WorldWideScience

Sample records for glyphosate electronic resource

  1. Glyphosate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arcuri (Alessandra)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractGlyphosate is the rock star of pesticides, albeit a controversial one. With 6.1 billion kilograms applied globally in the last decade alone, it is the most widely used herbicide compound in the world. Glyphosate, is at the centre of an acrimonious controversy relating to whether the

  2. Glyphosate Detection by Means of a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue and Discrimination of Potential Interferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ibáñez-Civera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new electronic tongue to monitor the presence of glyphosate (a non-selective systemic herbicide has been developed. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists in an array of three working electrodes (Pt, Co and Cu encapsulated on a methacrylate cylinder. The electrochemical response of the sensing array was characteristic of the presence of glyphosate in buffered water (phosphate buffer 0.1 mol·dm−3, pH 6.7. Rotating disc electrode (RDE studies were carried out with Pt, Co and Cu electrodes in water at room temperature and at pH 6.7 using 0.1 mol·dm−3 of phosphate as a buffer. In the presence of glyphosate, the corrosion current of the Cu and Co electrodes increased significantly, probably due to the formation of Cu2+ or Co2+ complexes. The pulse array waveform for the voltammetric tongue was designed by taking into account some of the redox processes observed in the electrochemical studies. The PCA statistical analysis required four dimensions to explain 95% of variance. Moreover, a two-dimensional representation of the two principal components differentiated the water mixtures containing glyphosate. Furthermore, the PLS statistical analyses allowed the creation of a model to correlate the electrochemical response of the electrodes with glyphosate concentrations, even in the presence of potential interferents such as humic acids and Ca2+. The system offers a PLS prediction model for glyphosate detection with values of 098, −2.3 × 10−5 and 0.94 for the slope, the intercept and the regression coefficient, respectively, which is in agreement with the good fit between the predicted and measured concentrations. The results suggest the feasibility of this system to help develop electronic tongues for glyphosate detection.

  3. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Panneerselvam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  4. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  5. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  6. Glyphosate Can Decrease Germination of Glyphosate-Resistant Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Bicalho, Elisa Monteze; Smedbol, Élise; Cruz, Fernanda Vieira da Silva; Lucotte, Marc; Garcia, Queila Souza

    2017-03-22

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations of glyphosate acid and one of its formulations (Roundup) on seed germination of two glyphosate-resistant (GR) and one non-GR variety of soybean. As expected, the herbicide affected the shikimate pathway in non-GR seeds but not in GR seeds. We observed that glyphosate can disturb the mitochondrial electron transport chain, leading to H 2 O 2 accumulation in soybean seeds, which was, in turn, related to lower seed germination. In addition, GR seeds showed increased activity of antioxidant systems when compared to non-GR seeds, making them less vulnerable to oxidative stress induced by glyphosate. The differences in the responses of GR varieties to glyphosate exposure corresponded to their differences in enzymatic activity related to H 2 O 2 scavenging and mitochondrial complex III (the proposed site of ROS induction by glyphosate). Our results showed that glyphosate ought to be used carefully as a pre-emergence herbicide in soybean field crop systems because this practice may reduce seed germination.

  7. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  8. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  9. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  10. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  11. 76 FR 19701 - Glyphosate (N-

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0988; FRL-8866-8] Glyphosate (N... residues of glyphosate and N-acetyl-glyphosate in or on poultry, meat. Monsanto Company requested these... glyphosate and its metabolite (N- acetyl-glyphosate) in or poultry meat from 4.0 ppm to 0.1 ppm, as they...

  12. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out ... New approaches in acquisition, accessing, selection, preservation and choices on whether to operate digital, or combine traditional print and digital resources in the library have to be worked out and adopted.

  13. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electronic resources, electronic books, electronic learning, electronic journals, as well as electronic archive among others is intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and sectors of the society. Electronic information resources (EIRS) as reported by Meitz (2004), are "Library materials produced in electronic format.

  14. The calculating rating of electronic resources

    OpenAIRE

    MUMINOV BAHODIR.BOLTAYEICH

    2016-01-01

    The rating of electron resources is devoted to count by theories, directions in this work. The calculating model of rating of ER by entering and exiting directions on bases of used widely PageRank is produced for calculating the rating of web pages in Google searching system. The rating of ER is taken into account for calculating the ratings of entering direction and the calculating exiting direction is accomplished by equitable distribution of ER. And also the calculating rating ER among kin...

  15. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  16. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  17. Utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... printer, and audio-visuals are equally available. Student have unlimited accessibility in the utilization of electronic resources, students frequently utilized electronic information resources in Ramat Library. It is recommended, among others, that registered students should utilize and access electronic information resources ...

  18. Impact of electronic resources use on academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that use of electronic resources had a positive impact on students' academic performance. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that more emphasis should be laid on the acquisition of electronic resources so as to give room for wider and multiple access to information resources in order to ...

  19. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  20. The Evolution of Selection Activities for Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha L.

    1997-01-01

    Selection of electronic resources--CD-ROMs, dial access databases, electronic journals, and World Wide Web products--requires a more extensive set of criteria than do print resources. Discusses two factors influencing collection development of electronic products: technology options and licensing issues, and outlines how traditional selection…

  1. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  2. PVP capped silver nanocubes assisted removal of glyphosate from water-A photoluminescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sumit; Das, Ratan

    2017-10-05

    Glyphosate [N-phosphono-methylglycine (PMG)] is the most used herbicide worldwide and it has been reported very recently that Glyphosate is very harmful and can produce lots of diseases such as alzheimer and parkinson's disease, depression, cancer, infertility including genotoxic effects. As it is mostly present in stable water body and ground water system, its detection and removal is very important. Here, we have shown a fluorescence technique for the removal of glyphosate from water using chemically synthesized polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) silver nanocrystals. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) study shows the average size of silver nanocrystals of 100nm approximately with a morphology of cubic shape. Glyphosate does not show absorption in the visible region. But both glyphosate and silver nanocrystals show strong fluorescence in the visible region. So, photoluminescence study has been successfully utilized to detect the glyphosate in water samples and on treating the glyphosate contaminated water sample with silver nanocrystals, the sample shows no emission peak of glyphosate at 458nm. Thus, this approach is a promising and very rapid method for the detection and removal of glyphosate from water samples on treatment with silver nanocubes. NMR spectra further confirms that the silver nanocrystals treated contaminated water samples are glyphosate free. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Glyphosate Accumulation and Detrimental Effects on Coffea Arabica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph

    Coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide and a highly traded commodity. In order to maintain a high yield of the perennial crop, weed competition for resources needs to be reduced. For this purpose herbicides are commonly applied, with glyphosate being one of the most prominent...... herbicides in coffee fields. Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine], the active ingredient in Roundup®, is characterized as systemic, non-selective, with a broad weed spectrum, inhibiting the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). The inhibition leads to an accumulation of shikimic...... acid. In coffee plantations glyphosate symptoms are commonly observed, probably caused by an unintentional spray drift. Root uptake represents an additional uptake route. Glyphosate can be applied several times per year thus a potential accumulation within the plant would lead to higher tissue...

  4. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, e-resources are not always accessible, lack of supporting structures (connection, downloading, printing limits) and too many resources.

  5. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  6. Secondary effects of glyphosate on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is a unique herbicide with interesting secondary effects. Unfortunately, some have assumed that the secondary effects that occur in glyphosate-susceptible plants treated with glyphosate, such as altered mineral nutrition, reduced phenolic compound production and pathogen resistance, also ...

  7. selective herbicide glyphosate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... This study examined the phyto-toxic effects of a commonly named non-selective herbicide glyphosate. (Roundup™) on onions (Allium cepa Linn.). The study was necessitated due to the indiscriminate use and release of Roundup™ for weed control in the Niger Delta soils of Nigeria. The Organisation for.

  8. The impact of electronic information resource use on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  9. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  10. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    Abstract. This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  11. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  12. Use of electronic resources by undergraduates in two selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to know the extent of use of electronic resources and identify the type of electronic resources used by undergraduates in universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The study population includes all undergraduate students in the faculty of engineering in Niger Delta ...

  13. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  14. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    of implementing training programmes to encourage the use of the e-library. Findings: Training sessions increase the usage of library e-resources significantly; however, the effect seems to be short-lived and training sessions alone may not increase the overall long-term usage. Originality/value: The present paper...

  15. Glyphosate resistance: state of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Robert Douglas; Gaines, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    Studies of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate have increased current understanding of herbicide resistance mechanisms. Thus far, single-codon non-synonymous mutations of EPSPS (5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been rare and, relative to other herbicide mode of action target-site mutations, unconventionally weak in magnitude for resistance to glyphosate. However, it is possible that weeds will emerge with non-synonymous mutations of two codons of EPSPS to produce an enzyme endowing greater resistance to glyphosate. Today, target-gene duplication is a common glyphosate resistance mechanism and could become a fundamental process for developing any resistance trait. Based on competition and substrate selectivity studies in several species, rapid vacuole sequestration of glyphosate occurs via a transporter mechanism. Conversely, as the chloroplast requires transporters for uptake of important metabolites, transporters associated with the two plastid membranes may separately, or together, successfully block glyphosate delivery. A model based on finite glyphosate dose and limiting time required for chloroplast loading sets the stage for understanding how uniquely different mechanisms can contribute to overall glyphosate resistance. PMID:25180399

  16. Herbicide Glyphosate Impact to Earthworm (E. fetida)

    OpenAIRE

    Greta Dajoraitė; Jūratė Žaltauskaitė; Aušra Zigmontienė

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum weed resistant herbicide. Glyphosate may pose negative impact on land ecosystems because of wide broad usage and hydrofilic characteristic. The aim of this study was to investigate negative effects of glyphosate on soil invertebrate organisms (earthworm Eisenia fetida). The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. The range of the test concentrations of glyphosate were: 0,1, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg. To investigate the glyphosate impact on earthworm Eisenia fetida the foll...

  17. Integrating Electronic Resources into the Library Catalog: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gail; Aldana, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project at the University of Mississippi Libraries to catalog purchased electronic resources so that access to these resources is available only via the Web-based library catalog. Discusses collaboration between cataloging and systems personnel; and describes the MARC catalog record field that contains the information needed to locate…

  18. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  19. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  20. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  1. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  2. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  3. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  4. Glyphosate Resistant Palmer Amaranth - A Threat To Conservation Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth is now present in throughout the Southeast. Hundreds of thousands of conservation tillage cotton acres, some currently under USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) conservation program contracts, are at risk of being converted to higher-intensity til...

  5. Glyphosate resistant weeds - a threat to conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant weeds are now present throughout the Southeast. Hundreds of thousands of conservation tillage cotton acres, some currently under USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) conservation program contracts, are at risk of being converted to higher-intensity tillage systems....

  6. USE OF VIDEO IN MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Denisenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread introduction of electronic educational resources in the educational process requires the development of a scientific basis for all aspects related to their creation and use. These modern means are designed not just to convey to learners the required course material, but also to create conditions for its most effective study. This is possible in conditions of reasonable approach to the presentation of educational material on the screen. The article is devoted to consideration of the problem of presenting educational material in electronic educational resources. Visuals are powerful didactic tool that enhances the perception and understanding of educational information. Particular attention is paid to the use of such a powerful medium like video. Investigated the role and importance of video in the learning process, their educational opportunities and benefits. Shows types of video and their use in electronic educational resources. Grounded requirements for training videos. The recommendations are given on the use of video in combination with other media in electronic educational resources. Adduced the example a real electronic multimedia educational resource and shows the possibility of using video.

  7. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  8. Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, María C; Lenardón, Argelia; Sanchez, Daniel; Maitre, María I; Scotta, Roberto; Enrique, Susana

    2004-02-01

    The availability of Roundup Ready (RR) varieties of soybean has increased the use of glyphosate for weed control in Argentina. Glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine] is employed for the eradication of previous crop vegetation and for weed control during the soybean growing cycle. Its action is effective, and low environmental impact has been reported so far. No residues have been observed in soil or water, either of glyphosate or its metabolite, AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid). The objective of this work was to monitor glyphosate and AMPA residues in soybean plants and grains in field crops in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Five sites were monitored in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Individual soybean plants were sampled from emergence to harvest, dried and ground. Analysis consisted in residue extraction with organic solvents and buffers, agitation, centrifugation, clean-up and HPLC with UV detection. In soybean leaves and stems, glyphosate residues ranged from 1.9 to 4.4 mg kg(-1) and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg kg(-1) in grains. Higher concentrations were detected when glyphosate was sprayed several times during the crop cycle, and when treatments approached the flowering stage. AMPA residues were also detected in leaves and in grains, indicating metabolism of the herbicide.

  9. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  10. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  11. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  12. Herbicide Glyphosate Impact to Earthworm (E. fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Dajoraitė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a broad spectrum weed resistant herbicide. Glyphosate may pose negative impact on land ecosystems because of wide broad usage and hydrofilic characteristic. The aim of this study was to investigate negative effects of glyphosate on soil invertebrate organisms (earthworm Eisenia fetida. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. The range of the test concentrations of glyphosate were: 0,1, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg. To investigate the glyphosate impact on earthworm Eisenia fetida the following endpoints were measured: survival, reproduction and weight. The exposure to 20 mg/kg glyphosate has led to the 100% mortality of earthworms. Glyphosate has led to decreased E. fetida reproduction, the cocoons were observed only in the lowest concentration (0,1 mg/kg. In general: long-term glyphosate toxicity to earthworms (E. fetida may be significant.

  13. 75 FR 24969 - Glyphosate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of petition in... investigation concerning glyphosate from China (investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)) is discontinued...

  14. 75 FR 17768 - Glyphosate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping investigation... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of glyphosate, provided for in subheadings...

  15. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  16. Printed And Electronic Resources Utilization By Agricultural Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the use of printed and electronic resources by agricultural science students in three Nigerian universities. A two-part questionnaire was designed to elicit necessary information from the respondents selected for the study. One thousand three hundred (1300) respondents from faculties of Agriculture in ...

  17. Electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the state of electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in Southern part of Nigeria, highlighting the prospects and the challenges. The study was an empirical research which adopted the descriptive survey as the design. The questionnaire was used to collect data from the ...

  18. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, E- journals, CD-ROMs, AGORA, and ... to finance and geographical location. Furthermore, in developed countries like United Kingdom, students get access to .... databases, web sources and audio-video tapes. Furthermore, studies also ...

  19. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  20. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services in A.B.U & UNIBEN MTN Net Libraries. ... Lastly, management of the MTN Net Libraries should conduct user studies annually in order to have feedback from users on how well the library is meeting their information needs. The results of the survey should ...

  1. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  2. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on an empirical study that examined the association between gender and the use of electronic information resources among postgraduate students at the University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in December 2005 and integrated both qualitative and quantitative research ...

  3. Use of electronic information resources among the undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at finding out the use of electronic information resources among undergraduate students in the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The study is based on descriptive survey design method and the population consists of 16,962 undergraduate students across different schools at the Federal University ...

  4. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  5. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  6. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  7. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  8. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Paul C. C.; Baley, G. James; Clinton, William P.; Bunkers, Greg J.; Alibhai, Murtaza F.; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. ...

  9. The history and current status of glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate has been called a once-in-a-century herbicide. Since it was commercialized in 1974, its use has grown to dominate and shape the herbicide marketplace. In 2008, half of the U.S. herbicide market, as measured by amount applied, was glyphosate. Much of this use was on transgenic, glyphosate...

  10. Overview of glyphosate-resistant weeds worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is the most widely used and successful herbicide discovered to date, but its utility is now threatened by the appearance of several glyphosate-resistant weed species. Glyphosate resistance first appeared in Lolium rigidum in an apple orchard in Australia in 1996, ironically the year that ...

  11. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Jin, Longguo; Zhang, Lijuan; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-...

  12. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  13. Phytoplankton growth and PSII efficiency sensitivity to a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor 540®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedbol, Élise; Lucotte, Marc; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Juneau, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    The use of glyphosate-based herbicides in agriculture has increased steadily since the mid 90's and there is now evidence of glyphosate leaching and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor 540 ® ) on growth and photosynthetic capacity of algae and cyanobacteria. Six algal and three cyanobacterial species/strains, of three different taxonomic groups, were exposed to five glyphosate concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000μgl -1 ) during 48h. All species have significant growth inhibition at concentrations varying between 50 and 500μgl -1 . The photosynthetic response, after glyphosate exposure, varied among species, but a general pattern has emerged. There was an increase in the amount of photons absorbed (ABS/RC), in dissipated (DI O /RC) and trapped (TR O /RC) energy in the photosystem II reaction centers, along with a decreased of the maximum photosystem II quantum yield (F V /F M ) and electron transport per reaction center (ET O /RC). The EC 50 and LOEC values for growth and photosynthesis were calculated and established that growth was the most affected parameter by glyphosate-based herbicide, while parameter TR O /RC was the least affected. All species showed reduced growth at glyphosate concentrations lower than the Canadian standard for the protection of aquatic life, set at 800μgl -1 or the American aquatic life benchmark for acute toxicity in non vascular plants of 12 100μgl -1 questioning the validity of these thresholds in assessing the risks related to the presence of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides in aquatic systems. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER) for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process), described the requirements to the participants...

  15. Analysis of empty responses from electronic resources in infobutton managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Hulse, Nathan C; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Infobuttons provide context-aware educational materials to both providers and patients and are becoming an important element in modern electronic health records (EHR) and patient health records (PHR). However, the content from different electronic resources (e-resource) as responses from infobutton manager has not been fully analyzed and evaluated. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically analyzing responses from infobutton manager. A tool is implemented to retrieve and analyze responses from infobutton manager. To test the tool, we extracted and sampled common and uncommon concepts from EHR usage data in Intermountain Healthcare's enterprise data warehouse. From the output of the tool, we evaluate infobutton performance by multiple categories, including against the most and less common used concepts, grouped by different modules in patient portal, by different e-resources, and by type of access (standardized Health Level Seven (HL7) vs not). Based on the results of our evaluation, we provide suggestions for further enhancements of infobuttons to the current implementation, including suggesting accessing priorities of e-resources and encouraging the use of the HL7 standard.

  16. Glyphosate-resistant and conventional canola (Brassica napus L.) responses to glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola expresses two transgenes: 1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshiki...

  17. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  18. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case......-case scenario, only 47% of the total materials in RVCs are ultimately recycled. While this low material recovery is mainly due to the lower plastic recycling rate, other market realities and the complex material flows in the recycling chain also contribute to it. The study provides a robust methodological...... approach for assessing the EoL performance based on the knowledge of a product and its complex recycling chain. The lessons learned can be used to support both the design and EoL processing of products with similar features, which carry a high potential for resource recovery, especially at the initial...

  19. Behavioral responses of juvenile Daphnia magna after exposure to glyphosate and glyphosate-copper complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lone Rykær; Roslev, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is the active ingredient in a range of popular broad-spectrum herbicide formulations. Glyphosate is a chelating agent that can form stable complexes with divalent metal ions including Cu(II). Little is known about the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of glyphosate-Cu(II) complexes to aquatic organisms. In this study, we used video tracking and behavior analysis to investigate sublethal effects of binary mixtures of glyphosate and Cu(II) to juvenile D. magna. Behavioral responses were quantified for individual D. magna after 24h and 48h exposure to glyphosate and glyhosate-Cu(II) mixtures. Sublethal concentrations resulted in decreases in swimming velocity, acceleration speed, and distance moved whereas inactive time of D. magna increased. Distance moved and inactive time were the most responsive parameters to glyphosate and glyphosate-Cu(II) exposure. On a molar basis, glyphosate-Cu(II) complexes appeared more toxic to D. magna than glyphosate alone. The 48h EC50 for glyphosate and glyphosate-Cu(II) determined from swimming distance were 75.2μM and 8.4μM, respectively. In comparison, traditional visual observation of mobility resulted in 48h EC50 values of 52.8μM and 25.5μM for glyphosate and glyphosate-Cu(II), respectively. The behavioral responses indicated that exposure of D. magna to mixtures of glyphosate and Cu(II) attenuated acute metal toxicity but increased apparent glyphosate toxicity due to complexation with Cu(II). The study suggests that glyphosate is a likely mediator of aquatic metal toxicity, and that video tracking provides an opportunity for quantitative studies of sublethal effects of pesticide complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  1. Adsorption and desorption of glyphosate in Mollisols and Ultisols soils of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Ortiz, Ana Maria; Okada, Elena; Costa, Jose Luis; Bedmar, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate is the most used pesticide in Argentina. About 200 million liters of its commercial product are annually applied, representing nearly 60% of the total amount of the commercialized pesticides. This massive use is attributed to the widespread adoption of no-till management combined with genetically modified crops that are glyphosate resistant (e.g. soybean, maize, cotton). In this way, the use of glyphosate has created great concern regarding the potential negative impacts it may have in the environment. The adsorption-desorption process of glyphosate was studied in three Argentinean soils (two Mollisols and one Ultisol) with contrasting properties: organic carbon (1.3-3.4%), clay (14.7-78.5%), pH (5.4-6.3), P Bray (7.6-29.6 mg/kg), total Fe (0.81-8.4%), and Al3+ (0.11-0.69 meq/100 g). Glyphosate adsorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich equation to estimate the adsorption coefficient (Kf). In general, glyphosate adsorption was high and the Kf values varied from 115.6 to 1612 (R2 = 0.94-0.99). The main factors controlling adsorption were clay content, total Fe, Al3+, P Bray and soil pH. Decreased hysteresis desorption was found in one of the Mollisols soils with the lowest contents of Al3+, Fe, and clay, as well as high pH and P Bray. In that soil, 12.2% of glyphosate was desorbed after three washing steps indicating a higher potential environmental risk. Results of this study contribute to the knowledge about glyphosate retention in soils and allows the identification of behavior patterns of this extensively applied herbicide in different edaphic scenarios. This is of major importance for the development of decision making tools and criteria to reduce the potential negative impacts on soil and groundwater resources.

  2. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  3. The history and current status of glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is the only herbicide to target the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl-3-shikimate phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is a high use rate, non-selective herbicide that translocates primarily to metabolic sinks, killing meristematic tissues away from the application site. Its phloem-mobile properties and slow action in killing weeds allow the herbicide to move throughout the plant to kill all meristems, making it effective for perennial weed control. Since commercialization in 1974, its use has grown to dominate the herbicide market. Much of its use is on transgenic, glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs), which have been the dominant transgenic crops worldwide. GRCs with glyphosate provided the most effective and inexpensive weed management technology in history for a decade or more. However, as a consequence of the rapid increase in glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds, the effectiveness of glyphosate use in GRCs is declining. Critics have claimed that glyphosate-treated GRCs have altered mineral nutrition and increased susceptibility to plant pathogens because of glyphosate's ability to chelate divalent metal cations, but the complete resistance of GRCs to glyphosate indicates that chelating metal cations do not contribute to the herbicidal activity or significantly affect mineral nutrition. The rates of increases in yields of maize, soybean, and cotton in the USA have been unchanged after high adoption rates of GRCs. Glyphosate is toxic to some plant pathogens, and thereby can act as a fungicide in GRCs. Ultra-low doses of glyphosate stimulate plant growth in glyphosate-susceptible plants by unknown mechanisms. Despite rapid and widespread increases in GR weeds, glyphosate use has not decreased. However, as GR weeds increase, adoption of alternative technologies will eventually lead to decreased use. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in

  4. Overview of glyphosate-resistant weeds worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Ian; Duke, Stephen O

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used and successful herbicide discovered to date, but its utility is now threatened by the occurrence of several glyphosate-resistant weed species. Glyphosate resistance first appeared in Lolium rigidum in an apple orchard in Australia in 1996, ironically the year that the first glyphosate-resistant crop (soybean) was introduced in the USA. Thirty-eight weed species have now evolved resistance to glyphosate, distributed across 37 countries and in 34 different crops and six non-crop situations. Although glyphosate-resistant weeds have been identified in orchards, vineyards, plantations, cereals, fallow and non-crop situations, it is the glyphosate-resistant weeds in glyphosate-resistant crop systems that dominate the area infested and growing economic impact. Glyphosate-resistant weeds present the greatest threat to sustained weed control in major agronomic crops because this herbicide is used to control weeds with resistance to herbicides with other sites of action, and no new herbicide sites of action have been introduced for over 30 years. Industry has responded by developing herbicide resistance traits in major crops that allow existing herbicides to be used in a new way. However, over reliance on these traits will result in multiple-resistance in weeds. Weed control in major crops is at a precarious point, where we must maintain the utility of the herbicides we have until we can transition to new weed management technologies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  6. The rise and future of glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits. Unfortunately, companies have not discovered a new commercial herbicide mode-of-action for over 30 years and have already developed or are developing traits for all existing herbicide types with high utility. Glyphosate mixtures and glyphosate trait combinations will be the mainstays of weed management for many growers, but are not going to be enough to keep up with the capacity of weeds to evolve resistance. Glufosinate, auxin, HPPD-inhibiting and other herbicide traits, even when combined with glyphosate resistance, are incremental and temporary solutions. Herbicide and seed businesses are not going to be able to support what critics call the chemical and transgenic treadmills for much longer. The long time without the discovery of a new herbicide mode-of-action and the epidemic of resistant weeds is forcing many growers to spend much more to manage weeds and creating a worst of times, best of times predicament for the crop protection and seed industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Glyphosate degradation in glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible crops and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O

    2011-06-08

    High levels of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the main glyphosate metabolite, have been found in glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean, apparently due to plant glyphosate oxidoreductase (GOX)-like activity. AMPA is mildly phytotoxic, and under some conditions the AMPA accumulating in GR soybean correlates with glyphosate-caused phytotoxicity. A bacterial GOX is used in GR canola, and an altered bacterial glyphosate N-acetyltransferase is planned for a new generation of GR crops. In some weed species, glyphosate degradation could contribute to natural resistance. Neither an isolated plant GOX enzyme nor a gene for it has yet been reported in plants. Gene mutation or amplification of plant genes for GOX-like enzyme activity or horizontal transfer of microbial genes from glyphosate-degrading enzymes could produce GR weeds. Yet, there is no evidence that metabolic degradation plays a significant role in evolved resistance to glyphosate. This is unexpected, considering the extreme selection pressure for evolution of glyphosate resistance in weeds and the difficulty in plants of evolving glyphosate resistance via other mechanisms.

  8. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Paul C. C.; Baley, G. James; Clinton, William P.; Bunkers, Greg J.; Alibhai, Murtaza F.; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. Growth-chamber studies demonstrated wheat rust control at multiple plant growth stages with a glyphosate spray dose typically recommended for weed control. Rust control was absent in formulation controls without glyphosate, dependent on systemic glyphosate concentrations in leaf tissues, and not mediated through induction of four common systemic acquired resistance genes. A field test with endemic stripe rust inoculum confirmed the activities of glyphosate pre- and postinfestation. Preliminary greenhouse studies also demonstrated that application of glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans suppressed Asian soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi. PMID:16293685

  9. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process, described the requirements to the participants of EER expertise, grounded EER accordance to didactic and methodological requirements, described an algorithm of preparation for  the examination object to determine compliance with the requirements of didactic. It is established that the assessment is aimed to the receipt from the experts of corresponding data and acceptance on their basis of competent decisions about expedience of the use in general educational establishments.

  10. Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

    1986-01-01

    A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

  11. Determination of glyphosate by high performance liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to design a glyphosate analysis method. This molecule is an organic pollutant from water and soil. We have developed a chromatographic method with phenylisothiocyanate. This molecule has allowed obtaining an intermediate molecule with the glyphosate being easily detectable in ...

  12. Natural glyphosate tolerance in sainfoin (onybrychis viciifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainfoin (Onybrychis viciifolia Scop.), a non-bloating forage legume, is purported to have tolerance to glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine]. The effect on biomass yield (BMY) and survival of eight rates of glyphosate on seedlings and mature plants were determined. Treatment rates were 0.0, 0....

  13. 150 ACUTE TOXICITY OF GLYPHOSATE ON CLARIAS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of glyphosate on mortality rate and behavioural responses of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings were investigated under laboratory conditions for 96 hours exposure period. The lethal concentration (LC50) value of glyphosate on fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus was 0.0018 ml/l for 96 hours of exposure.

  14. Effect of glyphosate on wheat quality characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It is a non-selective, broad spectrum, post-emergence herbicide, and therefore controls a wide range of different species. Although glyphosate is effective in weed control, side effects of this herbicide on the crop itself, micro and macro o...

  15. Adjuvants for single droplet application of glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp; Kudsk, Per; Lund, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Retention and biological activity of droplets of glyphosate deposited onto plant leaves using a Drop on Demand inkjet printer application system, was examined on pot-grown Brassica napus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora and Echinocloa crus-galli plants. Retention was measured...... but the biological activity of glyphosate was not improved....

  16. Natural glyphosate tolerance in sweetvetch Hedysarum boreale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale Nutt.) a legume native to the western USA and Canada, is purported to have tolerance to glyphosate {N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine} herbide. Eight rates of glyphosate were tested for their effect on biomass yield (BMY) and survival of seedlings and mature plants. Treatme...

  17. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  18. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  19. ADSORPTION OF GLYPHOSATE AND AMPAIN AGRICULTURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Rampazzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after application glyphosate is mostly adsorbed in the upper 2 cm of soils, and is then transported and adsorbed after few days in deeper soil horizons with concomitant increasing content of its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA. This work confirmed previous studies, where Fe-oxides seem to play a major role in the adsorption of glyphosate and AMPA in soils:  the Chernozem featured lower contents of Fed and Feo, with consequently lower adsorption of glyphosate and AMPAas compared with the higher weathered Cambisol and Stagnosol.

  20. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  1. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  2. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  3. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  4. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  5. Optical detection of glyphosate in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Góes, R. E.; Possetti, G. R. C.; Muller, M.; Fabris, J. L.

    2017-04-01

    This work shows preliminary results of the detection of Glyphosate in water by using optical fiber spectroscopy. A colloid with citrate-caped silver nanoparticles was employed as substrate for the measurements. A cross analysis between optical absorption and inelastic scattering evidenced a controlled aggregation of the sample constituents, leading to the possibility of quantitative detection of the analyte. The estimate limit of detection for Glyphosate in water for the proposed sensing scheme was about 1.7 mg/L.

  6. Use of Internet and Electronic Resources amongst Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicate that the study group has regular access to the internet , and preferred using free online resources from Google and Wikipedia to institutionally subscribed academic online resources in databases such as HINARI, EBSCO Host, Questia , JSTOR and High Beam.This shows that technology alone cannot help ...

  7. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  8. Electrochemical degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam; Drogui, Patrick; Doan, Tuan Linh; Le, Thanh Son; Nguyen, Hoai Chau

    2017-12-01

    The presence of herbicide is a concern for both human and ecological health. Glyphosate is occasionally detected as water contaminants in agriculture areas where the herbicide is used extensively. The removal of glyphosate in synthetic solution using advanced oxidation process is a possible approach for remediation of contaminated waters. The ability of electrochemical oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide was investigated using Ti/PbO 2 anode. The current intensity, treatment time, initial concentration and pH of solution are the influent parameters on the degradation efficiency. An experimental design methodology was applied to determine the optimal condition (in terms of cost/effectiveness) based on response surface methodology. Glyphosate concentration (C 0  = 16.9 mg L -1 ) decreased up to 0.6 mg L -1 when the optimal conditions were imposed (current intensity of 4.77 A and treatment time of 173 min). The removal efficiencies of glyphosate and total organic carbon were 95 ± 16% and 90.31%, respectively. This work demonstrates that electrochemical oxidation is a promising process for degradation and mineralization of glyphosate.

  9. EPA's evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, several international agencies have evaluated the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate. In March 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a subdivision of the World Health Organization (WHO), determined that glyphosate was a probable carcinogen (gro...

  10. Glyphosate and its formulations – Toxicity, occupational and environmental exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Kwiatkowska; Paweł Jarosiewicz; Bożena Bukowska

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide formulations in protecting agricultural and horticultural crops. Numerous results (mostly published in the years 2010-2013) concerning the action of glyphosate and its formulations in the recent decade were analyzed. Initial reports about alleged biodegradability of glyphosate in the environment turned out to be wrong. It has been shown that glyphosate remains in the soil and can reach people by ...

  11. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  12. Glyphosate and its formulations – Toxicity, occupational and environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kwiatkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethylglycine is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide formulations in protecting agricultural and horticultural crops. Numerous results (mostly published in the years 2010-2013 concerning the action of glyphosate and its formulations in the recent decade were analyzed. Initial reports about alleged biodegradability of glyphosate in the environment turned out to be wrong. It has been shown that glyphosate remains in the soil and can reach people by spreading along with groundwater. Recent publications have shown that glyphosate is detected at low concentrations in the human blood. Publications cited in this article, which indicate a possible induction of neoplastic changes by glyphosate formulation, have raised great concern and controversy in the scientific world. Presenting adverse effects of glyphosate and its formulations we focused on the role of glyphosate formulations in hormonal disorders by impeding the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the inhibition of aromatase activity. The impact of glyphosate on oxygen reactive species formation, changes in redox system and the effect on necrosis and apoptosis in various types of cells was shown. We also revealed that glyphosate as a phosphonate herbicide does not inhibit directly the activity of acetylcholinesterase. Based on numerous studies it was noted that commercial formulations of glyphosate exhibit higher toxicity than that of the active substance itself. The discussed problems clearly show the need to evaluate the toxicity of glyphosate and its formulations and related potential threat to humans. Med Pr 2013;64(5:717–729

  13. [Glyphosate and its formulations--toxicity, occupational and environmental exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska, Marta; Paweł, Jarosiewicz; Bukowska, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide formulations in protecting agricultural and horticultural crops. Numerous results (mostly published in the years 2010-2013) concerning the action of glyphosate and its formulations in the recent decade were analyzed. Initial reports about alleged biodegradability of glyphosate in the environment turned out to be wrong. It has been shown that glyphosate remains in the soil and can reach people by spreading along with groundwater. Recent publications have shown that glyphosate is detected at low concentrations in the human blood. Publications cited in this article, which indicate a possible induction of neoplastic changes by glyphosate formulation, have raised great concern and controversy in the scientific world. Presenting adverse effects of glyphosate and its formulations we focused on the role of glyphosate formulations in hormonal disorders by impeding the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the inhibition of aromatase activity. The impact of glyphosate on oxygen reactive species formation, changes in redox system and the effect on necrosis and apoptosis in various types of cells was shown. We also revealed that glyphosate as a phosphonate herbicide does not inhibit directly the activity of acetylcholinesterase. Based on numerous studies it was noted that commercial formulations of glyphosate exhibit higher toxicity than that of the active substance itself. The discussed problems clearly show the need to evaluate the toxicity of glyphosate and its formulations and related potential threat to humans.

  14. Surfactant-induced deposit structures in relation to the biological efficacy of glyphosate on easy- and difficult-to-wet weed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thorsten; Hunsche, Mauricio; Noga, Georg

    2009-08-01

    Typical active ingredient (AI) residue patterns are formed during droplet drying on plant surfaces owing to the interaction of spray solution characteristics and leaf micromorphology. Currently, comparatively little is known about the influence of AI deposit patterns within a spray droplet residue area on the penetration and biological efficacy of glyphosate. A scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis has been used to characterise residue patterns and to quantify the area ultimately covered by glyphosate within the droplet spread area. The easy-to-wet weed species Stellaria media L. and Viola arvensis L., as well as the difficult-to-wet Chenopodium album L. and Setaria viridis L., differing in their surface micromorphology, have been used. Rapeseed oil ethoxylates (RSO 5 or RSO 60) were added to glyphosate solutions to provide different droplet spread areas. Addition of RSO 5 enhanced droplet spread area more than RSO 60, and both caused distinct glyphosate residue patterns. The biological efficacy of treatment solutions showed no significant correlation with the area ultimately covered by glyphosate. The results have implications on herbicide uptake models. This study shows that droplet spread area does not correspond to the area ultimately covered by glyphosate, and that the latter does not affect glyphosate phytotoxicity.

  15. Glyphosate-Resistant and Conventional Canola (Brassica napus L.) Responses to Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elza Alves; Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-05-11

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola contains two transgenes that impart resistance to the herbicide glyphosate: (1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and (2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The objectives of this research were to determine the phytotoxicity of AMPA to canola, the relative metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR and conventional non-GR (NGR) canola, and AMPA pool sizes in glyphosate-treated GR canola. AMPA applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1) was not phytotoxic to GR or NGR. At this AMPA application rate, NGR canola accumulated a higher concentration of AMPA in its tissues than GR canola. At rates of 1 and 3.33 kg ae ha(-1) of glyphosate, GR canola growth was stimulated. This stimulatory effect is similar to that of much lower doses of glyphosate on NGR canola. Both shikimate and AMPA accumulated in tissues of these glyphosate-treated plants. In a separate experiment in which young GR and NGR canola plants were treated with non-phytotoxic levels of [(14)C]-glyphosate, very little glyphosate was metabolized in NGR plants, whereas most of the glyphosate was metabolized to AMPA in GR plants at 7 days after application. Untreated leaves of GR plants accumulated only metabolites (mostly AMPA) of glyphosate, indicating that GOX activity is very high in the youngest leaves. These data indicate that more glyphosate is transformed to AMPA rapidly in GR canola and that the accumulated AMPA is not toxic to the canola plant.

  16. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  18. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    reported using free Internet resources including the search engines, while only a small proportion uses scholarly databases. For example, 22% of researchers reported using the. African Journals Online (AJOL) while 7% use Gale databases (see Table 2 for details). Additionally, the frequency of use also varied significantly ...

  19. Challenges associated with cataloguing of electronic resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to identify challenges associated with the cataloguing of e resources in some selected university libraries in south –south Nigeria. The descriptive survey design involving the use of questionnaire as the research instrument was adopted. The population comprised of cataloguers in five selected ...

  20. Lack of transgene and glyphosate effects on yield, and mineral and amino acid content of glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been controversy as to whether the glyphosate resistance gene and/or glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean affect mineral content (especially Mg, Mn, and Fe), yield and amino acid content of GR soybean. A two-year field study (2013 and 2014) examined these questions at si...

  1. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfu eGuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-PCR and Western blot revealed that target genes have been integrated into genome and expressed effectively at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the glyphosate tolerance analysis showed that no typical symptom was observed when compared with a glyphosate tolerant line HJ06-698 derived from GR1 transgenic soybean even at four-fold labeled rate of Roundup. Chlorophyll and shikimic acid content analysis of transgenic plant also revealed that these two indexes were not significantly altered after glyphosate application. These results indicated that co-expression of G2-EPSPS and GAT conferred high tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate in soybean. Therefore, combination of tolerant and degraded genes provides a new strategy for developing glyphosate tolerant transgenic crops.

  2. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  3. Growing an Electronic Library: Resources, Utility, Marketing and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, David; Dugdale, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the ResIDe Electronic Library at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Analyzes potential of the system to increase economy, efficiency and effectiveness in library services and relates it to how the needs of sponsors and students can be met. (Author/LRW)

  4. Glyphosate induces cardiovascular toxicity in Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nicole M; Ochs, Jeremy; Zambrzycka, Ewelina; Anderson, Ariann

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide used aggressively in agricultural practices as well as home garden care. Although labeled "safe" by the chemical industry, doses tested by industry do not mimic chronic exposures to sublethal doses that organisms in the environment are exposed to over long periods of time. Given the widespread uses of and exposure to glyphosate, studies on developmental toxicity are needed. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of glyphosate on the developing heart. Treatment by embryo soaking with 50μg/ml glyphosate starting at gastrulation results in structural abnormalities in the atrium and ventricle, irregular heart looping, situs inversus as well as decreased heartbeats by 48h as determined by live imaging and immunohistochemistry. Vasculature in the body was also affected as determined using fli-1 transgenic embryos. To determine if the effects noted at 48h post fertilization are due to early stage alterations in myocardial precursors, we also investigate cardiomyocyte development with a Mef2 antibody and by mef2ca in situ hybridization and find alterations in the Mef2/mef2ca staining patterns during early cardiac patterning stages. We conclude that glyphosate is developmentally toxic to the zebrafish heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Glyphosate-Resistant Goosegrass from Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Nandula

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A suspected glyphosate-resistant goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn.] population, found in Washington County, Mississippi, was studied to determine the level of resistance and whether the resistance was due to a point mutation, as was previously identified in a Malaysian population. Whole plant dose response assays indicated a two- to four-fold increase in resistance to glyphosate. Leaf disc bioassays based on a glyphosate-dependent increase in shikimate levels indicated a five- to eight-fold increase in resistance. Sequence comparisons of messenger RNA for epsps, the gene encoding the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, from resistant and sensitive goosegrass, revealed a cytosine to thymine nucleotide change at position 319 in the resistant accessions. This single nucleotide polymorphism causes a proline to serine amino acid substitution at position 106 in 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay using DNA probes specific for the nucleotide change at position 319 was developed to detect this polymorphism. Goosegrass from 42 locations were screened, and the results indicated that glyphosate-resistant goosegrass remained localized to where it was discovered. Pendimethalin, s-metolachlor, clethodim, paraquat and fluazifop controlled resistant goosegrass 93% to 100%, indicating that several control options for glyphosate-resistant goosegrass are available.

  6. MODELING OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING RESOURCES: THE INTEGRATED AND DIFFERENTIATED APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Results on modeling of quality management system of electronic information resources on the basis of the analysis of its elements functioning with use of the integrated and differentiated approaches are presented. Application of such model is illustrated on an example of calculation and optimization of parameters of a quality management system at the organization of the co-ordinated work of services of monitoring, an estimation of quality and support of electronic learning resources.

