia.

  6. Crosstalk between gastrointestinal neurons and the brain in the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithieux, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    Recent data have emphasized that the gastrointestinal nervous system is preponderant in the sensing of nutrients and hormones and its translation in terms of control of food intake by the central nervous system. More specifically, the gastrointestinal neural system participates in the control of hunger via the sensing of at least two major macronutrients, e.g. glucose and protein, which may control hunger sensations from the portal vein. Protein are first sensed by mu-opioid receptors present in the portal vein walls to induce intestinal gluconeogenesis-via a reflex arc and next portal glucose sensing. The gastrointestinal nervous system may also account for the rapid benefits of gastric bypass surgeries on energy homeostasis (hunger and body weight) and glucose homeostasis (insulin sensitivity). This knowledge provides novel mechanisms of control of body weight, which might be useful to envision future approaches of prevention or treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. One-way traffic: The inferior frontal gyrus controls brain activation in the middle temporal gyrus during divergent thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Beatty, Erin L.; Smith, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    Contrary to earlier approaches that focused on the contributions of isolated brain regions to the emergence of creativity, there is now growing consensus that creative thought emerges from the interaction of multiple brain regions, often embedded within larger brain networks. Specifically, recent...

  8. Cognitive control, cognitive reserve, and memory in the aging bilingual brain

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Angela; Dennis, Nancy A.; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In recent years bilingualism has been linked to both advantages in executive control and positive impacts on aging. Such positive cognitive effects of bilingualism have been attributed to the increased need for language control during bilingual processing and increased cognitive reserve, respectively. However, a mechanistic explanation of how bilingual experience contributes to cognitive reserve is still lacking. The current paper proposes a new focus on bilingual memory as an avenue to explo...

  9. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Julie; Mendrek, Adrianna; Germain, Martine; Hot, Pascal; Lavoie, Marc E

    2014-01-01

    Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200), which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms. The N200 and P300 amplitudes were positively

  10. SU-E-T-471: Improvement of Gamma Knife Treatment Planning Through Tumor Control Probability for Metastatic Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Feng, Y [East Carolina Univ, Rockville, MD (United States); Lo, S [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Grecula, J [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The dose–volume histogram (DVH) has been normally accepted as a tool for treatment plan evaluation. However, spatial information is lacking in DVH. As a supplement to the DVH in three-dimensional treatment planning, the differential DVH (DDVH) provides the spatial variation, the size and magnitude of the different dose regions within a region of interest, which can be incorporated into tumor control probability model. This study was to provide a method in evaluating and improving Gamma Knife treatment planning. Methods: 10 patients with brain metastases from different primary tumors including melanoma (#1,#4,#5, #10), breast cancer (#2), prostate cancer (#3) and lung cancer (#6–9) were analyzed. By using Leksell GammaPlan software, two plans were prepared for each patient. Special attention was given to the DDVHs that were different for different plans and were used for a comparison between two plans. Dose distribution inside target and tumor control probability (TCP) based on DDVH were calculated, where cell density and radiobiological parameters were adopted from literature. The plans were compared based on DVH, DDVH and TCP. Results: Using DVH, the coverage and selectivity were the same between plans for 10 patients. DDVH were different between two plans for each patient. The paired t-test showed no significant difference in TCP between the two plans. For brain metastases from melanoma (#1, #4–5), breast cancer (#2) and lung cancer (#6–8), the difference in TCP was less than 5%. But the difference in TCP was about 6.5% for patient #3 with the metastasis from prostate cancer, 10.1% and 178.7% for two patients (#9–10) with metastasis from lung cancer. Conclusion: Although DVH provides average dose–volume information, DDVH provides differential dose– volume information with respect to different regions inside the tumor. TCP provides radiobiological information and adds additional information on improving treatment planning as well as adaptive

  11. SU-E-T-471: Improvement of Gamma Knife Treatment Planning Through Tumor Control Probability for Metastatic Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Lo, S; Grecula, J; Mayr, N; Yuh, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The dose–volume histogram (DVH) has been normally accepted as a tool for treatment plan evaluation. However, spatial information is lacking in DVH. As a supplement to the DVH in three-dimensional treatment planning, the differential DVH (DDVH) provides the spatial variation, the size and magnitude of the different dose regions within a region of interest, which can be incorporated into tumor control probability model. This study was to provide a method in evaluating and improving Gamma Knife treatment planning. Methods: 10 patients with brain metastases from different primary tumors including melanoma (#1,#4,#5, #10), breast cancer (#2), prostate cancer (#3) and lung cancer (#6–9) were analyzed. By using Leksell GammaPlan software, two plans were prepared for each patient. Special attention was given to the DDVHs that were different for different plans and were used for a comparison between two plans. Dose distribution inside target and tumor control probability (TCP) based on DDVH were calculated, where cell density and radiobiological parameters were adopted from literature. The plans were compared based on DVH, DDVH and TCP. Results: Using DVH, the coverage and selectivity were the same between plans for 10 patients. DDVH were different between two plans for each patient. The paired t-test showed no significant difference in TCP between the two plans. For brain metastases from melanoma (#1, #4–5), breast cancer (#2) and lung cancer (#6–8), the difference in TCP was less than 5%. But the difference in TCP was about 6.5% for patient #3 with the metastasis from prostate cancer, 10.1% and 178.7% for two patients (#9–10) with metastasis from lung cancer. Conclusion: Although DVH provides average dose–volume information, DDVH provides differential dose– volume information with respect to different regions inside the tumor. TCP provides radiobiological information and adds additional information on improving treatment planning as well as adaptive

  12. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eChampagne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200, which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms.

  13. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Hammer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100% performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning. Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1 A measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e. a trade for a person’s visuo-motor control ability and (2 subject’s attentional impulsivity. In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1 failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject the present predictors.

  14. A real-time brain-machine interface combining motor target and trajectory intent using an optimal feedback control design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam M Shanechi

    Full Text Available Real-time brain-machine interfaces (BMI have focused on either estimating the continuous movement trajectory or target intent. However, natural movement often incorporates both. Additionally, BMIs can be modeled as a feedback control system in which the subject modulates the neural activity to move the prosthetic device towards a desired target while receiving real-time sensory feedback of the state of the movement. We develop a novel real-time BMI using an optimal feedback control design that jointly estimates the movement target and trajectory of monkeys in two stages. First, the target is decoded from neural spiking activity before movement initiation. Second, the trajectory is decoded by combining the decoded target with the peri-movement spiking activity using an optimal feedback control design. This design exploits a recursive Bayesian decoder that uses an optimal feedback control model of the sensorimotor system to take into account the intended target location and the sensory feedback in its trajectory estimation from spiking activity. The real-time BMI processes the spiking activity directly using point process modeling. We implement the BMI in experiments consisting of an instructed-delay center-out task in which monkeys are presented with a target location on the screen during a delay period and then have to move a cursor to it without touching the incorrect targets. We show that the two-stage BMI performs more accurately than either stage alone. Correct target prediction can compensate for inaccurate trajectory estimation and vice versa. The optimal feedback control design also results in trajectories that are smoother and have lower estimation error. The two-stage decoder also performs better than linear regression approaches in offline cross-validation analyses. Our results demonstrate the advantage of a BMI design that jointly estimates the target and trajectory of movement and more closely mimics the sensorimotor control system.