  7. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  8. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  9. Video Killed the Radio Star: Language Students' Use of Electronic Resources-Reading or Viewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate language students' use of print and electronic resources for their research papers required in research techniques class, focusing on which reading strategies they used while reading these resources. The participants of the study were 90 sophomore students enrolled in the research techniques class offered at…

  10. Agricultural non-point source pollution of glyphosate and AMPA at a catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Elena; Perez, Debora; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    can be attributed to deposition of soil particles that are washed from the field. On the other hand, more than 90 % of the soil samples had glyphosate and AMPA. The highest concentrations were found in the month of June, corresponding to the fallow period were glyphosate is applied as a chemical weed controller in no-till systems. Glyphosate and AMPA detection in groundwater samples was 24% and 35%, respectively. The highest glyphosate levels in groundwater also corresponded to the month of June. Glyphosate occurrence in groundwater was transient, that is, in most of the cases glyphosate was not detected in the subsequent sampling months. The contamination of shallow groundwater (glyphosate is likely relatively short-term in duration due to its fast degradation. These results indicate that there is a higher risk of agricultural non-point source pollution in the months of herbicide application, that may contribute to groundwater contamination. This is of extreme relevance in the southeast of the Buenos Aires Province, since the main source of drinking water and irrigation is from groundwater resources

  11. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  12. Aminomethylphosphonic acid accumulation in plant species treated with glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Nandula, Vijay K

    2008-03-26

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the most frequently detected metabolite of glyphosate in plants. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any correlation of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in different plant species and their natural level of resistance to glyphosate. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the glyphosate I 50 values (rate required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth) and to quantify AMPA and shikimate concentrations in selected leguminous and nonleguminous species treated with glyphosate at respective I 50 rates. Coffee senna [ Cassia occidentalis (L.) Link] was the most sensitive ( I 50 = 75 g/ha) and hemp sesbania [ Sesbania herbacea (P.Mill.) McVaugh] was the most resistant ( I 50 = 456 g/ha) to glyphosate. Hemp sesbania was 6-fold and Illinois bundleflower [ Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. ex B.L.Robins. & Fern.] was 4-fold more resistant to glyphosate than coffee senna. Glyphosate was present in all plant species, and its concentration ranged from 0.308 to 38.7 microg/g of tissue. AMPA was present in all leguminous species studied except hemp sesbania. AMPA concentration ranged from 0.119 to 4.77 microg/g of tissue. Shikimate was present in all plant species treated with glyphosate, and levels ranged from 0.053 to 16.5 mg/g of tissue. Non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean accumulated much higher shikimate than glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean. Although some leguminous species were found to be more resistant to glyphosate than others, and there was considerable variation between species in the glyphosate to AMPA levels found, metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA did not appear to be a common factor in explaining natural resistance levels.

  13. Effects of glyphosate on the mineral content of glyphosate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V

    2012-07-11

    There are conflicting claims as to whether treatment with glyphosate adversely affects mineral nutrition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. Those who have made claims of adverse effects have argued links between reduced Mn and diseases in these crops. This article describes experiments designed to determine the effects of a recommended rate (0.86 kg ha(-1)) of glyphosate applied once or twice on the mineral content of young and mature leaves, as well as in seeds produced by GR soybeans (Glycine max) in both the greenhouse and field using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the greenhouse, there were no effects of either one application (at 3 weeks after planting, WAP) or two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves sampled at 6, 9, and 12 WAP and in harvested seed. Se concentrations were too low for accurate detection in leaves, but there was also no effect of glyphosate applications on Se in the seeds. In the field study, there were no effects of two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves at either 9 or 12 WAP. There was also no effect on Se in the seeds. There was no difference in yield between control and glyphosate-treated GR soybeans in the field. The results indicate that glyphosate does not influence mineral nutrition of GR soybean at recommended rates for weed management in the field. Furthermore, the field studies confirm the results of greenhouse studies.

  14. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 1. Novel rapid cell death response to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Christopher R; Moretti, Marcelo L; Robertson, Renae R; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Schulz, Burkhard; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Hall, J Christopher; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Sammons, R Douglas; Wang, Dafu; Westra, Philip; Gaines, Todd A

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Ambrosia trifida is now present in the midwestern United States and in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Two distinct GR phenotypes are known, including a rapid response (GR RR) phenotype, which exhibits cell death within hours after treatment, and a non-rapid response (GR NRR) phenotype. The mechanisms of resistance in both GR RR and GR NRR remain unknown. Here, we present a description of the RR phenotype and an investigation of target-site mechanisms on multiple A. trifida accessions. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in several accessions, and whole-plant levels of resistance ranged from 2.3- to 7.5-fold compared with glyphosate-susceptible (GS) accessions. The two GR phenotypes displayed similar levels of resistance, despite having dramatically different phenotypic responses to glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance was not associated with mutations in EPSPS sequence, increased EPSPS copy number, EPSPS quantity, or EPSPS activity. These encompassing results suggest that resistance to glyphosate in these GR RR A. trifida accessions is not conferred by a target-site resistance mechanism. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Mechanism of Resistance to Glyphosate in Lolium perenne from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Yanniccari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina, glyphosate resistance was reported in a Lolium perenne population after 12 years of successful herbicide use. The aim of the current paper was to put in evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate resistance of this weed. Susceptible leaves treated with different doses of glyphosate and incubated in vitro showed an accumulation of shikimic acid of around three to five times the basal level, while no changes were detected in leaves of glyphosate-resistant plants. The resistance mechanism prevents shikimate accumulation in leaves, even under such tissue-isolation conditions. The activity of the glyphosate target enzyme (EPSPS: 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase was quantified at different herbicide concentrations. EPSPS from resistant plants showed no difference in glyphosate-sensitivity compared to EPSPS from susceptible plants, and, accordingly, no amino acid substitution causing mutations associated with resistance were found. While the glyphosate target enzymes were equally sensitive, the basal EPSPS activity in glyphosate resistant plants was approximately 3-fold higher than the EPSPS activity in susceptible plants. This increased EPSPS activity in glyphosate resistant plants was associated with a 15-fold higher expression of EPSPS compared with susceptible plants. Therefore, the over-expression of EPSPS appears to be the main mechanism responsible for resistance to glyphosate. This mechanism has a constitutive character and has important effects on plant fitness, as recently reported.

  16. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  17. Use of poisons information resources and satisfaction with electronic products by Victorian emergency department staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Stephen; Fountain, John S; Reith, David M; Braitberg, George; Cruickshank, Jaycen

    2014-10-01

    ED staff use a range of poisons information resources of varying type and quality. The present study aims to identify those resources utilised in the state of Victoria, Australia, and assess opinion of the most used electronic products. A previously validated self-administered survey was conducted in 15 EDs, with 10 questionnaires sent to each. The survey was then repeated following the provision of a 4-month period of access to Toxinz™, an Internet poisons information product novel to the region. The study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011. There were 117 (78%) and 48 (32%) responses received from the first and second surveys, respectively, a 55% overall response rate. No statistically significant differences in professional group, numbers of poisoned patients seen or resource type accessed were identified between studies. The electronic resource most used in the first survey was Poisindex® (48.68%) and Toxinz™ (64.1%) in the second. There were statistically significant (P poisons information but would do so if a reputable product was available. The order of poisons information sources most utilised was: consultation with a colleague, in-house protocols and electronic resources. There was a significant difference in satisfaction with electronic poisons information resources and a movement away from existing sources when choice was provided. Interest in increased use of mobile solutions was identified. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandula, Vijay K; Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Poston, Daniel H

    2007-05-02

    Experiments were conducted to determine (1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, (2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism for differential resistance to glyphosate among GR soybean varieties, and (3) the extent of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR canola and to correlate metabolism to injury from AMPA. GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in plant dry weight) values for GR (Asgrow 4603RR) and non-GR (HBKC 5025) soybean were 22.8 kg ae ha-1 and 0.47 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR soybean exhibiting a 49-fold level of resistance to glyphosate as compared to non-GR soybean. Differential reduction in chlorophyll by glyphosate was observed between GR soybean varieties, but there were no differences in shoot fresh weight reduction. No significant differences were found between GR varieties in metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA, and in shikimate levels. These results indicate that GR soybean varieties were able to outgrow the initial injury from glyphosate, which was previously caused at least in part by AMPA. GR50 values for GR (Hyola 514RR) and non-GR (Hyola 440) canola were 14.1 and 0.30 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR canola exhibiting a 47-fold level of resistance to glyphosate when compared to non-GR canola. Glyphosate did not cause reduction in chlorophyll content and shoot fresh weight in GR canola, unlike GR soybean. Less glyphosate (per unit leaf weight) was recovered in glyphosate-treated GR canola as compared to glyphosate-treated GR soybean. External application of AMPA caused similar injury in both GR and non-GR canola. The presence of a bacterial glyphosate oxidoreductase gene in GR canola contributes to breakdown of glyphosate to AMPA. However, the AMPA from glyphosate breakdown could have been metabolized to nonphytotoxic metabolites before causing injury

  19. Haematogical changes induced by subchronic glyphosate exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the haematological changes induced by subchronic glyphosate exposure in Wistar rats and the ameliorative effect of zinc. Sixty adult male and female Wistar rats were used for the study. Twelve of them were used for the LD50 which was evaluated to be 3750 mg kg-1 with clinical ...

  20. Adjuvants for single droplet application of glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Solvejg K.; Kudsk, Per; Lund, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Retention and biological activity of droplets of glyphosate deposited onto plant leaves using a Drop on Demand inkjet printer application system, was examined on pot-grown Brassica napus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora and Echinocloa crus-galli plants. Retention was measured...

  1. 75 FR 20862 - Glyphosate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject investigation. DATES: Effective Date: April 16, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Sherman (202-205-3289...

  2. Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate Management of Glyphosate-resistant Conyza bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Paula

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available C. bonariensis (Conyza bonariensis é uma planta daninha da família Asteraceae, amplamente distribuída no Brasil, com presença marcante nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paraná. Biótipos de C. bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate foram identificados nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná e São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de inverno e na pré-semeadura da soja sobre a população de plantas de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate. Os resultados evidenciaram que a população de C. bonariensis é maior em áreas mantidas sem cultivo (pousio do que naquelas áreas cultivadas com trigo ou aveia-preta durante o inverno. Observou-se que o trigo e a aveia-preta exercem efeito supressor sobre a população de C. bonariensis, proporcionando maior facilidade de controle com herbicida na pré-semeadura da cultura usada em sucessão. O controle de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate foi satisfatório quando se utilizaram herbicidas pós-emergentes na cultura do trigo e glyphosate + 2,4-D ou glyphosate + diuron + paraquat na pré-semeadura da soja.Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis, which belongs to the Asteraceae family, is a weed species widely spread in Brazil. Horseweed biotypes resistant to glyphosate, the main herbicide used in Roundup Ready soybean fields, were identified in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Parana. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different winter and pre-sowing management techniques on soybean plant population of C. bonariensis resistant to glyphosate. The results showed that the population of C. bonariensis is larger in areas maintained fallow than in areas planted with wheat or oats during the winter. Wheat and oats were found to exert a suppressive effect on the population of C. bonariensis, providing greater ease of control with herbicide before seeding in the culture used in succession. The control of glyphosate-resistant C

  3. Glyphosate biodegradation by plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect to paddy germination in glyphosate contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Tri Andriani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in Indonesia. Glyphosate persistence between 55 days to 3 years. Widespread and uncontrolled use can cause weeds to become resistant and residue contaminates the soil and water environment. Due to the residual impact of glyphosate, it is necessary to identify a method that can increase the degradation of glyphosate. Several studies have shown that glyphosate can be degraded by microorganisms (fungi, rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria, some of which are members of plant growth-promoting bacteria. This study used the bacteria Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter sp and Pseudomonas fluorescens. These three types of bacteria have growth-promoting properties and potentially increase glyphosate degradation. Results of chromatogram on the residual test of glyphosate in liquid medium and soil containing glyphosate showed that glyphosate residue decreased with the addition of bacterial treatment when compared to control. The percentage of degradation in liquid medium are 96.06%  by Enterobacter cloacae, 57% by Enterobacter spand 93.45%  by Pseudomonas fluorescens.The percentage of degradation in soil medium are 4.32%  by Enterobacter cloacae, 23.49% by Enterobacter spand 12.19% by Pseudomonas fluorescens.A positive result indicates that bacterial growth boosters from the plant (endophyte as well as the area of rooting (rhizosphere have additional potential as biofertilizer, bio stimulant, bio protectant but also as bio degradator pollutants such as the herbicide glyphosate

  4. Sensibilidade de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium ao glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação do glyphosate sobre a soja resistente a este herbicida pode causar prejuízos à simbiose com o rizóbio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate de três estirpes de Bradyrhizobium recomendadas para a produção de inoculantes de sementes de soja no Brasil. Avaliou-se o efeito das concentrações de 0,0; 5,4; 10,8; 21,6 e 43,2 µg L-1 do ingrediente ativo do glyphosate [N-(fosfonometil glicina] no meio YM líquido sobre o crescimento de B. japonicum (estirpe SEMIA 5079 e de B. elkanii (estirpe SEMIA 5019 e estirpe SEMIA 587, por meio de leituras das densidades óticas e geração de curvas de crescimento. As reduções de crescimento na presença da menor concentração do glyphosate foram de 18% para SEMIA 5079, 29% para SEMIA 5019 e de 35% para SEMIA 587, sendo, de modo geral, quanto maior a concentração do herbicida no meio de cultura maior a inibição do crescimen­to. As estirpes apresentaram sensibilidade diferencial somente às concentrações mais baixas do glyphosate; nesse caso, foi possível determinar a seguinte ordem de sensibilidade: SEMIA 587 > SEMIA 5019 > SEMIA 5079. Essa sensibilidade diferencial é dependente da concentração do herbicida, pois na presença de 43,2 µg L-1 todas as estirpes tiveram seu crescimento severamente reduzido, não havendo diferença entre elas.

  5. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  6. Manganese uptake and redistribution in soybean as affected by glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Detrimental effects of glyphosate on plant mineral nutrition have been reported in the literature, particularly on Mn uptake and redistribution. However, in most of the experiments conducted so far glyphosate-susceptible plants were used. Effects of glyphosate on Mn absorption kinetics, accumulation, and distribution within the plant, as well as soybean response to Mn as affected by glyphosate were studied in three experiments. In the first experiment, in nutrient solution, the effect of glyphosate on soybean Mn uptake kinetic parameters (Imax, Km and Cmin was determined. In a second experiment, also in nutrient solution, differential Mn accumulation and distribution were studied for a conventional soybean cultivar and its near-isogenic glyphosate-resistant counterpart as affected by glyphosate. In a third experiment, response of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivars to Mn application was studied in the presence of glyphosate, in pots with Mn-deficient soil. Maximum Mn influx (Imax was higher in the herbicide-resistant (GR cultivar than in its conventional counterpart. Glyphosate applied to nutrient solution at low rates decreased Km and Cmin. A few days after herbicide treatment, RR soybean plants developed yellowish leaves, a symptom which, in the field, could be misinterpreted as Mn deficiency, but herbicide application had no effect on Mn uptake or distribution within the plant. In the soil experiment, soybean Mn uptake was increased by Mn application, with no effect of glyphosate. Under greenhouse conditions, there was no evidence of deleterious effects of glyphosate on Mn absorption, accumulation and distribution in the plant and on soybean cultivars response to Mn application.

  7. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  8. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources than open air aud...

  9. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  10. Sustainable use of glyphosate in North American cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, David I

    2008-04-01

    Roundup Ready (glyphosate-resistant) cropping systems enable the use of glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide that offers growers several benefits, including superior weed control, flexibility in weed control timing and economic advantages. The rapid adoption of such crops in North America has resulted in greater glyphosate use and concern over the potential for weed resistance to erode the sustainability of its efficacy. Computer modeling is one method that can be used to explore the sustainability of glyphosate when used in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. Field tests should help strengthen the assumptions on which the models are based, and have been initiated for this purpose. Empirical evaluations of published data show that glyphosate-resistant weeds have an appearance rate of 0.007, defined as the number of newly resistant species per million acres treated, which ranks low among herbicides used in North America. Modeling calculations and ongoing field tests support a practical recommendation for growers occasionally to include other herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems, to lower further the potential for new resistance to occur. The presented data suggest that the sustainability of glyphosate in North America would be enhanced by prudent use of additional herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Glyphosate, a chelating agent-relevant for ecological risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Martha; Höss, Sebastian; Neumann, Günter; Afzal, Joshua; Reichenbecher, Wolfram

    2018-02-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs), consisting of glyphosate and formulants, are the most frequently applied herbicides worldwide. The declared active ingredient glyphosate does not only inhibit the EPSPS but is also a chelating agent that binds macro- and micronutrients, essential for many plant processes and pathogen resistance. GBH treatment may thus impede uptake and availability of macro- and micronutrients in plants. The present study investigated whether this characteristic of glyphosate could contribute to adverse effects of GBH application in the environment and to human health. According to the results, it has not been fully elucidated whether the chelating activity of glyphosate contributes to the toxic effects on plants and potentially on plant-microorganism interactions, e.g., nitrogen fixation of leguminous plants. It is also still open whether the chelating property of glyphosate is involved in the toxic effects on organisms other than plants, described in many papers. By changing the availability of essential as well as toxic metals that are bound to soil particles, the herbicide might also impact soil life, although the occurrence of natural chelators with considerably higher chelating potentials makes an additional impact of glyphosate for most metals less likely. Further research should elucidate the role of glyphosate (and GBH) as a chelator, in particular, as this is a non-specific property potentially affecting many organisms and processes. In the process of reevaluation of glyphosate its chelating activity has hardly been discussed.

  12. Impacts of Repeated Glyphosate Use on Wheat-Associated Bacteria Are Small and Depend on Glyphosate Use History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel C; Yin, Chuntao; Hulbert, Scot; Burke, Ian; Paulitz, Timothy

    2017-11-15

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide worldwide and a critical tool for weed control in no-till cropping systems. However, there are concerns about the nontarget impacts of long-term glyphosate use on soil microbial communities. We investigated the impacts of repeated glyphosate treatments on bacterial communities in the soil and rhizosphere of wheat in soils with and without long-term history of glyphosate use. We cycled wheat in the greenhouse using soils from 4 paired fields under no-till (20+-year history of glyphosate) or no history of use. At each cycle, we terminated plants with glyphosate (2× the field rate) or by removing the crowns, and soil and rhizosphere bacterial communities were characterized. Location, cropping history, year, and proximity to the roots had much stronger effects on bacterial communities than did glyphosate, which only explained 2 to 5% of the variation. Less than 1% of all taxa were impacted by glyphosate, more in soils with a long history of use, and more increased than decreased in relative abundance. Glyphosate had minimal impacts on soil and rhizosphere bacteria of wheat, although dying roots after glyphosate application may provide a "greenbridge" favoring some copiotrophic taxa. IMPORTANCE Glyphosate (Roundup) is the most widely used herbicide in the world and the foundation of Roundup Ready soybeans, corn, and the no-till cropping system. However, there have been recent concerns about nontarget impacts of glyphosate on soil microbes. Using next-generation sequencing methods and glyphosate treatments of wheat plants, we described the bacterial communities in the soil and rhizosphere of wheat grown in Pacific Northwest soils across multiple years, different locations, and soils with different histories of glyphosate use. The effects of glyphosate were subtle and much less than those of drivers such as location and cropping systems. Only a small percentage of the bacterial groups were influenced by glyphosate, and most of

  13. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  14. Awareness and use of electronic resources at a university campus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looks into the use of electronic resources by the faculty members of College of Technology Education, Kumasi of the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Sixty-two copies of a questionnaire were sent to the entire faculty and 31 were returned which gave a response rate of 50%. The responses showed very ...

  15. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  16. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Lin, Xin; Li, Ling; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a globally popular herbicide to kill weeds and its wide applications may lead to accumulation in coastal oceans as a source of phosphorus (P) nutrient or growth inhibitor of phytoplankton. We studied the physiological effects of glyphosate on fourteen species representing five major coastal phytoplankton phyla (haptophyta, bacillariophyta, dinoflagellata, raphidophyta, and chlorophyta). Based on growth responses to different concentrations of glyphosate under contrasting dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) conditions, we found that phytoplankton species could be classified into five groups. Group I (Emiliania huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) could utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth in axenic culture, but in the presence of DIP, they were inhibited by both 36-μM and 360-μM glyphosate. Group II (Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Symbiodinium sp., Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium catenella) could not utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth, and in the presence of DIP growth was not affected by 36-μM but inhibited by 360-μM glyphosate. Glyphosate consistently enhanced growth of Group III (Isochrysis galbana) and inhibited Group IV (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chattonella marina) regardless of DIP condition. Group V (Amphidinium carterae) exhibited no measurable response to glyphosate regardless of DIP condition. This grouping is not congruent with the phylogenetic relationships of the phytoplankton species suggesting functional differentiation driven by environmental pressure. We conclude that glyphosate could be used as P-source by some species while is toxic to some other species and yet has no effects on others. The observed differential effects suggest that the continued use of glyphosate and increasing concentration of this herbicide in the coastal waters will likely exert significant impact on coastal marine phytoplankton

  17. Variation in glyphosate and AMPA concentrations of surface water and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprile, Ana Clara; Aparicio, Virginia; Sasal, Carolina; Andriulo, Enrique

    2017-04-01

    The presence of pesticides in various environmental matrices indicate that the soil's ability to function as a bio-physical-chemical reactor is declining. As it operates as an interface between air and water, it causes a negative impact on these two vital resources. Currently, the pampa agriculture is simplified with a marked tendency towards spring-summer crops, where the main crops are RR soybean and corn. Herbicides are neither retained nor degraded in the soil, which results in polluted groundwater and surface waters. The objectives of this study were: a) to verify the presence of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Pergamino stream (a typical representative of the most productive agricultural region of Argentina) under different land use and to detect if in the detections there was a space-time pattern, and b) to verify the detection of these molecules in groundwater of the upper same basin under exclusively rural land use. Surface stream was sampling in six sites (five under rural land use and one under urban-industrial land use) at a rate of one sample by spring, summer and winter seasons (2010-2013, 54 total samples). Groundwater glyphosate and AMPA concentrations were determined in 24 piezometers constructed at two positions of the landscape, across the groundwater flow direction, sampled at two sampling dates (2010 and 2012, 45 total samples). In surface water, glyphosate and AMPA were detected in 54 and 69% of the samples analyzed, respectively. The median concentrations were 0.9 and 0.8 µg L-1 for glyphosate and AMPA and maximal concentrations 258 and 5865 µg L-1, respectively. The sampling site under urban-industrial land use had abnormally high concentrations of glyphosate in the spring (attributed to point pollution), a fact that not allowed to see differences in the remaining sampling times under different land uses. AMPA concentrations under urban-industrial land use were high and higher than rural land use in 3 studied seasons

  18. Effects of glyphosate formulations on transgenic soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, J.B.; Ferreira, E.A.; Reis, M.R.; Silva, A.A.; Fialho, C.M.T.; Freita, M.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Avaliou-se neste trabalho o efeito da aplicação de três marcas comerciais de glyphosate - Roundup Ready® e R. Transorb®, formuladas à base do sal de isopropilamina, e Zapp Qi®, à base do sal potássico - sobre a soja transgênica (variedade CD 219RR), tolerante a esse herbicida . Aos 25 dias após a emergência, quando as plantas apresentavam o segundo trifólio completamente expandido (estádios V2-V3), foram aplicadas formulações do glyphosate na dose de 2.000 g ha-1. Avaliou-se a intoxica��ão da...

  19. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  20. Differentiating glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-sensitive Italian ryegrass using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew A.; Huang, Yanbo; Nandula, Vijay K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2014-05-01

    Glyphosate based herbicide programs are most preferred in current row crop weed control practices. With the increased use of glyphosate, weeds, including Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), have developed resistance to glyphosate. The identification of glyphosate resistant weeds in crop fields is critical because they must be controlled before they reduce the crop yield. Conventionally, the method for the identification with whole plant or leaf segment/disc shikimate assays is tedious and labor-intensive. In this research, we investigated the use of high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery to extract spectral curves derived from the whole plant of Italian ryegrass to determine if the plant is glyphosate resistant (GR) or glyphosate sensitive (GS), which provides a way for rapid, non-contact measurement for differentiation between GR and GS weeds for effective site-specific weed management. The data set consists of 226 greenhouse grown plants (119 GR, 107 GS), which were imaged at three and four weeks after emergence. In image preprocessing, the spectral curves are normalized to remove lighting artifacts caused by height variation in the plants. In image analysis, a subset of hyperspectral bands is chosen using a forward selection algorithm to optimize the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) between GR and GS plants. Then, the dimensionality of selected bands is reduced using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, the maximum likelihood classification was conducted for plant sample differentiation. The results show that the overall classification accuracy is between 75% and 80% depending on the age of the plants. Further refinement of the described methodology is needed to correlate better with plant age.

  1. Metallic complexes with glyphosate: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, Claudia F.B.; Mazo, Luiz Henrique

    2005-01-01

    We present studies involving metallic ions and the herbicide glyphosate. The metallic complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), Co(III), ammonium, sodium, Ag(I), alkaline earth metals and of some lanthanides ions are described. The complexes are discussed in terms of their synthesis, identification, stability and structural properties, based on data from the current literature. (author)

  2. Synthesis of 15N labeled glyphosate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Claudineia R. de; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Tavares, Glauco Arnold; Rossete, Alexssandra L.R.M.; Tagliassachi, Romulo Barbieri; Prestes, Cleuber Vieira

    2005-01-01

    Amongst the actually commercialized herbicides the Glyphosate is the most used in Brazil. Its efficiency as well as the others herbicides against undesirable weeds is harmed by its final composts left at the environment. Although studies has being carried out to improve the knowledge about the herbicides behavior at the environment its complexity has led them towards innumerous to new significant research work where the use of radiolabeled composts (radiative tracers) are recommended to evaluate their bio-availability in the soil. However is the use, the manipulation and the storage of radiolabeled composts is requires an extra care under chemical safety point of view. The use of non radiolabeled composts is a world tendency especially for field researches. Under this context the presented work describes a method for the synthesis of 15 N labeled glyphosate. The 15 N-herbicide was undertaken by phosphometilation with the phosphit dialquil and 15 N-glycine. The tests where carried out through a micro scale production plant and of equimolars amounts. At these conditions it's was possible to reach approximately a 20% of yield. At the conclusion of a best operational condition its expected to offer another important toll that shall be used in glyphosate behavior at the environment and undesirably weeds. (author)

  3. SWV determination of glyphosate in Burkina Faso soils using carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an evaluation using carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) for the determination of glyphosate in soils from Burkina Faso treated with Glyphonet SL 360 by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The maximum intensity of the electrochemical response signal of glyphosate has been optimized and conditions ...

  4. Glyphosate-resistant palmer amaranth: a threat to conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation tillage reduces the physical movement of soil to the minimum required for crop establishment and production. Adoption of conservation tillage increased dramatically with the advent of transgenic, glyphosate-resistant crops that permitted in-season, over-the-top use of glyphosate, a broa...

  5. The effect of glyphosate application on soil microbial activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, glyphosate effects as N, P and C nutrient sources on microbial population and the effect of different concentration of it on dehydrogenease activity and soil respiration were investigated. The results show that in a soil with a long historical use of glyphosate (soil 1), the hetrotrophic bacterial population was ...

  6. Dissipation of glyphosate from grapevine soils in Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma J. Salazar López

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is one of the important crops in Sonora, due to revenue generation from its export to foreign countries. Among the most widely used herbicides for this crop is glyphosate, which is considered moderately toxic and persistent. The present research evaluates the dissipation of glyphosate in grapevine planted soil at three depths (5, 30 and 60 cm. Sampling was carried out before glyphosate application, and 5, 10, 18, 27, and 65 days after. Glyphosate was extracted from soil samples using ammonium hydroxide. The derivate extracts were partitioned with dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD. The results showed that average glyphosate residues are significantly greater at 5 cm (0.09 mg kg-1 than the other depths (30 and 60 cm, having a difference of 0.078 mg kg-1 between them (P < 0.03. Glyphosate concentration time profiles were similar; it reached maximum soil concentration in a range of 10 to 18 days after application. The half-life of glyphosate in soil has an average of 39 days at all depths. Our data suggests that the release in soil of glyphosate applied to weeds delays its transference to soil by 14 days, and extends residue half life to 55 days after application. These results could be the basis for further research, including more environmental parameters that could affect the dissipation or degradation process in soil.

  7. Uses of glyphosate in German arable farming – operational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiese, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most frequently used herbicide active ingredient in Germany. Studies regarding its usage in non-GMO arable farming are still rare even though it plays an important role in several agronomic situations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive survey, which was carried out among conventional German farms in Winter 2014/2015. Based on the results of this survey we analyzed via cluster analysis how types of farms differ in terms of glyphosate usage. An illustration of seven clusters allows deep insights into arable farm structures. The farm types can be distinguished regarding their tillage system and similar to this differentiation also concerning their intensity of glyphosate application. Furthermore, it becomes obvious that farm clusters with a higher level of glyphosate usage are characterized by a lower number of labourers per hectare, more arable land and/or enhanced cover cropping. Moreover, groups of farmers who rely more on glyphosate are more likely to state that they need glyphosate for herbicide resistance management. Farmers’ assessments of the economic importance of glyphosate usage vary depending on the type of farm. By means of the farm clusters, the most important situations of glyphosate usage can be further analyzed economically and scenarios for impact assessments can be made.

  8. Biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide in vitro using bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effects of glyphosate as carbon and/or phosphorus source on the growth of the isolates showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) growth in ... This study showed that P. fluorescens and Acetobacter sp. exhibited a high capacity to efficiently degrade glyphosate under the environmental conditions studied.

  9. Acute Toxicity of Glyphosate on Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of glyphosate on mortality rate and behavioural responses of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings were investigated under laboratory conditions for 96 hours exposure period. The lethal concentration (LC50) value of glyphosate on fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus was 0.0018 ml/l for 96 hours of exposure.

  10. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  11. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

    2014-05-01

    The results have been produced in a project aiming to improve the water quality of the Layon localy supported by stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive as the SAGE-Layon Aubance. The study site is a small vineyard catchment (2.2 ha) of the Loire Valley. The slopes of the study site are between 8 and 40% resulting in strong erosive episodes during rainy event. The main objective is to understand the transfer of pesticide residues to stream. Preliminary results have shown glyphosate can be found with high concentrations during runoff. However this study was realized only in the dissolved phase. The objective is now to understand the glyphosate transport driven by SPM. The methodology developed has been (i) characterization and production of the erodible water fraction from soils aggregates; (ii) achievement of the adsorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials to compare this results with adsorption on soil sieved to 2 mm, (iii) achievement of the desorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials. Measurements have been performed on soil samples distinguishing weed or grassed soils. Soils are sieved to 2 mm or between 2 and 5 mm (to produce the erodible water fraction). Both fractions are then used to glyphosate sorption and desorption. The erodible fraction was produce with a wet sieving machine (eijkelkampt Method Kemper and Rosenau, 1986), using sieve porosity of 250 microns. The fraction obtained at 250 microns is considered to be the erodible water fraction and is used to study the adsorption and desorption of glyphosate. Kinetics has been first carried out then the isotherm to obtain the value of Kd. A ratio soil/solution of 1/5 was used. Successive desorption's method was chosen with a stirring time of 20 min, centrifugation at 6000 g and the supernatant in each desorption of 20 min is analyzed. This step is repeated 25 times. The main results of the study are: (i) adsorption of glyphosate is rapid and almost

  12. DISPERSION OF GLYPHOSATE IN SOILS UNDERGOING EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Todorovic Rampazzo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Different physical, chemical and biological processes influence the behaviour of organic contaminants in soils. A better understanding of the organic pollutant behaviour in soils would improve the environmental protection. One possible way for better attenuation of the risk of pollution in agriculture can be achieved through ta better-specified pesticide management based on the adaptation of the pesticide type and application rates to the specific environmental characteristics of the area of application. Nowadays, one of the actually most applied herbicide world wide is glyphosate. Glyphosate is highly water soluble and traces have been found in surface and groundwater systems. For a better understanding of the natural influence of erosion processes on glyphosate behaviour and dispersion under heavy rain conditions after application in the field, two erosion simulation experiments were conducted on two different locations in Austria with completely different soil types in September 2008. The results of the experiments showed that under normal practical conditions (e.g. no rainfall is expected immediatly after application, the potential adsorption capacity of the Kirchberg soil (Stagnic Cambisol, with about 16.000 ppm Fe-oxides is confirmed compared to the low adsorption Chernosem soil (about 8.000 ppm pedogenic Fe-oxides.  Considering the enormous difference in the run-off amounts between the two sites Pixendorf and Kirchberg soils it can be concluded how important the soil structural conditions and vegetation type and cover are for the risks of erosion and, as a consequence, pollution of neighbouring waters. In the rainfall experiments under comparable simulation conditions, the amount of run-off was about 10 times higher at Kirchberg, owing to its better infiltration rate, than at the Pixendorf site. Moreover, the total loss of glyphosate (NT+CT through run-off at the Kirchberg site was more than double that at Pixendorf, which confirms the

  13. Glyphosate tolerance of soybean mutant gained after boarding on satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lingxue; Ren Honglei; Zhang Hongyan; Liu Zhangxiong; Jin Longguo; Guo Yong; Qiu Lijuan; Tao Bo

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate-tolerant germplasm and genetic variation characteristics of SP 2 and SP 3 soybean varieties boarded on Shijian No.8 satellite were analyzed after treated by herbicide glyphosate in the field. Abundant variations of traits were produced, and the resistance within and among cultivars were different in their offspring of space mutagenesis. Plant height and maturity were used as index to screen glyphosate tolerant materials. Space mutation increased of soybean 661 SP 3 of Zhongpin, and one glyphosate-resistance variant was screened from Zhongpin 661 SP 3 . It showed that glyphosate tolerance was different among offspring of different space mutagenesis soybean materials. It is feasible to systemically screen elite traits soybean by applying space mutation breeding. (authors)

  14. Molecular basis of glyphosate resistance: Different approaches through protein engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollegioni, Loredano; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Siehl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the most-used herbicide in the world: glyphosate-based formulations exhibit broad-spectrum herbicidal activity with minimal human and environmental toxicity. The extraordinary success of this simple small molecule is mainly due to the high specificity of glyphosate towards the plant enzyme enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the shikimate pathway leading to biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Starting in 1996, transgenic glyphosate-resistant plants were introduced thus allowing the application of the herbicide to the crop (post-emergence) to remove emerged weeds without crop damage. This review focuses on the evolution of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate as obtained through natural diversity, the gene shuffling approach to molecular evolution, and a rational, structure-based approach to protein engineering. In addition, we offer rationale for the means by which the modifications made have had their intended effect. PMID:21668647

  15. Bioassay for detection of transgenic soybean seeds tolerant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Antonio Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a systemic, nonselective, postemergence herbicide that inhibits growth of both weeds and crop plants. Once inside the plant, glyphosate interferes with biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, by inhibiting the activity of 5enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, a key enzyme of the shikimate pathway. The objective of this work was to develop a simple, effective and inexpensible method for identification of transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate. This technique consisted in germinating soybean seeds in filter paper moistened with 100 to 200 muM of glyphosate. Transgenic soybean seeds tolerant to glyphosate germinated normally in this solution and, between 7 and 10 days, started to develop a primary root system. However non-transgenic seeds stopped primary root growth and emission of secondary roots.

  16. Effects of additives on glyphosate activity in purple nutsedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rungsit Suwanketnikom

    1998-01-01

    Effects of additives on 14 C-glyphosate penetration into purple nutsedge leaves were examined in the laboratory and efficacy of glyphosate for purple nutsedge control was studied in the greenhouse and field. The addition of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 1.0% (v/v) + diesel oil at 1,0% (v/v) + Tendal at 1.0% (v/v) increased 14 C-glyphosate penetration into nutsedge leaves more than the addition of either one alone. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 1.0% + diesel oil at 1.0% + Tendal at 0.12 or 0.25% increased the phytotoxicity of glyphosate at 0.5 and 0.75 kg, a.e./ha on nutsedge plants in the greenhouse but not in the field. Additives did not enhance glyphosate activity by reducing the number of nutsedae tubers. (author)

  17. Rhizosphere processes as determinants for glyphosate damage of non-target plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Due to low production costs and high herbicidal efficiency, glyphosate is the most widely used wide-spectrum herbicide. Glyphosate acts as a non-selective, total herbicide by inhibiting the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Apart from glyphosate drift contamination, risks of glyphosate toxicity to crop plants and other non-target organisms are generally considered as marginal, because glyphosate is almost instantaneously inactivated by adsorption to the soil matrix and rapid microbial/che...

  18. Directions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science of students of a teacher training college

    OpenAIRE

    Светлана Анатольева Баженова

    2009-01-01

    Article is devoted questions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science in a teacher training college, principles of pedagogical expediency of use of electronic resources at training are specified computer science and positive aspects of such use for different forms of work of the student and the teacher are allocated.

  19. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  20. A double EPSPS gene mutation endowing glyphosate resistance shows a remarkably high resistance cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heping; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Jalaludin, Adam; Yu, Qin; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-12-01

    A novel glyphosate resistance double point mutation (T102I/P106S, TIPS) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene has been recently identified for the first time only in the weed species Eleusine indica. Quantification of plant resistance cost associated with the TIPS and the often reported glyphosate resistance single P106S mutation was performed. A significant resistance cost (50% in seed number currency) associated with the homozygous TIPS but not the homozygous P106S EPSPS variant was identified in E. indica plants. The resistance cost associated with the TIPS mutation escalated to 85% in plants under resource competition with rice crops. The resistance cost was not detected in nonhomozygous TIPS plants denoting the recessive nature of the cost associated with the TIPS allele. An excess of 11-fold more shikimate and sixfold more quinate in the shikimate pathway was detected in TIPS plants in the absence of glyphosate treatment compared to wild type, whereas no changes in these compounds were observed in P106S plants when compared to wild type. TIPS plants show altered metabolite levels in several other metabolic pathways that may account for the expression of the observed resistance cost. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Lack of transgene and glyphosate effects on yield, and mineral and amino acid content of glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Reddy, Krishna N; Cizdziel, James V; Bellaloui, Nacer; Shaw, David R; Williams, Martin M; Maul, Jude E

    2018-05-01

    There has been controversy as to whether the glyphosate resistance gene and/or glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean affect the content of cationic minerals (especially Mg, Mn and Fe), yield and amino acid content of GR soybean. A two-year field study (2013 and 2014) examined these questions at sites in Mississippi, USA. There were no effects of glyphosate, the GR transgene or field crop history (for a field with both no history of glyphosate use versus one with a long history of glyphosate use) on grain yield. Furthermore, these factors had no consistent effects on measured mineral (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) content of leaves or harvested seed. Effects on minerals were small and inconsistent between years, treatments and mineral, and appeared to be random false positives. No notable effects on free or protein amino acids of the seed were measured, although glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were found in the seed in concentrations consistent with previous studies. Neither glyphosate nor the GR transgene affect the content of the minerals measured in leaves and seed, harvested seed amino acid composition, or yield of GR soybean. Furthermore, soils with a legacy of GR crops have no effects on these parameters in soybean. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Impact of glyphosate resistant corn, glyphosate applications, and tillage on soil nutrient ratios, exoenzyme activities, and nutrient acquisition ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report results of the last two years of a 7-year (2008-2014) field experiment designed to test the null hypothesis that applications of glyphosate on glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) as a routine weed control practice under both conventional and reduced tillage practices would have no effe...

  3. Managing the risk of glyphosate resistance in Australian glyphosate- resistant cotton production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Jeff A; Preston, Christopher; Taylor, Ian N; Charles, Graham W; Roberts, Grant N; Baker, Jeanine

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate-resistant cotton varieties are an important tool for weed control in Australian cotton production systems. To increase the sustainability of this technology and to minimise the likelihood of resistance evolving through its use, weed scientists, together with herbicide regulators, industry representatives and the technology owners, have developed a framework that guides the use of the technology. Central to this framework is a crop management plan (CMP) and grower accreditation course. A simulation model that takes into account the characteristics of the weed species, initial gene frequencies and any associated fitness penalties was developed to ensure that the CMP was sufficiently robust to minimise resistance risks. The simulations showed that, when a combination of weed control options was employed in addition to glyphosate, resistance did not evolve over the 30 year period of the simulation. These simulations underline the importance of maintaining an integrated system for weed management to prevent the evolution of glyphosate resistance, prolonging the use of glyphosate-resistant cotton. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. A multicenter retrospective survey of poisoning after ingestion of herbicides containing glyphosate potassium salt or other glyphosate salts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Yoshito; Takai, Michiko; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    A multicenter retrospective survey of patients poisoned by herbicides containing glyphosate salts in Japan was conducted to identify differences in symptoms and outcome of poisoning. Participants were patients who were transported to emergency facilities between October 2006 and March 2014 after consuming herbicides containing glyphosate potassium salt (GlyK(+)) (the K-group) or other glyphosate salts (the O-group). Questionnaires were mailed to 38 emergency facilities that agreed to participate in the study. Serum potassium levels upon arrival were significantly higher (p glyphosate isopropylamine or ammonium salts, and polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA) as a surfactant, can cause severe organ injury. Physicians should note that the ingestion of products containing glyphosate potassium salt and surfactants other than POEA can cause hyperkalemia, potentially leading to fatal arrhythmias or cardiac arrest.

  5. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  6. Glyphosate em mistura com herbicidas alternativos para o manejo de plantas daninhas Glyphosate combined with alternative herbicides for vegetation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monquero

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de glyphosate como herbicida não-seletivo tem selecionado espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes. Dessa forma, é importante que sejam estudadas misturas de tanque com herbicidas de mecanismos de ação alternativos e que apresentem efeitos sinergísticos ou aditivos. Por essa razão, foi instalado um experimento inteiramente casualizado, composto por 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em casa de vegetação da Universidade de São Paulo - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, com as plantas daninhas Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora e Ipomoea grandifolia em misturas de tanque dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, sulfentrazone, carfentrazone, bentazon ou flumioxazin com glyphosate. As interações foram aditivas para as plantas daninhas I. grandifolia e C. benghalensis, e os herbicidas flumioxazin, sulfentrazone e carfentrazone aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com glyphosate foram os que proporcionaram os melhores níveis de controle. A interação de glyphosate com sulfentrazone foi antagônica em R. brasiliensis; a mistura de glyphosate com os demais herbicidas estudados foi aditiva, sendo os tratamentos com mistura de glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethyl ou flumioxazin os mais eficazes. Em A. hybridus, os tratamentos que apresentaram melhores níveis de controle foram o glyphosate e carfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente, e a mistura de glyphosate com flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl e bentazon, sendo estes interações aditivas. No caso de G. parviflora, os tratamentos com flumioxazin e sulfentrazone apresentaram controle total, o mesmo acontecendo com as misturas de glyphosate com carfentrazone, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl ou bentazon.The intensive use of glyphosate as a non-selective herbicide for weed vegetation management has selected some tolerant weed species. Thus, it is important to study the synergistic or antagonic or additive effects of tank

  7. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  8. A risk calculator for glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum (Gaud.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rex A; Pratley, James E; Hudson, David; Dill, Gerald M

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate resistance has been confirmed in 58 populations of Lolium rigidum (Gaud.), a major weed of crops in southern Australia. Extensive use of glyphosate in conjunction with minimal soil disturbance has been identified as high risk for resistance to that herbicide. Land managers need a simple method for rapid assessment of the risk of resistance occurring as a result of past and proposed future management practices. Modelled on risk assessment nomographs, a simple calculator for indicating the risk of evolved glyphosate resistance in L. rigidum is described. The calculator uses the generations since first use and the frequency of use of glyphosate in combination with historical cultivation levels as critical factors for determining the risk of glyphosate resistance evolution. Based on the management history of a field, a land manager can graphically determine a glyphosate resistance risk for that field. The calculator enables the farmer or the advisor to assess the risk of a weed's population becoming resistant and modify practices accordingly to manage for sustainable glyphosate use. The risk calculator could be modified for other herbicides and different weed species. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Glyphosate effects on the gene expression of the apical bud in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling-Xue; Jin, Long-Guo; Guo, Yong; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2013-08-09

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum, non-selective herbicide which has been widely used for weed control. Much work has focused on elucidating the high accumulation of glyphosate in shoot apical bud (shoot apex). However, to date little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the sensitivity of shoot apical bud to glyphosate. Global gene expression profiling of the soybean apical bud response to glyphosate treatment was performed in this study. The results revealed that the glyphosate inhibited tryptophan biosynthesis of the shikimic acid pathway in the soybean apical bud, which was the target site of glyphosate. Glyphosate inhibited the expression of most of the target herbicide site genes. The promoter sequence analysis of key target genes revealed that light responsive elements were important regulators in glyphosate induction. These results will facilitate further studies of cloning genes and molecular mechanisms of glyphosate on soybean shoot apical bud. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Uptake, Translocation, Metabolism, and Distribution of Glyphosate in Nontarget Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Wanjun; Jiao, Weiting; Zhou, Jie; Li, Yeyun; He, Lili; Hou, Ruyan

    2017-09-06

    The uptake, translocation, metabolism, and distribution behavior of glyphosate in nontarget tea plant were investigated. The negative effects appeared to grown tea saplings when the nutrient solution contained glyphosate above 200 mg L -1 . Glyphosate was highest in the roots of the tea plant, where it was also metabolized to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The glyphosate and AMPA in the roots were transported through the xylem or phloem to the stems and leaves. The amount of AMPA in the entire tea plant was less than 6.0% of the amount of glyphosate. The glyphosate level in fresh tea shoots was less than that in mature leaves at each day. These results indicated that free glyphosate in the soil can be continuously absorbed by, metabolized in, and transported from the roots of the tea tree into edible leaves, and therefore, free glyphosate residues in the soil should be controlled to produce teas free of glyphosate.

  11. Degradation of 14C-glyphosate in compost amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, E; Bragea, M; Sumalan, R; Negrea, M; Lazureanu, A

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine), the active ingredient in several herbicide formulations, is a non-selective, post-emergent herbicide used in a variety of crop and non-crop situations. Glyphosate is a non-volatile herbicide that is relatively immobile in soil. Its degradation is due to microbiological processes and most laboratory studies have been conducted with 14C-glyphosate with the rate of 14CO2 evolution being used as an indication of herbicide breakdown. In this paper we have studied the glyphosate degradation in compost amendment soils using Scientilator Liquid TRIATHLER and Glyphosate-phosphonomethyl-14C-labeled with specific activity 2,2mCi/mmol. Four types of soils have been taken under study: Black Chernozem, Vertisol, Gleysol and Phaeozem with different characteristics. For the each type of soil have been realized four experimental variants (glyphosate blind sample with 1,5 ppm, concentration, autoclaved soil, soil with glyphosate and addition of compost in field concentration of 40 t/ha, respectively 60 t/ha. The mineralization curves of 14CO2 accumulated were compared during of 40 days. All the mineralization curves for the soils exhibited same patterns, with only two phases, the initial rapid phase of degradation, for about 20 days, attributed to microbial action on the free glyphosate and the second slow phase, when the curves attained plateaus. Compost applied with different concentrations to Vertisol and Black Chernozem did not appear to stimulate the microbial degradation of glyphosate. In Gleysol and Phaeozem with lower humus content, the mineralization curve of 14C indicate the increase degradation capacity, expressed as accumulated 14CO2 as % total 14C, with the increase of compost concentration.

  12. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  13. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  14. Spray droplet size, drift potential, and risks to nontarget organisms from aerially applied glyphosate for coca control in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Andrew J; Solomon, Keith R; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    end of the spray boom as recorded electronically +/-5%) for protection of sensitive plants were 50-120 m for coca spray scenarios and considerably lower for poppy spray scenarios. The equivalent buffer zone for amphibia was 5 m. The low toxicity of glyphosate to humans suggests that these aerial applications are not a concern for human health.

  15. Glyphosate: Surfactant herbicide poisoning - Is it mild?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Venugopal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate Surfactant is a nonselective widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, lawn, garden and aquatic environments. They have favorable toxicity with occupational and accidental exposures. The toxicity in humans is mucosal and gastrointestinal irritation, hypotension, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary insufficiency, and oliguria. Patient may appear asymptomatic for many hours before slowly lapse into a hypotensive, apparently nonhypovolaemic shock that can often ends fatally. We hereby report a case of a 25-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following suicidal consumption of around 250-300 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate (glypho; . Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation. He also developed acute renal failure, and renal function reverted to normal after four sittings of hemodialysis. Patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as the sole method of treatment since this poison has no specific antidote.

  16. Comparing Electronic Human Resource Management Systems Efficiency In Production Organization amp Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the organizations used information technology in performing human resource department affairs and this is called as electronic human resource management EHRM. In fact as the competitive complexity increases the need for implementing EHRM in production and service businesses increases too. This paper is written in order to specify the importance of implementing EHRM in production and service organizations and also to evaluate efficiency rate and the importance degree in these two ones. In this paper first the topics literature and the most important aspects of implementing these systems will be reviewed and after categorizing these views the hierarchal model will be proposed by applying AHP method. The result of analyzing this model by EXPERT CHOICE software shows that implementing EHRM in both kinds of organizations has the same importance however there is a large difference between them in implementing aspects.

  17. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  18. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  19. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ajol.infoand www.bioline.org.br/ja. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable ..... saturation with natural gas. Proceeding of. American Soil Science Society 24: 41-45. Amare, T (2014). Effect of weed management methods on weeds and.

  20. Glyphosate Accumulation and Detrimental Effects on Coffea Arabica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph

    herbicides in coffee fields. Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine], the active ingredient in Roundup®, is characterized as systemic, non-selective, with a broad weed spectrum, inhibiting the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). The inhibition leads to an accumulation of shikimic...... concentrations than from single applications. The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the interaction of glyphosate with the coffee plant. An optimized coffee production, by minimizing the risk for a potential yield loss, is important due to the high commercial value of the crop. However, only limited data....... The biological response of young coffee plants to single glyphosate applications was evaluated using doseresponse curves (DRC) and shikimic acid levels. Furthermore the effect of multiple exposures on the viii severity of plant damage was investigated. The DRC revealed the presence of glyphosate symptoms...

  1. Biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide in vitro using bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    P. fluorescens and. Acetobacter sp) were ... biotechnology industry and biodegradation of polluted soils and water. Microorganisms known for their ability to degrade glyphosate in soil and water include. Pseudomonas sp ...

  2. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  3. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  4. Glyphosate-resistant weeds of South American cropping systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Vidal, Ribas A; Balbi, Maria C; Gundel, Pedro E; Trucco, Frederico; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2008-04-01

    Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. In South America, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in South American agriculture. The first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (Lolium multiflorum Lam., Conyza bonariensis L., C. canadensis L.). In all instances, resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use in fruit fields of Chile and Brazil. In fruit orchards from Colombia, Parthenium hysterophorus L. has shown the ability to withstand high glyphosate rates. The recent appearance of glyphosate-resistant Sorghum halepense L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. in glyphosate-resistant soybean fields of Argentina and Brazil, respectively, is of major concern. The evolution of glyphosate resistance has clearly taken place in those agroecosystems where glyphosate exerts a strong and continuous selection pressure on weeds. The massive adoption of no-till practices together with the utilization of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops are factors encouraging increase in glyphosate use. This phenomenon has been more evident in Argentina and Brazil. The exclusive reliance on glyphosate as the main tool for weed management results in agroecosystems biologically more prone to glyphosate resistance evolution. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  6. First resistance mechanisms characterization in glyphosate-resistant Leptochloa virgata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptochloa virgata (L. P. Beauv. is an annual weed common in citrus groves in the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico limiting their production. Since 2010, several L. virgata populations were identified as being resistant to glyphosate, but studies of their resistance mechanisms developed by this species have been conducted. In this work, three glyphosate-resistant populations (R8, R14 and R15 collected in citrus orchards from Mexico, were used to study their resistance mechanisms comparing them to one susceptible population (S. Dose-response and shikimic acid accumulation assays confirmed the glyphosate resistance of the three resistant populations. Higher doses of up to 720 g ae ha-1 (field dose were needed to control by 50% plants of resistant populations. The S population absorbed between 7 and 13% more 14C-glyphosate than resistant ones, and translocated up to 32.2% of 14C-glyphosate to the roots at 96 h after treatment (HAT. The R8, R14 and R15 populations translocated only 24.5, 26.5 and 21.9%, respectively. The enzyme activity of 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS was not different in the S, R8 and R14 populations. The R15 Population exhibited 165.9 times greater EPSPS activity. Additionally, this population showed a higher EPSPS basal activity and a substitution in the codon 106 from Proline to Serine in the EPSPS protein sequence. EPSPS gene expression in the R15 population was similar to that of S population. In conclusion, the three resistant L. virgata populations show reduced absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate. Moreover, a mutation and an enhanced EPSPS basal activity at target-site level confers higher resistance to glyphosate. These results describe for the first time the glyphosate resistance mechanisms developed by resistant L. virgata populations of citrus orchards from Mexico.

  7. Glyphosate effects on soil rhizosphere-associated bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Molli M; Hoilett, Nigel; Lorenz, Nicola; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture with predictions that 1.35 million metric tons will be used annually by 2017. With the advent of glyphosate tolerant (GT) cropping more than 10 years ago, there is now concern for non-target effects on soil microbial communities that has potential to negatively affect soil functions, plant health, and crop productivity. Although extensive research has been done on short-term response to glyphosate, relatively little information is available on long-term effects. Therefore, the overall objective was to investigate shifts in the rhizosphere bacterial community following long-term glyphosate application on GT corn and soybean in the greenhouse. In this study, rhizosphere soil was sampled from rhizoboxes following 4 growth periods, and bacterial community composition was compared between glyphosate treated and untreated rhizospheres using next-generation barcoded sequencing. In the presence or absence of glyphosate, corn and soybean rhizospheres were dominated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Proteobacteria (particularly gammaproteobacteria) increased in relative abundance for both crops following glyphosate exposure, and the relative abundance of Acidobacteria decreased in response to glyphosate exposure. Given that some members of the Acidobacteria are involved in biogeochemical processes, a decrease in their abundance could lead to significant changes in nutrient status of the rhizosphere. Our results also highlight the need for applying culture-independent approaches in studying the effects of pesticides on the soil and rhizosphere microbial community. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Glyphosate drift affects arbuscular mycorrhizal association in coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,F.P.; Souza,B.P.; França,A.C.; Ferreira,E.A.; Franco,M.H.R.; Kasuya,M.C.M.; Ferreira,F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhizal association promotes better survival and nutrition of colonized seedling on field, and consequently, increasing of productivity. However, the weed management can interfere on this association, due to incorrect use of glyphosate. This work has assessed the effects of glyphosate drift on the growth and nutrition of arabica coffee plants (Catuaí Vermelho - IAC 99) colonized with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The experiment was conducted in 2 x 5 factorial scheme, and included i...

  9. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Lyndsay; Koontz, Melissa; Pezeshki, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species wi...

  10. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Glyphosate Effects on Plant Mineral Nutrition, Crop Rhizosphere Microbiota, and Plant Disease in Glyphosate-Resistant Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Claims have been made recently that glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops sometimes have mineral deficiencies and increased plant disease. This review evaluates the literature that is germane to these claims. Our conclusions are: (1) although there is conflicting literature on the effects of glyphosate on mineral nutrition on GR crops, most of the literature indicates that mineral nutrition in GR crops is not affected by either the GR trait or by application of glyphosate; (2) most of the available data support the view that neither the GR transgenes nor glyphosate use in GR crops increases crop disease; and (3) yield data on GR crops do not support the hypotheses that there are substantive mineral nutrition or disease problems that are specific to GR crops. PMID:23013354

  12. Use of Electronic Resources by M.Sc. Chemistry Students at Arts Science and Commerce College Chopda Dist-Jalgaon

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Paithankar Rajeev; R., Mr.Kamble V.R.

    2017-01-01

    The libraries and information services has been changed due to the development of information and communication technology. Electronics resources role is very important as information repositories are use of information for various purposes like academic, research, teaching and learning process. E-resources gives solutions of the traditional libraries as like all data storage in digital format, users can access library without boundaries through internet so e-resources popularity is very cont...

  13. Making the Right Connections: Perceptions of Human Resource/Personnel Directors Concerning Electronic Job-Search Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joan C.; North, Alexa B.; Arjomand, H. Lari

    1997-01-01

    Examines methods used to search for entry-level managerial positions and assesses how human resource and personnel directors in Georgia perceive these methods. Findings indicate that few of the directors use electronic technology to fill such positions, but they view positively those applicants who use electronic job searching methods. (RJM)

  14. Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamy, Laure, E-mail: laure.mamy@versailles.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Gabrielle, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gabrielle@agroparistech.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Barriuso, Enrique, E-mail: barriuso@grignon.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2010-10-15

    The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

  15. Evaluation of Glyphosate, Flumioxazin and Imazamox against Japanese Knotweed s. l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/TN APCRP-CC-19 June 2013 Evaluation of Glyphosate , Flumioxazin and Imazamox against...with glyphosate as potential alternatives for controlling Japanese knotweed at Times Beach, a 56-acre nature preserve located in Buffalo, New York...formulations of glyphosate , imazapyr or triclopyr to control Japanese knotweed. Reports from the field indicate glyphosate provides poor control on

  16. Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1988-01-01

    Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacte...

  17. Biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide by Salinicoccus spp isolated from Qom Hoze-soltan lake, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Sharifi; Ahmad Ali Pourbabaei; Ali Javadi; Mohammad Hossein Abdolmohammadi; Mehri Saffari; Abbas Morovvati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl Glycine) is an organophosphorus pesticide with dangerous effects on the environment. In this study, the biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide by halophilic bacteria isolated from Qom Hoze-Soltan Lake has been investigated. Methods: After sampling and bacterial isolation, native halophilic strains grown in the presence of glyphosate at a wavelength of 660 nm and also the disappearance of the glyphosate in the plates at a wavelength of 220 nm were d...

  18. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  19. Phytotoxicity of glyphosate in the germination of and its effect on germinated seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subinoy Mondal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of glyphosate on Pisum sativum germination as well as its effect on the physiology and biochemistry of germinated seedlings. Different physico-chemical biomarkers, viz., chlorophyll, root and shoot length, total protein and soluble sugar, along with sodium and potassium concentration, were investigated in germinated seedlings at different glyphosate concentrations. This study reports the influence of different concentrations of glyphosate on pea seeds and seedlings. Physicochemical biomarkers were significantly changed by glyphosate exposure after 15 days. The germination of seedlings under control conditions (0 mg/L was 100% after 3 days of treatment but at 3 and 4 mg/L glyphosate, germination was reduced to 55 and 40%, respectively. Physiological parameters like root and shoot length decreased monotonically with increasing glyphosate concentration, at 14 days of observation. Average root and shoot length (n=30 in three replicates were reduced to 14.7 and 17.6%, respectively, at 4 mg/L glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content also decreased, with a similar trend to root and shoot length, but the protein content initially decreased and then increased with an increase in glyphosate concentration to 3 mg/L. The study suggests that glyphosate reduces the soluble sugar content significantly, by 21.6% (v/v. But internal sodium and potassium tissue concentrations were significantly altered by glyphosate exposure with increasing concentrations of glyphosate. Biochemical and physiological analysis also supports the inhibitory effect of glyphosate on seed germination and biochemical effects on seedlings.

  20. Utilization of glyphosate as phosphate source: biochemistry and genetics of bacterial carbon-phosphorous lyase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Zechel, David L; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a l...

  1. Analysis of glyphosate residues in cereals using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Johannesen, S.; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2003-01-01

    monitored m/z 168--> 150 (glyphosate) and 170-->152 (internal standard 2- 13 (CN)-N-15-glyphosate) for quantification. The mean recovery was 85% ( n =32) at spiking levels from 0.03 to 0.33 mg kg(-1) . From 1998 to 2001, from the analysis of about 50 samples per annum, a reduction in the glyphosate residues...

  2. Degradation and Isotope Source Tracking of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Joshi, Sunendra R; Jaisi, Deb P

    2016-01-27

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine], an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup, and its main metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), have been frequently reported to be present in soils and other environments and thus have heightened public concerns on their potential adverse effects. Understanding the fate of these compounds and differentiating them from other naturally occurring compounds require a toolbox of methods that can go beyond conventional methods. Here, we applied individual isotope labeling technique whereby each compound or mineral involved in the glyphosate and AMPA degradation reaction was either synthesized or chosen to have distinct (18)O/(16)O ratios so that the source of incorporated oxygen in the orthophosphate generated and corresponding isotope effect during C-P bond cleavage could be identified. Furthermore, we measured original isotope signatures of a few commercial glyphosate sources to identify their source-specific isotope signatures. Our degradation kinetics results showed that the rate of glyphosate degradation was higher than that of AMPA in all experimental conditions, and both the rate and extent of degradation were lowest under anoxic conditions. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)OP) of orthophosphate generated from glyphosate and AMPA degradation suggested that one external oxygen atom from ambient water, not from dissolved oxygen or mineral, was incorporated into orthophosphate with the other three oxygen atoms inherited from the parent molecule. Interestingly, δ(18)OP values of all commercial glyphosate products studied were found to be the lightest among all orthophosphates known so far. Furthermore, isotope composition was found to be unaffected due to variable degradation kinetics, light/dark, and oxic/anoxic conditions. These results highlight the importance of phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a nonconventional tool to potentially distinguish glyphosate sources and products from other organophosphorus compounds

  3. Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid chronic risk assessment for soil biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mérey, Georg; Manson, Philip S; Mehrsheikh, Akbar; Sutton, Peter; Levine, Steven L

    2016-11-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used widely in agriculture, horticulture, private gardens, and public infrastructure, where it is applied to areas such as roadsides, railway tracks, and parks to control the growth of weeds. The exposure risk from glyphosate and the primary soil metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on representative species of earthworms, springtails, and predatory soil mites and the effects on nitrogen-transformation processes by soil microorganisms were assessed under laboratory conditions based on internationally recognized guidelines. For earthworms, the reproductive no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 472.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalent (a.e.)/kg dry soil, which was the highest concentration tested, and 198.1 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA. For predatory mites, the reproductive NOEC was 472.8 mg a.e./kg dry soil for glyphosate and 320 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA, the highest concentrations tested. For springtails, the reproductive NOEC was 472.8 mg a.e./kg dry soil for glyphosate and 315 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA, the highest concentrations tested. Soil nitrogen-transformation processes were unaffected by glyphosate and AMPA at 33.1 mg a.e./kg soil and 160 mg/kg soil, respectively. Comparison of these endpoints with worst-case soil concentrations expected for glyphosate (6.62 mg a.e./kg dry soil) and AMPA (6.18 mg/kg dry soil) for annual applications at the highest annual rate of 4.32 kg a.e./ha indicate very low likelihood of adverse effects on soil biota. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2742-2752. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  4. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND USAGE OF THE ELECTRONIC VIDEO RESOURCES FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav M. Hlynsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical foundation, the creation and implementation of the electronic educational video resources (EEVR in the example of the development and the usage of the collection of video tutorials in event-driven programming theme, which is studied in the framework of the subject "Informatics" by students of many specialties. It offers some development of the existing conceptual and categorical apparatus concerning EEVR development. It is alleged that the video tutorials allow you to automate the process of learning, redistribute instructional time for the benefit of students' independent work, to provide classroom release time for the teaching of the theoretical issues of the course that is aimed at improving the fundamental nature of training. Practical recommendations for the development of the effective EEVR, which may be useful for the authors of e-learning courses for students of different forms of training are proposed.

  6. Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA, período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1.The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal

  7. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  8. Genetic-algorithm-based optimization of a fuzzy logic resource manager for electronic attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

    2000-04-01

    A fuzzy logic based expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar platforms. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper describes data mining activities related to development of the resource manager with a focus on genetic algorithm based optimization. A genetic algorithm requires the construction of a fitness function, a function that must be maximized to give optimal or near optimal results. The fitness functions are in general non- differentiable at many points and highly non-linear, neither property providing difficulty for a genetic algorithm. The fitness functions are constructed using insights from geometry, physics, engineering, and military doctrine. Examples are given as to how fitness functions are constructed including how the fitness function is averaged over a database of military scenarios. The use of a database of scenarios prevents the algorithm from having too narrow a range of behaviors, i.e., it creates a more robust solution.

  9. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

  10. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  11. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    English in Australia, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Contains seven short resources''--units, lessons, and activities on the power of observation, man and his earth, snakes, group discussion, colloquial and slang, the continuous story, and retelling a story. (DD)

  12. Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Timossi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla.This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds, aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3, with four replications. The factors consisted of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil

  13. Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckie, Hugh J

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Water use efficiency by coffee arabica after glyphosate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Paolinelli de Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many coffee growers apply glyphosate in directed applications, but some phytotoxicity has been noted. It is believed some herbicides can exert a direct or indirect negative effect on photosynthesis by reducing the metabolic rate in a way that can affect the water use efficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the variables related to water use among coffee cultivars subjected to the application of glyphosate and the effects of each dose. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using three varieties of coffee (Coffea arabica, Acaiá (MG-6851, Catucaí Amarelo (2SL and Topázio (MG-1190, and three doses of glyphosate (0.0, 115.2 and 460.8 g acid equivalent ha-1, in a factorial 3 x 3 design. At 15 days after application, a reduction in stomatal conductance was observed, and smaller transpiration rate and water use efficiency were found in the fourth leaf at 15 days after application. There was a decrease in the transpiration rate at 45 DAA, with the Acaiá cultivar showing reductions with 115.2 g ha-1. There was transitory reduction in water use efficiency with glyphosate application, but can affect the growth and production. The Acaiá cultivar showed the highest tolerance to glyphosate because the water use efficiency after herbicide application.

  15. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF CLONES OF EUCALYPT TO GLYPHOSATE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Weed control is commonly performed by the inter-row mechanical weeding associated to intrarow glyphosate directed spraying, causing a risk for drift or accidental herbicide application, that can affect the crop of interest. The objective was to evaluate the response of clones C219, GG100, I144, and I224 of eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla to glyphosate doses of 0, 18, 36, 72, 180, 360, and 720 g of acid equivalent per hectare. The clones showed different growth patterns with regard to height, leaf number, stem dry weight, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, and relative leaf growth rate. The clones I144 and GG100 were more susceptible to glyphosate, showing the doses required to reduce dry weight by 50% of 113.4 and 119.6 g acid equivalent per hectare, respectively. The clones C219 and I224 were less susceptible to glyphosate, showing the doses required to reduce dry weight by 50% of 237.5 and 313.5 g acid equivalent per hectare, respectively. Eucalyptus clones respond differently to glyphosate exposure, so that among I224, C219, GG100, and I144, the susceptibility to the herbicide is increasing.

  16. THE FACTOR-CRITERIA MODEL OF ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL GAME RESOURCES IN MATHEMATICS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana M. Melnyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proves the need for a comprehensive assessment of electronic educational game resources in mathematics for the primary school students; gives the definition of “the factor-criteria model of the electronic educational game resources (EEGR”. It also describes the created model, which consists of requirements for the content, methodological and program parts of the electronic resources for primary school; identifies the factors and the criteria to each of them. It was proposed to assess the ratios within the group of factors and each group of criteria according to the arithmetic progression. The presented model can be a convenient tool both for primary school teachers and EEGR developers. It can also be a basis for a unified state comprehensive system of assessment of the EEGR.

  17. Perspectives for studying glyphosate and AMPA impact on soil ecosystem engineering in farming soils from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Anahí; Pía Rodríguez, María; Ortiz, Carolina Elizabeth; Camilo Bedano, José

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem engineers are organisms that modulate the availability of resources to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials. In the agricultural soils of the Pampa region of Argentina, earthworms are undoubtedly the key soil ecosystem engineers. Indeed, earthworms are involved in building and maintenance of porosity through bioturbation and burrowing; comminution, selection and or activation of microflora activities and in soil formation, by bioturbation, cast deposition and particle selection. Attending to the importance of such processes to preserve the soil capacity to sustain crop productivity, the promotion of suitable habitats for earthworm communities, has become a main goal for sustainable agriculture. However, in Argentine Pampas, the impact of the huge amount of pesticides currently spread on farming soils, on the earthworm biology and ecology, is scarcely considered when agricultural managements practices are selected. In fact, more than 250 million liters of glyphosate-based herbicides are spread by year in the farming soils of Argentina. Glyphosate has a relative short half-life, but one of the major breakdown products, the aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), is persistent in soils. We tested its toxicity1 on the earthworm Eisenia andrei, and we found no mortality but growth and reproductive disorders. However, E. andrei is seldom found in agricultural lands. Indeed, for the last 8 years, we have sampled an important variety of agricultural soils, representing the most important farming systems used in Argentina, and we never found Eisenia spp. but 13 earthworm species: 8 exotic from Lumbricidae and 5 natives from Acanthodrilidae, Glossoscolecidae and Ocnerodrilidae families. However, the ecotoxicological effect of glyphosate has been detailed studied only in three of the mentioned exotic species, and only in four studies2,3,4,5. Such a few studies and a few species indicates a real lack of accurate knowledge about

  18. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  19. How glyphosate affects plant disease development: it is more than enhanced susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Ray

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait. The evidence indicates that neither the resistance trait nor application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant plants increases susceptibility to disease. The only exceptions to this are cases where glyphosate has been shown to reduce rust diseases on glyphosate-resistant crops, supporting a fungicidal role for this chemical. Finally, glyphosate treatment of weeds or volunteer crops can cause a temporary increase in soil-borne pathogens that may result in disease development if crops are planted too soon after glyphosate application. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Glyphosate accumulation, translocation, and biological effects in Coffea arabica after single and multiple exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph; Valverde, Bernal E.; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    In perennial crops like coffee, glyphosate drift exposure can occur multiple times during its commercial life span. Due to limited glyphosate degradation in higher plants, a potential accumulation of glyphosate could lead to increased biological effects with increased exposure frequency...... of application, however, was more important regarding biological effects than the number of applications both in the greenhouse and in the field. In the field, berry yield, the most important biological response variable, was reduced 26% by the first out of four sequential applications of glyphosate at 64 g a....... In this study, we investigated glyphosate translocation over time, and its concentration and biological effects after single and multiple simulated spray-drift exposures. Additionally, shikimic acid/glyphosate ratios were used as biomarkers for glyphosate binding to its target enzyme.Four weeks after...

  1. Stimulation of bacteria and protists in rhizosphere of glyphosate-treated barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imparato, Valentina; Santos, Susana; Johansen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is extensively used for weed control and to ripen crops. Despite a number of studies on the direct effect of glyphosate on plants and soil organisms, only little is known about indirect effect of glyphosate on rhizosphere microbial communities, following the accelerated turnover...... of the fast-dying root biomass. In microcosms we studied the indirect effect of glyphosate on the microbial community in the rhizosphere of barley with phyllosphere application of glyphosate in comparison to leaving the plant intact or cutting off the shoot. Attempting to link the response of bacterial...... and protist communities to foliar application of glyphosate, we measured bacterial and protist abundance, diversity and physiological status, as well as soil organic carbon. Foliar application of glyphosate doubled bacterial abundance of the culturable fraction present in the rhizosphere compared to the other...

  2. Glyphosate in the rhizosphere-role of waiting times and different glyphosate binding forms in soils for phytotoxicity to non-target plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfamariam, Tsehaye; Bott, S.; Çakmak, İsmail; Cakmak, Ismail; Roemheld, V.; Neumann, G.

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used non-selective, systemic herbicide. It is easily translocated from shoot to roots and released into the rhizosphere, where it is immobilized at the soil matrix or microbially degraded. However, contradictory results are reported in the literature concerning the bio-availability of glyphosate residues in soils and the potential risks for intoxication of non-target organisms. This study addresses the question whether plant residues of glyphosate-treated weeds (...

  3. Intermolecular interaction studies of glyphosate with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manon, Priti; Juglan, K. C.; Kaur, Kirandeep; Sethi, Nidhi; Kaur, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    The density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (U) of glyphosate with water have been measured on different ultrasonic frequency ranges from 1MHz, 2MHz, 3MHz & 5MHz by varying concentrations (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, & 0.40%) at 30°C. The specific gravity bottle, Ostwald's viscometer and quartz crystal interferometer were used to determine density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (U). These three factors contribute in evaluating the other parameters as acoustic impedance (Z), adiabatic compressibility (β), relaxation time (τ), intermolecular free length (Lf), free volume (Vf), ultrasonic attenuation (α/f2), Rao's constant (R), Wada's constant (W) and relative strength (R). Solute-solvent interaction is confirmed by ultrasonic velocity and viscosity values, which increases with increase in concentration indicates stronger association between solute and solvent molecules. With rise in ultrasonic frequency the interaction between the solute and solvent particles decreases. The linear variations in Rao's constant and Wada's constant suggest the absence of complex formation.

  4. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  5. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  6. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Facilitated transport of diuron and glyphosate in high copper vineyard soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, Sylvie; Jacobson, Astrid R; Dessogne, Jean-Baptiste; Guichard, Nathalie; Baveye, Philippe C; Andreux, Francis

    2007-12-01

    The fate of organic herbicides applied to agricultural fields may be affected by other soil amendments, such as copper applied as a fungicide. The effect of copper on the leaching of diuron and glyphosate through a granitic and a calcareous soil was studied in the laboratory using sieved-soil columns. Each soil was enriched with copper sulfate to obtain soil copper concentrations of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg kg(-1). Glyphosate leaching was influenced by soil pH and copper concentration, whereas diuron leaching was not. In the calcareous soil, glyphosate leaching decreased as copper levels increased from 17 mg kg(-1) (background) to 500 mg kg(-1). In the granitic soil, glyphosate leaching increased as copper levels increased from 34 mg kg(-1) (background) to 500 mg kg(-1). The shapes of the copper elution curves in presence of glyphosate were similar to shapes of the glyphosate curves, suggesting the formation of Cu-glyphosate complexes that leach through the soil. Soil copper concentration does not influence diuron leaching. In contrast, increasing copper concentrations reduces glyphosate leaching through calcareous soils, and conversely, increases glyphosate leaching through granitic soils. Our findings suggest that the risk of groundwater contamination by glyphosate increases in granitic soils with elevated copper concentrations.

  8. Aldo-keto reductase enzymes detoxify glyphosate and improve herbicide resistance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemanna, Ramu S; Vennapusa, Amaranatha Reddy; Easwaran, Murugesh; Chandrashekar, Babitha K; Rao, Hanumantha; Ghanti, Kirankumar; Sudhakar, Chinta; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Makarla, Udayakumar

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, concerns about the use of glyphosate-resistant crops have increased because of glyphosate residual levels in plants and development of herbicide-resistant weeds. In spite of identifying glyphosate-detoxifying genes from microorganisms, the plant mechanism to detoxify glyphosate has not been studied. We characterized an aldo-keto reductase gene from Pseudomonas (PsAKR1) and rice (OsAKR1) and showed, by docking studies, both PsAKR1 and OsAKR1 can efficiently bind to glyphosate. Silencing AKR1 homologues in rice and Nicotiana benthamiana or mutation of AKR1 in yeast and Arabidopsis showed increased sensitivity to glyphosate. External application of AKR proteins rescued glyphosate-mediated cucumber seedling growth inhibition. Regeneration of tobacco transgenic lines expressing PsAKR1 or OsAKRI on glyphosate suggests that AKR can be used as selectable marker to develop transgenic crops. PsAKR1- or OsAKRI-expressing tobacco and rice transgenic plants showed improved tolerance to glyphosate with reduced accumulation of shikimic acid without affecting the normal photosynthetic rates. These results suggested that AKR1 when overexpressed detoxifies glyphosate in planta. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sorption and desorption of glyphosate in Mollisols and Ultisols soils of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Ortiz, Ana Maria; Okada, Elena; Bedmar, Francisco; Costa, José Luis

    2017-10-01

    In Argentina, glyphosate use has increased exponentially in recent years as a result of the widespread adoption of no-till management combined with genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops. This massive use of glyphosate has created concern about its potential environmental impact. Sorption-desorption of glyphosate was studied in 3 Argentinean soils with contrasting characteristics. Glyphosate sorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich equation to estimate the sorption coefficient (K f ). Glyphosate sorption was high, and the K f varied from 115.6 to 1612 mg 1-1/n L 1/n /kg. Cerro Azul soil had the highest glyphosate sorption capacity as a result of a combination of factors such as higher clay content, cation exchange capacity, total iron, and aluminum oxides, and lower available phosphorus and pH. Desorption isotherms were also modeled using the Freundlich equation. In general, desorption was very low (glyphosate strongly sorbs to the soils and that it is almost an irreversible process. Anguil soil had a significantly higher desorption coefficient (K fd ) than the other soils, associated with its lower clay content and higher pH and phosphorus. Glyphosate high sorption and low desorption to the studied soils may prevent groundwater contamination. However, it may also affect its bioavailability, increasing its persistence and favoring its accumulation in the environment. The results of the present study contribute to the knowledge and characterization of glyphosate retention in different soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2587-2592. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Interactions of glyphosate use with farm characteristics and cropping patterns in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Armin; Schulte, Michael; Theuvsen, Ludwig; Steinmann, Horst-Henning

    2018-05-01

    Although glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the European Union, little is known about the patterns of its usage in arable farming. Therefore, a nationwide survey of 2026 German farmers was analysed to obtain further knowledge about glyphosate applications in conventional European arable farming. Given its broad range of agri-environmental and farm-type conditions, Germany can be regarded as a suitable study region to represent Central European farming. The growing season 2013/2014 was set as a reference. Farmers who participated in the survey employ diverse patterns of glyphosate use. While 23% stated that they did not use glyphosate in the season in question, others applied glyphosate to their total arable area. However, most applications occurred on specific parts of the farm. Application patterns of oilseed rape, winter wheat, maize and sugar beet were studied in detail, and U-shaped distributions of glyphosate use intensity were observed. The effects of farm type and management practices on glyphosate use patterns were mixed in the various crops. Motivation for glyphosate use differs widely within the farming community. Agricultural researchers, extension services and policy makers are recommended to mitigate vulnerabilities associated with glyphosate use, such as routine spraying and practices that increase selection pressure for the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Optimisation of culture composition for glyphosate degradation byBurkholderia vietnamiensisstrain AQ5-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Motharasan; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Yasid, Nur Adeela; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima

    2018-02-01

    The herbicide glyphosate is often used to control weeds in agricultural lands. However, despite its ability to effectively kill weeds at low cost, health problems are still reported due to its toxicity level. The removal of glyphosate from the environment is usually done by microbiological process since chemical process of degradation is ineffective due to the presence of highly stable bonds. Therefore, finding glyphosate-degrading microorganisms in the soil of interest is crucial to remediate this glyphosate. Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12 was found to have glyphosate-degrading ability. Optimisation of biodegradation condition was carried out utilising one factor at a time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM). Five parameters including carbon and nitrogen source, pH, temperature and glyphosate concentration were optimised. Based on OFAT result, glyphosate degradation was observed to be optimum at fructose concentration of 6, 0.5 g/L ammonia sulphate, pH 6.5, temperature of 32 °C and glyphosate concentration at 100 ppm. Meanwhile, RSM resulted in a better degradation with 92.32% of 100 ppm glyphosate compared to OFAT. The bacterium was seen to tolerate up to 500 ppm glyphosate while increasing concentration results in reduced degradation and bacterial growth rate.

  12. Wind erosion as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and AMPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Célia P. M.; Goossens, Dirk; Rezaei, Mahrooz; Riksen, Michel; Mol, Hans G. J.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate is the active ingredient of many commercial formulations of herbicides extensively used worldwide for weed control. Because glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) are considered non-volatile, their loss to the atmosphere is considered negligible. Both compounds strongly adsorb to soil particles and wind-eroded sediment and dust are thus a possible environmental transport pathway. This can result in environmental and human exposure far beyond the agricultural areas where it has been applied. Therefore, special attention is required to the airborne transport of glyphosate and AMPA. In this study, we investigated the behavior of glyphosate and AMPA in wind-eroded sediment by measuring their content in different size fractions (median diameters between 715 and 8 µm) of a loess soil, during a period of 28 days after glyphosate application. Granulometrical extraction was done using a wind tunnel and a Soil Fine Particle Extractor. Extractions were conducted on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after glyphosate application. Results indicated that glyphosate and AMPA contents were significantly higher in the finest particle fractions (median diameters between 8 and 18 µm), and lowered significantly with the increase in particle size. Glyphosate and AMPA contents correlated positively with clay, organic matter, and silt content. The dissipation of glyphosate over time was very low, which was associated to the low soil moisture content of the sediment. Consequently, the formation of AMPA was also very low. The low dissipation of glyphosate in our study indicates that the risk of glyphosate transport in dry sediment to off-target areas by wind can be very high. The highest glyphosate and AMPA contents were found in the smallest soil fractions (PM10 and less), which are easily inhaled. This contributes to the risk of human and animal exposure and, therefore, more attention should be paid to this route of exposure in environmental and human

  13. [Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of human cells exposed in vitro to glyphosate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Claudia Milena; Cortés, Andrea Carolina; Sicard, Diana Mercedes; de Restrepo, Helena Groot

    2005-09-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum non-selective herbicide, used to eliminate unwanted weeds in agricultural and forest settings. Herbicide action is achieved through inhibition of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in plant cells. Since this is not a conserved mechanism between human and plant cells, glyphosate is considered to be a low health risk substance for humans. However, the occurrence of possible harmful side effects of glyphosate use is not well documented and controversial. Toxicity and genotoxicity studies indicate that glyphosate is not harmful, although several investigations suggest that it can alter various cellular processes in animals. Therfore this has potential as a health and environmental risk factor in areas where glyphosate is widely used. The present study evaluated glyphosate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in normal human cells (GM38) and human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells. Acute and chronic cytotoxicity were determined through the exposure of cultured cells to graded concentrations of glyphosate, and cell viability analysis was performed with crystal violet and Trypan blue staining. Genotoxicity was determined using the comet assay and data significance was evaluated with Dunnet's test. For chronic cytotoxicity a dose-dependent effect was observed in both GM38 and HT1080 cells after treatment with 5.2-8.5 mM and 0.9-3.0 mM glyphosate, respectively. In the acute cytotoxicity study, GM38 cells exposed to 4.0-7.0 mM glyphosate and HT1080 cells exposed to 4.5-5.8 mM glyphosate, had cell viability counts higher than 80%. Genotoxic effects were evidenced in GM38 cells at glyphosate concentrations of 4.0-6.5 mM and in HT1080 cells at glyphosate concentrations of 4.75 -5.75 mM. The levels of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of glyphosate occurring in mammalian cells suggested that its mechanism of action is not limited to plant cells.

  14. Characterisation of the simultaneous molybdenum reduction and glyphosate degradation by Burkholderia vietnamiensis AQ5-12 and Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Motharasan; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Yasid, Nur Adeela; Yakasai, Hafeez Muhammad; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2018-02-01

    In this novel study, we report on the use of two molybdenum-reducing bacteria with the ability to utilise the herbicide glyphosate as the phosphorus source. The bacteria reduced sodium molybdate to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue), a colloidal and insoluble product, which is less toxic. The characterisation of the molybdenum-reducing bacteria was carried out using resting cells immersed in low-phosphate molybdenum media. Two glyphosate-degrading bacteria, namely Burkholderia vietnamiensis AQ5-12 and Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, were able to use glyphosate as a phosphorous source to support molybdenum reduction to Mo-blue. The bacteria optimally reduced molybdenum between the pHs of 6.25 and 8. The optimum concentrations of molybdate for strain Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12 was observed to be between 40 and 60 mM, while for Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, the optimum molybdate concentration occurred between 40 and 50 mM. Furthermore, 5 mM of phosphate was seen as the optimum concentration supporting molybdenum reduction for both bacteria. The optimum temperature aiding Mo-blue formation ranged from 30 to 40 °C for Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12, whereas for Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, the range was from 35 to 40 °C. Glucose was the best electron donor for supporting molybdate reduction, followed by sucrose, fructose and galactose for both strains. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source in supporting molybdenum reduction. Interestingly, increasing the glyphosate concentrations beyond 100 and 300 ppm for Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12 and Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, respectively, significantly inhibited molybdenum reduction. The ability of these bacteria to reduce molybdenum while degrading glyphosate is a useful process for the bioremediation of both toxicants.

  15. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  16. Using glyphosate herbicide in converting aspen to conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1985-01-01

    Glyphosate at 1.5 to 2.0 lbs. Per acre active ingredient will control aspen suckers, shrubs, and herbs when applied during August to early September. There appears to be some intersite variability in the efficacy of the herbicide.

  17. Influence of glyphosate, other herbicides and genetically modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concern has also been raised regarding the potential increase in crop disease incidence and severity caused by the increased cultivation of HT crops and, specifically, the use of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. According to reports, the practice could lead to a decrease in soil fertility and plant nutrition, leading to ...

  18. Toxicity assessment of glyphosate on honey bee (Apis mellifera) spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2016-2017, 33.2% of managed honey bee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Commonly used pesticides are among the suspected reasons for bee mortality. N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) is a widely used herbicide in the U.S. and has previously been shown ...

  19. The effect of glyphosate application on soil microbial activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... can be concluded that glyphosate application may alter (increase) soil microbial activity and population. Increased microbial ... indicators than physical and chemical parameters as they are able to respond ..... microbiological and biochemical processes in soil, in: Burns RG, Dick. RP (Eds.), Enzymes in the ...

  20. The effect of glyphosate application on soil microbial activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... In recent years, intensive use of herbicides has increasingly become a matter of environmental concern partially because of the ... can be concluded that glyphosate application may alter (increase) soil microbial activity and population. ..... in microbial biomass, decrease crop growth and yields, and increase ...

  1. Efficacy of electrostatically-charged Glyphosate on ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate, (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, a broad spectrum, systemic, post-emergence herbicide, is used extensively for weed control in production agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this research was to determine whether or not it is beneficial to electrostatically charge herbicidal s...