  15. Functional brain networks associated with cognitive control, cocaine dependence, and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worhunsky, Patrick D; Stevens, Michael C; Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-06-01

    Individuals with cocaine dependence often evidence poor cognitive control. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate networks of functional connectivity underlying cognitive control in cocaine dependence and examine the relationship of the networks to the disorder and its treatment. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to fMRI data to investigate if regional activations underlying cognitive control processes operate in functional networks, and whether these networks relate to performance and treatment outcome measures in cocaine dependence. Twenty patients completed a Stroop task during fMRI prior to entering outpatient treatment and were compared to 20 control participants. ICA identified five distinct functional networks related to cognitive control interference events. Cocaine-dependent patients displayed differences in performance-related recruitment of three networks. Reduced involvement of a "top-down" fronto-cingular network contributing to conflict monitoring correlated with better treatment retention. Greater engagement of two "bottom-up" subcortical and ventral prefrontal networks related to cue-elicited motivational processing correlated with abstinence during treatment. The identification of subcortical networks linked to cocaine abstinence and cortical networks to treatment retention suggests that specific circuits may represent important, complementary targets in treatment development for cocaine dependence. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Design of a 32-channel EEG system for brain control interface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Sung

    2012-01-01

    This study integrates the hardware circuit design and the development support of the software interface to achieve a 32-channel EEG system for BCI applications. Since the EEG signals of human bodies are generally very weak, in addition to preventing noise interference, it also requires avoiding the waveform distortion as well as waveform offset and so on; therefore, the design of a preamplifier with high common-mode rejection ratio and high signal-to-noise ratio is very important. Moreover, the friction between the electrode pads and the skin as well as the design of dual power supply will generate DC bias which affects the measurement signals. For this reason, this study specially designs an improved single-power AC-coupled circuit, which effectively reduces the DC bias and improves the error caused by the effects of part errors. At the same time, the digital way is applied to design the adjustable amplification and filter function, which can design for different EEG frequency bands. For the analog circuit, a frequency band will be taken out through the filtering circuit and then the digital filtering design will be used to adjust the extracted frequency band for the target frequency band, combining with MATLAB to design man-machine interface for displaying brain wave. Finally the measured signals are compared to the traditional 32-channel EEG signals. In addition to meeting the IFCN standards, the system design also conducted measurement verification in the standard EEG isolation room in order to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this system design.

  17. Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART) for veterans with traumatic brain injury: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Jak, Amy J; Delis, Dean C; Bondi, Mark W; Lohr, James B

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in cognitive impairments and persistent postconcussive symptoms that limit functional recovery, including return to work. We evaluated a 12 wk compensatory cognitive training intervention (Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy [CogSMART]) in the context of supported employment for Veterans with mild to moderate TBI. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 12 wk of supported employment plus CogSMART or enhanced supported employment that controlled for therapist attention (control). CogSMART sessions were delivered by the employment specialist and included psychoeducation regarding TBI; strategies to improve sleep, fatigue, headaches, and tension; and compensatory cognitive strategies in the domains of prospective memory, attention, learning and memory, and executive functioning. Compared with controls, those assigned to supported employment plus CogSMART demonstrated significant reductions in postconcussive symptoms (Cohen d = 0.97) and improvements in prospective memory functioning (Cohen d = 0.72). Effect sizes favoring CogSMART for posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depressive symptom severity, and attainment of competitive work within 14 wk were in the small to medium range (Cohen d = 0.35-0.49). Those who received CogSMART rated the intervention highly. Results suggest that adding CogSMART to supported employment may improve postconcussive symptoms and prospective memory. These effects, as well as smaller effects on psychiatric symptoms and ability to return to work, warrant replication in a larger trial.

  18. Design and simulation of virtual telephone keypad control based on brain computer interface (BCI with very high transfer rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab B. Ashari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain Computer Interface (BCI is a communication and control mechanism, which does not rely on any kind of muscular response to send a message to the external world. This technique is used to help the paralyzed people with spinal cord injury to have the ability to communicate with the external world. In this paper we emphasize to increase the BCI System bit rate for controlling a virtual telephone keypad. To achieve the proposed algorithm, a simulated virtual telephone keypad based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP BCI system is developed. Dynamic programming technique with specifically modified Longest Common Subsequence (LCS algorithm is used. By comparing the paralyzed user selection with the recent, and then the rest, of the stored records in the file of the telephone, the user can save the rest of his choices for controlling the keypad and thence improving the overall performance of the BCI system. This axiomatic approach, which is used in searching the web pages for increasing the performance of the searching, is urgent to be used for the paralyzed people rather than the normal user.

  19. Changes of deep gray matter magnetic susceptibility over 2years in multiple sclerosis and healthy control brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hagemeier

    Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis, pathological changes of both tissue iron and myelin occur, yet these factors have not been characterized in a longitudinal fashion using the novel iron- and myelin-sensitive quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM MRI technique. We investigated disease-relevant tissue changes associated with myelin loss and iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis deep gray matter (DGM over two years. One-hundred twenty (120 multiple sclerosis patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this prospective study. Written informed consent and local IRB approval were obtained from all participants. Clinical testing and QSM were performed both at baseline and at follow-up. Brain magnetic susceptibility was measured in major DGM structures. Temporal (baseline vs. follow-up and cross-sectional (multiple sclerosis vs. controls differences were studied using mixed factorial ANOVA analysis and appropriate t-tests. At either time-point, multiple sclerosis patients had significantly higher susceptibility in the caudate and globus pallidus and lower susceptibility in the thalamus. Over two years, susceptibility increased significantly in the caudate of both controls and multiple sclerosis patients. Inverse thalamic findings among MS patients suggest a multi-phase pathology explained by simultaneous myelin loss and/or iron accumulation followed by iron depletion and/or calcium deposition at later stages. Keywords: Quantitative susceptibility mapping, QSM, Iron, Multiple sclerosis, Longitudinal study

  20. miR-Let7A Controls the Cell Death and Tight Junction Density of Brain Endothelial Cells under High Glucose Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Yoon, So Ra; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced stress in the brain of patients with diabetes triggers the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), leading to diverse neurological diseases including stroke and dementia. Recently, the role of microRNA becomes an interest in the research for deciphering the mechanism of brain endothelial cell damage under hyperglycemia. Therefore, we investigated whether mircoRNA Let7A (miR-Let7A) controls the damage of brain endothelial (bEnd.3) cells against high glucose condition. Cell viability, cell death marker expressions (p-53, Bax, and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase), the loss of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and claudin-5), proinflammatory response (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor- α ), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrite production were confirmed using MTT, reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and Griess reagent assay. miR-Let7A overexpression significantly prevented cell death and loss of tight junction proteins and attenuated proinflammatory response and nitrite production in the bEnd.3 cells under high glucose condition. Taken together, we suggest that miR-Let7A may attenuate brain endothelial cell damage by controlling cell death signaling, loss of tight junction proteins, and proinflammatory response against high glucose stress. In the future, the manipulation of miR-Let7A may be a novel solution in controlling BBB disruption which leads to the central nervous system diseases.