  2. The Effects of Benomyl and Glyphosate Treated Plant Litter on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment is, therefore, aimed at finding out if Roundup (herbicide) and Benlate (fungicide), with Glyphosate and Benomyl, as their respective active ingredients r ecommended for use on cocoa plantations in Ghana, have any effect on nitrogen mineralization by affecting decomposition of plant litter. It is also to find out ...

  3. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on the yield and agronomic characters of Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss. ... If properly managed and stimulated, fungi can contribute significantly to improving soil health, thus improving food security in a sustainable manner. Keywords: Mycoaugmentation ...

  4. Civility in scientific publishing: The glyphosate paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Russell Lane

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed a decline in civility in the public arena when various socially sensitive issues are being presented. Those of us engaged in the publishing of scientific papers and in our comments on these papers, need to be cognizant of the social graces, courteous demeanor, and chivalry. Debates are essential to our learning and in being able to ferret out the essentials of various scientific issues that are of value. Because of the amount of time and effort connected with analyzing the complex problems and the years invested in such endeavors, we often resort to the behavior, that is, contentious and at times even quite insulting to our opponents during our defense. This is the part of human nature but as civilized human beings, we must strive to maintain the courtesy and a calm demeanor during such discussions and debates. I have yielded to such temptations myself but am striving to repent of my sins. The medical and scientific history should have taught us that in defending our ideas we learn and sometimes come to the realization that our paradigm or hypothesis is wrong, either in part or whole. Such debates allow us to fine tune our ideas and correct our errors in thinking, which are easily, consciously, or subconsciously sublimated by our enthusiasm. The glyphosate papers presented ideas that, while well supported by the scientific studies and logical conclusions, also contained some possible errors in its suppositions. Dr. Miguel Faria challenged some of these concepts and was met with some degree of derision by one of the authors. This editorial comment is in response to these issues.

  5. In Vivo 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Glyphosate Uptake, Vacuolar Sequestration, and Tonoplast Pump Activity in Glyphosate-Resistant Horseweed1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xia; d’Avignon, D. André; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.; Sammons, R. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) is considered a significant glyphosate-resistant (GR) weed in agriculture, spreading to 21 states in the United States and now found globally on five continents. This laboratory previously reported rapid vacuolar sequestration of glyphosate as the mechanism of resistance in GR horseweed. The observation of vacuole sequestration is consistent with the existence of a tonoplast-bound transporter. 31P-Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments performed in vivo with GR horseweed leaf tissue show that glyphosate entry into the plant cell (cytosolic compartment) is (1) first order in extracellular glyphosate concentration, independent of pH and dependent upon ATP; (2) competitively inhibited by alternative substrates (aminomethyl phosphonate [AMPA] and N-methyl glyphosate [NMG]), which themselves enter the plant cell; and (3) blocked by vanadate, a known inhibitor/blocker of ATP-dependent transporters. Vacuole sequestration of glyphosate is (1) first order in cytosolic glyphosate concentration and dependent upon ATP; (2) competitively inhibited by alternative substrates (AMPA and NMG), which themselves enter the plant vacuole; and (3) saturable. 31P-Nuclear magnetic resonance findings with GR horseweed are consistent with the active transport of glyphosate and alternative substrates (AMPA and NMG) across the plasma membrane and tonoplast in a manner characteristic of ATP-binding cassette transporters, similar to those that have been identified in mammalian cells. PMID:25185124

  6. Gene expression in response to glyphosate treatment in fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) - glyphosate death response and candidate resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereward, James P; Werth, Jeff A; Thornby, David F; Keenan, Michelle; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Walter, Gimme H

    2017-11-28

    This study takes a whole-transcriptome approach to assess gene expression changes in response to glyphosate treatment in glyphosate-resistant fleabane. We assessed gene expression changes in both susceptible and resistant lines so that the glyphosate death response could be quantified, and constitutively expressed candidate resistance genes identified. There are three copies of the glyphosate target site (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate; EPSPS) gene in Conyza and because Conyza bonariensis is allohexaploid, there is a baseline nine copies of the gene in any individual. Many genes were differentially expressed in response to glyphosate treatment. Known resistance mutations are present in EPSPS2 but they are present in a glyphosate-susceptible line as well as resistant lines and therefore not sufficient to confer resistance. EPSPS1 is expressed four times more than EPSPS2, further reducing the overall contribution of these mutations. We demonstrate that glyphosate resistance in C. bonariensis is not the result of EPSPS mutations or overexpression, but due to a non-target-site mechanism. A large number of genes are affected by glyphosate treatment. We present a list of candidate non-target-site-resistance (NTSR) genes in fleabane for future studies into these mechanisms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  8. Glyphosate sorption and desorption in soils with distinct phosphorus levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Fábio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of glyphosate by soils occurs due to the inner sphere complex formation with metals of soil oxides, which are related to the soil phosphate adsorption capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing rates of phosphorus on sorption and desorption of glyphosate in three soils with different mineralogical attributes. Soils were a Rhodic Kandiudalf, an Anionic Acrudox and a Typic Humaquept. Soil samples were amended with KH2PO4 at equivalent rates of 0; 1,000; 5,000; 20,000 and 50,000 kg ha-1 of P2O5, which are high from the agricultural point of view, but necessary in order to perform sorption and desorption studies. The experimental design consisted of a completely randomized factorial: 2 soils x 5 phosphorus rates and 3 replicates. For the sorption experiments, five glyphosate solutions were employed (0.42; 0.84; 1.68; 3.36 and 6.72 mg L-1, with a 14C radioactivity of 0.233 kBq mL-1. Four steps of the desorption procedure with CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 and one extraction with Mehlich 3 were performed only at one concentration (0.84 mol L-1. Soil samples were afterwards biologically oxidized to establish the radioactive balance. Glyphosate competes with phosphorus for specific sorption sites, but this competition becomes important when phosphorus is present at rates higher than 1,000 mg dm-3. Moreover, a small amount of applied glyphosate was extracted (<10%, and the extraction increased with increasing soil phosphorus content.

  9. The effect of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Awad A; Schrödl, Wieland; Aldin, Alaa A; Hafez, Hafez M; Krüger, Monika

    2013-04-01

    The use of glyphosate modifies the environment which stresses the living microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the real impact of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro. The presented results evidence that the highly pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella Entritidis, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum are highly resistant to glyphosate. However, most of beneficial bacteria as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus spp. were found to be moderate to highly susceptible. Also Campylobacter spp. were found to be susceptible to glyphosate. A reduction of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract microbiota by ingestion of glyphosate could disturb the normal gut bacterial community. Also, the toxicity of glyphosate to the most prevalent Enterococcus spp. could be a significant predisposing factor that is associated with the increase in C. botulinum-mediated diseases by suppressing the antagonistic effect of these bacteria on clostridia.

  10. Effects of pH and phosphate on glyphosate adsorption to Argentina soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective, post-emergence herbicide that is widely used in Argentina. Due to the similar molecular structures, glyphosate and phosphate compete for the same adsorption sites in soil. Soil pH has a strong influence in glyphosate and phosphate adsorption since it modifies the net charge of the molecules and, consequently, the force of the electrostatic interaction between these molecules and soil components. Glyphosate adsorption generally decreases as the soil pH was increased, although there were exceptions. In this work, we study the effects of pH and the presence of phosphate on the adsorption of glyphosate on six different types of Argentina soils. Batch equilibrium technique was employed to study the adsorption of glyphosate onto soils at different pH values (from 3 to 9) and phosphate content (0.5 and 1 mM). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was applied to obtain a relationship between the sorption parameters and soil properties. The results indicated that Freundlich equations used to simulate glyphosate adsorption isotherms gave high correlation coefficients with Kf values range from 24.9 to 397.4. Clay contents and soil pH were found to be the most significant soil factors affecting the glyphosate adsorption process. The presence of phosphate significantly decreased the adsorption of glyphosate to soils. The Kf values obtained for all six soils decreased a 40% at 0.5 mM of phosphate and a 55% at 1 mM of phosphate. On the other hand, the affinity parameters of glyphosate to soils varied with changes in pH. A general trend of decrease in glyphosate adsorption with increase in pH was observed for all six studied soils. In turn, there appears to be a maximum glyphosate adsorption at pH close to 6 for most soils when the net charge of the molecule at this pH was approximately -1.7.

  11. Degradation of the Herbicide Glyphosate by Members of the Family Rhizobiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, C.-M.; McLean, P. A.; Sookdeo, C. C.; Cannon, F. C.

    1991-01-01

    Several strains of the family Rhizobiaceae were tested for their ability to degrade the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate (isopropylamine salt of N-phosphonomethylglycine). All organisms tested (seven Rhizobium meliloti strains, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium galega, Rhizobium trifolii, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens) were able to grow on glyphosate as the sole source of phosphorus in the presence of the aromatic amino acids, although growth on glyphosate was not a...

  12. Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial Application Flat Fan Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Bradley K. Fritz,1 W. Clint Hoffmann,1 and W. E. Bagley2 Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial...Application Flat Fan Nozzles REFERENCE: Fritz, Bradley K., Hoffmann, W. Clint, and Bagley, W. E., “Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on...factors. Twelve spray-solution treatments were evaluated, ten of which contained a formulated glyphosate product and nine of these con- tained an

  13. Glyphosate resistance in Echinochloa colona: phenotypic characterisation and quantification of selection intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Sou Sheng; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Busi, Roberto; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    A population of Echinochloa colona infesting agricultural fields in the northern region of Western Australia evolved glyphosate resistance after 10 years of glyphosate selection. This study identified two phenotypic (susceptible S versus resistant R) lines from within a segregating glyphosate-resistant population. Estimation of survival, growth and reproductive rates of the phenotypes in response to glyphosate selection helped to characterise the level of resistance, fitness and the selection intensity for glyphosate in this species. Estimations of LD(50) (lethal dose) and GR(50) (growth rate) showed an eightfold glyphosate resistance in this population. The resistant index based on the estimation of seed number (SY(n50)) showed a 13-fold resistance. As a result of linear combination of plant survival and fecundity rates, plant fitness values of 0.2 and 0.8 were estimated for the S and R phenotypes when exposed to the low dose of 270 g glyphosate ha(-1). At the recommended dose of 540 g glyphosate ha(-1) , fitness significantly decreased (fivefold) in S plants but remained markedly similar (0.7) in plants of the R phenotype. Thus, the calculated selection intensity (SI) at 540 g glyphosate ha(-1) was much greater (SI = 17) than at 270 g glyphosate ha(-1) (SI = 4). The assessment of plant survival and fecundity in response to glyphosate selection in the S and R phenotypes allowed a greater accuracy in the estimation of population fitness of both phenotypes and thus of glyphosate selection intensity in E. colona. The estimation of seed number or mass of phenotypes under herbicide selection is a true ecological measure of resistance with implications for herbicide resistance evolution. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Review of GMO safety assessment studies: glyphosate residues in Roundup Ready crops is an ignored issue

    OpenAIRE

    Cuhra, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Published version, also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12302-015-0052-7 Background Genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant cultivar varieties have been a commercial success widely known as Roundup Ready plants. As new glyphosate-tolerant varieties are introduced to satisfy agriculture demand, it is relevant to review the scientific evidence that documents the quality and safety of such biotechnology. Assessments of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant plants are partly ba...

  15. Trends in glyphosate herbicide use in the United States and globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrook, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Accurate pesticide use data are essential when studying the environmental and public health impacts of pesticide use. Since the mid-1990s, significant changes have occurred in when and how glyphosate herbicides are applied, and there has been a dramatic increase in the total volume applied. Data on glyphosate applications were collected from multiple sources and integrated into a dataset spanning agricultural, non-agricultural, and total glyphosate use from 1974-2014 in the United States, and from 1994-2014 globally. Since 1974 in the U.S., over 1.6 billion kilograms of glyphosate active ingredient have been applied, or 19 % of estimated global use of glyphosate (8.6 billion kilograms). Globally, glyphosate use has risen almost 15-fold since so-called "Roundup Ready," genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crops were introduced in 1996. Two-thirds of the total volume of glyphosate applied in the U.S. from 1974 to 2014 has been sprayed in just the last 10 years. The corresponding share globally is 72 %. In 2014, farmers sprayed enough glyphosate to apply ~1.0 kg/ha (0.8 pound/acre) on every hectare of U.S.-cultivated cropland and nearly 0.53 kg/ha (0.47 pounds/acre) on all cropland worldwide. Genetically engineered herbicide-tolerant crops now account for about 56 % of global glyphosate use. In the U.S., no pesticide has come remotely close to such intensive and widespread use. This is likely the case globally, but published global pesticide use data are sparse. Glyphosate will likely remain the most widely applied pesticide worldwide for years to come, and interest will grow in quantifying ecological and human health impacts. Accurate, accessible time-series data on glyphosate use will accelerate research progress.

  16. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in agricultural topsoils of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA VERA; MONTANARELLA LUCA; JONES ARWYN; FERNANDEZ UGALDE OIHANE; MOL HANS; RITSEMA COEN J.; GEISSEN VIOLETTE

    2017-01-01

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated information is available for European soils. We provide the first large-scale assessment of distribution (occurrence and concentrations) of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid ...

  17. Is it time to reassess current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides?

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Blumberg, Bruce; Antoniou, Michael N; Benbrook, Charles M; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Myers, John Peterson

    2017-01-01

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) increased ?100-fold from 1974 to 2014. Additional increases are expected due to widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds, increased application of GBHs, and preharvest uses of GBHs as desiccants. Current safety assessments rely heavily on studies conducted over 30?years ago. We have considered information on GBH use, exposures, mechanisms of action, toxicity and epidemiology. Human exposures to glyphosate are rising, and a number of in vitro...

  18. USE OF LIQUID FERTILIZER TO REDUCE THE PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF GLYPHOSATE ON EUCALYPTUS

    OpenAIRE

    MACHADO, MILER SOARES; FERREIRA, LINO ROBERTO; PAULA, JOSÉ LUCAS DE; PEREIRA, GUSTAVO ANTÔNIO MENDES; GONÇALVES, VALDINEI ARAÚJO

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used for weed control in eucalyptus forests. Glyphosate drifts are common and may cause serious damage to crops. An alternative to reduce such effects is to use antidotes capable of protecting eucalyptus. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the application of liquid fertilizer on eucalyptus plants subjected to a glyphosate drift simulation. The treatments were arranged in a 5 x 5 factorial design. The first corresponding fact...

  19. BEHAVIOR OF THE NON-SELECTIVE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSATE IN AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab; Othman M. Hakami

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate [N-phosphonomethyl]glycine is a systematic, non-selective, organophosphorus herbicide used worldwide in agriculture and industrial zones. Following its application, residues of glyphosate can threaten soil or aquatic organisms in adjacent water. In this study, we followed the degradation, stabilization, remobilization and leaching of 14C-glyphosate in three agricultural soils in laboratory incubations and in lysimeters under field condition...

  20. Tolerance of Glyphosate-Resistant Maize to Glyphosate Plus MCPA Amine Is Influenced by Dose and Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on tolerance of glyphosate-resistant maize to glyphosate plus MCPA amine as influenced by dose and timing under Ontario environmental conditions. A total of seven field trials were conducted at various locations in Ontario, Canada, in 2011–2013 to evaluate tolerance of field maize to tank mixes of glyphosate (900 g a.e./ha plus MCPA amine (79, 158, 315, 630, 1260, 2520, or 5040 g a.e./ha at either the 4- or 8-leaf stage. The predicted dose of MCPA amine that caused 5, 10, and 20% injury was 339, 751, and 1914 g a.e./ha when applied to 4-leaf maize but only 64, 140, and 344 g a.e./ha when applied to 8-leaf maize, respectively. The predicted dose of MCPA amine that caused 5, 10, and 20% reduction in shoot dry weight of maize was 488, 844, and 1971 g a.e./ha when applied to 4-leaf maize and only 14, 136, and 616 g a.e./ha when applied to 8-leaf maize, respectively. The predicted dose of MCPA amine that caused 5, 10, and 20% yield reduction was 2557, 4247, and >5040 g a.e./ha when applied to 4-leaf maize and 184, 441, and 1245 g a.e./ha when applied to 8-leaf maize, respectively. Based on these results, glyphosate plus MCPA amine applied at the manufacturer’s recommended dose of 630 g a.e./ha applied to 4-leaf maize has potential to cause injury but the injury is transient with no significant reduction in yield. However, when glyphosate plus MCPA amine is applied to 8-leaf maize it has the potential to cause significant injury and yield loss in maize.

  1. The Risks Associated with Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Use in Planted Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Rolando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate-based herbicides are the dominant products used internationally for control of vegetation in planted forests. Few international, scientific syntheses on glyphosate, specific to its use in planted forests, are publically available. We provide an international overview of the current use of glyphosate-based herbicides in planted forests and the associated risks. Glyphosate is used infrequently in planted forests and at rates not exceeding 4 kg ha1. It is used within legal label recommendations and applied by trained applicators. While the highest risk of human exposure to glyphosate is during manual operational application, when applied according to label recommendations the risk of exposure to levels that exceed accepted toxicity standards is low. A review of the literature on the direct and indirect risks of operationally applied glyphosate-based herbicides indicated no significant adverse effects to terrestrial and aquatic fauna. While additional research in some areas is required, such as the use of glyphosate-based products in forests outside of North America, and the potential indirect effects of glyphosate stored in sediments, most of the priority questions have been addressed by scientific investigations. Based on the extensive available scientific evidence we conclude that glyphosate-based herbicides, as typically employed in planted forest management, do not pose a significant risk to humans and the terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  2. Glyphosate biodegradation and potential soil bioremediation by Bacillus subtilis strain Bs-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X M; Yu, T; Yin, G H; Dong, Q L; An, M; Wang, H R; Ai, C X

    2015-11-23

    Glyphosate and glyphosate-containing herbicides have an adverse effect on mammals, humans, and soil microbial ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for enhancing glyphosate degradation in soil through bioremediation. We investigated the potential of glyphosate degradation and bioremediation in soil by Bacillus subtilis Bs-15. Bs-15 grew well at high concentrations of glyphosate; the maximum concentration tolerated by Bs-15 reached 40,000 mg/L. The optimal conditions for bacterial growth and glyphosate degradation were less than 10,000 mg/L glyphosate, with a temperature of 35°C and a pH of 8.0. Optimal fermentation occurred at 180 rpm for 60 h with an inoculum ratio of 4%. Bs-15 degraded 17.65% (12 h) to 66.97% (96 h) of glyphosate in sterile soil and 19.01% (12 h) to 71.57% (96 h) in unsterilized soil. Using a BIOLOG ECO plate test, we observed no significant difference in average well color development values between the soil inoculated with Bs-15 and the control soil before 72 h, although there was a significant difference (P bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soils.

  3. Cardiovascular Effects and Fatality May Differ According to the Formulation of Glyphosate Salt Herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo; Cho, Yong Soo; Lee, Sung Do; Hong, Young Joon; Shin, Min Ho; Jung, Eu Jene; Ryu, Hyun Ho

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare adverse cardiovascular events and fatalities and to identify the risk factors for fatalities associated with the glyphosate salt herbicide formulation. Additionally, we examined whether glyphosate ammonium salt herbicides increased serum ammonia levels. One hundred forty-seven patients were divided into an ammonium group (glyphosate ammonium salt herbicide) and an isopropylamine (IPA) group (glyphosate IPA salt herbicide) according to the type of glyphosate salt formulation ingested. Although no differences in the variables were observed between the groups, the IPA group had more fatalities, a higher incidence of QTc prolongation and a higher tendency for PR prolongation than the ammonium group. Additionally, the IPA group required a longer duration of vasopressor administration. PR prolongation and age were independently associated with fatalities in glyphosate IPA salt poisoning cases in the multivariate regression. Serum ammonia levels were higher at presentation and decreased continuously during the first 48 h after presentation in the ammonium group. This study is the first to suggest potentially different toxicities, especially cardiovascular effects, of glyphosate herbicide poisoning in humans based on the glyphosate salt herbicide formulation and to determine the association between PR prolongation and fatality in glyphosate IPA salt herbicide poisoning cases.

  4. EPSPS gene amplification conferring resistance to glyphosate in windmill grass (Chloris truncata) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, The D; Malone, Jenna M; Boutsalis, Peter; Gill, Gurjeet; Preston, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    Five glyphosate-resistant populations of Chloris truncata originally collected from New South Wales were compared with one susceptible (S) population from South Australia to confirm glyphosate resistance and elucidate possible mechanisms of resistance. Based on the amounts of glyphosate required to kill 50% of treated plants (LD 50 ), glyphosate resistance (GR) was confirmed in five populations of C. truncata (A536, A528, T27, A534 and A535.1). GR plants were 2.4-8.7-fold more resistant and accumulated less shikimate after glyphosate treatment than S plants. There was no difference in glyphosate absorption and translocation between GR and S plants. The EPSPS gene did not contain any point mutation that had previously been associated with resistance to glyphosate. The resistant plants (A528 and A536) contained up to 32-48 more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants. This study has identified EPSPS gene amplification contributing to glyphosate resistance in C. truncata. In addition, a Glu-91-Ala mutation within EPSPS was identified that may contribute to glyphosate resistance in this species. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Glyphosate Utilization as the Source of Carbon: Isolation and Identification of new Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohsen Nourouzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed bacteria from oil palm plantation soil (OPS were isolated to investigate their ability to utilize glyphosate as carbon source. Results showed that approximately all of the glyphosate was converted to aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA (99.5%. It is worthy to note that mixed bacteria were able to degrade only 2% of AMPA to further metabolites. Two bacterial strains i.e. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Providencia alcalifaciens were obtained from enrichment culture. Bacterial isolates were cultured individually on glyphosate as a sole carbon source. It was observed that both isolates were able to convert glyphosate to AMPA.

  6. Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre : a case study of Oslo University College

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Anisur

    2011-01-01

    Joint Master Degree in Digital Library Learning (DILL) The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis metho...

  7. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  8. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  9. Aplicação foliar de manganês em soja transgênica tolerante ao glyphosate Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir José Basso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O amarelecimento da soja Roundup Ready após aplicação do glyphosate pode estar associado à deficiência momentânea de manganês. Por isso, com a hipótese de que soja tolerante ao glyphosate necessitaria de uma adição suplementar de manganês, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes manejos na aplicação foliar de manganês sobre alguns parâmetros da soja. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, um no município de Taquaruçú do Sul e outro em Boa Vista das Missões, RS, no ano agrícola 2009/2010. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e sem aplicação foliar de manganês (testemunha; 2 sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após esse controle manual das plantas daninhas; 3 com aplicação de glyphosate e sem aplicação foliar de manganês; 4 aplicação de glyphosate em mistura com manganês; 5 aplicação de glyphosate mais uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 6 aplicação de glyphosate mais aplicação foliar de manganês parcelada em duas épocas, aos 7 e 14 dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 7 aplicação de glyphosate e uma aplicação foliar de manganês aos 14 dias após aplicação de glyphosate. A aplicação de glyphosate foi realizada no estádio V5 da soja, na dose de 720g L-1 e.a, enquanto a dose de Mn utilizada foi 2,0L ha-1 de uma formulação contendo 14% (m/v de manganês solúvel. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para as variáveis estatura de plantas e altura de inserção da primeira vagem. A aplicação de glyphosate não afetou a absorção e o teor foliar de manganês e nitrogênio na cultura da soja. Mesmo com aumento no teor foliar de manganês com a suplementação de manganês, não houve incremento na produtividade da soja. Isso mostra que em solos com teores de Mn acima

  10. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  11. Efeito de adjuvantes adicionados à calda herbicida contendo glyphosate Effect of adjuvants added to herbicide spray containing glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vargas

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Tentativas de aumentar a fitotoxicidade do herbicida glyphosate através da adição de ácido e/ ou de sulfato de amônio à calda tem sido promissoras. A adição dessas substâncias otimiza as propriedades químicas da calda herbicida, superando efeitos negativos do pH elevado e de ions nela presentes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar o efeito da adição de ácido sulfúrico e/ou de sulfato de amônio à calda herbicida, sobre a eficiência do glyphosate misturado em diluente com alto pH e teores elevados de sais. Os tratamentos envolveram cinco doses de glyphosate (variáveis de 180 a 540 g/ha i.a. diluídas em água destilada e, mais glyphosate a 270 g/ha misturado às águas minera is Fonte Azul e Fonte Ijuí em presença de ácido sulfúrico (0,5 1/ha e/ou sulfato de amônio (2 ,5 kg/h a . A fitotoxicidade foi avaliada aos 7, 17 e 27 dias após as aplicações do herbicida sobre a aveia preta. Os resultados demonstraram que a aveia-preta é muito suscetível à ação de glyphosate, mesmo aplicado a 270 g/ha, independente da água utilizada ou da adição de adjuvantes e, que a adição de ácido sulfúrico e/ou de sulfato de amônio à calda não alterou a atividade do herbicida.Attempts to increase phytotoxicity of glyphosat e her bic ide through addition of acid and/or of ammonium sulphate to the spray solution have been promising. Addition of these substances optimize chemical properties of the herbicide spray, overcoming negative effects of high pH and of íons present in it. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sulphuric acid and/or of ammonium sulphate addition to herbicide spray, on the efficiency of glyphosate mixed in diluents with high pH and high salts content. Glyphosate treatments consisted of five rates (variables from 180 to 540 g/ha a.e., diluted in distilled water, and also glyph osate at 270 g/h a a. e. mix ed in the mineral waters Fonte Azul and Fonte Ijuí. To this herbicide rate

  12. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  13. Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18 % in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment.

  14. Consequences of phosphate application on glyphosate uptake by roots: Impacts for environmental management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Maccario, Sophie; Lucotte, Marc; Labrecque, Michel; Juneau, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    Phosphate (PO4(3-)) fertilization is a common practice in agricultural fields also targets for glyphosate application. Due to their chemical similarities, PO4(3-) and glyphosate compete for soil adsorbing sites, with PO4(3-) fertilization increasing glyphosate bioavailability in the soil solution. After PO4(3-) fertilization, its concentration will be elevated in the soil solution and both PO4(3-) and glyphosate will be readily available for runoff into aquatic ecosystems. In this context, man-made riparian buffer strips (RBS) at the interface of agricultural lands and waterways can be used as a green technology to mitigate water contamination. The plants used in RBS form a barrier to agricultural wastes that can limit runoff, and the ability of these plants to take up these compounds through their roots plays an important role in RBS efficacy. However, the implications of PO4(3-) for glyphosate uptake by roots are not yet clearly demonstrated. Here, we addressed this problem by hydroponically cultivating willow plants in nutrient solutions amended with glyphosate and different concentrations of PO4(3-), assuring full availability of both chemicals to the roots. Using a phosphate carrier inhibitor (phosphonophormic acid-PFA), we found that part of the glyphosate uptake is mediated by PO4(3-) transporters. We observed, however, that PO4(3-) increased glyphosate uptake by roots, an effect that was related to increased root cell membrane stability. Our results indicate that PO4(3-) has an important role in glyphosate physiological effects. Under agricultural conditions, PO4(3-) fertilization can amplify glyphosate efficiency by increasing its uptake by the roots of undesired plants. On the other hand, since simultaneous phosphate and glyphosate runoffs are common, non-target species found near agricultural fields can be affected. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Glyphosate sorption to soils of Argentina. Estimation of affinity coeficient by pedotransfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    Argentine agricultural production is fundamentally based on a technological package that combines direct seeding and glyphosate with transgenic crops (soybean, maize and cotton). Therefore, glyphosate is the most employed herbicide in the country, where 180 to 200 million liters are applied every year. Glyphosate is strongly sorbed to soil by binding to clay minerals, layer silicates, metal oxides, non-crystalline materials or organic matter. Sorption of glyphosate is a reversible process that regulates the half-life and mobility of the herbicide and it is therefore related to the risk of contaminating courses of surface and groundwater. However, this behavior may vary depending on the characteristics of the soil on which it is applied. In addition, pH is a determining factor since it modifies the net charge in the molecule and, with it, the force of the electrostatic interaction between the glyphosate and the components of the soil. For a reliable risk assessment of groundwater contamination from pesticides precise predictions of sorption coefficients are needed. The aim of this work is to study the affinity of glyphosate to different soils of Argentina and create a model to estimate the glyphosate Freundlich sorption coefficient (Kf) from easily measurable soil properties. Adsorption of glyphosate was investigated on 12 different agricultural soils of Argentina using batch equilibration technique and fit to Freundlich sorption model. The correlation coefficients and the effects of soil characteristic factors on glyphosate adsorption parameter were analyzed through principal component and multiple lineal regression analysis. Results indicate that pH and clay contents were found to be the most significant soil factors which affect the glyphosate adsorption process. The Freundlich (Kf) pedotransfer function obtained by stepwise regression analysis was Kf = 735.2*Clay - 104.2*pH + 0.7*Polsen - 3.8*Alin. A 97.9% of the variation of glyphosate sorption coefficient

  16. Research on the weed control degree and glyphosate soil biodegradation in apple plantations (Pioneer variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia ALEXA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is high, so glyphosate residues remaining in soil, in terms of its use in weed combating, are minimal. Study of glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the experimental field indicates that the CO2 fraction accumulated after 50 days is 28.02% for samples exposed in the experimental field. Weather conditions, especially temperature variations between day and night, influences the activity of soilmicroorganisms and affect biodegraded glyphosate percentage.Chemical method of weed control consisted in: herbicide used was Roundup 3 l/ha (glyphosate isopropyl amine salt 360 g/l and are based on chemical application on weeds, on the rows of trees, on their uptake and translocation in their organs having as principal scope the total destruction of weeds. The experimental results obtained reveal a weed combat degree of 82.98% , in the case of chemical variant, compared with control variant. The species combated mainly due to glyphosate herbicide, which is no longer found in the final mapping are: Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Plantago major, Polygonum aviculare. Total combated weeds /m2 with glyphosate is 126.67.

  17. Simulating changes in cropping practises in conventional and glyphosate-tolerant maize. I. Effects on weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbach, Nathalie; Fernier, Alice; Le Corre, Valérie; Messéan, Antoine; Darmency, Henri

    2017-04-01

    Herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops such as those tolerant to glyphosate simplify weed management and make it more efficient, at least at short-term. Overreliance on the same herbicide though leads to the spread of resistant weeds. Here, the objective was to evaluate, with simulations, the impact on the advent of glyphosate resistance in weeds of modifications in agricultural practises resulting from introducing HT maize into cropping systems. First, we included a single-gene herbicide resistance submodel in the existing multispecific FLORSYS model. Then, we (1) simulated current conventional and probable HT cropping systems in two European regions, Aquitaine and Catalonia, (2) compared these systems in terms of glyphosate resistance, (3) identified pertinent cultural practises influencing glyphosate resistance, and (4) investigated correlations between cultural practises and species traits, using RLQ analyses. The simulation study showed that, during the analysed 28 years, (1) glyphosate spraying only results in glyphosate resistance in weeds when combined with other cultural factors favouring weed infestation, particularly no till; (2) pre-sowing glyphosate applications select more for herbicide resistance than post-sowing applications on HT crops; and (3) glyphosate spraying selects more for species traits avoiding exposure to the herbicide (e.g. delayed early growth, small leaf area) or compensating for fitness costs (e.g. high harvest index) than for actual resistance to glyphosate, (4) actual resistance is most frequent in species that do not avoid glyphosate, either via plant size or timing, and/or in less competitive species, (5) in case of efficient weed control measures, actual resistance proliferates best in outcrossing species. An advice table was built, with the quantitative, synthetic ranking of the crop management effects in terms of glyphosate-resistance management, identifying the optimal choices for each management technique.

  18. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance...

  19. Effects of glyphosate on the non-target leaf beetle Cerotoma arcuata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jardel L; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Silva, Geverson A R; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Antônio A; Corrêa, Alberto S; Martins, Júlio C

    2018-04-06

    This study aimed to assess the glyphosate application effects on the Cerotoma arcuata Oliver (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population in glyphosate-resistant soybean crops. Field studies were conducted with glyphosate and the insecticide endosulfan to observe the effects of these pesticides on C. arcuata, on its damages in the crop and on the populations of natural enemies in glyphosate-resistant soybean crops. Moreover, the lethal and behavioral sublethal response of C. arcuata to glyphosate and endosulfan was conducted in the laboratory. The results of the field and laboratory experiments showed that glyphosate caused moderate toxicity and high irritability in C. arcuata and that endosulfan caused high toxicity and irritability. Therefore, the direct effect of glyphosate on C. arcuata was negative and does not explain the population increases of this pest in glyphosate-resistant soybean. However, the glyphosate also decreased the density of predators. Thus, the negative effect of glyphosate on the predators may be related to population increases of C. arcuata in glyphosate-resistant soybean crops, however, more studies are needed to better evidence this relationship. This study suggests that glyphosate can impact other non-target organisms, such as herbivorous insects and natural enemies and that the use of this herbicide will need to be carefully stewarded to prevent potential disturbances in beneficial insect communities in agricultural systems.

  20. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  1. Toxicity of roundup (a glyphosate product) to fingerlings of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute static renewal bioassays were conducted on fingerling and adult of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight, 1.22 ± 0.6g; mean total length, 5.25 ± 1.25 cm) using the herbicide, Roundup (glyphosate). In the acute study, fingerlings were exposed in triplicate to 0.0, 14.0, 16.0, 18.0, 20.0 22.0, and 24.0 mg/l of the herbicide for ...

  2. Ecotoxicological assessment of soil microbial community tolerance to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Marco; Zabaloy, María Celina; Gómez, Elena del V

    2015-11-15

    Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide. While contrasting results have been observed related with its impact on soil microbial communities, more studies are necessary to elucidate the potential effects of the herbicide. Differences in tolerance detected by Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT) approach could reflect these effects. The objective of the present study was to assess the tolerance to glyphosate (the active ingredient and a commercial formulation) of contrasting soils with (H) and without (NH) history of exposure. The hypothesis of a higher tolerance in H soils due to a sustained selection pressure on community structure was tested through the PICT approach. Results indicated that tolerance to glyphosate is not consistent with previous history of exposure to the herbicide either for the active ingredient or for a commercial formulation. Soils of H and NH sites were also characterized in order to determine to what extent they differ in their functional diversity and structure of microbial communities. Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and Quantitative Real Time PCR (Q-PCR) indicated high similarity of Eubacteria profiles as well as no significant differences in abundance, respectively, between H and NH sites. Community level physiological profiling (CLPP) indicated some differences in respiration of specific sources but functional diversity was very similar as reflected by catabolic evenness (E). These results support PICT assay, which ideally requires soils with differences in their exposure to the contaminant but minor differences in other characteristics. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of PICT approach with glyphosate examining tolerance at soil microbial community level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tolerance of wheat varieties seedlings by glyphosate accelerated degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lengths of seedlings aboveground parts of nine wheat varieties grown in greenhouse were reduced by 4-20%. They were tested during April at around 20oC after twice daily treatments with glyphosate based herbicide (0.5 ml in 1l water solution, 0.5 dl on 0.5 m2. When results of permanent artificially and daily lighted trials were compared, four groups of varieties were recognized same as was when near isogenic lines containing different leaf rust resistance genes (Lr NILs were focused in winter. Growth of variety Pobeda decreased more when seedlings were not permanent lighted which confirmed the common herbicide effect. Tolerance of other varieties was again explained by enzymatic degradation of glyphosate and chlorophyll inhibition by consequential phosphorus acids. Varieties Simonida, Tavita and Rapsodia were similar by reaction to glyphosate as Lr 1 and Lr 21 NILs. NS 40S contained Lr 3a with increased hydrolytic stability compared to Lr 24 but able to cleave external single phosphorus for the difference of Lr 19 or Lr 29. Their final effect was similar to previous stated of Lr 15 NIL during the winter. Varieties Gora and Metka had gene Lr 19, Enigma Lr 29 while Ilina Lr 24. Focusing herbicide residua transfer in seed probability, accounting optimal time for recovering ability of chlorophyll and temporary higher temperatures necessary for Lr genes even parasite free activity the varieties Gora, Metka and Enigma appeared to be possible solution for glyphosate apply near wheat heading in semiarid regions.

  4. Nodulation and mycorrhization of transgenic soybean after glyphosate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Bradyrhizobium spp with in relation to glyphosate can be influenced by the concentration of the herbicide. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two formulations of glyphosate, in two application periods, on nodulation and mycorrhization in a soybean of variety RR P98Y11, using greenhouse, in pots with capacity of 4 L with savanna soils. Six treatments were utilized using Roundup Ultra and Roundup Original with one and two applications, witness without herbicide and witness only with mineral nitrogen, in a completely randomized design. Four evaluations were done, every 15 days, to determine the plant height, shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, nodule dry weigh and mycorrhizae. It was observed an increase on the number of nodules, with the use of Roundup Ultra until 15 days after the first application. After this period, the witness only with inoculants showed a larger number of nodules. Roundup Ultra had positive influences on the dry weight of nodules, regardless the number of applications. There was no influence of glyphosate formulation considering the mycorrhizal colonization.

  5. Inheritance of Evolved Glyphosate Resistance in a North Carolina Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in a Palmer amaranth biotype from North Carolina was studied. Glyphosate rates for 50% survival of glyphosate-resistant (GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS biotypes were 1288 and 58 g ha−1, respectively. These values for F1 progenies obtained from reciprocal crosses (GR×GS and GS×GR were 794 and 501 g ha−1, respectively. Dose response of F1 progenies indicated that resistance was not fully dominant over susceptibility. Lack of significant differences between dose responses for reciprocal F1 families suggested that genetic control of glyphosate resistance was governed by nuclear genome. Analysis of F1 backcross (BC1F1 families showed that 10 and 8 BC1F1 families out of 15 fitted monogenic inheritance at 2000 and 3000 g ha−1 glyphosate, respectively. These results indicate that inheritance of glyphosate resistance in this biotype is incompletely dominant, nuclear inherited, and might not be consistent with a single gene mechanism of inheritance. Relative 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS copy number varied from 22 to 63 across 10 individuals from resistant biotype. This suggested that variable EPSPS copy number in the parents might be influential in determining if inheritance of glyphosate resistance is monogenic or polygenic in this biotype.

  6. Prediction of the glyphosate sorption coefficient across two loamy agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    and glyphosate sorption coefficients were determined. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses were performed using nine geo-referenced soil properties as variables to identify the parameters related with glyphosate sorption. Scenarios considered in the analyses included: (i) each field separately, (ii) both...

  7. Approche expérimentale de l'utilisation de glyphosate dans le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    une grande résilience face à la coupe et au feu. Cette étude vise à identifier le meilleur protocole d'utilisation de glyphosate dans le contrôle de l'invasion de M. quinquenervia dans la forêt d'Analalava Foulpointe. Cinq solutions de glyphosate ...

  8. Alteration of plant physiology by glyphosate and its by-product aminomethylphosphonic acid: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo P; Smedbol, Elise; Chalifour, Annie; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    It is generally claimed that glyphosate kills undesired plants by affecting the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, disturbing the shikimate pathway. However, the mechanisms leading to plant death may also be related to secondary or indirect effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. Moreover, some plants can metabolize glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) or be exposed to AMPA from different environmental matrices. AMPA is a recognized phytotoxin, and its co-occurrence with glyphosate could modify the effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. The present review provides an overall picture of alterations of plant physiology caused by environmental exposure to glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, and summarizes their effects on several physiological processes. It particularly focuses on photosynthesis, from photochemical events to C assimilation and translocation, as well as oxidative stress. The effects of glyphosate and AMPA on several plant physiological processes have been linked, with the aim of better understanding their phytotoxicity and glyphosate herbicidal effects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Mutual Effect on Determination of Gibberellins and Glyphosate in Groundwater by Spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Fei

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a spectrophotometry method for the simultaneous determination of gibberellins (GA3) and glyphosate in groundwater was established and optimized. In addition, the mutual effect on simultaneous determination of GA3 and glyphosate was studied. Based on the experiment, good linearity (R2 > 0.99) was obtained for GA3 in the range of 0-20 and 0-100 µg and for glyphosate in the range of 0-8 and 5-15 µg. The method's detection limit (MDL) of GA3 and glyphosate was 0.48 and 0.82 µg, respectively; and the recovery rates of 15 to 150 µg GA3 and 3 to 10 µg glyphosate in all samples at a spiked level were 71.3% ± 1.9% and 98.4% ± 8.1%, respectively. No obvious influence of glyphosate (0-100 mg · L(-1)) on the recovery rates of GA3 was observed, but the presence of glyphosate could cause slight determination precision decrease of GA3. Meanwhile, adding 2 mg · L(-1) GA3 can increase the recovery rate of glyphosate.

  10. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  11. Short-term transport of glyphosate with erosion in Chinese loess soil - a flume experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Wang, Fei; Martins Bento, Celia; Xue, Sha; Gai, L.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated applications of glyphosate may contaminate the soil and water and threaten their quality both within the environmental system and beyond it through water erosion related processes and leaching. In this study, we focused on the transport of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic

  12. Decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate in Chinese loess soil under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Wang, Fei; Martins Bento, Celia; Meng, L.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Mol, J.G.J.; Liu, Guobin; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were monitored for 35 d at different slope gradients and rates of application in plots with loess soil on the Loess Plateau, China. The initial glyphosate decayed rapidly (half-life of 3.5 d)

  13. Plant growth responses of apple and pear trees to doses of glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is commonly used for intra-row weed management in perennial plantations, where unintended crop exposure to this herbicide can cause growth reduction. The objective of this research was to analyze the initial plant growth behavior of young apple and pear plants exposed to glyphosate. Glyph...

  14. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on survival, development and growth of invasive snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanggui; Li, Adela Jing; Li, Kaibin; Qin, Junhao; Li, Huashou

    2017-12-01

    This study tests the hypotheses that whether environmental relevance of glyphosate would help control spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata, or benefit its population growth worldwide. Our results showed that glyphosate induced acute toxicity to the snail only at high concentrations (96h LC50 at 175mg/L) unlikely to occur in the environment. Long-term exposures to glyphosate at sublethal levels (20 and 120mg/L) caused inhibition of food intake, limitation of growth performance and alterations in metabolic profiles of the snail. It is worth noting that glyphosate at 2mg/L benefited growth performance in P. canaliculata. Chronic exposures of glyphosate significantly enhanced overall metabolic rate and altered catabolism from protein to carbohydrate/lipid mode. Cellular responses in enzyme activities showed that the exposed snails could increase tolerance by their defense system against glyphosate-induced oxidative stress, and adjustment of metabolism to mitigate energy crisis. Our study displayed that sublethal concentrations of glyphosate might be helpful in control of the invasive species by food intake, growth performance and metabolic interruption; whether environmental relevance of glyphosate (≤2mg/L) benefits population growth of P. canaliculata is still inconclusive, which requires further field study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Glyphosate sorption/desorption on biochars - interactions of physical and chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathleen E; Spokas, Kurt A; Gamiz, Beatriz; Cox, Lucia; Papiernik, Sharon K; Koskinen, William C

    2018-05-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich product of biomass pyrolysis, could limit glyphosate transport in soil and remediate contaminated water. The present study investigates the sorption/desorption behavior of glyphosate on biochars prepared from different hardwoods at temperatures ranging from 350 to 900 °C to elucidate fundamental mechanisms. Glyphosate (1 mg L -1 ) sorption on biochars increased with pyrolysis temperature and was highest on 900 °C biochars; however, total sorption was low on a mass basis (glyphosate in soils, did not alter biochar sorption capacities. Glyphosate did not desorb from biochar with CaCl 2 solution; however, up to 86% of the bound glyphosate was released with a K 2 HPO 4 solution. Results from this study suggest a combined impact of surface chemistry and physical constraints on glyphosate sorption/desorption on biochar. Based on the observed phosphate-induced desorption of glyphosate, the addition of P-fertilizer to biochar-amended soils can remobilize the herbicide and damage non-target plants; therefore, improved understanding of this risk is necessary. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Agricultural topsoils of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix Da Graca Silva, V.A.; Montanarella, L.; Jones, Arwyn; Fernandez-Ugalde, Oihane; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2018-01-01

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated

  17. Goss’s wilt incidence in sweet corn is independent of transgenic traits and glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently claims have been made that the use of glyphosate and transgenic crop traits increases the risk of plant diseases. Transgenic traits used widely for years in dent corn are now available in commercial sweet corn cultivars, specifically, the combination of glyphosate resistance (GR) and Lepid...

  18. Fate and transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in surface waters of agricultural basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, R.H.; Kalkhoff, S.J.; Capel, P.D.; Gregoire, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops and is heavily used on soybeans, corn and cotton. Glyphosate is used in almost all agricultural areas of the United States, and the agricultural use of glyphosate has increased from less than 10 000 Mg in 1992 to more than 80 000 Mg in 2007. The greatest intensity of glyphosate use is in the midwestern United States, where applications are predominantly to genetically modified corn and soybeans. In spite of the increase in usage across the United States, the characterization of the transport of glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on a watershed scale is lacking. Results: Glyphosate and AMPA were frequently detected in the surface waters of four agricultural basins. The frequency and magnitude of detections varied across basins, and the load, as a percentage of use, ranged from 0.009 to 0.86% and could be related to three general characteristics: source strength, rainfall runoff and flow route. Conclusions: Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water; however, the watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff and a flow route that does not include transport through the soil. ?? 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Glyphosate sorption/desorption on biochars – Interactions of physical and chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Biochar, a carbon-rich product of biomass pyrolysis, could limit glyphosate transport in soil and remediate contaminated water. The present study investigates the sorption/desorption behavior of glyphosate on biochars prepared from different hardwoods at temperatures ranging from 350°C t...

  20. Biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide by Salinicoccus spp isolated from Qom Hoze-soltan lake, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl Glycine is an organophosphorus pesticide with dangerous effects on the environment. In this study, the biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide by halophilic bacteria isolated from Qom Hoze-Soltan Lake has been investigated. Methods: After sampling and bacterial isolation, native halophilic strains grown in the presence of glyphosate at a wavelength of 660 nm and also the disappearance of the glyphosate in the plates at a wavelength of 220 nm were determined and the dominant bacteria were isolated. Biochemical, molecular (according to the 16S rRNA sequence, antibiotic, and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC test was performed for the dominant bacteria. Analysis of the remaining glyphosate herbicide was performed by HPLC analysis after derivation with FMOC-Cl. Results: According to the results of the biochemical, antibiotic and molecular 16S rRNA tests, the native halophilic isolates with the ability to biodegrade glyphosate were gram positive cocci very similar to Salinicoccusspp. The results of HPLC showed that Salinicoccusspp is able to biodegrade glyphosate herbicide. Conclusion: The native bacteria in Qom Hoze-soltanlake, Iran can be used for biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide.

  1. Glyphosate resistance in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)from Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used broad-spectrum herbicides over the last 40 years. Due to widespread adoption of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop technology, especially, corn, cotton, and soybean, several weed species in agronomic situations have developed resistance to this herbicide. Rese...

  2. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  3. Glyphosate and AMPA distribution in wind-eroded sediment derived from loess soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Bento, Celia; Goossens, Dirk; Rezaei, Mahrooz; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most used herbicides in agricultural lands worldwide. Wind-eroded sediment and dust, as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and of its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), can result in environmental- and human exposure far beyond the agricultural

  4. UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Analysis and Quantification of Glyphosate for an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Daniel E.; Ederer, Martina; Steffens, Timothy; Hartzell, Patricia L.; Waynant, Kristopher V.

    2018-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is the most widely used herbicide on earth. A simple assay to quantify glyphosate concentrations in environmental samples was developed as part of an interdisciplinary effort linking introductory laboratory courses in chemistry, biology, and microbiology. In this 3 h laboratory experiment, students used…

  5. Response of Pennsylvania native plant species to dicamba and/or glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds may become resistant to intensive and extensive use of specific herbicides associated with the growth of herbicide tolerant crops, e.g., the use of glyphosate for weed control with glyphosate tolerant soybeans. To counter this resistance, crops modified to contain genes for...

  6. Fate of glyphosate and degradates in cover crop residues and underlying soil: A laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassigneul, A. [Université de Toulouse — École d' ingénieurs de Purpan, UMR 1248 AGIR — 75, Voie du TOEC BP 57 611, 31 076, Toulouse cedex 3 (France); INRA, UMR 1402 ECOSYS, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Benoit, P.; Bergheaud, V.; Dumeny, V.; Etiévant, V. [INRA, UMR 1402 ECOSYS, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Goubard, Y. [AgroParisTech, UMR 1402 ECOSYS, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Maylin, A. [Université de Toulouse — École d' ingénieurs de Purpan, UMR 1248 AGIR — 75, Voie du TOEC BP 57 611, 31 076, Toulouse cedex 3 (France); Justes, E. [INRA, UMR 1248 AGIR Auzeville — BP 52 627, 31 326, Castanet-Tolosan cedex (France); Alletto, L. [Université de Toulouse — École d' ingénieurs de Purpan, UMR 1248 AGIR — 75, Voie du TOEC BP 57 611, 31 076, Toulouse cedex 3 (France)

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of cover crops (CC) may lead to an increase in glyphosate application for their destruction. Sorption and degradation of {sup 14}C-glyphosate on and within 4 decaying CC-amended soils were compared to its fate in a bare soil. {sup 14}C-Glyphosate and its metabolites distribution between mineralized, water-soluble, NH{sub 4}OH-soluble and non-extractable fractions was determined at 5 dates during a 20 °C/84-d period. The presence of CC extends {sup 14}C-glyphosate degradation half-life from 7 to 28 days depending on the CC. {sup 14}C-Glyphosate dissipation occurred mainly through mineralization in soils and through mineralization and bound residue formation in decaying CC. Differences in sorption and degradation levels were attributed to differences in composition and availability to microorganisms. CC- and soil-specific dissipation patterns were established with the help of explicit relationships between extractability and microbial activity. - Highlights: • Glyphosate sorption on cover crop residues increases with their decomposition degree. • Glyphosate degradation and mineralization are lower in mulch than in soil. • Nonextractable residue formation is one of the main dissipation pathways of glyphosate in cover crop mulch.

  7. Annual Glyphosate Treatments Alter Growth of Unaffected Bentgrass (Agrostis) Weeds and Plant Community Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W.; Auer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB) and redtop (RT), where the glyphosate resistance (GR) trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities. PMID:23226530

  8. Assessing the risk of Glyphosate to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the ecological risk to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species which may be growing in areas affected by off target movement of glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant canola (Brassica napus). Ten native grass and forb species were ...

  9. Effects of glyphosate and its formulation, roundup, on reproduction in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren Webster, Tamsyn M; Laing, Lauren V; Florance, Hannah; Santos, Eduarda M

    2014-01-21

    Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate are among the most widely used herbicides worldwide and may contaminate surface waters. Research suggests both Roundup and glyphosate induce oxidative stress in fish and may also cause reproductive toxicity in mammalian systems. We aimed to investigate the reproductive effects of Roundup and glyphosate in fish and the potential associated mechanisms of toxicity. To do this, we conducted a 21-day exposure of breeding zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 0.01, 0.5, and 10 mg/L (glyphosate acid equivalent) Roundup and 10 mg/L glyphosate. 10 mg/L glyphosate reduced egg production but not fertilization rate in breeding colonies. Both 10 mg/L Roundup and glyphosate increased early stage embryo mortalities and premature hatching. However, exposure during embryogenesis alone did not increase embryo mortality, suggesting that this effect was caused primarily by exposure during gametogenesis. Transcript profiling of the gonads revealed 10 mg/L Roundup and glyphosate induced changes in the expression of cyp19a1 and esr1 in the ovary and hsd3b2, cat, and sod1 in the testis. Our results demonstrate that these chemicals cause reproductive toxicity in zebrafish, although only at high concentrations unlikely to occur in the environment, and likely mechanisms of toxicity include disruption of the steroidogenic biosynthesis pathway and oxidative stress.

  10. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  11. Supporting Learning and Information Sharing in Natural Resource Management with Technologies for Electronic Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…

  12. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  13. Changes in Amino Acid Profile in Roots of Glyphosate Resistant and Susceptible Soybean (Glycine max) Induced by Foliar Glyphosate Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Carlos Alberto; Cantarelli, Miguel Angel; Camiña, José Manuel; Tsai, Siu Mui; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2017-10-11

    Amino acid profiles are useful to analyze the responses to glyphosate in susceptible and resistant soybean lines. Comparisons of profiles for 10 amino acids (Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Ser, His, Gly, Thr, Tyr, Leu) by HPLC in soybean roots were performed in two near isogenic pairs (four varieties). Foliar application of glyphosate was made to soybean plants after 5 weeks of seeding. Roots of four varieties were collected at 0 and 72 h after glyphosate application (AGA) for amino acid analysis by HPLC. Univariate analysis showed a significant increase of several amino acids in susceptible as well as resistant soybean lines; however, amino acids from the major pathways of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism, such as Asp, Asn, Glu and Gln, and Ser, increased significantly in susceptible varieties at 72 h AGA. Multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (2D PCA and 3D PCA) allowed different groups to be identified and discriminated based on the soybean genetic origin, showing the amino acid responses on susceptible and resistant varieties. Based on the results, it is possible to infer that the increase of Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, and Ser in susceptible varieties would be related to the deregulation of C and N metabolism, as well as changes in the growth mechanisms regulated by Ser.

  14. Influence of glyphosate in planktonic and biofilm growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Schneider Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of different concentrations of glyphosate (Rondup® on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442 inoculated in MHB + glyphosate (0.845 ppm, 1.690 ppm, 8.45 ppm, 16.90 ppm, 84.50 ppm, 169 ppm, 845 ppm, and 1690 ppm and cultured in normoxia and anoxia, following their OD560nm every hour for 24 h. Biofilms of adapted cells were formed in the presence of glyphosate (0.845 to 1690 ppm in normoxia and anoxia for 36 h. Glyphosate at concentrations higher than 84.5 ppm reduces the cell density of planktonic aerobic cultures (p 0.05, and more pronounced over 169 ppm. Anaerobic biofilms have their growth more readily favored (p < 0.05, regardless of concentration. In a concentration-dependent manner, glyphosate interferes with the growth ability of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442.

  15. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  16. Survey of the use of electronic information resources by students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For libraries to continue to lead in this industry generally and academic libraries in particular, deliberate effort must be made to bring the IT education to every potential user of the libraries. This however must be done based on available data. This is what this study sought to provide- a survey of the use of electronic ...

  17. Bringing Up Gopher: Access to Local & Remote Electronic Resources for University Library Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melvin Marlo; And Others

    Some of the administrative and organizational issues in creating a gopher, specifically a library gopher for university libraries, are discussed. In 1993 the Electronic Collections Task Force of the New Mexico State University library administration began to develop a library-based gopher system that would enable users to have unlimited access to…

  18. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  19. Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ∼105 patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk PMID:23220717

  20. Effects of glyphosate and endosulfan on soil microorganisms in soybean crop Efeitos do endosulfan e glyphosate sobre microrganismos do solo na cultura da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate, is the most dominant transgenic crop grown commercially in the world. Research works on herbicide and insecticide mixtures and their effects on microorganisms are rarely reported. This work aimed to study the impact of glyphosate, endosulfan and their mixtures on the microbial soil activity in soybean crop. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were glyphosate 480 SL [540 g of active ingredient (a.i. ha-1], endosulfan 350 EC (525 g a.i. ha-1, the glyphosate 480 SL [540 g of active ingredient (a.i. ha-1] mixed with endosulfan 350 EC (525 g a.i. ha-1 and the control. Microbial activity was evaluated five days after treatment application. Glyphosate application was not an impacting factor for soil CO2 production. Endosulfan application (alone or mixed with glyphosate suppressed CO2 production by microorganisms in the soil. Microbial biomass and microbial quotient were lower in the treatments using endosulfan alone and in those using endosulfan mixed with glyphosate than in the treatments using glyphosate alone and control.A soja resistente ao glyphosate é a cultura transgênica mais cultivada em todo o mundo. Pesquisas envolvendo o impacto de mistura de herbicidas e inseticidas e seus efeitos sobre microrganismos do solo são raramente reportadas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o impacto do herbicida (glyphosate, do inseticida (endosulfan e da mistura de ambos sobre a atividade microbiana do solo na cultura da soja. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram o herbicida glyphosate 480 SL [540 g de ingrediente ativo (i.a. ha-1], endosulfan 350 EC (525 g i.a. ha-1, a mistura de glyphosate 480 SL (540 g de i.a. ha-1 com endosulfan 350 EC (525 g i.a. ha-1 e a testemunha onde se aplicou água. A atividade microbiana foi avaliada aos

  1. Intoxicação de espécies de eucalipto submetidas à deriva do glyphosate Intoxication of eucalypt species under glyphosate drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é o herbicida mais utilizado em áreas de reflorestamento de eucalipto. Nessas áreas tem sido freqüente a verificação de sintomas de intoxicação devido à deriva. Entretanto, trabalhos de pesquisa e observações de campo indicam comportamento diferencial entre as espécies e os clones de eucalipto quando em contato com o glyphosate. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphosate, por meio de doses reduzidas, no crescimento de cinco espécies de eucalipto. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial 5x5, sendo cinco espécies (Eucalyptus urophylla, E. grandis, E. pellita, E. resinifera e E. saligna e cinco doses (0; 43,2; 86,4; 172,8; e 345,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate, no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A aplicação do herbicida foi feita sobre as plantas, de modo que não atingisse o terço superior, 23 dias após o plantio destas. Os sintomas de intoxicação causados pelo glyphosate foram semelhantes nas diferentes espécies, sendo caracterizados por murcha, clorose e enrolamento foliar, e, no caso de maiores doses, por necroses e senescência foliar. Plantas submetidas a doses acima de 86,4 g ha-1 de glyphosate foram severamente intoxicadas, afetando o seu crescimento, resultando em menor altura, diâmetro do caule e massa seca aos 45 dias após aplicação do herbicida. Entre as espécies estudadas, E. resinifera foi mais tolerante à deriva de glyphosate, apresentando menores valores de intoxicação e maior incremento em altura e diâmetro, mesmo nas plantas submetidas às maiores doses, o que não foi observado nas demais espécies.Glyphosate is the most used herbicide in eucalypt plantations. In these areas intoxication symptoms are often observed due to glyphosate drift. However, research works and field observations indicate different behaviors among eucalypt species and clones with glyphosate contact. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated

  2. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  3. Identifying Chloris Species from Cuban Citrus Orchards and Determining Their Glyphosate-Resistance Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo R. Bracamonte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Chloris genus is a C4 photosynthetic species mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Populations of three Chloris species occurring in citrus orchards from central Cuba, under long history glyphosate-based weed management, were studied for glyphosate-resistant status by characterizing their herbicide resistance/tolerance mechanisms. Morphological and molecular analyses allowed these species to be identified as C. ciliata Sw., Chloris elata Desv., and Chloris barbata Sw. Based on the glyphosate rate that causes 50% mortality of the treated plants, glyphosate resistance (R was confirmed only in C. elata, The R population was 6.1-fold more resistant compared to the susceptible (S population. In addition, R plants of C. elata accumulated 4.6-fold less shikimate after glyphosate application than S plants. Meanwhile, populations of C. barbata and C. ciliata with or without glyphosate application histories showed similar LD50 values and shikimic acid accumulation rates, demonstrating that resistance to glyphosate have not evolved in these species. Plants of R and S populations of C. elata differed in 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation. The R population exhibited 27.3-fold greater 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS activity than the S population due to a target site mutation corresponding to a Pro-106-Ser substitution found in the EPSPS gene. These reports show the innate tolerance to glyphosate of C. barbata and C. ciliata, and confirm the resistance of C. elata to this herbicide, showing that both non-target site and target-site mechanisms are involved in its resistance to glyphosate. This is the first case of herbicide resistance in Cuba.

  4. Glyphosate application increased catabolic activity of gram-negative bacteria but impaired soil fungal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yehao; Li, Yongchun; Hua, Xiaomei; Müller, Karin; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Tongyi; Wang, Qiong; Peng, Xin; Wang, Mengcheng; Pang, Yanjun; Qi, Jinliang; Yang, Yonghua

    2018-03-14

    Glyphosate is a non-selective organophosphate herbicide that is widely used in agriculture, but its effects on soil microbial communities are highly variable and often contradictory, especially for high dose applications. We applied glyphosate at two rates: the recommended rate of 50 mg active ingredient kg -1 soil and 10-fold this rate to simulate multiple glyphosate applications during a growing season. After 6 months, we investigated the effects on the composition of soil microbial community, the catabolic activity and the genetic diversity of the bacterial community using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), community level catabolic profiles (CLCPs), and 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Microbial biomass carbon (C mic ) was reduced by 45%, and the numbers of the cultivable bacteria and fungi were decreased by 84 and 63%, respectively, under the higher glyphosate application rate. According to the PLFA analysis, the fungal biomass was reduced by 29% under both application rates. However, the CLCPs showed that the catabolic activity of the gram-negative (G-) bacterial community was significantly increased under the high glyphosate application rate. Furthermore, the DGGE analysis indicated that the bacterial community in the soil that had received the high glyphosate application rate was dominated by G- bacteria. Real-time PCR results suggested that copies of the glyphosate tolerance gene (EPSPS) increased significantly in the treatment with the high glyphosate application rate. Our results indicated that fungi were impaired through glyphosate while G- bacteria played an important role in the tolerance of microbiota to glyphosate applications.

  5. Growth and Reproduction of Glyphosate-Resistant and Susceptible Populations of Kochia scoparia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipan; Jha, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of glyphosate-resistant kochia is a threat to no-till wheat-fallow and glyphosate-resistant (GR) cropping systems of the US Great Plains. The EPSPS (5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in the tested Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad populations from Montana. Experiments were conducted in spring to fall 2014 (run 1) and summer 2014 to spring 2015 (run 2) to investigate the growth and reproductive traits of the GR vs. glyphosate-susceptible (SUS) populations of K. scoparia and to determine the relationship of EPSPS gene amplification with the level of glyphosate resistance. GR K. scoparia inbred lines (CHES01 and JOP01) exhibited 2 to 14 relative copies of the EPSPS gene compared with the SUS inbred line with only one copy. In the absence of glyphosate, no differences in growth and reproductive parameters were evident between the tested GR and SUS inbred lines, across an intraspecific competition gradient (1 to 170 plants m-2). GR K. scoparia plants with 2 to 4 copies of the EPSPS gene survived the field-use rate (870 g ha-1) of glyphosate, but failed to survive the 4,350 g ha-1 rate of glyphosate (five-times the field-use rate). In contrast, GR plants with 5 to 14 EPSPS gene copies survived the 4,350 g ha-1 of glyphosate. The results from this research indicate that GR K. scoparia with 5 or more EPSPS gene copies will most likely persist in field populations, irrespective of glyphosate selection pressure. PMID:26580558

  6. Characterization of bacterial functional groups and microbial activity in microcosms with glyphosate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Sofia; Bonetto, Mariana; Baigorria, Tomas; Pegoraro, Vanesa; Ortiz, Jimena; Faggioli, Valeria; Conde, Belen; Cazorla, Cristian; Boccolini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate is a worldwide used herbicide as c. 90% of transgenic crops are tolerant to it. Microbial degradation of glyphosate molecule in soil is considered the most important process that determines its persistence in the environment. However, the impact of this herbicide on target groups of soil biota remains poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the abundance of bacterial groups and global microbial activity, under controlled conditions with application of increasing doses of glyphosate. A bioassay was carried out in microcosms using an agricultural soil (Typic Argiudoll) with registered history of glyphosate application from National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA, EEA Marcos Juarez, Argentina). Glyphosate of commercial formulation (74.7%) was used and the following treatments were evaluated: Soil without glyphosate (control), and Soil with doses equivalent to 1.12 and 11.2 kg ai ha-1. Microbiological parameters were estimated at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after herbicide application by counting heterotrophic, cellulolytic, nitrogen fixing (N), and nitrifying bacteria; and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA), microbial respiration (MR) and microbial biomass (C-BM). The N cycle related bacteria showed greater sensitivity to glyphosate with significant increases in abundance. On the other hand the C cycle parameters were strongly conditioned by the time elapsed since the application of the herbicide, as did the MR. The FDA declined with the highest dose, while the C-BM was not affected. Therefore, we conclude that in the studied experimental conditions glyphosate stimulated bacterial growth (i.e. target abundances) representing a source of N, C and nutrients. On the other hand, enzymatic activity (FDA) decreased when glyphosate was applied in the highest dose, whereas, it had no effect on the MR nor C-BM, which could be attributable to the organic matter content of the soil. However, future research in field conditions is necessary, for

  7. Resource-efficient conception of waste electrical and electronic equipment collection groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Nadja von; Wilts, Claas Henning

    2014-01-01

    Critical metals are in great demand by the electrical and electronics industry, so waste electrical and eletronic equipment represents a significant source of secondary raw materials. Owing to low recycling rates and the concomitant supply risks associated with critical metals, the closure of the material cycles is highly relevant to the German economy. Losses of these metals occur from collection until their material recovery, along the entire disposal chain of waste electrical and electroni...

  8. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  9. Non-point source pollution of glyphosate and AMPA in a rural basin from the southeast Pampas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Elena; Pérez, Débora; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Massone, Héctor; Costa, José Luis

    2018-03-20

    We measured the occurrence and seasonal variations of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in different environmental compartments within the limits of an agricultural basin. This topic is of high relevance since glyphosate is the most applied pesticide in agricultural systems worldwide. We were able to quantify the seasonal variations of glyphosate that result mainly from endo-drift inputs, that is, from direct spraying either onto genetically modified (GM) crops (i.e., soybean and maize) or onto weeds in no-till practices. We found that both glyphosate and AMPA accumulate in soil, but the metabolite accumulates to a greater extent due to its higher persistence. Knowing that glyphosate and AMPA were present in soils (> 93% of detection for both compounds), we aimed to study the dispersion to other environmental compartments (surface water, stream sediments, and groundwater), in order to establish the degree of non-point source pollution. Also, we assessed the relationship between the water-table depth and glyphosate and AMPA levels in groundwater. All of the studied compartments had variable levels of glyphosate and AMPA. The highest frequency of detections was found in the stream sediments samples (glyphosate 95%, AMPA 100%), followed by surface water (glyphosate 28%, AMPA 50%) and then groundwater (glyphosate 24%, AMPA 33%). Despite glyphosate being considered a molecule with low vertical mobility in soils, we found that its detection in groundwater was strongly associated with the month where glyphosate concentration in soil was the highest. However, we did not find a direct relation between groundwater table depth and glyphosate or AMPA detections. This is the first simultaneous study of glyphosate and AMPA seasonal variations in soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediments within a rural basin.

  10. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  11. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  12. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski Stanislaw; Kaminski Piotr; Kaminska Dorota; Trzcinski Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size ...

  13. Role of physiological mechanisms and EPSPS gene expression in glyphosate resistance in wild soybeans (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Lijuan; Jin, Longguo; Wu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    The physiological mechanisms underlying glyphosate resistance in wild soybean germplasm and relevant EPSPS gene expression were evaluated. These germplasms were selected by gradually increasing glyphosate selection pressure started from 2010. As indicated by a whole-plant dose response bioassay, ZYD-254 plants were resistant to glyphosate at concentrations of 1230gaeha(-1), but the susceptible plants (ZYD-16) were unable to survive in the presence of 300gaeha(-1) glyphosate. The ED50 values of resistant germplasm were approximately 8.8 times of the susceptible germplasm. Chlorophyll content was significantly decreased in ZYD-16 plants in comparison with ZYD-254 plants. ZYD-16 plants accumulated 10.1 times more shikimate in leaves at 5days after glyphosate treatment at 1230gaeha(-1) than ZYD-254 did. GST activity differed between ZYD-254 and ZYD-16 in three tissues. It was highest in leaves. There were no significant differences in EPSPS1 or EPSPS3 expression between two germplasms before exposure to glyphosate treatment. After glyphosate treatment, there was a 2- to 4-fold increase in EPSPS1 mRNA levels in ZYD-254, but there was no change in EPSPS3 mRNA levels in ZYD-254 or ZYD-16. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of glyphosate resistance in Salsola tragus in north-eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Judit; Gourlie, Jennifer A; Lutcher, Larry K; Liu, Mingyang; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

    2018-05-01

    Farmers in the low-rainfall region of eastern Oregon rely on repeated applications of non-selective herbicides, predominately glyphosate, to control Salsola tragus in no-till fallow systems. Reports of poor glyphosate effectiveness have increased in recent years. Reduced efficacy is often attributed to dust, water stress, or generally poor growing conditions during application. Inadequate control also may be the result of the evolution of glyphosate resistance. Therefore, studies were undertaken to determine if glyphosate-resistant S. tragus populations occur in Oregon. Results from dose-response studies confirmed glyphosate resistance in three of 10 Oregon Salsola tragus populations. The ratio I 50R /I 50S from dose-response curves was, on average, 3.1 for the relative dry biomass per plant and 3.2 for the % of surviving plants per pot in these three populations. Plant mortality at recommended glyphosate doses for the resistant populations was less than 30% 3 weeks after treatment. Glyphosate resistance in S. tragus highlights the imperative need to diversify weed control strategies to preserve the longevity and sustainability of herbicides in semi-arid cropping systems of the Pacific Northwest. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Is it time to reassess current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Blumberg, Bruce; Antoniou, Michael N; Benbrook, Charles M; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Myers, John Peterson

    2017-06-01

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) increased ∼100-fold from 1974 to 2014. Additional increases are expected due to widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds, increased application of GBHs, and preharvest uses of GBHs as desiccants. Current safety assessments rely heavily on studies conducted over 30 years ago. We have considered information on GBH use, exposures, mechanisms of action, toxicity and epidemiology. Human exposures to glyphosate are rising, and a number of in vitro and in vivo studies challenge the basis for the current safety assessment of glyphosate and GBHs. We conclude that current safety standards for GBHs are outdated and may fail to protect public health or the environment. To improve safety standards, the following are urgently needed: (1) human biomonitoring for glyphosate and its metabolites; (2) prioritisation of glyphosate and GBHs for hazard assessments, including toxicological studies that use state-of-the-art approaches; (3) epidemiological studies, especially of occupationally exposed agricultural workers, pregnant women and their children and (4) evaluations of GBHs in commercially used formulations, recognising that herbicide mixtures likely have effects that are not predicted by studying glyphosate alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Novel AroA from Pseudomonas putida Confers Tobacco Plant with High Tolerance to Glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai-Qin; Chang, Su-Hua; Tian, Zhe-Xian; Zhang, Le; Sun, Yi-Cheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective broad-spectrum herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, also designated as AroA), a key enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway in microorganisms and plants. Previously, we reported that a novel AroA (PpAroA1) from Pseudomonas putida had high tolerance to glyphosate, with little homology to class I or class II glyphosate-tolerant AroA. In this study, the coding sequence of PpAroA1 was optimized for tobacco. For maturation of the enzyme in chloroplast, a chloroplast transit peptide coding sequence was fused in frame with the optimized aroA gene (PparoA1optimized) at the 5′ end. The PparoA1optimized gene was introduced into the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformed explants were first screened in shoot induction medium containing kanamycin. Then glyphosate tolerance was assayed in putative transgenic plants and its T1 progeny. Our results show that the PpAroA1 from Pseudomonas putida can efficiently confer tobacco plants with high glyphosate tolerance. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing the PparoA1optimized gene exhibit high tolerance to glyphosate, which suggest that the novel PpAroA1 is a new and good candidate applied in transgenic crops with glyphosate tolerance in future. PMID:21611121

  17. [Study of the effect of occupational exposure to glyphosate on hepatorenal function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Pan, L P; Ding, E M; Ge, Q J; Zhang, Z H; Xu, J N; Zhang, L; Zhu, B L

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To explore the effect of occupational exposure to glyphosate on hepatorenal function. Methods: 526 workers who were occupationally exposed to glyphosate from 5 glyphosate-producing factories were selected as cases; and another 442 administrative staffs who were not exposed to glyphosate were selected as controls from April to November, 2014. All the subjects accepted occupational health examination. The concentration level of glyphosate in the air of workshop was detected and the time weighted average concentration (TWA) was calculated. And analyze the difference of hepatorenal fuction between case group and control group. Result: The age of the subjects in the case and control groups were separately (35.6±10.3), (34.3±9.7) years old, with the length of working for (6.5±5.7), (7.7±6.8) years. The TWA of glyphosate in the case group was between Glyphosate can affect the hepatic and renal function among occupational exposure population, and there was an association between the effect and the exposure dose.

  18. Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianye; Sutton, Nora B; de Jager, Pim; Grosshans, Richard; Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2017-11-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails. Although it has been previously reported for some pesticides that passive diffusion is greater for rhizome than shoot components, this is the first study to demonstrate that the absorption capacity of rhizomes is species dependent, with the glyphosate absorption being significantly greater for rhizomes than shoots in case of native cattails, but with no significant differences in glyphosate absorption between rhizomes and shoots in case of hybrid cattails. Most importantly, glyphosate absorption by native rhizomes far exceeded that of the absorption occurring for hybrid rhizomes, native shoots and hybrid shoots. Glyphosate has long been used to manage invasive hybrid cattails in wetlands in North America, but hybrid cattail expansions continue to occur. Since our results showed limited glyphosate absorption by hybrid shoots and rhizomes, this lack of sorption may partially explain the poorer ability of glyphosate to control hybrid cattails in wetlands.

  19. Potassium phosphite does not protect maize plants against the phytotoxic effects of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Larissa Gimenes Cotrick Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting reports on the effect of potassium phosphite with or without glyphosate in plants. Some of them indicate that potassium phosphite may cause injuries when applied alone, while others point out that it can reduce the injury caused by glyphosate, when applied in association with this herbicide. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of potassium phosphite alone or in association with glyphosate on visual injury, dry matter accumulation, phytotoxicity indicator compounds levels and aromatic amino acid contents in maize plants. Treatments consisted of isolated or associated application of two glyphosate doses (72 g ha-1 and 720 g ha-1 and one potassium phosphite dose (Fosway - 3 L ha-1. The visual evaluations of injury and harvesting were performed at 2, 4, 10 and 15 days after application. The potassium phosphite applied alone did not cause injury to plants, and its association with glyphosate, regardless of the dose tested, did not protect the plants against the injury and dry mass reduction caused by the herbicide. There was an accumulation of shikimic and quinic acids on the plants subjected to the highest dose of glyphosate with or without phosphite. The potassium phosphite treatments with or without glyphosate showed higher tryptophan levels and did not alter the phenylalanine and tyrosine contents in the plants.

  20. Effects of glyphosate herbicide on the gastrointestinal microflora of Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Ronald P; McDermid, Karla J; Muehlstein, Lisa; Balazs, George H

    2018-02-01

    In Hawaii, glyphosate-based herbicides frequently sprayed near shorelines may be affecting non-target marine species. Glyphosate inhibits aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (shikimate pathway), and is toxic to beneficial gut bacteria in cattle and chickens. Effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria in marine herbivorous turtles were assessed in vitro. When cultures of mixed bacterial communities from gastrointestinal tracts of freshly euthanized green turtles (Chelonia mydas), were exposed for 24h to six glyphosate concentrations (plus deionized water control), bacterial density was significantly lower at glyphosate concentrations≥2.2×10 -4 gL -1 (absorbance measured at 600nm wavelength). Using a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay, the growth of four bacterial isolates (Pantoea, Proteus, Shigella, and Staphylococcus) was significantly inhibited by glyphosate concentrations≥1.76×10 -3 gL -1 . Reduced growth or lower survival of gut bacteria in green turtles exposed to glyphosate could have adverse effects on turtle digestion and overall health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physiological effects of the herbicide glyphosate on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Qiu, Zhihao; Zhou, Ya; Du, Yuping; Liu, Chaonan; Ye, Jing; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been used extensively for weed control in agriculture in many countries. However, glyphosate can be transported into the aquatic environment and might cause adverse effects on aquatic life. This study investigated the physiological characteristics of cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) after exposure to glyphosate, and the results showed that changes in cell density production, chlorophyll a and protein content are consistent. In M. aeruginosa, oxidative stress caused by glyphosate indicated that 48h of exposure increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). To further investigate the toxicity of glyphosate on M. aeruginosa, the viability of treated cells was monitored and the toxin release was determined. The results indicated that glyphosate induced apoptosis of and triggered toxin release in M. aeruginosa. These results are helpful for understanding the toxic effects of glyphosate on cyanobacteria, which is important for environmental assessment and protection. These results are also useful for guidance on the application of this type of herbicide in agricultural settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological impacts of glyphosate on morphology, embryo biomechanics and larval behavior in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Xu, Jia; Kuang, Xiangyu; Li, Shibao; Li, Xiang; Chen, Dongyan; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2017-08-01

    All of these days, residues of herbicides such as glyphosate are widely distributed in the environment. The ubiquitous use of glyphosate has drawn extensive attention to its toxicity as an organic pollutant. In this study, we employed larval zebrafish as an animal model to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of glyphosate on early development via morphological, biomechanics, behavioral and physiological analyses. Morphological results showed that an obvious delay occurred in the epiboly process and body length, eye and head area were reduced at concentrations higher than 10 mg/L. The expression of ntl (no tail) shortened and krox20 (also known as Egr2b, early growth response 2b) changed as the glyphosate concentration increased, but there was no change in the expression of shh (sonic hedgehog). In addition, biomechanical analysis of the elasticity of chorion indicated that treated embryos' surface tension was declined. Furthermore, a 48-h locomotion test revealed that embryonic exposure to glyphosate significantly elevated locomotor activities, which is probably attributed to motoneuronal damage. The decreased surface tension of chorion and the increased locomotive activities may contribute to the hatching rates after glyphosate treatment. Our study enriches the researches of evaluating glyphosate toxicity and probablely plays a warning role in herbicides used in farming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transfer of glyphosate and its degradate AMPA to surface waters through urban sewerage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabrizio; Lavison, Gwenaëlle; Couturier, Guillaume; Alliot, Fabrice; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Fauchon, Nils; Guery, Bénédicte; Chevreuil, Marc; Blanchoud, Hélène

    2009-09-01

    A study of glyphosate and aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) transfer in the Orge watershed (France) was carried out during 2007 and 2008. Water samples were collected in surface water, wastewater sewer, storm sewer and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). These two molecules appeared to be the most frequently detected ones in the rivers and usually exceeded the European quality standard concentrations of 0.1microg L(-1) for drinking water. The annual glyphosate estimated load was 1.9 kg year(-1) upstream (agricultural zone) and 179.5 kg year(-1) at the catchment outlet (urban zone). This result suggests that the contamination of this basin by glyphosate is essentially from urban origin (road and railway applications). Glyphosate reached surface water prevalently through storm sewer during rainfall event. Maximum concentrations were detected in storm sewer just after a rainfall event (75-90 microg L(-1)). High concentrations of glyphosate in surface water during rainfall events reflected urban runoff impact. AMPA was always detected in the sewerage system. This molecule reached surface water mainly via WWTP effluent and also through storm sewer. Variations in concentrations of AMPA during hydrological episodes were minor compared to glyphosate variations. Our study highlights that AMPA and glyphosate origins in urban area are different. During dry period, detergent degradation seemed to be the major AMPA source in wastewater.

  4. Glyphosate-resistant crops: adoption, use and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Gerald M; Cajacob, Claire A; Padgette, Stephen R

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) were first introduced in the United States in soybeans in 1996. Adoption has been very rapid in soybeans and cotton since introduction and has grown significantly in maize in recent years. GRCs have grown to over 74 million hectares in five crop species in 13 countries. The intent of this paper is to update the hectares planted and the use patterns of GRC globally, and to discuss briefly future applications and uses of the technology. The largest land areas of GRCs are occupied by soybean (54.2 million ha), maize (13.2 million ha), cotton (5.1 million ha), canola (2.3 million ha) and alfalfa (0.1 million ha). Currently, the USA, Argentina, Brazil and Canada have the largest plantings of GRCs. Herbicide use patterns would indicate that over 50% of glyphosate-resistant (GR) maize hectares and 70% of GR cotton hectares receive alternative mode-of-action treatments, while approximately 25% of GR soybeans receive such a treatment in the USA. Alternative herbicide use is likely driven by both agronomic need and herbicide resistance limitations in certain GR crops such as current GR cotton. Tillage practices in the USA indicate that > 65% of GR maize hectares, 70% of GR cotton hectares and 50% of GR soybean hectares received some tillage in the production system. Tillage was likely used for multiple purposes ranging from seed-bed preparation to weed management. GRCs represent one of the more rapidly adopted weed management technologies in recent history. Current use patterns would indicate that GRCs will likely continue to be a popular weed management choice that may also include the use of other herbicides to complement glyphosate. Stacking with other biotechnology traits will also give farmers the benefits and convenience of multiple pest control and quality trait technologies within a single seed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Identification of geneticaly modified soybean seeds resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Maria Ângela André

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in genetic engineering permit the modification of plants to be tolerant to certain herbicides that are usually not selective. For practical and commercial purposes, it is important to be able to detect the presence or absence of these traits in genotypes. The objective of this research was to develop a procedure for identifying genetically modified soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. with resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Two studies were conducted based on germination test. In the first study, soybean seeds were pre-imbibed in paper towel with the herbicide solutions, then transferred to moist paper towel for the germination test. In the second study, seeds were placed directly in herbicide solutions in plastic cups and tested for germination using the paper towel method. Eight soybean genotypes were compared: four Roundup Ready, that contained the gene resistant to the herbicide (G99-G725, Prichard RR, G99-G6682, and H7242 RR and four non-transgenic parental cultivars (Boggs, Haskell, Benning, and Prichard. In the first study, the seeds were imbibed for 16 hours at 25°C in herbicide concentrations between 0.0 and 1.5% of the glyphosate active ingredient. In the second, seeds were subjected to concentrations between 0.0 and 0.48%, for one hour, at 30°C. The evaluation parameters were: germination, hypocotyl length, root length and total length of the seedlings. Both methods are efficient in identifying glyphosate-resistant soybean genotypes. It is possible to identify the genetically modified soybean genotypes after three days, by imbibing the seed in 0.12% herbicide solution, and after six days if the substrate is pre-imbibed in a 0.6% herbicide solution. The resistance trait was identified in all cultivars, independent of the initial physiological quality of the seed.

  6. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  7. Effect of glyphosate on the microbial activity of two Romanian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumalan, R M; Alexa, E; Negrea, M; Sumalan, R L; Doncean, A; Pop, G

    2010-01-01

    Glyphosate applied to soils potentially affect microbial activity. A series of field and laboratory experiments assessed the effect of this herbicide on soil microorganisms. The aim of experiments was to evaluate the effect of glyphosate application on the soil microbial community structure, function and their activity. We studied "in vitro", changes in the microbial activity of typical Chernozem and Gleysol soils, with and without applied glyphosate. The herbicide was applied at a rate of 2, respectively 4 mg kg(-1) of soil and microbial activity were measured by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis. We found an increase of 9 to 13% in FDA hydrolyses in the presence of glyphosate in rate of 2 mg kg (-1) compared with the same type of soil which had never received herbicide. The double quantity of glyphosate decrease soil microbial activity; the amount of hydrolyzed fluorescein is lower than the addition of 2 ppm. The greater decrease was observed in the Gleysol type where the fluorescein hydrolyzed is with 4, 85% lower than version control without glyphosate. Chemical characters of soil, influence soil biological activity when herbicide is added. In Chemozem case, rich in humus, whose predominant micro flora is represented by actinomycetes through glyphosate treatment these organisms growths of as major producers of antibiotics actinomycetes determine an inhibitory effect on eubacteria and micromycetes growth, which is highlighted by estimating a relatively small number of them. After 10 days, once with decreasing of glyphosate content in soil, decreases the number of active actinomycetes, therefore we are witnessing to a numerical growth of bacterial population. In Gleysol type the indigenous micro flora is represented by eubacteria, so when the glyphosate is added it was registered a high growth of these organisms fraction.

  8. Multiple mechanism confers natural tolerance of three lilyturf species to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chanjuan; Xie, Hongjie; Chen, Shiguo; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2016-02-01

    A combination of unique EPSPS structure and increased gene copy number and expression contribute to natural glyphosate tolerance in three lilyturf species. A few plants are naturally tolerant to glyphosate, the most widely used non-selective herbicide worldwide. Here, the basis for natural tolerance to glyphosate in three lilyturf species, Ophiopogon japonicus (OJ), Liriope spicata (LS), and Liriope platyphylla (LP), is characterized. These species tolerate glyphosate at about five times the commercially recommended field dose. They share three unique amino acids in their 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) that affect glyphosate binding. These correspond to Asp71Met, Ala112Ile, and Val201Met amino acid variations compared to 231 other published plant EPSPS amino acid sequences. There was also a common deletion at 91 of a highly conserved glutamic acid. Glyphosate-treated lilyturf plants accumulated little shikimic acid but had significantly higher levels of EPSPS mRNA than initially expressed in the control. The IC50 of LsEPSPS was 14.0 µM compared to the 5.1 µM of Arabidopsis thaliana. The higher K m and K i values of LsEPSPS kinetics showed that LsEPSPS had lower substrate binding affinity to glyphosate. Overexpression of LsEPSPS in the recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain enhanced its tolerance to glyphosate. Both OJ and LS had two copies of the EPSPS gene, while LP had three copies. Therefore, a combination of unique EPSPS structure and increased gene copy number and expression contribute to natural glyphosate tolerance in the three lilyturf species.