  1. Central control of glucose homeostasis: the brain--endocrine pancreas axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, B

    2010-10-01

    A large body of data gathered over the last decades has delineated the neuronal pathways that link the central nervous system with the autonomic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, which controls alpha- and beta-cell secretion activity and mass. These are important regulatory functions that are certainly keys for preserving the capacity of the endocrine pancreas to control glucose homeostasis over a lifetime. Identifying the cells involved in controlling the autonomic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, in response to nutrient, hormonal and environmental cues and how these cues are detected to activate neuronal activity are important goals of current research. Elucidation of these questions may possibly lead to new means for preserving or restoring defects in insulin and glucagon secretion associated with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Souvenaid on Functional Brain Network Organisation in Patients with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomised Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Hanneke; Stam, Cornelis J.; Lansbergen, Marieke M.; Wieggers, Rico L.; Kamphuis, Patrick J. G. H.; Scheltens, Philip; Maestú, Fernando; van Straaten, Elisabeth C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Synaptic loss is a major hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Disturbed organisation of large-scale functional brain networks in AD might reflect synaptic loss and disrupted neuronal communication. The medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect, is designed to enhance synapse formation and function and has been shown to improve memory performance in patients with mild AD in two randomised controlled trials. Objective To explore the effect of Souvenaid compared to control product on brain activity-based networks, as a derivative of underlying synaptic function, in patients with mild AD. Design A 24-week randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multi-country study. Participants 179 drug-naïve mild AD patients who participated in the Souvenir II study. Intervention Patients were randomised 1∶1 to receive Souvenaid or an iso-caloric control product once daily for 24 weeks. Outcome In a secondary analysis of the Souvenir II study, electroencephalography (EEG) brain networks were constructed and graph theory was used to quantify complex brain structure. Local brain network connectivity (normalised clustering coefficient gamma) and global network integration (normalised characteristic path length lambda) were compared between study groups, and related to memory performance. Results The network measures in the beta band were significantly different between groups: they decreased in the control group, but remained relatively unchanged in the active group. No consistent relationship was found between these network measures and memory performance. Conclusions The current results suggest that Souvenaid preserves the organisation of brain networks in patients with mild AD within 24 weeks, hypothetically counteracting the progressive network disruption over time in AD. The results strengthen the hypothesis that Souvenaid affects synaptic integrity and function. Secondly, we conclude that advanced EEG

  3. Does the brain use sliding variables for the control of movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneton, S; Berthoz, A; Droulez, J; Slotine, J J

    1997-12-01

    Delays in the transmission of sensory and motor information prevent errors from being instantaneously available to the central nervous system (CNS) and can reduce the stability of a closed-loop control strategy. On the other hand, the use of a pure feedforward control (inverse dynamics) requires a perfect knowledge of the dynamic behavior of the body and of manipulated objects. Sensory feedback is essential both to accommodate unexpected errors and events and to compensate for uncertainties about the dynamics of the body. Experimental observations concerning the control of posture, gaze and limbs have shown that the CNS certainly uses a combination of closed-loop and open-loop control. Feedforward components of movement, such as eye saccades, occur intermittently and present a stereotyped kinematic profile. In visuo-manual tracking tasks, hand movements exhibit velocity peaks that occur intermittently. When a delay or a slow dynamics are inserted in the visuo-manual control loop, intermittent step-and-hold movements appear clearly in the hand trajectory. In this study, we investigated strategies used by human subjects involved in the control of a particular dynamic system. We found strong evidence for substantial nonlinearities in the commands produced. The presence of step-and-hold movements seemed to be the major source of nonlinearities in the control loop. Furthermore, the stereotyped ballistic-like kinematics of these rapid and corrective movements suggests that they were produced in an open-loop way by the CNS. We analyzed the generation of ballistic movements in the light of sliding control theory assuming that they occurred when a sliding variable exceeded a constant threshold. In this framework, a sliding variable is defined as a composite variable (a combination of the instantaneous tracking error and its temporal derivatives) that fulfills a specific stability criterion. Based on this hypothesis and on the assumption of a constant reaction time, the

  4. Brain Changes in Long-Term Zen Meditators Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Nicolás; Lopez del Hoyo, Yolanda; Andres, Eva; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Bellón, Juan; Aguilar, Keyla; Cebolla, Ausias; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This work aimed to determine whether 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. Materials and Methods Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. 1H-MRS (1.5 T) of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL) and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) by MR-DTI. Results Myo-inositol (mI) was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr) was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019). We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = −0.452; p = .045), NAA (r = −0.617; p = .003) and NAA/Cr (r = −0.448; P = .047) in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = −0.4850, p = .0066). Conclusions The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators. PMID:23536796

  5. Neuronal inhibition and excitation, and the dichotomic control of brain hemodynamic and oxygen responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Martin; Mathiesen, Claus; Schaefer, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    under most conditions correlate to excitation of inhibitory interneurons, but there are important exceptions to that rule as described in this paper. Thus, variations in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition contribute dynamically to the control of metabolic and hemodynamic responses...

  6. Brain control of volitional ankle tasks in people with chronic stroke and in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, L D; Massé-Alarie, H; Brouwer, B; Schneider, C

    2014-03-15

    This study explored the relationships between motor cortical control of ankle dorsiflexors and clinical impairments of volitional ankle dorsiflexion in people with chronic stroke. Eighteen persons with stroke and 14 controls were evaluated. Clinical tools were used to assess ankle dorsiflexion amplitude and isometric strength. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) tested the functional integrity of cortical circuits controlling the tibialis anterior (TA). All clinical scores and most TMS outcomes were impaired in people with chronic stroke. The lower clinical scores were related to the reduction of the strength of corticospinal projections onto spinal motoneurons. Concurrent TMS and clinical testing in chronic stroke provided original data demonstrating relationships between the integrity of cortical and corticospinal components of TA motor control and volitional ankle tasks. Our study proposes that volitional ankle mobilization in chronic stroke may be explained by the residual abnormal M1 circuits which may be responsive for rehabilitation intervention. This should be confirmed in longitudinal studies with larger samples to determine whether TMS outcomes associated with lower limb muscles are predictive of clinical changes or vice versa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in the composition of brain interstitial ions control the sleep-wake cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Fengfei; O'Donnell, John; Xu, Qiwu

    2016-01-01

    , and [H+]e as well as the extracellular volume. Local cortical activity of sleeping mice could be readily converted to the stereotypical electroencephalography pattern of wakefulness by simply imposing a change in the extracellular ion composition. Thus, extracellular ions control the state...

  8. Brain-Computer Interfaces for 1-D and 2-D Cursor Control: Designs Using Volitional Control of the EEG Spectrum or Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Matthews, Bryan; Rosipal, Roman

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and tested two EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for users to control a cursor on a computer display. Our system uses an adaptive algorithm, based on kernel partial least squares classification (KPLS), to associate patterns in multichannel EEG frequency spectra with cursor controls. Our first BCI, Target Practice, is a system for one-dimensional device control, in which participants use biofeedback to learn voluntary control of their EEG spectra. Target Practice uses a KF LS classifier to map power spectra of 30-electrode EEG signals to rightward or leftward position of a moving cursor on a computer display. Three subjects learned to control motion of a cursor on a video display in multiple blocks of 60 trials over periods of up to six weeks. The best subject s average skill in correct selection of the cursor direction grew from 58% to 88% after 13 training sessions. Target Practice also implements online control of two artifact sources: a) removal of ocular artifact by linear subtraction of wavelet-smoothed vertical and horizontal EOG signals, b) control of muscle artifact by inhibition of BCI training during periods of relatively high power in the 40-64 Hz band. The second BCI, Think Pointer, is a system for two-dimensional cursor control. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) are triggered by four flickering checkerboard stimuli located in narrow strips at each edge of the display. The user attends to one of the four beacons to initiate motion in the desired direction. The SSVEP signals are recorded from eight electrodes located over the occipital region. A KPLS classifier is individually calibrated to map multichannel frequency bands of the SSVEP signals to right-left or up-down motion of a cursor on a computer display. The display stops moving when the user attends to a central fixation point. As for Target Practice, Think Pointer also implements wavelet-based online removal of ocular artifact; however, in Think Pointer muscle