  9. Effects of the herbicide glyphosate on non-target plant native species from Chaco forest (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencia, Ferreira María; Carolina, Torres; Enzo, Bracamonte; Leonardo, Galetto

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture based on transgenic crops has expanded in Argentina into areas formerly occupied by Chaco forest. Even though glyphosate is the herbicide most widely used in the world, increasing evidence indicates severe ecotoxicological effects on non-target organisms as native plants. The aim of this work is to determine glyphosate effects on 23 native species present in the remaining Chaco forests immersed in agricultural matrices. This is a laboratory/greenhouse approach studying acute effects on seedlings after 21 days. A gradient of glyphosate rates (525, 1050, 2100, 4200, and 8400g ai/Ha; recommended field application rate (RFAR) = 2100g ai/Ha) was applied on four-week seedlings cultivated in a greenhouse and response variables (phytotoxicity, growth reduction, and sensitivity to the herbicide) were measured. This gradient of herbicide rates covers realistic rates of glyphosate applications in the crop field and also those that can reach vegetation of forest relicts by off-target drift and overspray. Testing was performed following guidelines for vegetative vigour (post-germination spray). All species showed lethal or sublethal effects after the application of the 25% of RFAR (50% of species showed severe phytotoxicity or death and 70% of species showed growth reduction). The results showed a gradient of sensitivity to glyphosate by which some of the studied species are very sensitive to glyphosate and seedlings died with 25% of RFAR while other species can be classified as herbicide-tolerant. Thus, the vegetation present in the forest relicts could be strongly affected by glyphosate application on crops. Lethal and sublethal effects of glyphosate on non-target plants could promote both the loss of biodiversity in native forest relicts immersed in the agroecosystems and the selection of new crop weeds considering that some biotypes are continuously exposed to low doses of glyphosate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and functional analysis of a new glyphosate resistance gene from a fungus cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Bo; Shao, Bai-Hui; Qiao, Yu-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Chang, Shu-Jun; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2017-08-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used broad spectrum herbicide; however, this limits its use once crops are planted. If glyphosate-resistant crops are grown, glyphosate can be used for weed control in crops. While several glyphosate resistance genes are used in commercial glyphosate tolerant crops, there is interest in identifying additional genes for glyphosate tolerance. This research constructed a high-quality cDNA library form the glyphosate-resistant fungus Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 to identify genes that may confer resistance to glyphosate. Using a medium containing glyphosate (120mM), we screened several clones from the library. Based on a nucleotide sequence analysis, we identified a gene of unknown function (GenBank accession number: XM_001826835.2) that encoded a hypothetical 344-amino acid protein. The gene was named MFS40. Its ORF was amplified to construct an expression vector, pGEX-4T-1-MFS40, to express the protein in Escherichia coli BL21. The gene conferred glyphosate tolerance to E. coli ER2799 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of organic matter on sorption and fate of glyphosate in soil - Comparing different soils and humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, Christian N., E-mail: calbers@ruc.d [Dept. of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Banta, Gary T. [Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, Poul Erik [Dept. of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Ole S. [Dept. of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-10-15

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is generally believed not to influence the sorption of glyphosate in soil. To get a closer look on the dynamics between glyphosate and SOM, we used three approaches: I. Sorption studies with seven purified soil humic fractions showed that these could sorb glyphosate and that the aromatic content, possibly phenolic groups, seems to aid the sorption. II. Sorption studies with six whole soils and with SOM removed showed that several soil parameters including SOM are responsible for the strong sorption of glyphosate in soils. III. After an 80 day fate experiment, approx40% of the added glyphosate was associated with the humic and fulvic acid fractions in the sandy soils, while this was the case for only approx10% of the added glyphosate in the clayey soils. Glyphosate sorbed to humic substances in the natural soils seemed to be easier desorbed than glyphosate sorbed to amorphous Fe/Al-oxides. - Glyphosate was sorbed by purified humic substances and a significant amount of glyphosate was found to be associated with soil organic matter in whole soils.

  12. Placental passage of benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate in an ex vivo human perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Kjaerstad, Mia Birkhoej; Mathiesen, Line

    2008-01-01

    group of compounds. Benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate were chosen as model compounds because they are small molecules with large differences in physiochemical properties. Caffeine crossed the placenta by passive diffusion. The initial transfer rate of benzoic acid was more limited in the first part...... of the perfusion compared to caffeine, but reached the same steady-state level by the end of perfusion. The transfer of glyphosate was restricted throughout perfusion, with a lower permeation rate, and only around 15% glyphosate in maternal circulation crossed to the fetal circulation during the study period....

  13. Temporal Patterns of Glyphosate Leaching at a Loamy Agricultural Field in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Olsen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    in drainage water and groundwater at concentrations exceeding the EU drinking water quality criterion of 0.1 µg L-1. This study presents a unique 12-year time series of monitoring results for glyphosate (applied five times during the period) and its degradation product (AMPA) at a cultivated, highly...... and harvesting, trigger the leaching of mobile colloids, glyphosate, and AMPA. As a likely consequence, glyphosate has occasionally been detected in groundwater monitoring wells installed at the location down to 3.5-4.5 m depth in concentrations exceeding the EU drinking water quality criterion....

  14. Leaf growth and morphoanatomy of eucalypt under the effect of glyphosate drift

    OpenAIRE

    Tuffi Santos, L.D.; Ferreira, F.A.; Meira, R.M.S.A.; Barros, N.F.; Ferreira, L.R.; Machado, A.F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Os efeitos da deriva do glyphosate durante aplicação são prejudiciais à cultura do eucalipto. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da deriva simulada do glyphosate no crescimento e na morfoanatomia foliar do eucalipto. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, sendo a parcela experimental constituída de uma planta cultivada em vaso com 10 litros de solo. Os tratamentos foram 0; 43,2; 86,4; 172,8; e 345,6 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate, aplicados aos 40 dias após o plant...

  15. Co-expression of P173S Mutant RiceEPSPSandigrAGenes Results in Higher Glyphosate Tolerance in Transgenic Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartyal, Dhirendra; Agarwal, Aakrati; James, Donald; Borphukan, Bhabesh; Ram, Babu; Sheri, Vijay; Yadav, Renu; Manna, Mrinalini; Varakumar, Panditi; Achary, V Mohan M; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2018-01-01

    Weeds and their devastating effects have been a great threat since the start of agriculture. They compete with crop plants in the field and negatively influence the crop yield quality and quantity along with survival of the plants. Glyphosate is an important broad-spectrum systemic herbicide which has been widely used to combat various weed problems since last two decades. It is very effective even at low concentrations, and possesses low environmental toxicity and soil residual activity. However, the residual concentration of glyphosate inside the plant has been of major concern as it severely affects the important metabolic pathways, and results in poor plant growth and grain yield. In this study, we compared the glyphosate tolerance efficiency of two different transgenic groups over expressing proline/173/serine (P173S) rice EPSPS glyphosate tolerant mutant gene ( OsmEPSPS ) alone and in combination with the glyphosate detoxifying encoding igrA gene, recently characterized from Pseudomonas . The molecular analysis of all transgenic plant lines showed a stable integration of transgenes and their active expression in foliar tissues. The physiological analysis of glyphosate treated transgenic lines at seed germination and vegetative stages showed a significant difference in glyphosate tolerance between the two transgenic groups. The transgenic plants with OsmEPSPS and igrA genes, representing dual glyphosate tolerance mechanisms, showed an improved root-shoot growth, physiology, overall phenotype and higher level of glyphosate tolerance compared to the OsmEPSPS transgenic plants. This study highlights the advantage of igrA led detoxification mechanism as a crucial component of glyphosate tolerance strategy in combination with glyphosate tolerant OsmEPSPS gene, which offered a better option to tackle in vivo glyphosate accumulation and imparted more robust glyphosate tolerance in rice transgenic plants.

  16. Electronic learning and open educational resources in the health sciences in ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanu, Rmk; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Opare-Sem, O; Nkyekyer, K; Donkor, P; Lawson, A; Engleberg, N C

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether a group of Ghanaian students are able to easily use electronic learning material and whether they perceive this method of learning as acceptable. The University of Ghana Medical School (UGMS) and the School of Medical Sciences (SMS), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifty third year medical students at SMS and nineteen fifth year medical students at UGMS METHODS: Two e-learning materials were developed, one on the polymerase chain reaction and the other on total abdominal hysterectomy and these were distributed to selected medical students. Two weeks after the distribution of the programmes, a one-page, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target groups of students at the two institutions. Ninety three percent (139) of respondents at KNUST and 95% (18) at UG report having access to a computer for learning purposes. All of the UG students viewed the TAH programme; 82% (130) of the KNUST students viewed the PCR animations. All students who viewed the programmes at both institutions indicated that the e-learning pro-grammes were "more effective" in comparison to other methods of learning. Computer ownership or availability at both medical schools is sufficient to permit the distribution and viewing of e-learning materials by students and the medical students considered both programmes to be very helpful.

  17. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device function and longevity at autopsy: an underestimated resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sunil K; Crain, Barbara; Flickinger, Katie; Calkins, Hugh; Rickard, John; Cheng, Alan; Berger, Ronald; Tomaselli, Gordon; Marine, Joseph E

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility and safety of postmortem cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED; pacemaker or defibrillator) retrieval for reuse has been shown. To date, studies indicate a low yield of reusable postmortem CIEDs (17%-30%). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a higher rate of reusable CIEDs would be identified upon postmortem retrieval when an institutional protocol for systematic and routine acquisition, interrogation, reprogramming, and manufacturer analysis was used. Over a 6-year period, all subjects referred for autopsy underwent concomitant CIED pulse generator retrieval and enrollment in the Johns Hopkins Post-Mortem CIED Registry. CIEDs were interrogated, reprogrammed, and submitted for manufacturer analysis. In total, 84 autopsies had CIEDs (37 pacemakers, 47 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators). CIEDs were implanted 2.84 ± 2.32 years before death, with 30% implanted 60% of pacemakers and >50% of defibrillators demonstrated normal functional status with projected longevities >7 years on average. Formation of a national hospital-based "CIED donor network" would facilitate larger scale charitable efforts in underserved countries. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Buva (Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate na região sul do Brasil Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to the glyphosate in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo utilizado para controlar plantas daninhas há mais de 20 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. A buva (Conyza bonariensis é uma espécie daninha comum nos Estados da região Sul do Brasil e tradicionalmente controlada com uso de glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos plantas de buva têm apresentado poucos sintomas de toxicidade em resposta ao tratamento com glyphosate, sugerindo que estas plantas são resistentes ao herbicida. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de buva a glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo, os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g ha-1, e os herbicidas paraquat (400 g ha-1 e 2,4-D (1.005 g ha-1 foram empregados como produtos testemunhas, com diferentes mecanismos de ação nas plantas. No experimento em casa de vegetação os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g ha-1, mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas de um biótipo considerado resistente e de outro considerado sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação, foram avaliados os tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440 e 2.880 g ha-1, mais os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl (40 g ha-1, metsulfuron-methyl (4 g ha-1, 2,4-D (1.005 g ha-1, paraquat (400 g ha-1 e diuron + paraquat (200 + 400 g ha-1, bem como a testemunha sem tratamento herbicida. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 7, 15 e 30 DAT (dias após tratamento. Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em condições de campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é controlado pelo glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas avaliados. Demonstram ainda que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas

  19. Glyphosate: useful, dangerous? To license or to phase out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ernst v. Mühlendahl, Matthias Otto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate, a herbicide blocking an enzyme essential for all plants, but not for animals and humans, has certain advantages as compared to other plant protection products. It is not persistent. Due to the production and application of more than 700.000 tons per year, large portions of mankind are exposed. The International Agency on Research on Cancer (IARC of the World Health Organisation (WHO has looked more closely on glyphosate and has classified it as “probably carcinogenic for humans (2A” The German Bundesamt für Risikobewertung (BfR and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA have analysed the data and contradict the IARC classification. In this paper, the process of decision finding and essential arguments for the contradictory classification are commented. In the ensuing public discussions, conflicts could have been rationalized if the BfR and the EFSA had offered more transparency regarding their evaluation and had restricted their opinions and their proposals to their genuine task: to propose regulations concerning the risks (which follow from possible hazards.

  20. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  1. Influence of palm oil on the efficacy of glyphosate in the control of Cyperus rotondus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, R.B.; Dzolkhifli Omar

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the addition of palm oil to the formulation on the efficacy of glyphosate for the control of Cyperus rotundus was evaluated in the laboratory, glass-house and field. Triton X-100 failed to maintain a stable emulsion of palm oil in the formulation 10 minutes after mixing. In glass-house experiments adding mineral oil and palm oil to the glyphosate spray mixture did not increase the herbicidal efficacy. In general, glyphosate was more effective when sprayed at the volume application rate of 100 L/ha than at 400 L/ha. In contrast to the glass-house studies, in the field trial the addition of palm oil increased the efficacy of glyphosate. (author)

  2. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services. PMID:25005713

  3. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying 14 CO 2 to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying 14 C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves

  4. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

  5. Glyphosate and AMPA in U.S. streams, groundwater, precipitation and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Dietze, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are used in more than 130 countries on more than 100 crops. In the United States (U.S.), agricultural use of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] has increased from less than 10,000 metric tons per year (active ingredient) in 1993 to more than 70,000 metric tons per year in 2006. In 2006, glyphosate accounted for about 20 percent of all herbicide use (by weight of active ingredient). Glyphosate formulations such as Roundup® are used in homes and in agriculture. Part of the reason for the popularity of glyphosate is the perception that it is an “environmentally benign” herbicide that has low toxicity and little mobility or persistence in the environment. The U.S. Geological Survey developed an analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry that can detect small amounts of glyphosate and its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water and sediment. Results from more than 2,000 samples collected from locations distributed across the U.S. indicate that glyphosate is more mobile and occurs more widely in the environment than was previously thought. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected (reporting limits between 0.1 and 0.02 micrograms per liter) in samples collected from surface water, groundwater, rainfall, soil water, and soil, at concentrations from less than 0.1 to more than 100 micrograms per liter. Glyphosate was detected more frequently in rain (86%), ditches and drains (71%), and soil (63%); and less frequently in groundwater (3%) and large rivers (18%). AMPA was detected more frequently in rain (86%), soil (82%), and large rivers (78%); and less frequently in groundwater (8%) and wetlands or vernal pools (37%). Most observed concentrations of glyphosate were well below levels of concern for humans or wildlife, and none exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Maximum Contaminant Level of 700 micrograms per liter. However, the ecosystem effects of chronic low

  6. Glyphosate-Induced Specific and Widespread Perturbations in the Metabolome of Soil Pseudomonas Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Aristilde

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported adverse effects of glyphosate on crop-beneficial soil bacterial species, including several soil Pseudomonas species. Of particular interest is the elucidation of the metabolic consequences of glyphosate toxicity in these species. Here we investigated the growth and metabolic responses of soil Pseudomonas species grown on succinate, a common root exudate, and glyphosate at different concentrations. We conducted our experiments with one agricultural soil isolate, P. fluorescens RA12, and three model species, P. putida KT2440, P. putida S12, and P. protegens Pf-5. Our results demonstrated both species- and strain-dependent growth responses to glyphosate. Following exposure to a range of glyphosate concentrations (up to 5 mM, the growth rate of both P. protegens Pf-5 and P. fluorescens RA12 remained unchanged whereas the two P. putida strains exhibited from 0 to 100% growth inhibition. We employed a 13C-assisted metabolomics approach using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to monitor disruptions in metabolic homeostasis and fluxes. Profiling of the whole-cell metabolome captured deviations in metabolite levels involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, ribonucleotide biosynthesis, and protein biosynthesis. Altered metabolite levels specifically in the biosynthetic pathway of aromatic amino acids (AAs, the target of toxicity for glyphosate in plants, implied the same toxicity target in the soil bacterium. Kinetic flux experiments with 13C-labeled succinate revealed that biosynthetic fluxes of the aromatic AAs were not inhibited in P. fluorescens Pf-5 in the presence of low and high glyphosate doses but these fluxes were inhibited by up to 60% in P. putida KT2440, even at sub-lethal glyphosate exposure. Notably, the greatest inhibition was found for the aromatic AA tryptophan, an important precursor to secondary metabolites. When the growth medium was supplemented with aromatic AAs, P. putida S12 exposed to a lethal

  7. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  8. A Novel 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Rahnella aquatilis with Significantly Reduced Glyphosate Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Zhao, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Han, Hong-Juan; Chen, Chen; Jin, Xiao-Fen; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5.1.19) is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids and chorismate-derived secondary metabolites in plants, fungi, and microorganisms. It is also the target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Natural glyphosate resistance is generally thought to occur within microorganisms in a strong selective pressure condition. Rahnella aquatilis strain GR20, an antagonist against pathogenic agrobacterial strains of grape crown gall, was isolated from the rhizosphere of grape in glyphosate-contaminated vineyards. A novel gene encoding EPSPS was identified from the isolated bacterium by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic aroA mutant. The EPSPS, named AroAR.aquatilis, was expressed and purified from E. coli, and key kinetic values were determined. The full-length enzyme exhibited higher tolerance to glyphosate than the E. coli EPSPS (AroAE.coli), while retaining high affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate. Transgenic plants of AroAR.aquatilis were also observed to be more resistant to glyphosate at a concentration of 5 mM than that of AroAE.coli. To probe the sites contributing to increased tolerance to glyphosate, mutant R.aquatilis EPSPS enzymes were produced with the c-strand of subdomain 3 and the f-strand of subdomain 5 (Thr38Lys, Arg40Val, Arg222Gln, Ser224Val, Ile225Val, and Gln226Lys) substituted by the corresponding region of the E. coli EPSPS. The mutant enzyme exhibited greater sensitivity to glyphosate than the wild type R.aquatilis EPSPS with little change of affinity for its first substrate, shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The effect of the residues on subdomain 5 on glyphosate resistance was more obvious. PMID:22870190

  9. Evaluating exposure and potential effects on honeybee brood (Apis mellifera) development using glyphosate as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Helen M; Levine, Steven L; Doering, Janine; Norman, Steve; Manson, Philip; Sutton, Peter; von M?rey, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an approach to evaluate potential effects of plant protection products on honeybee brood with colonies at realistic worst-case exposure rates. The approach comprised 2 stages. In the first stage, honeybee colonies were exposed to a commercial formulation of glyphosate applied to flowering Phacelia tanacetifolia with glyphosate residues quantified in relevant matrices (pollen and nectar) collected by foraging bees on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 postapplication and glypho...

  10. USE OF LIQUID FERTILIZER TO REDUCE THE PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF GLYPHOSATE ON EUCALYPTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILER SOARES MACHADO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used for weed control in eucalyptus forests. Glyphosate drifts are common and may cause serious damage to crops. An alternative to reduce such effects is to use antidotes capable of protecting eucalyptus. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the application of liquid fertilizer on eucalyptus plants subjected to a glyphosate drift simulation. The treatments were arranged in a 5 x 5 factorial design. The first corresponding factor was liquid fertilizer (0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 L c.p. ha -1 of Fertiactyl Pós® and the second factor dose of glyphosate drift (0, 360, 720, 1,440, and 2,160 g e.a. ha -1. The products were applied together so that the spray did not reach the upper third of the plants. At 7, 28, and 49 days after application (DAA, the percentage of intoxication of eucalyptus was evaluated. At 56 days DAA, height, leaf area, leaf nutrient contents, and shoot and root dry matter were determined. Higher doses of glyphosate (1,440 and 2,160 g ha -1 caused intoxication levels above 90% at 28 and 49 DAA without using liquid fertilizer. The combination of 2,160 g ha -1 of glyphosate with 8.0 L ha -1 of liquid fertilizer resulted in an estimated eucalyptus dry matter 7% higher than in the control and 97% higher than using 2,160 g ha -1 of glyphosate without the liquid fertilizer. We conclude that the liquid fertilizer was effective in suppressing the harmful effects caused by glyphosate on eucalyptus plants.

  11. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomas...

  12. Glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium runoff from a corn-growing area in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Screpanti , Claudio; Accinelli , Cesare; Vicari , Alberto; Catizone , Pietro

    2005-01-01

    International audience; The main objective of this experiment was to estimate field-scale runoff losses of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium under natural rainfall conditions. Investigations were carried out at the Runoff Monitoring Station of the University of Bologna (Italy). Glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium were applied as pre-emergence herbicides on 350-m2 field plots characterized by a uniform slope of 15%. Field plots were cultivated with corn. The persistence and sorption isotherm...

  13. Nitrogen loss in Brachiaria decumbens after application of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium

    OpenAIRE

    Damin,Virginia; Franco,Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Moraes,Milton Ferreira; Franco,Ademir; Trivelin,Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen losses from the soil-plant system may be influenced by herbicide applications. In order to evaluate N loss in brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens) after application of the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse as a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six replicates. Treatments were as follows: i) desiccation of brachiaria-plants with glyphosate; ii) desiccation of brachiaria-plants with glufosinate-ammonium; and...

  14. Effect of surfactants on the penetration of 14C-glyphosate in Cyperus rotundus in Pakistani agroclimatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil Qureshi, M.; Anwarul Haq; Uzma Maqbool

    1998-01-01

    The penetration of 14 C-glyphosate was studied in Cyperus rotundus with three nonionic surfactants. Among the three surfactants Synperonic A20 was more effective than A2 and A7 in enhancing penetration of glyphosate 24 hours after treatment both in dry and wet seasons. The addition of diesel oil to Synperonic A20 further increased penetration of glyphosate in both seasons. (author)

  15. Genetically transformed tobacco plants expressing synthetic EPSPS gene confer tolerance against glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Asad, Shaheen; Barboza, Andre Luiz; Galeano, Esteban; Carrer, Helaine; Mukhtar, Zahid

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate quashes the synthesis of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3- phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme which intercedes the functioning of shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids. Herbicide resistant crops are developed using glyphosate insensitive EPSPS gene isolated from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, which give farmers a sustainable weed control option. Intentions behind this study were to design and characterize the synthetic herbicide resistant CP4 - EPSPS gene in a model plant system and check the effectiveness of transformed tobacco against application of glyphosate. Putative transgenic plants were obtained from independent transformation events, and stable plant transformation, transgene expression and integration were demonstrated respectively by PCR, qRT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Gene transcript level and gene copy number (1-4) varied among the tested transgenic tobacco lines. Herbicide assays showed that transgenic plants were resistant to glyphosate after 12 days of spraying with glyphosate, and EPSPS activity remained at sufficient level to withstand the spray at 1000 ppm of the chemical. T 1 plants analyzed through immunoblot strips and PCR showed that the gene was being translated into protein and transmitted to the next generation successfully. This codon optimized synthetic CP4 - EPSPS gene is functionally equivalent to the gene for glyphosate resistance available in the commercial crops and hence we recommend this gene for transformation into commercial crops.

  16. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.

  17. Differential Resistance Mechanisms to Glyphosate Result in Fitness Cost for Lolium perenne and L. multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo T. Fernández-Moreno

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate are exhibited by populations of Lolium spp. worldwide. Association of resistance with growth and reproductive fitness is an important predictor for long-term success of glyphosate-resistant (R versus glyphosate-susceptible (S biotypes. Numerous studies were conducted on R- and S-biotypes of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and perennial ryegrass (L. perenne to characterize the underlying mechanism(s of glyphosate resistance and associate this with growth and reproductive fitness. L. perenne expressed both altered uptake and translocation as well as a genetic change at 106-Pro to –Ser, This pattern for two resistance mechanisms is unique. L. multiflorum also exhibited altered uptake and translocation as well as duplication of EPSPS gene copies. Reduced plant biomass and height for R-versus S-biotypes of both species was evident over two growing seasons. This resulted in S- versus R- L. multiflorum producing up to 47 and 38% more seeds in 2014 and 2015, respectively. S- L. perenne produced up to 20 and 30% more seeds in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Both non-target site and target-site mechanisms of glyphosate resistance can render Lolium spp. at a competitive disadvantage. This has long-term implications for the success of glyphosate-resistant plants in the absence of selection pressure.

  18. Glyphosate-based herbicides toxicity on life history parameters of zoophytophagous Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Zanuncio, José; C Lacerda, Mabio; Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; P Brügger, Bruno; Pereira, Alexandre I A; F Wilcken, Carlos; E Serrão, José; S Sediyama, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The increase of agricultural areas with glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, and use of this herbicide in Brazil, makes necessary to assess its impacts on non-target organisms. The objective was to evaluate the development, reproduction and life table parameters of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) reared on GR-soybean plants treated with glyphosate formulations (Zapp-Qi, Roundup-Transorb-R and Roundup-Original) at the recommended field dose (720g acid equivalent ha -1 ). Glyphosate formulations had no affect on nymph and adult weight of this predator. Fourth instar stage was shortest with Zapp Qi. Egg-adult period was similar between treatments (26 days) with a survival over 90%. Zapp-Qi and Roundup-Transorb-R (potassium-salt: K-salt) reduced the egg, posture and nymph number per female, and the longevity and oviposition periods of this predator. Podisus nigrispinus net reproductive rate was highest in GR-soybean plants treated with Roundup-Original (isopropylamine-salt: IPA-salt). However, the duration of one generation, intrinsic and finite increase rates, and time to duplicate the population, were similar between treatments. Glyphosate toxicity on P. nigrispinus depends of the glyphosate salt type. IPA-salt was least harmless to this predator. Formulations based on K-salt altered its reproductive parameters, however, the development and population dynamic were not affect. Therefore, these glyphosate formulations are compatible with the predator P. nigrispinus with GR-soybean crop. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of light conditions and chemical characteristics of water on dissipation of glyphosate in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Veena; Kaur, Pervinder; Kaur, Paawan

    2017-11-06

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of light conditions and chemical properties of water on dissipation of glyphosate. The residues of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were quantified using fluorescence spectrophotometer after derivatization with 9-fluoroenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC-Cl) and orthopthaldehyde (OPA). Average percent recoveries of glyphosate and AMPA from distilled, tap, and ground water ranged from 87.5 to 94.9, 87.3 to 93.7, and 80.6 to 92.0, respectively, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of glyphosate and AMPA from different water matrices ranged from 0.001 to 0.03 μg mL -1 and 0.003 to 0.01 μg mL -1 , respectively. The dissipation of glyphosate followed the first-order kinetics, and half-life varied from 1.56 to 14.47 and 13.14 to 42.38 days under UV and sunlight, respectively. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of water has differential influence on dissipation of glyphosate, and it increased with increase in pH and EC.

  20. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in agricultural topsoils of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vera; Montanarella, Luca; Jones, Arwyn; Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Mol, Hans G J; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2018-04-15

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated information is available for European soils. We provide the first large-scale assessment of distribution (occurrence and concentrations) of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in EU agricultural topsoils, and estimate their potential spreading by wind and water erosion. Glyphosate and/or AMPA were present in 45% of the topsoils collected, originating from eleven countries and six crop systems, with a maximum concentration of 2mgkg -1 . Several glyphosate and AMPA hotspots were identified across the EU. Soil loss rates (obtained from recently derived European maps) were used to estimate the potential export of glyphosate and AMPA by wind and water erosion. The estimated exports, result of a conceptually simple model, clearly indicate that particulate transport can contribute to human and environmental exposure to herbicide residues. Residue threshold values in soils are urgently needed to define potential risks for soil health and off site effects related to export by wind and water erosion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B; Spadotto, Claudio A

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil. Worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when GRS are adopted. In the USA and Argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practices, thereby significantly reducing environmental degradation by agriculture. Similar shifts in tillage practiced with GRS might be expected in Brazil. Transgenes encoding glyphosate resistance in soybeans are highly unlikely to be a risk to wild plant species in Brazil. Soybean is almost completely self-pollinated and is a non-native species in Brazil, without wild relatives, making introgression of transgenes from GRS virtually impossible. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil is related to weed resistance. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. These include Chamaesyce hirta (erva-de-Santa-Luzia), Commelina benghalensis (trapoeraba), Spermacoce latifolia (erva-quente), Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), and Ipomoea spp. (corda-de-viola). Four weed species, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza Canadensis (buva), Lolium multiflorum (azevem), and Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo), have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil and have great potential to become problems.

  2. Micromorfologia foliar na análise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfície foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulações comerciais Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI®. Entre os clones não foram identificadas diferenças quanto à tolerância ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas à deriva simulada de Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e menor porcentagem de intoxicação. Observou-se menor massa seca em plantas expostas ao glyphosate, independentemente da formulação, e menor altura naquelas expostas ao Scout® e ao Roundup transorb®. As características quantitativas da superfície foliar não foram afetadas pelo glyphosate. As alterações micromorfológicas ocorreram na ausência de danos visíveis e foram observadas em ambas as faces da epiderme, em todos os clones avaliados. Danos como erosão e aspecto amorfo das ceras epicuticulares e infestação por hifas fúngicas ocorreram, independentemente da formulação utilizada. A avaliação anatômica da superfície foliar foi relevante para descrição e interpretação dos danos causados pelo glyphosate. Os dados de crescimento e de intoxicação indicam o Zapp QI® como a formulação de menor risco para a cultura do eucalipto quanto aos efeitos indesejáveis da deriva.The effects of commercial glyphosate drift on the leaf surface and growth of eucalypt clones were evaluated. Seedlings of six clones were submitted to 129.6 g ha-1 sub-rate of commercial glyphosate formulations Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI®. No differences in tolerance to glyphosate were observed among the clones. Plants exposed to simulated drift of Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI® presented the highest and lowest intoxication percentages, respectively. Plants exposed to glyphosate reduced dry biomass, regardless of the formulation, and also

  3. Target-site mutations conferring resistance to glyphosate in feathertop Rhodes grass (Chloris virgata) populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, The D; Krishnan, Mahima; Boutsalis, Peter; Gill, Gurjeet; Preston, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    Chloris virgata is a warm-season, C 4 , annual grass weed affecting field crops in northern Australia that has become an emerging weed in southern Australia. Four populations with suspected resistance to glyphosate were collected in South Australia, Queensland and New South Wales, Australia, and compared with one susceptible (S) population to confirm glyphosate resistance and elucidate possible mechanisms of resistance. Based on the rate of glyphosate required to kill 50% of treated plants (LD 50 ), glyphosate resistance (GR) was confirmed in four populations of C. virgata (V12, V14.2, V14.16 and V15). GR plants were 2-9.7-fold more resistant and accumulated less shikimate after glyphosate treatment than S plants. GR and S plants did not differ in glyphosate absorption and translocation. Target-site EPSPS mutations corresponding to Pro-106-Leu (V14.2) and Pro-106-Ser (V15, V14.16 and V12) substitutions were found in GR populations. The population with Pro-106-Leu substitution was 2.9-4.9-fold more resistant than the three other populations with Pro-106-Ser substitution. This report confirms glyphosate resistance in C. virgata and shows that target-site EPSPS mutations confer resistance to glyphosate in this species. The evolution of glyphosate resistance in C. virgata highlights the need to identify alternative control tactics. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. A single residue mutation of 5-enoylpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in Pseudomonas stutzeri enhances resistance to the herbicide glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aimin; Sha, Jiying; Lu, Wei; Chen, Ming; Li, Liang; Jin, Dan; Yan, Yongliang; Wang, Jin; Ping, Shuzhen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yiding; Lin, Min

    2008-08-01

    A novel class II 5-enoylpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) was identified from Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic aroA mutant. The single amino acid substitution of serine (Ser) for asparagine (Asn)-130 of the A1501 EPSPS enhanced resistance to 200 mM glyphosate. The mutated EPSPS had a 2.5-fold increase for IC(50) [glyphosate] value, a 2-fold increase for K (i) [glyphosate] value, but a K (m) [PEP] value similar to that of wild type. The effect of the single residue mutation on glyphosate resistance was also analyzed using a computer-based three-dimensional model.

  5. Glyphosate effects on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of two Lolium perenne L. biotypes with differential herbicide sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanniccari, Marcos; Tambussi, Eduardo; Istilart, Carolina; Castro, Ana María

    2012-08-01

    Despite the extensive use of glyphosate, how it alters the physiology and metabolism of plants is still unclear. Photosynthesis is not regarded to be a primary inhibitory target of glyphosate, but it has been reported to be affected by this herbicide. The aim of the current research was to determine the effects of glyphosate on the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis by comparing glyphosate-susceptible and glyphosate-resistant Lolium perenne biotypes. After glyphosate treatment, accumulation of reduced carbohydrates occurred before a decrease in gas exchange. Stomatal conductance and CO(2) assimilation were reduced earlier than chlorophyll fluorescence and the amount of chlorophyll in susceptible plants. In the glyphosate-resistant biotype, stomatal conductance was the only parameter slightly affected only 5 days post-application. In susceptible plants, the initial glyphosate effects on gas exchange could be a response to a feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Since the herbicide affects actively growing tissues regardless of the inhibition of photosynthesis, the demand of assimilates decreased and consequently induced an accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves. We concluded that stomatal conductance could be a very sensitive parameter to assess both the susceptibility/resistance to glyphosate before the phytotoxic symptoms become evident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase shows high glyphosate tolerance in Escherichia coli and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyi Cao

    Full Text Available A key enzyme in the shikimate pathway, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS is the primary target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Identification of new aroA genes coding for EPSPS with a high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development of glyphosate-tolerant crops. In the present study, the glyphosate tolerance of five bacterial aroA genes was evaluated in the E. coli aroA-defective strain ER2799 and in transgenic tobacco plants. All five aroA genes could complement the aroA-defective strain ER2799, and AM79 aroA showed the highest glyphosate tolerance. Although glyphosate treatment inhibited the growth of both WT and transgenic tobacco plants, transgenic plants expressing AM79 aroA tolerated higher concentration of glyphosate and had a higher fresh weight and survival rate than plants expressing other aroA genes. When treated with high concentration of glyphosate, lower shikimate content was detected in the leaves of transgenic plants expressing AM79 aroA than transgenic plants expressing other aroA genes. These results suggest that AM79 aroA could be a good candidate for the development of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops.

  7. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  8. Genotoxicity of diuron and glyphosate in oyster spermatozoa and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcha, F; Spagnol, C; Rouxel, J

    2012-01-15

    We investigated the effects of genotoxicant exposure in gametes and embryos to find a possible link between genotoxicity and reproduction/developmental impairment, and explore the impact of chemical genotoxicity on population dynamics. Our study focused on the genotoxic effects of two herbicides on oyster gametes and embryos: glyphosate (both as an active substance and in the Roundup formulation) and diuron. France is Europe's leading consumer of agrochemical substances and as such, contamination of France's coastal waters by pesticides is a major concern. Glyphosate and diuron are among the most frequently detected herbicides in oyster production areas; as oyster is a specie with external reproduction, its gametes and embryos are in direct contact with the surrounding waters and are hence particularly exposed to these potentially dangerous substances. In the course of this study, differences in genotoxic and embryotoxic responses were observed in the various experiments, possibly due to differences in pollutant sensitivity between the tested genitor lots. Glyphosate and Roundup had no effect on oyster development at the concentrations tested, whereas diuron significantly affected embryo-larval development from the lowest tested concentration of 0.05 μg L⁻¹, i.e. an environmentally realistic concentration. Diuron may therefore have a significant impact on oyster recruitment rates in the natural environment. Our spermiotoxicity study revealed none of the tested herbicides to be cytotoxic for oyster spermatozoa. However, the alkaline comet assay showed diuron to have a significant genotoxic effect on oyster spermatozoa at concentrations of 0.05 μg L⁻¹ upwards. Conversely, no effects due to diuron exposure were observed on sperm mitochondrial function or acrosomal membrane integrity. Although our initial results showed no negative effect on sperm function, the possible impact on fertilization rate and the consequences of the transmission of damaged DNA for

  9. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  10. Stable isotope resolved metabolomics reveals the role of anabolic and catabolic processes in glyphosate-induced amino acid accumulation in Amaranthus palmeri biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM), we characterized the role of anabolic (de novo synthesis) vs catabolic (protein catalysis) processes contributing to free amino acid pools in glyphosate susceptible (S) and resistant (R) Amaranthus palmeri biotypes. Following exposure to glyphosate ...

  11. Clostridium Bacteria and Autism Spectrum Conditions: A Systematic Review and Hypothetical Contribution of Environmental Glyphosate Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora Argou-Cardozo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there seems to be a consensus about the multifactorial nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The literature provides hypotheses dealing with numerous environmental factors and genes accounting for the apparently higher prevalence of this condition. Researchers have shown evidence regarding the impact of gut bacteria on neurological outcomes, altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of psychiatric disorders. Pesticides and agrotoxics are also included among this long list of ASD-related environmental stressors. Of note, ingestion of glyphosate (GLY, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, can reduce beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract microbiota without exerting any effects on the Clostridium population, which is highly resistant to this herbicide. In the present study, (i we performed a systematic review to evaluate the relationship between Clostridium bacteria and the probability of developing and/or aggravating autism among children. For that purpose, electronic searches were performed on Medline/PubMed and Scielo databases for identification of relevant studies published in English up to December 2017. Two independent researches selected the studies and analyzed the data. The results of the present systematic review demonstrate an interrelation between Clostridium bacteria colonization of the intestinal tract and autism. Finally, (ii we also hypothesize about how environmental GLY levels may deleteriously influence the gut–brain axis by boosting the growth of Clostridium bacteria in autistic toddlers.

  12. Clostridium Bacteria and Autism Spectrum Conditions: A Systematic Review and Hypothetical Contribution of Environmental Glyphosate Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argou-Cardozo, Isadora; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, there seems to be a consensus about the multifactorial nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature provides hypotheses dealing with numerous environmental factors and genes accounting for the apparently higher prevalence of this condition. Researchers have shown evidence regarding the impact of gut bacteria on neurological outcomes, altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of psychiatric disorders. Pesticides and agrotoxics are also included among this long list of ASD-related environmental stressors. Of note, ingestion of glyphosate (GLY), a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, can reduce beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract microbiota without exerting any effects on the Clostridium population, which is highly resistant to this herbicide. In the present study, (i) we performed a systematic review to evaluate the relationship between Clostridium bacteria and the probability of developing and/or aggravating autism among children. For that purpose, electronic searches were performed on Medline/PubMed and Scielo databases for identification of relevant studies published in English up to December 2017. Two independent researches selected the studies and analyzed the data. The results of the present systematic review demonstrate an interrelation between Clostridium bacteria colonization of the intestinal tract and autism. Finally, (ii) we also hypothesize about how environmental GLY levels may deleteriously influence the gut-brain axis by boosting the growth of Clostridium bacteria in autistic toddlers.

  13. Glyphosate and glufosinate detection at electrogenerated NiAl-LDH thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khenifi, Aicha [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR CNRS 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laboratoire de physico-chimie des materiaux, catalyse et environnement Usto, Oran, El M' nouar (Algeria); Derriche, Zoubir [Laboratoire de physico-chimie des materiaux, catalyse et environnement Usto, Oran, El M' nouar (Algeria); Forano, Claude; Prevot, Vanessa [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR CNRS 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Mousty, Christine, E-mail: Christine.Mousty@univ-bpclermont.fr [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR CNRS 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Scavetta, Erika, E-mail: scavetta@fci.unibo.it [Laboratorio di Chimica Analitica, Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Ballarin, Barbara; Guadagnini, Lorella; Tonelli, Domenica [Laboratorio di Chimica Analitica, Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita degli Studi di Bologna (Italy)

    2009-11-10

    An amperometric sensor based on Ni{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}(OH){sub 2}NO{sub 3x}.nH{sub 2}O layered double hydroxide (LDH) has been developed for the electrochemical analysis in one step of two herbicides: glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, Glyp) and glufosinate ((DL-homoalanine-4-yl)-methylphosphinic acid, Gluf). NiAl-LDH was prepared by coprecipitation or by electrodeposition at the Pt electrode surface. Inorganic films were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Adsorption isotherms of Glyp onto this inorganic lamellar material have been established. Electrocatalytic oxidation of Glyp and Gluf is possible at the Ni{sup 3+} centres of the structure. The electrochemical responses of the NiAl-LDH modified electrode were obtained by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry at 0.49 V/SCE as a function of herbicide concentration in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The electrocatalytic response showed a linear dependence on the Glyp concentration ranging between 0.01 and 0.9 mM with a detection limit of 1 {mu}M and sensitivity 287 mA/M cm{sup 2}. The sensitivity found for Gluf was lower (178 mA/M cm{sup 2}).

  14. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  15. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Bao, Y B; Cai, X L; Chen, C H; Ye, X C

    2014-08-15

    The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  17. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caprio, Kimberley

    1997-01-01

    ... No. 5AB-0052, "Audit of the Management and Administration of Research Projects Funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency," will discuss the adequacy of the Defense Advanced Research...