  9. Synergetic fMRI-EEG brain mapping in alpha-rhythm voluntary control mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtark, M B; Verevkin, E G; Kozlova, L I; Mazhirina, K G; Pokrovskii, M A; Petrovskii, E D; Savelov, A A; Starostin, A S; Yarosh, S V

    2015-03-01

    For the first time in neurobiology-related issues, the synergistic spatial dynamics of EEG and fMRI (BOLD phenomenon) was studied during cognitive alpha biofeedback training in the operant conditioning mode (acoustic reinforcement of alpha-rhythm development and stability). Significant changes in alpha-rhythm intensity were found in T6 electrode area (Brodmann area 37). Brodmann areas related to solving alpha-training tasks and maximally involved in the formation of new neuronal network were middle and superior temporal gyri (areas 21, 22, and 37), fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus (areas 4, 6, and 46), anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 23 and 24), cuneus, and precuneus (area 7). Wide involvement of Brodmann areas is determined by psychological architecture of alpha-rhythm generating system control that includes complex cognitive activities: decision making, retrieval of long-term memory, evaluation of the reward and control efficiency during alpha-EEG biofeedback.

  10. Expiratory muscle control during vomiting - Role of brain stem expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.; Tan, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling the muscles involved during vomiting were examined using decerebrated cats. In one experiment, the activity of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons was recorded during induced 'fictive vomiting' (i.e., a series of bursts of coactivation of abdominal and phrenic nerves that would be expected to produce expulsion in unparalyzed animals) and vomiting. In a second, abdominal muscle electromyographic and nerve activity were compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons as they cross the midline between C1 and the obex (the procedure that is known to abolish expiratory modulation of internal intercostal muscle activity). The results of the study indicate that the abdominal muscles are controlled differently during respiration and vomiting.

  11. Known glioma risk loci are associated with glioma with a family history of brain tumours -- a case-control gene association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Beatrice; Dahlin, Anna M; Andersson, Ulrika; Wang, Zhaoming; Henriksson, Roger; Hallmans, Göran; Bondy, Melissa L; Johansen, Christoffer; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Kitahara, Cari M; Wang, Sophia S; Ruder, Avima M; Carreón, Tania; Butler, Mary Ann; Inskip, Peter D; Purdue, Mark; Hsing, Ann W; Mechanic, Leah; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Yeager, Meredith; Linet, Martha; Chanock, Stephen J; Hartge, Patricia; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2013-05-15

    Familial cancer can be used to leverage genetic association studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have reported independent associations between seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether glioma cases with a positive family history of brain tumours, defined as having at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of brain tumour, are associated with known glioma risk loci. One thousand four hundred and thirty-one glioma cases and 2,868 cancer-free controls were identified from four case-control studies and two prospective cohorts from USA, Sweden and Denmark and genotyped for seven SNPs previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in case-control designed studies. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours (n = 104) and control subjects free of glioma at baseline, three of seven SNPs were associated with glioma risk: rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT), rs4977756 (9p21.3, CDKN2A-CDKN2B) and rs6010620 (20q13.33, RTEL1). After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, only one marker was statistically significantly associated with glioma risk, rs6010620 (ORtrend for the minor (A) allele, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25-0.61; Bonferroni adjusted ptrend , 1.7 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, as previously shown for glioma regardless of family history of brain tumours, rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with an increased risk of glioma when restricting to cases with family history of brain tumours. These findings require confirmation in further studies with a larger number of glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  12. Self-other resonance, its control and prosocial inclinations: Brain-behavior relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov-Moore, Leonardo; Iacoboni, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Humans seem to place a positive reward value on prosocial behavior. Evidence suggests that this prosocial inclination is driven by our reflexive tendency to share in the observed sensations, emotions and behavior of others, or "self-other resonance". In this study, we examine how neural correlates of self-other resonance relate to prosocial decision-making. Subjects performed two tasks while undergoing fMRI: observation of a human hand pierced by a needle, and observation and imitation of emotional facial expressions. Outside the scanner, subjects played the Dictator Game with players of low or high income (represented by neutral-expression headshots). Subjects' offers in the Dictator Game were correlated with activity in neural systems associated with self-other resonance and anticorrelated with activity in systems implicated in the control of pain, affect, and imitation. Functional connectivity between areas involved in self-other resonance and top-down control was negatively correlated with subjects' offers. This study suggests that the interaction between self-other resonance and top-down control processes are an important component of prosocial inclinations towards others, even when biological stimuli associated with self-other resonance are limited. These findings support a view of prosocial decision-making grounded in embodied cognition. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Unc-51/ATG1 controls axonal and dendritic development via kinesin-mediated vesicle transport in the Drosophila brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Mochizuki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the evolutionary conserved Ser/Thr kinase Unc-51 family are key regulatory proteins that control neural development in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Previous studies have suggested diverse functions for the Unc-51 protein, including axonal elongation, growth cone guidance, and synaptic vesicle transport.In this work, we have investigated the functional significance of Unc-51-mediated vesicle transport in the development of complex brain structures in Drosophila. We show that Unc-51 preferentially accumulates in newly elongating axons of the mushroom body, a center of olfactory learning in flies. Mutations in unc-51 cause disintegration of the core of the developing mushroom body, with mislocalization of Fasciclin II (Fas II, an IgG-family cell adhesion molecule important for axonal guidance and fasciculation. In unc-51 mutants, Fas II accumulates in the cell bodies, calyx, and the proximal peduncle. Furthermore, we show that mutations in unc-51 cause aberrant overshooting of dendrites in the mushroom body and the antennal lobe. Loss of unc-51 function leads to marked accumulation of Rab5 and Golgi components, whereas the localization of dendrite-specific proteins, such as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM and No distributive disjunction (Nod, remains unaltered. Genetic analyses of kinesin light chain (Klc and unc-51 double heterozygotes suggest the importance of kinesin-mediated membrane transport for axonal and dendritic development. Moreover, our data demonstrate that loss of Klc activity causes similar axonal and dendritic defects in mushroom body neurons, recapitulating the salient feature of the developmental abnormalities caused by unc-51 mutations.Unc-51 plays pivotal roles in the axonal and dendritic development of the Drosophila brain. Unc-51-mediated membrane vesicle transport is important in targeted localization of guidance molecules and organelles that regulate elongation and compartmentalization of

  14. Social reward improves the voluntary control over localized brain activity in fMRI-based neurofeedback training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Anna Mathiak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback (NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI allows voluntary regulation of the activity in a selected brain region. For the training of this regulation, a well-designed feedback system is required. Social reward may serve as an effective incentive in NF paradigms, but its efficiency has not yet been tested. Therefore, we developed a social reward NF paradigm and assessed it in comparison with a typical visual NF paradigm (moving bar.We trained 24 healthy participants, on three consecutive days, to control activation in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC with fMRI-based NF. In the social feedback group, an avatar gradually smiled when ACC activity increased, whereas in the standard feedback group, a moving bar indicated the activation level. To assess a transfer of the NF training both groups were asked to up-regulate their brain activity without receiving feedback immediately before and after the NF training (pre- and post-test. Finally, the effect of the acquired NF training on ACC function was evaluated in a cognitive interference task (Simon task during the pre- and post-test.Social reward led to stronger activity in the ACC and reward-related areas during the NF training when compared to standard feedback. After the training, both groups were able to regulate ACC without receiving feedback, with a trend for stronger responses in the social feedback group. Moreover, despite a lack of behavioral differences, significant higher ACC activations emerged in the cognitive interference task, reflecting a stronger generalization of the NF training on cognitive interference processing after social feedback.Social reward can increase self-regulation in fMRI-based NF and strengthen its effects on neural processing in related tasks, such as cognitive interference. An advantage of social feedback is that a direct external reward is provided as in natural social interactions, opening perspectives for implicit

  15. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  16. Organising health care services for people with an acquired brain injury: an overview of systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Kate; Lannin, Natasha A; Bragge, Peter; Hunter, Peter; Holland, Anne E; Tavender, Emma; O'Connor, Denise; Khan, Fary; Teasell, Robert; Gruen, Russell

    2014-09-17

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is the leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is little information regarding the most effective way to organise ABI health care services. The aim of this review was to identify the most up-to-date high quality evidence to answer specific questions regarding the organisation of health care services for people with an ABI. We conducted a systematic review of English papers using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. We included the most recently published high quality systematic reviews and any randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before after studies or interrupted time series studies published subsequent to the systematic review. We searched for papers that evaluated pre-defined organisational interventions for adults with an ABI. Organisational interventions of interest included fee-for-service care, integrated care, integrated care pathways, continuity of care, consumer engagement in governance and quality monitoring interventions. Data extraction and appraisal of included reviews and studies was completed independently by two reviewers. A total of five systematic reviews and 21 studies were included in the review; eight of the papers (31%) included people with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or ABI and the remaining papers (69%) included only participants with a diagnosis of stroke. We found evidence supporting the use of integrated care to improve functional outcome and reduce length of stay and evidence supporting early supported discharge teams for reducing morbidity and mortality and reducing length of stay for stroke survivors. There was little evidence to support case management or the use of integrated care pathways for people with ABI. We found evidence that a quality monitoring intervention can lead to improvements in process outcomes in acute and rehabilitation settings. We were unable to find any studies meeting our inclusion criteria regarding fee

  17. Ten-dimensional anthropomorphic arm control in a human brain-machine interface: difficulties, solutions, and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodlinger, B.; Downey, J. E.; Tyler-Kabara, E. C.; Schwartz, A. B.; Boninger, M. L.; Collinger, J. L.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. In a previous study we demonstrated continuous translation, orientation and one-dimensional grasping control of a prosthetic limb (seven degrees of freedom) by a human subject with tetraplegia using a brain-machine interface (BMI). The current study, in the same subject, immediately followed the previous work and expanded the scope of the control signal by also extracting hand-shape commands from the two 96-channel intracortical electrode arrays implanted in the subject’s left motor cortex. Approach. Four new control signals, dictating prosthetic hand shape, replaced the one-dimensional grasping in the previous study, allowing the subject to control the prosthetic limb with ten degrees of freedom (three-dimensional (3D) translation, 3D orientation, four-dimensional hand shaping) simultaneously. Main results. Robust neural tuning to hand shaping was found, leading to ten-dimensional (10D) performance well above chance levels in all tests. Neural unit preferred directions were broadly distributed through the 10D space, with the majority of units significantly tuned to all ten dimensions, instead of being restricted to isolated domains (e.g. translation, orientation or hand shape). The addition of hand shaping emphasized object-interaction behavior. A fundamental component of BMIs is the calibration used to associate neural activity to intended movement. We found that the presence of an object during calibration enhanced successful shaping of the prosthetic hand as it closed around the object during grasping. Significance. Our results show that individual motor cortical neurons encode many parameters of movement, that object interaction is an important factor when extracting these signals, and that high-dimensional operation of prosthetic devices can be achieved with simple decoding algorithms. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01364480.

  18. Asynchronous P300-based brain-computer interface to control a virtual environment: initial tests on end users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise, Fabio; Schettini, Francesca; Aricò, Pietro; Salinari, Serenella; Guger, Christoph; Rinsma, Johanna; Aiello, Marco; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo

    2011-10-01

    Motor disability and/or ageing can prevent individuals from fully enjoying home facilities, thus worsening their quality of life. Advances in the field of accessible user interfaces for domotic appliances can represent a valuable way to improve the independence of these persons. An asynchronous P300-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system was recently validated with the participation of healthy young volunteers for environmental control. In this study, the asynchronous P300-based BCI for the interaction with a virtual home environment was tested with the participation of potential end-users (clients of a Frisian home care organization) with limited autonomy due to ageing and/or motor disabilities. System testing revealed that the minimum number of stimulation sequences needed to achieve correct classification had a higher intra-subject variability in potential end-users with respect to what was previously observed in young controls. Here we show that the asynchronous modality performed significantly better as compared to the synchronous mode in continuously adapting its speed to the users' state. Furthermore, the asynchronous system modality confirmed its reliability in avoiding misclassifications and false positives, as previously shown in young healthy subjects. The asynchronous modality may contribute to filling the usability gap between BCI systems and traditional input devices, representing an important step towards their use in the activities of daily living.

  19. Alteration patterns of brain glucose metabolism: comparisons of healthy controls, subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Uk; Choi, Eun Kyoung; Oh, Jin Kyoung; Chung, Yong-An; Chung, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Some groups have focused on the detection and management of subjective memory impairment (SMI) as the stage that precedes mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there have been few clinical studies that have examined biomarkers of SMI to date. To investigate the differences in glucose metabolism as a prodromal marker of dementia in patients with SMI, MCI, and healthy controls using brain F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Sixty-eight consecutive patients with SMI, 47 patients with MCI, and 42 age-matched healthy subjects were recruited. All subjects underwent FDG-PET and detailed neuropsychological testing. FDG-PET images were analyzed using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program. FDG-PET analysis showed glucose hypometabolism in the periventricular regions of patients with SMI and in the parietal, precentral frontal, and periventricular regions of patients with MCI compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, hypometabolism on FDG-PET was noted in the parietal and precentral frontal regions in MCI patients compared to SMI patients. The results suggest that hypometabolism in the periventricular regions as seen on FDG-PET may play a role as a predictive biomarker of pre-dementia, and the extension of reduced glucose metabolism into parietal regions likely reflects progression of cognitive deterioration. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  20. Precision flow-controlled Rb-82 generator for bolus or constant-infusion studies of the heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Y.; Cahoon, J.L.; Budinger, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    A precision flow-controlled rubidium-82 generator has been constructed to deliver 76-sec Rb-82 at either fast or slow flow rates for bolus or constant-infusion studies. A stepping motor drive is interfaced to a microprocessor for pulsed control of flow rate to deliver the saline eluant solution from a large-volume (150 ml) machined pumping syringe through an alumina column that retains the 25-day Sr-82 parent. The generator system delivers 70-90% of the maximum Rb-82 activity in a 20-25 ml bolus elution of 2% NaCl. The Sr-82/Sr-85 breakthrough is 10 -7 - 10 -6 . Both yield and breakthrough are functions of column length and flow rate. Six separate Sr-82 loadings of the generator were evaluated over a period of nearly 2 yr in studies of myocardial blood perfusion and permeability changes in the blood-brain barrier. Sterility and apyrogenicity of the Rb-82 eluate were maintained during multiple elutions and long-term use of 3-4 mo for each generator loading

  1. Effect of controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 from collagen gel on neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Hao; Chang, Jun; Ma, Guangwen; Yin, Zongsheng

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to examine the effect of controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) from collagen gel on rat neural stem cells (NSCs). With three groups of collagen gel, BDNF/collagen gel, and NT-3/collagen gel as controls, BDNF and NT-3 were tested in the BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel group at different time points. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that BDNF and NT-3 were steadily released from collagen gels for 10 days. The cell viability test and the bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay showed that BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel supported the survival and proliferation of NSCs. The results also showed that the length of processes was markedly longer and differentiation percentage from NSCs into neurons was much higher in the BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel group than those in the collagen gel, BDNF/collagen gel, and NT-3/collagen gel groups. These findings suggest that BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel could significantly improve the ability of NSCs proliferation and differentiation.