  18. A glyphosate micro-emulsion formulation displays teratogenicity in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Patrizia; Saibene, M; Bacchetta, R; Mantecca, P; Colombo, A

    2018-02-01

    Glyphosate is the active ingredient in broad-spectrum herbicide formulations used in agriculture, domestic area and aquatic weed control worldwide. Its market is growing steadily concurrently with the cultivation of glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops and emergence of weeds less sensitive to glyphosate. Ephemeral and lentic waters near to agricultural lands, representing favorite habitats for amphibian reproduction and early life-stage development, may thus be contaminated by glyphosate based herbicides (GBHs) residues. Previous studies on larval anuran species highlighted increased mortality and growth effects after exposure to different GBHs in comparison to glyphosate itself, mainly because of the surfactants such as polyethoxylated tallow amine present in the formulations. Nevertheless, these conclusions are not completely fulfilled when the early development, characterized by primary organogenesis events, is considered. In this study, we compare the embryotoxicity of Roundup ® Power 2.0, a new GBH formulation currently authorized in Italy, with that of technical grade glyphosate using the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Our results evidenced that glyphosate was not embryolethal and only at the highest concentration (50 mg a.e./L) caused edemas. Conversely, Roundup ® Power 2.0 exhibited a 96 h LC50 of 24.78 mg a.e./L and a 96 h EC50 of 7.8 mg a.e./L. A Teratogenic Index of 3.4 was derived, pointing out the high teratogenic potential of the Roundup ® Power 2.0. Specific concentration-dependent abnormal phenotypes, such as craniofacial alterations, microphthalmia, narrow eyes and forebrain regionalization defects were evidenced by gross malformation screening and histopathological analysis. These phenotypes are coherent with those evidenced in Xenopus laevis embryos injected with glyphosate, allowing us to hypothesize that the teratogenicity observed for Roundup ® Power 2.0 may be related to the improved efficacy in delivering

  19. Glyphosate and Roundup® alter morphology and behavior in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, Daiane; Altenhofen, Stefani; Gonzalez, Jonas Brum; Reolon, Gustavo Kellermann; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2017-12-01

    Glyphosate has become the most widely used herbicide in the world, due to the wide scale adoption of transgenic glyphosate resistant crops after its introduction in 1996. Glyphosate may be used alone, but it is commonly applied as an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup ® . This pesticide contains several adjuvants, which may promote an unknown toxicity. The indiscriminate application poses numerous problems, both for the health of the applicators and consumers, and for the environment, contaminating the soil, water and leading to the death of plants and animals. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is quickly gaining popularity in behavioral research, because of physiological similarity to mammals, sensitivity to pharmacological factors, robust performance, low cost, short spawning intervals, external fertilization, transparency of embryos through larval stages, and rapid development. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of glyphosate and Roundup ® on behavioral and morphological parameters in zebrafish larvae and adults. Zebrafish larvae at 3days post-fertilization and adults were exposed to glyphosate (0.01, 0.065, and 0.5mg/L) or Roundup ® (0.01, 0.065, and 0.5mg/L) for 96h. Immediately after the exposure, we performed the analysis of locomotor activity, aversive behavior, and morphology for the larvae and exploratory behavior, aggression and inhibitory avoidance memory for adult zebrafish. In zebrafish larvae, there were significant differences in the locomotor activity and aversive behavior after glyphosate or Roundup ® exposure when compared to the control group. Our findings demonstrated that exposure to glyphosate at the concentration of 0.5mg/L, Roundup ® at 0.065 or 0.5mg/L reduced the distance traveled, the mean speed and the line crossings in adult zebrafish. A decreased ocular distance was observed for larvae exposed at 0.5mg/L of glyphosate. We verified that at 0.5mg/L of Roundup ® -treated adult zebrafish demonstrated a significant

  20. Depth distribution of glyphosate and organic matter after 5 years of agroecology transition compared with industrial agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Zamora, Martin; Barbera, Agustin; Castro Franco, Mauricio; Domenech, Marisa; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The industrial model of agriculture, defined here by its capital intensity and dependence on massive inputs like seeds, fertilizer, and pesticides, is reducing soil organic matter and increasing the inefficiency in agrochemical used. Ecological impacts of industrial agriculture include pollution by pesticides, soil organic matter loss and soil degradation, among many others, with the consequent human health risks. Many of the negative effects of industrial agriculture are remote from fields and farms. The impacts of industrial agriculture on the environment, public health, and rural communities make it an unsustainable way to grow our food over the long term. An alternative approach to the industrial agriculture is the agroecology which has shown promising success on the ground and is actually the only way to ensure that all people have access to sufficient, healthful food. Farming systems designed and managed according to ecological principles can meet the food needs of society while addressing these pressing environmental and social issues. Our concept of agroecological transition is based on increasing resource use efficiency (e.g. fertilizer, pesticides and water), recycling waste or byproducts of one subsystem in another and applying sound? agricultural practices or precision-agriculture technologies. The objective of this work was to compare two production systems: a) industrial agriculture, b) agroecological transition with respect to the impact on the glyphosate load and the organic matter content in the soil and its distribution in depth. The study sites were two field of 15 ha each located at Barrow Experimental Station (38°19´S, 60°15´W). Soil ECa mapping was carried out and the complete experimental area was divided in three ECa classes with similar soil characteristics. Therefore, soil sampling was carried out by zones, based on three ECa classes at each production systems. Soil samples were taken at 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm depth

  1. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  2. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  3. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  4. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  5. The intensity of non-target site mechanisms influences the level of resistance of sourgrass to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina da Costa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-target site mechanisms are involved in the resistance of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis to glyphosate. Studies on the 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation as well as the detection of glyphosate and its metabolites in sourgrass plants were carried out under controlled conditions to investigate if the differential response of resistant sourgrass biotypes (R1 and R2 is derived from the intensity of non-target site mechanisms involved in the resistance to glyphosate. Different pattern of absorption was observed between S (susceptible and R2 from 12 up to 48 hours after treatment with glyphosate (HAT, and between S and R1 just at 12 HAT. The initial difference in glyphosate absorption among the biotypes did not maintained at 96 HAT and afterwards. Smaller amount of herbicide left the treated leaf into the rest of shoot and roots in R2 (25% than in S (58% and R1 (52%. In addition, slight difference in glyphosate translocation was observed between S and R1. We found high percentage (81% of glyphosate in the S biotype up to 168 HAT, while just 44% and 2% of glyphosate was recovered from R1 and R2 plant tissues. In addition, high percentage of glyphosate metabolites was found in R2 (98% and R1 (56% biotypes, while a very low percentage (11% was found in the S biotype. As previous studies indicated resistant factors of 3.5 and 5.6 for R1 and R2, respectively, we conclude that the differential response of sourgrass biotypes is derived from the intensity of the non-target site mechanisms involved in the resistance to glyphosate.

  6. Effects of interactions between Collembola and soil microbial community on the degradation of glyphosate-based herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, J.; Lee, Y. S.; Son, J.; Kim, Y.; Nam, T. H.; Cho, K.

    2017-12-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide because of its broad spectrum activity and effectiveness, however, little is known about adverse effects on non-target species and their interactions. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of glyphosate on interactions between Collembola and soil microbial community and the effect of Collembola on degradation of glyphosate. The experiment carried out in PS container filled with 30g of soil according to OECD 232 guidelines. Investigating the effects of soil microbial community and Collembola on degradation of glyphosate, we prepared defaunated field soil (only maintaining soil microbial community, sampling in May and September, 2016.) and autoclaved soil with 0, 10, 30 adults of Paronychiurus kimi (Collembola) respectively. Survived adults and hatched juveniles of P. kimi were counted after 28-day exposures in both soils spiked with 100 mg/kg of glyphosate. Glyphosate in soil of 7, 14, 21, 28 days after spiking of glyphosate based herbicide was analyzed by spectrophotometer (Jan et al., 2009). Also soil microbial community structure was investigated using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) composition analysis of soils following the procedures given by the Sherlock Microbial Identification System (MIDI Inc., Newark, DE). Glyphosate (100mg/kg soil) has no effects on reproduction and survival of P. kimi in any soils. Also, glyphosate in soils with Collembola was more rapidly degraded. Rapid increase of soil microbial biomass(PLFAs) was shown in soil with Collembola addition. This result showed that glyphosate affected interactions between Collembola and soil microorganisms, and also soil microbial community affected by Collembola changed degradation of glyphosate.

  7. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    OpenAIRE

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learnin...

  8. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid through Silty Clay Soil Columns under Outdoor Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Marco; Cecchi, Stefano; Zanchi, Camillo A; Orlandini, Simone

    2015-09-01

    Glyphosate [-(phosphono-methyl)-glycine] is the main herbicide used in the Chianti vineyards. Considering the pollution risk of the water table and that the vineyard tile drain may deliver this pollutant into nearby streams, the objective of the present study was to estimate the leaching losses of glyphosate under natural rainfall conditions in a silty clay soil in the Chianti area. The leaching of glyphosate and its metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid [AMPA]) through soils was studied in 1-m-deep soil columns under outdoor conditions over a 3-yr period. Glyphosate was detected in the leachates for up to 26 d after treatments at concentrations ranging between 0.5 and 13.5 μg L. The final peak (0.28 μg L) appeared in the leachates approximately 319 d after the first annual treatment. Aminomethylphosphonic acid first appeared (21.3 μg L) in the soil leachate 6.8 d after the first annual treatment. Aminomethylphosphonic acid detection frequency and measured concentration in the leachates were more than that observed for the glyphosate. Aminomethylphosphonic acid was detected in 20% of the soil leachates at concentrations ranging from 1 to 24.9 μg L. No extractable glyphosate was detected in the soil profile. However, the AMPA content in the lowest layer ranged from 13.4 to 21.1 mg kg, and on the surface layer, it ranged from 86.7 to 94 mg kg. Overall, these results indicate that both glyphosate and AMPA leaching through a 1-m soil column may be potential groundwater contaminants. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Improving Glyphosate Oxidation Activity of Glycine Oxidase from Bacillus cereus by Directed Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tao; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yangyan; Lin, Yongjun; Wu, Gaobing; Zhang, Lili; Yao, Pei; Shao, Zongze; Liu, Ziduo

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate, a broad spectrum herbicide widely used in agriculture all over the world, inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the shikimate pathway, and glycine oxidase (GO) has been reported to be able to catalyze the oxidative deamination of various amines and cleave the C-N bond in glyphosate. Here, in an effort to improve the catalytic activity of the glycine oxidase that was cloned from a glyphosate-degrading marine strain of Bacillus cereus (BceGO), we used a bacteriophage T7 lysis-based method for high-throughput screening of oxidase activity and engineered the gene encoding BceGO by directed evolution. Six mutants exhibiting enhanced activity toward glyphosate were screened from two rounds of error-prone PCR combined with site directed mutagenesis, and the beneficial mutations of the six evolved variants were recombined by DNA shuffling. Four recombinants were generated and, when compared with the wild-type BceGO, the most active mutant B3S1 showed the highest activity, exhibiting a 160-fold increase in substrate affinity, a 326-fold enhancement in catalytic efficiency against glyphosate, with little difference between their pH and temperature stabilities. The role of these mutations was explored through structure modeling and molecular docking, revealing that the Arg51 mutation is near the active site and could be an important residue contributing to the stabilization of glyphosate binding, while the role of the remaining mutations is unclear. These results provide insight into the application of directed evolution in optimizing glycine oxidase function and have laid a foundation for the development of glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:24223901

  10. The rise of glyphosate and new opportunities for biosentinel early-warning studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissane, Zoe; Shephard, Jill M

    2017-12-01

    Glyphosate has become the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and is reputedly environmentally benign, nontoxic, and safe for use near wildlife and humans. However, studies indicate its toxicity is underestimated and its persistence in the environment is greater than once thought. Its actions as a neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor indicate its potential to act in similar ways to persistent organic pollutants such as the organochlorines dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dioxin. Exposure to glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides for both wildlife and people is likely to be chronic and at sublethal levels, with multiple and ongoing exposure events occurring in urban and agricultural landscapes. Despite this, there has been little research on the impact of glyphosate on wildlife populations, and existing studies appear in the agricultural, toxicology, and water-chemistry literature that may have limited visibility among wildlife biologists. These studies clearly demonstrate a link between chronic exposure and neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption, cell damage, and immune suppression. There is a strong case for the recognition of glyphosate as an emerging organic contaminant and substantial potential exists for collaborative research among ecologists, toxicologists, and chemists to quantify the impact of glyphosate on wildlife and to evaluate the role of biosentinel species in a preemptive move to mitigate downstream impacts on people. There is scope to develop a decision framework to aid the choice of species to biomonitor and analysis methods based on the target contaminant, spatial and temporal extent of contamination, and perceived risk. Birds in particular offer considerable potential in this role because they span agricultural and urban environments, coastal, inland, and wetland ecosystems where glyphosate residues are known to be present. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Glyphosate Adversely Affects Danio rerio Males: Acetylcholinesterase Modulation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernanda Moreira; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic to animals. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10 mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96 h. An increase in ACAP in gills after 24 h was observed in the animals exposed to 5 mg/L of glyphosate. A decrease in LPO was observed in brain tissue of animals exposed to 10 mg/L after 24 h, while an increase was observed in muscle after 96 h. No significant alterations were observed in ROS generation. AChE activity was not altered in muscles or brains of animals exposed to either glyphosate concentration for 24 or 96 h. However, gene expression of this enzyme in the brain was reduced after 24 h and was enhanced in both brain and muscle tissues after 96 h. Thus, contrary to previous findings that had attributed the imbalance in the oxidative state of animals exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides to surfactants and other inert compounds, the present study demonstrated that glyphosate per se promotes this same effect in zebrafish males. Although glyphosate concentrations did not alter AChE activity, this study demonstrated for the first time that this molecule affects ache expression in male zebrafish D. rerio.

  12. Glyphosate-based herbicides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Alejandra; Gnazzo, Victoria; Acosta, Helena; López, Silvia L; Carrasco, Andrés E

    2010-10-18

    The broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate is widely used in agriculture worldwide. There has been ongoing controversy regarding the possible adverse effects of glyphosate on the environment and on human health. Reports of neural defects and craniofacial malformations from regions where glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are used led us to undertake an embryological approach to explore the effects of low doses of glyphosate in development. Xenopus laevis embryos were incubated with 1/5000 dilutions of a commercial GBH. The treated embryos were highly abnormal with marked alterations in cephalic and neural crest development and shortening of the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. Alterations on neural crest markers were later correlated with deformities in the cranial cartilages at tadpole stages. Embryos injected with pure glyphosate showed very similar phenotypes. Moreover, GBH produced similar effects in chicken embryos, showing a gradual loss of rhombomere domains, reduction of the optic vesicles, and microcephaly. This suggests that glyphosate itself was responsible for the phenotypes observed, rather than a surfactant or other component of the commercial formulation. A reporter gene assay revealed that GBH treatment increased endogenous retinoic acid (RA) activity in Xenopus embryos and cotreatment with a RA antagonist rescued the teratogenic effects of the GBH. Therefore, we conclude that the phenotypes produced by GBH are mainly a consequence of the increase of endogenous retinoid activity. This is consistent with the decrease of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling from the embryonic dorsal midline, with the inhibition of otx2 expression and with the disruption of cephalic neural crest development. The direct effect of glyphosate on early mechanisms of morphogenesis in vertebrate embryos opens concerns about the clinical findings from human offspring in populations exposed to GBH in agricultural fields.

  13. Variable tolerance among Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) biotypes to glyphosate, 2,4-D amine, and premix formulation of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline (Enlist Duo®) herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of soybean that is resistant to 2,4-D will result in more use of glyphosate plus 2,4-D premixes and tank-mixtures. Preliminary whole-plant greenhouse assays confirm most Palmer amaranth found in Indiana are glyphosate-resistant (GR) and some biotypes exhibit tolerance to 2,4-D amine. Dose r...

  14. WEED CONTROL IN GENETICALLY MODIFIED GLYPHOSATE-TOLERANT SOYBEAN MANEJO DE PLANTAS DANINHAS EM SOJA GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADA TOLERANTE AO GLYPHOSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar Durigan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic production systems, as well as conventional systems, require, in addition to chemical control, the adoption of other weed management strategies. This study was developed to evaluate the weed chemical control in glyphosate tolerant soybean, associated to cover crops cultivated in the autumn/winter. The experiment was carried out under field conditions at the FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized split-plot block design was used, with four replications. St. Lucia Grass (Brachiaria brizantha ‘Marandu’, forage millet (Pennisetum americanum ‘BN2’, and a treatment with spontaneous growth vegetation were evaluated for plots, and, for subplots, the herbicides glyphosate, chlorimuron - ethyl plus lactofen, and fluazifop-p-butyl, in a sequential spraying, and two controls without any application. Grass cover contributed to the chemical control, suppressing weeds, and the single application of 720 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate, independently of the cover crop cultivated in the autumn/winter, was sufficient for adequately controlling Acanthospermum hispidum, Alternanthera tenella, Amaranthus sp., Bidens pilosa, Xanthium strumarium, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria sp., and Eleusine indica, with results similar to the treatment (chlorimuron-ethyl + lactofen + fluazifop-p-buthyl. When compared to the weeded control, the herbicides did not affect plants height, dry matter of the aerial parts, mass of 100 grains, and grain yield. Soybean plants grown over St. Lucia Grass and forage millet presented a higher height, however, no other feature was influenced by the cover crop.

    KEY-WORDS: Brachiaria brizantha; Pennisetum americanum; no-tillage; Roundup Ready; spontaneous vegetation.

    Os sistemas de produção transgênicos, assim como os

  15. Impacto do glyphosate associado com endossulfan e tebuconazole sobre microrganismos endossimbiontes da soja Impact of glyphosate associated with endosulphan and tebuconazole on the endosymbiotic microorganisms of the soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o efeito do glyphosate, em aplicação sequencial, e da sua interação com endossulfan + tebuconazole na colonização micorrízica, na nodulação e nos teores de fósforo e nitrogênio foliar em plantas de soja. O experimento foi conduzido a campo em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo câmbico, no ano agrícola de 2007/08. Foram avaliados dez tratamentos em em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação ou não da mistura de inseticida (endossulfan + fungicida (tebuconazole e, nas subparcelas, o efeito dos métodos de controle de plantas daninhas (testemunha não capinada, testemunha capinada, aplicação única de glyphosate, aplicação sequencial de glyphosate e aplicação única de fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil. A matéria seca de nódulos (MSN e da parte aérea (MSPA, o número de nódulos (NN, a colonização micorrízica e os teores de N e P foliar foram avaliados quando as plantas de soja atingiram o estádio R2. O glyphosate e fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil não reduziram a MSN de plantas de soja, exceto na presença de endossulfan + tebuconazole. O glyphosate em aplicação sequencial, na ausência de endossulfan + tebuconazole, reduziu o NN das plantas de soja em relação às plantas tratadas com inseticida + fungicida. A mistura fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil e o glyphosate em aplicação sequencial afetaram negativamente os teores de N foliar em relação à testemunha capinada na ausência de endossulfan + tebuconazole, enquanto que na presença dessa mistura não se observou efeito. O glyphosate não afetou a colonização micorrízica em soja tratada ou não com a mistura endossulfan + tebuconazole. Já a mistura de fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil estimulou a colonização micorrízica na ausência da mistura endossulfan + tebuconazole. O glyphosate, em aplicação sequencial, não afetou a coloniza

  16. Sources of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in urban and rural catchments in Ontario, Canada: Glyphosate or phosphonates in wastewater?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struger, J.; Van Stempvoort, D.R.; Brown, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Correlation analysis suggests that occurrences of AMPA in streams of southern Ontario are linked mainly to glyphosate in both urban and rural settings, rather than to wastewater sources, as some previous studies have suggested. For this analysis the artificial sweetener acesulfame was analyzed as a wastewater indicator in surface water samples collected from urban and rural settings in southern Ontario, Canada. This interpretation is supported by the concurrence of seasonal fluctuations of glyphosate and AMPA concentrations. Herbicide applications in larger urban centres and along major transportation corridors appear to be important sources of glyphosate and AMPA in surface water, in addition to uses of this herbicide in rural and mixed use areas. Fluctuations in concentrations of acesulfame and glyphosate residues were found to be related to hydrologic events. - Highlights: • Widespread occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA in surface waters of southern Ontario. • Linked to applications of glyphosate in urban and rural settings. • Supported by lack of correlation between AMPA and the wastewater tracer acesulfame. • Contrasts with view that AMPA found in the environment is derived from wastewater. • AMPA more persistent than glyphosate and both fluctuated with hydrological cycles. - The occurrence of AMPA in streams in southern Ontario is linked mainly to glyphosate rather than wastewater sources

  17. Glyphosate and dicamba herbicide tank mixture effects on native plant and non-genetically engineered soybean seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed species are becoming resistant to intensive and extensive use of specific herbicides associated with the production of herbicide resistant crops, e.g., the use of glyphosate for weed management with glyphosate resistant soybeans. To counter this resistance, crops engineered ...

  18. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Klingelmann, Eva; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L -1 pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using 14 C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P ow . Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses

  19. Influência de doses reduzidas do glyphosate no tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Influence of reduced glyphosate rates on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Fiqueredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum é cultivado em todas as regiões do Brasil devido à ampla utilização na culinária, tanto in natura quanto industrializado. A deriva do glyphosate vem sendo citada como um dos fatores que interferem negativamente sobre as culturas hortícolas, cultivadas nas adjacências das lavouras de arroz. Objetivou-se com esse verificar os efeitos de doses reduzidas do glyphosate sobre a cultura do tomateiro. O glyphosate foi aplicado a 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 e 90% da dose de 1.260 g ha-1, aos 30, 50 e 70 dias após o transplante (DAT da cultura. As variáveis analisadas foram fitotoxicidade, altura e número de cachos florais, flores e frutos por planta. Os dados experimentais foram submetidos à análise da variância e, sendo significativos, os efeitos de época de aplicação foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey, e os efeitos do fator dose, analisados por regressão. A aplicação do glyphosate, a partir de 378 g ha-1, afetou o desenvolvimento do tomateiro, independentemente do estádio de desenvolvimento.Tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum is grown in all regions in Brazil since it is widely used in cooking, processed or fresh. Glyphosate drift has been found rcited as one of the factors interfering negatively in vegetables cultivated in areas adjacent to rice plantations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reduced rates of glyphosate on tomato plants, applied at of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90% of the commercial dose (1.260 g ha-1 30, 50 and 70 days after transplanting (DAT the tomato plants. The variables analyzed were: phytotoxicity, plant height, number of flowering clusters, and flower and fruits/plant. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, the Tukey test and regression. Glyphosate application at rates higher than 378 g ha-1 affected the growth of the tomato plants negatively, regardless of their development stage.

  20. Global research production in glyphosate intoxication from 1978 to 2015: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, S H; Waring, W S; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M

    2017-10-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) has been used as a broad-spectrum herbicide that has been widely used in the agricultural industry and also available for home use. The main aim of this study is to present a general overview of glyphosate intoxication-related publications from its introducing since the early 1970s using bibliometric technique. On June 23, 2016, a literature search of the Scopus database was performed. We then extracted and analyzed the data using well-established qualitative and quantitative bibliometric indices: Publication year, affiliation, document type, country name, subject category, journal name, publishing language, and collaboration and citation patterns. We recognized a total of 3735 publications on glyphosate published between 1973 and 2015. There were 875 publications related to glyphosate intoxication in the Scopus database published between 1978 and 2015. Articles (757) comprised 86.5% of the total publications, followed by reviews (41; 4.7%). Most publications were published in English (87.9%), followed by Portuguese (6.6%). The number of publications related to glyphosate intoxication increased from 44 in 1978-1987 up to 152 in 1996-2005 and then quadrupled in 2006-2015. The United States was the leading country with 180 documents representing 20.6%, followed by Brazil (120; 13.7%), Canada (78; 8.9%), Argentina (61; 7.0%), and France (57; 6.5%). The 85.6% of the publications was cited, and the average of citation per document was 17.13 with h-index of 55. Furthermore, the United States achieved the highest h-index of 33. Most of the global international collaborations are made with researchers from the United States, who collaborated with 23 countries/territories in 44 publications. The trends in global glyphosate-related research between 1978 and 2015 were evaluated by a bibliometric technique. Results showed that English was the leading publishing language, and the major publication type was original article. Findings showed

  1. Glyphosate distribution in loess soils as a result of dynamic sediment transport processes during a simulated rainstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commelin, Meindert; Martins Bento, Celia; Baartman, Jantiene; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. The wide and extensive use of glyphosate makes it important to be certain about the safety of glyphosate to off-target environments and organisms. This research aims to create more detailed insight into the distribution processes of glyphosate, and the effect that dynamic sediment transport processes have on this distribution, during water erosion in agricultural fields. Glyphosate distribution characteristics are investigated for two different soil surfaces: a smooth surface, and a surface with seeding lines on the contour. The capacity to transport glyphosate for different sediment groups was investigated. These groups were water-eroded sediment and sedimentation areas found on the plot surface. The contribution of particle bonded and dissolved transport to total overland transportation of glyphosate was analysed with a mass balance study. The experiment was conducted in the Wageningen UR rainfall simulator. Plots of 0.5m2 were used, with a 5% slope, and a total of six experimental simulations were done. A rainfall event with an intensity of 30mm/h was simulated, applied in four showers of 15 minutes each with 30 minutes pause in between. Glyphosate (16mg/kg) was applied on the top 20cm of each plot, and in the downstream part, soil samples were taken. Glyphosate analysis was done using HPLC-MS/MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry). Besides that, photo analysis with eCognition was used to derive the soil surface per sediment group. The results show that particle bonded transport of glyphosate contributes significantly (for at least 25%) to glyphosate transport during a rainstorm event. Particle size and organic matter have a large influence on the mobility of glyphosate and on the transported quantity to off-target areas. Moreover, seeding lines on the soil surface decreased total overland transport, both of sediment and glyphosate. Taking this into account, plots

  2. Interactions of calcium ions with weakly acidic active ingredients slow cuticular penetration: a case study with glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönherr, Jörg; Schreiber, Lukas

    2004-10-20

    Potassium and calcium salts of glyphosate were obtained by titrating glyphosate acid with the respective bases to pH 4.0, and rates of penetration of these salts across isolated astomatous cuticular membranes (CMs) were measured at 20 degrees C and 70, 80, 90, and 100% humidity. K-glyphosate exhibited first-order penetration kinetics, and rate constants (k) increased with increasing humidity. Ca-glyphosate penetrated only when the humidity above the salt residue was 100%. At 90% humidity and below, Ca-glyphosate formed a solid residue on the CMs and penetration was not measurable. With Ca-glyphosate, the k value at 100% humidity decreased with time and the initial rates were lower than for K-glyphosate by a factor of 3.68. After equimolar concentrations of ammonium oxalate were added to Ca-glyphosate, high penetration rates close to those measured with K-glyphosate were measured at all humidities. Adding ammonium sulfate or potassium carbonate also increased rates between 70 and 100% humidity, but they were not as high as with ammonium oxalate. The data indicate that at pH 4.0 one Ca2+ ion is bound to two glyphosate anions. This salt has its deliquescence point near 100% humidity. Therefore, it is a solid at lower humidity and does not penetrate. Its molecular weight is 1.82 times larger than that of K-glyphosate, and this greatly slows down rates of penetration, even at 100% humidity. The additives tested have low solubility products and form insoluble precipitates with Ca2+ ions, but only ammonium oxalate binds Ca2+ quantitatively. The resulting ammonium salt of glyphosate penetrates at 70-100% humidity and at rates comparable to K-glyphosate. The results contribute to a better understanding of the hard water antagonism observed with glyphosate. It is argued that other pesticides and hormones with carboxyl functions are likely to respond to Ca2+ ions in a similar fashion. In all of these cases, ammonium oxalate is expected to overcome hard water antagonism

  3. Prepubertal subchronic exposure to soy milk and glyphosate leads to endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Jessica; Moras, Patricia Bonamigo; Koeppe, Carina; Dallegrave, Eliane; Leal, Mirna Bainy; Rossato-Grando, Luciana Grazziotin

    2017-02-01

    Lactose intolerance is characterized by low or inexistent levels of lactase, and the main treatment consists of dietary changes, especially replacing dairy milk by soy milk. Soy contains phytoestrogens, substances with known estrogenic activity, besides, glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in soy crops, being frequently a residue in soy beans, bringing to a concern regarding the consumption of soy-based products, especially for children in breastfeeding period with lactose intolerance. This study evaluated the pubertal toxicity of a soy milk rich feeding (supplemented or not with glyphosate, doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg) during prepubertal period in male rats. Endocrine disruption was observed through decrease in testosterone levels, decrease in Sertoli cell number and increase in the percentage of degenerated Sertoli and Leydig cells in animals receiving soy milk supplemented with glyphosate (both doses) and in animals treated only with soy milk. Animals treated with soy milk with glyphosate (both doses) showed decrease spermatids number and increase of epididymal tail mass compared to control, and decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules compared to soy milk control group. Animals receiving soy milk supplemented with 100 mg/kg glyphosate showed decrease in round spermatids and increase in abnormal sperm morphology, compared to control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A red and far-red light receptor mutation confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    KAUST Repository

    Sharkhuu, Altanbadralt

    2014-06-01

    Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. A glyphosate-resistant Arabidopsis mutant (gre1) was isolated and genetic analyses indicated that a dysfunctional red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptor, phytochrome B (phyB), caused this phenotype. This finding is consistent with increased glyphosate sensitivity and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation in low R:FR light, and the induction of genes encoding enzymes of the shikimate pathway in high R:FR light. Expression of the shikimate pathway genes exhibited diurnal oscillation and this oscillation was altered in the phyB mutant. Furthermore, transcript analysis suggested that this diurnal oscillation was not only dependent on phyB but was also due to circadian regulatory mechanisms. Our data offer an explanation of the well documented observation that glyphosate treatment at various times throughout the day, with their specific composition of light quality and intensity, results in different efficiencies of the herbicide.

  5. Mild salinization stimulated glyphosate degradation and microbial activities in a riparian soil from Chongming Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changming; Shen, Shuo; Wang, Mengmeng; Li, Jianhua

    2013-04-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of simulated saltwater treatment with different percentages of artificial seawater on degradation dynamics of herbicide glyphosate and microbial activities in a riparian soil in Chongming Island, China. The results showed that 10% seawater treatment showed significantly enhancing effects on degradation efficiency of glyphosate with the lowest residual concentration among all the treatments. However, glyphosate degradation was markedly decreased in the riparian soil with 20% and 50% seawater treatments. The half-lives for 20% and 50% seawater treatments were prolonged by 12.1 and 39.0%, respectively, as compared to control. Microbial investigation indicated that 10% seawater treatment significantly stimulated microbial activities in the glyphosate-spiked riparian soil throughout the incubation period. At 42 day of incubation experiment, flourescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis rate, microbial adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and basal soil respiration (BSR) in the glyphosate-spiked riparian soil with 10% seawater were 59.2, 42.5 and 31.8% higher than those with no saltwater treatment, respectively. In contrast, saltwater treatment with 50% seawater significantly inhibited microbial activities. Especially, FDA hydrolysis rate, microbial ATP and BSR were decreased by 66.4, 58.6 and 66.8%, respectively, as compared to control. The results indicate that levels of simulated saltwater can exert variable effects on herbicide degradation dynamics and microbial parameters in the riparian soil.

  6. Pouteria torta: a native species of the Brazilian Cerrado as a bioindicator of glyphosate action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, P F; Costa, A C; Megguer, C A; Lima, J S; Silva, F B; Guimarães, D S; Almeida, G M; Nascimento, K J T

    2017-10-23

    In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural activity and the associated indiscriminate use of herbicides such as glyphosate is directly related to the loss of biodiversity in the Cerrado. The identification of plant species as bioindicators of herbicide action, especially species native to the area, can help in monitoring the impacts of xenobiotics in the remaining Cerrado. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the possible use of the native Cerrado species Pouteria torta as a bioindicator of glyphosate action via changes in physiological performance. At 16 months after sowing, the effect of glyphosate was evaluated by applying the following doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 g a.e. ha-1. In response to glyphosate, P. torta exhibited reductions in photosynthesis and chloroplastid pigment content, as well as accumulation of shikimic acid and the occurrence of chlorosis and necrosis. These changes demonstrate the high sensitivity of P. torta to glyphosate and its potential for use as a bioindicator of this herbicide.

  7. Indirect glyphosate detection based on ninhydrin reaction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng-Lei; Gao, Yu; Li, Yali; Li, Xueliang; Zhang, Huanjie; Han, Xiao Xia; Zhao, Bing; Su, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly-used and non-selective herbicides in agriculture, which may directly pollute the environment and threaten human health. A simple and effective approach to assessment of its damage to the natural environment is thus quite necessary. However, traditional chromatography-based detection methods usually suffer from complex pretreatment procedures. Herein, we propose a simple and sensitive method for the determination of glyphosate by combining ninhydrin reaction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The product (purple color dye, PD) of the ninhydrin reaction is found to SERS-active and directly correlate with the glyphosate concentration. The limit of detection of the proposed method for glyphosate is as low as 1.43 × 10- 8 mol·L- 1 with a relatively wider linear concentration range (1.0 × 10- 7-1.0 × 10- 4 mol·L- 1), which demonstrates its great potential in rapid, highly sensitive concentration determination of glyphosate in practical applications for safety assessment of food and environment.

  8. Pouteria torta: a native species of the Brazilian Cerrado as a bioindicator of glyphosate action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Batista

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural activity and the associated indiscriminate use of herbicides such as glyphosate is directly related to the loss of biodiversity in the Cerrado. The identification of plant species as bioindicators of herbicide action, especially species native to the area, can help in monitoring the impacts of xenobiotics in the remaining Cerrado. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the possible use of the native Cerrado species Pouteria torta as a bioindicator of glyphosate action via changes in physiological performance. At 16 months after sowing, the effect of glyphosate was evaluated by applying the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 g a.e. ha-1. In response to glyphosate, P. torta exhibited reductions in photosynthesis and chloroplastid pigment content, as well as accumulation of shikimic acid and the occurrence of chlorosis and necrosis. These changes demonstrate the high sensitivity of P. torta to glyphosate and its potential for use as a bioindicator of this herbicide.

  9. A red and far-red light receptor mutation confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkhuu, Altanbadralt; Narasimhan, Meena L; Merzaban, Jasmeen S; Bressan, Ray A; Weller, Steve; Gehring, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. A glyphosate-resistant Arabidopsis mutant (gre1) was isolated and genetic analyses indicated that a dysfunctional red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptor, phytochrome B (phyB), caused this phenotype. This finding is consistent with increased glyphosate sensitivity and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation in low R:FR light, and the induction of genes encoding enzymes of the shikimate pathway in high R:FR light. Expression of the shikimate pathway genes exhibited diurnal oscillation and this oscillation was altered in the phyB mutant. Furthermore, transcript analysis suggested that this diurnal oscillation was not only dependent on phyB but was also due to circadian regulatory mechanisms. Our data offer an explanation of the well documented observation that glyphosate treatment at various times throughout the day, with their specific composition of light quality and intensity, results in different efficiencies of the herbicide. PMID:24654847

  10. Metabolic profiling of goldfish (Carassius auratis) after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Wei; Fu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, He; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of Glyphosate as Phosphate Source: Biochemistry and Genetics of Bacterial Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechel, David L.; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microorganisms. Here phosphorus is found as phosphoric acid or phosphate ion, phosphoric acid esters, or phosphoric acid anhydrides. The latter compounds contain phosphorus that is bound only to oxygen. Hydrolytic, oxidative, and radical-based mechanisms for carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage have been described. This review deals with the radical-based mechanism employed by the carbon-phosphorus lyase of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, which involves reactions for activation of phosphonate, carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage, and further chemical transformation before a useful phosphate ion is generated in a series of seven or eight enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The phn genes, encoding the enzymes for this pathway, are widespread among bacterial species. The processes are described with emphasis on glyphosate as a substrate. Additionally, the catabolism of glyphosate is intimately connected with that of aminomethylphosphonate, which is also treated in this review. Results of physiological and genetic analyses are combined with those of bioinformatics analyses. PMID:24600043

  12. Assessment of toxicity of a glyphosate-based formulation using bacterial systems in lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, I; Alonso, J L; Romaguera, S; Carrasco, J M

    2007-05-01

    A new Aeromonas bioassay is described to assess the potential harmful effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup, in the Albufera lake, a protected area near Valencia. Viability markers as membrane integrity, culturability and beta-galactosidase production of Aeromonas caviae were studied to determine the influence of the herbicide in the bacterial cells. Data from the multifactor analysis of variance test showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between A. caviae counts of viability markers at the studied concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate). The effects of Roundup on microbial biota present in the lake were assessed by measuring the number of indigenous mesophilic Aeromonas in presence of different amounts of the herbicide at 0, 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate. In samples containing 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate a significant (PAlbufera lake water to Microtox luminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) also was determined. The EC50 values obtained were 36.4 mg l-1 and 64.0 mgl-1 of glyphosate respectively. The acidity (pH 4.5) of the herbicide formulation was the responsible of the observed toxicity.

  13. Effect of glyphosate on the sperm quality of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernanda Moreira; Varela Junior, Antonio Sergio; Corcini, Carine Dahl; da Silva, Alessandra Cardoso; Guazzelli, Vitória Gasperin; Tavares, Georgia; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    Glyphosate is a systemic, non-selective herbicide widely used in agriculture worldwide. It acts as an inhibitor of the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase by interrupting the synthesis of essential aromatic amino acids. This pathway is not present in animals, although some studies have shown that the herbicide glyphosate can affect fish reproduction. In this study, the effect of glyphosate on sperm quality of the fish Danio rerio was investigated after 24 and 96 h of exposure at concentrations of 5mg/L and 10mg/L. The spermatic cell concentration, sperm motility and motility period were measured employing conventional microscopy. The mitochondrial functionality, membrane integrity and DNA integrity were measured by fluorescence microscopy using specific probes. No significant differences in sperm concentration were observed; however, sperm motility and the motility period were reduced after exposure to both glyphosate concentrations during both exposure periods. The mitochondrial functionality and membrane and DNA integrity were also reduced at the highest concentration during both exposure periods. The results showed that glyphosate can induce harmful effects on reproductive parameters in D. rerio and that this change would reduce the fertility rate of these animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential microRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex of mouse offspring induced by glyphosate exposure during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hua; Xu, Linhao; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Xinli; Wu, Lihui

    2018-03-01

    Glyphosate is the active ingredient in numerous herbicide formulations. The role of glyphosate in neurotoxicity has been reported in human and animal models. However, the detailed mechanism of the role of glyphosate in neuronal development remains unknown. Recently, several studies have reported evidence linking neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) with gestational glyphosate exposure. The current group previously identified microRNAs (miRNAs) that are associated with the etiology of NDDs, but their expression levels in the developing brain following glyphosate exposure have not been characterized. In the present study, miRNA expression patterns were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 28 postnatal day mouse offspring following glyphosate exposure during pregnancy and lactation. An miRNA microarray detected 55 upregulated and 19 downregulated miRNAs in the PFC of mouse offspring, and 20 selected deregulated miRNAs were further evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 11 targets of these selected deregulated miRNAs were analyzed using bioinformatics. Gene Ontology (GO) terms associated with the relevant miRNAs included neurogenesis (GO:0050769), neuron differentiation (GO:0030182) and brain development (GO:0007420). The genes Cdkn1a, Numbl, Notch1, Fosl1 and Lef1 are involved in the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways, which are closely associated with neural development. PCR arrays for the mouse Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were used to validate the effects of glyphosate on the expression pattern of genes involved in the Wnt and Notch pathways. Nr4a2 and Wnt7b were downregulated, while Dkk1, Dixdc1, Runx1, Shh, Lef-1 and Axin2 were upregulated in the PFC of mice offspring following glyphosate exposure during pregnancy and lactation. These results indicated abnormalities of the Wnt/β-catenin and Notch pathways. These findings may be of particular interest for understanding the mechanism of glyphosate-induced neurotoxicity, as

  15. The role of L-type amino acid transporters in the uptake of glyphosate across mammalian epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Li, Gao; Wang, Zhuoyi; Si, Luqin; He, Sijie; Cai, Jialing; Huang, Jiangeng; Donovan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide due to its broad spectrum of activity and reported low toxicity to humans. Glyphosate has an amino acid-like structure that is highly polar and shows low bioavailability following oral ingestion and low systemic toxicity following intravenous exposures. Spray applications of glyphosate in agricultural or residential settings can result in topical or inhalation exposures to the herbicide. Limited systemic exposure to glyphosate occurs following skin contact, and pulmonary exposure has also been reported to be low. The results of nasal inhalation exposures, however, have not been evaluated. To investigate the mechanisms of glyphosate absorption across epithelial tissues, the permeation of glyphosate across Caco-2 cells, a gastrointestinal epithelium model, was compared with permeation across nasal respiratory and olfactory tissues excised from cows. Saturable glyphosate uptake was seen in all three tissues, indicating the activity of epithelial transporters. The uptake was shown to be ATP and Na(+) independent, and glyphosate permeability could be significantly reduced by the inclusion of competitive amino acids or specific LAT1/LAT2 transporter inhibitors. The pattern of inhibition of glyphosate permeability across Caco-2 and nasal mucosal tissues suggests that LAT1/2 play major roles in the transport of this amino-acid-like herbicide. Enhanced uptake into the epithelial cells at barrier mucosae, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, may result in more significant local and systemic effects than predicted from glyphosate's passive permeability, and enhanced uptake by the olfactory mucosa may result in further CNS disposition, potentially increasing the risk for brain-related toxicities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First confirmation and characterization of target and non-target site resistance to glyphosate in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Valenzuela, Jose Alfredo; Gherekhloo, Javid; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo Tomás; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo Enrique; Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Sánchez-González, Eduardo; De Prado, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Following the introduction of glyphosate-resistant (GR)-cotton crops in Mexico, farmers have relied upon glyphosate as being the only herbicide for in-season weed control. Continuous use of glyphosate within the same year and over multiple successive years has resulted in the selection of glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth (Amarantus palmeri). Dose-response assays confirmed resistance in seven different accessions. The resistance ratio based on GR 50 values (50% growth reduction) varied between 12 and 83. At 1000 μM glyphosate, shikimic acid accumulation in the S-accession was 30- to 2-fold higher at compared to R-accessions. At 96 h after treatment, 35-44% and 61% of applied 14 C-glyphosate was taken up by leaves of plants from R- and S-accessions, respectively. At this time, a significantly higher proportion of the glyphosate absorbed remained in the treated leaf of R-plants (55-69%) compared to S-plants (36%). Glyphosate metabolism was low and did not differ between resistant and susceptible plants. Glyphosate was differentially metabolized to AMPA and glyoxylate in plants of R- and S-accessions, although it was low in both accessions (glyphosate collected from GR-cotton crops from Mexico. This is the first study demonstrating glyphosate-resistance in Palmer amaranth from Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Spectroscopic Detection of Glyphosate in Water Assisted by Laser-Ablated Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Góes, Rafael Eleodoro; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, José Luís

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Its safety for both human health and aquatic biomes is a subject of wide debate. There are limits to glyphosate’s presence in bodies of water, and it is usually detected through complex analytical procedures. In this work, the presence of glyphosate is detected directly through optical interrogation of aqueous solution. For this purpose, silver nanoparticles were produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquids. Limits of detection of 0.9 mg/L and 3.2 mg/L were obtained with UV-Vis extinction and Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopies, respectively. The sensing mechanism was evaluated in the presence of potential interferents as well as with commercial glyphosate-based herbicides. PMID:28445394

  18. Low glyphosate rates do not affect Citrus limonia (L.) Osbeck seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravena, Renan; Victoria Filho, Ricardo; Alves, Pedro Luis Ca; Mazzafera, Paulo; Gravena, Adriana R

    2009-04-01

    Glyphosate is used to control weeds in citrus orchards, and accidental spraying or wind drift onto the seedlings may cause growth arrest owing to metabolism disturbance. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of non-lethal rates (0, 180, 360 and 720 g AI ha(-1)) of glyphosate on four-month-old 'Cravo' lime, Citrus limonia (L.) Osbeck, seedlings. Photosynthesis and the concentrations of shikimic acid, total free amino acids and phenolic acids were evaluated. Only transitory effects were observed in the contents of shikimate and total free amino acids. No visual effects were observed. The present study showed that glyphosate at non-lethal rates, which is very usual when accidental spraying or wind drift occurs in citrus orchard, did not cause severe metabolic damage in 'Cravo' lime seedlings. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of glyphosate and 2,4-D on earthworms (Eisenia foetida) in laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, F V; Moreira, J C

    2010-09-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to compare the effects of various concentrations of glyphosate and 2,4-D on earthworms (Eisenia foetida) cultured in Argissol during 56 days of incubation. The effects on earthworm growth, survival, and reproduction rates were verified for different exposure times. Earthworms kept in glyphosate-treated soil were classified as alive in all evaluations, but showed gradual and significant reduction in mean weight (50%) at all test concentrations. For 2,4-D, 100% mortality was observed in soil treated with 500 and 1,000 mg/kg. At 14 days, 30%-40% mortality levels were observed in all other concentrations. No cocoons or juveniles were found in soil treated with either herbicide. Glyphosate and 2,4-D demonstrated severe effects on the development and reproduction of Eisenia foetida in laboratory tests in the range of test concentrations.