  2. Shared Genetic Control of Brain Activity During Sleep and Insulin Secretion: A Laboratory-Based Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Gamazon, Eric R; Tasali, Esra; Cox, Nancy J; Van Cauter, Eve; Davis, Lea K

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a large body of experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked sleep duration and quality to glucose homeostasis, although the mechanistic pathways remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether genetic variation influencing both sleep and glucose regulation could underlie their functional relationship. We hypothesized that the genetic regulation of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, a highly heritable trait with fingerprint reproducibility, is correlated with the genetic control of metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. We tested our hypotheses through univariate and bivariate heritability analyses in a three-generation pedigree with in-depth phenotyping of both sleep EEG and metabolic traits in 48 family members. Our analyses accounted for age, sex, adiposity, and the use of psychoactive medications. In univariate analyses, we found significant heritability for measures of fasting insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, for time spent in slow-wave sleep, and for EEG spectral power in the delta, theta, and sigma ranges. Bivariate heritability analyses provided the first evidence for a shared genetic control of brain activity during deep sleep and fasting insulin secretion rate. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. In and out of control: brain mechanisms linking fluency of action selection to self-agency in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Martin; Chambon, Valérian; Wenke, Dorit; Kühn, Simone; Haggard, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of control over one's actions, and their consequences. It involves both predictive processes linked to action control, and retrospective 'sense-making' causal inferences. Schizophrenia has been associated with impaired predictive processing, but the underlying mechanisms that impair patients' sense of agency remain unclear. We introduce a new 'prospective' aspect of agency and show that subliminally priming an action not only influences response times, but also influences reported sense of agency over subsequent action outcomes. This effect of priming was associated with altered connectivity between frontal areas and the angular gyrus. The effects on response times and on frontal action selection mechanisms were similar in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers. However, patients showed no effects of priming on sense of agency, no priming-related activation of angular gyrus, and no priming-related changes in fronto-parietal connectivity. We suggest angular gyrus activation reflects the experiences of agency, or non-agency, in part by processing action selection signals generated in the frontal lobes. The altered action awareness that characterizes schizophrenia may be due to impaired communication between these areas. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Klæboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Lannering, Birgitta; Röösli, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of blood-brain barrier transport and CNS drug metabolism in diseased and control brain after intravenous L-DOPA in a unilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravenstijn Paulien GM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB functionality have been implicated in Parkinson's disease. This study aimed to investigate BBB transport of L-DOPA transport in conjunction with its intra-brain conversion, in both control and diseased cerebral hemispheres in the unilateral rat rotenone model of Parkinson's disease. Methods In Lewis rats, at 14 days after unilateral infusion of rotenone into the medial forebrain bundle, L-DOPA was administered intravenously (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg. Serial blood samples and brain striatal microdialysates were analysed for L-DOPA, and the dopamine metabolites DOPAC and HVA. Ex-vivo brain tissue was analyzed for changes in tyrosine hydroxylase staining as a biomarker for Parkinson's disease severity. Data were analysed by population pharmacokinetic analysis (NONMEM to compare BBB transport of L-DOPA in conjunction with the conversion of L-DOPA into DOPAC and HVA, in control and diseased cerebral hemisphere. Results Plasma pharmacokinetics of L-DOPA could be described by a 3-compartmental model. In rotenone responders (71%, no difference in L-DOPA BBB transport was found between diseased and control cerebral hemisphere. However, in the diseased compared with the control side, basal microdialysate levels of DOPAC and HVA were substantially lower, whereas following L-DOPA administration their elimination rates were higher. Conclusions Parkinson's disease-like pathology, indicated by a huge reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase as well as by substantially reduced levels and higher elimination rates of DOPAC and HVA, does not result in changes in BBB transport of L-DOPA. Taking the results of this study and that of previous ones, it can be concluded that changes in BBB functionality are not a specific characteristic of Parkinson's disease, and cannot account for the decreased benefit of L-DOPA at later stages of Parkinson's disease.

  6. Elevated brain harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) in essential tremor cases vs. controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Liu, Xinhua; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G; Galecki, Monika; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-β]indole), a potent neurotoxin that has tremor-producing properties in animal models, is present in many foods; although we have demonstrated a difference in tissue harmane concentrations in ET cases vs. controls, all work to date has involved blood samples. We quantified harmane concentrations in human cerebellum, a brain region of particular pathogenic interest in essential tremor (ET), comparing ET to control brains. Cerebellar cortex was snap frozen and stored at -80°C in aliquots for biochemical analyses. Harmane concentration was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Geometric mean brain harmane concentrations (adjusted for postmortem interval [PMI] and freezer time) were higher in ET cases than controls: 1.0824 (95% confidence interval=0.9405-1.2457) vs. 0.8037 (0.6967-0.9272), p=0.004. Geometric mean of brain harmane concentrations (adjusting for PMI and freezer time) was highest in ET cases who reported other relatives with tremor (1.2005 [0.8712-1.6541]), intermediate in ET cases without family history (1.0312 ([0.8879-1.1976]), and both were significantly higher than controls (p=0.02). This study provides additional evidence of a possible etiological importance of this toxin in some cases of the human disease ET. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. One-way traffic: The inferior frontal gyrus controls brain activation in the middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule during divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Beatty, Erin L; Smith, Ingrid; Blackler, Kristen; Lam, Quan; Forbes, Sarah

    2018-02-23

    Contrary to earlier approaches that focused on the contributions of isolated brain regions to the emergence of creativity, there is now growing consensus that creative thought emerges from the interaction of multiple brain regions, often embedded within larger brain networks. Specifically, recent evidence from studies of divergent thinking suggests that kernel ideas emerge in posterior brain regions residing within the semantic system and/or the default mode network (DMN), and that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions within the executive control network (ECN) constrain those ideas for generating outputs that meet task demands. However, despite knowing that regions within these networks exhibit interaction, to date the direction of the relationship has not been tested directly. By applying Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) to fMRI data collected during a divergent thinking task, we tested the hypothesis that the PFC exerts unidirectional control over the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), vs. the hypothesis that these two sets of regions exert bidirectional control over each other (in the form of feedback loops). The data were consistent with the former model by demonstrating that the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) exerts unidirectional control over MTG and IPL, although the evidence was somewhat stronger in the case of the MTG than the IPL. Our findings highlight potential causal pathways that could underlie the neural bases of divergent thinking. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An EEG/EOG-based hybrid brain-neural computer interaction (BNCI) system to control an exoskeleton for the paralyzed hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Witkowski, Matthias; Vitiello, Nicola; Birbaumer, Niels

    2015-06-01

    The loss of hand function can result in severe physical and psychosocial impairment. Thus, compensation of a lost hand function using assistive robotics that can be operated in daily life is very desirable. However, versatile, intuitive, and reliable control of assistive robotics is still an unsolved challenge. Here, we introduce a novel brain/neural-computer interaction (BNCI) system that integrates electroencephalography (EEG) and electrooculography (EOG) to improve control of assistive robotics in daily life environments. To evaluate the applicability and performance of this hybrid approach, five healthy volunteers (HV) (four men, average age 26.5 ± 3.8 years) and a 34-year-old patient with complete finger paralysis due to a brachial plexus injury (BPI) used EEG (condition 1) and EEG/EOG (condition 2) to control grasping motions of a hand exoskeleton. All participants were able to control the BNCI system (BNCI control performance HV: 70.24 ± 16.71%, BPI: 65.93 ± 24.27%), but inclusion of EOG significantly improved performance across all participants (HV: 80.65 ± 11.28, BPI: 76.03 ± 18.32%). This suggests that hybrid BNCI systems can achieve substantially better control over assistive devices, e.g., a hand exoskeleton, than systems using brain signals alone and thus may increase applicability of brain-controlled assistive devices in daily life environments.

  9. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Shokri Kojori, Ehsan; Fowler, Joanna S; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication, the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75 g/kg alcohol vs placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video stimulation (VS) versus when given with no stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HDs) and 23 healthy controls, each of whom underwent four PET-(18)FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p = 0.04); that alcohol (compared with placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20 ± 13%) than controls (9 ± 11%, p = 0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, p = 0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10 ± 12%) compared with NS in both groups (15 ± 13%, p = 0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e., acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in HDs, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353248-08$15.00/0.

  10. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-01-01

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET- 18 FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal

  11. Brain parenchymal density measurements by CT in demented subjects and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.; Danziger, W.L.; Chi, D.; Hughes, C.P.; Coben, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Parachymal density measurements of 14 regions of gray and white matter from each cerebral hemisphere were made from CT scans of 25 subjects who had varying degrees of dementia as measured by a global Clinical Dementia Rating, and also from CT scans of 33 normal control subjects. There were few significant differences between the two groups in the mean density value for each of the regions examined, although several individual psychometric tests did correlate with density changes. Moreover, for six regions in the cerebral cortex, and for one region in the thalamus of each hemisphere, we found no significant correlation between the gray-white matter density difference and dementia. There was, however, a loss of the discriminability between the gray and white matter with an increase in the size of the ventricles. These findings may be attributed to the loss of white matter volume

  12. Brain SPECT with 123I-Lisurid in patients with Parkinson's disease and in controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierholzer, J.; Cordes, M.; Schelosky, L.; Richter, W.; Schrag, A.; Poewe, W.; Schulze, P.E.; Semmler, W.; Eichstaedt, H.; Felix, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal was to visualize cerebral dopamine-D 2 receptors in 6 patients with Parkinson's disease and in 3 healthy controls using iodine-123-Lisuride-SPECT. In addition, we performed receptor-replacement studies using 123 I-Lisuride and cold Lisuride as competitive ligands. The highest uptake of 123 I-Lisuride was observed in the striatum, a region with known high dopamine receptor density. In two patients premedication with cold Lisuride displaced 123 I-Lisuride from the dopamine receptor. 123 I-Lisuride is valuable as a radiotracer in cerebral dopamine-D 2 receptor scintigraphy. Whether or not it is possible to determine dynamic changes of dopamine receptor density or function by receptor replacement studies needs further evaluation in larger patient populations. (orig.) [de

  13. Control of Brain Activity in hMT+/V5 at Three Response Levels Using fMRI-Based Neurofeedback/BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Teresa; Direito, Bruno; Lima, João; Ferreira, Carlos; Nunes, Urbano; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in brain-computer interface (BCI) research is to increase the number of command classes and levels of control. BCI studies often use binary control level approaches (level 0 and 1 of brain activation for each class of control). Different classes may often be achieved but not different levels of activation for the same class. The increase in the number of levels of control in BCI applications may allow for larger efficiency in neurofeedback applications. In this work we test the hypothesis whether more than two modulation levels can be achieved in a single brain region, the hMT+/V5 complex. Participants performed three distinct imagery tasks during neurofeedback training: imagery of a stationary dot, imagery of a dot with two opposing motions in the vertical axis and imagery of a dot with four opposing motions in vertical or horizontal axes (imagery of 2 or 4 motion directions). The larger the number of motion alternations, the higher the expected hMT+/V5 response. A substantial number (17 of 20) of participants achieved successful binary level of control and 12 were able to reach even 3 significant levels of control within the same session, confirming the whole group effects at the individual level. With this simple approach we suggest that it is possible to design a parametric system of control based on activity modulation of a specific brain region with at least 3 different levels. Furthermore, we show that particular imagery task instructions, based on different number of motion alternations, provide feasible achievement of different control levels in BCI and/or neurofeedback applications.

  14. MALT1 Controls Attenuated Rabies Virus by Inducing Early Inflammation and T Cell Activation in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, E; Staal, J; Verstrepen, L; Tima, H G; Terryn, S; Romano, M; Lemeire, K; Suin, V; Hamouda, A; Kalai, M; Beyaert, R; Van Gucht, S

    2018-04-15

    MALT1 is involved in the activation of immune responses, as well as in the proliferation and survival of certain cancer cells. MALT1 acts as a scaffold protein for NF-κB signaling and a cysteine protease that cleaves substrates, further promoting the expression of immunoregulatory genes. Deregulated MALT1 activity has been associated with autoimmunity and cancer, implicating MALT1 as a new therapeutic target. Although MALT1 deficiency has been shown to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, nothing is known about the impact of MALT1 on virus infection in the central nervous system. Here, we studied infection with an attenuated rabies virus, Evelyn-Rotnycki-Abelseth (ERA) virus, and observed increased susceptibility with ERA virus in MALT1 -/- mice. Indeed, after intranasal infection with ERA virus, wild-type mice developed mild transient clinical signs with recovery at 35 days postinoculation (dpi). Interestingly, MALT1 -/- mice developed severe disease requiring euthanasia at around 17 dpi. A decreased induction of inflammatory gene expression and cell infiltration and activation was observed in MALT1 -/- mice at 10 dpi compared to MALT1 +/+ infected mice. At 17 dpi, however, the level of inflammatory cell activation was comparable to that observed in MALT1 +/+ mice. Moreover, MALT1 -/- mice failed to produce virus-neutralizing antibodies. Similar results were obtained with specific inactivation of MALT1 in T cells. Finally, treatment of wild-type mice with mepazine, a MALT1 protease inhibitor, also led to mortality upon ERA virus infection. These data emphasize the importance of early inflammation and activation of T cells through MALT1 for controlling the virulence of an attenuated rabies virus in the brain. IMPORTANCE Rabies virus is a neurotropic virus which can infect any mammal. Annually, 59,000 people die from rabies. Effective therapy is lacking and hampered by gaps in the understanding of virus pathogenicity. MALT1 is an intracellular

  15. Spatial co-adaptation of cortical control columns in a micro-ECoG brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, A. G.; Williams, J. J.; Wheeler, J. J.; Moran, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Electrocorticography (ECoG) has been used for a range of applications including electrophysiological mapping, epilepsy monitoring, and more recently as a recording modality for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Studies that examine ECoG electrodes designed and implanted chronically solely for BCI applications remain limited. The present study explored how two key factors influence chronic, closed-loop ECoG BCI: (i) the effect of inter-electrode distance on BCI performance and (ii) the differences in neural adaptation and performance when fixed versus adaptive BCI decoding weights are used. Approach. The amplitudes of epidural micro-ECoG signals between 75 and 105 Hz with 300 μm diameter electrodes were used for one-dimensional and two-dimensional BCI tasks. The effect of inter-electrode distance on BCI control was tested between 3 and 15 mm. Additionally, the performance and cortical modulation differences between constant, fixed decoding using a small subset of channels versus adaptive decoding weights using the entire array were explored. Main results. Successful BCI control was possible with two electrodes separated by 9 and 15 mm. Performance decreased and the signals became more correlated when the electrodes were only 3 mm apart. BCI performance in a 2D BCI task improved significantly when using adaptive decoding weights (80%-90%) compared to using constant, fixed weights (50%-60%). Additionally, modulation increased for channels previously unavailable for BCI control under the fixed decoding scheme upon switching to the adaptive, all-channel scheme. Significance. Our results clearly show that neural activity under a BCI recording electrode (which we define as a ‘cortical control column’) readily adapts to generate an appropriate control signal. These results show that the practical minimal spatial resolution of these control columns with micro-ECoG BCI is likely on the order of 3 mm. Additionally, they show that the combination and

  16. On the Relationship Between Attention Processing and P300-Based Brain Computer Interface Control in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Riccio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the capacity to control a P3-based brain-computer interface (BCI device for communication and its related (temporal attention processing in a sample of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients with respect to healthy subjects. The ultimate goal was to corroborate the role of cognitive mechanisms in event-related potential (ERP-based BCI control in ALS patients. Furthermore, the possible differences in such attentional mechanisms between the two groups were investigated in order to unveil possible alterations associated with the ALS condition. Thirteen ALS patients and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age and years of education underwent a P3-speller BCI task and a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task. The RSVP task was performed by participants in order to screen their temporal pattern of attentional resource allocation, namely: (i the temporal attentional filtering capacity (scored as T1%; and (ii the capability to adequately update the attentive filter in the temporal dynamics of the attentional selection (scored as T2%. For the P3-speller BCI task, the online accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR were obtained. Centroid Latency and Mean Amplitude of N200 and P300 were also obtained. No significant differences emerged between ALS patients and Controls with regards to online accuracy (p = 0.13. Differently, the performance in controlling the P3-speller expressed as ITR values (calculated offline were compromised in ALS patients (p < 0.05, with a delay in the latency of P3 when processing BCI stimuli as compared with Control group (p < 0.01. Furthermore, the temporal aspect of attentional filtering which was related to BCI control (r = 0.51; p < 0.05 and to the P3 wave amplitude (r = 0.63; p < 0.05 was also altered in ALS patients (p = 0.01. These findings ground the knowledge required to develop sensible classes of BCI specifically designed by taking into account the influence of the cognitive

  17. A randomized control intervention trial to improve social skills and quality of life in pediatric brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Sung, Lillian; Bartels, Ute; Schulte, Fiona; Chung, Joanna; Cataudella, Danielle; Hancock, Kelly; Janzen, Laura; Saleh, Amani; Strother, Douglas; Downie, Andrea; Zelcer, Shayna; Hukin, Juliette; McConnell, Dina

    2018-01-01

    To determine if a group social skills intervention program improves social competence and quality of life (QOL) in pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS). We conducted a randomized control trial in which PBTS (8-16 years old, off therapy for over 3 months) were allocated to receive social skills training (eg, cooperation, assertion, using social cognitive problem solving strategies, role playing, games, and arts and crafts) in 8 weekly 2-hour sessions, or an attention placebo control (games and arts and crafts only). Outcomes were self-reported, proxy-reported (caregiver), and teacher-reported using the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), to measure social competence, and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL4.0, generic) to measure QOL at baseline, after intervention, and at 6 months follow-up. At baseline, SSRS were stratified into low and high scores and included as a covariate in the analysis. Compared to controls (n = 48), PBTS in the intervention group (n = 43) reported significantly better total and empathy SSRS scores, with improvements persisting at follow-up. The PBTS in the intervention group who had low scores at baseline reported the greatest improvements. Proxy and teacher reports showed no intervention effect. Participating in group social skills intervention can improve self-reported social competence that persisted to follow up. The PBTS should be given the opportunity to participate in social skills groups to improve social competence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Brain PET substrate of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: A metabolic connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Klesse, Elsa; Chawki, Mohammad B; Witjas, Tatiana; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Eusebio, Alexandre; Guedj, Eric

    2018-04-10

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have received increased attention in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of potentially dramatic consequences. Their physiopathology, however, remains incompletely understood. An overstimulation of the mesocorticolimbic system has been reported, while a larger network has recently been suggested. The aim of this study is to specifically describe the metabolic PET substrate and related connectivity changes in PD patients with ICDs. Eighteen PD patients with ICDs and 18 PD patients without ICDs were evaluated using cerebral 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. SPM-T maps comparisons were performed between groups and metabolic connectivity was evaluated by interregional correlation analysis (IRCA; p  130) and by graph theory (p < .05). PD patients with ICDs had relative increased metabolism in the right middle and inferior temporal gyri compared to those without ICDs. The connectivity of this area was increased mostly with the mesocorticolimbic system, positively with the orbitofrontal region, and negatively with both the right parahippocampus and the left caudate (IRCA). Moreover, the betweenness centrality of this area with the mesocorticolimbic system was lost in patients with ICDs (graph analysis). ICDs are associated in PD with the dysfunction of a network exceeding the mesocorticolimbic system, and especially the caudate, the parahippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex, remotely including the right middle and inferior temporal gyri. This latest area loses its central place with the mesocorticolimbic system through a connectivity dysregulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Online games training aging brains: limited transfer to cognitive control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Muijden, Jesse; Band, Guido P H; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC) in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60-77) played five different cognitive training games online for 30 min a day over a period of seven weeks (game group). Another group of 20 older adults (age 61-73) instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group). Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention, and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task) and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM), whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3). These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults.

  20. Online Games Training Aging Brains:Limited transfer to cognitive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eVan Muijden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60-77 played five different cognitive training games online for 30 minutes a day over a period of seven weeks (game group. Another group of 20 older adults (age 61-73 instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group. Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM, whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3. These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults.

  1. Neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning of children treated for a brain tumor: design of a randomized controlled double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Ruiter Marieke A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotoxicity caused by treatment for a brain tumor is a major cause of neurocognitive decline in survivors. Studies have shown that neurofeedback may enhance neurocognitive functioning. This paper describes the protocol of the PRISMA study, a randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning in children treated for a brain tumor. Methods/Design Efficacy of neurofeedback will be compared to placebo training in a randomized controlled double-blind trial. A total of 70 brain tumor survivors in the age range of 8 to 18 years will be recruited. Inclusion also requires caregiver-reported neurocognitive problems and being off treatment for more than two