  20. Monitoring glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in wells and drains using the sorbicell passive sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; de Jonge, Hubert; Møldrup, Per

    2012-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the world’s most extensively used weed control agents. Glyphosate, and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are suspected to be hazardous to human health and the aquatic environment. In Denmark, the extensive use has resulted in an increasing number of occurrences...... in groundwater wells and tile drains, stressing the need for extensive monitoring of this compound in the environment. Traditionally, monitoring programs are based on grab sampling which is time consuming and expensive due to the need for frequent sampling events. Using a passive sampling device, the Sorbi......Cell, will decrease the workload and number of samples freeing up funds for larger monitoring programs. When installed in a well the SorbiCell will continuously sample the water giving either a flux-weighed or time-weighted average measurement of the glyphosate/AMPA concentration throughout the sampling period...

  1. Deriva simulada de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre maracujazeiro amarelo Drift simulation of glyphosate commercial formulations on yellow passion fruit growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wagner Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate no desenvolvimento de plantas jovens de maracujazeiro amarelo. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, durante o período de março a abril de 2007. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 + 1, em que três foram as formulações de glyphosate e cinco foram as doses utilizadas acrescidas de testemunha sem herbicida. O trabalho foi conduzido com cinco repetições, sendo cada planta considerada como parcela experimental. As formulações comerciais aplicadas foram Roundup Transorb®, Roundup Original® e Zapp QI®, utilizando-se as seguintes doses (g e.a ha-1: 43,2; 86,4; 172,8; e 345,6 g ha-1. Aos 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, avaliaram-se os comprimentos da parte aérea, da raiz e total (cm; o diâmetro do caule (mm; o número de folhas e de ramificações primárias; a massa seca da parte aérea e da raiz das plantas (g; e a área foliar por planta (cm². Aos 7, 14 e 28 DAA, avaliou-se, visualmente, a porcentagem de intoxicação das plantas. O glyphosate em deriva simulada, independentemente das formulações utilizadas, ocasionou injúrias no maracujazeiro amarelo, acarretando redução no crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. As formulações Roundup Transorb® e Roundup Original® foram mais prejudiciais às plantas que o Zapp Qi®. O maracujazeiro amarelo mostrou-se suscetível à deriva, devendo o glyphosate ser usado com cuidado, de maneira a atingir somente as plantas daninhas a serem controladas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of drift simulation of commercial formulations of glyphosate on the growth of young plants of yellow passion fruit. The work was carried out at the Plant Science Department of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (MG, Brazil, from March to April 2007. The

  2. Glyphosate input modifies microbial community structure in clear and turbid freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, H; Vera, M S; Vinocur, A; Pérez, G; Ferraro, M; Menéndez Helman, R J; Dos Santos Afonso, M

    2016-03-01

    Since it was commercially introduced in 1974, glyphosate has been one of the most commonly used herbicides in agriculture worldwide, and there is growing concern about its adverse effects on the environment. Assuming that glyphosate may increase the organic turbidity of water bodies, we evaluated the effect of a single application of 2.4 ± 0.1 mg l(-1) of glyphosate (technical grade) on freshwater bacterioplankton and phytoplankton (pico, micro, and nanophytoplankton) and on the physical and chemical properties of the water. We used outdoor experimental mesocosms under clear and oligotrophic (phytoplanktonic chlorophyll a = 2.04 μg l(-1); turbidity = 2.0 NTU) and organic turbid and eutrophic (phytoplanktonic chlorophyll a = 50.3 μg l(-1); turbidity = 16.0 NTU) scenarios. Samplings were conducted at the beginning of the experiment and at 1, 8, 19, and 33 days after glyphosate addition. For both typologies, the herbicide affected the abiotic water properties (with a marked increase in total phosphorus), but it did not affect the structure of micro and nanophytoplankton. In clear waters, glyphosate treatment induced a trend toward higher bacteria and picoeukaryotes abundances, while there was a 2 to 2.5-fold increase in picocyanobacteria number. In turbid waters, without picoeukaryotes at the beginning of the experiment, glyphosate decreased bacteria abundance but increased the number of picocyanobacteria, suggesting a direct favorable effect. Moreover, our results show that the impact of the herbicide was observed in microorganisms from both oligo and eutrophic conditions, indicating that the impact would be independent of the trophic status of the water body.

  3. Disposition and metabolism of glyphosate in the Sprague Dawley rat following oral administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, D.W.; Warren, J.A.; Hopkins, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Five groups of male SD rats were administered 14 C-labelled glyphosate, (N-[(phosphonomethyl)glycine]) by gavage at a dose level of 10 mg/kg. Animals were killed 2, 6.3, 28, 96 and 168 hours after dosing and the amount of glyphosate-derived material in various organs and excreta were determined. In addition, the metabolic profile in tissues containing > 1% of the administered dose was evaluated. Approximately 93% of the body burden 2 hours after administration was associated with the GI contents and small intestinal tissue. The total body burden 7 days after administration was ∼1% of the dose. Only the kidneys, small intestine, colon, bone, GI contents, residual carcass contained > 1% of the dose 6 hours after administration and the metabolic profiles of these tissues indicated that ∼100% of the body burden was present as unmetabolized parent material. Glyphosate was rapidly eliminated from these tissues with halflives ranging from 20 to 90 hours. A minor metabolite comprising < 0.1% of the dose was detected in the GI contents and colon tissue of 3 animals. Less than 40% of the administered dose was absorbed from the gut and glyphosate was rapidly eliminated from the body with urine and feces being equally important routes of elimination. The whole body halflife was approximately 52 hours. The results from this study indicate that no toxic metabolites of glyphosate were produced, as there was little evidence of metabolism, and essentially 100% of the body burden was parent glyphosate with no significant persistence of accumulated material

  4. Researches concerning the influence of inorganic substratum over glyphosate mineralization capacity in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica NEGREA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to study the dynamic of glyphosate mineralization in different agricultural soils characteristic to the west part of Romania: Black Chernozem, Typical Gleysol, Phaeozom and Slight Vertisol with moderate carbonatation. The degradation experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions using Glyphosatephosphonomethyl- 14C-labeled with specific activity 2,2mCi/mmol. The experimental results indicated that the dynamic of glyphosate mineralization until the stage CO2 in present of inorganic compounds is different for each soil, the mineralization of the herbicide is important in the first days of incubation and then decreases with time until the end of experimentation.

  5. Impacto do glyphosate associado ao endossulfan e tebuconazole sobre microbiota do solo na cultura da soja

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Marcelo Rodrigues dos

    2009-01-01

    A adoção das culturas transgênicas tem levado à maior utilização de glyphosate. Esse produto associado a outros agrotóxicos podem impactar negativamente o ambiente. Dessa forma objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os impactos da aplicação de glyphosate, endossulfan, tebuconazole e da mistura fomesafen + fluazifop-ρ-butil na microbiota do solo, nos microrganismos endossimbiontes, na nutrição mineral e na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja Roundup Ready (RR). O experimento foi conduz...

  6. Drift simulation of glyphosate commercial formulations on yellow passion fruit growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Júnior, A.; Tuffi Santos, L.D.; Santos, C.E.M.; Silva, J.O.C.; Pimentel, L.D.; Bruckner, C.H.; Ferreira, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate no desenvolvimento de plantas jovens de maracujazeiro amarelo. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, durante o período de março a abril de 2007. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 + 1, em que três foram as formulações de glyphosate e cinco foram as doses utilizadas a...

  7. Influence of repeated applications of glyphosate on its persistence and soil bioactivity.

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRÉA, M.M. de; PERES, T.B.; LUCHINI, L.C.; BAZARIN, S.; PAPINI, S.; MATALLO, M.B.; SAVOY, V.L.T.

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide degradation studies are essential to evaluate its impact in the environment and on non-target organisms. The effect of repeated soil applications of the herbicide glyphosate on its dissipation and on soil microorganisms was studied by radiometric and microbial techniques. Results indicated fast dissipation of the [14C]-glyphosate or [14C]metabolites extractable residues (half-life of 0.92±0.29 month), but increasing half-lives of total mineralization ranging from 2.2 to 3.4 months a...

  8. IMPACT OF GLYPHOSATE ON MICROBIAL ATTRIBUTES OF SOI L PLANTED WITH TWO SPECIES OF PASSION FRUIT

    OpenAIRE

    ERIKA VALENTE DE MEDEIROS; KRYSTAL DE ALCANTARA NOTARO; CIDNEY BARBOSA BEZERRA; ANTÔNIO RICARDO SANTOS DE ANDRADE; GUSTAVO PEREIRA DUDA

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of best known agrochemicals and i s used to prevent the spread of weeds. However, little is known about the impact of this c hemical on non-target organisms such as the soil mi crobial community. Therefore, the objective of this study w as to evaluate the effect of glyphosate on the micr oorgan- ism population and the microbial attributes of soil s cultivated with yellow and sweet passion fruits. The experi- mental design used was complete randomized blocks i n a 3 x 2 facto...

  9. The electronic Trauma Health Record: design and usability of a novel tablet-based tool for trauma care and injury surveillance in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Eiman; Schuurman, Nadine; Nicol, Andrew J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Cinnamon, Jonathan; Taulu, Tracey; Ricker, Britta; Garbutt Brown, David Ross; Navsaria, Pradeep; Hameed, S Morad

    2014-01-01

    Ninety percent of global trauma deaths occur in under-resourced or remote environments, with little or no capacity for injury surveillance. We hypothesized that emerging electronic and web-based technologies could enable design of a tablet-based application, the electronic Trauma Health Record (eTHR), used by front-line clinicians to inform trauma care and acquire injury surveillance data for injury control and health policy development. The study was conducted in 3 phases: 1. Design of an electronic application capable of supporting clinical care and injury surveillance; 2. Preliminary feasibility testing of eTHR in a low-resource, high-volume trauma center; and 3. Qualitative usability testing with 22 trauma clinicians from a spectrum of high- and low-resource and urban and remote settings including Vancouver General Hospital, Whitehorse General Hospital, British Columbia Mobile Medical Unit, and Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The eTHR was designed with 3 key sections (admission note, operative note, discharge summary), and 3 key capabilities (clinical checklist creation, injury severity scoring, wireless data transfer to electronic registries). Clinician-driven registry data collection proved to be feasible, with some limitations, in a busy South African trauma center. In pilot testing at a level I trauma center in Cape Town, use of eTHR as a clinical tool allowed for creation of a real-time, self-populating trauma database. Usability assessments with traumatologists in various settings revealed the need for unique eTHR adaptations according to environments of intended use. In all settings, eTHR was found to be user-friendly and have ready appeal for frontline clinicians. The eTHR has potential to be used as an electronic medical record, guiding clinical care while providing data for injury surveillance, without significantly hindering hospital workflow in various health-care settings. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published

  10. Error-prone PCR mutation of Ls-EPSPS gene from Liriope spicata conferring to its enhanced glyphosate-resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chanjuan; Xie, Hongjie; Chen, Shiguo; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour has a unique LsEPSPS structure contributing to the highest-ever-recognized natural glyphosate tolerance. The transformed LsEPSPS confers increased glyphosate resistance to E. coli and A. thaliana. However, the increased glyphosate-resistance level is not high enough to be of commercial value. Therefore, LsEPSPS was subjected to error-prone PCR to screen mutant EPSPS genes capable of endowing higher resistance levels. A mutant designated as ELs-EPSPS having five mutated amino acids (37Val, 67Asn, 277Ser, 351Gly and 422Gly) was selected for its ability to confer improved resistance to glyphosate. Expression of ELs-EPSPS in recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3) strains enhanced resistance to glyphosate in comparison to both the LsEPSPS-transformed and -untransformed controls. Furthermore, transgenic ELs-EPSPS A. thaliana was about 5.4 fold and 2-fold resistance to glyphosate compared with the wild-type and the Ls-EPSPS-transgenic plants, respectively. Therefore, the mutated ELs-EPSPS gene has potential value for has potential for the development of glyphosate-resistant crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of regulated genes conferring resistance to high concentrations of glyphosate in a new strain of Enterobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yun-Yan; Gai, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Tuan-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity. Most plants and microbes are sensitive to glyphosate. However, transgenic-resistant crops that contain a modified epsps obtained from the resistant microbes have been commercially successful and therefore, new resistance genes and their adaptive regulatory mechanisms are of great interest. In this study, a soil-borne, glyphosate-resistant bacterium was selected and identified as Enterobacter. The EPSPS in this strain was found to have been altered to a resistant one. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the glyphosate were screened using microarray techniques. Under treatment, argF, sdhA, ivbL, rrfA-H were downregulated, whereas the transcripts of speA, osmY, pflB, ahpC, fusA, deoA, uxaC, rpoD and a few ribosomal protein genes were upregulated. Data were verified by quantitative real-time PCR on selected genes. All transcriptional changes appeared to protect the bacteria from glyphosate and associated osmotic, acidic and oxidative stresses. Many DEGs may have the potential to confer resistance to glyphosate alone, and some may be closely related to the shikimate pathway, reflecting the complex gene interaction network for glyphosate resistance. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Metabolomic Analyses of Ipomoea lacunosa Biotypes with Contrasting Glyphosate Tolerance Captures Herbicide-Induced Differential Perturbations in Cellular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2018-02-28

    Glyphosate-tolerant Ipomoea lacunosa is emerging as a problematic weed in the southeastern United States. Metabolomic profiling was conducted to examine the innate physiology and the glyphosate induced perturbations in two biotypes of I. lacunosa (WAS and QUI) that had contrasting glyphosate tolerance. Compared to the less tolerant QUI-biotype, the innate metabolism of the more tolerant WAS-biotype was characterized by a higher abundance of amino acids, and pyruvate; whereas the sugar profile of the QUI biotype was dominated by the transport sugar sucrose. Glyphosate application (80 g ae/ha) caused similar shikimate accumulation in both biotypes. Compared to QUI, in WAS, the content of aromatic amino acids was less affected by glyphosate treatment, and the content of Ala, Val, Ile, and Pro increased. However, the total sugars decreased by ∼75% in WAS, compared to ∼50% decrease in QUI. The innate, higher proportional abundance, of the transport-sugar sucrose in QUI coud partly explain the higher translocation and greater sensitivity of this biotype to glyphosate. The decrease in sugars, accompanied by an increase in amino acids could delay feedback regulation of upstream enzymes of the shikimate acid pathway in WAS, which could contribute to a greater glyphosate tolerance. Our study, through a metabolomics approach, provides complementary data that elucidates the cellular physiology of herbicide tolerance in Ipomoea lacunosa biotypes.

  13. Impact of a commercial glyphosate formulation on adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions on paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divisekara, T; Navaratne, A N; Abeysekara, A S K

    2018-05-01

    Use of glyphosate as a weedicide on rice cultivation has been a controversial issue in Sri Lanka, due to the hypothesis that the metal complexes of commercial glyphosate is one of the causative factors of Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) prevalent in some parts of Sri Lanka. The effect of commercial glyphosate on the adsorption and desorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions on selective paddy soil studied using batch experiments, over a wide concentration range, indicates that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model is obeyed at low initial metal ion concentrations while the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model obeys at high metal ion concentrations in the presence and absence of glyphosate. For all cases, adsorption of both Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions obeys pseudo second order kinetics, suggesting that initial adsorption is a chemisorption process. In the presence of glyphosate formulation, the extent of adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions on soil is decreased, while their desorption is increased at high concentrations of glyphosate. Low concentrations of glyphosate formulation do not significantly affect the desorption of metal ions from soil. Reduction of adsorption leads to enhance the concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in the aqueous phase when in contact with soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA damage and methylation induced by glyphosate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska, Marta; Reszka, Edyta; Woźniak, Katarzyna; Jabłońska, Ewa; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Bukowska, Bożena

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is a very important herbicide that is widely used in the agriculture, and thus the exposure of humans to this substance and its metabolites has been noted. The purpose of this study was to assess DNA damage (determination of single and double strand-breaks by the comet assay) as well as to evaluate DNA methylation (global DNA methylation and methylation of p16 (CDKN2A) and p53 (TP53) promoter regions) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to glyphosate. PBMCs were incubated with the compound studied at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mM for 24 h. The study has shown that glyphosate induced DNA lesions, which were effectively repaired. However, PBMCs were unable to repair completely DNA damage induced by glyphosate. We also observed a decrease in global DNA methylation level at 0.25 mM of glyphosate. Glyphosate at 0.25 mM and 0.5 mM increased p53 promoter methylation, while it did not induce statistically significant changes in methylation of p16 promoter. To sum up, we have shown for the first time that glyphosate (at high concentrations from 0.5 to 10 mM) may induce DNA damage in leucocytes such as PBMCs and cause DNA methylation in human cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system. PMID:26754957

  16. Evaluation of various glyphosate concentrations on DNA damage in human Raji cells and its impact on cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michelle; Peck, Connor; Meng, Wei; Heaton, Matthew; Robison, Richard; O'Neill, Kim

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate is a highly used active compound in agriculturally based pesticides. The literature regarding the toxicity of glyphosate to human cells has been highly inconsistent. We studied the resulting DNA damage and cytotoxicity of various glyphosate concentrations on human cells to evaluate DNA damaging potential. Utilizing human Raji cells, DNA damage was quantified using the comet assay, while cytotoxicity was further analyzed using MTT viability assays. Several glyphosate concentrations were assessed, ranging from 15 mM to 0.1 μM. We found that glyphosate treatment is lethal to Raji cells at concentrations above 10 mM, yet has no cytotoxic effects at concentrations at or below 100 μM. Treatment concentrations of 1 mM and 5 mM induce statistically significant DNA damage to Raji cells following 30-60 min of treatment, however, cells show a slow recovery from initial damage and cell viability is unaffected after 2 h. At these same concentrations, cells treated with additional compound did not recover and maintained high levels of DNA damage. While the cytotoxicity of glyphosate appears to be minimal for physiologically relevant concentrations, the compound has a definitive cytotoxic nature in human cells at high concentrations. Our data also suggests a mammalian metabolic pathway for the degradation of glyphosate may be present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What do farmers' weed control decisions imply about glyphosate resistance? Evidence from surveys of US corn fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Seth J; McFadden, Jonathan R; Smith, David J

    2018-05-01

    The first case of glyphosate-resistant weeds in the United States was documented in 1998, 2 years after the commercialization of genetically engineered herbicide-resistant (HR) corn and soybeans. Currently, over 15 glyphosate-resistant weed species affect US crop production areas. These weeds have the potential to reduce yields, increase costs, and lower farm profitability. The objective of our study is to develop a behavioral model of farmers' weed management decisions and use it to analyze weed resistance to glyphosate in US corn farms. On average, we find that weed control increased US corn yields by 3700 kg ha -1 (worth approximately $US 255 ha -1 ) in 2005 and 3500 kg ha -1 (worth approximately $US 575 ha -1 ) in 2010. If glyphosate resistant weeds were absent, glyphosate killed approximately 99% of weeds, on average, when applied at the label rate in HR production systems. Average control was dramatically lower in states where glyphosate resistance was widespread. We find that glyphosate resistance had a significant impact on weed control costs and corn yields of US farmers in 2005 and 2010. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Crescimento e morfoanatomia foliar de eucalipto sob efeito de deriva do glyphosate Leaf growth and morphoanatomy of eucalypt under the effect of glyphosate drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da deriva do glyphosate durante aplicação são prejudiciais à cultura do eucalipto. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da deriva simulada do glyphosate no crescimento e na morfoanatomia foliar do eucalipto. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, sendo a parcela experimental constituída de uma planta cultivada em vaso com 10 litros de solo. Os tratamentos foram 0; 43,2; 86,4; 172,8; e 345,6 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate, aplicados aos 40 dias após o plantio das mudas com pulverizador de precisão, de modo a não atingir o terço superior das plantas. Foram descritas as alterações morfológicas na parte aérea e avaliada a porcentagem de intoxicação em relação à testemunha. Aos 7 e 15 dias após aplicação (DAA, folhas coletadas no terceiro nó do primeiro ramo basal das plantas foram fixadas em FAA50 e estocadas em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais da região mediana foram corados com azul de astra e fucsina básica e montados em lâminas permanentes. No laminário preparado foram mensuradas as espessuras do limbo, do parênquima paliçádico (PPA e lacunoso (PLA, da epiderme das faces adaxial (EAD e abaxial (EAB, bem como a proporção percentual da área de cada tecido, utilizando-se o software Image-Pro Plus. A partir de 5 DAA observou-se murcha, clorose e enrolamento das folhas nos ápices das plantas pulverizadas com 172,8 e 345,6 g ha¹ de glyphosate. As plantas submetidas a 345,6 g e.a. ha¹ de glyphosate alcançaram 58,75% de toxidez aos 30 DAA, apresentando brotações anormais, o que não foi verificado nas concentrações menores. Aos 7 e 15 DAA, com 172,8 e 345,6 g e.a. ha¹ de glyphosate observaram-se áreas necrosadas e hiperplasia das células do parênquima clorofiliano e da epiderme. Em resposta à injúria, verificou-se a proliferação celular, formando tecido de cicatrização homogêneo, além de acúmulo de compostos fenólicos nas áreas afetadas. Aos 7 DAA verificou

  19. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  20. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  1. The pattern of shikimate pathway and phenylpropanoids after inhibition by glyphosate or quinate feeding in pea roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalza, Ana; Orcaray, Luis; Fernández-Escalada, Manuel; Zulet-González, Ainhoa; Royuela, Mercedes

    2017-09-01

    The shikimate pathway is a metabolic route for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids (AAAs) (i.e. phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). A key enzyme of shikimate pathway (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, EPSPS) is the target of the widely used herbicide glyphosate. Quinate is a compound synthesized in plants through a side branch of the shikimate pathway. Glyphosate provokes quinate accumulation and exogenous quinate application to plants shows a potential role of quinate in the toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate. Based on this, we hypothesized that the role of quinate accumulation in the toxicity of the glyphosate would be mediated by a deregulation of the shikimate pathway. In this study the effect of the glyphosate and of the exogenous quinate was evaluated in roots of pea plants by analyzing the time course of a full metabolic map of several metabolites of shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Glyphosate application induced an increase of the 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS, first enzyme of the shikimate pathway) protein and accumulation of metabolites upstream of the enzyme EPSPS. No common effects on the metabolites and regulation of shikimate pathway were detected between quinate and glyphosate treatments, supporting that the importance of quinate in the mode of action of glyphosate is not mediated by a common alteration of the regulation of the shikimate pathway. Contrary to glyphosate, the exogenous quinate supplied was probably incorporated into the main trunk from the branch pathway and accumulated in the final products, such as lignin, concomitant with a decrease in the amount of DAHPS protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Depth distribution of glyphosate and AMPA under diferent tillage system and soils in long-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis; De Geronimo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) is a post-emergence, non-selective, foliar herbicide. Around 200 million liters of this herbicide are applied every year in Argentina, where the main agricultural practice is no-till (NT), accounting for 78 % of the cultivated land. In this work, we studied the depth distribution of glyphosate in long-term experiments (more than 15 years) at different locations under NT and conventional tillage (CT). Samples from 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm depth with four replication and two treatments NT CT at three locations: Balcarce (BA) a loam soil, Bordenave (BO) a sandy loam soil y Marcos Juarez a silty loam soil (MJ). The glyphosate concentration in the first 2 cm of soil was, on the average, 70% greater than in the next 2-5 cm. The mass of glyphosate in CT was higher at 2 to 10 cm depth. The depth concentration of AMPA follows the same trend than glyphosate, although its average concentration at 0-2 cm depth is 28 times higher than the glyphosate concentration at 2-5 cm (glyphosate = 147 ppb and AMPA = 4100 ppb). Beside the AMPA concentration at 0-2 cm depth is greater in NT than in CT, the mass of AMPA is higher in CT only for the Balcarce location. To our knowledge, this study is the first dealing with the depth distribution of glyphosate concentration in soils under different soil managements. In the present study, it was demonstrated that glyphosate and AMPA are present in soils under agricultural activity with maximum concentration in the first two cm of soil and the AMPA concentration at this depth is greater in NT than in CT.

  3. Occurrence and levels of glyphosate and AMPA in shallow lakes from the Pampean and Patagonian regions of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Berman, M; Marino, D J G; Quiroga, María Victoria; Zagarese, Horacio

    2018-06-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds that compete with commercial crops. In Argentina, the use of glyphosate-based herbicides increased dramatically (up to ∼200,000 tons on 2012) since the introduction of glyphosate-resistant crops, such as transgenic soy and resistant corn, and the adoption of non-till practices in the 1990's. Sallow lakes within the Pampa region may be potentially impacted by continuous herbicide usage. We surveyed 52 shallow lakes from the Pampa region (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) to assess the occurrence and concentrations of glyphosate and its main degradation product (AMPA). For comparison, we also sampled 24 shallow lakes from an area with no agricultural use of glyphosate (Northern Patagonia). Glyphosate and AMPA were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS ESI (±) in lake water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment samples. Within the Pampa region, glyphosate residues were detected in >40% of samples. Glyphosate residues were detected more frequently in sediment and surface water than in SPM samples. The mean (maximum) concentrations of glyphosate were 2.11 (4.52) μg l -1 for surface water; 0.10 (0.13) μg l -1 for SPM and 10.47 (20.34) μg kg -1 for sediment samples, respectively. Whereas, mean (maximum) concentrations of AMPA were 0.84 and (0.90) μg l -1 for surface water; 0.07 (0.07) μg l -1 for SPM; and 22.53 (32.89) μg kg -1 for sediment samples. The herbicide was not detected in samples from the Patagonian region. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence and concentrations of the herbicide in freshwater lakes of Argentina. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Resposta de varjão (Parkia multijuga a subdoses de glyphosate Response of varjão (Parkia multijuga seedlings to reduced glyphosate rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de madeira no Brasil e no mundo apresenta demanda crescente. Em confronto com a pressão ambientalista de manutenção das florestas nativas, há necessidade de se estabelecerem áreas de reflorestamento para suprir o aumento da demanda de madeira, com a utilização de formas de manejo e tratos culturais que permitam o pleno crescimento das essências florestais. Um dos principais problemas do manejo de reflorestamento é a interferência das plantas daninhas após o plantio das mudas no campo, sendo o uso de herbicidas a principal forma de manejo. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de doses crescentes de glyphosate em mudas de varjão em condições de ambiente protegido. Foram avaliadas as doses de 0, 90, 180, 360 e 720 g ha-1 de glyphosate em plantas com quatro meses de idade, observando a intoxicação das plantas, altura, diâmetro do caule e número de folhas. O varjão, nas condições do experimento, apresentou tolerância e recuperação ao glyphosate até a dose de 360 g ha-1. Doses superiores a esta retardaram o crescimento da planta. O prejuízo causado pela deriva de glyphosate nessas plantas foi diretamente proporcional ao aumento da dose. Os sintomas evoluíram para queda de folhas, comprometendo o crescimento das plantas.Wood consumption has significantly increased in Brazil and worldwide.The environmental pressure to preserve native forest led to the need to establish reforestation areas to meet the increasing wood demand by applying cultural practices and management allowing a total growth of forest trees. One of the main problems in reforestation management is weed competition after seedling planting, with herbicide use being the main form of management. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of increasing rates of glyphosate on Varjão seedlings, under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 90, 180, 360 and 720 g ha-1 of glyphosate were evaluated in four

  5. Fenologia da trapoeraba como indicador para tolerância ao herbicida glyphosate Phenology of bengal dayflower as indicator of glyphosate tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.R Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotineiramente, tem sido desconsiderada a contribuição do estádio de desenvolvimento das espécies de plantas daninhas nas análises de tolerância ou resistência a herbicidas, o que pode resultar em divergências entre a pesquisa teórica e a aplicação prática dos dados. Nesse sentido, este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta biológica da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, comparativamente ao capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea, a aplicações de doses do herbicida glyphosate, em seis estádios fenológicos. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em casa de vegetação, submetendo-se plantas de trapoeraba e capim-marmelada ao esquema fatorial de tratamentos 9 x 6, em que nove foram as doses de glyphosate e seis foram os estádios fenológicos das plantas daninhas, variáveis entre a emissão da primeira folha definitiva e o início do florescimento. Por meio do emprego de curvas de dose-resposta e de regressões polinomiais, concluiu-se que o estádio de desenvolvimento da trapoeraba contribui significativamente para o grau de tolerância da espécie ao herbicida glyphosate, de modo que, comparativamente ao capim-marmelada, plantas de trapoeraba tornam-se quatro vezes mais tolerantes ao glyphosate a cada dez unidades de desenvolvimento fenológico na escala BBCH. Essas considerações possuem importante aplicabilidade prática, justificando medidas de controle químico em estádios iniciais do crescimento da trapoeraba.The importance of the phenological development of weeds has been frequently ignored when analyzing plant-herbicide tolerance or resistance, what may result on divergences between theoretical research and practical data application. Thus, this work was carried out to evaluate the biological response of Bengal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis, comparatively to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea, to the application of different rates of glyphosate, at six phenological stages. Two

  6. Eficiência de glyphosate no controle de Commelina benghalensis e Commelina diffusa Efficiency of glyphosate in the control of Commelina benghalensis and Commelina diffusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C. Santos

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A planta daninha trapoeraba (Commelina spp. possui grande capacidade de sobreviver em ambientes diversificados, o que dificulta o seu controle. Em cafezais da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, onde o herbicida glyphosate é aplicado repetidamente, as espécies Commelina benghalensis e C. diffusa têm apresentado tolerância a este herbicida. Para confirmar esse fato e verificar o efeito de doses crescentes de glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.160, 2.880 e 3.600 g i.a. ha-1 no controle dessas duas espécies de plantas daninhas, instalou-se um experimento no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. As doses do herbicida foram aplicadas no período de florescimento de plantas de trapoeraba cultivadas em caixas de polietileno com dimensões de 10 cm de altura, 27,5 cm de largura e 39,5 cm de comprimento, em ambiente desprotegido. A eficácia dos tratamentos foi avaliada por meio da porcentagem de controle em relação à testemunha e da biomassa seca da parte aérea que sobreviveu aos tratamentos. C. benghalensis foi eficientemente controlada pelo glyphosate, mas C. diffusa apresentou tolerância. Para C. benghalensis o controle foi acima de 94% a partir da menor dose, 25 dias após tratamento (DAT e de 100% em todas as doses aos 63 DAT. Para C. diffusa, em geral, quanto maior a dose de glyphosate, menor a biomassa seca da parte aérea. Entretanto, mesmo nas três maiores doses, nas quais se observou, aos 46 DAT, até 98,3% de controle, constatou-se regeneração de plantas aos 88 DAT. Nas condições do experimento, o glyphosate proporcionou excelente controle de C. benghalensis a partir de 720 g i.a. ha-1, 25 DAT. Contudo, excelente controle de C. diffusa por mais de 60 dias só foi obtido a partir de 2.880 g i.a. ha-1 de glyphosate.The weed dayflower, Commelina spp., can survive in a great diversity of environments, what makes its control difficult. In coffee plantations of the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais - Brazil, glyphosate

  7. Resposta de diferentes populações de Digitaria insularis ao herbicida glyphosate Response of different Digitaria insularis populations to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M Correia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com estse trabalho avaliar o controle químico de diferentes populações de capim-amargoso (Digitaria insularis pelo herbicida glyphosate por meio de curva de dose-resposta, além de propor tratamentos alternativos para as populações mais tolerantes. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 9. As sementes de capim-amargoso foram coletadas em cinco locais: área de produção de grãos da Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Produção da UNESP, Jaboticabal (SP; área de produção comercial de grãos, localizada nos municípios de Campo Florido-MG e Rio Verde-GO; pomar de laranja, localizado no município de Matão (SP; e área não agrícola sem histórico da aplicação de glyphosate (Jaboticabal-SP. O glyphosate (0D, 1/4D, 1/2D, D, 2D, 4D e 8D, em que D é a dose recomendada de 1,5 kg ha-1 de equivalente ácido e as suas associações [glyphosate + fluazifop-p-butil (1,5 + 0,25 kg ha-1 e glyphosate (1,5 kg ha-1 com sequencial de diuron + paraquat (0,20 + 0,40 kg ha-1 + 0,2% de surfatante] foram pulverizados em plantas de sete a oito perfilhos e altura média de 20 cm. As populações de capim-amargoso de Campo Florido e Rio Verde foram consideradas suscetíveis; as de Jaboticabal e Matão, tolerantes; e a da área não agrícola, de sensibilidade intermediária. A associação de glyphosate ao fluazifop ou a sua aplicação com sequencial de diuron + paraquat foram eficazes no controle das populações mais tolerantes de capim-amargoso.The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical control of different sourgrass (Digitaria insularis populations by the herbicide glyphosate through dose-response curves, besides considering alternative treatments to control tolerant populations. A randomized block design was used with four replications, in a factorial scheme (5 x 9. Sourgrass seeds were colleted from five locations: a grain production area located at the educational

  8. Changes in microbial community structure following herbicide (glyphosate) additions to forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice W. Ratcliff; Matt D. Busse; Carol J. Shestak

    2006-01-01

    Glyphosate applied at the recommended field rate to a clay loam and a sandy loam forest soil resulted in few changes in microbial community structure. Total and culturable bacteria, fungal hyphal length, bacterial:fungal biomass, carbon utilization profiles (BIOLOG), and bacterial and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were unaffected 1, 3, 7, or 30 days...

  9. EPSPS variability, gene expression, and enzymatic activity in glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Digitaria insularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, E; Barroso, A A M; Vasconcelos, T S; López-Rubio, A; Albrecht, A J P; Victoria Filho, R; Carrer, H

    2016-08-12

    Weed resistance to herbicides is a natural phenomenon that exerts selection on individuals in a population. In Brazil, glyphosate resistance was recently detected in Digitaria insularis. The objective of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of weed resistance in this plant, including genetic variability, allelism, amino acid substitutions, gene expression, and enzymatic activity levels. Most of these have not previously been studied in this species. D. insularis DNA sequences were used to analyze genetic variability. cDNA from resistant and susceptible plants was used to identify mutations, alleles, and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) expression, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, EPSPS activity was measured. We found a decrease in genetic variability between populations related to glyphosate application. Substitutions from proline to threonine and tyrosine to cysteine led to a decrease in EPSPS affinity for the glyphosate. In addition, the EPSPS enzymatic activity was slightly higher in resistant plants, whereas EPSPS gene expression was almost identical in both biotypes, suggesting feedback regulation at different levels. To conclude, our results suggest new molecular mechanisms used by D. insularis to increase glyphosate resistance.

  10. Effects of exposure to glyphosate in male and female mice behavior in pubertal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia de Oliveira Joaquim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the effects of pre-pubertal exposure of male and female mice to a commercial formulation of glyphosate on sexual dimorphism observed in animal models of emotionality, anxiety and depression. For this, mice were exposed from 23 days of age (PND until PND 45 to glyphosate (50 mg/kg, per os or saline solution, and, ten days after the end of treatments, male and female mice were observed in the open field (OF, elevated plus maze (EPM or forced swimming test (FWT. Results showed that exposure to glyphosate: 1 reduced the locomotion frequency of male mice similarly to female mice in the OF and female mice had an increase in rearing behavior and in the immobility time; 2 reduced in male mice the motor activity both in the OF and EPM, while no effects were observed in female mice; 3 in the SWT male mice had a decreased time of float similarly female mice. We concluded that pre-pubertal exposure to glyphosate reduced in male mice the capacity of exploration in the OF and EPM tests suggesting that the herbicide interfered with the central mechanism related to brain masculinization of exploratory and anxiety behavioral models. In the FWT it was observed a decreased depressive response in male mice while in female an increased response was detected.

  11. Approche expérimentale de l'utilisation de glyphosate dans le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approche expérimentale de l'utilisation de glyphosate dans le contrôle de Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae), une espèce envahissante dans la réserve communautaire de la forêt d'Analalava-Foulpointe (Madagascar)

  12. Glyphosate degradation as a soil health indicator for heavy metal polluted soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kools, S.A.E.; van Roovert, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a commonly used herbicide in grassland soils and microorganisms control its degradation. We introduce the concept of using the degradation rate as an indicator for ecosystem health. Testing this concept, we used soils with a long history of heavy metal pollution (Cu, Pb, and Zn). We

  13. Allele exchange at the EPSPS locus confers glyphosate tolerance in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Aaron W; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Cermak, Tomas; Mutka, Andrew M; Vijayaraghavan, Anupama; Boyher, Adam; Starker, Colby G; Bart, Rebecca; Voytas, Daniel F; Taylor, Nigel J

    2017-12-09

    Effective weed control can protect yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots. Farmers could benefit from using herbicide with a tolerant cultivar. We applied traditional transgenesis and gene editing to generate robust glyphosate tolerance in cassava. By comparing promoters regulating expression of transformed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) genes with various paired amino acid substitutions, we found that strong constitutive expression is required to achieve glyphosate tolerance during in vitro selection and in whole cassava plants. Using strategies that exploit homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathways, we precisely introduced the best-performing allele into the cassava genome, simultaneously creating a promoter swap and dual amino acid substitutions at the endogenous EPSPS locus. Primary EPSPS-edited plants were phenotypically normal, tolerant to high doses of glyphosate, with some free of detectable T-DNA integrations. Our methods demonstrate an editing strategy for creating glyphosate tolerance in crop plants and demonstrate the potential of gene editing for further improvement of cassava. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from an Agricultural Field over a Twelve-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    2014-01-01

    content at the time of application and the level of the groundwater table relative to the drain depth was essential for whether solutes were detected in the drainage runoff. We present a leaching risk chart to illustrate the dependence of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particle leaching based on precipitation...

  15. Lignification of the plant and seed quality of RR soybeans sprayed with herbicide glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fortes Gris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in levels of lignin in the plant between conventional and transgenic cultivars RR has been reported by several authors, however, there are few studies evaluating the influence of spraying of glyphosate on the lignin in the plant and RR soybean seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of RR transgenic soybean seeds and the lignin contents of plants sprayed with the herbicide glyphosate. The assays were conducted both in greenhouse and field in the municipality of Lavras, MG, in the agricultural year 2007/08. The experiment was arranged in a splitplot design with four replicates, considering the treatments hand weeding and herbicide glyphosate as plots, and five RR soybean cultivars (BRS 245 RR, BRS 247 RR, Valiosa RR, Silvânia RR and Baliza RR as splitplots. In the greenhouse, the cultivars tested were BRS 245 RR and Valiosa RR in a randomized block design with four replicates. The sprayings were carried out at stages V3, V7 and early R5 (3L/ha. The 1000 seed weight, mechanical injury, germination and germination velocity index, emergence velocity index, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and water soaking seed test, lignin content in the seed coat, in the stem and legumes were determined. The spraying of glyphosate herbicide, in greenhouse and field, did not alter the physiological quality of seeds and the lignin contents in the plant.

  16. An assessment of the acute dietary exposure to glyphosate using deterministic and probabilistic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, C L; Harris, C A; Clarke, R

    2018-02-01

    Use of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. Glyphosate has never been considered acutely toxic; however, in 2015 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed an acute reference dose (ARfD). This differs from the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) who in 2016, in line with their existing position, concluded that an ARfD was not necessary for glyphosate. This paper makes a comprehensive assessment of short-term dietary exposure to glyphosate from potentially treated crops grown in the EU and imported third-country food sources. European Union and global deterministic models were used to make estimates of short-term dietary exposure (generally defined as up to 24 h). Estimates were refined using food-processing information, residues monitoring data, national dietary exposure models, and basic probabilistic approaches to estimating dietary exposure. Calculated exposures levels were compared to the ARfD, considered to be the amount of a substance that can be consumed in a single meal, or 24-h period, without appreciable health risk. Acute dietary intakes were Probabilistic exposure estimates showed that the acute intake on no person-days exceeded 10% of the ARfD, even for the pessimistic scenario.

  17. Use of Glyphosate and Imazapyr for Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) management in southern pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Minogue; James H. Miller; Dwight K. Lauer

    2012-01-01

    Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica [L.] P. Beauv. var. major [Nees] C.E. Hubb) is one of the most invasive perennial grasses worldwide and has progressively infested managed and natural habitats in the mid-South over the past 100 years. To extend past research toward the goal of eradication on forested sites, we tested the most effective herbicides (glyphosate and...

  18. Effect of 2,4-D and atrazine when applied with glyphosate ripener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of late-season morningglory infestations in sugarcane is accomplished with aerial applications of the postemergence herbicides 2,4-D, dicamba, or atrazine. Likewise, the aerial application of glyphosate prior to harvest to improve stalk sucrose levels is a common practice for many Louisia...

  19. Field application of glyphosate induces molecular changes affecting vegetative growth processes in leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommended rates of glyphosate for non-cultivated areas destroy the aboveground shoots of the perennial plant leafy spurge. However, such applications cause little or no damage to underground adventitious buds (UABs), and thus the plant readily regenerates vegetatively. High concentrations of glyph...

  20. Chopper GEN2 + Glyphosate efficacy for height classes of hardwood sprouts recolonizing six clearcut pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmie Yeiser; Andrew Ezell

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess sprout size as a determinant of subsequent control by a standard, single rate of imazapyr +glyphosate applied during site preparation. All study sites were in the hilly upper coastal plain of Mississippi (Winston or Oktibbeha Counties) or Louisiana (Sabine or Winn Parishes) and supported loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations...