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Sample records for glycyrrhiza glabra linn

  1. Antimicrobial Potential of Thiodiketopiperazine Derivatives Produced by Phoma sp., an Endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Palak; Wani, Zahoor A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Ali, Asif; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-11-01

    During the screening of endophytes obtained from Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., the extract from a fungal culture designated as GG1F1 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus was identified as a species of the genus Phoma and was most closely related to Phoma cucurbitacearum. The chemical investigation of the GG1F1 extract led to the isolation and characterization of two thiodiketopiperazine derivatives. Both the compounds inhibited the growth of several bacterial pathogens especially that of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, with IC 50 values of less than 10 μM. The compounds strongly inhibited biofilm formation in both the pathogens. In vitro time kill kinetics showed efficient bactericidal activity of these compounds. The compounds were found to act synergistically with streptomycin while producing varying effects in combination with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. The compounds inhibited bacterial transcription/translation in vitro, and also inhibited staphyloxanthin production in S. aureus. Although similar in structure, they differed significantly in some of their properties, particularly the effect on the expression of pathogenecity related genes in S. aureus at sub-lethal concentrations. Keeping in view the antimicrobial potential of these compounds, it would be needful to scale up the production of these compounds through fermentation technology and further explore their potential as antibiotics using in vivo models.

  2. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of β-artemether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

    2011-07-01

    The biotransformation of β-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only.

  3. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra

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    Swapna S. Nair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice has been used since ages as expectorant, antitussive and demulcent. G. glabra has been indicated in Ayurveda as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of respiratory infections and tuberculosis. Aims: To evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of G. glabra by in vitro techniques. Methods: The anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294. The in vitro anti-tubercular activity was determined by Resazurin Microtiter Plate Assay (REMA and colony count method. Further, the anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra was determined in human macrophage U937 cell lines and was compared against that of the standard drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. Results: G. glabra extract showed significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, when evaluated by REMA/colony count methods and in U937 human macrophage cell lines infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity of the extract was comparable to those of standard drugs. It was observed that the extract showed time and concentration dependent antimycobacterial activity. Conclusions: The present study reveals that G. glabra extract has promising anti-tubercular activity by preliminary in vitro techniques and in U937 macrophage cell line. Therefore, it has the definite potential to be developed as an affordable, cost-effective drug against tuberculosis.

  4. Study of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Cotoneaster medicus and Glycyrrhiza glabra Plants

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    M. M. Heravi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Cotoneaster medicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, as endemic plants of Iran, along with mixture of them were investigated for their antioxidant activities using 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH reagent. UV-Vis spectrophotometry method was used to evaluate the ability of Cotoneaster and Glycyrrhiza glabra antioxidant to scavenge DPPH radical. The kinetic parameters such as rate constant and activation energy in experimental conditions were calculated. The rate constants of the H atom abstraction by DPPH (k1, in the presence of C. medicus and G. glabra antioxidant were obtained under pseudo-first-order conditions at different temperatures. The order in DPPH radical-scavenging was: mixture of C. medicus and G. glabra > C. medicus > G.  glabra plants. The numerical values of activation energy were found to be 45.84 kJ.mol-1for G. glabra and 62.02kJ.mol-1 for C. medicus.

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera from different habitats

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    Faruk Karahan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of root methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera (Waldst. & Kit. Boiss. (Fabaceae were investigated. Plant samples were collected from different habitats in the East Mediterranean part of Turkey. The plant extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial and two yeast strains using disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The antimicrobial assays indicated that the plant root extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative ones. In addition, the extracts had higher antimicrobial effect against Candida species than against bacteria. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50 in the range of 588 ± 0.86 µg/mL to 2190 ± 1.73 µg/mL. Results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and biological activity in the natural licorice populations of. This study also supported the traditional use of licorice and as well as suggested that it may also be its beneficial role in the treatment of other infections. The obtained results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and the biological activity in the natural licorice populations.

  6. Natural non poisonous green inhibitor of Glycyrrhiza glabra for mild steel in 3.5% NaCl

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    Koundal, Vishal; Haldhar, Rajesh; Saxena, Akhil; Prasad, Dwarika

    2017-07-01

    Leaves extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra was investigated as sustainable corrosion resister of mild steel in 3.5% NaCl by using polarization measurements, UV, IR and SEM study. This plant shows good corrosion inhibition efficiency at lower concentration of inhibitor. This plant extract act as a mixed type of inhibitor and form a defensive coat on the surface of mild steel and decreases the corrosion rate. Here, our main goal to find out the corrosion barricade characters of the plant extract saturated with 3.5% NaCl.

  7. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order...

  8. Study on absorption and translocation amounts of 2,4-D on perennial weed( Glycyrrhiza glabra) by 19 C- labelled herbicides tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahari Mostafavi, H.; Fatholahi, H.; Naserian, B.

    2004-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra a perennial broad leaf weed, is very difficult to control due to it's powerful root system. The best chemical treatment to perennial weeds control is the application of systemic herbicides and their effect is related to amount of permeability and mobility

  9. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

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    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  10. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root as a Novel Adsorbent in the Removal of Toluene Vapors: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study

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    Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.

  11. Discovery of anti-microbial and anti-tubercular molecules from Fusarium solani: an endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

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    Shah, A; Rather, M A; Hassan, Q P; Aga, M A; Mushtaq, S; Shah, A M; Hussain, A; Baba, S A; Ahmad, Z

    2017-05-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is a high-value medicinal plant thriving in biodiversity rich Kashmir Himalaya. The present study was designed to explore the fungal endophytes from G. glabra as a source of bioactive molecules. The extracts prepared from the isolated endophytes were evaluated for anti-microbial activities using broth micro-dilution assay. The endophytic strain coded as A2 exhibiting promising anti-bacterial as well as anti-tuberculosis activity was identified as Fusarium solani by ITS-5.8S ribosomal gene sequencing technique. This strain was subjected to large-scale fermentation followed by isolation of its bioactive compounds using column chromatography. From the results of spectral data analysis and comparison with literature, the molecules were identified as 3,6,9-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-4,4-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-benzo[g]isochromene-5,10-dione (1), fusarubin (2), 3-O-methylfusarubin (3) and javanicin (4). Compound 1 is reported for the first time from this strain. All the four compounds inhibited the growth of various tested bacterial strains with MIC values in the range of anti-microbial drug discovery programme. Due to the chemoprofile variation of same endophyte with respect to source plant and ecoregions, further studies are required to explore endophytes of medicinal plants of all unusual biodiversity rich ecoregions for important and or novel bioactive molecules. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Effects of rhaponticum carthamoides versus glycyrrhiza glabra and punica granatum extracts on metabolic syndrome signs in rats

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    2014-01-01

    Background Rhaponticum cathamoides (RC) is an endemic wild Siberian herb with marked medicinal properties that are still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of RC extract (ERC) compared to the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (EGG) and Punica granatum extracts (EPG) in a rat model with high-fat diet-(HFD)-induced signs of metabolic syndrome; therefore, this study addresses a significant global public health problem. Methods Six-month-old male Wistar Albino Glaxo rats were subjected to eight weeks of a standard diet (SD), HFD, or HFD in which ERC, EGG, or EPG powders were incorporated at 300 mg/kg/day. The serum lipid profile, corticosterone and cytokine concentrations, glucose tolerance, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerol accumulation, and PPARα DNA-binding activities in the liver samples were determined. Results In contrast to EGG and EPG, an ERC supplement significantly reduced the weight of epididymal tissue (19.0%, p < 0.01) and basal serum glucose level (19.4%, p < 0.05). ERC improved glucose intolerance as well as dyslipidemia more efficiently than EGG and EPG. EGG but not ERC or EPG supplementation decreased systolic blood pressure by 12.0% (p < 0.05). All of the tested extracts reduced serum IL6 and corticosterone levels induced by HFD. However, the lowering effects of ERC consumption on the serum TNF-α level and its restoring effect on the adrenal corticosterone level significantly exceeded the improvements induced by EGG and EPG. ERC intake also reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and increased the PPARα DNA-binding activity in the liver more significantly than EGG and EPG. Conclusions ERC powder supplementation improved glucose and lipid metabolism more significantly than EGG and EPG in rats fed on HFD, supporting the strategy of R. carthamoides use for safe relief of metabolic syndrome and its related disturbances such as inflammation, stress, and hepatic steatosis. PMID:24444255

  13. Antifungal efficacy of three medicinal plantsGlycyrrhiza glabra,Ficus religiosa, andPlantago majoragainst oralCandida albicans: A comparative analysis.

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    Sharma, Hunny; Yunus, G Y; Agrawal, Rohit; Kalra, Monika; Verma, Swati; Bhattar, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    From ancient times, plants with medicinal values are being tested and used in the treatment of various infectious diseases. The present in vitro study was designed to assess the antifungal activity of three commonly available medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting oral Candida albicans in comparison to standard antifungal agents. Bark of G. glabra, stem of F. religiosa, and husk of P. major were collected, crushed into fine powder, and dissolved in 67% ethanol. Extracts were subjected to antifungal efficacy test against oral C. albicans (ATCC 66027) using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Mean zone of inhibition (ZOI) was measured by HI antibiotic zone scale. One-way ANOVA using Tukey's post hoc and t-test were applied for statistical analysis. G. glabra was found to be most effective among the three with highest mean ZOI measuring 19.8 ± 0.83, 19.4 ± 0.54, and 18.2 ± 1.09 at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Tukey's post hoc test showed statistically nonsignificant difference between antifungal activity of F. religiosa and P. major with itraconazole 10 mcg. G. glabra, F. religiosa, and P. major showed acceptable potency against C. albicans (ATCC 66027) comparable to that of synthetic antifungal agents. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentrations and clinical utility.

  14. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

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    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  15. Antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study.

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    Sharma, Hunny; Yunus, G Y; Mohapatra, Ashok Kumar; Kulshrestha, Reena; Agrawal, Rohit; Kalra, Monika

    2016-01-01

    From ancient times, plants with medicinal values are being tested and used in treatment of various infectious disease. The presentin vitro study was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of three commonly available medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting Primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens. Bark of G. glabra, Stem of F. religiosa, and husk of P. major were collected, crushed into fine powder, and dissolved in 67% ethanol. Extracts were then subjected to test antimicrobial efficacy against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Mean zone of inhibition (ZOI) was measured by HI antibiotic zone scale. One-way ANOVA using Tukey's post hoc and t-test were applied for statistical analysis. G. glabra was found to have potential antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens with highest mean ZOI measuring 9.2 ± 1.09 mm and 10.6 ± 0.54 mm at 24 h, respectively. F. religiosa showed antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers only at 48 h with mean ZOI of 2.6 ± 0.54 mm. P. major showed no antibacterial activity against any of the microorganism in this study. Tukey's post hoc test showed statistically nonsignificant difference between G. glabra and standard antibiotic (vancomycin 10 mcg) for periodontal pathogens. G. glabra and F. religiosa showed antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentration and clinical utility.

  16. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study.

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    Soleimanpour, Saman; Sedighinia, Fereshteh Sadat; Safipour Afshar, Akbar; Zarif, Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2015-01-01

    In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05). No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  17. Preventive Effect of Glycyrrhiza Glabra Extract on Oral Mucositis in Patients under Head and Neck Radiotherapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Shamsolmolok Najafi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: About two-thirds of cancer patients undergo radiotherapy. Oral mucositis represents a major complication of radiotherapy, causing morbidity and mortality and decreasing the quality of life of patients. This study aimed to assess the preventive effect of Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract on oral mucositis in cancer patients under head and neck radiotherapy.Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 37 head and neck cancer patients were divided into intervention (n=19 group receiving Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract and control (n=18 group receiving placebo. Patients in the test group used Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract topically twice a day from the first day of starting radiotherapy until the end of the second week. Patients were examined in the first day of radiotherapy for any type of wound before treatment and those with oral ulcers before radiotherapy were excluded from the study. The grade of mucositis was determined using the classification by the World Health Organization. ANCOVA was performed to assess any difference between the two groups with regard to oral mucosal irritation and wound size after the intervention while controlling for the covariates such as sex and age.Results: Significant differences were found in the maximum grade of mucositis and oral mucosal irritation between the intervention and control groups (P<0.001.Conclusions: This study showed that aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza can be effective for decreasing the severity of oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  18. Antifungal efficacy of three medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major against oral Candida albicans: A comparative analysis

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    Hunny Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: G. glabra, F. religiosa, and P. major showed acceptable potency against C. albicans (ATCC 66027 comparable to that of synthetic antifungal agents. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentrations and clinical utility.

  19. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

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    Soleimanpour, Saman; Sedighinia, Fereshteh Sadat; Safipour Afshar, Akbar; Zarif, Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05). No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts. PMID:26101754

  20. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

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    Saman Soleimanpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05. No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  1. Development of a validated UPLC–qTOF-MS/MS method for determination of bioactive constituent from Glycyrrhiza glabra

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    D.K. Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–qTOF-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetic acid. These analytes were separated on a reverse phase C18 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile:2% acetic acid in water (75:25, v/v with a flow rate of 200μL/min. The qTOF-MS was operated under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode using the electrospray ionization (ESI technique with positive ion polarity. A comparison of three different extraction techniques i.e. accelerated solvent extraction (ASE, extraction under ultrasonic waves (USW and the classical extraction by percolation (CE method was done and quantification of these extracts was also carried out by the proposed method. Keywords: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhizin, Glycyrrhetic acid, Accelerated solvent extraction, Ultrasonication, Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC–qTOF-MS/MS

  2. An Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard Alleviates Symptoms of Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Kadur Ramamurthy Raveendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard, an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, in patients with functional dyspepsia. The primary outcome variables of the study were the change in the severity symptoms and the global assessment of efficacy. The quality of life was evaluated as a secondary outcome measure. The patients received either placebo or GutGard (75 mg twice daily for 30 days. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of change in the severity of symptoms (as measured by 7-point Likert scale, the global assessment of efficacy, and the assessment of quality of life using the short-form Nepean Dyspepsia Index. In comparison with placebo, GutGard showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in total symptom scores on day 15 and day 30, respectively. Similarly, GutGard showed marked improvement in the global assessment of efficacy in comparison to the placebo. The GutGard group also showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in the Nepean dyspepsia index on day 15 and 30, respectively, when compared to placebo. GutGard was generally found to be safe and well-tolerated by all patients. GutGard has shown significant efficacy in the management of functional dyspepsia.

  3. A simple semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC/PDA method for separation and quantification of glycyrrhizin in nine samples of Glycyrrhiza glabra root collected from different geographical origins.

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    Basar, Norazah; Talukdar, Anupam D; Nahar, Lutfun; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is one of the most popular ingredients in several traditional herbal medicinal preparations, and glycyrrhizin is the major glycoside present in this plant. The content of glycyrrhizin may vary among G. glabra samples collected from various geographical origins, which may affect the therapeutic efficacy. Thus, quantification of glycyrrhizin in G. glabra samples is important. To develop and validate a simple semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC with photodiode array (PDA) method for separation and quantification of glycyrrhizin in nine samples of G. glabra root collected from various geographical origins. Dried and ground root of G. glabra was Soxhlet-extracted sequentially with n-hexane and methanol (MeOH). The separation and quantification of glycyrrhizin was achieved on a C18 reversed-phase semi-preparative column using a gradient mobile phase, 30-100% solvent B in solvent A in 30 min (solvent A: 0.1% v/v trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water and solvent B: 0.1% v/v of TFA in MeOH), at a flow rate of 3.00 mL/min and UV detection at 254 nm. A simple semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC/PDA method allowing clear separation and quantification of glycyrrhizin content in nine samples has been validated in terms of linearity, selectivity, limits of detection, precision, accuracy and detection. Concentration levels of glycyrrhizin were between 0.177 and 0.688% w/w of dry materials. This method is precise, less time consuming and more cost effective, and can be used for the quality control of any G. glabra sample with regard to its glycyrrhizin contents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An investigation of compositions and effects of local herbal Glycyrrhiza glabra and Mentha pulegium extracts on Helicobacter pylori and cell Line of stomach cancer (AGS by MTT assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Salmani Jamaat1

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim:According to globally development of stomach cancer especially in Ardabil, Iran, as the second major cause of mortality throughout the world, increased drug-resistant bacteria including Helicobacter pylori as the most important risk factors for stomach cancer, and side effects of antibiotics and chemical drugs normally used to treat. Experimental: The current research was conducted to investigate the anticancer and antimicrobial effects of native herbs of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium extractions for finding a solution with the lowest complications in control or treatment of stomach cancer.The extractions were firstly obtained using Soxhlet and methanol solvent and then their compounds were determined by GC/MS. Antimicrobial activity, MIC and MBC of the extractions were assessed respectively using agar diffusion and broth dilution test and the anticancer effect on stomach cancer (cell line AGS was assessed by MTT assay. H. pylori ATCC 26695 was respectively revived and purified on Brucella broth containing 7% citrated horse serum and Columbia agar. Results: The analysis showed that liquorice extract contains 15 compositions, mainly consists of 26.48% Nonane, 23.38% Ethylcyclohexan, 8.29% 3-Bromodecane, 10.31% trans-2-Heptenal, 8.93% 9-Octadecenamide and 4.68% β-pregna and pennyroyal extract contains 17 compositions, mainly including 3.36% Camphor, 22.79% Pulegone, 4.92% Paramenth-3-n8-l, 8.06% Menthoforan, 7.54% Cis-Isopulegon and 24.58% α-Selinene. The bacteria were resistant or semi-sensitive to common antibiotics, whereas had considerable sensitivity to herbal extracts and liquorice showed almost three times more antibacterial effect. Pennyroyal extract had no cytotoxic effects, but the anticancer effect was observed in liquorice extract with optimal concentration of 25 μg/ml after 48 hours. Recommended applications/industries: In conclusion, liquorice extract due to the significant health

  5. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Antibacterial Activities of Glycyrrhiza gabra Linn. (Licorice Root Extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis rand Its Inhibitory Effects on Cysteine Proteases and Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttipalin Suwannakul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the antibacterial activity of licorice root extract. Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial and anti-proteolytic activities of root extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis in both planktonics and bioflm cells. Methods: Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra roots were extracted by 95% ethanol freeze dried and kept at -20˚C prior experiments. P.gingvalis (ATCC 33277 were cultured and used for experiments. Determination of antibacterial activities of G.glabra extracts (lico rice against P.gingvalis planktonic the MIC and MBC were evaluated by agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-killing methods. The crystal violet assay was used to assess the bioflm growth inhibition and the disruption of established bioflm. The Arg - specifc proteolytic activities were analyzed using the chromogenic substrates assays using N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-4-nitroanilide hydrochloride and N-(p-tosyl-Gly Pro-Lys 4-nitroanilide acetate salt to assess the enzymatic inhibition effects of the extracts compared with the controls. Results: The licorice root extract had antimicrobial activities on P.gingivalis with MIC and MBC of 62.5µg/ml and 25 µg/ml respectively. The assay showed that Licorice root extronidazole. Licorice root extract also had effect on P.gingivalis bioflms. Quantifcation by crystal violate staining showed the reduction of bioflm mass in the presence of Licorice root extract. The Arg-and Kgp- proteases activities were also inhibited by the extract in dose dependent manner. Conclusion: The results suggested that licorice root extract may has potential therapeutics values as a candidate for periodontal disease

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunny Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion:G. glabra and F. religiosa showed antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentration and clinical utility.

  8. Protective Effect of Aqueous Plant Extracts of Glycyrrhiza Glabra, Melissa Officinalis and Mentha x Piperita Against Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Ramadan, L.A.; Ashry, O.M.; Kafafy, Y.A.

    2004-01-01

    The extracts of glycyrrhiza, Mentha and Melissa were tested for the antiulcerogenic activities against indomethacin induced ulcer in irradiated rats. Animals were irradiated at radiation dose levels 0.5, 1 and 2 Gy. The extracts were given orally 3 days after irradiation and the antiulcerogenic as well as the antisecretory and cyroprotective effects of the extracts were determined. All plant extracts produced pronounced antiulcerogenic activities and reduced acid output, increased mucin and decreased pepsin secretion in pyloric ligated rats. The antiulcerogenic activity of the plant extracts was also confirmed histologically. The effect of the plant extract could be party due to their flavonoids content and to their free radical scavenging properties. The stomach is a radiosensitive part of the gastriontestinal tract (Friedman, 1992). It does not tolerate radiation doses that are necessary to control cancer. Hoever, some parts of the stomach are often in the primary treatment field in radiotherapy

  9. Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) Root Extract Against Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Comparison to Chlorhexidine: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Battur, Hemant; Shamarao, Supreetha; Sivakumar, Vivek; Patil, Pavan Uday; Shanavas, P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glycyrrhiza (licorice) an herb, which has medicinal value and was used in ancient times as a remedy for a great diversity of ailments and sweetener. Roots of Glycyrrhiza contain a high concentration of saponin and glycyrrhizin, which are supposed to be sweetening agents. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic licorice root extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine (CHX). Materials and Methods: In the first part of the study, various concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic licorice extract were prepared in the laboratory of Pharmacy College. It was then subjected to microbiological assay to determine its zone of inhibition using agar disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using serial broth dilution method against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. CHX was used as a positive control. Results: MIC of aqueous and ethnolic licorice root extract against S. mutans and L. acidophilus were 25% and 12.5%, respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic licorice extracts against S. mutans at 48 h were 22.8 mm and 26.7 mm, respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic licorice extracts against L. acidophilus at 48 h were 14.4 mm and 15.1 mm, respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the CHX against S. mutans and L. acidophilus at 48 h was 20.5 and 13.2, respectively. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect shown by alcoholic licorice root extract against S. mutans and L. acidophilus was superior when compared with that of aqueous form and CHX. PMID:25214729

  10. [Pharmaceutical botanical studies on some Glycyrrhiza species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Genjiro; Shibano, Makio; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Ozaki, Kazuo

    2003-08-01

    Some Glycyrrhiza species grown in several domestic research gardens of medicinal plants were collected by the Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences and were cultivated to compare their morphological properties. HPLC profile analysis was performed and index compounds of MeOH extracts of aerial parts and EtOAc extracts of subterranean parts were determined. Glycyrrhizin contents and growth rates of the underground parts of some types of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra were compared and four excellent types were selected as candidates for cultivation. One of them was due to Kanzo-Yashiki (Enzan, Yamanashi prefecture), where G. uralensis was cultivated in the Edo period. Alkaloidal constituents of G. uralensis and G. glabra were also investigated and anabasine (an insecticide) and a new tricyclic alkaloid were obtained.

  11. Genetic diversity of riperian populations of glycyrrhiza lepidota along the salmon and snake rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh (Fabaceae; American wild licorice), is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, facultative riparian species present along many dryland rivers in western North America, including the U.S., southern Canada and northern Mexico. Like Glycyrrhiza glabra, common licorice native to Europe,...

  12. Annona glabra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Annona glabra L. (MONKEY-APPLE) of Annonaceae is a medium-sized tree with spreading branches. Leaves are simple, ovate to oblong in shape, 10 × 5 cm with an acute apex. Flowers are solitary and large. Sepals and petals are fleshy whereas stamens and pistils are small and numerous. Fruit is of apple's size and is ...

  13. Annona glabra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Annona glabra L. (MONKEY-APPLE) of Annonaceae is a medium-sized tree with spreading branches. Leaves are simple, ovate to oblong in shape, 10 x 5 cm with an acute apex. Flowers are solitary and large. Sepals and petals are fleshy whereas stamens and pistils are small and numerous. Fruit is of apple's size and is ...

  14. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Laware

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  15. Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybum marianum (Silymarin and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhizin in Combination: A Possible Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and transaminase reactions are some of the mechanisms that can lead to liver dysfunction. A time-dependent study was designed to evaluate the ability of silymarin (SLN and glycyrrhizin (GLN in different dosage regimens to lessen oxidative stress in the rats with hepatic injury caused by the hepatotoxin carbon tetrachloride. Wistar male albino rats (n = 60 were randomly assigned to six groups. Group A served as a positive control while groups B, C, D, E, and F received a dose of CCl4 (50% solution of CCl4 in liquid paraffin, 2 mL/kg, intraperitoneally twice a week to induce hepatic injury. Additionally, the animals received SLN and GLN in different doses for a period of six weeks. CCl4 was found to induce hepatic injury by significantly increasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances while decreasing total protein and the activities of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Treatment with various doses of SLN and GLN significantly reduced ALT, AST, ALP, and TBARS levels and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT levels. Our findings indicated that SLN and GLN have hepatoprotective effects against oxidative stress of the liver.

  16. Olematu linn / Nicola Desiderio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Desiderio, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    10. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalist (kuraator Richard Burdett). Näitusest "Linn, arhitektuur ja ühiskond". Itaalia paviljoni väljapanekust "Uus linn. Itaalia 2026. Kutse Vemasse" (kuraator Franco Purini), lühidalt Belgia väljapanekust ja Saksa paviljoni ekspositsioonist "Muundatav linn"

  17. Antiproliferative activity of Vallaris glabra Kuntze (Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Ling, Sui Kiong; Chiang Chan, Eric Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our earlier study on the antiproliferative (APF) activity of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species showed that leaves of Vallaris glabra possessed strong and broad-spectrum properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequential extracts of leaves, flowers and stems, and fractions and isolated compounds from dichloromethane (DCM) leaf extract of V. glabra were assessed for APF activity using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. Apoptotic effect of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract of V. glabra was studied using Hoechst 33342 dye and caspase colorimetry. Results: Both DCM extracts of leaves and flowers possessed broad-spectrum APF activity against HT-29, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. From DCM leaf extract, stearic acid (SA) and ursolic acid (UA) were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. APF activity of SA from DCM leaf extract displayed weak inhibitory activity and scientific literature showed UA has anticancer properties against those cancer cells used in this study. MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract and stained with Hoechst 33342 dye provided evidence that the extract had an apoptotic effect on the cells. Caspase colorimetry showed that the apoptotic effect involved activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, but not caspase-6. Conclusion: The potential of V. glabra as a candidate species for anticancer drugs warrants further investigation. PMID:24991097

  18. Culture and Identification of Endophytic Fungi from Oxytropis glabra DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oxytropis glabra DC. is an important poisonous plant species in Inner Mongolia steppe. In this research the endophytic fungi from O. glabra DC. were studied both by microbiological and molecular biological techniques. The results showed as follows: The in vitro cultured endophytic fungi displ...

  19. Jumala linn / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna VIII Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme - Ladina-Ameerika mängufilmid "Jumala linn" ("Cidade de Deus") : režissöörid Fernando Meirelles, Katia Lund : Brasiilia - Prantsusmaa - Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002

  20. Development of a validated UPLC–qTOF-MS/MS method for determination of bioactive constituent from Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D.K.; Verma, M.K.; Anand, R.; Khajuria, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–qTOF-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetic acid. These analytes were separated on a reverse phase C18 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile:2% acetic acid in water (75:25, v/v) with a flow rate of 200 μL/min. The qTOF-MS was operated under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the electrospray ionization (ESI) technique with positive ion polarity. A comparison of three different extraction techniques i.e. accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), extraction under ultrasonic waves (USW) and the classical extraction by percolation (CE) method was done and quantification of these extracts was also carried out by the proposed method. PMID:29403818

  1. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load, mineral concentration and sensory characteristics of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Lahham, G.

    2001-10-01

    Ground licorice roots were exposed to 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy of gamma radiation in a 60 Co source. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Microbial population, viscosity, concentration of some minerals and sensory properties of the extract were evaluated after 0 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that, immediately after irradiation, used doses reduced the microbial count and D 10 was at about 2 kGy. No effect was observed in total dissolved solids in the extract of licorice roots. Glycyrrhizinic acid concentration in extract and viscosity of suspension produced from irradiated roots were lower than in non-irradiated ones. Sensory evaluation indicated that no significant differences (P + , Ca ++ and K + ) concentration in extract produced from irradiated roots were lower than in non-irradiated ones, and no significant differences (P< 0.05) were found in viscosity between suspension of irradiated and non-irradiated roots. (author)

  2. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts. PMID:23055639

  3. Isejuhtiv linn / Marten Kaevats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaevats, Marten

    2015-01-01

    9. septembril 2015 algav kolmas Tallinna arhitektuuribiennaal TAB kannab pealkirja "Isejuhtiv linn" ja räägib sellest, millised muutused võivad meid ümbritsevas linnas aset leida, kui rakendub kolmas tööstusrevolutsioon ja kasutusele võetakse isejuhtivad autod. TAB näitab sel korral linnaehituse ja arhitektuuri uusi võimalusi ning kutsub üles arutlema nende elluviimise metodoloogia üle. Kuraator Marten Kaevats

  4. Biodiesel Production from Bombacopsis glabra Oil by Methyl Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to produce methyl biodiesel from Bombacopis glabra (B. glabra oil degummed with H3PO4. The methyl biodiesel was prepared in an alkaline medium, and characterized by physico-chemical parameters, thin-layer chrmatograghy (TLC, gas chromatograph (GC, (Nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen (H-NMR, thermogravimetry and infrared analysis. The physico-chemical parameters of biodiesel were in accordance with the limits established by National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP Resolution 45/2014, except oxidation stability, where it was corrected with the addition of antioxidants such as TBHQ and BHT.

  5. Aggregation of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) Males on Iris spp. Flowers Releasing Methyl Anthranilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Bonnie J; Guédot, Christelle; Zack, Richard S; Landolt, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I. germanica flowers elicited attraction of T. glabra to the flowers. This study suggests that I. pallida flowers may attract T. glabra males to aggregate because they release the known attractant, methyl anthranilate, whereas I. germanica flowers may not be attractive because they do not release methyl anthranilate. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Differential effects of Glycyrrhiza species on genotoxic estrogen metabolism: licochalcone A downregulates P450 1B1 whereas isoliquiritigenin stimulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Tareisha L.; Wang, Shuai; Simmler, Charlotte; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen chemical carcinogenesis involves 4-hydroxylation of estrone/estradiol (E1/E2) by P450 1B1, generating catechol and quinone genotoxic metabolites that cause DNA mutations and initiate/promote breast cancer. Inflammation enhances this effect by up-regulating P450 1B1. The present study tested the three authenticated medicinal species of licorice, [Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG), G. uralensis (GU), and G. inflata (GI)], used by women as dietary supplements, for their anti-inflammatory activities and their ability to modulate estrogen metabolism. The pure compounds, liquiritigenin (LigF), its chalcone isomer isoliquiritigenin (LigC), and the GI specific licochalcone A (LicA) were also tested. The licorice extracts and compounds were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by measuring inhibition of iNOS activity in macrophage cells: GI > GG > GU and LigC ≅ LicA > LigF. The Michael acceptor chalcone LicA, is likely responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GI. A sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was employed to quantify estrogen metabolism by measuring 2-MeOE1 as non-toxic and 4-MeOE1 as genotoxic biomarkers in the non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. GG, GU, and LigC increased 4-MeOE1, whereas GI and LicA inhibited 2- and 4-MeOE1 levels. GG, GU (5 μg/mL), and LigC (1 μM) also enhanced P450 1B1 expression and activities, which was further increased by inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ). LicA (1 μM, 10 μM) decreased cytokine- and TCDD-induced, P450 1B1 gene expression and TCDD-induced xenobiotic response element luciferase reporter (IC50=12.3 μM), suggesting an antagonistic effect on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which regulates P450 1B1. Similarly, GI (5 μg/mL) reduced cytokine- and TCDD-induced P450 1B1 gene expression. Collectively, these data suggest that of the three licorice species that are used in botanical supplements, GI represents the most promising chemopreventive licorice extract for women’s health. Additionally

  7. Moisture content effect on ultrasonic velocity in Goupia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Goia Rosa de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of ultrasound waves on a Brazilian hardwood, Goupia glabra, to evaluate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic technique to the moisture content in wood. The velocity of ultrasonic wave is sensitive to the material's quality-determining factors; hence, this technique is an important industrial tool to improve the quality control of processes. The nature of the response of velocity of sound to changes in moisture content led us to conclude that moisture gradients during drying exert a dominating effect. The ultrasonic velocity was measured both parallel and perpendicular to the fibers of Goupia glabra during drying from green to 6% moisture content. The results of this study showed that velocity of ultrasonic waves is sensitive to changes in moisture content of lumber during drying. The velocity under dry conditions was always higher than the velocity under more humid conditions, in both directions of propagation.

  8. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SUPPOSITORY ON THE BASIS OF GLYCYRRHIZA EXTRACT AND PARACETAMOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdrakhmanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the study results of technologies of double-layer suppositories development of a new drug of combined effect using dense extract of Glycyrrhiza and paracetamol

  9. Characterization of Terminalia catappa linn oil, Linn oil-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This need for using fuels with appropriate physico-chemical properties, the reason for other researchers to effectively tap in to potential use of Terminalia Catappa Linn oil and the great awareness worldwide to the need to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels calls for investigation of local sources of such renewable fuels ...

  10. Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Alkaloids from Annona glabra Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Wu, Dong-Yi; Tsai, Sheng-Fa; Chen, Chien-Kuang

    2015-06-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation and separation of the EtOH extract of Annona glabra leaf against acetylcholinesterse led to the characterization of 15 alkaloids. Among them, (-)-actinodaphnine (2) and (-)-(6aS,7R)-7-hydroxyactinodaphnine (9) are new aporphines, although (+)-2 and (±)-2 have been found in several plants. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis. (-)-Anolobine (5) and (-)-roemeroline (8) showed moderate inhibitory activity against eel acetylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 22.4 and 26.3 μM, respectively.

  11. Vigna unguiculata [Linn] Walp varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Beans are recommended for their richness and for their salutary effect on blood glucose. Inter-species differences impact on blood glucose. What appeared unknown is whether varieties of beans of the same species (Vigna unguiculata [Linn]. Walp) have differential effects on blood glucose when equal ...

  12. [Distribution of endophytic fungi in Oxytropis glabra DC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiwu; Lu, Hao; He, Ping; Yan, Dujian; Zhao, Baoyu; Zhang, Liang; Wen, Weili; Yang, Xiaowen

    2013-05-04

    Endophytic fungi were detected and isolated from the stems, leaves, petioles and seeds of Oxytropis glabra DC sampled from Alashan of Inner Mongolia to investigate the infection rate and species distribution in different tissues. The endophytic fungi infection rate and distribution of species in different tissues were investigated by making temporary slides, staining, isolation and identification. Endophytic fungi were detected and observed from all parts (stems, leaves, petioles and seeds) of the plant by temporary slides staining. A total of 79 isolates were cultivated from 4 different tissues by common separation methods, which belonged to 10 genera after identification. The infection rate and separation rate were seeds > leaves > stems > petioles. Undifilum oxytropis, Embellisia sp. L12 and Fusarium equiseti were the dominant species in this plant with the relative isolate frequency 77.32%, 64.00% and 50.00%, respectively. Endophytic fungi were commonly found in the all parts of Oxytropis glabra DC. There was an obviously difference in quantity, species and distribution of the endophytic fungi between different parts of plant. Seeds and leaves were the most vulnerable to infection and colonization by the endophytic fungi.

  13. Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma reduces oxidative stress caused by hyperuricemia via upregulation of catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Quan; Yu, Shandong; Mei, Yan; Lv, Yang; Chen, Dapeng; Wang, Yuanda; Geng, Wenjia; Wu, Di; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the traditional Chinese medicine Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma attenuates hyperuricemia, but its mechanism is unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that uric acid could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species(ROS), which subsequently cause endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we focused on the oxidative stress process. In this study, we would use LC-MS and bioinformatic analysis to investigate the underlying mechanism. We utilized LC-MS to reveal the differential protein expression in the kidneys of rats in the hyperuricemia group and the Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma treatment group and then subjected the differentially expressed proteins to bioinformatic analysis. We also determined the serum ROS level of the two groups. According the above results, we built our hypothesis and performed in vitro experiments to validate this hypothesis. We found that catalase was upregulated in the group treated with Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma, and the level of reactive oxygen species was higher in the hyperuricemia group. Thus, we speculated that Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma could alleviate oxidative stress by upregulating catalase. In vitro experiments, we found that high concentrations of uric acid reduced catalase expression in endothelial cells, which was alleviated by Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma and resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species. Knockdown of catalase led to an increase in reactive oxygen species. We demonstrated that Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by hyperuricemia by upregulating catalase expression. This finding could represent a new application for Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma in the treatment of hyperuricemia. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Combination of Nigella sativa with Glycyrrhiza glabra and Zingiber officinale augments their protective effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in h9c2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Hosseini

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: All of the extracts have some protective effects against DOX-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes with similar efficacies, but with different potencies. However, NGZ produced much higher protective effect via reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting of apoptotic induction processes. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of NGZ on DOX chemotherapy.  

  15. WEREWOLF and ENHANCER of GLABRA3 are interdependent regulators of the spatial expression pattern of GLABRA2 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Kee; Kwak, Su-Hwan; Chang, Soo Chul; Schiefelbein, John; Lee, Myeong Min

    2015-11-06

    In multicellular organisms, cell fates are specified through differential regulation of transcription. Epidermal cell fates in the Arabidopsis thaliana root are precisely specified by several transcription factors, with the GLABRA2 (GL2) homeodomain protein acting at the farthest downstream in this process. To better understand the regulation of GL2 expression, we ectopically expressed WEREWOLF (WER) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3) in various tissues and examined GL2 expression. Here we show that WER expressed ubiquitously in the root induced GL2 expression only in the root epidermis, whereas co-expression of WER and EGL3 induced GL2 expression in the corresponding tissues. We also found that GL3 accumulated in the nucleus at the early meristematic region and EGL3 accumulated later in the nucleus of epidermal cells. We further found that ectopic expression of WER and EGL3 in ground tissues inhibited GL2 expression in the epidermis. Our results suggest that the co-expression of WER and EGL3 is sufficient for driving GL2 and CPC expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic summary of natural compounds in Radix Glycyrrhizae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To accumulate data from studies on the compounds identified from Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae, GC, and then systematically summarize and classify these compounds according to their structural characteristics. Methods: Five databases (CNKI, VIP, Wanfang data, CBM, and Pubmed were used to search for studies on the chemical structure of compounds from GC. The retrieval time of the respective databases was from their inception to March 2016. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the papers were carefully screened, and the data were extracted. Results: A total of 653 compounds from GC were collated from 252 articles, including flavonols (n = 201 belonging to 10 subgroups, terpenes and saponins (n = 167, coumarins (n = 30 belonging to 3 subgroups, aliphatics (n = 206, aromatics (n = 35, and others (n = 14. The flavones, represented by liquiritin and liquiritigenin, were the most reported compounds isolated from GC, followed by terpenes and saponins such as glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid. Conclusion: The more than 600 natural compounds in GC may be responsible for GC’s anti-inflammatory, phlegm-expelling, cough- and pain-relieving activities.

  17. TWO BIOACTIVE FERULIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM EREMOSTACHYS GLABRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Delazar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Two ferulic acid derivatives, hexacosyl-(E-ferulate [1] and leucosceptoside A [2], have been isolated from the rhizomes of Eremostachys glabra. The chemical structures of these compounds have been elucidated by UV, ESIMS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses, and also by comparing experimental data with respective literature data. The free radical scavenging activity and general toxicity of these compounds have been assessed. While none of these compounds has shown any significant general toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality assay (LD50>1 mg/mL, compounds 1 and 2 displayed significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (RC50 = 0.0976 mg/mL and 0.0148 mg/mL, respectively.

  18. Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevalia, Jignesh; Patel, Bhupesh

    2011-01-01

    Gokshura is a well-known Ayurvedic drug that is used in many preparations. Botonically it is identified as Tribulus terrestris Linn., especially the roots and fruits of the plant. But instead the fruits of another plant Pedalium murex Linn. are commonly used and the drug is frequently substituted. Pharmacognostical study has been carried out to identify the distinguishing features, both morphological and microscopic, of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn. This knowledge should help reduce the problem of substitution of the genuine drug. PMID:22661853

  19. Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma Reduces Oxidative Stress Caused by Hyperuricemia via Upregulation of Catalase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Hong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Reports have suggested that the traditional Chinese medicine Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma attenuates hyperuricemia, but its mechanism is unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that uric acid could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species(ROS, which subsequently cause endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we focused on the oxidative stress process. In this study, we would use LC-MS and bioinformatic analysis to investigate the underlying mechanism. Methods: We utilized LC-MS to reveal the differential protein expression in the kidneys of rats in the hyperuricemia group and the Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma treatment group and then subjected the differentially expressed proteins to bioinformatic analysis. We also determined the serum ROS level of the two groups. According the above results, we built our hypothesis and performed in vitro experiments to validate this hypothesis. Results: We found that catalase was upregulated in the group treated with Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma, and the level of reactive oxygen species was higher in the hyperuricemia group. Thus, we speculated that Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma could alleviate oxidative stress by upregulating catalase. In vitro experiments, we found that high concentrations of uric acid reduced catalase expression in endothelial cells, which was alleviated by Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma and resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species. Knockdown of catalase led to an increase in reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: We demonstrated that Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by hyperuricemia by upregulating catalase expression. This finding could represent a new application for Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma in the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  20. Chalcones as novel influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza inflata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Lee, Hong Sik

    2011-01-01

    -8) chalcones were isolated as active principles from the acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza inflata. Compounds 3 and 6 without prenyl group showed strong inhibitory effects on various neuraminidases from influenza viral strains, H1N1, H9N2, novel H1N1 (WT), and oseltamivir-resistant novel H1N1 (H274Y) expressed...

  1. Võru linn ja turism / Anu Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Anu

    2009-01-01

    Autori hinnangul ei kasuta Võru linn piisavalt ära oma olemasolevaid ressursse turismi edendamiseks, turismialane areng on aga pidurdunud info liikumatuse ning rahvusvaheliste transpordiliinide puudumise ja kauguse tõttu

  2. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Nejad; Erfani Nejad; Yusef Naanaie; Zarrin

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae) is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro) of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a g...

  3. Dermatitis herpetiformis misdiagnosed and treated as tinea cutis glabrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stawczyk-Macieja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Dermatitis herpetiformis is a rare bullous disorder. Autoimmunological disturbances associated with hypersensitivity to gluten play the main role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Clinical manifestations include polymorphic skin lesions which may cause diagnostic difficulties. Objective. To present a case of dermatitis herpetiformis diagnosed and treated without any clinical improvement as tinea cutis glabrae. Case report . A 20-year-old male patient was admitted for the evaluation of polymorphic skin lesions of 7-month duration distributed symmetrically on the skin of elbows, knees, face and the gluteal and sacral region. The patient was previously treated with systemic and topical antimycotic drugs. Due to a typical distribution of skin lesions as well as symptoms reported by the patient, we started to suspect Duhring’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence of skin biopsy and serological tests. Systemic treatment with dapsone and a gluten-free diet led to clinical improvement. Conclusions . The morphology and localization of skin lesions in Duhring’s disease may be similar to the clinical presentation of fungal infection of the skin, which in equivocal cases should be excluded by a mycological test.

  4. Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega / Linda Kongo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kongo, Linda, 1929-

    2007-01-01

    Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega on loonud tema õpilased ja õpilaste õpilased, kes siirdusid kuulama tema loenguid Uppsala Ülikoolis. Mitmed Baltimaadelt pärit loodusteadlased täiendasid end Linné õpilase Johann Andreas Murray juures. Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogus on hoiul üks Linné kiri

  5. Arabidopsis TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 is directly regulated by R2R3 MYB transcription factors and is involved in regulation of GLABRA2 transcription in epidermal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tetsuya; Hattori, Sayoko; Sano, Ryosuke; Inoue, Kayoko; Shirano, Yumiko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Shibata, Daisuke; Sato, Shusei; Kato, Tomohiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Okada, Kiyotaka; Wada, Takuji

    2007-08-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 (TTG2) encodes a WRKY transcription factor and is expressed in young leaves, trichomes, seed coats, and root hairless cells. An examination of several trichome and root hair mutants indicates that MYB and bHLH genes regulate TTG2 expression. Two MYB binding sites in the TTG2 5' regulatory region act as cis regulatory elements and as direct targets of R2R3 MYB transcription factors such as WEREWOLF, GLABRA1, and TRANSPARENT TESTA2. Mutations in TTG2 cause phenotypic defects in trichome development and seed color pigmentation. Transgenic plants expressing a chimeric repressor version of the TTG2 protein (TTG2:SRDX) showed defects in trichome formation, anthocyanin accumulation, seed color pigmentation, and differentiation of root hairless cells. GLABRA2 (GL2) expression was markedly reduced in roots of ProTTG2:TTG2:SRDX transgenic plants, suggesting that TTG2 is involved in the regulation of GL2 expression, although GL2 expression in the ttg2 mutant was similar to that in the wild type. Our analysis suggests a new step in a regulatory cascade of epidermal differentiation, in which complexes containing R2R3 MYB and bHLH transcription factors regulate the expression of TTG2, which then regulates GL2 expression with complexes containing R2R3 MYB and bHLH in the differentiation of trichomes and root hairless cells.

  6. [Separation and purification of flavonoids from Smilax glabra by macroporous adsorption resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Wei; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Wu, Yuan-Xin; Ju, Xia-Lian; Guo, Jia; Huang, Qi-Mao

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the process of separating and purifying flavonoids from Smilax glabra. With the yield of flavonoids as index, the optimum process of separating and purifying flavonoids from S. glabra Roxb was screened by static and dynamic adsorption tests. The static saturated adsorption capacity of D101 macroporous resin to flavonoids of S. glabra was 45.6 mg x g(-1) (dry resin). The optimum conditions of dynamic adsorption and elution were as that the pH, the concentration, the adsorption velocity of the extracting solution, and the adsorption capacity were 6.00 +/- 0.20, 4.2 mg x mL(-1), 2 mL x min(-1) and 15 mL, respectively. The adsorbed resin column was washed by 100 mL 60% ethanol with pH value of 8.00 +/- 0.20 at the eluting velocity of 3 mL x min(-1) after washed by 100 mL distilled water. The flavonoids of S. glabra was able to be easily separated and purified by D101 macroporous resin under the optimum conditions above, and the recovery rate was higher than 90%. The content of obtained flavonoids reached 62.6%, which was 2 times of the content before purification.

  7. Polysaccharides from Dolichos biflorus Linn and Trachyspermum ammi Linn seeds: isolation, characterization and remarkable antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Shibani; Ghosh, Manojit; Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Ganguly, Jhuma; Banik, Bimal K

    2017-11-21

    Polysaccharides are structurally complex and essential constituents of life, and therefore, studies directed to these kinds of molecules have received scientific attention. Despite an easy availability of Dolichos biflorus Linn and Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) seeds isolation, characterization and antimicrobial studies of polysaccharides derived from these two natural sources have not been investigated. Therefore, we report here isolation of polysaccharides, their purification and characterization from Dolichos biflorus Linn and Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) seeds. Gel permeation chromatography, GC-MS, SEM, XRD, EDX and FT-IR analyses show the presence of three pentose sugar such as D-ribose, D-arabinose, D-xylose and hexose sugar such as D-mannose, D-galactose and D-glucose. Unprecedented antimicrobial activity of these polysaccharides against Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are established.

  8. Hepatoprotective Effect of Clerodendrum inerme Linn. Ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    Further biochemical parameters like lipid peroxidation, total protein, albumin and histopathological studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of hepatoprotective action of C. inerme Linn. REFERENCES. [1]. K.M. Nadkarni, A.K. Nadkarni and R.N.. Chopra, The Indian Materia Medica,. Popular Prakashan Ltd. Mumbai.

  9. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn) inhibits lipopolysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra. (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone- treated mice. Neurochem Int, 2011; 59(5): 677-685. 9. Mathew M, Subramanian S. In vitro screening for anti- cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive.

  10. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn) (Anacardiaceae) in semiarid Brazil. Francianne Oliveira Santos, Elissandra Couras Angélico, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Fabíola FG Rodrigues, Onaldo Guedes Rodrigues, Rosália Severo de Medeiros ...

  11. Linn - sajandi suur armastus / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Tate Modern'is avatud näitusest "Sajandi linn : kunst ja kultuur modernses metropolis". Pariisi, Viini, Moskva, Lagose, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, New Yorgi, Londoni ja Bombay väljapanekutest. Järgneb 20. apr. 2002, lk. 8

  12. Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae) extract attenuates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae, CCY) against 1- methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: MPTP-intoxicated mice model of PD was used for evaluating ...

  13. Pharmacognostical studies of Portulaca oleracea Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagepalli Srinivasa Ashok Kumar

    Full Text Available Portulaca oleracea Linn, belongs to family Portulaceae and is a widely distributed weed. It has been used as a folk medicine in many countries as diuretics, febrifuge, antiseptic, antispasmodic and vermifuge. This paper deals with the microscopic study of leaf; stem and root of Portulaca oleracea, along with the physico-chemical and preliminary phytochemical analyses that were also studied.

  14. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  15. Extracts and compounds active on TRP ion channels from Waldheimia glabra, a ritual medicinal plant from Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Bassoli, Angela; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Panseri, Sara; Manzo, Alessandra; Pentimalli, Daniela; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; De Petrocellis, Luciano

    2017-08-15

    Waldheimia glabra (Decne.) Regel is a wild plant from the Himalayan Mountains, commonly known as Smooth Ground Daisy. This plant is traditionally used by local populations in religious rituals (incense) or in traditional herbal medicine to treat skin diseases, headache, joint pain and fever. In literature few data are available on the investigation of this aromatic plant. The present work aims at deepening knowledge about the chemical composition of W. glabra extracts and incense, as well as its activity on TRP ion channels. Extracts and incense of W. glabra were analyzed by using HS-SPME GC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis. Tests on the activity of W. glabra extracts and isolated compounds (+)-ludartin 1 and B-ring-homo-tonghaosu 2 on TRP channels were also performed. Some extracts and pure compounds from W. glabra showed an interesting activity in terms of efficacy and potency on rat TRPA1, an ion channel involved in several sensory mechanisms, including pungency, environmental irritation and pain perception. Activity is discussed and compared with that of other known TRPA1 natural agonists with different chemical structures. All compounds showed only a negligible inhibition activity on rat TRPM8 ion channel. Our findings demonstrate that W. glabra is involved in the receptor activation mechanism and therefore represents a new natural product potentially useful in pharmaceutical and agrifood research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Cryopreservation of the non-dormant orthodox seeds of Ulmus glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielarz, P

    2010-06-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility of cryopreservation of Wych elm ( Ulmus glabra Huds.) seeds, we evaluated the seeds sensitivity to extreme desiccation and/or the ultra-low temperature of liquid nitrogen (LN; -196 degrees C). We also determined the critical water content (WC) of desiccated seeds and the high-moisture freezing limit of seeds desiccated or moistened to various WCs and frozen for 24 h or up to two years in LN. Germination tests revealed no critical WC for seeds to 0.03 g H 2 O g -1 dry mass, g g -1 . Seeds tolerated freezing in LN within safe ranges of WC 0.03-0.21 g g -1 (nuts). Seeds desiccated to the safe WC and stored in LN for two years had similar germination as seeds stored at -3 degrees C for two years. Therefore, long-term cryopreservation of U. glabra seeds in gene banks is feasible.

  17. Inter-site variation in allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliprandi, N C; Nogueira, E M; Toledo, J J; Fearnside, P M; Nascimento, H E M

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to compare the allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiaceae) in two different terra-firme sites in Amazonian forest. A total of 65 trees ≥ 10 cm DBH was sampled in both sites, with 39 trees in Nova Olinda do Norte (NOlinda, near the Amazon River) and 29 trees in Apuí (near the southern edge of the Amazon forest). Except for the relationship between DBH (diameter at breast height) and Ht (total height), allometric relationships for G.glabra differed significantly between sites. Apuí had lower intercept and greater slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Hs - stem height), and, conversely, greater intercept and lower slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Ch - crown height). The slope differed significantly between the sites for DBH versus Cd (crown diameter), with greater slope found for NOlinda. Mean basic wood density in Apuí was 8.8% lower than in NOlinda. Our findings highlight the variation in adaptive strategy of G. glabra due to environmental differences between sites. This is probably because of different canopy-understory light gradients, which result in differentiation of resource allocation between vertical and horizontal growth, which, in turn, affects mechanical support related to wood density. We also hypothesize that differences in soil fertility and disturbance regimes between sites may act concomitantly with light.

  18. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondelaud Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra. Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%, Haplometra cylindracea (5.3% and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10. The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat.

  19. Inter-site variation in allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Siliprandi

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aims to compare the allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiaceae in two different terra-firme sites in Amazonian forest. A total of 65 trees ≥ 10 cm DBH was sampled in both sites, with 39 trees in Nova Olinda do Norte (NOlinda, near the Amazon River and 29 trees in Apuí (near the southern edge of the Amazon forest. Except for the relationship between DBH (diameter at breast height and Ht (total height, allometric relationships for G.glabra differed significantly between sites. Apuí had lower intercept and greater slope for log10 (DBH versus log10 (Hs – stem height, and, conversely, greater intercept and lower slope for log10 (DBH versus log10 (Ch – crown height. The slope differed significantly between the sites for DBH versus Cd (crown diameter, with greater slope found for NOlinda. Mean basic wood density in Apuí was 8.8% lower than in NOlinda. Our findings highlight the variation in adaptive strategy of G. glabra due to environmental differences between sites. This is probably because of different canopy-understory light gradients, which result in differentiation of resource allocation between vertical and horizontal growth, which, in turn, affects mechanical support related to wood density. We also hypothesize that differences in soil fertility and disturbance regimes between sites may act concomitantly with light.

  20. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, A N; Thakurdesai, P A; Venkat Rao, N; Singh, Jiwan

    2003-09-01

    In view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the petroleum ether, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa Linn (combretaceae) fruit, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. All the three extracts of Terminalia catappa produced a significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts which were earlier, necrosed by alloxan.

  1. Kummardus Carl Linnéle / Andres Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Suur botaanik ja loodusteadlane Carl Linné soovitas oma sõjalise funktsiooni kaotanud kindlustesse või nende varemetesse ürdiaedu rajada. Narva linnus jätkab seda traditsiooni: linnuse Läänehoovi rajati Carl Linné aed. Konkursist võtsid osa ka Eesti Maaülikooli üliõpilased

  2. Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic ( Allium sativum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  3. [History of incompability among medicinals of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa" and its modern recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenxue; Bian, Yali; Fan, Xinsheng

    2015-05-01

    The allegation of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa", being one of the hypotheses of "18 antagonisms" in TCM pharmacology, is referring to the antagonistic action among the Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza and Radix Euphorbiae Kansui, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Flos Genkwa, and Sargassum when compounded together in a single recipe. By reviewing its history concerted with modern knowledge, it can be found that the theory of "seven emotions" was originated from Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica; while the Variorum of the Classic of Materia Medica firstly and definitely records that Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae is forbidden to be used with Radix Kansui, Flos Genkwa, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Sargassum together in a single formula. It was summarized into a Chinese poetic sentence as above-mentioned later. In the works of later ages, including Chinese Pharmacopoeia, A Great Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica, and China's Herbology, etc., all enhance the understanding of the prohibited combination of Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and its incompatible herbs. Nevertheless, there are discrepancies between the results of modern experimental and clinical studies on this problem, which, needless to say, should be resolved by further investigations.

  4. Genetic Diversity in Relict and Fragmented Populations of Ulmus glabra Hudson in the Central System of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martín del Puerto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ulmus glabra Hudson, or Wych elm, occurs as fragmented and relict natural populations in the Central System, which acts as a refugium in the Iberian Peninsula. Considering the importance of the Central System populations of U. glabra, the main objective was to assess their genetic diversity using nuclear microsatellite markers. A total of 360 different genotypes were detected in the 427 U. glabra individuals analyzed. Wych elm populations showed a highly significant genetic differentiation (24%; p = 0.0001. Of the 22 populations studied, population of Rozas de Puerto Real (ROZ showed the highest values of effective number of alleles (2.803, mean Shannon’s diversity (1.047 and expected heterozygosity (0.590. Populations of ROZ and Mombeltrán (MOM showed the highest values of observed heterozygosity (0.838 and 0.709, respectively, and highly negative values for inbreeding coefficient (−0.412 and −0.575, respectively. Also, most of putative hybrids (50 of 55 were observed in these two populations. Demographic analysis revealed signals for recent (four populations and ancestral (fifteen populations bottlenecks. Fragmented populations with diminishing number of individuals, along with anthropogenic intervention and Dutch elm disease (DED, are the main threats to U. glabra populations. From a future perspective, the information generated can be considered in the formulation of conservation strategies for U. glabra populations in the Central System.

  5. Anti-rotaviral effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract in piglets with rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfajaro Mia Madel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since rotavirus is one of the leading pathogens that cause severe gastroenteritis and represents a serious threat to human and animal health, researchers have been searching for cheap, safe, and effective anti-rotaviral drugs. There is a widespread of interest in using natural products as antiviral agents, and among them, licorice derived from Glycyrrhiza spp. has exerted antiviral properties against several viruses. In this study, anti-rotaviral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE as an effective and cheaper remedy without side-effects was evaluated in colostrums-deprived piglets after induction of rotavirus diarrhea. Methods Colostrums-deprived piglets were inoculated with porcine rotavirus K85 (G5P[7] strain. On the onset of diarrhea, piglets were treated with different concentration of GUE. To evaluate the antiviral efficacy of GUE, fecal consistency score, fecal virus shedding and histological changes of the small intestine, mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α, signaling molecules (p38 and JNK, and transcription factor (NFκB in the small intestine and spleen were determined. Results Among the dosages (100-400 mg/ml administrated to animals, 400 mg/ml of GUE cured diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α, signaling molecules (p38 and JNK, and transcription factor (NFκB in the small intestine and spleen were markedly increased in animals with RVA-induced diarrhea, but dose- dependently decreased in GUE treated animals after RVA-induced diarrhea. Conclusions GUE cures rotaviral enteritis by coordinating antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Therapy of this herbal medicine can be a viable medication for curing rotaviral enteritis in animals and humans.

  6. A rapid and stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method of a medicinal plant Chelone glabra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenrui; Li, Ying; Chen, Jinhua; Chen, Zhixing; Cui, Min-Long

    2015-03-01

    Transformation approach is a useful tool for the study of gene function, the mechanism of molecular regulation, and increase usefulness of components by reverse genetic approach in plants. In this study, we developed a stable and rapid method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a medicinal plant Chelone glabra L. using leaf explants. Stable transformants were obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains GV2260 and GV3101 that harbored the binary vector pBI121 and contained the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPT II) as a selectable marker and a reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS). Putative transformants were identified by kanamycin selection and a histochemical assay. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of the GUS gene into transformed genomes as well as detected stable expression of the β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) by RT-PCR. Resulting transformed plants had morphologically normal phenotypes. This method requires two changes of medium and few leaf explants as well as the transformation efficiency of 2-8 % after 2-3 months of inoculation. This method can provide a quick and economical transformation method for reverse genetic approach to change the secondary metabolic pathway to increase useful components in C. glabra.

  7. Pachira glabra Pasq. essential oil: chemical constituents, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Oladipupo A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Salvador, Atinuke F; Sanni, Adetayo A; Opoku, Andy R

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of Pachira glabra Pasq., (PgEO) has been studied by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty three constituents representing 98.4% of total contents were identified from the essential oil. The major constituents of oil were limonene (23.2%), β-caryophyllene (14.5%), phtyol (8.5%) and β-bisabolene (6.3%). The antimicrobial activity of the PgEO was evaluated against a panel of ten bacteria and three fungal strain using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results have shown that the PgEO exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms except Citrobacter youagae, Micrococcus spp. and Proteus spp. The activity zones of inhibition (ZI) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged between 13.7 mm-24.0 mm and 0.3 mg/mL-2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The insecticidal activity of PgEO was assayed against the adult Sitophilus zeamais. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of the PgEO showed it to be toxic against adult S. zeamais at 32.2 and 53.7 mg/mL, respectively. This is the first report on the chemical composition and in vitro biological activities of essential oil of P. glabra growing in Nigeria.

  8. Removal of Grey BL from Dye Wastewater by Derris (Pongamia Glabra Leaf Powder by Adsorption

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    T. Mugugan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dye, Grey BL was adsorbed on an adsorbent prepared from mature leaves of the Pungan tree (Pongamia glabra. A batch adsorption study was carried out with variable adsorbate concentration, adsorbent amount and pH. Ninety three percent of the dye could be removed by 2 g of the derris leaf powder from 1 L of an aqueous solution containing 25 mg of the dye at 300 K. The adsorption followed pseudo first order kinetics with a mean rate constant of 3.73 ×10-3 min-1 and an intraparticle diffusion rate constant of 6.36 x10-2 mg g-1 min-0.5. A possible mechanism of adsorption was suggested on the basis of concurrently operating surface adsorption and pore diffusion. The experimental data yielded excellent fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. The Langmuir monolayer capacity had a mean value of 8.27 mg g-1. The results indicated that the dye, Grey BL, strongly interacts with a biomass-based adsorbent, the Derris (Pongamia glabra leaf powder.

  9. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

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    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  10. Cellulase Production by Aspergillus flavus Linn Isolate NSPR 101 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulase Production by Aspergillus flavus Linn Isolate NSPR 101 fermented in sawdust, bagasse and corncob. Tunde Victor Ojumu, Bamidele Ogbe Solomon, Eriola Betiku, Stephen Kolawole Layokun, Bamikole Amigun ...

  11. Anticancer Activity of Limonia acidissima Linn (Rutaceae) Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutaceae) which has long been used traditionally for various infectious and malignant diseases. Methods: The fruit extract of Limonia acidissima Linn was obtained by macerating 3 times with methanol and then concentrating it at reduced pressure.

  12. hispidulin and other constituents of scoparia dulcis linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    HIV. INTRODUCTION. Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Scrophulariaceae) has been extensively studied for its flavone and terpene constituents (Ahmed et al., 1990, Ah- san et al., 2003, Chen et al., 1976, Hayashi et al., 1987, 1987b, 1988, 1990, 1991, ...

  13. Cardio Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Linn. in Isoproterenol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardio Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Linn. in Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rat. Sameer Amjad Shaik, Shivaprasad Huded, Asra Fathima, K.H. Preran, Syeda Juveriya Fathima, Farhath Khanum ...

  14. New York, rändurite linn / Kadri Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerge, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    New York on linn, mille elanikkond ja ruum on pidevas muutumises. Ehitustegevuse tulemusena on uue ilme saanud kõik linnaosad. Aktuaalseim teema New Yorgi arhitektuuriringkondades ja ehituses on nn. ultrapilvelõhkujatega seonduv

  15. Estimation of bioflavonoids in Amaranthus caudatus Linn . by HPLC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flavonoids are present in the Amaranthus caudatus Linn, Flavonoids like Rutin and quercetin possess many biochemical effects like inhibition of enzymes, regulatory role on different hormones and pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antihepatotoxic, protection of cardio vascular system.

  16. Elemental investigation of momordica charantia linn. and syzigium jambolana linn. using atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    Elemental investigation of very important medicinal plant i.e. momordica charantia linn and syzigium jambolana linn, and its decoction has been carried out using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In present study fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements such as Zn, Cr, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Cu, Fe, Pb, Al, Ba, Mn, Co, Ni and Cd were determined in different parts of both plants and in its decoction. The level of essential elements was found high as compared to the level of toxic elements. Both plants are useful in the treatment of diabetes. The validation of the method was checked by employing NBS- 1570 (Spanish) as a standard reference material . The measured values of elements are in close agreement with certified values. (author)

  17. RP - HPLC Method for Determination of Piperine from Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn

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    M. K. Santosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn. are used as spices and medicines. Quantitative determination of piperine was undertaken to provide an easy and simple analytical method, which can be used as a routine quality control method. RP-HPLC was performed using methanol and water as mobile phase. The detection and quantification was performed at a wavelength of 345 nm. Linearity of detector response for piperine was between the concentrations 0.005% to 0.1%. The correlation coefficient obtained for the linearity was 0.998. The assay value of piperine for fruit and root of P. longum was found to be 0.879% and 0.31%. The assay value of piperine for fruit of P. nigrum was 4.5%. The recovery value of standard piperine was 99.4%. Low value of standard deviation and coefficient of variation are indicative of high precision of the method.

  18. Interspecific hybridisation and interaction with cultivars affect the genetic variation of Ulmus minor and U. glabra in Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, K.; Broek, vanden A.; Mijnsbrugge, vander K.; Buiteveld, J.; Collin, R.W.J.; Heybroek, H.; Mergeay, J.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridisation and gene flow from cultivated plants may have profound effects on the evolution of wild species. Considering the cultural history and past use of Ulmus minor and Ulmus glabra trees in Flanders (northern Belgium), we investigated the extent of human impact on the genetic

  19. Ent-Kaurane diterpenes from Annona glabra and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Hien, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hang, Dan Thi Thuy; Ha, Tran Minh; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Hien, Truong Thi Thu; Thu, Vu Kim; Thao, Do Thi; Van Minh, Chau; Kiem, Phan Van

    2014-12-01

    A new ent-kaurane glycoside, annoglabasin H (1), and three known ent-kauranes, annoglabasin E (2), annoglabasin B (3), and 19-nor-ent-kaurent-4-ol-17-oic acid (4) were isolated from the fruits of Annona glabra. Their structures were determined by the combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, as well as by comparison with the NMR data reported in the literature. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated on four human cancer cell lines, LU-1, MCF-7, SK-Mel2, and KB. Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity on all tested human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 3.7 to 4.6 μM.

  20. Optimized Extraction, Preliminary Characterization, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wan-Chen; Gu, Xin-Li

    2017-04-13

    BACKGROUND This study performed optimized extraction, preliminary characterization, and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three parameters (extraction temperature, ratio of water to raw material, and extraction time) were optimized for yields of G. uralensis polysaccharides (GUP) using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The GUP was purified using DEAE cellulose 32-column chromatography. The main fraction obtained from G. uralensis Fisch was GUP-II, which was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose monosaccharide, was screened for antioxidant properties using DP Hand hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. In addition, immunological activity of GUP-II was determined by nitric oxide and lymphocyte proliferation assays. RESULTS Optimization revealed maximum GUP yields with an extraction temperature of 99°C, water: raw material ratio of 15: 1, and extraction duration of 2 h. GUP-II purified from G. uralensis Fisch had good in vitro DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities. Immunologically, GUP-II significantly stimulated NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and significantly enhanced LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation. CONCLUSIONS Extraction of GUP from G. uralensis Fisch can be optimized with respect to temperature, extraction period, and ratio of water to material, using response surface methodology. The purified product (GUP-II) possesses excellent antioxidant and immunological activities.

  1. Effect of Abscisic Acid on Accumulation of Five Active Components in Root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis

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    Jing Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Licorice is one of the most generally used herbal medicines in the world; however, wild licorice resources have decreased drastically. Cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer are the main source of licorice at present, but the content of main active components in cultivated G. uralensis are lower than in wild G. uralensis. Therefore, the production of high-quality cultivated G. uralensis is an urgent issue for the research and production fields. In this study, the content of five active components and seven endogenous phytohormones in cultivated G. uralensis (two-year-old were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, respectively. Furthermore, different concentrations (25–200 mg/L of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA were sprayed on the leaves of G. uralensis in the fast growing period. Results showed that ABA, zeatin riboside (ZR, and dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR had strong correlation with active components. In addition, the content of five active components increased remarkably after ABA treatment. Our results indicate that ABA is significantly related to the accumulation of active components in G. uralensis, and the application of exogenous ABA at the proper concentration is able to promote the accumulation of main components in G. uralensis.

  2. Multicenter study of radiotherapy combined with sarcandra glabra for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Bo; Feng Qiming; Wang Renshaneg; Feng Guosheng; Zhu Xiaodong; Li Guisheng; Liu Meilian; Zhu Jinxian; Yan Haolin; Ma Sansan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of Sarcandra Glabra. Methods: 100 patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma in stage III ∼ IVa and untreated before accepted the treatment plan of Sarcandra Glabra combined with chemoradiation in June 2006 to August 2008. Oral intake Sarcandra 3 days before the radiation therapy, once 10g, three times a day, until the end of treatment. Radiotherapy with conventional radiotherapy protocol, chemotherapy with PF program, 100 cases were chosen who were staging III ∼ IVa and received intensity modulated radiotherapy combined with concomitant chemotherapy for the program PF as the control study. Results: (1)Two groups of primary and cervical lymph node metastases, efficience rate are 100%, the test group primary and cervical lymph nodes CR is 69%, 73%, and the control group is 80%, 81%. There is no significant difference between them. (2)Two groups of acute radiation reactions, leukopenia, and xerostomia are of no difference. The incidence and severity of oral mucositis and skin reaction in control group were lower than test group. (3)In test group,the 1 year and 2 years, overall survival, disease-free survival, recurrence rate and distant metastasis rates were: 97%, 86%, 92%, 70%, 3%, 11%, 6%, 19%; control group was 100%, 93%, 97%, 81%, 1%, 5%, 2%, 12%. The difference was not statistically significant. (4)There is no statistically difference between two groups of xerostomia and the rate of radioactive tooth decay. There is statistically difference between two groups of difficulty in opening mouth and skin fibrosis, the control group is lower than the test group. Conclusion: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in normal organ tissue protection still has an absolute advantage. But combined chemoradiation plus sarcandra has a significant remission effect on the xerostomia and radioactive tooth decay caused by the deficiency of saliva secretion and it can improve the quality of patients' lives. It can protect

  3. Temaet folkemord i forfatterskapet til Tore Linne Eriksen. Festskrift til Tore Linne Eriksen

    OpenAIRE

    Balsvik, Randi Rønning

    2015-01-01

    Published version also available at https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/fleks/article/view/1494 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This article points to the responsibility historians have in the formation of what we may call the collective memory of persons, groups and states. What are the images of “the other” conveyed in textbooks and media? In Norway, the historian Tore Linné Eriksen has – more than any other scholar – used ...

  4. Arabidopsis TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 Is Directly Regulated by R2R3 MYB Transcription Factors and Is Involved in Regulation of GLABRA2 Transcription in Epidermal Differentiation[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tetsuya; Hattori, Sayoko; Sano, Ryosuke; Inoue, Kayoko; Shirano, Yumiko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Shibata, Daisuke; Sato, Shusei; Kato, Tomohiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Okada, Kiyotaka; Wada, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 (TTG2) encodes a WRKY transcription factor and is expressed in young leaves, trichomes, seed coats, and root hairless cells. An examination of several trichome and root hair mutants indicates that MYB and bHLH genes regulate TTG2 expression. Two MYB binding sites in the TTG2 5′ regulatory region act as cis regulatory elements and as direct targets of R2R3 MYB transcription factors such as WEREWOLF, GLABRA1, and TRANSPARENT TESTA2. Mutations in TTG2 cause phenotypic defects in trichome development and seed color pigmentation. Transgenic plants expressing a chimeric repressor version of the TTG2 protein (TTG2:SRDX) showed defects in trichome formation, anthocyanin accumulation, seed color pigmentation, and differentiation of root hairless cells. GLABRA2 (GL2) expression was markedly reduced in roots of ProTTG2:TTG2:SRDX transgenic plants, suggesting that TTG2 is involved in the regulation of GL2 expression, although GL2 expression in the ttg2 mutant was similar to that in the wild type. Our analysis suggests a new step in a regulatory cascade of epidermal differentiation, in which complexes containing R2R3 MYB and bHLH transcription factors regulate the expression of TTG2, which then regulates GL2 expression with complexes containing R2R3 MYB and bHLH in the differentiation of trichomes and root hairless cells. PMID:17766401

  5. Glycyrrhizic acid as the antiviral component of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. against coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 of hand foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yating; Yang, Ziying; Jin, Yu; Ge, Hui Ming; Li, Erguang; Yang, Guang

    2013-05-02

    The radices of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. and herbal preparations containing Glycyrrhiza spp. have been used for thousands of years as an herbal medicine for the treatment of viral induced cough, viral hepatitis, and viral skin diseases like ulcers in China. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is considered the principal component in Glycyrrhiza spp. with a wide spectrum of antiviral activity. The present study attempt to validate the medicinal use of Glycyrrhiza uralensis for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and further to verify whether GA is an active antiviral component in the water extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Radices of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. were extracted with hot water. The chemical contents of the extract were profiled with HPLC analysis. The antiviral activity of the extract and the major components was evaluated against infection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) on Vero cells. The cytopathic effect caused by the infection was measured with MTT assay. Infectious virion production was determined using secondary infection assays and viral protein expression by immunoblotting analysis. The extract at 1000 μg/ml suppressed EV71 replication by 1.0 log and CVA16 by 1.5 logs. The antiviral activity was associated with the content of GA in the extract since selective depletion of GA from the extract by acid precipitation resulted in loss of antiviral activity. In contrast, the acid precipitant retained antiviral activity. The precipitant at a concentration of 200 μg/ml inhibited EV71 and CVA16 replication by 1.7 and 2.2 logs, respectively. Furthermore, GA dose-dependently blocked viral replication of EV71 and CVA16. At 3 mM, GA reduced infectious CVA16 and EV71 production by 3.5 and 2.2 logs, respectively. At 5mM, CVA16 production was reduced by 6.0 logs and EV71 by 4.0 logs. Both EV71 and CVA16 are members of Enterovirus genus, time-of-drug addition studies however showed that GA directly inactivated CVA16, while GA anti-EV71 effect

  6. Overexpressing CAPRICE and GLABRA3 did not change the anthocyanin content of tomato (solanum lycopersicum) fruit peel

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Takuji; Onishi, Mio; Kunihiro, Asuka; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R3-type MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC) and bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) cooperatively regulate epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are involved in root-hair differentiation, trichome initiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis epidermal cells. Previously, we showed that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin accumulation in tomato. Introduction of 35S::CPC into tomato significantly inhibits anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledo...

  7. Multipathway Integrated Adjustment Mechanism of Glycyrrhiza Triterpenes Curing Gastric Ulcer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Shuai; Bao, Yongrui; Li, Tianjiao; Chang, Xin; Yang, Guanlin; Meng, Xiansheng

    2017-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common chronic disease in human digestive system, which is difficult to cure, easy to relapse, and endangers human health seriously. Compared with western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine has a unique advantage in improving the general situation, stablizing medical condition, and with little side effects. Glycyrrhiza known as "king of all the medicine", has a range of pharmacological activities and is commonly used in a variety of proprietary Chinese medicines and formulations. On the basis of explicit antiulcer effect of Glycyrrhiza triterpenes, the molecular mechanisms of its therapeutic effect on acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats were explored. Acetic acid induced gastric ulcer model in rats was established to evaluate the curing effect of G. triterpenes and all of the rats were randomised into six groups: Control group, model group, omeprazole group (0.8 mg/mL), triterpenes high dose group (378.0 mg/mL), triterpenes middle dose group (126.0 mg/mL), and triterpenes low dose group (42.0 mg/mL). All rats in groups were orally administered the active group solution 1.5 mL once daily (model and control groups with saline) for 7 days. HPLC-TOF-MS analysis method was performed to obtain the plasma metabolites spectrums of control group, model group, triterpenes high, middle and low dose groups. A total of 11 differential endogenous metabolites related to the therapeutic effect of G. triterpenes were identified, including tryptophan, phingosine-1-phosphate, pantothenic acid, and so on, among which tryptophan and phingosine-1-phosphate are related with the calcium signaling pathway and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. At the same time, in order to verify the above results, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the expression of H + -K + -ATPase alpha mRNA and phospholipase a 2 mRNA in relational signaling pathways. Combined with statistical analysis of plasma metabolic spectrum and gene expression

  8. Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica: characteristics of natural and experimental co-infections of these digeneans in the snail Lymnaea glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, P; Titi, A; Mekroud, A; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective study on different Lymnaea glabra samples collected from central France between 1993 and 2010 was carried out to determine the prevalence of natural co-infections with Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, and to specify the composition of redial burdens. Experimental infections of L. glabra performed during the same period of time were also analysed to study metacercarial production of each digenean in co-infected snails. Controls were naturally or experimentally co-infected Galba truncatula. In natural co-infections, prevalence was 0.7% in L. glabra (186/25,128) and 0.4% in G. truncatula (137/31,345). Low redial burdens were found in these snails, with F. hepatica rediae significantly more numerous in L. glabra than in G. truncatula (7.5 per snail instead of 5.2). In contrast, the total numbers of C. daubneyi rediae in both lymnaeids were close to each other (4.3 and 3.0 rediae, respectively). In experimentally co-infected groups, prevalence was greater in G. truncatula than in the other lymnaeid (6.3% instead of 3.0%). Significantly shorter patent periods and lower metacercarial production for each digenean were noted in L. glabra than in G. truncatula. However, in both lymnaeids, the two types of cercariae were released during the same shedding waves and several peaks during the patent period were synchronous. In spite of a greater shell height for L. glabra, metacercarial production of both digeneans in co-infected snails was lower than that in G. truncatula, thus indicating a still incomplete adaptation between these French L. glabra and both parasites.

  9. Clinical study of the Immunoglobululin Enhancing effect of “Bala compound” on Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appaji, Rao R.; Sharma, R.D.; Katiyar, G. P.; Sai, Prasad A.J.V.

    2009-01-01

    Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients of Atibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. ‘Bala compound” was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of ‘Bala compoumd” PMID:22557316

  10. Clinical study of the Immunoglobululin Enhancing effect of "Bala compound" on Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appaji, Rao R; Sharma, R D; Katiyar, G P; Sai, Prasad A J V

    2009-01-01

    Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients ofAtibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. 'Bala compound" was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of 'Bala compoumd"

  11. Studies on the Identification of Constituents in Ethanol Extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Their Anti-Primary Hepatoma Cell Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the chemical constituents of Radix Glycyrrhizae and to apply the resulting natural products in the study of drug susceptibility of hepatoma cells so as to provide a scientific basis for quality standards and clinical application of medicinal Radix Glycyrrhizae. Chromatographic materials were used for isolation and purification; structural identification was performed based on physicochemical properties and spectral data. MTT colorimetry was used to detect the proliferation inhibition rate against primary hepatoma cells by natural products, and flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in cell cycle progression. Five compounds were isolated and identified, namely, liquiritigenin (1, liquiritin (2, isoliquiritigenin (3, betulinic acid (4, and oleanolic acid (5. In the study, 5-FU (5-fluorouracil is used as a positive control to the hepatoma cells. Primary hepatoma cells were highly susceptible to 5-FU and liquiritigenin, both of which markedly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells; flow cytometry results showed an increase in G0/G1 phase cells, a decrease in S phase cells, and a relative increase in G2/M phase cells. Primary hepatoma cells are highly susceptible to liquiritigenin, a natural product; the testing of tumor cell susceptibility is of important significance to the improvement of therapeutic effect of cancer.

  12. Intestinal Absorption of Triterpenoids and Flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma in the Human Caco-2 Monolayer Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xue; Liu, Gui-Yan; Yang, Yan-Fang; Wu, Xiu-Wen; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2017-09-29

    Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Triterpenoids and flavonoids from the plant have many beneficial effects and their chemical structures are modified in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. However, absorption of these triterpenoids and flavonoids still needs to be defined. Here, the uptake and transepithelial transport of the selected major triterpenoids, glycyrrhizin ( 1 ), glycyrrhetic acid-3- O -mono-β-d-glucuronide ( 2 ), and glycyrrhetinic acid ( 3 ); and the selected major flavonoids, licochalcone A ( 4 ), licochalcone B ( 5 ), licochalcone C ( 6 ), echinatin ( 7 ), isoliquiritin apioside ( 8 ), liquiritigenin ( 9 ), liquiritin apioside ( 10 ) isolated from Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma , were investigated in the human intestinal epithelium-like Caco-2 cell monolayer model. Compounds 3 , 5 - 7 , and 9 were designated as well-absorbed compounds, 2 and 4 were designated as moderately absorbed ones, and 1 , 8 , and 10 were assigned for the poorly absorbed ones. The absorption mechanism of well and moderately absorbed compound was mainly passive diffusion to pass through the human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer. These findings provided useful information for predicting their oral bioavailability and the clinical application.

  13. Surfactant-Assisted Pressurized Liquid Extraction at Room Temperature for Radix glycyrrhizae by a New Class of Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Ming Yuan; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald; Ong, Eng Shi

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-assembled surfactant-assisted pressurized liquid extraction system at room temperature was used for the extraction of glycyrrhizin (GLY) in Radix glycyrrhizae. Environmentally friendly saccharide fatty acid ester such as glucose oleic acid ester is proposed to replace chemical-based surfactants. As the chemical properties of the surfactant obtained were unknown initially, lipase-catalyzed synthesis and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry were used to ascertain the identity. Surfactant-assisted pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was carried out dynamically and the extraction efficiencies of the proposed method using different concentration of glucose oleic acid ester were compared with sonication using an organic solvent (ethanol/water, 70:30). The extraction efficiencies of GLY in Radix glycyrrhizae using surfactant-assisted PLE was observed to be higher compared with sonication. The method precision was found to vary from 1.3 to 5.1% (relative standard deviation, RSD, n= 6) on different days. The new method demonstrated the possibility for the extraction to be carried out at room temperature for the production of botanical extracts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup combined with accelerated solvent extraction for the determination of carbamate pesticide residues in Radix Glycyrrhizae samples by UPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ru-zhen; Wang, Jin-hua; Wang, Ming-lin; Zhang, Rong; Lu, Xiao-yu; Liu, Wei-hua

    2011-10-01

    Dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) cleanup combined with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is described here as a new approach for the extraction of carbamate pesticides in Radix Glycyrrhizae samples prior to UPLC-MS-MS. In the DSPE-ASE method, 15 carbamate pesticides were extracted from Radix Glycyrrhizae samples with acetonitrile by the ASE method at 60 °C with a 5 min heating time and two static cycles. Cleanup of a 1 mL aliquot of the extract by the DSPE method used 20 mg PSA (primary secondary amine), 50 mg Al(2)O(3)-N, and 20 mg GCB (graphitized carbon black) (as cleanup sorbents) under the determined optimum conditions. The linearity of the method was in the range of 10 to 200 ng/mL with correlation coefficients (r(2)) of more than 0.996. The limits of detection were approximately 0.2 to 5.0 µg/kg. The method was successfully used for the analysis of target pesticides in Radix Glycyrrhizae samples. The recoveries of the carbamate pesticides at the spiking levels of 50, 100, and 200 µg/kg ranged from 79.7% to 99.3% with relative standard deviations lower than 10%. This multi-residue analytical method allows for a rapid, efficient, sensitive and reliable determination of target pesticides in Radix Glycyrrhizae and other medicinal herbs.

  15. Arabidopsis CAPRICE (MYB and GLABRA3 (bHLH control tomato (Solanum lycopersicum anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Wada

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC and the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3 are central regulators of root-hair differentiation and trichome initiation. By transforming the orthologous tomato genes SlTRY (CPC and SlGL3 (GL3 into Arabidopsis, we demonstrated that these genes influence epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis, suggesting that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are also known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. After transformation into tomato, 35S::CPC inhibited anthocyanin accumulation, whereas GL3::GL3 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes including Phe-ammonia lyase (PAL, the flavonoid pathway genes chalcone synthase (CHS, dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR, and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS were repressed in 35S::CPC tomato. In contrast, the expression levels of PAL, CHS, DFR, and ANS were significantly higher in GL3::GL3 tomato compared with control plants. These results suggest that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin pigment synthesis in tomato.

  16. Extraction optimization and characterization of water soluble red purple pigment from floral bracts of Bougainvillea glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Narayan Amit Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, natural dyes and pigments gain more importance in food and textile industries because of their non toxic and eco friendly characteristics. Bougainvillea glabra floral bracts are rich in betalain pigments which can be used as a dye in sensitized solar cells, medicinal and food applications. The aim of this study was to optimize the natural pigment extraction from the floral bracts by response surface methodology. Central composite design (CCD of response surface methodology (RSM was applied to evaluate the optimal conditions of three process variables namely mass of floral bracts (g, extraction time (h and temperature (°C studied at five levels. Mass of bracts and extraction time were found statistically significant in the process and correlation coefficient (R2 value of 0.96 showed that model was well fitted with the experimental values. The optimum process conditions were found to be mass of floral bracts: 3 g, contact time: 6 h and extraction temperature: 22.5 °C with maximum absorbance of 9.18. Response surface methodology was performed well to identify the optimal levels of extraction process variables and the validation of predicted model was fitted 99.76% with the experimental results conducted at the optimum conditions. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was also confirmed the presence of betalain pigment by identifying the major functional groups.

  17. Ethnomedicine, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Smilax glabra: An Important Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Shiyao; Zhang, Yiwei; Liu, Jiayue; Dong, Lin; Huang, Jun; Lin, Dingbo; Fu, Xueyan

    2018-02-12

    Smilax glabra (SG) Roxb., a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, has been extensively used worldwide for its marked pharmacological activities for treating syphilitic poisoned sores, limb hypertonicity, morbid leucorrhea, eczema pruritus, strangury due to heat, carbuncle toxin, and many other human ailments. Approximately 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from SG Roxb., and the major components have been determined to be flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, phenolic acids, and steroids. Among these active compounds, the effects of astilbin, which is used as a quality control marker to determine the quality of SG Roxb., have been widely investigated. Based on in vivo and in vitro studies, the primary active components of SG Roxb. possess various pharmacological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, and cardiovascular system protective activities. However, an extensive study to determine the relationship between the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of SG Roxb. has not been conducted and is worth of our study. Improving the means of utilizing the effects of SG is crucial. The present paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of SG Roxb. and assesses its ethnopharmacological use in order to explore its therapeutic potential for future research.

  18. Studies on some Pharmacognostic profiles of Cassia tora Linn. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, T K; Mandal, S C; Saha, B P; Pal, M

    2000-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaves, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents. Fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light after treatment wit different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Leguminosae) were studied to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical study on different tracts of the leaves were also performed.

  19. Antifertility Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Carica Papaya (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of short term administration of the aqueous extract of Carica Papaya (Linn.) seeds on ovulation and the estrous cycle of adult cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats. Three oral doses of the extract (50mg/kg; 100mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight) were administered once a day in two independent ...

  20. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 29(2014) 147-151 www.njps.com.ng. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on. Cyanide-induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats. Ola-Mudathir K.F *. 1 and Maduagwu E.N. 2. 1Department of Chemical Science, Cresent University Abeokuta, Nigeria 2Department of Biochemistry.

  1. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  2. Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the nutritive composition of Chrysophyllum albidum Linn. It was necessitated by the need towards creating awareness that this species can provide nutrient supplements for the larger percentage of the population in the rural and peri-urban communities. Chrysophyllum albidum locally called “Udara” is ...

  3. Phytochemical and Anti-sickling Activities of Terminalia catappa Linn.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical survey revealed that the dried fallen leaves of Terminalia catappa Linn. are used locally in various parts of Nigeria for the management of sickle cell anaemia. This research investigated if Terminalia catappa leaf interferes with the basic mechanism of erythrocyte sickling. Powdered dried fallen leaves of ...

  4. In Vitro Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oxalis Corniculata Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vitro Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oxalis Corniculata Linn. Fractions in Various Solvents. D Ahmed, S Zara, H Baig. Abstract. As part of our search for natural antioxidants, this work presents an evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and its sub-fractions in hexane, chloroform, ...

  5. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  6. Effects of aqueous extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. fruit on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted on the effect of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. in hypercholesterolaemic rats. The plant material was Soxhlet-extracted with distilled water and the extract was concentrated in vacuo with a yield of 15.34 % /w. The extract was stored in a specimen bottle at room temperature ...

  7. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  8. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn) | Aderibigbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated ...

  9. Propagation pattern of Machaerium Lunatum (Linn F) ducke in five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propagation pattern of Machaerium Lunatum (Linn F) ducke in five different soil types. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... A study of the possibility of the propagation of this plant outside its natural aquatic environment, what part of the stem will grow and what soil type will be most suitable for it ...

  10. Hypoglycemic Effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Fabaceae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    capable of reducing blood sugar level belong to two chemical classes - sulfonylureas and biguanides [3]. ... treatment of cancer, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure [7]. Clitoria ternatea Linn ... was collected from the heart using a syringe, transferred to sodium fluoride bottles bottles, allowed to clot and ...

  11. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively ...

  12. Karyotype analysis in Machaerium lunatum (Linn. f.) Ducke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... Ducke (syn. Drepanocarpus lunatus (Linn. f.) G.F.W. Mey) belongs to the family Fabaceae-Papilionaceae. (Hutchinson and Dalziel 1954). It has about 130 species distributed from Mexico to Argentina which are difficult to delimit taxonomically (Rudd 1987) and 150 species distributed from Mexico to South.

  13. A Protease Isolated from the Latex of Plumeria rubra Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate, purify and characterize protease from the latex of the plant. Methods: Protease was isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra Linn using acetone precipitation method and purified by a sequence of DEAE cellulose column chromatography, followed by two successive column purification in Sephadex G-50 ...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava Linn . stem extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of the water and methanolic extracts of Psidium guajava Linn. stem bark were evaluated against eight methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. The plant material was extracted and phytochemical analyses were performed by standard procedures. The agar diffusion method ...

  15. Investigation On Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Aristolochia Indica Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure. Materials and Methods: ...

  16. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Exhibits Potent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity and Attenuates Neuroinflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide- Stimulated Microglial Cells. M-S Kim, S Koppula, S-H Jung, J-Y Kim, H-R Lee, S-R Lee, Y-D Park, K-A Lee, T-K Park, H Kang ...

  17. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Suppresses Sterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) fruit pulp extract (OPF) in the prevention of high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in human HepG2 hepatocytes. Methods: HepG2 cells were pretreated with various concentration of OPF (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml) ...

  18. Hypoglycemic Effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Fabaceae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of the aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Fabaceae leaves and flowers on alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Methods: The effect of orally administered aqueous extracts (400 mg/kg body weight) of Clitoria ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, ...

  19. Tallinna Visioonikonverents 2010 : Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna Lauluväljaku ruumides 22. novembril toimunud Tallinna Visioonikonverentsist "Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil", kus arutleti teemal, milline võiks olla Tallinn saja aasta pärast. Konverentsil esinesid Toomas Vitsut, Mart Saarma, Jan Sturesson, Raivo Raave, Satish Kumar, Juhani Pallasmaa ning moderaatoriteks olid Hardo Aasmäe ja Mati Heidmets

  20. A Protease Isolated from the Latex of Plumeria rubra Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Spinacia oleracea and Petroselinum crispum leaves [5]. Proteases are important enzymes of plant metabolism and are instrumental in regulating senescence [6]. They are responsible for the degradation of proteins. Proteolytic enzymes are used extensively in industrial and medical applications [7]. Plumeria rubra Linn.

  1. Pharmacognostic study of Lantana camara Linn. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Lantana camara Linn. root. Method: The pharmacognostic evaluation was done in terms of organoleptic, macro-microscopy, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The characteristic macroscopic features showed that the root consists of 25-40 cm long, 0.2-4.0 cm thick pieces which are usually branched, shallow, tough, creamish-brown externally, outer surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, with hard fracture, characteristic odour and pungent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root shows exfoliating cork, consisting of about 10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells followed by cortex consisting of polygonal parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboidal shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3-4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single layer of non-lignified pericycle. Phloem, a wide zone of xylem consisting of lignified pitted vessels and bi-to triseriate medullary rays are also present. Proximate physicochemical analysis of the root power showed loss on drying, total ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash values as 0.52, 4.26, 3.8 and 5.8 % w/w respectively. Successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 0.19, 0.35, 2.19 and 2.0 % w/w respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colors to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps in identification and standardization of Lantana camara L. root in crude form.

  2. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, David Olawale; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Adewole, Olarinde Stephen; Obuotor, Efere Martins; Adenowo, Thomas Kehinde

    2008-10-25

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated hyperglycemic group and group C was A. muricata-treated group. Hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with equivalent volume of citrate buffer and all the animals were monitored for four weeks. Daily intra peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg A. muricata was administered to group C rats for two weeks and the animals were monitored for another two weeks. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a mean body weight of 206 +/- 7.74 g, 173.29+/-5.13 g and 197 +/- 5.62 g respectively for the control, untreated diabetic and A. muricata-treated diabetic group, and a mean blood glucose concentration of 3.78 +/- 0.190 mmol/L, 21.64 +/- 2.229 mmol/L and 4.22 +/- 0.151 mmol/L for the control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic groups respectively. A significant difference exists between the blood glucose concentrations of treated and untreated hyperglycemic groups of rats. The result of this study demonstrated that A. muricata possesses anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  3. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  4. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  5. Separation of Seven Polyphenols from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra by Offline Two Dimension Recycling HSCCC with Extrusion Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Guo; Hongjing Dong; Daijie Wang; Bin Yang; Xiao Wang; Luqi Huang

    2018-01-01

    An offline two-dimensional recycling high-speed countercurrent chromatography (2D R-HSCCC) strategy with extrusion mode was developed for isolating polyphenols from the rhizome of Smilax glabra. Firstly, the ethyl acetate extract was divided into two fractions, Fr.1 and Fr.2, by silica gel column chromatography. Then, HSCCC was applied to separate polyphenols from the two fractions using a solvent system consisting of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:3:0.5:5, v/v). Fifty millig...

  6. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 Regulates the Accumulation of Seed Storage Reserves in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Chengxiang; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chew, Fook Tim; Yu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process. PMID:26152712

  7. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 Regulates the Accumulation of Seed Storage Reserves in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Chengxiang; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chew, Fook Tim; Yu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Monosaccharide composition of Herniaria glabra L. and Herniaria polygama J.Gay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachok Solomiia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The plants from Herniaria genus (Caryophyllaceae family are mainly applied as diuretic agents for the treatment of kidney and gall-stones, gouts, urinary tract infections, hypertension and diabetes. The most widely spread species in Europe is Herniaria glabra L. (HG. Herniaria polygama J.Gay (HP is found growing from Eastern Europe to Asia. Surprisingly, no work has been reported on the analysis of primary metabolites of HP yet and there is only a limited data on HG. The aim of our study was to establish the monosaccharide composition after a complete hydrolysis and in a free state in the entire herbs of HG and HP harvested in the western and central parts of Ukraine. The carbohydrates were separated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after conversion into volatile derivatives as aldononitrile acetate. As a result, the monosaccharide composition after a total hydrolysis was established with the contribution of the following components: D-rhamnose, D-arabinose, D-fucose, D-xylose, D-manose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, myo-inisitol, D-mannitol, D-dulcitol. In a free state it was detected: D-fructose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, myo-inisitol, D-mannitol and D-saccharose. The following monosaccharides were found in the most abundant quantities in HG and HP respectively: glucose was determined as the major component – 33.40 and 22.80 mg/g, the second dominant sugar was pinitol – 16.80 and 18.07 mg/g, followed by galactose – 13.88 mg/g in HG and arabinose – 8.13 mg/g in HP. Sugars were determined in these plant species for the first time and this finding shed new light on their pharmacological application.

  9. Assessing the quality of Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma (Tufuling) by colormetrics and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xicheng; Yi, Tao; Tang, Yina; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Jianye; Zhang, Yazhou; Dong, Lisha; Chen, Hubiao

    2016-01-01

    The quality of the materials used in Chinese medicine (CM) is generally assessed based on an analysis of their chemical components (e.g., chromatographic fingerprint analysis). However, there is a growing interest in the use of color metrics as an indicator of quality in CM. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and feasibility of using color metrics and chemical fingerprint analysis to determine the quality of Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma (Tufuling) (SGR). The SGR samples were divided into two categories based on their cross-sectional coloration, including red SGR (R-SGR) and white SGR (W-SGR). Forty-three samples of SGR were collected and their colors were quantized based on an RGB color model using the Photoshop software. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF MS) system was used for chromatographic fingerprint analysis to evaluate the quality of the different SGR samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis and dimensional reduction were used to evaluate the data generated from the different samples. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between the color metrics and the chemical compositions of R-SGR and W-SGR. The SGR samples were divided into two different groups based on their cross-sectional color, including color A (CLA) and B (CLB), as well as being into two separate classes based on their chemical composition, including chemical A (CHA) and B (CHB). Standard fingerprint chromatograms were for CHA and CHB. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation (Pearson's r = -0.769, P metrics and the results of the chemical fingerprint analysis. The SGR samples were divided into two major clusters, and the variations in the colors of these samples reflected differences in the quality of the SGR material. Furthermore, we observed a statistically significant correlation between the color metrics and the quality of the SGR material.

  10. PRECLINICAL EVALUATION AND ANTIASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF CASSIA TORA LINN. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Tamhane Adesh S.; Mute Vaishali M.; Takawale Harshada; Awari Deorao M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of Cassia tora Linn leaves. The anti-asthmatic activity of the extract by using different concentration of aqueous extract as 500, 1000 and1500 µg/ml was evaluated in isolated goat trachea chain, preparations by using standard drugs histamine. In the present study, histamine produced dose dependent contraction of goat tracheal chain preparation was studied. As number of papers with antiasthmatic activity are reported with ...

  11. Linn nõuab parima tiitli saajalt trahvi / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Tartu linnavalitsus tunnustas 2006. aasta parimad ettevõtteid: 1-9 töötajaga ettevõtete kategoorias tunnistati parimaks OÜ Albatrek, alla viiekümne töötajaga ettevõtetest AS Aasta Auto Pluss ning üle 50 töötajaga firmadest AS A. Le Coq. OÜ-lt Albatrek nõuab linn Fortuuna 6 kinnistu hoonestamata jätmise eest 300 000 krooni suurust leppetrahvi. Lisa: Eilsed auhinnatud

  12. Kombucha Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn) dan Kemampuannya sebagai Antihiperkolesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartatik, Nanik; Karyantina, Merkuria; Purwanti, Indrias Tri

    2009-01-01

    Kita mengenal adanya teh yang diekstrak dari kelopak bunga rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn). Teh jenis ini dapat dibuat menjadi kombucha dengan cara memfermentasikan ekstrak rosella menggunakan peran mikrobia dalam fer­ mentasi kombucha. Mikrobia dalam fermentasi kombucha ini ditumbuhkan dalam ekstrak rosella sebagai medium per­ tumbuhan dengan variasi konsentrasi rosella (30, 40, 50 gram rosella kering/L). Selama proses fermentasi, kombucha rosella dianalisis pH, total asam, dan aktivitas ...

  13. A New Ursane type Sulfated Saponin from Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Suleman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One new sulfated saponin 3β,23,30-trihydroxyurs-20-en-28-al-23-sulfate 3-O-β- D -xylopyranoside (Zygofaboside C; 1 was purified from the water soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated through spectral studies, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-FAB mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data.

  14. BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundari, S Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T; Jaswanth, A; Valarmathy, R

    2004-01-01

    The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed.

  15. BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sundari, S. Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T.; Jaswanth, A.; Valarmathy, R

    2004-01-01

    The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p

  16. The GLABRA2 homeodomain protein directly regulates CESA5 and XTH17 gene expression in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Iwata, Mineko; Sugiyama, Junji; Kotake, Toshihisa; Ishida, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Okada, Kiyotaka; Wada, Takuji

    2009-11-01

    Arabidopsis root hair formation is determined by the patterning genes CAPRICE (CPC), GLABRA3 (GL3), WEREWOLF (WER) and GLABRA2 (GL2), but little is known about the later changes in cell wall material during root hair formation. A combined Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy-principal components analysis (FTIR-PCA) method was used to detect subtle differences in the cell wall material between wild-type and root hair mutants in Arabidopsis. Among several root hair mutants, only the gl2 mutation affected root cell wall polysaccharides. Five of the 10 genes encoding cellulose synthase (CESA1-10) and 4 of 33 xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XTH1-33) genes in Arabidopsis are expressed in the root, but only CESA5 and XTH17 were affected by the gl2 mutation. The L1-box sequence located in the promoter region of these genes was recognized by the GL2 protein. These results indicate that GL2 directly regulates cell wall-related gene expression during root development.

  17. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins (Monimiaceae) in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Fernanda da S; Callado, Cátia H; Pereira-Moura, Maria Verônica L; Lima, Helena R P

    2010-12-01

    This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS) and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS) formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalariform perforation plates, wood parenchyma scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the greater diameters of their branches. Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.

  18. Separation of Seven Polyphenols from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra by Offline Two Dimension Recycling HSCCC with Extrusion Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Dong, Hongjing; Wang, Daijie; Yang, Bin; Wang, Xiao; Huang, Luqi

    2018-02-24

    An offline two-dimensional recycling high-speed countercurrent chromatography (2D R-HSCCC) strategy with extrusion mode was developed for isolating polyphenols from the rhizome of Smilax glabra . Firstly, the ethyl acetate extract was divided into two fractions, Fr.1 and Fr.2, by silica gel column chromatography. Then, HSCCC was applied to separate polyphenols from the two fractions using a solvent system consisting of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:3:0.5:5, v / v ). Fifty milligrams of Fr.1 was separated by conventional HSCCC, yielding 5- O -caffeoylshikimic acid ( 1 , 15.8 mg) and taxifolin ( 2 , 4.8 mg). Offline 2D R-HSCCC with extrusion mode was used to separate Fr.2, and astilbin ( 4 , 37.3 mg), neoisoastilbin ( 5 , 8.8 mg), engeletin ( 7 , 7.9 mg), and a mixture of two polyphenols were obtained from 100 mg of Fr.2. The mixture of two polyphenols was further separated by pre-HPLC, yielding neoastilbin ( 3 , 15.2 mg) and isoastilbin ( 6 , 9.9 mg). The purities of these seven compounds were all over 96.0%. Their structures were identified by MS and NMR. The results demonstrated that the strategy based on offline 2D R-HSCCC with extrusion mode was a powerful tool to separate the main compounds from the rhizome of Smilax glabra and valued for the preparative separation compounds with broad K -values and similar structures.

  19. Genome size estimations on Ulmus minor Mill., Ulmus glabra Huds., and Celtis australis L. using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, J; Rodriguez, E; Gomes, A; Santos, C

    2007-07-01

    The Ulmaceae family is composed of nearly 2000 species widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. Despite their wide distribution area, there are only four native species in the Iberian Peninsula. In this work the genome size of three of those species (ULMUS MINOR, U. GLABRA, and CELTIS AUSTRALIS) was estimated using flow cytometry. The nuclear DNA content of C. AUSTRALIS was estimated as 2.46 +/- 0.061 pg/2C, of U. MINOR as 4.25 +/- 0.158 pg/2C, and of U. GLABRA as 4.37 +/- 0.103 pg/2C of DNA. No statistically significant differences were detected among individuals of the same species. These species revealed to be problematic for flow cytometric analyses, due to the release of mucilaginous compounds into the nuclear suspension. Despite that, the modified protocol here presented ensured high quality analyses (low coefficient of variation and background debris and nuclear fluorescence stability), opening good perspectives on its application to estimate the genome size of species with similar problems.

  20. Carl von Linné jälgedes / Piret Veigel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veigel, Piret, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Alanud aastal tähistatakse Carl von Linné, taimede ülemaailmselt käibiva teadusliku klassifitseerimise süsteemi rajaja 300. sünniaastapäeva. Loodusteadlase majast ja aiast Uppsalas, tema suvekodust Hammarby's ja Fredriksdali vabaõhumuuseumist Helsingborgis, kus leiab Linné-aegset maaharimist

  1. Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of fruit of Ficus racemosa Linn. (M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These physicochemical data and phytochemical analysis of different extracts of F. racemosa Linn. is useful for further studies for pharmacological screening. In future this study will be helpful for qualitative & quantitative analysis of phytoconstituents for isolation of newer molecule from F. racemosa Linn.

  2. Genome-wide identification of GLABRA3 downstream genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chenhao; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Wang, Hanchen; Ma, Haoli; Hai, Jiangbo; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-04-01

    GLABRA3 (GL3), a bHLH transcription factor, has previously proved to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis, however, its downstream targeted genes are still largely unknown. Here, we found that GL3 was widely present in Arabidopsis vegetative and reproductive organs. New downstream targeted genes of GL3 for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation were identified in young shoots and expanding true leaves by RNA sequencing. GL3-mediated gene expression was tissue specific in the two biological processes. This study provides new clues to further understand the GL3-mediated regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overexpressing CAPRICE and GLABRA3 did not change the anthocyanin content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takuji; Onishi, Mio; Kunihiro, Asuka; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R3-type MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC) and bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) cooperatively regulate epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are involved in root-hair differentiation, trichome initiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis epidermal cells. Previously, we showed that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin accumulation in tomato. Introduction of 35S::CPC into tomato significantly inhibits anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledons, leaves and stems. In contrast, introduction of GL3::GL3 strongly enhances anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledons, leaves and stems of tomato. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPC and GL3 on anthocyanin accumulation in the epidermis of tomato fruit. Unlike the results with vegetative tissues, overexpression of CPC and GL3 did not influence anthocyanin biosynthesis in tomato fruit peel.

  4. Separation of Seven Polyphenols from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra by Offline Two Dimension Recycling HSCCC with Extrusion Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An offline two-dimensional recycling high-speed countercurrent chromatography (2D R-HSCCC strategy with extrusion mode was developed for isolating polyphenols from the rhizome of Smilax glabra. Firstly, the ethyl acetate extract was divided into two fractions, Fr.1 and Fr.2, by silica gel column chromatography. Then, HSCCC was applied to separate polyphenols from the two fractions using a solvent system consisting of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:3:0.5:5, v/v. Fifty milligrams of Fr.1 was separated by conventional HSCCC, yielding 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (1, 15.8 mg and taxifolin (2, 4.8 mg. Offline 2D R-HSCCC with extrusion mode was used to separate Fr.2, and astilbin (4, 37.3 mg, neoisoastilbin (5, 8.8 mg, engeletin (7, 7.9 mg, and a mixture of two polyphenols were obtained from 100 mg of Fr.2. The mixture of two polyphenols was further separated by pre-HPLC, yielding neoastilbin (3, 15.2 mg and isoastilbin (6, 9.9 mg. The purities of these seven compounds were all over 96.0%. Their structures were identified by MS and NMR. The results demonstrated that the strategy based on offline 2D R-HSCCC with extrusion mode was a powerful tool to separate the main compounds from the rhizome of Smilax glabra and valued for the preparative separation compounds with broad K-values and similar structures.

  5. Adaptive strip sampling in forest inventory of scattered species of Ulmus glabra in Hyrcanian Forests, northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARYAM FAZLOLLAHI MOHAMMADI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Fazlollahi Mohammadi M, Ahmadlo F, Keshtiban SM. 2015. Adaptive strip sampling in forest inventory of scattered species of Ulmus glabra in Hyrcanian Forests, northern Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 48-54. Some populations of tree species may be sparse but they are highly geographically clustered. A simple random sample of plots could then yield mainly empty plots. Adaptive Cluster Sampling (ACS is an efficient design for tallying of these populations. Presented study is designed to estimate the abundance of Wych elm (Ulmus glabra as a scattered tree species in mountain forests of Iran. This study looks at design-based methods for a forest inventory survey, with the goal of improving estimation when the target species has a patchy spatial distribution. In particular, we examined the efficiency and feasibility of modified adaptive cluster sampling in combination with strip sampling (SACS as a new sampling design in Hyrcanian forests, Iran for scattered species. To collect data, we recorded a number of 845 trees to represent locations of individuals in a spatially aggregated population by using GPS 60CX model. In overall, results showed that SACS was underestimated in estimating coefficient of variance (CVµ and (Varµ while it was overestimated in estimating mean of tree density at all quadrat size except for size 15 m square in compared to conventional strip sampling (CSS. Results evidenced that HH estimator was more efficient than HT ones in estimating mean, (CVµ and variance (Varµ in compared to (CSS approach. Practically results of our study using SACS confirmed that, a 15 m square sample size of quadrat with four adjacent units was optimized network size to sampling of such populations. Future studies using SACS may be required, especially, in combine to two-phase sampling strategies when cover of these species is of concern.

  6. A study of Semen Strychni-induced renal injury and herb-herb interaction of Radix Glycyrrhizae extract and/or Rhizoma Ligustici extract on the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liqiang; Wang, Xiaofan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Ju, Ping; Zhang, Lunhui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Bingjie; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the renal injury caused by Semen strychni and its major toxic constituents, strychnine and brucine, was reported in many clinical cases. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the renal injury induced by Semen Strychni and the protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici. The protective mechanisms were related to the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine. Serum and urine uric acid and creatinine were used as renal function markers to evaluate the condition of kidney, and renal injury was directly reflected by histopathological changes. Compared with rats in blank group and protective herb groups, rats in Semen Strychni high-dose group showed significant differences in the results of renal function markers, and various glomerular and tubular degenerations were found in the histopathological study. The decreased AUC (only strychnine) and Cmax, the increased Tmax by Radix Glycyrrhizae and the decreased T1/2 by Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici were found in model groups. Results indicated that high dose of Semen Strychni might induce renal injury. Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici might work together and have effects on the elimination of strychnine and brucine. The protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae might also be explained by the slow absorption of the alkaloids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antispasmodic effect of shakuyakukanzoto extract on experimental muscle cramps in vivo: role of the active constituents of Glycyrrhizae radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keiko K; Omiya, Yuji; Yuzurihara, Mitsutoshi; Kase, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-09

    Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT) composed of Glycyrrhizae radix (G. radix) and Paeoniae radix (P. radix) has been traditionally used in Japan, Korea and China as an antispasmodic drug for the treatment of skeletal muscle cramps and intestinal cramps. To evaluate the antispasmodic activity of SKT and its two components, as well as to identify the key constituents of the components which mediate this effect in skeletal muscles in vivo. An experimental cramp model was constructed to evaluate the effects of peripherally-acting muscle relaxants on electrically-induced cramps under physiological conditions. This was accomplished by surgically isolating the motor supply to the gastrocnemius muscle in an anesthetized rat and delivering electrical stimuli to an isolated tibial nerve to induce tetanic contractions. We first tested dantrolene, a well-known peripherally-acting relaxant, to determine the sensitivity and reliability of our experimental model. We then evaluated the effects of SKT, P. radix, G. radix, and the eight active constituents of G. radix against tetanic contractions. We found that dantrolene (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.d.) rapidly and significantly inhibited tetanic contractions (Pcramps as treatment requires a two-pronged approach, i.e., inhibition of hyperexcitable skeletal tissues and modulation of the pain accompanying cramps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deciphering chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma by liquid chromatography with transformed multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhao; Liu, Ting; Liao, Jie; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we propose an integrated strategy for the efficient identification and quantification of herbal constituents using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. First, liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for the chemical profiling of herbs, where a targeted following nontargeted approach was developed to detect trace constituents by using structural correlations and extracted ion chromatograms. Next, ion pairs and parameters of MS 2 of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were selected to design multiple reaction monitoring transitions for the identified compounds on liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of each constituent was then calculated using a semiquantitative calibration curve. The proposed strategy was applied in a study of chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma. A total of 140 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from the herbs, 132 of which were relatively quantified. The visualized quantitative results clearly showed codecoction produced significant constituent concentration variations especially for those with a low polarity. The case study also indicated that the present methodology could provide a reliable, accurate, and labor-saving solution for chemical studies of herbal medicines. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Kombucha Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) dan Kemampuannya sebagai Antihiperkolesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartatik, Nanik; Karyantina, Merkuria; Purwanti, Indrias Tri

    2012-01-01

    We know that there is another tea extract, e.i from calyx of roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn). This kind of tea could be made became kombucha by ferment roselle extract using microbe in the fermentation of kombucha. This mi­ crobe grown in roselle extract as a medium with variety of roselle concentration (30; 40; 50 grams of dried roselle/L). During the fermentation process, roselle kombucha was analyzed for pH value, total acid, antioxidant activity at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 days of ferm...

  10. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  11. Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.

  12. Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most. Nazma Parvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1, betulinaldehyde (2, betulinic acid (3 and stigmasterol (4 were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4 were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid.

  13. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of Dolichos biflorus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Alok

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study in detail the micromorphology and physicochemical analysis of the seeds of Dolichos biflorus Linn. (Family: Papileonaceae. Methods: Macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed. Results: The seeds are roughly trapezoidal and flattish, with quite thin cotyledons. The hylum is small and linear and located in a small depression on the seed ’s lateral margin. The length of archeological specimens are usually 3.0-4.0 mm, width 2.0-2.6 mm and thickness 1.4-2.0 mm. Microscopic evaluation revealed the epidermis is single layered brown in colour, thin walled and shining cells because of mucilage in this layer. Endosperm forms bulk of the seed with thick walled polygonal parenchymatous cells. Outer portion of the seed contains alueron grains which are protein in nature. In the mid of the seeds, embryo can be seen which provides nutrition. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, tannins, proteins, aminoacids, flavonoids, terpenoids, mucilage, volatileoil, saponin and carbohydrates and absence of alkaloids, fixed oil. Conclusions: The microscopic using histological identification, microscopic constants and other physico chemical examinations of the seeds of Dolichos biflorus Linn. can be used as a rapid, inexpensive botanical identification technique and is useful in standardization, hence it would be of immense value in authentication of seed.

  14. Estrutura populacional dos camarões simpátricos Potimirim glabra e Potimirim potimirim (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae no rio Sahy, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Populational structure of the sympatric freshwater shrimps Potimirim glabra and Potimirim potimirim (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae in the Sahy River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana V. Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo obter conhecimento sobre a estrutura populacional de dois camarões de água doce simpátricos, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 e Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 no rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os indivíduos foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de setembro de 1997 a fevereiro de 1999 utilizando-se peneiras, que foram passadas sob a vegetação marginal, superfície de rochas e pequenas poças d'água, num esforço de 15 minutos por coletor. Os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo e mensurados em relação ao comprimento total e do cefalotórax. Um total de 4.889 indivíduos foram coletados no rio Sahy: 3.281 P. glabra e 1.608 P. potimirim. A razão sexual observada foi de 1:1 para P. glabra e 1:2,3 para P. potimirim. Em ambas populações, cinco estágios de maturidade sexual foram determinados, sendo as populações constituídas principalmente por camarões adultos. O recrutamento de juvenis apresentou diferenças em ambas as espécies. O recrutamento de P. glabra ocorreu durante todo o período de estudo, exceto na primavera, enquanto que P. potimirim foi registrado somente no outono. A distribuição sazonal de fêmeas ovígeras de P. glabra é similar ao de P. potimirim, com reprodução na primavera e no verão.The aim of this work was to get some knowledge about the populational structure of the two sympatric freshwater shrimp species, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 in the Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The specimens were sampled monthly from September 1997 to February 1999 by sieving the marginal vegetation, on rocky surface and among litter on river bottom, with 15-minute effort per sampling period. The animals were sorted sexed and their total and cephalothoracic length were measured. A total of 4,889 individuals were collected in Sahy river: 3,281 P. glabra and 1,608 P. potimirim. The sex ratio for all

  15. Some photosynthetic and growth responses of Annona glabra L. seedlings to soil flooding Algumas respostas fotossintéticas e do crescimento de plântulas de Annona glabra L. ao alagamento do solo

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    Marcelo S. Mielke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the effects of soil flooding and leaf position on net primary productivity and whole plant carbon balance of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae seedlings, a highly flood-tolerant tree, native to the tropical Americas. All seedlings survived a period of 56 days of flooding without symptoms of stress. Flooding induced significant increments in root, stem and whole-plant biomass (P Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do alagamento e da posição das folhas na produtividade primária líquida e no balanço de carbono em plântulas de Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae, uma espécie altamente tolerante ao alagamento e nativa na América tropical. Todas as plântulas sobreviveram ao período de alagamento de 56 dias sem apresentarem sintomas de estresse. O alagamento induziu incrementos significativos (P <0,01 na biomassa de raízes, caules e planta inteira, e na razão raízes/parte aérea. Medições das trocas gasosas foliares foram conduzidas aos quatro, 11, 18 e 56 dias após o alagamento, na primeira (L1, quarta (L4 e sétima (L7 folha completamente expandida a partir do ápice em cada plântula. Os valores médios da condutância estomática ao vapor de água (g s e da taxa fotossintética líquida (A nas plântulas controle foram 0,26 mol m-2s-1 e 8,8 µmol m-2s-1, respectivamente. Reduções significativas (P <0,05 em A foram observadas entre L1 e L7 nas plântulas controle em todos os três dias de medições. As reduções em A com o aumento da idade foliar também ocorreram nas plantas alagadas, apenas nos dias 4 e 18. O alagamento induziu alterações significativas em gs (P <0,05, alcançando 65% em relação ao controle no dia 4 e 152% em relação ao controle no dia 56. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi possível concluir que as elevadas taxas de sobrevivência e de crescimento de plântulas de A. glabra estão diretamente relacionadas com a capacidade de manter

  16. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata Linn) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN LARVA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Ariana

    2016-01-01

    PENGARUH KONSENTRASI AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata Linn) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN LARVA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti Diah Ariana, ST, M.Kes Prodi D3 Analis Kesehatan UM Surabaya   Abstract Leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn) Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases other than as a cure soursop leaves is also an insecticide-producing plants are bioactive compounds known as acetogenin which are bioactive compounds in high concent...

  17. PENGARUH MASKER DAUN SIRSAK (ANNONA MURICATA LINN) TERHADAP KULIT WAJAH BERJERAWAT

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelona Tampubolon, Nining

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to analyze whether there is any effect of the use of soursop leaf (Annonamuricata Linn) mask that is applied as a facial mask skin care for people with acne (Acne vulgaris).This study applied quasi experimental research methods, woods lamp as the tool to identify the client have Acne or not. and measurement criteria was used as the instrument. A full facial mask added with soursop leaf (Annona muricata Linn). After obtaining the data, analysis requirement test ...

  18. Uso de reguladores vegetais na conservação refrigerada de acerolas (Malpighia glabra L. Effect of plant growth regulators in the refrigerated conservation of acerola fruits (Malpighia glabra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Antunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o uso do ácido giberélico (GA3 e da benzilaminopurina (BAP na conservação de acerolas (Malpighia glabra L. colhidas no estádio verde e armazenadas sob refrigeração, acerolas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos, sob imersão por 30 minutos: controle (água, 50 mg L-1 e 100 mg L-1 de GA3, 50 mg L-1 e 100 mg L-1 de BAP. Após os tratamentos, os frutos foram deixados para secar ao ar em local fresco e, então, embalados em bandejas de isopor cobertas com filme de polietileno e armazenados em câmara B.O.D a 8±1ºC, por 14 dias. As avaliações foram realizadas em intervalos de 4 dias. Os frutos amostrados foram submetidos a avaliações de coloração, teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e teor de ácido ascórbico. A análise dos resultados mostrou que a aplicação dos reguladores não teve efeito no aumento da conservação refrigerada de acerolas e que somente a refrigeração foi suficiente para conservá-las durante 14 dias.With the objective of preserving the physicochemical characteristics from green stage harvested of acerola fruits (Malpighia glabra L., these were submitted to the following 30-minute immersion treatments: control (water, 50mg L-1 GA3, 100mg L-1 GA3, 50mg L-1 BAP (benzylaminopurine, and 100mg L-1 BAP. After treatment, the fruits were air-dried in a cool place and then packaged in styrofoam trays wrapped with polyethylene film, and stored in a BOD incubator at 8°C for 14 days. Evaluations were performed at 4 days intervals. The fruits were evaluated for coloration, soluble solids content, trituratable acidity, and ascorbic acid content. The analysis of the results showed that the application of plant growth regulators did not have effect in the increase of the refrigerated conservation of acerola fruits and that only the cooling was enough to conserve its for 14 days.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer compounds isolated from Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Lantana camara Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Das Sarma, Madhushree; Patra, Amarendra; Hazra, Banasri

    2010-09-01

    The aim was to search for anti-inflammatory and anticancer compounds from three medicinal plants, viz. Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Lantana camara Linn. The NO* scavenging potential of selected plant extracts was determined on LPS/IFN-gamma activated murine peritoneal macrophage cultures, and iNOS and COX-2 expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Bio-assay guided fractionation yielded four compounds: physcion and emodin from V. madraspatana, 1-hydroxytectoquinone from R. cordifolia, and oleanonic acid from L. camara. The anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds was tested through the carrageenan-induced rat-paw oedema model. They were then tested against a murine tumour (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma), and three human cancer cell lines, namely A375 (malignant skin melanoma), Hep2 (epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma) and U937 (lymphoma). All four compounds dose dependently inhibited NO* through suppression of iNOS protein without affecting macrophage viability. Physcion and emodin caused 65-68% reduction of oedema volume at 40 mg/kg, which validated their in-vivo anti-inflammatory effect. 1-Hydroxytectoquinone and oleanonic acid exhibited promising cytotoxicity against A375 cells. Ethnomedical reports on these traditional medicinal plants have been rationalised through an insight into the anti-inflammatory as well as anticancer potential of four constituents, characterised to be prospective candidates for designing novel therapeutic agents.

  20. Blockade of nicotine sensitization by methanol extracts of Glycyrrhizae radix mediated via antagonism of accumbal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng Lin; Kim, Sang Chan; Liu, Hong Feng; Wu, Yi Yan; Li, Li Bo; Wang, Yu Hua; Jiao, Yu; Fan, Yu; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Bong Hyeo; Cho, Il Je; Yang, Chae Ha; Zhao, Rong Jie

    2017-11-16

    We previously reported that a methanol extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (MEGR) blocked methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference in rats. In the present study, the effects of MEGR on repeated nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and enhanced extracellular dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) were evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated administrations of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneous) or saline twice a day for 7 d and were challenged with nicotine 4 d after the last daily dosing. During the 4-d withdrawal period, the rats were treated once a day with MEGR (60 or 180 mg/kg/d). Extracellular DA levels were measured by in vivo microdialysis, the malondialdehyde levels and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the Nacc were biochemically evaluated, and the expression of antioxidant proteins was confirmed by Western blot assays. All data were assessed with analysis of variance tests followed by post-hoc comparison tests and p values nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization was dose-dependently attenuated by MEGR, and 180 mg/kg/d MEGR significantly inhibited augmented accumbal DA release induced by a direct local challenge of nicotine. Moreover, 180 mg/kg/d MEGR reversed increases in malondialdehyde production, decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and the reduced expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1 in the nicotine-sensitized Nacc. These results suggest that MEGR inhibited nicotine-induced locomotion and dopaminergic sensitization via antioxidant action.

  1. Silicon alleviates salt and drought stress of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by altering antioxidant metabolism and osmotic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjin; Xie, Zhicai; Wang, Lianhong; Li, Ming; Lang, Duoyong; Zhang, Xinhui

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine effect and mechanism of exogenous silicon (Si) on salt and drought tolerance of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by focusing on the pathways of antioxidant defense and osmotic adjustment. Seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant metabolism, osmolytes concentration and Si content of G. uralensis seedlings were analyzed under control, salt and drought stress [100 mM NaCl with 0, 10 and 20% of PEG-6000 (Polyethylene glycol-6000)] with or without 1 mM Si. Si addition markedly affected the G. uralensis growth in a combined dose of NaCl and PEG dependent manner. In brief, Si addition improved germination rate, germination index, seedling vitality index and biomass under control and NaCl; Si also increased radicle length under control, NaCl and NaCl-10% PEG, decreased radicle length, seedling vitality index and germination parameters under NaCl-20% PEG. The salt and drought stress-induced-oxidative stress was modulated by Si application. Generally, Si application increased catalase (CAT) activity under control and NaCl-10% PEG, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments and glutathione (GSH) content under salt combined drought stress as compared with non-Si treatments, which resisted to the increase of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide caused by salt and drought stress and further decreased membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Si application also increased proline concentration under NaCl and NaCl-20% PEG, but decreased it under NaCl-10% PEG, indicating proline play an important role in G. uralensis seedling response to osmotic stress. In conclusion, Si could ameliorate adverse effects of salt and drought stress on G. uralensis likely by reducing oxidative stress and osmotic stress, and the oxidative stress was regulated through enhancing of antioxidants (mainly CAT, APX and GSH) and osmotic stress was regulated by proline.

  2. Melatonin in Glycyrrhiza uralensis: response of plant roots to spectral quality of light and UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afreen, F; Zobayed, S M A; Kozai, T

    2006-09-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is known to be synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland in vertebrates. Evidence for the occurrence of melatonin in the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis plants and the response of this plant to the spectral quality of light including red, blue and white light (control) and UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) for the synthesis of melatonin were investigated. Melatonin was extracted and quantified in seed, root, leaf and stem tissues and results revealed that the root tissues contained the highest concentration of melatonin; melatonin concentrations also increased with plant development. After 3 months of growth under red, blue and white fluorescent lamps, the melatonin concentrations were highest in red light exposed plants and varied depending on the wavelength of light spectrum in the following order red > blue > or = white light. Interestingly, in a more mature plant (6 months) melatonin concentration was increased considerably; the increments in concentration were X4, X5 and X3 in 6-month-old red, blue and white light exposed (control) plants, respectively. The difference in melatonin concentrations between blue and white light exposed (control) plants was not significant. The concentration of melatonin quantified in the root tissues was highest in the plants exposed to high intensity UV-B radiation for 3 days followed by low intensity UV-B radiation for 15 days. The reduction of melatonin under longer periods of UV-B exposure indicates that melatonin synthesis may be related to the integrated (intensity and duration) value of UV-B irradiation. Melatonin in G. uralensis plant is presumably for protection against oxidative damage caused as a response to UV irradiation.

  3. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  4. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

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    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  5. Efeito de citocininas na senescência e abscisão foliar durante o cultivo in vitro de Annona glabra L. Effect of cytokinins on senescence and foliar abscision during in vitro Annona glabra L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaldo Muniz de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação de anonáceas tem sido limitada pela abscisão foliar precoce nas brotações, o que dificulta a manutenção e o desenvolvimento das plantas in vitro. Esse fato se deve, principalmente, ao acúmulo de etileno nos tubos fechados e à relação etileno/citocinina nas folhas. Assim sendo, avaliaram-se o efeito de fontes de citocinina sobre o retardo da senescência foliar em brotações de Annona glabra L. e suas implicações sobre o seu desenvolvimento. Segmentos nodais foram cultivados em tubo de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio WPM, suplementado com 30g L-1 de sacarose, 500mg L-1 de benomyl e 1g L-1 de carvão ativado. A esse meio adicionaram-se 6-benzilaminopurina, thidiazuron, cinetina e zeatina, todos na concentração de 1mg L-1. Decorridos 45 dias após a inoculação, plantas foram submetidas à senescência em ambiente escuro, por um período de 9 dias, coletando-se folhas a cada três dias para quantificação de clorofila "a", clorofila "b", carotenóides, proteínas e açúcares solúveis totais. No final das fases de multiplicação e enraizamento, quantificaram-se a matéria seca, a área foliar e o número de folhas que sofreram abscisão nas plantas que não foram submetidas à senescência. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, sendo que cada período de senescência constituiu um bloco, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os resultados mostraram que cinetina e zeatina, seguidas de thidiazuron e 6-benzilaminopurina, preservam maior teor de clorofilas "a", "b" e de carotenóides durante todo o período de senescência induzida. 6-benzilaminopurina e cinetina promoveram maior retenção da área foliar durante as fases de multiplicação e enraizamento de Annona glabra L.The micropropagation of Annonaceae has been limited by early foliar abscission in shoots, which makes the maintenance and development of plants in vitro environment difficult. This is mainly due to ethylene accumulation in closed

  6. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. β-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), β-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psidium guajava Linn confers gastro protective effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston Raja, N R; Sundar, K

    2012-02-01

    The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.

  8. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  9. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

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    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  10. Development and characterisation of Vitex negundo Linn. noodles

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    Tan, L.S.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Formulation 2 (1 g w/w was the most favourable and was chosen for further analyses to compare its composition with that of a control (0 g w/w. Total phenolic content (TPC of the fresh noodles remained higher than that of the control even after cooking. However, after cooking, the carbohydrate and protein contents showed significant increases. The results showed that the lemuni-supplemented noodles have a longer shelf life compared to the control. The colour parameters L* and a* also showed significant differences as the lightness decreased, and the redness increased after the substitution. The L*, a* and b* values decreased significantly after the noodles of both formulations were cooked. The tensile strength, adhesiveness, and hardness of the lemuni noodles were significantly higher than those of the control. Thus, the Vitex negundo Linn. leaf has the potential to increase the health benefits of food products

  11. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K

    2017-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.

  12. A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Saint Savage

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The patterning of the Arabidopsis root epidermis depends on a genetic regulatory network that operates both within and between cells. Genetic studies have identified a number of key components of this network, but a clear picture of the functional logic of the network is lacking. Here, we integrate existing genetic and biochemical data in a mathematical model that allows us to explore both the sufficiency of known network interactions and the extent to which additional assumptions about the model can account for wild-type and mutant data. Our model shows that an existing hypothesis concerning the autoregulation of WEREWOLF does not account fully for the expression patterns of components of the network. We confirm the lack of WEREWOLF autoregulation experimentally in transgenic plants. Rather, our modelling suggests that patterning depends on the movement of the CAPRICE and GLABRA3 transcriptional regulators between epidermal cells. Our combined modelling and experimental studies show that WEREWOLF autoregulation does not contribute to the initial patterning of epidermal cell fates in the Arabidopsis seedling root. In contrast to a patterning mechanism relying on local activation, we propose a mechanism based on lateral inhibition with feedback. The active intercellular movements of proteins that are central to our model underlie a mechanism for pattern formation in planar groups of cells that is centred on the mutual support of two cell fates rather than on local activation and lateral inhibition.

  13. The Histone Chaperone NRP1 Interacts with WEREWOLF to ActivateGLABRA2in Arabidopsis Root Hair Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Rong, Liang; Luo, Qiang; Wang, Baihui; Zhou, Nana; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Chi; Feng, Haiyang; Zheng, Lina; Shen, Wen-Hui; Ma, Jinbiao; Dong, Aiwu

    2017-02-01

    NUCLEOSOME ASSEMBLY PROTEIN1 (NAP1) defines an evolutionarily conserved family of histone chaperones and loss of function of the Arabidopsis thaliana NAP1 family genes NAP1-RELATED PROTEIN1 ( NRP1 ) and NRP2 causes abnormal root hair formation. Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that NRP1 interacts with the transcription factor WEREWOLF (WER) in vitro and in vivo and enriches at the GLABRA2 ( GL2 ) promoter in a WER-dependent manner. Crystallographic analysis indicates that NRP1 forms a dimer via its N-terminal α-helix. Mutants of NRP1 that either disrupt the α-helix dimerization or remove the C-terminal acidic tail, impair its binding to histones and WER and concomitantly lead to failure to activate GL2 transcription and to rescue the nrp1-1 nrp2-1 mutant phenotype. Our results further demonstrate that WER-dependent enrichment of NRP1 at the GL2 promoter is involved in local histone eviction and nucleosome loss in vivo. Biochemical competition assays imply that the association between NRP1 and histones may counteract the inhibitory effect of histones on the WER-DNA interaction. Collectively, our study provides important insight into the molecular mechanisms by which histone chaperones are recruited to target chromatin via interaction with a gene-specific transcription factor to moderate chromatin structure for proper root hair development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Natasha Saint; Walker, Tom; Wieckowski, Yana; Schiefelbein, John; Dolan, Liam; Monk, Nicholas A M

    2008-09-23

    The patterning of the Arabidopsis root epidermis depends on a genetic regulatory network that operates both within and between cells. Genetic studies have identified a number of key components of this network, but a clear picture of the functional logic of the network is lacking. Here, we integrate existing genetic and biochemical data in a mathematical model that allows us to explore both the sufficiency of known network interactions and the extent to which additional assumptions about the model can account for wild-type and mutant data. Our model shows that an existing hypothesis concerning the autoregulation of WEREWOLF does not account fully for the expression patterns of components of the network. We confirm the lack of WEREWOLF autoregulation experimentally in transgenic plants. Rather, our modelling suggests that patterning depends on the movement of the CAPRICE and GLABRA3 transcriptional regulators between epidermal cells. Our combined modelling and experimental studies show that WEREWOLF autoregulation does not contribute to the initial patterning of epidermal cell fates in the Arabidopsis seedling root. In contrast to a patterning mechanism relying on local activation, we propose a mechanism based on lateral inhibition with feedback. The active intercellular movements of proteins that are central to our model underlie a mechanism for pattern formation in planar groups of cells that is centred on the mutual support of two cell fates rather than on local activation and lateral inhibition.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and α-glycosidase inhibition activity of a carboxymethylated polysaccharide from the residue of Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Hu, Cheng; Liu, Yameng; Dai, Shijie; Lu, Weisheng; Lv, Xing; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-06-01

    A carboxymethylated polysaccharide (CMSERP) was prepared from the residue of Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai. CMSERP was mainly composed of galacturonic acid (GalA), glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), glucuronic acid (GlcA), arabinose (Ara), rhamnose (Rha), xylose (Xyl), ribose (Rib), and fucose (Fuc) at the ratio of 29.79:19.30:11.92:6.32:4.68:3.95:3.39:2.31:1.00. The primary structure features of CMSERP were determined to be a pectin like polysaccharide according to FT-IR, NMR, and HPAEC-PAD. The results of HPSEC-MALLS-RID and DLS indicated the Mw, Mn, Mz, and S2Z1/2 of CMSERP were 5.515×10 4 g/mol, 1.566×10 4 g/mol, 1.510×10 6 g/mol, and 62.8 (±1.2%) nm, respectively. TEM and AFM revealed CMSERP was dispersed in 0.05M sodium sulfate but aggregated in water. Moreover, a high α-glucosidase inhibition activity (83.38%±2.30% at 1000μg/mL) of CMSERP which is higher than that of acarbose was observed. The results proved the effects of carboxymethylation on poor water-soluble polysaccharides and explore a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor which from abandoned extracted residue for the functional foods and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Chemical Compounds Isolated from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra on Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-li Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Smilax glabra has been used for a long time as both food and folk medicine in many countries. The present study focused on the active constituents from the rhizome of S. glabra, which possess potential anti-inflammatory activities. As a result, nine known compounds were isolated from the rhizome of S. glabra with the bioassay-guiding, and were identified as syringaresinol (1, lasiodiplodin (2, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3, syringic acid (4, 1,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl-1,4-butanediol (5, lyoniresinol (6, trans-resveratrol (7, trans-caffeic acid methyl ester (8, and dihydrokaempferol (9. Among these compounds, 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from S. glabra. In addition, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that 4 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects on NO production of RAW264.7 cells, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 showed moderate suppression effects on induced NO production. 1, 7, and 5 exhibited high inhibitory effects on TNF-α production, with the IC50 values less than 2.3, 4.4, and 16.6 μM, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 were the potential anti-inflammatory active compositions of S. glabra.

  17. Some Notes on the Genus Lepas Linné, 1767. (Subphylum Crustacea; Classis Cirripedia; Ordo Thoracica; Fam. Lepadidae.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de Fr.

    1952-01-01

    For the last twenty years several authors have been pointing out, that the species of the genus Lepas are very difficult to distinguish. The forms Lepas anatifera Linné and Lepas anserifera Linné especially cause trouble in identifying. It is often hard and sometimes even impossible to distinguish

  18. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical study on enhancement of Medha (intelligence quotient) in school going children with Yahstimadhu granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshagiri, Srihari; Patel, Kalpana S.; Rajagopala, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Optimal intelligence is a vital essentiality in day-to-day life, especially in children who have to build up their life in an apt manner. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn) is a time tested classical drug indicated for promotion of mental health mentioned in Ayurveda which may also help children to attain optimal intelligence. Aim: To evaluate the role of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) granules in enhancement of Medha (intelligence quotient [IQ]). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on healthy school going children aged 14–16 years. Total 94 children were registered and divided into two groups. Yashtimadhu granules was administered in Group A and Wheat flour in the form of granules in Group B, the duration of treatment was 12 weeks with follow up of additional 12 weeks. Objective parameters included assessment of functional aspects of Buddhi (psychological faculty for reasoning and logic) along with the assessment of IQ, Quality of life parameters and general health condition. Results: Yashtimadhu granules showed statistically highly significant results in improving functional aspects of Buddhi, IQ, several aspects of quality of life parameters and health. The number needed to treat (NNT) with Yashtimadhu granules for children achieving an IQ score of 90 and above was 3.38, suggesting one in every 3.38 patients had achieved this target and for children achieving an IQ score of 110 and above the NNT was 6.66. Conclusion: Yashtimadhu granules was safe throughout the course of study and indeed possessed a significant efficacy in improving Medha (IQ). PMID:26730140

  19. Estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico durante o enraizamento in vitro de Annona glabra L., I. desenvolvimento do sistema radicular e da parte aérea Stimulus of the photoautotrophic behavior during the in vitro rooting of Annona glabra L., I. development of root system and shoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raniere Ferreira de Santana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de induzir a estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico durante o enraizamento in vitro em brotações de Annona glabra L. Brotações oriundas de cultivo em tubos fechados com tampa e película de PVC (cultivo sem aeração, com tampa sem a película de PVC e tampão de algodão (cultivo com aeração foram inoculadas em meio WPM suplementado com 4,9 µ M de AIB e 164,4mM de carvão ativado na presença (58,42mM ou ausência de sacarose. Durante o enraizamento, foram mantidas as mesmas condições de vedação dos tubos de ensaio em que as brotações foram induzidas. Após a inoculação, os tubos contendo os explantes foram mantidos em sala de crescimento sob radiação fotossintética ativa de 45-56 µ mol.m-2.s-1 a 25±3ºC. Os resultados mostraram que o enraizamento das brotações de A. glabra não dependeu do suprimento de sacarose no meio de cultura, em tubos fechados com o tampão de algodão ou tampa plástica sem PVC. A aeração dos tubos de ensaio trouxe incrementos de significativos (até 250% na matéria seca radicular. A indução de raízes secundárias (laterais em A. glabra só ocorreu em culturas com aeração, independentemente da presença ou ausência de sacarose no meio de cultura. Com os resultado desse experimento, conclui-se que o estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico em A.glabra pode ser obtido com sucesso durante a fase de enraizamento in vitro.The objective of the present work was to evaluate whether Annona glabra L. shoots are able to acquire the photoautotrophic behavior during the in vitro rooting. In vitro A. glabra shoots originated from cultures in vessels sealed with cap and PVC film (culture without aeration, cap without PVC film or cotton tampon (cultures with aeration, were inoculated in WPM medium supplemented with 4.9 µ M IBA and 164,4mM activated charcoal in the presence (58.42mM or absence of sucrose. During rooting, the same conditions in which shoots

  20. Development and anti-microbial potential of topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshala, Ravi; Ying, Ling Teck; Hui, Ling Shiau; Barua, Ankur; Dua, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve better treatment for local wounds and bacterial infections, topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn. were developed. These formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and antimicrobial efficacy against various strains of microorganisms. Semisolid formulations containing 5% w/w of Cocos nucifera Linn. were prepared by employing different dermatological bases and were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties, FTIR-spectroscopic analysis, thermodynamic stability and stability studies. The antimicrobial activity of each prepared formulation was determined using disk-diffusion method against various strains of microorganisms. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable and exhibited suitable physicochemical characteristics including pH, viscosity and spreadability which are necessary for an ideal topical preparation, in addition to strong antimicrobial activity. Carbopol gel base was found to be the most suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. in comparsion to other bases. Cocos nucifera Linn. formulations showed great potential for wounds and local bacterial infections. Moreover, carbopol gel base with its aesthetic appeal was found to be a suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. semisolid formulation as it had demonstrated significant physicochemical properties and greater diffusion when assessed using disk- diffusion method.

  1. Pharmacognostic Assesment of the Endemic and Vulnerable Medicinal Climber-Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Gagnep. var. glabra Gamble and Its Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmila, S; Kalaichelvi, K; Dhivya, S M; Premamalini, P; Abirami, P; Jayanthi, G

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a meticulous pharmacognostic cram is to supplement constructive information with regard to its identification, characterization, and standardization of endemic and endangered medicinal climber Cayratia pedata var. glabra and also screening the antibacterial activity of this climber. The morphological characters of study plant, microscopic examination of leaf powder, anatomy of young stem, physicochemical analysis of plant powder, extractive values, phytochemical analysis, powder with different chemical reagents, fluorescence analysis of plant powder, and other World Health Organization (WHO) recommended for standardization were analyzed. The antibacterial activity of this study plant is also analyzed. C. pedata var. glabra belongs to the family Vitaceae, commonly known as "Kattuppirandai" is one such endemic and endangered species in Thaisholai, Nilgiris South Division, Western Ghats. With the patronage of veteran ethnic group traditional knowledge of this region, the species C. pedata var. glabra was selected for the pharmacognostical examination and antibacterial screening. There were no pharmacognostical reports of this plant, specifically to determine the anatomical and other physicochemical standards required for its quality control. The current study deals with pharmacognostical parameters for the aerial parts of study plant, which mainly consists of macromorphological and microanatomical characters, physicochemical constants (ash values and extractive values), fluorescence analysis, and phytochemical screening, one of the WHO accepted parameter for the identification of medicinal plants. The pharmacognostical exploration was undertaken for this species with the purpose of sketch the pharmacopeial standards. The antibacterial activity of this plant confirms the therapeutic power. The information obtained from pharmacognostical studies will be of used for supplementary pharmacological and therapeutical evaluation of

  2. The Hypoglicemic Effect of Momordica Charantia Linn in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

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    Horea Sărăndan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was intended to test the hypoglycemiant effect of an alcoholic extract of roots or of the fruit seeds from “in vitro” regenerated Momordica charantia Linn. plants grown at USAMVB Timisoara. Diabetes was induced to domestic rabbits by administrating alloxan in dose of 80 mg/ kg body weight. In diabetic rabbits the glycemia decreased by 15.93% ten hours after the administration of the alcoholic extract in dose of 2 ml/kg body weight; the seeds of Momordica charantia Linn. reduced glycemia by 27.42% when administered in dose of 1.5 g/kg body weight. In alloxan recuperated rabbits, 5 hours after administration of the seeds, glycemia dropped 19.26%. The “in vitro” regenerated plants of Momordica charantia Linn. keep their hypoglycemiant effects.

  3. Coumarins from Angelica archangelica Linn. and their effects on anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali; Kumar, Vijender; Shah, M Y

    2013-01-10

    TRADITIONAL RELEVANCE: Angelica archangelica Linn. (Apiaceae) is an herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Both in Chinese and Indian system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders including anxiety, anorexia, migraine and other cerebral diseases. To evaluate the anxiolytic potential of non polar coumarins isolated from A. archangelica Linn. A. archangelica Linn. (1 kg) was subjected to extraction in a soxhlet apparatus with petroleum ether (40-60 °C), yield 6.9% w/w. The extract of petroleum ether produced a yellow colored precipitate (YP) which was evaluated for anxiolytic like effect using EPM test and was found significant (**Parchangelica and its constituents imperatorin and isoimperatorin have the potential to reduce anxiety but it is the mixture which have more significant activity as compared to its individual components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and analgesic potential of cocos nucifera linn.: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Kamal; Sheshala, Ravi; Ling, Teck Ying; Hui Ling, Shiau; Gorajana, Adinarayana

    2013-01-01

    At present, approximately 25%of drugs in modern pharmacopoeia are derived from plant sources (phytomedicines) that can be developed for the treatment of diseases and disorders. Many other drugs are synthetic analogues built on the prototype compounds isolated from plants. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae), which is commonly known as coconut, is a plant possessing a lot of potential as an ingredient in traditional medicines for the treatment of metabolic disorders and particularly as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic agent. This review emphasizes on the recent literature and research findings that highlight the significant biological activities of C. nucifera Linn. such as its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic properties. This review can help researchers keen on exploiting the therapeutic potential of C. nucifera Linn. which may motivate them to further explore their commercial viability.

  5. New Cyclotetrapeptides and a New Diketopiperzine Derivative from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Neosartorya glabra KUFA 0702.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May Zin, War War; Buttachon, Suradet; Dethoup, Tida; Fernandes, Carla; Cravo, Sara; Pinto, Madalena M M; Gales, Luís; Pereira, José A; Silva, Artur M S; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Kijjoa, Anake

    2016-07-20

    Two new cyclotetrapeptides, sartoryglabramides A (5) and B (6), and a new analog of fellutanine A (8) were isolated, together with six known compounds including ergosta-4, 6, 8 (14), 22-tetraen-3-one, ergosterol 5, 8-endoperoxide, helvolic acid, aszonalenin (1), (3R)-3-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-3,4-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-dione (2), takakiamide (3), (11aR)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-5,11(10H,11aH)-dione (4), and fellutanine A (7), from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of the marine sponge-associated fungus Neosartorya glabra KUFA 0702. The structures of the new compounds were established based on extensive 1D and 2D spectral analysis. X-ray analysis was also used to confirm the relative configuration of the amino acid constituents of sartoryglabramide A (5), and the absolute stereochemistry of the amino acid constituents of sartoryglabramide A (5) and sartoryglabramides B (6) was determined by chiral HPLC analysis of their hydrolysates by co-injection with the d- and l- amino acids standards. Compounds 1-8 were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and Gram-negative (Staphyllococus aureus ATCC 25923) bacteria, as well as for their antifungal activity against filamentous (Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 46645), dermatophyte (Trichophyton rubrum ATCC FF5) and yeast (Candida albicans ATCC 10231). None of the tested compounds exhibited either antibacterial (MIC > 256 μg/mL) or antifungal activities (MIC > 512 μg/mL).

  6. Neosartorya glabra polygalacturonase produced from fruit peels as inducers has the potential for application in passion fruit and apple juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Elisa Pinheiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Polygalacturonases are enzymes with the biotechnological potential for use in fruit juice clarification and for the enhancement of filtration efficiency. The aim of this work was to assess the production of polygalacturonase by the fungus Neosartorya glabra by means of solid-state and submerged fermentation using fruit peel residues as the carbon source, and also apply the enzyme in the clarification and decrease in viscosity of passion fruit and apple juices. The highest polygalacturonase (4.52 U/g/h production was obtained by means of submerged fermentation in Vogel´s medium (1964 containing orange peel – Bahia variety (Citrus sinensis, at a concentration of 1.5% (w/v, dried mass at 30-35°C for 72 h. The polygalacturonase of the crude extract presented optimal activity at 60°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme retained around 90% of the initial activity after 180 minutes at 40°C, and 50% of the initial activity after 150 minutes at 50°C. The enzyme was shown to be stable at acid pH values (3.0-6.5 after 120 minutes at 25oC. All these favourable enzymatic properties make the polygalacturonase attractive for potential uses in the industry of pectin-rich fruit juices, since the application of the crude extract to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis juice caused an 80% reduction in viscosity and 75% decrease in light absorbance. In the processing of apple pulp juice (Malus domestica, there was a 50% reduction in viscosity and 78% decrease in light absorbance.

  7. ORGANOGÉNESIS FLORAL EN ACNISTUS ARBORESCENS, DUNALIA SOLANACEA, DEPREA BITTERIANA, LARNAX GLABRA Y LARNAX HAWKESII - TRIBU PHYSALEAE (SOLANACEAE

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    GARZÓN-VENEGAS JAVIER

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la organogénesis floral en las especies Acnistus arborescens, Dunaliasolanacea, Deprea bitteriana, Larnax glabra y Larnax hawkesii de la tribuPhysaleae (Solanaceae, empleando microscopía electrónica de barrido en modoambiental. Para fines de comparación de la organogénesis de las cinco especies, setuvieron en cuenta tres estados de desarrollo. Las especies estudiadas comparten lasecuencia acrópeta en la que surgen sépalos, pétalos, estambres y carpelos, así comoel arreglo simultáneo de corola y androceo. Comparten también la simpetalia tardía,siendo aún más tardía en las especies de Larnax. El tiempo de fusión de los pétalospuede considerarse un carácter importante para la diferenciación entre Deprea yLarnax. Se encontraron diferencias intergenéricas en cuanto al arreglo del cáliz, quees simultáneo en Dunalia solanacea, mientras que en Deprea bitteriana y en lasdos especies de Larnax es espiralado, en A. arborescens el patrón de desarrollo delos sépalos es intermedio. Los carpelos se desarrollan fusionados basalmente en unestadio temprano, todas las especies son bicarpelares, sin embargo, el gineceo de A.arborescens da la apariencia de ser tricarpelar por la formación de un “falso septo”.

  8. Radioprotective effect of the Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) against radiopharmaceutical iodine-131 in Wistar rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsman, Elisângela; Berti, Alessandra Paim; Mariucci, Rosinete Gonçalves; Lopes, Nilson Benedito; Tonin, Lilian Tatiani Düsman; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2014-01-31

    The increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables has contributed to the improvement of populational health, due in part, to the abundance of antioxidants in these foods. Antioxidants reduce the level of oxidative damage to DNA caused by free radicals and ionizing radiation, including the radioisotope iodine-131 (131I). This isotope is used for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid injuries, such as hyperthyroidism and cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective and cytotoxic activity of acute and subchronic treatments with Barbados Cherry (BC) (Malpighia glabra L.) fruit juice (5 mg), which is rich in potent antioxidants such as vitamin C, phenols, carotenoids, anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids and its activity against the mutagenic activity of the therapeutic dose of 25 μCi of radioiodine for hyperthyroidism. The test system used was the bone marrow cells of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were treated in vivo by gavage. BC showed radioprotective activity in acute treatments, which is most likely due to the joint action of its antioxidant components. In subchronic treatments, the continuous treatment presented an effective radioprotective activity, which was significantly different from treatment with the radiopharmaceutical only. Treatment with BC prior to (PRE) and simultaneous with (SIM) ionizing radiation decreased the number of induced chromosomal alterations, while post-treatment produced no protective effect. In addition, BC exhibited no cytotoxic activity. These data serve as evidence that BC can be used as a preventive health measure to improve public health quality by countering the action of inevitable exposure to mutagens, such as 131I.

  9. POTENSI ANTIOKSIDAN BERBAGAI SEDIAAN BUAH SIRSAK [ANONNA MURICATA LINN

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    Prasetyorini Prasetyorini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSoursop is a potential source of antioxidant due to high vitamin C and poliphenol content. Antioxidant activity of three different preparations i.e. fruit juice, 96% ethanol extract, and ethyl acetate extract. The antiocdidant were measured by using 1.1-diphenyl-2 pycrihidrazyl (DPPH radical solution. In addition, vitamin C and polyphenol content of each preparation were also measured. Polyphenol content as measured in gram Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE/100 g. Showed the fruit juice, 96% ethanol extract and ethyl acetate extract were 0,473, 0,324, and 0,194, respectively. Vitamin C content (mg/100 g of these three preparations were 36.24, 30.56, and 35.66, respectively. The antioxidant activities (ppm determined by IC50 showed fruit juice, 96% ethanol extract and ethyl acetate extract were 282.61 ppm, 660.08 and 480.26, respectively. There was strong correlation between vitamin C content and antioxidant activity, and between polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the use of fruit juice as antioxidant source was better than ethyl acetate and ethanol 96% extract.Keywords: antioxidant activity, soursop (Annona muricata Linn, poliphenol, vitamin CABSTRAKSirsak memiliki potensi sebagai sumber antioksidan karena kandungan vitamin C dan polifenol yang cukup tinggi. Aktivitas antioksidan dari tiga sediaan sirsak yaitu sari buah, ekstrak etanol 96% dan ekstrak etil asetat. Pengujian antioksidan dilakukan dengan senyawa radikal 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrilhidrazyl (DPPH. Selain diuji potensi antioksidannya, masing-masing bentuk sediaan juga diukur kadar vitamin C dan kadar polifenolnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan polifenol yang dihitung dalam gram Setara Asam Galat (SAG/100 g sari buah, ekstrak etanol 96% dan ekstrak etil asetat berturut-turut adalah 0,473; 0,324 dan 0,194 dan kandungan vitamin C (mg/100 g berturut-turut adalah 36,24; 30,56, dan 35,66. Aktivitas antioksidan (ppm yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai IC50, untuk

  10. Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A; Bigoniya, P; Raj, V; Patel, K K

    2011-07-01

    Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl(4) intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds.

  11. New Bioactive Oleanane Type Compounds from Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five (1–5 new bioactive oleanane type triterpenoids have been isolated from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. of Umbelliferae family. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant was fractionated in organic solvents. Ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography on HPLC RP-18 to get 1-oxo-11β,21β-dihydroxy-oleanane (1, 1-oxo-11β-hydroxy-21β-O-acetyloleanane (2, 1-oxo-11β-hydroxy-21β-O-angeloyloleanane (3, 1-oxo-11β-O-angeloyl-21β-O-acetyloleanane (4, and 1-oxo-11β,21β-O-dibenzoyloleanane (5. The structures were elucidated after analysis of spectroscopic data, UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 1D, and 2D, and mass measurements. Suspension in water of crude ethyl acetate extract was employed to treat sheep with ringworm disease. All isolated compounds (1–5 displayed excellent activity in terms of inhibition zones, MICs, MBCs, and MFCs against both bacteria and fungi. Ethyl acetate extract showed excellent antiringworm activity in sheep.

  12. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B. J.; Harisha, C. R.; Shukla, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

  13. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Kodlady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2. The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  14. Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

    2012-04-01

    Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.

  15. Antibacterial and antioxidative compounds from Cassia alata Linn.

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    Trinop Promgool

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Cassia alata Linn. led to the isolation of six known anthraquinones: aloe-emodin (1, emodin (2, ω-hydroxyemodin (3, lunatin (4, physcion (5, and ziganein (6, six flavonoids: apigenin (7, 7,4'-dihydroxy-5- methoxyflavone (8, diosmetin (9, kaempferol (10, luteolin (11, and trans-dihydrokaempferol (12 as well as one stilbene, trans-resveratrol (13. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including UV, IR, NMR and MS. Nine compounds (3-9 and 12-13 were reported for the first time as metabolites of C. alata. Compound 2 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA-SK1 and B. cereus TISTR 687 with MIC values of 4 and 8 µg/mL, respectively. Compound 10 was found to exhibit antioxidative activity with IC50 value of 9.67 µM that was three times stronger than that of ascorbic acid (IC50 25.41 µM.

  16. Terminalia catappa Linn seeds as a new food source

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    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate their potential use as a new dietary source, the seeds of Terminalia catappa Linn were analyzed for their nutritional and antinutritional properties, and to determine the effect of roasting. The TC seeds contained high levels of protein, oil and essential minerals. The 2 most limiting amino acids were Tryptophan and Lysine. Oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 are the main fatty acids which were determined at 32.4 and 30.3%, respectively. The ratio of saturated: monounsaturated: polyunsaturated fatty acid was close to what is recommended in the dietary guidelines of the American Heart Association. Contents of phenolic compounds and phytates (IP4 + IP5 + IP6 in raw seeds were 64.9 g of GAE/g and 2,110 mg/100g, which are comparable to the values in edible nuts. Trypsin inhibitor activity was 2.3 trypsin inhibitor units/mg. After roasting at 180°C for 4 min, both phenolic compounds and trypsin activity were reduced, while IP6 phytate degraded into IP4 and IP5 forms

  17. Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

    1999-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

  18. Phytosynthesis of Iron Nanoparticle from Averrhoa Bilimbi Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, I. R.; Zulhaimi, H. I.; Ibrahim, S. K. M.; Gopinath, S. C. B.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. M.; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, T. S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper demonstrates iron nanoparticles (FeNP) was synthesized from natural sources of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. The plant extracts act as natural reducing agent in producing FeNP. There is no addition of any surfactants during the nanoparticles formation. Gravimetric analysis is used to calculate the percentage yield of plant extracts. TPC and DPPH assay method were used to evaluate antioxidant activity in different A. bilimbi extracts and synthesized FeNP. Based on the analyses, it showed that fruit has the highest percentage yield and antioxidant activity followed by leaf, twig and bark. Analysis from TPC, fruit contains 27.26 mg GAE/g and 39.46 mg GAE/g for FeNP. DPPH assay showed fruit extract has the highest free radical antioxidant activity with 61.93% in A. bilimbi and 80.00% in FeNP. Phytosynthesis of FeNP were examine by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Based on the spectra, it showed that FeNP recorded peak absorbance at 465 nm, 450 nm, 460 nm and 440 nm for UAE-F, UAE-L, UAE-T and UAE-B, respectively. FTIR analysis shows the presence of strong alcoholic bond, aldehyde, stretch amine and alkene that was responsible in reduction process to form FeNP. The result of UV-Vis and FTIR showed that the existance of FeNP and involvement of functional group that were responsible on the formation of nanoparticles.

  19. Potential dermal wound healing agent in Blechnum orientale Linn

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    Lim Yau

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae is used ethnomedicinally to treat wounds, boils, blisters or abscesses and sores, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints. The aim of the study was to validate the ethnotherapeutic claim and to evaluate the effects of B. orientale water extract on wound healing activity. Methods Water extract of B. orientale was used. Excision wound healing activity was examined on Sprague-Dawley rats, dressed with 1% and 2% of the water extract. Control groups were dressed with the base cream (vehicle group, negative control and 10% povidone-iodine (positive control respectively. Healing was assessed based on contraction of wound size, mean epithelisation time, hydroxyproline content and histopathological examinations. Statistical analyses were performed using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. Results Wound healing study revealed significant reduction in wound size and mean epithelisation time, and higher collagen synthesis in the 2% extract-treated group compared to the vehicle group. These findings were supported by histolopathological examinations of healed wound sections which showed greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts and angiogenesis in the 2% extract-treated group. Conclusions The ethnotherapeutic use of this fern is validated. The water extract of B. orientale is a potential candidate for the treatment of dermal wounds. Synergistic effects of both strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the extract are deduced to have accelerated the wound repair at the proliferative phase of the healing process.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with LTQ OrbitrapXL Hybrid Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Dan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM as well as a functional food, has been commonly used for detoxification treatments, relieving dampness and as a diuretic. In order to quickly define the chemical profiles and control the quality of Smilacis glabrae, ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was applied for simultaneous identification and quantification of its bioactive constituents. A total of 56 compounds, including six new compounds, were identified or tentatively deduced on the basis of their retention behaviors, mass spectra, or by comparison with reference substances and literature data. The identified compounds belonged to flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenylpropanoid glycosides. In addition, an optimized UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS method was established for quantitative determination of six marker compounds from five batches. The validation of the method, including linearity, sensitivity (LOQ, precision, repeatability and spike recoveries, was carried out and demonstrated to be satisfied the requirements of quantitative analysis. The results suggested that the established method would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituent in complex chemical system and quality control of TCM.

  1. Evidences that human disturbance simplify the ant fauna associated a Stachytarpheta glabra Cham. (Verbenaceae compromising the benefits of ant-plant mutualism

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    BC. Barbosa

    Full Text Available Interaction among species, like ants and plants through extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, are important components of ecological communities’ evolution. However, the effect of human disturbance on such specific interactions and its ecological consequences is poorly understood. This study evaluated the outcomes of mutualism between ants and the EFN-bearing plant Stachytarpheta glabra under anthropogenic disturbance. We compared the arthropod fauna composition between two groups of twenty plant individuals, one in an area disturbed by human activities and one in a preserved area. We also check the plant investment in herbivory defense and the consequential leaf damage by herbivore. Our results indicate that such disturbances cause simplification of the associated fauna and lack of proper ant mutualist. This led to four times more herbivory on plants of disturbed areas, despite the equal amount of EFN and ant visitors and low abundance of herbivores. The high pressure of herbivory may difficult the re-establishment of S. glabra, an important pioneer species in ferruginous fields, therefore it may affect resilience of this fragile ecological community.

  2. Potential effects of fungicide and algaecide extracts of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae) on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata and on the oomycete Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Giseli S; Matsumoto, Reginaldo S; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; Lima, Maria Inês S

    2017-01-01

    Annona glabra L. is a semi-deciduous tree that contains several active substances, including secondary metabolites, with antifungal activity. Phytopathogenic strains of the genus Pythium cause billion dollar losses all over the world on natural and crop species. Searching for eco-friendly algaecides and fungicides, we analyzed the effects of acetone extracts of A. glabra leaves on the algae Rhaphidocelis subcapitata (Korshikov) and on the oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson). We evaluated ten extract concentrations for each organism - 0 to 400 mg L-1 for algae and 0-1000 µg disc1 for oomycete. The results showed no effect on algae up to 75 mg L-1, but a significant inhibitory effect at 125 mg L-1 and above, which reduced the growth rate and the final biomass of the algae. Extract concentrations above 200 mg L-1 were completely inhibitory. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for 72 and 96 h of exposure to our crude extracts are comparable to those obtained with commercial fungicides and herbicides used in aquatic ecosystems. The P. aphanidermatum inhibition concentrations have effects comparable to fungicides as Cycloheximide and Bifonazole. Some substances isolated from the extracts are described as antifungals, which could explain part of anti-oomycete activity. Our results highlight the importance of searching bioactive compounds from plants.

  3. Potential effects of fungicide and algaecide extracts of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata and on the oomycete Pythium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELI S. ROCHA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Annona glabra L. is a semi-deciduous tree that contains several active substances, including secondary metabolites, with antifungal activity. Phytopathogenic strains of the genus Pythium cause billion dollar losses all over the world on natural and crop species. Searching for eco-friendly algaecides and fungicides, we analyzed the effects of acetone extracts of A. glabra leaves on the algae Rhaphidocelis subcapitata (Korshikov and on the oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson. We evaluated ten extract concentrations for each organism - 0 to 400 mg L-1 for algae and 0-1000 µg disc1 for oomycete. The results showed no effect on algae up to 75 mg L-1, but a significant inhibitory effect at 125 mg L-1 and above, which reduced the growth rate and the final biomass of the algae. Extract concentrations above 200 mg L-1 were completely inhibitory. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for 72 and 96 h of exposure to our crude extracts are comparable to those obtained with commercial fungicides and herbicides used in aquatic ecosystems. The P. aphanidermatum inhibition concentrations have effects comparable to fungicides as Cycloheximide and Bifonazole. Some substances isolated from the extracts are described as antifungals, which could explain part of anti-oomycete activity. Our results highlight the importance of searching bioactive compounds from plants.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Nanjing) co., Ltd. The nucleotide sequences of these primers are as follows: ..... Ebizuka Y (2000). Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA for Glycyrrhiza glabra cycloartenol synthase. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 23(2):231-234.

  5. Biochemical and histopathological changes in sheep fed different detoxified karanj (Pongamia glabra seed cake as partial protein supplements

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    Nira Manik Soren

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the long-term effect of feeding processed solvent extracted karanj (Pongamia glabra cake (SKC on gross pathology and histopathological changes in some vital organs, and on the activities of serum enzymes in Jalauni lambs. Twenty-four male lambs were divided into 4 groups and allotted randomly to a soybean meal (SBM based control (CON and 3 treatment groups receiving concentrate mixtures, containing water washed (WW, 2.5% lime (LM and 0.4% binder (BN treated SKC replacing 50% nitrogen of SBM to meet the protein requirements. Blood was collected after 150 days from all the lambs and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were assayed. All lambs were sacrificed after 196 days, and vital organs screened for gross pathological lesions. The representative tissues of liver, intestine, parathyroid gland, testis, and epididymis were sampled, preserved in 10% formalin and processed to examine histopathological changes by staining with haematoxylin and eosin (HE. The serum enzyme activities of AST and ALT were similar in the treatments, but the activity of LDH was higher (P < 0.01 in processed SKC-fed groups than the control. The weight and size of the liver were decreased in BN group, while those of testes were decreased in both LM and BN groups. The histological sections of the testes and epididymis of lambs from LM group showed hypoplastic seminiferous tubules and empty ductules, respectively. The histological sections of the parathyroid gland in the same diet revealed smaller and non-secretory chief cells. The small intestine of lambs from BN group showed infiltration of mononuclear cells (MNC in lamina propria with mild fibroplasia in intervillous areas. The histological section of liver from this group showed MNC infiltration in portal areas. The inclusion of water washed SKC in the concentrate mixture of lambs did not show gross pathological and

  6. Prophylactic and immune modulatory influences of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers exposed to biological challenge

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    Essam S. Soliman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Prophylaxis and disease prevention is an essential strategy among biorisk management in poultry farms that stimulate and maintain the birds' immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prophylactic, and immune-stimulant influence of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers under biological stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 1-day-old (ross chicks were divided into 5 groups; four of which were supplemented with 1.4%, 2.8%, 4.2%, and 5.6% N. sativa Linn., respectively. The four supplemented groups were challenged with Escherichia coli O157:H7 1.5x108 at a 14th day old. A total of 1050 samples (150 serum, 150 swab, and 750 organ samples were collected and examined. Results: A highly significant increase (p<0.01 in 5.6% N. sativa Linn. supplemented group in performance traits (body weight, weight gain, and performance index, biochemical parameters (proteinogram, liver enzymes, and creatinine, immunoglobulins concentration, and immune organs' weight. Meanwile, liver showed improvement of histoarchitecture without fibrosis. Heart showed a mild pericarditis with a mild degree of hydropic degeneration. Bursa, thymus, and spleen showed lymphoid hyperplasia. Conclusion: A concentration of 5.6% N. sativa Linn. in broiler's feed can improve the immune response and subsequent resistance of broilers against diseases.

  7. Heade suhete linn - kõik sõpradele / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2007-01-01

    Autori arvates on Tartust saanud korporatiivne linn, kus võim ja äri jagatakse väikese inimgrupi sees. Vt. samas: Tartu niiditõmbajad: otsused on tehtud linnakodanike huvides; Tartu Rotary Klubi liikmed; Tuntumad tehingud omadele Tartu linnas

  8. Evaluation of lead exposure using Achatina achatina (Linné 1758 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecotoxicological observations on Achatina achatina (Linné, 1758) were assessed for the bioaccumulation of lead in snail carcass as induced by traffic near abandoned battery factory (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Levels of lead bioaccumulation above European Commission limit of 1.5g/g at higher traffic intensity depressed ...

  9. [Presence of conjugated noradrenaline in the walls of the nest of Vespula germanica Linné].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J; Bourdon, V; Damas, J; Leclercq, M; Leclercq, J

    1976-01-01

    Conjugated noradrenaline (NA) has been identified as a constituant of the walls of a Vespid wasp: Vespula germanica Linne. Concentrations range between 1,8 mug/g (external wall) and 18 mug/g (internal structure). Probably NA originates from the saliva of the Hymenoptera.

  10. Tallinna linn või aukude plombeerimine = City of Tallinn or filling of holes / Veljo Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Veljo

    1999-01-01

    "Eesti Päevalehes" ilmunud arhitektide viimase aja karakteersemate tööde hindamistabelist, selles olevast Nissani keskusest (Andres Siim, Hanno Kreis), Hansapanga hoonest ja Stockmanni kaubamajast (Peep Jänes). Tallinna arhitektuurist kui tervikust. Tallinnas on palju tühje krunte, rekonstrueerimist ootavaid linnaosi ja suuri üksikhooneid. Linn realiseerub läbi investorite majandusliku huvitatuse

  11. Anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of Ficus pumila Linn extract in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of Ficus pumila Linn. extract (FPLE) in rats. Methods: Hyperprolactinemic rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of metoclopramide dihydrochloride (50 mg/kg). A high dose (800 mg/kg), moderate dose (400 mg/kg), or low dose (200 mg/kg) of FPLE was ...

  12. Long-Term Effects of Exotic Tree Species ( Tectona grandis Linn. F ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-Term Effects of Exotic Tree Species ( Tectona grandis Linn. F.) on the Status of Extractable Micronutrients in the ... The study therefore implied that Tectona grandis has an extractive property on micronutrient particularly on soils that are low in these nutrients. Nigerian Journal of Soil and Environmental Research Vol.

  13. Effect of Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn extract on chronic prostatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effect of Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn. extract (APLE) on chronic prostatitis in rats. Methods: Experimental chronic non-bacterial ... has not achieved significant curative effect in clinic. At present, orthodox treatment of chronic ..... Neuroprotective effect of methanol extract of Phellodendri Cortex against ...

  14. Anti-Thrombotic Effect of Carthamus tinctorius Linn Extracts in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius Linne). Neurochem. Res. 2009; 34: 795–. 805. 8. Zhang SQ, Jiang LD. Effect of safflower injection on cardiac energy charge and anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2 in rats' heart.Chin. J. Integr. Tradit. West. Med. 2004;.

  15. Kõige tugevama brändiga linn on Sydney / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Sõltumatu turundusnõustaja Simon Anholti brände uuriva küsitluse tulemusena selgus, et kõige tugevama brändiga linn on Sydney, kõige prestiizhikam New York ja külalislahkeim Moskva. Vt. samas: Linnade turundus; Reisirongiliiklus Euroopa Liidus

  16. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A New Flavanone from Flemingia strobilifera (Linn) R. Br. and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    A New Flavanone from Flemingia strobilifera (Linn) R. Br. and its Antimicrobial Activity. S Madan*a, GN Singha, Y Kumarb, K Kohlic, R M Singha, SR Mirc and S Ahmadc. aCentral Indian Pharmacopoeia Laboratory, Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Sector – 23, Raj Nagar,. Gaziabad, U.P. – 201002, India.

  18. Anti-Stress and Anti-Amnesic Effects of Coriandrum sativum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Coriandrum sativum Linn. (Umbelliferae, C. sativum) is cultivated throughout the world for its use as spice and as a folk medicine. This study deals with the anti-stress and anti-amnestic properties of C. sativum extract in rats. Methods: Urinary levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were used to ...

  19. Activity of tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae) attacking the reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn.) (Alligatoridae) and Eunectes murinus (Linn.) (Boidae), in the central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ruth L M; Henriques, Augusto L; Rafael, José A

    2002-01-01

    Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2), situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02 degrees 45'33"S; 59 degrees 51'03"W). Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn.), and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn.), in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber) and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented.

  20. Temaet folkemord i forfatterskapet til Tore Linné Eriksen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Rønning Balsvik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article points to the responsibility historians have in the formation of what we may call the collective memory of persons, groups and states. What are the images of “the other” conveyed in textbooks and media? In Norway, the historian Tore Linné Eriksen has – more than any other scholar – used his research, writings and enormous capacity for work to educate students, youth and the public in general and to create a more just image of “the other”. His driving force has been an extraordinary ability to be at the forefront in spotting international research, as well as his sense of justice and respect for the non-western world. His last extensive work on global history (Globalhistorie 1750–1900 clearly demonstrates these capabilities.In the early 1980s, long before the wave of genocide studies after the Rwanda catastrophe of 1994, Eriksen’s two works on Namibia –Namibia: Kolonialisme, apartheid og frigjøringskamp i det sørlige Afrika (1982 and The Political Economy of Namibia: An Annotated Critical Bibliography (1985 – used the concept of genocide to describe German conduct in Namibia in the early 20th century. In 2007, Eriksen published his book about what he calls the first genocide of the 20th century, Det første folkemordet i det tjuende århundret. Namibia 1903–1908. German and African history is woven into the question of whether the dangerous relations that developed between German settlers and Africans can be labelled genocide. The present article attempts to present Eriksen’s arguments. An introductory section deals with the trends in the international research literature and establishes a link between colonialism and genocide. In 2008, Eriksen’s article on the extinction of the Herero people in Namibia – “Utslettelse av Hererofolket i Namibia 1903– 1908” – was published in Bernt Hagtvets collection of articles, Folkemordenes svarte bok. The following year, Tore Linné Eriksen’s article in the

  1. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

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    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  2. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm(-1) (-OH), 1660 cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414 cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219 cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose.

  4. EFEK LARVISIDAL EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN KEMANGI (Ocimumsanctum Linn TERHADAP LARVA INSTAR III Culexquinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijayani LA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis carried by mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Filariasis cause elephantiasis sequelae that often lower the sufferers productivity . Eradication of the disease is difficult, then , an attempt to do is to control the vector. The other way is to use insecticide vector control plant. Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn which contain fiavonoids, saponins, and eugenol has been shown in the laboratory have larvicidal effect. This study aimed to determine the larvicidal effects from Ethanol extract 96% of basilleaf (Ocimum sanctum Linn against third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. This is an laboratory experimental methods with Post test only control group design. The Ethanol extract of basil leaf (Ocimum sanctum Linn diluted to a concentration of 5000 ppm, 4500 ppm, 4000 ppm, 3500 ppm, 3000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 1500 ppm, 1000 ppm. The experiments were repeated three times. Each experiment included a control ie Tween 20 of 0.25% in distilled water. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Walls test and probit analysis to determine LC50 and LC90. In the analysis result of Kruskal Walls (CI: 95% it obtained the results that each test group had a significant difference (p=0,005 in mortality of third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus.The results of probit analysis showed that the ethanol extract of basil leaf give the concentration LC50 and LC90 2281.931 ppm and 5016.314 ppm. Ethanol extract 96% of basilleaf (Ocimum sanctum Linn has an larvicidal effect on third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. Keywords: Culex quinquefasciatus - larvicidal - ethanol extract - Basilleaf (Ocimum sanctum Linn.

  5. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. fruit extracts on α-glucosidase enzyme, glucose diffusion and wound healing activities

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    Raheem Mohssin Shadhan

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: It is established that methanolic extract and fractions from H. sabdariffa Linn. fruit can inhibit the α-glucosidase enzyme and glucose movement as well as influence the wound healing activity positively.

  6. Utilization of Tahongai stem bark (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) extract as corrosion inhibitor on API 5L steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky, Yoel; Novita, Eli; Rinda, Shaimah; Sulistijono, Triana, Yunita

    2018-04-01

    Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is one of herbal plant cultivated in Kalimantan. Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is known containing antioxidant to prevent cancer cell growing, therefore it is expected to become a good organic corrosion inhibitor. Tests conducted in this study were: DPPH to prove the content of antioxidant compounds in Tahongai woods (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) from which IC50 number is found to be 153.78 µg/mL, indicating intermediate power, Fourier Transform Infrared Specroscopy (FTIR) to determine the functional groups and compounds in Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) and suspected that flavonoid compound contained in extract, Open Circuit Potential (OCP) to obtain corrosion rate data and found that the slowest corrosion occurred on 400 ppm (30 days) with corrosion rate 8,74 × 10-4 mm/year. The most efficient inhibitor found in 400 ppm (30 days) with 92,063%.

  7. Effects of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. flowers on wound healing in diabetic Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hirapara, Hiren; Ghori, Vishal; Anovadiya, Ashish; Baxi, Seema; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (J. grandiflorum) flowers in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups (n=6).Three groups – diabetic control, positive control (that received Glibenclamide) and treatment (that received J. grandiflorum Linn. Flower extract) were operated for excision wounds (EW). These groups were evaluated for wound contraction and re-ep...

  8. Uji Sitotoksisitas Ekstrak Ethanol 70 % Herba Ceplukan (Physalis angulata Linn.) Terhadap Sel WiDr Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Djajanegara

    2017-01-01

    Herba ceplukan (Physalis angulata Linn) merupakan salah satu bahan alam yang digunakanmasyarakat untuk pengobatan tradisional sebagai antikanker. Pada penelitian sebelumnya hasilpengujian ekstrak ethanol 70% herba ceplukan (Physalis angulata Linn.) terhadap Artemia salinaLeach (larva udang) dengan metode Brine Shirmp Lethality Test (BSLT) diketahui memiliki sifattoksik dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 39,63 μg/ml. Untuk itu dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuanmengetahui efek sitotoksisitas ekstrak et...

  9. Uji Sitotoksisitas Ekstrak Ethanol 70 % Herba Ceplukan (Physalis Angulata Linn.) Terhadap Sel WiDr Secara in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Djajanegara, Ira

    2008-01-01

    Herba ceplukan (Physalis angulata Linn) merupakan salah satu bahan alam yang digunakanmasyarakat untuk pengobatan tradisional sebagai antikanker. Pada penelitian sebelumnya hasilpengujian ekstrak ethanol 70% herba ceplukan (Physalis angulata Linn.) terhadap Artemia salinaLeach (larva udang) dengan metode Brine Shirmp Lethality Test (BSLT) diketahui memiliki sifattoksik dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 39,63 μg/ml. Untuk itu dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuanmengetahui efek sitotoksisitas ekstrak et...

  10. Anti-cancer effect of Annona Muricata Linn Leaves Crude Extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Najmuddin, Syed Umar Faruq; Romli, Muhammad Firdaus; Hamid, Muhajir; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan

    2016-01-01

    Background Annona muricata Linn which comes from Annonaceae family possesses many therapeutic benefits as reported in previous studies and to no surprise, it has been used in many cultures to treat various ailments including headaches, insomnia, and rheumatism to even treating cancer. However, Annona muricata Linn obtained from different cultivation area does not necessarily offer the same therapeutic effects towards breast cancer (in regards to its bioactive compound production). In this stu...

  11. Normalize the ascorbic acid serum levels the ascorbic acid of the for suplementation with acerola juice (Malpighia glabra L.) and the pills, institutionalized elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Flávia Queiroga Aranha de [UNESP; Moura, Luiza Sônia Asciutti; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da Silva; Barros, Zianne Farias; Quirino, Ivana Versianny Lira; Metri, Juliana Cavalcanti; Barros, Jefferson Carneiro de

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo investigou o tempo necessário de suplementação com vitamina C, para a normalização dos níveis séricos em idosos com deficiência dessa vitamina e comparar o efeito da vitamina natural do suco de acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) com o da vitamina na forma de fármaco. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 37 idosos institucionalizados do município de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil, divididos em 3 grupos: Grupo I - controle, Grupo II - suplementação com o suco de acerola e Grupo III - suple...

  12. New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Obtained from Extracted Bracts of Bougainvillea Glabra and Spectabilis Betalain Pigments by Different Purification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Rodriguez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis’ bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized. The materials were characterized using FTIR and UV-Vis. Solar cells were assembled using TiO2 thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO-coated glass; a mesoporous film was sensitized with the Bougainvillea extracts. The obtained solar energy conversion efficiency was of 0.48% with a current density JSC of 2.29 mA/cm2 using an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C.

  13. Estudo fitoquímico e atividades leishmanicida, anticolinestarásica e antioxidante de extratos de Annona glabra L. (araticum panã

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    Antonio Adailson de Sousa Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as principais classes de compostos químicos presentes em Annona grabra L. (Araticum panã, e avaliar o seu potencial biológico analisando suas atividades antioxidante, antiacetilcolinesterase e leishmanicida. Para tanto, a entrecasca e sementes foram submetidas à extração em aparelho de soxhlet com os solventes orgânicos hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e metanol, obtendo-se os respectivos extratos. Com os extratos foram realizados testes de prospecção fitoquímica, determinação da atividade antioxidante pelo método de inibição do radical livre DPPH e inibição da acetilcolinesterase em ensaio de cromatografia em camada delgada. Os testes de atividade leishmanicida in vitro em formas promastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi foram realizados em placa de 96 poços em aparelho ELISA. Os extratos foram testados a 100 μg/ mL. Os testes fitoquímicos revelaram a presença de esteroides, triterpenos, alcaloides, compostos fenólicos e saponinas. Todos os extratos apresentaram inibição da acetilcolinesterase e os extratos hexânicos de ambas partes mostraram maior percentual de inibição de L. infantum chagasi. Nestes extratos, compostos apolares como esteroides e triterpenos podem contribuir para a atividade leishmanicida. Os extratos de melhor atividade antioxidante foram o acetato de etila e metanólico da entrecasca e metanólico das sementes que correspondem aos que contem compostos fenólicos. Conclui-se que A. glabra constitui uma fonte potencial de agentes leishmanicida com possível mecanismo de ação pela inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase das membranas da L. infantum chagasi, causador da leishmaniose visceral.Phytochemical study and leishmanicidal, anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of Annona glabra L. (araticum panã extracts ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the main types of chemical constituents present in Annona grabra L. (araticum pan

  14. Two WD-repeat genes from cotton are functional homologues of the Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, John A; Walker, Amanda R; Timmis, Jeremy N; Orford, Sharon J

    2005-01-01

    Cotton fibres are single, highly elongated cells derived from the outer epidermis of ovules, and are developmentally similar to the trichomes of Arabidopsis thaliana. To identify genes involved in the molecular control of cotton fibre initiation, we isolated four putative homologues of the Arabidopsis trichome-associated gene TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1). All four WD-repeat genes are derived from the ancestral D diploid genome of tetraploid cotton and are expressed in many tissues throughout the plant, including ovules and growing fibres. Two of the cotton genes were able to restore trichome formation in ttg1 mutant Arabidopsis plants. Both these genes also complemented the anthocyanin defect in a white-flowered Matthiola incana ttg1 mutant. These results demonstrate parallels in differentiation between trichomes in cotton and Arabidopsis, and indicate that these cotton genes may be functional homologues of AtTTG1.

  15. Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Shim, Jae-Seok; Chung, Jae-Youn

    2004-09-01

    The methanol extracts of five tropical plants, Baeckea frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Kaempferia pandurata, Physalis angulata and Quercus infectoria, exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. In particular, G. glabra, K. pandurata and P. angulata conferred fast killing bactericidal effect against S. mutans in 2 min at 50 microg/ml of extract concentration.

  16. Optimization of embryogenic-callus induction and embryogenesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... Glabridin is a major biologically active flavonoid isolated specifically from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has many pharmacological activities. The production of the wild G. glabra was sharply decreased due to immoderate and ruinous utilization. In vitro regeneration via somatic embryogenesis is ...

  17. HPTLC methods for the Rapid Determination of Adhatoda vasica L. Glycyrrhiza glabbra L., Phyllanthus embelica L. and Camellia sinensis L. in a polyherbal formulation (INSTY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, Z. A.; Zahoor, A.; Shafiq, K.; Usmanghani, K.; Khan, S. S.; Khan, A.

    2015-01-01

    An Insty Granule is a polyherbal formulation, and it is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections. It contains expectorant, anti-inflammatory, mucolytic and anti-pyretic properties. The major active constituents are vasicine, gallic acid, caffeine and glycyrrhizin. Insty a poly herbal formulation of eight herbs were investigated for its phytochemical evaluation. Biomarkers of about four herbs both qualitatively and quantitatively were investigated. Methods: The solvent systems used were ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol, ammonia (6: 3: 1: 1) for vasicin, ethyl acetate, chloroform, formic acid (12: 15: 3) for gallic acid, ethyl acetate, methanol, water (100: 13.5: 10) for caffeine, and methanol, water, acetic acid (70: 30: 0.5) for glycyrrhizin. Results: The methods showed a good linear relationship (r/sup 2/ = 0.999) in the concentration range 25-1500 ng per spot. It was found to be linear, accurate, precise, specific, robust and can be applied for quality control and standardization. Conclusion: In present study rapid and inexpensive qualification methods for the quality control of Adhatoda vasica L. Glycyrrhiza glabbra L., Phyllanthus embelica L. and Camellia sinensis L. on thin layer chromatography (TLC) were developed and validated on silica gel. HPTLC is most suitable technique because of quantification of number of samples at low operating cost, easy sample preparation, short analysis time and analytical assurance. (author)

  18. Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Shin, M.G.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-06-01

    Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract were studied. Persimmon leaf and licorice root extracts were irradiated using {sup 60}Co gamma irradiator at 0 and 20 kGy absorbed dose and stored at 4 deg. C or -20 deg. C for 2 weeks. Tyrosinase inhibition effect (TIE) of both extracts was not different by 20 kGy-irradiation but reduced during storage. Electron donating ability (EDA) of the persimmon leaf extract was generally consistent, but that of licorice root extract was reduced by irradiation except for 1 week of storage. Both TIE and EDA of persimmon leaf extract were higher than that of licorice root. Hunter color L*-, a*-, and b*-values were changed, resulting in a desirable brighter color by irradiation. During storage, the bright yellow color of irradiated sample changed to brown gradually, and especially the changes in the refrigeration condition (4 deg. C) was faster than frozen (-20 deg. C). Results indicate that irradiation can be a useful method to produce value-added natural ingredients with functions such as persimmon leaf or licorice root for food or cosmetic industry in addition to elimination of microbial load.

  19. An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of five phytohormones in medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis under abscisic acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Song, Xiaona; Qiao, Jing; Zang, Yimei; Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Yong; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-07-01

    An efficient simplified method was developed to determine multiple classes of phytohormones simultaneously in the medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative mode was used for quantification. The five studied phytohormones are gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid, and salicylic acid (SA). Only 100 mg of fresh leaves was needed, with one purification step based on C18 solid-phase extraction. Cinnamic acid was chosen as the internal standard instead of isotope-labeled internal standards. Under the optimized conditions, the five phytohormones with internal standard were separated within 4 min, with good linearities and high sensitivity. The validated method was applied to monitor the spatial and temporal changes of the five phytohormones in G. uralensis under ABA stress. The levels of GA3, ABA, JA, and SA in leaves of G. uralensis were increased at different times and with different tendencies in the reported stress mode. These changes in phytohormone levels are discussed in the context of a possible feedback regulation mechanism. Understanding this mechanism will provide a good chance of revealing the mutual interplay between different biosynthetic routes, which could further help elucidate the mechanisms of effective composition accumulation in medicinal plants.

  20. Enhancing production of ergosterol in Pichia pastoris GS115 by over-expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase from Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Li, Wendong; Wen, Hao; Gao, Ya; Liu, Yong; Liu, Chunsheng

    2014-04-01

    The rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway which can lead to triterpenoid saponin glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR). In order to reveal the effect of copy number variation in the HMGR gene on the MVA pathway, the HMGR gene from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (GuHMGR) was cloned and over-expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. Six recombinant P. pastoris strains containing different copy numbers of the GuHMGR gene were obtained and the content of ergosterol was analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that all the recombinant P. pastoris strains contained more ergosterol than the negative control and the strains with 8 and 44 copies contained significantly more ergosterol than the other strains. However, as the copy number increased, the content of ergosterol showed an increasing-decreasing-increasing pattern. This study provides a rationale for increasing the content of GA through over-expressing the GuHMGR gene in cultivars of G. uralensis.

  1. Anti-microbial screening of endophytic fungi from Hypericum perforatum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Ying, Chen; Tang, Yifei

    2014-09-01

    Anti-microbial properties of 21 endophytic fungal strains from Hypericum perforatum Linn. were evaluated against three human pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Rhodotorula glutinis, and two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Pyricularia grisea. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts of endophytic fermentation broth had stronger anti-microbial activities than their fermentation broth. And the inhibitory effect of the endophytic extracts on human pathogens was better than those on phytopathogens. Among these endophytic fungi, strains GYLQ-10, GYLQ-24 and GYLQ-22 respectively showed the strongest activities against S. aureu, E. coli, R. glutinis. GYLQ-14 and GYLQ-22 exhibited the most pronounced effect on P. Grisea while both GYLQ-06 and GYLQ-08 had the strongest anti-microbial activities against R. cerealis. Till now, this study is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from H. perforatum Linn. and their anti-microbial evaluation.

  2. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  3. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. from Lake Sebu, South Cotabato, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descallar, Angem L.; Nuñez, Maria Pamela S.; Cabrera, Maria Luisa N.; Martin, Tres Tinna B.; Obemio, Christine Dawn G.; Lañojan, Rhumer S.

    2017-01-01

    Lycopodium clavatum or locally known as "lumot" is one of the many plants used in the traditional system of medicine here in the Philippines. It has been known that this plant was used for body pains and "facial wipes" recognizing its anti-aging potential by the Obo community in Lake Sebu, South Cotabato. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. Thus, this study is conducted to determine the secondary metabolites present and its antioxidant property of the decoction and ethanolic extracts of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. Free radical scavenging activity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. was determined by in vitro 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Antioxidant activities were observed which may be due to the presence of alkaloids, steroids, and flavonoids in both decoction and ethanolic extracts.

  4. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 μg/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time.

  5. STUDY OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM LINN. IN PYLORUS LIGATED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty P.K.; Panda S.K.; Mishra S.K.; Panda P.K.; Jaliwala Y.A.; Parle Milind

    2011-01-01

    Different extracts of Alangium salvifolium Linn. roots were tested for its antiulcer activity in aspirin induced and pylorus ligated rats model. The effect was assessed by parameters like Total acidity(TA),Free acidity(FA),Peptic activity(PA), Ulcer Index(UI) .The antiucler activity of all extracts were compared to the standard drug ranitidine. The study showed that all extracts were showing reductions TA, PA, FA and UI among which the extract of petroleum ether showed significant reduction ...

  6. Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M. M.; Jain, S. K.; Tripathi, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and show...

  7. Combination of aerobic exercise and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. increased nitric oxide in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Adriani Kusumadewi Muhammad; Minarma Siagian; Dewi Irawati SS

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension and myocardial infarction account for the high rate of mortality globally. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) Linn. is rich in antioxidants and previous studies have demonstrated its anti-hypertensive effects. Several studies show that regular physical activity is an important component to reduce cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic exercise and HS extract on nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) i...

  8. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn.) & Unani Description– A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nadir Shahzad; Md. Anzar Alam; Naziya Sultana; Abdullah; Kum Asma

    2015-01-01

    Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn.) is a marshy perennial herb and rhizomes which has been traditionally used as medicine, against different diseases viz; Nisyan (dementia), Zofe Dimagh (Alzheimers disease), Humma (fever), Zeequn Nafs (asthama), Sual Muzmin (chronic cough), Ziabetus (ziabetes), Dyslipidemia, Quroohe Muzmina (chronic ulcer) and mainly for digestive problems such as Dyspepsia (Zofe Hazm, Sue Hazm and Tukhma). A large number of chemical constituents such as phenyl propanoids, sesqu...

  9. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

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    Singh, Mhaveer; Tamboli, E. T.; Kamal, Y. T.; Ahmad, Wasim; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materi...

  10. Variasi Kandungan Kimia Minyak Cendana (Santalum Album Linn) dari Berbagai Provenans di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    haryjanto, liliek; Widowati, Titis Budi; Sumardi, Sumardi; Fiani, Ari; Hadiyan, Yayan

    2017-01-01

    Kualitas minyak cendana (Santalum album Linn) ditentukan oleh adanya 2 kandungan komponen Sesquiterpene, yakni α-santalol dan β-santalol. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui variasi kandungan kimia cendana dari berbagai provenans. Sebanyak 54 sampel dari 8 provenans dan satu ras lahan diambil dari tanaman cendana umur 13 tahun di Hutan Penelitian Watusipat, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. Serbuk kayu cendana didapatkan dengan cara mengebor batang cendana setinggi 10 cm di atas permukaan tanah. Se...

  11. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Kadam; K.N. Yadav; F.A. Patel; F.A. Karjikar; M.J. Patil

    2013-01-01

    Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy,...

  12. Isolation and Structural Determination of an Anti Bacterial Constituent from the Leaves of Cassia alata Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnali Paul; Prasenjit Mitra; Tanaya Ghosh; Ravinernath Salhan; Takhelmayum Amumachi Singh; Amit Chakrabarti; Sumanta Gupta; Basudeb Basu; Prasanta Kumar Mitra

    2013-01-01

    By different solvent extractions and chromatographic techniques an antibacterial constituent was isolated from leaves of Cassia alata Linn. Infra red spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the isolated compound was chemically 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid. In vitro antibacterial activity of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was studied against four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (M...

  13. Biodiesel dari Minyak Buta-Buta (Hura Crepitans Linn) dengan Menggunakan Katalis Ni/Lempung

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Ekadian Lestari; Bahri, Syaiful; Saputra, Edy

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels synthesised from the transesterification reaction. The process of making biodiesel which using a homogeneous catalyst is costly for product separation process. Thus use of heterogeneous catalysts such as Ni/Clay catalyst was developed. This study aims to produce biodiesel from Hura crepitans Linn oil to determine best conditions of making biodiesel, determine the physical andchemical properties of biodiesel produced an...

  14. EFEK LAKSATIF JUS DAUN ASAM JAWA (Tamarindus indica Linn. PADA TIKUS PUTIH YANG DIINDUKSI DENGAN GAMBIR

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    Dian Sundari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn. known to the public as a shade tree and is found in almost all parts of Indonesia. The leaves are called "sinom" in the Java language is also used as a vegetable and medicine Empirically Java acid is used as a remedy gout, ulcers, boils, laxative, fever, menstrual facilitator, inflammation. Laxative effect has been studied (laxative leaf juice tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn. Intestinal transit method and experimental animals used white rats. The dose tested was 3 doses of juice that is 20%, 40% and 60%, which is given orally. For purposes of comparison (positive control is the granting of four Dulcolax ml/200 g bw., While distilled water as negative control. Two days before the experiment is done, all rats were induced constipation with gambier extract 3 g / kg bw. The experimental results showed that the average ratio of intestinal length traversed by charcoal proanalisa Java acidic juice dose group 60%, 40%, 20%; Dulcolax and distilled water, respectively 49.86%, 60.2%, 18.34%, 75.22% and 2.01%. Showed statistically tamarind juice at doses of 40% has laxative properties, but smaller than the Dulcolax.   Keywords: laxative, white mice, Tamarindus indica Linn., leaves, tamarindjuice

  15. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

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    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  16. Lepidium sativum Linn.: a current addition to the family of mucilage and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Patil, Prasant D; Patel, Bhumit N

    2014-04-01

    Mucilage from the last decades has been found to be very attractive, interesting and useful in development of desired pharmaceutical dosage forms. Various applications of plant based mucilage have a wide potentiality in drug formulations. Lepidium sativum Linn. (family: Brassicaceae) is one of the mucilage containing fast growing, edible annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. It mainly contains alkaloids, saponins, anthracene glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavanoids, and sterols as chief phytochemical constituents. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, anti-microbial, bronchodilator, hypoglycemic and allelopathic, whereas its seed coat mucilage has been isolated using different methods to make it effective excipient of desired functionality as a part of pharmaceutical applications. Through keen references of reported work on Lepidium sativum Linn., in this review, we have focused on its seed coat mucilage isolation methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological profile and versatile application of Lepidium sativum Linn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethyl acetate extract of Chinese medicinal herb Sarcandra glabra induces growth inhibition on human leukemic HL-60 cells, associated with cell cycle arrest and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W Y; Chiu, Lawrence C M; Lam, W S; Wong, W Y; Chan, Y T; Ho, Y P; Wong, Elaine Y L; Wong, Y S; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2007-02-01

    Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai, colloquially known as Caoshanhu, is a Chinese medicinal herb with reported anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and non-specific immunoenhancing properties. Although the plant has been clinically used for treating a variety of diseases, its bioactive ingredients are largely unknown and its mode of action has never been investigated. In this study, the anti-tumor property of ethyl acetate (EA) extract of S. glabra was investigated by determining its in vitro growth-inhibitory effects on a panel of human cancer cell lines of different histotypes. Growth inhibition of the EA extract on the cancer cells seemed to be selective, and the leukemic HL-60 was found to be the most responsive after 48 h of treatment (IC50=58 microg/ml). Flow cytometric studies further illustrated that the extract might interfere with DNA replication and thus arrested the cell cycle at S phase in the leukemic cells, followed by DNA fragmentation and loss of phospholipid asymmetry in the plasma membrane after 72 h of treatment. Concurrently, the pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was also up-regulated by more than 178% of the control level. All these findings suggested that the extract had initiated apoptosis to kill the leukemic cells. Results from this pioneer study help to establish a scientific foundation for future research and development of the bioactive ingredients in EA extract of S. glabra as efficacious anti-cancer agents.

  18. Cytoprotective effects of Glycyrrhizae radix extract and its active component liquiritigenin against cadmium-induced toxicity (effects on bad translocation and cytochrome c-mediated PARP cleavage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Chan; Byun, Sung Hui; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Sang Geon

    2004-01-01

    Glycyrrhizae radix has been popularly used as one of the oldest and most frequently employed botanicals in herbal medicine in Asian countries, and currently occupies an important place in food products. Cadmium (Cd) induces both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death, in which alterations in cellular sulfhydryls participate. In the present study, we determined the effects of G. radix extract (GRE) and its representative active components on cell death induced by Cd and explored the mechanistic basis of cytoprotective effects of G. radix. Incubation of H4IIE cells with GRE inhibited cell death induced by 10 μM Cd. Also, GRE effectively blocked Cd (1 μM)-induced cell death potentiated by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) without restoration of cellular GSH. GRE prevented both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell injury induced by Cd (10 μM) or Cd (0.3-1 μM) + BSO. Inhibition of Cd-induced cell injury by pretreatment of cells with GRE suggested that the cytoprotective effect result from alterations in the levels of the protein(s) responsible for cell viability. GRE inhibited mitochondrial Bad translocation by Cd or Cd+BSO, and caused restoration of mitochondrial Bcl xL and cytochrome c levels. Cd-induced poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage in control cells or in cells deprived of sulfhydryls was prevented by GRE treatment. Among the major components present in GRE, liquiritigenin, but not liquiritin, isoliquiritigenin or glycyrrhizin, exerted cytoprotective effect. These results demonstrated that GRE blocked Cd-induced cell death by inhibiting the apoptotic processes involving translocation of Bad into mitochondria, decreases in mitochondrial Bcl xL and cytochrome c, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage

  19. Effect of the combination of ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza on autonomic nervous activity and immune system under mental arithmetic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aisong; Moritani, Toshio

    2008-06-01

    Stress reduces physical and mental tolerances (immune potential) of humans and it induces progression of existing illness or causes latent disorders to become active. Thus, the control and suppression of stress plays an important role in the improvement of quality of life and prevention of diseases. Ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza have been used for Kampo (herbal treatment) for thousand years and a number of pharmacological and clinical studies have reported their effects. However, it has not been previously described how the combination of these most commonly used herbs affect mental stress. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment to examine the effectiveness of reducing stress response by taking Kampo. Ten healthy males (mean age 27+/-1) participated in the study. The effectiveness of stress reduction was assessed by measuring ECG, salivary chromogranin A (CgA), blood glucose, WBC, granulocytes, lymphocytes, NK cell activity, etc. Salivary and blood measurement values of pre- and post-mental arithmetic stress were compared. In addition, ECG measurement values of pre- and mid-mental arithmetic stress were compared. we observed a higher HF power and a lower SNS index, HR, CgA, WBC and granulocytes in the Kampo trial than those in the placebo trial. The HR, HF power and SNS index were changed significantly (p<0.05) and CgA, WBC and granulocytes tended to show some differences between the two trials (p<0.1). However, blood glucose, lymphocytes, and NK cell activity showed no significant differences between the Kampo and placebo trials. The result suggests that the Kampo should be useful in reducing mental stress.

  20. Revealing the Effects of the Herbal Pair of Euphorbia kansui and Glycyrrhiza on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites with Integrating Network Target Analysis and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Lin, Ya; Zhao, Haiyu; Guo, Qiuyan; Yan, Chen; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Although the herbal pair of Euphorbia kansui (GS) and Glycyrrhiza (GC) is one of the so-called "eighteen antagonistic medicaments" in Chinese medicinal literature, it is prescribed in a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula Gansui-Banxia-Tang for cancerous ascites, suggesting that GS and GC may exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects in different combination designs. Here, we modeled the effects of GS/GC combination with a target interaction network and clarified the associations between the network topologies involving the drug targets and the drug combination effects. Moreover, the "edge-betweenness" values, which is defined as the frequency with which edges are placed on the shortest paths between all pairs of modules in network, were calculated, and the ADRB1-PIK3CG interaction exhibited the greatest edge-betweenness value, suggesting its crucial role in connecting the other edges in the network. Because ADRB1 and PIK3CG were putative targets of GS and GC, respectively, and both had functional interactions with AVPR2 approved as known therapeutic target for ascites, we proposed that the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis might be involved in the effects of the GS-GC combination on ascites. This proposal was further experimentally validated in a H22 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites model. Collectively, this systems-level investigation integrated drug target prediction and network analysis to reveal the combination principles of the herbal pair of GS and GC. Experimental validation in an in vivo system provided convincing evidence that different combination designs of GS and GC might result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites that might be partially related to their regulation of the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis.

  1. A long-term investigation of the anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential of an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra

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    Thabrew MI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A decoction comprised of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus root bark and Smilax glabra rhizome is being recommended for cancer patients by a family of traditional medical practitioners of Sri Lanka. Previous investigations have demonstrated that a short term (10 weeks treatment with the decoction can significantly inhibit diethylnitrosamine (DEN mediated expression of Glutathione S-transferase P form (GST-P in rat liver. The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether long term (16 months treatment with the decoction would be successful in inhibiting in rat livers, not only DEN- mediated expression of GST-P, but also the carcinogen mediated development of overt tumours (OT or histopathological changes leading to tumour development (HT. Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 each. Groups 1 and 2 were injected intraperitoneally (i.p with DEN (200 mg/kg while group 3 was injected normal saline (NS. Twenty-four hours later, decoction (DC; 6 g/kg body weight/day was orally administered to group 1 rats, while groups 2 and 3 (DEN-control and normal control were given distilled water (DW. Treatment with DC or DW continued for 16 months. At the end of the 9th month and 16th months (study 1 and study 2 respectively, six rats from each group were sacrificed, and livers observed for OT or HT, both visually and by subjecting liver sections to staining with Haemotoxylin and Eosin (H & E, Sweet's Silver stain (for reticulin fibers, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS staining (for glycogen, and immunohistochemical staining (for GST-P. Results At the end of 9 months (study 1 a hepatocellular adenoma (HA developed in one of the rats in the DEN + DW treated group (group 2. At the end of 16 months (study 2, livers of all rats of group 2 developed OT and HT. Large areas of GST-P positive foci were also observed. No OT, HT or GST-P positive foci were detected in any of the other groups. Conclusion

  2. Protection against diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra: a preliminary study

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    Iddamaldeniya Samantha S

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A decoction comprised of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus root and Smilax glabra rhizome is used to treat cancer patients in Sri Lanka. However, the anti-carcinogenic properties of this decoction have not been experimentally confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the above decoction could protect against chemically induce hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods The effects of this decoction on diethylnitrosamine (DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis were examined in male Wistar rats using the medium term bioassay system of Ito, based on a 2-step model of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 each. Groups 1 to 4 were injected with DEN (200 mg/kg to initiate carcinogenesis. Twenty-four hours later groups 1 and 2 were administered the decoction at 4 g/kg body weight/day (dose 1 and 6 g/kg body weight/day (dose 2, respectively. Group 3 and group 4 were given distilled water instead of the decoction and a suspension of garlic powder (20 g/kg body weight/day in distilled water (positive control, respectively. Group 5 and 6 were injected with normal saline and twenty-four hours later group 5 was given distilled water (normal control while group 6 was given decoction dose 2 (decoction control. Oral feeding continued for two weeks after which all rats were subjected to 2/3 partial hepatectomy to promote carcinogenesis. Oral feeding continued for eight more weeks. At the end of the 10th week, rats were sacrificed and samples of livers taken for immunohistochemical studies. Carcinogenic potential was scored by comparing the number, area and staining intensity of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P positive foci and the number of cells/cm2 of the positive foci in the livers of the six groups of rats. Results The number and area of DEN-mediated GST-P positive foci, number of cells/cm2 of foci and staining intensity of the foci were significantly (P > 0.001 reduced by the

  3. Pengujian Fitokimia dan Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol Jantung Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca LINN. dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

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    Meytij Jeanne Rampe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok (Musa Paradisiaca Linn. dengan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT.  Pengujian dilakukan untuk mencari beberapa senyawa kimia dari ekstrak jantung pisang Musa Paradisaca. Linn serta mengetahui efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach.  Maserasi jantung pisang kepok dilakukan dengan menggunakan etanol. Ekstrak etanol yang diperoleh dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas. Hasil pengujian fitokimia menunjukkan ekstrak etanol jantung pisang Musa paradisiaca. Linn memiliki komposisi senyawa flavonoid, kumarin dan senyawa fenolik lainnya. Ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok memberikan efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 806,8 μg/mL.Kata kunci: jantung pisang kepok, fitokimia, toksisitas, BSLT.

  4. Padrão de fermentação e composição químico-bromatológica de silagens de jitirana lisa (Ipomoea glabra Choisy e jitirana peluda (Jacquemontia asarifolia L. B. Smith frescas e emurchecidas Fermentation pattern and chemical composition of fresh and wilted Ipomoea glabra choisy and Jaquemontia asarifolia L.B. Smith silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Guim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar o padrão de fermentação e a composição química de silagens de jitirana lisa (Ipomoea glabra Choisy e jitirana peluda (Jacquemontia asarifolia L. B. Smith frescas e emurchecidas. Para avaliação do padrão de fermentação, os silos (PVC foram abertos aos 3, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias de fermentação. Os delineamentos foram inteiramente casualizados, sendo que para avaliação do padrão de fermentação utilizaram-se parcelas sub-subdivididas, e análise de regressão para o fator tempo; e para a composição química, esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (espécie X tratamento, com quatro repetições. Nas forrageiras antes da ensilagem, foram determinados os valores de pH, N-NH3 (% do NT, carboidratos solúveis (CHOs e poder tampão (PT. A cada tempo de abertura dos silos, foram realizadas as mesmas análises, exceto CHOs e PT. Para a composição química, após 28 dias de armazenamento, foram realizadas análises de MS, PB, FDA, FDN, MO, MM, EE e carboidratos solúveis residuais. Para as silagens de jitirana lisa emurchecida, verificou-se decréscimo linear da MS (Y= 26,3421 - 0,0526X ao longo do armazenamento. Houve efeito linear crescente para os teores de N-NH3 das silagens de jitirana lisa fresca (Y=3,6360 + 0,0755X e jitirana peluda fresca (Y= 3,6209 + 0,0687X. As silagens de jitirana peluda fresca apresentaram maior PB que as de jitirana peluda emurchecida, ao passo que as de jitirana lisa fresca tiveram menor valor de FDN que as de jitirana lisa emurchecida. As duas espécies estudadas são forrageiras nativas do semi-árido nordestino bastante promissoras, constituindo-se em alternativas para a conservação de volumosos via fermentação.An experiment was carried out at to evaluate the fermentation pattern and chemical-bromatologycal composition of fresh and wilted Ipomoea glabra Choisy and Jaquemontia asarifolia L.B. Smith silages. To evaluate the fermentation pattern silos were open in 3, 7

  5. New ent-kauranes from the fruits of Annona glabra and their inhibitory nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Hien, Nguyen Thi Thu; Tai, Bui Huu; Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Hang, Dan Thi Thuy; Quang, Tran Hong; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Ko, Wonmin; Lee, Seungjun; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-15

    Three new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, 7β,16α,17-trihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), 7β,17-dihydroxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid 19-O-β-d-glucopyranoside ester (2), 7β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid 19-O-β-d-glucopyranoside ester (3) along with five known compounds, paniculoside IV (4), 16α,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane (5), 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane (6), 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-al (7), and 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (8) were isolated from the fruits of Annona glabra. Their chemical structures were elucidated by physical and chemical methods. All compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As the results, compound 3 showed potent inhibitory LPS-stimulated NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with the IC50 value of 0.01±0.01μM; compounds 1 and 7 showed significant inhibitory NO production with the IC50 values of 0.39±0.12μM and 0.32±0.04μM, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Juvenile Rhus glabra leaves have higher temperatures and lower gas exchange rates than mature leaves when compared in the field during periods of high irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, John L; Choinski, John S; Wise, Robert R

    2009-05-01

    We sought to test the hypothesis that stomatal development determines the timing of gas exchange competency, which then influences leaf temperature through transpirationally driven leaf cooling. To test this idea, daily patterns of gas exchange and leaflet temperature were obtained from leaves of two distinctively different developmental stages of smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) grown in its native habitat. Juvenile and mature leaves were also sampled for ultrastructural studies of stomatal development. When plants were sampled in May-June, the hypothesis was supported: juvenile leaflets were (for part of the day) from 1.4 to 6.0 degrees C warmer than mature leaflets and as much as 2.0 degrees C above ambient air temperature with lower stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates than mature leaflets. When measurements were taken from July to October, no significant differences were observed, although mature leaflet gas exchange rates declined to the levels of the juvenile leaves. The gas exchange data were supported by the observations that juvenile leaves had approximately half the number of functional stomata on a leaf surface area basis as did mature leaves. It was concluded that leaf temperature and stage of leaf development in sumac are strongly linked with the higher surface temperatures observed in juvenile leaflets in the early spring possibly being involved in promoting photosynthesis and leaf expansion when air temperatures are cooler.

  7. Analysis of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene promoter from acerola (Malpighia glabra) and increase in ascorbate content of transgenic tobacco expressing the acerola gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Tanaka, Nobukazu; Esaka, Muneharu

    2008-01-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP) is an important enzyme in the Smirnoff-Wheeler's pathway for the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA) in plants. We have reported recently that the expression of the acerola (Malpighia glabra) GMP gene, designated MgGMP, correlates with the AsA content of the plant. The acerola plant has very high levels of AsA relative to better studied model plants such as Arabidopsis. Here we found that the GMP mRNA levels in acerola are higher than those from Arabidopsis and tomato. Also, the transient expression of the uidA reporter gene in the protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum cultures showed the MgGMP gene promoter to have higher activity than the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S and Arabidopsis GMP promoters. The AsA content of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the MgGMP gene including its promoter was about 2-fold higher than that of the wild type.

  8. Simultaneous fingerprint, quantitative analysis and anti-oxidative based screening of components in Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae using liquid chromatography coupled with Charged Aerosol and Coulometric array Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhao, Xin; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2017-04-01

    An analytical approach including fingerprint, quantitative analysis and rapid screening of anti-oxidative components was established and successfully applied for the comprehensive quality control of Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae (RSG), a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine with the homology of medicine and food. Thirteen components were tentatively identified based on their retention behavior, UV absorption and MS fragmentation patterns. Chemometric analysis based on coulmetric array data was performed to evaluate the similarity and variation between fifteen batches. Eight discriminating components were quantified using single-compound calibration. The unit responses of those components in coulmetric array detection were calculated and compared with those of several compounds reported to possess antioxidant activity, and four of them were tentatively identified as main contributors to the total anti-oxidative activity. The main advantage of the proposed approach was that it realized simultaneous fingerprint, quantitative analysis and screening of anti-oxidative components, providing comprehensive information for quality assessment of RSG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  10. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI PERASAN MENGKUDU (Morinda citrofilia Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Shygella disenteriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ariana

    2017-09-01

    Abstract Mengkudu (Morinda citrofilia Linn Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases. This study  to determine the effect of noni juice concentration on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae, the bacteria that causes the disease shigellosis (bacillary dysentery. The design of this study used an experimental design to test laboratory, noni juice obtained by weighing 100g were still ripe noni fruit (puti yellowish color and texture is still hard and washed, blender 100gr noni plus 100ml of sterile distilled water, filtered with sterile gauze and then Stril put in a test tube, back in autoclav sterilized for 15 minutes at a temperature of 1210C that noni juice is really sterile. Inhibition test with freshly made juice dilution method at concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.13%, 1.57% and 0.78%, followed planted in the media Muller Hinton Shigella to know whether it is growing or not growing, Statistical data analysis using Chisquer test on α = 0.05. The test results showed λ2 Chisquer count> λ2 table, then Ho is rejected. The results showed 12.5% of concentration - 100% can inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae while the concentration of 0.78% - 6.25% solid not inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae, so it can be concluded that the noni (Morinda citrofilia Linn can inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae and noni efficiently used for dysentery patients because of the concentration of 12.5% was able to inhibit the growth of Shygella dysenteriae. Keywords: Mengkudu (Morinda citrofilia Linn , Shigella dysenteriae

  11. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  12. Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn en ratas Antidiarrheal effect of Mentha piperita Linn tincture 20 % in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de la Paz Naranjo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la acción antidiarreica de una tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn (toronjil de menta, se realizó un estudio in vivo en modelo de diarreas en ratas inducidas con aceite de castor. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 200, 300 y 400 mg/kg. Se encontró que las dosis de 300 y 400 mg/kg alargaron el tiempo de aparición de la primera deposición líquida y disminuyeron su frecuencia, no así la dosis menor, que solamente redujo el número de deposiciones líquidas en el tiempo. Se halló conjuntamente un efecto dependiente de la dosis y una dosis efectiva media calculada (DE50 de 346,41 mg/kg. La dosis máxima de la tintura mostró tener acción antidiarreica en el modelo empleado. El nivel de significación se fijó en una p £ 0,05.To evaluate the antidiarrheal action a Mentha piperita Linn (toronjil de menta tincture 20 %, an in vivo study was carried out in a model of diarrheas in rats induced by beaver oil. The evaluated doses were 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg. It was found that the doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg prolonged the time of appearance of the first liquid defecation and reduced its frequency. It was not so with the smaller dose, which only reduced the number of liquid defecations in time. It was also found an effect depending on the dose and an effective mean calculated dose (ED50 of 346.41 mg/kg. The maximum dose of tincture proved to have an antidiarrheal action in the model used. The level of significance was fixed in a p £ 0.05.

  13. Two new cytotoxic furoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M D; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.; El-Sakhawy, Fatma S.

    2016-01-01

    Two new cytotoxic furoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa; one from the total alkaloidal fraction (acid/base shake-out method) of the CHCl3 extract and identified as 7,8-dihydroxy-4-hydrofuroquinoline and named trivially as Aegelbine-A. The other new...... and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI/MS. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in vitro against HepG-2, PC3, A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. The obtained results revealed promising activity with structure-based relationship which is discussed briefly....

  14. PENGUJIAN MUTU DAN PENETAPAN KADAR FILANTIN PADA EKSTRAK ETANOL HERBA MENIRAN (PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI LINN

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    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMeniran (Phyllanthus niruri Linn. is one of the Indonesian medicinal plant that has long been used by generations for the treatment of various diseases. According to the results of previous research is mentioned that meniran efficacious as antimicrobial, anticancers, improves blood sugar level, lipid profile, liver and kidney function. Meniran contains alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, coumarins, tannins, terpenoids, and lignans (phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. To maintain the traditionalmedicine preparations remain standardized, it is necessary to test the quality extract and phyllanthin assay.Meniran herbs is derived from the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMCRI, Bogor. The herbs were extracted by maceration using 70% ethanolic solvent. Testing was conducted on the quality testing preceded with the phytochemical screening, extract testing and phyllanthin assay by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC densitometry. The result of this researchwill be used for the next antitumor research. Phytochemical screening showed that meniran herbs contains tannins, steroids, flavonoids and alkaloids. The test results of meniran extract have met the requirements of Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopeia. The phyllanthin content in the 70% ethanolic extract of meniran herbs is 0,864%.Keyword : Quality of extract, Phyllanthin content, Phyllanthus niruri LinnAbstrakMeniran (Phyllanthus niruri Linn. merupakan salah satu tumbuhan obat Indonesia yang telah lama digunakan secara turun-temurun untuk pengobatan berbagai penyakit. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian sebelumnya disebutkan meniran berkhasiat sebagai antimikroba, antikanker, memperbaiki kadar gula darah, profil lipid, fungsi hati dan ginjal. Meniran mengandung alkaloid, flavonoid, fenol, kumarin, tanin, terpenoid, dan lignan (filantin dan hipofilantin. Untuk menjaga sediaan obat tradisional tetap terstandar, maka perlu dilakukan pengujian ekstrak dan penetapan kadar filantin. Simplisia herba

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamger; Mazhar, Uzma; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Ahmad, Taseer; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim; Ali, Haider

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw edema in mice, while analgesic activity was assessed using formalin induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20% yeast. All the extracts produced significant anti-inflammatory effect however, ether extract produced maximum effect 34% inhibition (p Thymus serphyllum in traditional medicine for inflammation accompanied by pain and fever.

  16. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  17. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle extracts on freshwater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T-T; He, M; Wu, A-P; Nie, L-W

    2012-03-01

    To pursue an effective way to control freshwater algae, four extracts from a submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle were tested to study its inhibitory effects on Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 and Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick FACHB-9. Extract with the highest inhibiting ability was further studied in order to reveal the inhibitory mechanism. The results demonstrated that H. verticillata extracts inhibited the growth of A. flos-aquae and C. pyrenoidosa, and methanol extract had the highest inhibiting ability. The mechanism underlying the algal growth inhibition involves the superoxide anion radical generation that induces the damage of cell wall and release of intracellular components.

  18. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Vasudeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100% and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect.

  19. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of solidago canadensis linn. Root essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-06-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  20. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli wher...

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus carica Linn leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan G.K.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats with liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. The extract at an oral dose of 500 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total serum bilirubin, and malondialdehyde equivalent, an index of lipid peroxidation of the liver. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The activity of extract was also comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective. 

  2. Studies on antifungal activity and elemental composition of the medicinal plant trianthema pentendra linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzada, A.J.; Shaikh, W.; Ghaffar, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Antifungal activity of crude solvent and aqueous extracts of the medicinal plant, Trianthema pentendra Linn., against the dermatophytic fungi, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces varioti, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum revealed that ethanol and aqueous extracts were the most effective antifungal agents as compared to methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. Some basic elements, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, S and Zn were also determined in the medicinal plant, T. pentendra, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and U.V spectrophotometry. T. pentendra contained considerable amount of elements which have therapeutic effects in skin diseases. (author)

  3. Aphrodisiac activity of methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2003-04-01

    The aphrodisiac properties of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn. have been evaluated in mice by observing the mounting behaviour. The methanol extract of P. incarnata exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour in male mice at all doses, i.e. 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Occurrence of bacterial pollution indicators in Boulti (Tilapia nilotica Linn. ) fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zanfaly, H.T.; Ibrahim, A.A.

    1982-09-01

    A study was made for the occurrence of coliform and streptococcal groups on the skin surface (32 samples), gills (32 samples), intestinal tract (4 samples) and raw fish flesh (4 samples) and raw fish flesh (4 samples) of Boulti fish (Tilapia nilotica Linn.), a fresh water fish caught from Nasser's Lake in Aswan. Streptococcus group was detected in 13 samples taken from fish surface, 12 samples out of 32 swabs from gills. All intestine samples and raw fish flesh were positive for the streptococcus group. Coliform organisms were detected at nearly 43% of skin or gill samples, 100% of intestine and raw fish flesh samples.

  5. Effects of ethanolic extract ofJasminum grandiflorumLinn. flowers on wound healing in diabeticWistaralbino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirapara, Hiren; Ghori, Vishal; Anovadiya, Ashish; Baxi, Seema; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. ( J. grandiflorum ) flowers in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups (n=6).Three groups - diabetic control, positive control (that received Glibenclamide) and treatment (that received J. grandiflorum Linn. Flower extract) were operated for excision wounds (EW). These groups were evaluated for wound contraction and re-epithelization. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW) and dead space wounds (DW). Incision and dead space wounds were produced in the same rats. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and the granulation tissues from DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology. IWs and DWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength (265.8±10.4 vs 332.5±8.2; pday 14) in treatment group compared to diabetic control (day 20). No significant improvement was seen in re-epithelization in treatment group. Ethanolic extract of J. grandiflorum Linn. flowers increases granulation tissue formation as well as neo-angiogenesis. It also enhances wound contraction; however, re-epithelization was not significantly affected. J. grandiflorum Linn. flowers could be potentially effective in promotion of diabetic wounds healing by increasing granulation tissue formation and enhancing wound contraction; however, further studies are required for its clinical application.

  6. UJI KHASIAT ANTIDIARE EKSTRAK DAUN SENDOK (PLANTAGO MAJOR LINN. PADA TIKUS PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sundari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diare masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat dan merupakan salah satu penyebab utama kematian pada anak di negara berkembang termasuk Indonesia. Diare didefinisikan sebagai buang air besar lembek atau cair tiga kali atau lebih dalam waktu 24 jam. Daun sendok atau daun urat (Plantago major Linn. merupakan tanaman obat yang salah satu penggunaan empiriknya adalah untuk nyeri perut dan disentri. Di dalam daun sendok terkandung  zat-zat kalium alkaloida yang tidak beracun, lendir dengan asam D-galakturonat, pluntagon, aukobin (glikosid, invertin, emulsin (enzim, vitamin C, alkaloida, tanin, minyak lemak. Untuk mengetahui apakah daun sendok mempunyai khasiat sebagai antidiare, maka dilakukan penelitian antidiare menggunakan metode P. Bass. (1973. Bahan uji berupa daun sendok bentuk ekstrak etanol 50% diberikan secara oral pada tikus putih dengan dosis 50 mg dan 150 mg/100 g bb. Sebagai pembanding digunakan Loperamide dosis 0,12 mg/100 g bb. dan sebagai kontrol adalah akuades. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa efek antidiare ekstrak daun sendok baik dosis 50 mg/100 g bb. maupun 150 mg/100 g bb. tidak ada beda nyata terhadap pembanding Loperamide dosis 0,12 mg/100 g bb.   Kata kunci : tanaman obat, daun sendok (Plantago major Linn., antidiare.

  7. STRUKTUR ANATOMI DAN KUALITAS SERAT KAYU DAN AKAR GANTUNG BERINGIN (FICUS BENJAMINA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. is one of typical fast growing tree species which are commonly found in Indonesia. The trees grow with hanging roots which grow larger and often can merged with the main stem, then its timber is not optimally utilized. This paper studies the anatomical structure and fiber quality of main stem and large, medium, and small diameter of hanging roots of beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. tree. Anatomical structure was observed macroscopically and microscopically, while fiber dimensions were measured from macerated samples. The results show that the anatomical structure pattern of the roots is similar with those of main stem, however the quantity and dimension of anatomical components of hanging roots are smaller and shorter than components of main stem. Likewise, the fiber dimensions of roots are shorter and thinner than those taken from the main stem. Based on fiber dimensions and its derivative value, beringin wood fibers are classified into class quality II for pulp and paper. The creamy white color with white streaky figure of beringin wood from main stem is recommended for indoor decoration products such as wooden venetian blind, while the small roots are recommended for strap or webbing material crafts.

  8. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

  9. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Fofie, N'Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus.

  10. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, Ravindra M.; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2008-01-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg -1 day -1 ) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  11. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Simran; Vats, Manisha; Aggarwal, Sushma; Sardana, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM) overdose induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total Bilirubin (TB) was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner. PMID:24459387

  12. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Erlânio O.; Silva, Natálya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, José Galberto M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 μg/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 μg/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

  13. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  14. Protective role of Carica papaya (Linn.) in electron beam radiation induced hematological and cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (Linn.) is known to possess various biomedical applications. It has remarkable antioxidant properties. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the leaf extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) on hematologic and cytogenetic changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR). Analysis of hematological changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of EBR, and the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract on the same. The Assessment of hematopoietic stress by spleen colony forming unit and spleen body weight index. The analysis of cell proliferation and immunomodulation with response to the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract by estimation of IL-6. The estimation of serum total antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and analyzing the activities of enzymes like SOD, ALP, and AST. Male Swiss albino mice were fed orally with papaya aqueous leaf extract for 15 days. They were irradiated with a whole body dose of 6 Gy Electron Beam radiation. The mice were dissected for liver, kidney, bone marrow, spleen and brain. The hematological studies were done using blood cell count in an automated cell counter. The biochemical estimations like urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, Total Protein, Albumin, Bilirubin were done using the serum and homogenates. The total antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant enzymes were estimated. The Interleukin-6 levels were estimated in serum to assess immune modulation. The results show a decrease in the hematological parameters in radiated animals. The papaya treated groups have shown modulation in the hematological parameters. The extract has also reduced the suppression of the bone marrow induced by radiation. The radiation induced liver damage is also reduced in papaya treated groups. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has shown protective effects in electron beam radiation induced tissue damages in Swiss Albino mice (author)

  15. Bio-guided optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of compounds from Annona glabra L. leaves using the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Sadao; Varela, Rosa M; Palma, Miguel; Molinillo, José M G; Lima, Inês S; Barroso, Carmelo G; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-07-01

    A bio-guided optimization of the extraction of bioactive components from Annona glabra leaves has been developed using the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay as the control method. The optimization of an ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds using allelopathy results as target values has been carried out for the first time. A two-level fractional factorial experimental design was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction. The solvent was the extraction variable that had the most marked effect on the resulting bioactivity of the extracts in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay. Extraction time, extraction temperature and the size of the ultrasonic probe also influenced the bioactivity of the extracts. A larger scale extraction was carried out in the next step in the allelopathic study, i.e., the isolation of compounds from the bioactive extract and chemical characterization by spectroscopic techniques, including NMR. Eight compounds were isolated and identified from the active extracts, namely two steroids (β-sistosterol and stigmasterol), five diterpenes with the kaurane skeleton (ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, ent-19-methoxy-19-oxokauran-17-oic acid, annoglabasin B, ent-17-hydroxykaur-15-en-19-oic acid and ent-15β,16β-epoxy-17-hydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid) and the acetogenin asimicin. The most active compound was annoglabasin B, which showed inhibition with values of -95% at 10(-3) M, -87% at 5×10(-4) M and greater than -70% at 10(-4) M in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Medicinal effect and its JP2/RyR2-based mechanism of Smilax glabra flavonoids on angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy model of cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yueqin; Tu, Jue; Pan, Shuizhen; Jiang, Jianping; Shou, Qiyang; Ling, Yun; Chen, Yunxiang; Wang, Dejun; Yang, Weiji; Shan, Letian; Chen, Minli

    2015-07-01

    Rhizome and root of Smilax glabra Roxb (Liliaceae family) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) named Tu-fu-ling (TFL) for cardiac disease therapy. The TFL flavonoids (TFLF) has been extracted and proven to possess the anti-cardiac hypertrophy effect in our previous reports. Such effect could be mediated by the modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) flux in myocardial cells, in which junctophilin-2 (JP2) and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) play an important role. However, its mechanism of the anti-cardiac hypertrophy effect remains unclarified. 2μmol/L Ang II was applied to induce hypertrophy model of rat primary cardiomyocytes. After treatment of TFLF at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml, the cell size was microscopic measured, and the protein and mRNA expressions of JP2 and RyR2 in cardiomyocytes were estimated by immunofluorescence imaging, ELISA and real-time PCR assay. Obvious hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes was induced by Ang II but reversed by TFLF from 0.5 to 1.0mg/ml. The protein and mRNA expressions of JP2 and RyR2 in cardiomyocytes were also inhibited by Ang II but restored by TFLF at its dose range. Such effect of TFLF was exerted at a dose dependent manner, which was even better than that of verapamil. Our findings may evidence the correlation between JP2/RyR2 and myocardiac hypertrophy, and indicate the JP2/RyR2-mediated anti-hypertrophy mechanism of TFLF for the first time. It deserves to be developed as a promising TCM candidate of new drug for myocardial hypertrophy treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(urethane-ether azomethine Fatty Amide Based Corrosion Resistant Coatings from Pongamia glabra Oil: An Eco-Friendly Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawwer Alam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel attempt has been made to incorporate azomethine group in the backbone of polyurethane ether Pongamia oil fatty amide. The overall reaction was carried out in different steps like preparation of N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl Pongamia glabra oil fatty amide, poly(ether fatty amide, and poly(urethane-ether fatty amide. The hydroxyl terminated Schiff base, ethane 1,2-di(azomethine bisphenol, reacts with fatty amide diol and is further treated with toluylene 2,4-diisocynate (TDI to form poly(urethane-ether azomethine fatty amide (PUEAF. These synthesized resins were characterized by FT IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. Molecular weight of PUEAF resin was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, coating was made on mild steel strips, and evaluating their physicochemical and physicomechanical analysis was carried out by standard methods. The PUEAF25 coating showed highest scratch hardness (2.5 kg, gloss (90 at 45°, pencil hardness (4H, and impact resistance (150 lb/inch. Atomic force microscopy (AFM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC/thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were used to determine the topography and thermal behavior of PUEAF. Corrosion studies of PUEAF coated mild steel were used in different corrosive media (3.5 wt% HCl, 5 wt% NaCl, and tap water at room temperature using potentiodynamic polarization technique. The results of this study showed that PUEAF coatings exhibit good physicomechanical, anticorrosive properties and get application up to 180°C.

  18. Brassica napusGLABRA3-1 promotes anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in true leaves when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C; Guo, Y; Wang, J; Li, D; Liu, K; Qi, S; Jin, C; Duan, S; Gong, J; Li, Z; Chen, M

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that GLABRA3 (AtGL3), a bHLH transcription factor, plays essential roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, there have been no such studies of a homologue, BnGL3, from the closely related crop, Brassica napus. Here, we analysed the BnGL3-1 coding domain sequence from the B. napus cultivar QINYOU Seven, identified conserved protein domains and performed a phylogenetic analysis to elucidate its relationship with homologues form a range of plant species. When expressed in tobacco leaves as a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein, BnGL3-1 accumulated in the nucleus, consistent with its predicted function as a transcription factor. Ectopic expression of the BnGL3-1 gene in the A. thaliana gl3-3 mutant resulted in levels of anthocyanins and numbers of trichomes in true leaves that were higher than in wild-type plants. Moreover, overexpression of BnGL3-1 in gl3-3 compensated for the promotion and repression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation, respectively, that has been reported in gl3-3 young shoots and expanding true leaves. This study provides new insights into GL3 function in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in crucifers, and represents a promising target for genetic manipulation of B. napus. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

  20. Transparent Testa Glabra 1 (TTG1) and TTG1-like genes in Matthiola incana R. Br. and related Brassicaceae and mutation in the WD-40 motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, A; Hemleben, V

    2009-03-01

    TTG1 (Transparent Testa Glabra 1), a WD-40 repeat protein, is involved in regulation of flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis, seed coat (mucilage) development/pigmentation and trichome formation in leaves. Here, we characterized the TTG1 gene of Matthiola incana wild type (e locus), showing 85.3% similarity to TTG1 of A. thaliana on the nucleotide level and 96.2% on the protein level. A white-flowered and glabrous mutant, line 17, of M. incana exhibits one nucleotide change, leading to an amino acid substitution directly in the WD motif (W158R). Correspondingly, the DFR (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase) gene, in which the expression is known to be dependent on TTG1, is not expressed in Matthiola mutant lines 17 (and 19). Comparison of the GC content of the Matthiola TTG1 (54.1%) and Arabidopsis TTG1 (46.1%) genes revealed a strong difference, mostly obtained by neutral substitutions (C to T transitions). To examine whether this is an ecologically influenced trend, a fragment of TTG1 was characterized from another Matthiola species (M. tricuspidata) and from Malcolmia flexuosa subsp. naxensis from the eastern Mediterranean, near a beach with sandy and salty soils. Both Matthiola species have a higher GC content in the TTG1 gene than Arabidopsis and the closer-related Malcolmia, indicating that the GC content is rather an evolutionary than an ecological signal. A similar WD-40 repeat protein gene (containing no intron in the 3' untranslated region) with high similarity to the Arabidopsis TTG1-like (AtAN11) gene was found in Matthiola.

  1. Comparative antioxidant and bioavailability studies of Vitamin C in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and its combinations with Piper nigrum Linn. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Somasekhar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla is used in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine and its major constituent is vitamin C which has effective free radical scavenging property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and the bioavailability profile of vitamin C in amla and its combinations with piperine and ginger in comparison to synthetic vitamin C using New Zealand rabbits. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger were carried out using different models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Nitric Oxide, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, Total reductive capability and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity estimation. The study results showed that synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger possess significant in vitro antioxidant activity. For bioavailability studies, synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger 100 mg/kg, were administered orally and the serum samples were analyzed by HPLC at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Bioavailability studies revealed that amla with piperine combination has higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to synthetic vitamin C. This is probably due to presence of piperine, which is a bioavailability enhancer. The present study supports the fact that amla with piperine combination can be an alternative to synthetic vitamin C.

  2. Hibiscus vitifolius (Linn.) root extracts shows potent protective action against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Mohan, Syam; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Ariamuthu, Saraswathi

    2012-05-07

    The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) is used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in albino rats of either sex by oral administration of a combination of three anti-tubercular drugs. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius (400mg/kg/day) were evaluated for their possible hepatoprotective potential. All the extracts were found to be safe up to a dose of 2000mg/kg. Among the four extracts studied, oral administration of methanol extract of Hibiscus vitifolius at 400mg/kg showed significant difference in all the parameters when compared to control. There was a significant (PHibiscus vitifolius have potent hepatoprotective activity, thereby justifying its ethnopharmacological claim. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on poriferasterol - A natural phytosterol isolated from Cassia sophera Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mondal, Avijit; Nayek, Nayana; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Poriferasterol, a biologically relevant phytosterol, has been isolated and identified first-time from Cassia sophera Linn. (family: Caesalpiniaceae) based on detailed spectral studies. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces and reactivity descriptor of this plant-derived natural molecule have been performed. The experimentally observed FT-IR spectrum of the title compound has been compared with spectral data obtained by DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G (d,p) method. The UV-visible spectrum of the title compound has also been recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals and band gap energy are measured by TD-DFT approach. The 1H and 13C NMR spectrum has been calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital method and compared with the observed data.

  4. Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M M; Jain, S K; Tripathi, M

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil.

  5. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart: Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  6. EMS induced dwarf and high yielding mutant in yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.; Abraham, Susan

    1990-01-01

    The species Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn., commonly known as yam bean, is cultivated in many countries for its edible underground tubers. The young tubers can be eaten raw, cooked, or can be sliced and made into chips. As genetic variability is limited in this species, a mutation breeding programme, using physical and chemical mutagens, was initiated to induce variability in a locally adapted cultivar. Genetically pure seeds were treated with concentrations of EMS ranging from 0.25 to 2%. Evaluation of M 2 raised from 1.25% treatment revealed a dwarf mutant showing a higher yield than the control. This mutant attained a height of 20 cm only in M 3 as against 82 cm in the controls. Though the starch content of the tuber and rotenone content in the seeds were the same as that in the control, protein content was slightly higher and the sugar content slightly less

  7. TITIK TANGKAP PENGARUH HIPOTENSIF EKSTRAK TANAMAN OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA LINN PADA KUCING

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    Achmad Muhamad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In preliminary reports by others it lias been stated that Oldenlandia corvmbosa Linn had an hypoten­sive effect in rabbits. This study confirmed this finding in cats and found that alcoholic-extracts of the plant decreased resistance in the hindleg significantly in acute experiments. By the used'technique of extraction in which the content of the active component was multiplied by about ten times systemic intravenous infusion of the extract decreased the resistance to flow in the hind leg of the cat about 40 per cent. Thin layer chromatography techniques revealed 4 spots in the alcoholic extract but due to certain constraint factors it was not yet able to detect which spot(s contained the active component(s.

  8. Effects of Foliar Selenite on the Nutrient Components of Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.

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    Xiong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We administered foliar applications of 50, 100, and 200 mg L−1 selenium (Se, selenite on turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn. and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (IV significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (IV positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper. Se (IV treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (IV could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value. We recommended 50–100 mg L−1 Se treatment for foliar application on turnip based on the daily intake of Se for adults (96–139 μg person−1 day−1 and its favorable effects on the nutrient components of turnip.

  9. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... of genetic diversity supports the hypothesis that teak has its centre of origin in India, from where it spread eastwards. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) gave an overall highly significant F st value of 0.227—population pairwise F st values were in the range 0.01–0.48. Applying the G......″st differentiation parameter, the estimated overall differentiation was 0.632, implying a strong genetic structure among populations. A neighbour-joining (NJ) tree, using the pairwise population matrix of G″st values as input, contained three distinct groups: (1) the eight provenances from Thailand and Laos, (2...

  10. Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn. upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children Uso de extrato de plantas medicinais (Psidium guajava Linn. e Carica papaya Linn. frente a bactérias isoladas de pescado, causadoras de diarréias infantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes VIEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer for waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil and used for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol, water and acetone-diluted extracts of guava and papaya leaf sprouts were tested on the bacteria in order to verify their microbicidal potential. The E. coli strains used in the trials were rated LT positive. The papaya leaf extracts (Carica papaya Linn showed no microbicidal activity while the guava sprout extracts (Psidium guajava Linn displayed halos exceeding 13 mm for both species, an effect considered to be inhibitory by the method employed. Guava sprout extracts by 50% diluted ethanol most effectively inhibited E. coli (EPEC, while those in 50% acetone were less effective. It may be concluded that guava sprout extracts constitute a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or by S. aureus-produced toxins, due to their quick curative action, easy availability in tropical countries and low cost to the consumer.Foram coletadas doze amostras de camarão e peixes nas imediações do interceptor oceânico, em Fortaleza e igual número na Feira de pescado do Mucuripe, Fortaleza, para isolamento de E. coli e Staphylococcus aureus, respectivamente. Extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e cetônicos de broto de goiabeira e de folha de mamão foram testados frente às bactérias para se verificar suas ações antibióticas. As cepas de E. coli utilizadas nos ensaios foram as classificadas como LT positivas. Os extratos de folhas de mamão (Carica papaya Linn não revelaram quaisquer atividades antibióticas enquanto que os preparados com broto de goiabeira (Psidium guajava Linn apresentaram halos sempre >13 mm para as duas espécies, considerados como de inibição pelo m

  11. INHIBITION TEST OF METHANOL EXTRACT FROM SOURSOP LEAF (Annona muricata Linn. AGAINST Streptococcus mutans BACTERIA

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    Raudhatul Jannah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a disease with a high prevalence of caries in Indonesia is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn. is one of the herbs that can remove dental plaque. This study aims to determine the chemical content and measure the inhibitory antibacterial soursop leaft methanol extractin inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Phytochemical screening stated that the leaf of the soursop contains flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, glycosides and saponins. Test of inhibition were measured using paper disc diffusion method with variation concentrations of 5, 10, 15 20, and 25%, positive control is tetrasilkin 30 µg, and a negative control is methanol. Antibacterial test results showed that the methanol extract of soursop leaves have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% with inhibitory diameter of 9,1; 10,57; 11,53; 12,01 and 13,75 mm respectively.

  12. Ecological Aspect of Pidada (Soneratia caseolaris Linn. Engler, 1987 at Muara Angke, Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoto Santoso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pidada (Sonneratia caseolaris Linn. Engler, 1987 and parepat (Sonneratia alba J. Smith are central genetic of species and genus Sonneratia.  Hight growth plant of pidada was 18.5-42 cm/month, and diameter growth of trees was 1.75-3.45 cm/month, roots growth was faster (10-20 cm/ 16 month on substrads with deep mudy (> 1 m depenth of substrats with sallow mudy or hard soils. Presentase of life plant pidada (spacing 1 x 1 m was 70 % (trees age was 6 months, 60 % (1 years and 18 % (6 years.  Seeds number of pidada fruits was723 - 1,768 seeds/fruits. Pest of pidada plants usually species of insect groups that attact trees, and disease was viruses that attack on leaves.Keyword: taxonomy, distribution, habitats, hight and diameters growth, sylviculture, productivity and utilization

  13. Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haksar, A; Sharma, A; Chawla, R; Kumar, Raj; Lahiri, S S; Islam, F; Arora, M P; Sharma, R K; Tripathi, R P; Arora, Rajesh

    2009-02-01

    Mentha spicata Linn. (mint), a herb well known for its gastroprotective properties in the traditional system of medicine has been shown to protect against radiation-induced lethality, and recently its constituents have been found to possess calcium channel antagonizing properties. The present study examined the behavioral radioprotective efficacy of mint oil (obtained from Mentha spicata), particularly in mitigating radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which has been proposed as a behavioral endpoint that is mediated by the toxic effects of gamma radiation on peripheral systems, primarily the gastrointestinal system in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of Mentha spicata oil 10% (v/v), 1 h before 2 Gy gamma radiation, was found to render significant radioprotection against CTA (p Mentha spicata can be effectively utilized in preventing radiation-induced behavioral changes. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. An Updated Phytopharmacological Review on Medicinal Plant of Arab Region:Apium graveolensLinn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Athar, Md Tanwir; Kadasah, Saeed G

    2017-01-01

    Apium graveolens Linn. (Karafs) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of the various ailments. There is a need to explore and authenticate the pharmacological profile and medicinal importance of the Karafs. In this paper, the literature and the published work on Apium were collected using online resources "Google scholar", "Web of science", "Scopus" and "PubMed". Each of the pharmacological activity was searched individually using the keywords "Apium/Karafs/ Apium graveolens + individual pharmacological activity". We documented the most cited and most recent literatures. The current findings illuminate the importance Karafs in the traditional medicine and their impact in treating various diseases. This review strongly supports the fact that the Apium has emerged as a good source of medicine in treating various diseases. There is also a need to isolate the bioactive phytochemicals present in this plant.

  15. An Updated Phytopharmacological Review on Medicinal Plant of Arab Region: Apium graveolens Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Athar, Md. Tanwir; Kadasah, Saeed G.

    2017-01-01

    Apium graveolens Linn. (Karafs) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of the various ailments. There is a need to explore and authenticate the pharmacological profile and medicinal importance of the Karafs. In this paper, the literature and the published work on Apium were collected using online resources “Google scholar”, “Web of science”, “Scopus” and “PubMed”. Each of the pharmacological activity was searched individually using the keywords “Apium/Karafs/Apium graveolens + individual pharmacological activity”. We documented the most cited and most recent literatures. The current findings illuminate the importance Karafs in the traditional medicine and their impact in treating various diseases. This review strongly supports the fact that the Apium has emerged as a good source of medicine in treating various diseases. There is also a need to isolate the bioactive phytochemicals present in this plant. PMID:28503047

  16. Identification of seven water-soluble non-storage proteins from pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haixia; Li, Meiliang; Qi, Xin; Lv, Chenyan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhao, Guanghua

    2012-08-01

    As pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) processing is fast growing, the usage of pomegranate processing wastes containing seeds has been receiving great attention. The protein component accounts for 100-130 g/kg of the seeds in weight. However, so far, there is no information on the composition and function of the pomegranate seed proteins. In this study, a global view of water-soluble non-storage proteins isolated from mature pomegranate seeds were studied using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. With the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach, over 120 protein spots were resolved, of which 7 abundant protein spots showing low molecular mass were identified. These identified proteins may be linked to seed development and metabolism, but more importantly, the occurrence of these proteins provides the possibility of conversion the pomegranate processing wastes into useful products or raw material for food industry.

  17. UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT EKSTRAK DAUN PSIDIUM GUAVA LINN (DAUN JAMBU BIJI TERHADAP MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiyatun Naini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Psidium guava Linn leaf extract as mouthrinse has been suggested to be used against toothache, and also has suggested effect against diarrhea and vomiting, as well as anti spasmodic and rheumatic symptoms, anti inflammation, anti piretic, analgetic, and anti bacterial activity. However, to consider potential side effects, this work aimed to test the acute toxicity of guava leaf extract. For this purpose guava leaf extract was given orally to to groups of ten mice each at a doses of 1.25g, 2.5, 5, 10 and 21 g/kg body weight in a suspension with CMC Na 0,5%. Ten mice were used as control with a dose of 1 ml CMC Na 0,5%. The results suggest no acute toxicity to mice, since even the biggest dose given (show no measurable value of LD 50. It could be concluded that guava leaf extract shows no acute toxicity to mice at tested concentrations.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2012-01-01

    Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities.

  19. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed.

  20. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha and unorganized (folk, native & tribal form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn. is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed.

  1. Study on the natural pigments present in the Hulls of Garcinia Mangostana Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Dar Aung; Aye Aye Tun; San San Aye; Maung Maung Htay

    2005-09-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn,(Family; Guttiferae) is known to be a rich source of bioactive molecules including flavonoids, benzophenones and lactones. A variety of xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen plants and fruits include the hull, rind heartwood and flesh. The fruit hull is used as an astringent and also used against cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in traditional medicinal system. Petroleum ether extraction of the dried and powered fruit hulls followed by column chromatographic separation afforded two compounds, namely, gartanin (1) (0.48% in yield, mp 146-152 ) and mangostin (2) (0.97% in yield, mp (179-180). The structures of these two compounds have been identified by UV, FT-IR, NMR and EIMS. These identifications were confirmed by comparison of melting point values with reported data in the literature

  2. Antimicrobial activities of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn.

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    Souwalak Phongpaichit

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A partially-purified fraction obtained from column chromatographic preparation of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn. rhizomes was investigated for its antimicrobial activities on various microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. It exhibited high activity againstfilamentous fungi: Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, and Penicillium marneffei with IC50 values of 0.2, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml, respectively. However, it showed moderate activity against yeasts: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC 0.1-1 mg/ml and low activity against bacteria (MIC 5->10 mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that hyphae and conidia treated with this fraction were shrunken and collapsed, which might be due to cell fluid leakage.

  3. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER, stem (MES, leaf (MEL, fruit (MEF and whole plant (MEW of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A. archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01. Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01 in EPM (Figure 1-5. The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01 as compared to control (Table 1. Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01 in EPM.

  4. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-07-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM.

  5. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN LARVA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

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    Diah Ariana

    2016-02-01

    Abstract Leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases other than as a cure soursop leaves is also an insecticide-producing plants are bioactive compounds known as acetogenin which are bioactive compounds in high concentrations can be toxic to insects, thus may cause the insects will not eat. At low concentrations of toxic by oral administration stomach and can cause death. Soursop leaves are pesticides from natural elements that can be decided by the Aedes aegypti mosquito generation above background can be taken formulation of the problem Is there any effect of the concentration of soursop leaves boiled water (Annona muricata Linn on the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti? This study aimed to determine the effect of water concentration on the growth of soursop leaf decoction Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.The design of this study used an experimental design with laboratory testing, soursop leaf decoction obtained by weigh 100 g and dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water generated lau soursop leaves boiled water. The inhibition assay performed on boiled water boiling water concentration 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% and visits by the number of larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that die in 24 hours after treatment. Statistical analysis using Annova test with significance level 0.05 for determining the presence or absence of the influence of water concentration on the growth of soursop leaf decoction mosquito Aedes aegypti and subsequent Tukey HSD test was done to see the differences in each concentration. The results showed concentrations of 10% to 100% can inhibit the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti, so it can be concluded that the soursop leaves can inhibit the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti and efficient soursop leaves is used for patients with antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, and anti-inflammatory. Keyword :  larvae of Aedes

  6. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

    2011-07-01

    Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant.

  7. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse

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    S Sulaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory."nMethods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse in the laboratory."nResults: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. The plant crude extract exhibited against Ae. albopictus larvae with a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 21.2555 ppm and 36.1061 ppm, respectively. There was a significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp. Larvae (P< 0.05. However, bifenthrin showed a significant difference on larvicidal effect to that of A. calamus hexane extract on both Aedes spp (P< 0.05. In testing the adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 17.4075 and 252.9458 ppm against Ae .aegypti and a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 43.9952 and 446.1365 ppm respectively on Ae. albopictus. There was no significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp adults (P> 0.05."nConclusion: Bifenthrin however showed a significant difference on both Aedes spp adults (P< 0.05. With the wide availability of A. calamus in Malaysia, it could be utilized for controlling dengue vectors. "n 

  8. Effects of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. flowers on wound healing in diabetic Wistar albino rats

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    Hiren Hirapara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (J. grandiflorum flowers in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups (n=6.Three groups – diabetic control, positive control (that received Glibenclamide and treatment (that received J. grandiflorum Linn. Flower extract were operated for excision wounds (EW. These groups were evaluated for wound contraction and re-epithelization. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW and dead space wounds (DW. Incision and dead space wounds were produced in the same rats. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and the granulation tissues from DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology. Results: IWs and DWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength (265.8±10.4 vs 332.5±8.2; p

  9. Evaluation of antiseizure activity of essential oil from roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak Shalini; Wanjari M; Jain S; Tripathi M

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and show...

  10. Utilizing wild relative ((Solanum viarum) as resistant source to shoot and fruit borer in brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha

    2010-01-01

    Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.) has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with Solanum viarum to transfer th...

  11. The Influence of Extract of Papaya Seeds and leaves (Carica papaya Linn.) on the Mortality of Anopheles sp. Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Hasanuddin; Aras, Nurhidayah; Hakim, Buraerah H. Abd.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will be presented as oral presentation in the 47th APACPH Conference in Bandung, Indonesia dated October, 21-23rd 2015 Insecticide resistance and environmental damage as impact of application of synthetic larvicide continuesly, therefore it is necessarily alternative larvicide for vector control of Malaria. The aim of the research was to find out the influence of extracts of papaya seeds and leaves (Carica papaya Linn.) on the mortality of Anopheles sp. Larvae. The research m...

  12. In-Vitro and In-Vivo Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Bixa orellana Linn Leaf Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika B

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study is to investigate the Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Bixa orellana Linn. (Bixaceae) leaves. Methods: The dried leaf powder was subjected to successive Soxhlet extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity in Wistar rats using standard methods. The acute toxicity studies are done and it gives that the animal is alive for ...

  13. Uji Sitotoksisitas Ekstrak Ethanol 70 % Herba Ceplukan (Physalis angulata Linn. Terhadap Sel WiDr Secara In Vitro

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    Ira Djajanegara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Herba ceplukan (Physalis angulata Linn merupakan salah satu bahan alam yang digunakanmasyarakat untuk pengobatan tradisional sebagai antikanker. Pada penelitian sebelumnya hasilpengujian ekstrak ethanol 70% herba ceplukan (Physalis angulata Linn. terhadap Artemia salinaLeach (larva udang dengan metode Brine Shirmp Lethality Test (BSLT diketahui memiliki sifattoksik dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 39,63 μg/ml. Untuk itu dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuanmengetahui efek sitotoksisitas ekstrak ethanol 70% herba ceplukan dengan menentukan kadaryang menyebabkan 50% sel mati (LC50 terhadap sel kanker usus WiDr secara in vitro. Herbaceplukan (Physalis angulata Linn diekstraksi dengan cara maserasi dengan penyari ethanol 70%.Sel kanker usus WiDr diperlakukan dengan ekstrak ethanol 70% herba ceplukan dengan seri kadaryaitu 1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25, 15.125 dan 7.81 μg/ml selama 24 jam. Sebagai kontrolpositif digunakan doksorubisin dengan seri kadar sebagai berikut: 2; 1; 0.5; 0.25; 0.12; 0.06; 0.03dan 0 .01 μg/ml. Uji sitotoksisitas dilakukan dengan menginkubasi sel kanker usus WiDr dengankepadatan akhir sel 2.104 sel / ml persumuran plat kultur. Uji sitotosisitas ini menggunakanmetode perhitungan langsung dengan bantuan alat haemocytometer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa ekstrak ethanol 70% herba ceplukan (Physalis angulata Linn. mempunyai sitotoksisitassebesar 86,84 ìg/ml terhadap sel kanker usus WiDr yang di atas nilai indikator positif sebagaibahan bersifat sitotoksik yaitu sebesar > 30 ìg/ml. Nilai tersebut juga sangat lebih tinggi biladibandingkan dengan nilai LC50 doksorubisin sebagai pembanding sebesar 0,113 μg/ml.

  14. Antioxidant Capacity Comparison of Ethanolic Extract of Soursop (Annona muricata Linn.) Leaves and Seeds as Cancer Prevention Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Ayu Widyastuti; Praptining Rahayu

    2017-01-01

    Annona muricata Linn. (soursop) is one of  tropical plants which have relatively complete chemical compounds. It has flavonoid, tannin, phytosterol, alkaloid, etc. The high antioxidant compound in soursop is believed as cancer prevention so the cancer threat in the world can be minimized. The antioxidant compound in soursop can be found not only in its fruit, but also in other parts like leaves, seeds, etc. Based on that potency, this study aimed to compare antioxidant capacity of soursop lea...

  15. Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Barua, Chandana C.; Talukdar, Archana; Begum, Shameem Ara; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amaranthaceae). Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were used. Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (MEAA) was administered in the doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration (LDE) tests were used for determination of anxiolytic activity. Results: The methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera significa...

  16. Efek antigenotoksik ekstrak etanolik daun sirsak (Annona muricata Linn) terhadap frekuensi mikronukleus mukosa bukal tikus Sprague Dawley

    OpenAIRE

    Prihatiningsih, Tyas; Haniastuti, Tetiana; Agustina, Dewi

    2017-01-01

    The effect of soursop leaves (Annona uricata linn) ethanolic extract on micronucleus frequency  of buccal mucosa epithelium of Sprague dawley rats. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is one of the largest  groups of carcinogen in environment. 7,12-Dimetillbez (α) antransena is a compound of PAH class that has genotoxic carcinogen potency. One of the most frequently applied genotoxicity tests is micronucleus test. Soursop is a plant that can grow well in Indonesia. Its leaves contain avonoid an...

  17. Identifikasi komponen aktif minyak atsiri daun Vitex trifolia Linn yang berperan sebagai penolak serangga terhadap Chrysomya sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Soewandi J. S

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Dried leves powder of Vitex trifolia, Linn, is used tradisionally as insect repellent. The activity of the essential oil (isolated from the leaves and this fractions were studied as a repellent against Chrysomya sp. Fraction E contained a single component and has proven as the most effective to repel Chrysomya sp.According to the spectra of UV, IR, and GC-MS analysis, the single component of fraction E was identified as 4-methyl-1-(methylethy3-cyclohexnol.

  18. Studi Efektivitas Antidiabetik Ekstrak Air Dan Ekstrak Etanol Buah Pare (Momordica Charantia Linn) Pada Mencit Diabet Aloksan

    OpenAIRE

    Evacuasiany, Endang; Darsono, Lusiana; Rosnaeni

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) merupakan penyakit metabolik menahun yang ditandai dengan kadar glukosadarah yang melebihi nilai normal. Untuk mengatasi DM atau kadar glukosa darah yang tinggi pada penderita DM, diperlukan terapi alternatif dengan menggali potensi lokal yaitu tanaman obat.Telah dilakukan uji perbandinganefektivitas antidiabetik ekstrak air dan ekstrak etanol buah pare (Momordica charantia Linn). Uji dilakukan pada mencit jantan normal galur Swiss Webster yang dibuat menjadi diabet den...

  19. The expression of p53 and hsp70 proteins after treatment with Annona muricata Linn leaf for activating apoptotic and lead to homeostasis program of Raji cells

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    Okid Parama Astirin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Organic extracts of plant Annonaceae enhances apoptosis in animal cells and get the drives to reach a new homeostasis. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal cancer in Indonesia is quite high. Protein 53Kd (p53 play a role in apoptosis process, being heat shock protein 70 (hsp70 play a role in homeostasis. The aim of this research is to identify the apoptotic effects of Annona muricata Linn leaf toward Raji cells by observing the p53 and hsp70 expression.Methods: Apoptotic assay was performed in 24 wells micro-culture plate. Raji cells were prepared as 2 × 104 cells in 100 ml RPMI media per well. Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium was created and solvent was controlled with Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO solvent 0.25. Apoptotic test was performed by calculating trypan-blue-dye exclution. The cells were then grown in micro-culture plate with media plus extract non-lethal concentration of partition and fractionation of Annona muricata Linn leaf. The sampling was performed for 24 hours. The number of living cells was calculated in each of these well and incubation time were determined. Immunohistochemical staining was done to identify the expression of p53 and hsp70.Results: The results showed that Raji cells treated with partition of Annona muricata Linn leaf in ethyl acetate solvent 133.00 % resulted in higher apoptosis. Another results showed that Raji cells treated with fractionation Annona muricata Linn leaf in ethyl acetate solvent 103.20 % resulted in higher apoptosis. The expression of p53 after treatment with fractionation Annona muricata Linn leaf was higher than before while hsp70 expression after treatment with fractionation Annona muricata Linn leaf was lower. Conclusion: The conclusion is the higher the dose of Annona muricata Linn the higher the p53 expression thereby activates apoptosis process The higher dose of Anonna muricata Linn also leads to lower hsp70 expression indicating stable homeostasis of Raji cells

  20. Comportamento da castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa e da cupiúba (Goupia glabra em sistema agrosilvicultural na região da Confiança, Cantá - Roraima Behavior of castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa and cupiúba (Goupia glabra in an agrosilvicultural system in Confiança region, Cantá - Roraima State

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    Liane Marise Moreira Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o desempenho das espécies castanha-do-brasil (Bertholetia excelsa e cupiúba (Goupia glabra e o ajuste de uma função de crescimento e uma equação para estimar o diâmetro de copa em um modelo de sistema agroflorestal - SAF implantado em 1995 no Campo Experimental Confiança, Cantá, Estado de Roraima. Foram medidas 71 árvores de castanheira e 50 de cupiúbas totalizando 121 árvores, sendo tomados o CAP (circunferência a 1,30 m do solo, altura total, altura de inserção da copa, diâmetro da copa e dados qualitativos como sobrevivência, qualidade do fuste, bifurcações e aspectos fitossanitários como doenças ou pragas. Das 71 árvores de castanheira avaliadas 20 (27,8% produziram frutos. A cupiúba apresentou alta porcentagem de indivíduos com bifurcação (cerca de 87,5%. A análise estatística indicou a função de Backman como a de melhor ajuste para as espécies observadas e com base nas equações construídas para estimar o diâmetro da copa em função do DAP pode-se fazer inferências sobre o espaço vital necessário para atingir uma determinada dimensão. Ambas as espécies apresentaram potencial silvicultural para recuperação de áreas alteradas em sistemas agroflorestais ou plantios homogêneos.The aim of this present work was to study the behavior of castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa and cupiúba (Goupia glabra and also set a growing function and an equation for estimating the crown diameter in an agroforestry system model, installed in Confiança Experimental Station, Cantá, Roraima, Brazil, in 1995. We measured quantitative data, such as diameter basal height, total height, crown insertion height, crown diameter and qualitative data like survival, bole quality and phytosanitary aspects such as disease or pests. We analyzed the silvicultural behavior and estimated equation at the crown diameter in function of DBH, and adjusted a growing function for the cupiuba and

  1. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems Investigação do efeito citotóxico e mutagênico da polpa da fruta Malpighia glabra L. (acerola e da vitamina C em sistema teste vegetal e animal

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    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.As frutas são importantes fontes de nutrientes na dieta humana e a Acerola (Malpighia glabra L. é de particular interesse devido ao seu alto teor de antioxidantes. Dietas ricas em frutas e legumes protegem os indivíduos contra doenças e câncer, mas a ingestão excessiva de vitaminas pode atuar como pró-oxidante e gerar alterações no DNA. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações da polpa in natura da Acerola (BAN e congelada (BAF, e da vitamina C sintética na forma líquida (VC, em nível cromossômico e sobre o ciclo de divisão celular, foram utilizadas células meristemáticas de raiz de Allium cepa L. e células da medula óssea de ratos Wistar, Rattus norvegicus, como sistema teste. Em Allium cepa L., BAN, na maior concentração (0,4 mg.mL-1 e BAF

  2. Composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. em cinco estádios de corte Chemical composition of the hay of the Bauhinia glabra Jacq. in five periods of cut

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    Jael Soares Batista

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. aos 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias de crescimento, após o corte de uniformização. Delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições foi usado. O feno foi obtido em uma área de pastagem nativa rebaixada/raleada de 7200 m², subdividida em parcelas de 360 m². Não houve diferenças para os teores de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, hemicelulose e fósforo (P. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose, lignina e cálcio (Ca apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. Os teores médios para a composição químico-bromatológica foram: 88,90% MS, 94,17% MO, 5,51% MM, 17,97% PB, 58,12% FDN, 40,88% FDA, 17,11% hemicelulose, 27,33% celulose, 12,77% lignina, 0,29% Ca e 0,15% P. Os fenos avaliados são recomendáveis para suplementação protéica em dietas para ruminantes. Com o avançar do estádio vegetativo, aumentaram linearmente os constituintes da parede celular e o Ca.This research was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq hay at 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days of growth after uniformity cut. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and four replicates, was used. The hay was obtained from an area of native pasture lowed and cleaned of 7200 m², which were subdivided in plots of 360 m². There were no differences for the content of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose and phosphorus (P. However, differences were observed for the neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose, lignin and calcium (Ca contents among the treatments. The average contents for the chemical composition were: 88.90% DM, 94.17% OM, 5.51% ash, 17.97% CP, 58.12% NDF, 40.88% ADF, 17.11% hemicellulose, 27

  3. A green recyclable SO(3)H-carbon catalyst derived from glycerol for the production of biodiesel from FFA-containing karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil in a single step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhavathi Devi, B L A; Vijai Kumar Reddy, T; Vijaya Lakshmi, K; Prasad, R B N

    2014-02-01

    Simultaneous esterification and transesterification method is employed for the preparation of biodiesel from 7.5% free fatty acid (FFA) containing karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil using water resistant and reusable carbon-based solid acid catalyst derived from glycerol in a single step. The optimum reaction parameters for obtaining biodiesel in >99% yield by simultaneous esterification and transesterification are: methanol (1:45 mole ratio of oil), catalyst 20wt.% of oil, temperature 160°C and reaction time of 4h. After the reaction, the catalyst was easily recovered by filtration and reused for five times with out any deactivation under optimized conditions. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high FFA containing oils by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs and effluent generation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mudabbar/Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd (Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Methods: Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Results: Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Conclusion: Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude

  5. Morinda citrifolia Linn: potencialidades para su utilización en la salud humana

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    Nirda E González Lavaut

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Noni es el nombre común de la Morinda citrifolia Linn. originaria de la Polinesia, Malasia, Australia, India y el Sudeste de Asia, pero se ha extendido a casi todas las regiones del mundo. En este trabajo se muestran los aspectos más importantes que sobre esta planta aparecen en publicaciones, fundamentalmente de la vía Internet y del Chemical Abstracts en los últimos 5 años, que permitan valorar las potencialidades para su uso en la salud humana. En la medicina tradicional las frutas, flores, hojas, corteza y raíz de esta planta han sido utilizadas para diversos propósitos medicinales. Entre las afecciones más tratadas se encuentran la alergia, artritis, asma, cáncer, diabetes, depresión, debilidad física, desórdenes menstruales, obesidad y estrés. Si bien se ha encontrado en los extractos de varias partes de la planta una elevada cantidad de componentes e incluso algunos se han llegado a aislar, se considera que la acción farmacológica y beneficiosa se alcanza únicamente por el efecto sinérgico de todos los componentes.Noni is the common name given to Morinda citrifolia Linn. It is originating from Polinesia, Malasia, Australia, India and Southeast Asia, but it has extended to almost every region of the world. In this paper, the most important aspects of this plant appearing in publications, Internet and the Chemical Abstracts in the last 5 years that allow to assess the potentialities for its use in human health, are shown. In traditional medicine, the fruit, flowers, leaves, cortex and root of this plant have been used for diverse medicinal purposes. Allergy, arthritis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, depression, physical weakness, menstrual disorders, obesity and stress are among the most treated affections. Although in the extracts of various parts of the plant, a high number of components has been found and even some of them have been isolated, it is considered that the pharmacological and beneficial action is only reached by

  6. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Mudabbar/ Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd ( Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude and MKK were established for future reference. Mudabbar

  7. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, Pranati; Devaraj, C G; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-03-01

    Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control was 25mm and no zone of inhibition was observed

  8. Rapid and easy identification of Illicium verum Hook. f. and its adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. by fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vaishali C; Srinivas, Pullela V; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2005-01-01

    Illicium verum Hook. f. is used as an herbal tea to treat colic pain in infants. Reports suggest that Star anise herbal tea may be adulterated with Illicium anisatum Linn. A short and rapid method using microscopy and gas chromatography (GC) was developed to detect I. anisatum Linn., an adulterant in the powdered mixture of I. verum. Anatomical differences in the epicarp cells of I. verum and I. anisatum fruits were clearly defined as examined under fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A GC method was developed for quick identification of possible I. anisatum adulteration with I. verum.

  9. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanolik kulit batang jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale Linn. terhadap Staphylococcus aureus

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    H. Harsini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of cashew stembark (Anacardium occidentale Linn on Staphylococcus aureus. Microbial activity acts as a sign of disruption of bacterial growth. The bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn. contains phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins and anacardic acid which have an activity as antimicrobial. One of the Gram positivebacteria in the oral cavity was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. The aim of the study was to observe the bacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew to a metal ion, i.e. Ca2+ and K+ leakage from S aureus. This research used one ose bacteria S. aureus at a density of 106 standard Brown as much as 10 mL and centrifuged at a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes. The filtrate discarded, pellets in the tube was washed using phosphate buffer pH 7.0. Furthermore the ethanolic extract of the bark of the cashew stembark was added in the concentrations of 3.5% and 7% without any extract as a control, each of which was in 5 tubes, incubated in an incubator for 24 hours. The suspension was centrifused with a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes prior to be filtered. Supernatant liquid was taken and measured absorbance using AAS. Data were analyzed using one way Anova p = 0.05. The results showed that leakage of Ca2+ was  at concentrations of 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% were 2.42 ± 0.82; 32.87 ± 1.97; 49.10 ± 3.33; 66.73 ± 3.29, respectively while for the K+ metal was 15.28 ± 0.46; 606.36 ± 14.14; 895 ± 9.5; 1251 ± 11.54. Anova one way showed a significant effect (p <0.050 ethanolic extract of the bark of cashew against leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ at S aureus bacteria. LSD test showed a significant difference among all treatment groups. It was concluded that there was antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew stembark on bacteria S. aureus based on leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ The highest leakage of metal ions was at the concentrations of 7%.   ABSTRAK Aktivitas

  10. Evaluation of Cassia tora Linn. against Oxidative Stress-induced DNA and Cell Membrane Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R Sunil; Narasingappa, Ramesh Balenahalli; Joshi, Chandrashekar G; Girish, Talakatta K; Prasada Rao, Ummiti JS; Danagoudar, Ananda

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to evaluate antioxidants and protective role of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage. Materials and Methods: The total and profiles of flavonoids were identified and quantified through reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined using standard antioxidant assays. The protective role of C. tora extracts against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage was examined by electrophoretic and scanning electron microscopic studies, respectively. Results: The total flavonoid content of CtEA was 106.8 ± 2.8 mg/g d.w.QE, CtME was 72.4 ± 1.12 mg/g d.w.QE, and CtWE was 30.4 ± 0.8 mg/g d.w.QE. The concentration of flavonoids present in CtEA in decreasing order: quercetin >kaempferol >epicatechin; in CtME: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol; whereas, in CtWE: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol. The CtEA inhibited free radical-induced red blood cell hemolysis and cell membrane morphology better than CtME as confirmed by a scanning electron micrograph. CtEA also showed better protection than CtME and CtWE against free radical-induced DNA damage as confirmed by electrophoresis. Conclusion: C. tora contains flavonoids and inhibits oxidative stress and can be used for many health benefits and pharmacotherapy. PMID:28584491

  11. Analytical, antioxidant and hepatoprotective studies on extracts of oxalis corniculata linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.S.; Islam, M.; Khan, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a number of traditional medicinal uses and pharmacological properties, the usefulness of Oxalis corniculata Linn. (Family: Oxalidaceae) is a question due to its high oxalate content which can form insoluble salts with physiological calcium. Therefore, the present study aimed to reduce oxalates in extracts and to investigate such extracts chemically and biologically. The extraction was carried out using different solvents and methods, and analytical studies of extracts indicated that oxalate contents decrease on drying the material. Furthermore, extraction of both fresh and dried materials using 1 % aqueous calcium chloride and ferric chloride solutions resulted in lowering oxalate contents. Methanolic extracts of stems and leaves having lower oxalates were obtained using sequential extraction, which showed good in vitro antioxidant activity - by DPPH and beta-carotene linoleate models - and in vivo hepatoprotective activity in isoniazid and rifampicin-induced oxidative stressed rats (P < 0.05). It was concluded that methanolic extracts of leaves and stems of Oxalis corniculata had lower oxalates and showed promising antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. (author)

  12. Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, E O; Ekundayo, F O; Makanjuola, O O

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms.

  13. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116.

  14. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mhaveer; Tamboli, E T; Kamal, Y T; Ahmad, Wasim; Ansari, S H; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC) by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit.

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries. PMID:26884763

  16. In Vitro Anti-arthritic activity of Tecoma stans (Linn. Leaves

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    Dharmeshkumar Prajapati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates 80% of the world population presently use herbal medicine for some aspects of primary health care. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks synovial joints. There are many herbs which are described in Ayurveda for arthritis. The medicinal plant contains flavonoids, terpenes, quinones, catechins, alkaloids, anthocyanins and anthoxanthins phytoconstituents, having anti-inflammatory effects. Tecoma stans (Linn. belongs to the family of Bignoniaceae. The root of Tecoma stans as diuretic, vermifuge and tonic. Pharmacological reports revealed that it is having antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties, and extensively used in the treatment of diabetes. Alcohol, Water, successive extracts of Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol and Water extracts of T. stans leaves were tested for Antiarthritic activity using Diclofenac sodium as standard by In-vitro models like, Inhibition of protein denaturation and effect on membrane stabilization. Alcohol, Water and succesive Methanol extracts of T. stans leaves exhibited significant Antiarthritic activity. The results of the investigations justify us the folklore use of T. stans leaves in the treatment of inflammation during arthritis and the plant is worth for further chemical isolation and pharmacological investigations.

  17. The Responses of Mulch Closure on the Germination of Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn.

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    Nurmawati Siregar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors that determine the successful of the development of mindi is the availability of seedling. The seedlings can be propagated generatively by using seeds, however there is a problem related to the hardness of the testa that make it difficult to germinate, so it needs environment condition treatments to get optimal germination, one of this is mulching. The use mulch possibly get the improvement of temperature, humidity, infiltration and evapotranspiration. The study is aimed to determine the effect of mulch and to find out the best mulch type on the germination of mindi (Melia azedarach Linn. seed. Randomized completely design was employed that arranged factorially, consisted of (A mulch types factor and mulch thicknesses factor (B. There were 5 (five types of mulch treatment i.e rice straws, transparent plastics, dark plastics, zeolite and without mulch. The thicknesses of mulch consisted of one layer and two layers of mulch. Germination capacity, germination speed and growth simultaneously were observed. The results showed, mulching effect on germination mindi the best type of mulch is black or transparent plastic mulch while the thickness of the mulch does not affect the germination. Mindi seed capable of germination in the dark and light conditions on the conditions of temperature and humidity high temperatures.

  18. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

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    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected.

  19. In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

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    Atiqur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna integrifolia Linn (Lamiaceae, and to test the efficacy of the oil and various organic extracts as an antibacterial potential. The chemical compositions of the essential oil were analyzed by GC–MS. Twenty-nine compounds representing 94.81% of the total leaves oil were identified, of which phytol (27.25%, α-humulene (14.21%, spathulenol (12.12%, 1-octen-3-ol (8.21%, eugenol (6.69% and phenylethyl alcohol (5.81% were the major compounds. The oil (15 μL disk−1 and extracts (300 μg disk−1 of P. integrifolia displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Sarcina lutea IFO 3232, Bacillus subtilis IFO 3026, Escherichia coli IFO 3007, Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 13867, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031 and Xanthomonas campestries IAM 1671 with their respective zones of inhibition of 12.0 ± 1.2 to 22.1 ± 1.2 mm and MIC values of 62.5–250 μg mL−1. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from P. integrifolia may have potential use in food, pharmaceutical and/or agro industries for preservatives or antimicrobial agents.

  20. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents.

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    Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M; Thenmozhi, S; Balakrishnan, B R

    2013-01-01

    Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  1. Evaluation of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage

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    R Sunil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aims to evaluate antioxidants and protective role of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage. Materials and Methods: The total and profiles of flavonoids were identified and quantified through reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined using standard antioxidant assays. The protective role of C. tora extracts against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage was examined by electrophoretic and scanning electron microscopic studies, respectively. Results: The total flavonoid content of CtEA was 106.8 ± 2.8 mg/g d.w.QE, CtME was 72.4 ± 1.12 mg/g d.w.QE, and CtWE was 30.4 ± 0.8 mg/g d.w.QE. The concentration of flavonoids present in CtEA in decreasing order: quercetin >kaempferol >epicatechin; in CtME: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol; whereas, in CtWE: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol. The CtEA inhibited free radical-induced red blood cell hemolysis and cell membrane morphology better than CtME as confirmed by a scanning electron micrograph. CtEA also showed better protection than CtME and CtWE against free radical-induced DNA damage as confirmed by electrophoresis. Conclusion: C. tora contains flavonoids and inhibits oxidative stress and can be used for many health benefits and pharmacotherapy.

  2. A panoramic view on phytochemical, nutritional, ethanobotanical uses and pharmacological values of Trachyspermum ammi Linn.

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    Hafiz Muhammad Asif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trachyspermum ammi Linn. (T. ammi is an aromatic, grassy, annual plant belonging to Umbelliferae family which grows in the east of India, Pakistan, Iran, and Egypt. T. ammi has been used traditionally to treat arthritis, colic, diarrhea and gastrointestinal problems. In addition to these medicinal uses, T. ammi continues to be valued around the world as an important cooking spice and is believed to relief the common cold, flu-like symptoms, headaches, and even painful menstrual periods. These multiple uses can be explained by its several active compounds. The phytochemical studies on T. ammi seeds have revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, fixed oils, glycosides, tannins, saponin and flavonoids, cumene, thymene, amino acids and dietary fiber essential oils like thymol, c-terpinene, p-cymene. Several pharmacological studies on anti-tussive effect, inhibitory effect on histamine (H1 receptors, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti mutagenic activities of T. ammi seed extracts have been reported in the literature. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of T. ammi.

  3. Biology and predatory potential of coccinella septempunctata linn. on schizaphis graminum aphid under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.; Gillani, W.A.; Haq, E.U.; Khan, J.; Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    The biology and predatory potential of Coccinella septempunctata (Linn.) were studied on aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) at three constant temperatures 20+-1 degree C, 25+-1 degree C and 30+-1 degree C in Insectary-Bio Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that incubation period of C. septempunctata was 5.12, 3.62 and 3.20 days with 75.6%, 82.0% and 71.2% hatchability, respectively. The larval durations were 29.5, 15.9 and 8.1 days with predatory potential of 573.7, 575.0 and 667.8 aphids per larvae. The results indicated that with increasing temperature, develop-mental duration decreases significantly. The pupal developmental duration was 14.0, 9.2 and 5.2 days, respectively which are significantly different from each other. The adult male and female longevity were 44.7, 37.7, 30.0 and 60.3, 58.9 and 43.7 days. Fecundity rate of females were 123.5, 251.5 and 293.2 eggs per female, respectively. This indicates that adult male and female developmental duration, female fecundity rate were significantly different from each other at three constant temperatures. Maximum female and male predatory potential was 3262.8 and 2571.7 aphids at 25 +-1 degree C while minimum was 2276.8 and 1890.6 aphids, respectively. (author)

  4. The cytotoxic effect of Elephantopus scaber Linn extract against breast cancer (T47D) cells

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    Sulistyani, N.; Nurkhasanah

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main cause of death. Elephantopus scaber Linn (ES) which has been used as a traditional medicine contains an antitumor compounds. This study aimed to explore the active fraction from ethanolic extract of ES as anticancer and to determine its inhibition effect on the cell proliferation cycle of breast cancer (T47D) cells. The ES leaf was macerated with ethanol and then evaporated to get the concentrated extract. The extract was fractionated using petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol respectively. The cytotoxic activity of each fraction was carried out with MTT method, and the inhibition of cell cycle test were observed by flowcytometry method. The result showed that ES and the fractions have cytotoxic activity against T47D cell lines with IC50 values of extract, petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol fractions were 58.36±2.38, 132.17±9.69, 7.08±2.11, and 572.89±69.23 µg/mL. The inhibition effect of ethanol extract on the lifecycle of cells was occured in sub G1 phase. There was no prolonging of G1, S, G2/M and polyploidy phase of T47D cell lines. The chloroform fraction of ES is the most cytotoxic fraction against T47D cells without prolonging the cell lifecycle.

  5. Efficacy of Fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (JatrophaCurcas Linn Compost

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    Erma B. Quinay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the efficacy of fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (Jatophacurcas Linn compost, an experiment was carried out in complete randomized block design based on 3 replications. Varied ratios of commercial organic fertilizer (COF and Jatropha compost (JC are 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 and commercial inorganic fertilizers (CIF were used in planting. Parameters such as number of leaves, length of stems, size and color of leaves were determined after harvesting. The maximum number of leaves was noted in 100:0ratios of JC and COF; the lengthiest stem was noted in vegetables grown with 100:0 JC; while the largest size of leaf was noted in CIF. The color of leaves was the same for the varied ratios with a reading of 4 while the CIF has a reading of 5 in the leaf color chart. The macronutrients of JC have 2.09% N, 1.98%P and 17. 49%K.However the micronutrients of the compost were 203.66 ppm Zn, 326.27 ppmMnand 3997.30 ppmFe. These nutrients are essential for the plant growth. It was observed that potassium (K exceeded the standard for the COF which is 3.66 wt. %. K hastens maturity and increase the size and quality of vegetables.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of calophyllolide isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

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    Van-Linh Nguyen

    Full Text Available Due to the high-cost and limitations of current wound healing treatments, the search for alternative approaches or drugs, particularly from medicinal plants, is of key importance. In this study, we report anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the major calophyllolide (CP compound isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The results showed that CP had no effect on HaCaT cell viability over a range of concentrations. CP reduced fibrosis formation and effectively promoted wound closure in mouse model without causing body weight loss. The underlying molecular mechanisms of wound repair by CP was investigated. CP markedly reduced MPO activity, and increased M2 macrophage skewing, as shown by up-regulation of M2-related gene expression, which is beneficial to the wound healing process. CP treatment prevented a prolonged inflammatory process by down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines-IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, but up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This study is the first to indicate a plausible role for CP in accelerating the process of wound healing through anti-inflammatory activity mechanisms, namely, by regulation of inflammatory cytokines, reduction in MPO, and switching of macrophages to an M2 phenotype. These findings may enable the utilization of CP as a potent therapeutic for cutaneous wound healing.

  7. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of Cocos nucifera Linn. on streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Sagar; Mazumder, Upal K; Pramanik, Goutam; Gupta, Malaya; Kumar, R B Suresh; Bala, Asis; Islam, Aminul

    2011-12-08

    The plant Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae) is commonly known as coconut. Traditionally the juice of the young spadix when fresh is used in diarrhea and diabetes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidiabetic activity and effect on lipid profile as well as cardioprotective effect of hydro-methanol extract of Cocos nucifera (HECN) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 72 h of STZ (50 mg/kg, b.w. i.p.) administration, animals showing plasma sugar level more than 250 mg/dl were considered as diabetic rat. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured on 0th (after 72 h of STZ), 5th, 10th, and 15th day. On the 15th day all the animals were sacrificed and the serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme status were measured. HECN treated animals showed a significant reduction in FBG level as compared with diabetic control group. Serum enzyme level (SGOT, SGPT, SALP), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme level such as CAT, GSH, SOD and cholesterol and triglycerides in the HECN treated groups were restored towards normal level as compared to diabetic control groups and the values were comparable with the standard groups (glibenclamide). Improvement in the FBG and the restoration of all other biomarker as well as enzymes indicates that HECN has very good antidiabetic activity with very low side effects and provides a scientific rationale for the use as an antidiabetic agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE.

  9. Rheological characterization and drug release studies of gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sadhis V; Sasmal, Dinakar; Pal, Subodh C

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn. (TC gum) as a release retarding excipient in oral controlled drug delivery system. The rheological properties of TC gum were studied and different formulation techniques were used to evaluate the comparative drug release characteristics. The viscosity was found to be dependent on concentration and pH. Temperature up to 60 degrees C did not show significant effect on viscosity. The rheological kinetics evaluated by power law, revealed the shear thinning behavior of the TC gum dispersion in water. Matrix tablets of TC gum were prepared with the model drug dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DH) by direct compression, wet granulation and solid dispersion techniques. The dissolution profiles of the matrix tablets were compared with the pure drug containing capsules using the USP Basket apparatus with 500 ml phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 as a dissolution medium. The drug release from the compressed tablets containing TC gum was comparatively sustained than pure drug containing capsules. Even though all the formulation techniques showed reduction of dissolution rate, aqueous wet granulation showed the maximum sustained release of more than 8 h. The release kinetics estimated by the power law revealed that the drug release mechanism involved in the dextromethorphan matrix is anomalous transport as indicated by the release exponent n values. Thus the study confirmed that the TC gum might be used in the controlled drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer.

  10. Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn en ratas

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    José de la Paz Naranjo

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la acción antidiarreica de una tintura al 20 % de Mentha piperita Linn (toronjil de menta, se realizó un estudio in vivo en modelo de diarreas en ratas inducidas con aceite de castor. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 200, 300 y 400 mg/kg. Se encontró que las dosis de 300 y 400 mg/kg alargaron el tiempo de aparición de la primera deposición líquida y disminuyeron su frecuencia, no así la dosis menor, que solamente redujo el número de deposiciones líquidas en el tiempo. Se halló conjuntamente un efecto dependiente de la dosis y una dosis efectiva media calculada (DE50 de 346,41 mg/kg. La dosis máxima de la tintura mostró tener acción antidiarreica en el modelo empleado. El nivel de significación se fijó en una p £ 0,05.

  11. LEAVES EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LINN FOR ANTIINFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY IN ANIMAL MODELS

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    Ganesh N. Sharma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory andanalgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oraladministration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals.Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hindpaw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in pawvolume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan(1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy’s hotplate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanolextract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edemaand analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy’s hot platemethod and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showedanti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared withthe control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions werestatistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit ofMurraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  12. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

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    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  13. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

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    Md. Moniruzzaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD. For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P<0.05. Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties.

  14. Fungal endophytes associated with Viola odorata Linn. as bioresource for pancreatic lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, M; Paul, A; Singh, G; Sridhar, S N C

    2017-08-03

    As per the recent statistical reports of World Health Organisation (WHO), 13% of total global population is obese. Orlistat remains to be the only drug approved for the long term treatment of obesity. Recent findings highlighted severe adverse effects of orlistat that included hepatotoxicity, gall stones, kidney stones and acute pancreatitis. Therefore, search for new drug is required. The investigations based on endophytic natural products would prove pivotal in the global fight against this health issue. Obesity is associated with lipid metabolism involving pancreatic lipase enzyme. The inhibition of pancreatic lipase is demonstrated by using the extracts of endophytes isolated from Viola odorata Linn. In addition, endophytes were identified using ITS based rDNA sequencing. Present study involves the isolation and identification of 27 endophytes from V. odorata. All the endophytes were evaluated for lipase inhibitory activities. The extracts of seven endophytes exhibited lipase inhibitory activity with IC 50  endophytic community with potent lipase inhibitory activity. VOLF4 is the potential endophyte. The extract of VOLF4 can be used to develop the potential drug to treat obesity.

  15. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn. Fortified Milk

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    Subha Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  16. Comparative and quantitative analysis of antioxidant and scavenging potential of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Sharma, Shatruhan; Sharma, Veena

    2015-07-01

    To compare and elucidate the antioxidant efficacy of ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (Fabaceae family). Various in-vitro antioxidant assays and free radical-scavenging assays were done. Quantitative measurements of various phytoconstituents, reductive abilities and chelating potential were carried out along with standard compounds. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for ethanol and hydroethanol extracts were analyzed and compared with respective standards. Hydroethanolic extracts showed considerably more potent antioxidant activity in comparison to ethanol extracts. Hydroethanolic extracts had lower IC50 values than ethanol extracts in the case of DPPH, metal chelation and hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity (829, 659 and 26.7 μg/mL) but had slightly higher values than ethanol in case of SO2- and NO2-scavenging activity (Pethanol extracts (211.691 and 132.603 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively). Karl Pearson's correlation analysis (r2) between various antioxidant parameters and bioactive components also associated the antioxidant potential of I. tinctoria with various phytoconstituents, especially phenolics, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. This study may be helpful to draw the attention of researchers towards the hydroethanol extracts of I. tinctoria, which has a high yield, and great prospects in herbal industries to produce inexpensive and powerful herbal products.

  17. In vivo trypanocidal activity of Nymphaea lotus Linn. methanol extract against Trypanosoma brucei brucei

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    Muhammad Haruna Garba

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antitrypanosomal potentials of methanol extract of Nymphaea lotus Linn. (N. lotus with the aim of obtaining a new lead for formulating safe, inexpensive, nontoxic and readily available trypanocidal drugs. Methods: Seventy percent (v/v (methanol/water crude extract of N. lotus was evaluated for antitrypanosomal activity in experimental trypanosomiasis using Trypanosoma brucei bruceiinfected mice. Infected mice in different groups were administered intraperitoneally 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day of the crude for two weeks, while a positive control group was treated with standard drug, berenil. Results: The crude extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day was more effective than the higher doses in completely clearing parasites from the blood of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Pre-treatment of healthy mice with the crude extract for 5 days before infection did not prevent the establishment of the infection, indicating that the extract had no prophylactic activity. Subinoculation of the blood and cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the cured mice into healthy mice failed to produce any infection within 50 days post inoculation. Administration of 1 000 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract led to the death of 50% of the experimental animals indicating a high level of toxicity of the extract at higher doses. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the potency of the crude extract of N. lotus in treating experimental trypanosomiasis at lower doses.

  18. Tore Linné Eriksen og de store utviklingsspørsmålene

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    Kristen Nordhaug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of Tore Linné Eriksen’s works within development studies/development research. In a recent introduction to development studies from 2013, he presented development research as a cross-disciplinary social science approach that addresses the grand problems of mankind. Eriksen’s own research into these grand problems has concentrated on the causes of national and international inequality and poverty. In 1974 he supported the view of the “underdevelopment school”: “Underdevelopment” in Africa and Latin America was the outcome of the inclusion of those continents in a capitalist world economy dominated by Europe. Recent works by Eriksen on the origins of the “great divergence” between Western Europe and economically advanced non-European countries (2010 and on inequality and poverty in the current world (2012 are far more complex and empirically nuanced. Still, in a recent discussion of globalization and global capitalism (2013 he reverts to some of the earlier ”underdevelopment arguments” from 1974. The article concludes that there is a tension within Eriksen’s works on the role of capitalism in development and underdevelopment. In his programmatic writings, global capitalism is seen as the main cause of inequality and poverty. In his more empirically grounded works, global capitalism is viewed rather as an important part of the bigger picture of inequality and poverty. 

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35–55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries. PMID:23569974

  20. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

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    Mhaveer Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit.

  1. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil: A memoir

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    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  2. Cholinesterase inhibition activity of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. an edible leafy vegetable from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    Maesilea quadrifolia Linn. (Marsileaceae) is a leafy vegetable well known in India. The current study aims to explore the phytochemical profile of M. quadrifolia and investigate its anti-cholinesterase potential. The methanol extract of the plant was subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening (total alkaloidal content, saponin content and phenol content) and its anti-cholinesterase potential was tested by TLC bioautography and other screening methods using acytylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The study revealed that the extract contains various classes of phytoconstituents including steroids, saponins, alkaloids and other polyphenols. Total alkaloid, phenolic and saponin contents were found to be 19.3 mg g⁻¹ and 158.5 ± 1.02 mg g⁻¹ as gallic acid equivalents and 2.63 mg g⁻¹ of the extract, respectively. The TLC bioautography method exhibited the inhibition of both enzymes. In a microtiter plate assay, the IC₅₀ values of the extract for AChE and BChE were found to be 51.89 ± 0.24 µg mL⁻¹ and 109.43 ± 2.82 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. These findings suggest that M. quadrifolia is a potential lead as an AChE and BChE inhibitor, which may be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of echinochloa colona (linn.) link and sporobolus coromandelianus (retz.) kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Khan, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of two plants Echinochloa colona (Linn.) Link and Sporobolus coromandelianus (Retz.) Kunth, were carried out. The results revealed that the extracts of both plants were active against Gram positive bacteria, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and Gram negative bacteria, i.e. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the fungal strains Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The most significant results were obtained from the methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of E. colona, i.e. 24 +- 2.64 mm and 23 +- 2.64 mm against S. aureus, respectively. A significant inhibition zone of 23.66 +- 1.52 was observed by petroleum ether extract of S. coromandelianus. The chloroform extracts of S. coromandelianus showed an inhibition zone 72.33 +- 4.09 mm against A. oryzae and 66.33 +- 1.15 mm against A. niger. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using five approaches, i.e. 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) method; ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, metal chelating assay, total phenolic contents (TPC) and flavonoid contents. The results showed that the methanolic extracts of both plants possessed significant antioxidant activity. The results also indicated that methanolic extract of E. colona had total phenolic and flavonoid contents, i.e. 734.25 and 7774.54 mg/ml, however, methanolic extract of S. coromandelianus had phenolic and flavonoid contents, i.e. 366.75 and 3010.90 mg/ml. (author)

  4. Cadmium accumulation characteristics of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijin; Shi, Jun; Liu, Qihua; Liao, Ming'an; Mei, Luoyin

    2014-07-01

    In a preliminary study, we found that the cadmium (Cd) concentrations in shoots of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)), indicating that these two farmland weeds might be Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, we grew these species in soil containing various concentrations of Cd to further evaluate their Cd accumulation characteristics. The biomasses of C. hirsuta and G. affine decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in the soil, while the root/shoot ratio and the Cd concentrations in shoot tissues increased. The Cd concentrations in shoots of C. hirsuta and G. affine reached 121.96 and 143.91 mg kg(-1), respectively, at the soil Cd concentration of 50 mg kg(-1). Both of these concentrations exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)). The shoot bioconcentration factors of C. hirsuta and G. affine were greater than 1. The translocation factor of C. hirsuta was less than 1 and that of G. affine was greater than 1. These findings indicated that C. hirsuta is a Cd-accumulator and G. affine is Cd-hyperaccumulator. Both plants are distributed widely in the field, and they could be used to remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil in winter.

  5. Antisickling and toxicological evaluation of the leaves of Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abere, Tavs A; Okoye, Chiagozie J; Agoreyo, Freddy O; Eze, Gerald I; Jesuorobo, Rose I; Egharevba, Clement O; Aimator, Pauline O

    2015-11-23

    Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae) together with other medicinal plants serve as antisickling remedies in Africa. This study was aimed at investigating the antisickling activity of the leaves of the plant as well as establishing the toxicological profile. Chemical tests were employed in phytochemical investigations. Evaluation of the antisickling activity involved the inhibition of sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling of the HbSS red blood cells obtained from confirmed sickle cell patients who were not in crises. Concentrations of the crude extract and its fractions were tested with normal saline and p-hydroxybenzoic acid serving as controls. Acute toxicological evaluation was carried out in mice while 30-day assessment was done in rats. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. Percentage sickling inhibitions of the aqueous methanol extracts of S. dulcis were significant all through the period of assay p < 0. 05 compared to normal saline, but not significant with PHBA. The fractions had less activity compared to the crude extracts. The LD 50 of the extract in mice was above 8000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. Toxicological evaluations at 250 and 500 mg/kg showed mild congestion in virtually all the target organs. The antisickling results confirmed traditional usage of Scoparia dulcis in the management of Sickle cell disorders and a candidate for further investigations.

  6. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  7. Proximate Nutritive Values and Mineral Components of Withania Somnifera (Linn. Dunal

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    S. R. Krishnamurthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (Linn. Dunal is a subtropical shrub with important medicinal properties. The nutritive value and the elemental composition of different parts of plants, Withania somnifera which are grown in two distinct geographical regions (Sondekola and Karthikere of Karnataka have been determined. The investigation revealed that the variation of macro, micro and proximate components varied not only in the plants of different regions but also in the different parts of the same plant. Among the macro elements, Karthikere samples recorded maximum values of nitrogen, phosphorous and magnesium and Sondekola samples recorded maximum values of sodium, potassium and calcium. Among the components of micronutrients, the highest values of iron were recorded both in Sondekola and Karthikere samples. The average values of manganese, copper and zinc were more in the Karthikere samples and comparatively less in the Sondekola samples. Whereas, all the samples of Sondekola recorded maximum values of nutrition. It is believed that the dry climatic condition of the region may contribute the high values of nutrition. Further, the observations are discussed with reference to the geography, elemental composition and nutritional values. The strong and negative observations on herbal drugs and their validity, the study emphasizes the role of elemental composition, proximate components, nutritive value, habitat and geographical features which influence growth and development of Withania somnifera and also herbal products of Withania somnifera in particular and medicinal plants in general.

  8. Assessment of cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea Linn. against human colon adenocarcinoma and vero cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Portulacaceae) is commonly known as purslane in English. In traditional system it is used to cure diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, asthma, and piles, reduce small tumors and inflammations. Aim: To assess cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-15) and normal (Vero) cell line. Materials and Methods: Characterization of chloroform extract of P. oleracea by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed. Cytotoxicity (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used for assessment of cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea. The concentrations of 1000–0.05 μg/ml were used in the experiment. Doxorubicin was considered as standard reference drug. Results: FTIR spectrum showed the peak at 1019.52 and 1396.21 center. The 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) of chloroform extract of P. oleracea and doxorubicin was 1132.02 μg/ml and 460.13 μg/ml against human colon adenocarcinoma and 767.60 μg/ml and 2392.71 μg/ml against Vero cell line, respectively. Conclusion: Chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant was less efficient or does not have cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. It was not safe to normal Vero cell line. But, there is a need to isolate, identify, and confirm the phytoconstituents present in extract by sophisticated analytical techniques. PMID:27833374

  9. Sifat Anatomi dan Sifat Fisika Kayu Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn dari Hutan Rakyat di Yogyakarta

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    Harry Praptoyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical  and Physical Properties of Mindi Wood (Melia azedarach Linn from Community Forest in Yogyakarta Information about mindi wood characteristics is very limited while utilisation of this wood on our society is very extensive. Better knowledge on anatomical and physical wood properties of mindi wood optimizes its utilization. Therefore, this study aims to identify anatomical (macroscopic and microscopic and physical (moisture content, specific gravity and dimensional changes wood properties of mindi taken from community forests around Yogyakarta. The macroscopic structural characteristics results showed that annual ring appeared clearly at transversal surface, having single vessel, vasicentric and diffuse parenchyma, rough texture, straight fiber direction, and no resin canal. Cell proportion of wood showed that fibers occupy more than 44%, followed by vessel (20%, parenchyma (19% and rays (15%. Wood fiber dimension showed fiber length of 0.83 mm, fiber diameter of 14.57µ, and cell wall thickness of 2.50µ. Physical wood properties showed that mindi has 31% moisture content and 0.416 of basic specific gravity. Wood shrinkage from green to kilndry on longitudinal was 3.94 %, tangensial 5.74 %, and radial 2.60 %, with T/R ratio 2.38. Based on T/R ratio value, mindi wood is not recommended for wood construction due to its low dimensional stability. Furthermore, mindi wood also has high longitudinal wood shrinkage and low specific gravity indicating juvenility.

  10. Processing of Rosmarinus officinalis linne extract on spray and spouted bed dryers

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    C. R. F. Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an investigation of the potential of spray and spouted bed technology for the production of dried extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis Linné, popularly known as rosemary. The extractive solution was characterized by loss on drying, extractable matter and total phenolic and flavonoid compounds (chemical markers. The product was characterized by determination of loss on drying, size distribution, morphology, flow properties and thermal degradation and thermal behavior. The spray and spouted bed dryer performance were assessed through estimation of thermal efficiency, product accumulation and product recovery. The parameters studied were the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (80 and 150ºC and the feed mass flow rate of concentrated extract relative to the evaporation capacity of the dryer, Ws/Wmax (15 to 75%. The atomizing air flow rate was maintained at 20 l/min with a pressure of 196.1 kPa. The spouting gas flow rate used in the drying runs was 40% higher than the gas flow under the condition of minimum spouting. The spray drying gas flow rate was fixed at 0.0118 kg/s. Under the conditions studied, performance in the spray and spouted bed drying of rosemary extract was poor, causing high degradation of the marker compounds (mainly the phenolic compounds. Thus, process improvements are required before use on an industrial scale.

  11. MORPHO-MOLECULAR STUDIES IN THE NATURAL POPULATIONS OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA LINN. IN NIGERIA

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    Adeniyi Jayeola

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. is a unique wild yam able to thrive in a wide range of ecological zones. Mopho-molecular studies were carried out with a view to relating the observed morphological variation to its genetics. For morphometric study,30 representative herbarium vouchers  were studied while recently expanded leaf tissue samples of 34 accessions of five natural populations were submitted for genomic DNA using sixteen SSR markers. Bulbil size and shape, petiole length, leaf colour and shape varied among populations. A low level of genetic variability characterized the two geographically closest of the five populations (with P=15.15 and 6.06%,; H=0.0646 and 0.0251 while the other populations showed higher values (P varied from 66.6 and 84.85%; H varied from 0.1992 and 0.1992. That the highest value of genetic distance (0.1964 occurred between Iwo and Polytechnic populations was unexpected. The highest value (0.9869 of genetic identity occurred between the Polytechnic and Pebble Road populations as expected. Clustering typically occurred at lower distance scale reflecting the proximity of their genetic distances and therefore low divergence. Conclusively, the use of microsatellite markers allowed the identification of genetic variability among the natural populations of D. bulbifera.

  12. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  13. Antibiotic activity of the extract of Punica granatum Linn. over bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Maria A. R. Silva

    Full Text Available Human and veterinary medicines have not been so well succeeded in order to achieving their goals concerning the treatment of infections for long term caused by Staphylococcus aureus linked to resistance development against antibiotic agents. The antibiotic activity of the Punica granatum Linn. fresh fruit pericarp extract was evaluated by the agar diffusion method on 38 S. aureus strains, isolated from apparently healthy lactating cows in farms situated in counties of the semi-arid region of the State of Paraíba, Brazil to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Twenty-two of the thirty-eight strains are penicillin-resistant (PRSA. The extract of P. granatum presented potential antibiotic action over all the assayed strains, forming 10 to 36 mm diameter inhibition zones. This paper's results claim the effectiveness of the extract of P. granatum as a potential antibacterial agent on S. aureus, and display the significance of evaluating new substances with antimicrobial potential, which can contribute to alternative therapeutics for veterinary and medicine.

  14. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  15. Preparation of Activated Carbon From Polygonum orientale Linn. to Remove the Phenol in Aqueous Solutions.

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    Jia Feng

    Full Text Available Phenol components are major industry contaminants of aquatic environment. Among all practical methods for removing phenol substances from polluted water, activated carbon absorption is the most effective way. Here, we have produced low-cost activated carbon using Polygonum orientale Linn, a wide spreading species with large biomass. The phenol adsorption ability of this activated carbon was evaluated at different physico-chemical conditions. Average equilibrium time for adsorption was 120 min. The phenol adsorption ability of the P. orientale activated carbon was increased as the pH increases and reached to the max at pH 9.00. By contrast, the ionic strength had little effect on the phenol absorption. The optimum dose for phenol adsorption by the P. orientale activated carbon was 20.00 g/L. The dominant adsorption mechanism of the P. orientale activated carbon was chemisorption as its phenol adsorption kinetics matched with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In addition, the equilibrium data were fit to the Langmuir model, with the negative standard free energy and the positive enthalpy, suggesting that adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic.

  16. Antiherpes simplex virus type 2 activity of casuarinin from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hua-Yew; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Ta-Chen

    2002-09-01

    Casuarinin, a hydrolyzable tannin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn. (Combretaceae), was investigated for its antiviral activity on herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Results showed that the IC(50) of casuarinin in XTT and plaque reduction assays were 3.6+/-0.9 and 1.5+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic concentration for cell growth (CC(50)) was 89+/-1 microM. Thus, the selectivity index (SI) (ratio of CC(50) to IC(50)) of casuarinin was 25 and 59 for XTT and plaque reduction assays, respectively. Casuarinin continued to exhibit antiviral activity even added 12 h after infection. During the attachment assay, casuarinin was shown to prevent the attachment of HSV-2 to cells. Furthermore, casuarinin also exhibited an activity in inhibiting the viral penetration. Interestingly, casuarinin was virucidal at a concentration of 25 microM, reducing viral titers up to 100,000-fold. This study concludes that casuarinin possesses anti-herpesvirus activity in inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and also disturbing the late event(s) of infection.

  17. Protective effect of Piper longum Linn. on monosodium glutamate induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mariyamma; Sujatha, K S; George, Sisilamma

    2009-03-01

    Protective effect of ethanol extract of Piper longum Linn. against monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced toxicity was studied. Rats, orally administered with MSG at a dose of 8 mg/g body weight for 20 consecutive days, showed an increase in liver weight and rate of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione (GSH) in serum, liver and kidney showed decreased concentration. Significant increase was noticed in activities of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST), levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and urea. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney showed central venous congestion, diffuse degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes in para cortical and midzonal areas of liver and diffuse cortical tubular degeneration of kidney. Oral administration of ethanol extract of P. longum fruits at 300 mg/kg body weight along with MSG significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxides in serum, liver and kidney, serum AST activity, serum levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol. Though, there was an increase in the level of GSH in tissues it was not significant. However, the treatment failed to reduce the levels of ALT and urea. Examination of tissue sections also exhibited normal histological architecture of both the organs. The present study revealed that administration of P. longum provided significant protection to liver and kidney from the oxidative stress of MSG, though the dose rate was not sufficient to provide a complete protection.

  18. Inhibitory mechanisms of glabridin on tyrosinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianmin; Yu, Xiaojing; Huang, Yufeng

    2016-11-01

    Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin in the human body. Overproduction of melanin could lead to a variety of skin disorders. Glabridin, an isoflavan, isolated from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, has exhibited several pharmacological activities, including excellent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase. In this paper, the inhibitory kinetics of glabridin on tyrosinase and their binding mechanisms were determined using spectroscopic, zebrafish model and molecular docking techniques. The results indicate that glabridin reversibly inhibits tyrosinase in a noncompetitive manner through a multiphase kinetic process with the IC50 of 0.43 μmol/L. It has been shown that glabridin had a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of tyrosinase mainly through a static quenching procedure, suggesting a stable glabridin-tyrosinase complex may be generated. The results of molecular docking suggest that glabridin did not directly bind to the active site of tyrosinase. Moreover, according to the results of zebrafish model system, glabridin shows no effects on melanin synthesis in zebrafish but presents toxicity to zebrafish embryo. The possible inhibitory mechanisms, which will help to design and search for tyrosinase inhibitors especially for glabridin analogues, were proposed.

  19. Semen characteristics and sperm morphology of Pistia stratiotes Linn. (Araceae) protected male albino rats (Wistar strain) exposed to sodium arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Davies, Olufunke; Ajani, O Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Sodium arsenite has been proven to be abundant in nature and released into the environment through human activities, including agricultural and industrial processes. The objective of our study was to investigate the sperm protective potential of Pistia stratiotes Linn. in arsenic-treated rats. The sperm protective potential of P. stratiotes Linn. (Araceae) was carried out in arsenic-exposed rats using 24 male albino rats (225 to 228 g) aged between 14 and 16 weeks old. They were grouped into 4 (A-D), each group containing 6 rats. Group A animals were orally treated with 100 mg/kg ethanol leaf extract of P. stratiotes Linn. daily for 14 days; group B (sodium arsenite at 2.5 mg/kg body weight; positive control); group C (P. stratiotes extract for 14 days and single dose of sodium arsenite on day 14; group D (0.1 mL propylene glycol; negative control/vehicle). Group B had a significantly lower (p0.05) for semen volume and the sperm count of rats across the groups. Total sperm abnormality was 10.44 and 14.27 % with the sodium arsenite treated group having the highest value when compared with groups A treated with P. stratiotes extract and D treated with propylene, although the differences were not significant (p>0.05). The study concluded that ethanol leaf extract of P. stratiotes has no negative effect on sperm motility, viability and morphology and also protected spermatozoa against arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity in Wistar strain albino rats. Therefore, it may play an important role in the protection of populations with chronic sodium arsenite exposure.

  20. Evaluation ofIn vitroAntiviral Activity ofDatura metelLinn. Against Rabies Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    The soxhlet and cold extracts of Datura metel Linn. were evaluated for in vitro antirabies activity. Soxhlet and cold extraction method were used to extract Datura (fruit and seed) extracts. In vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Based on the CC50 range, the in vitro antirabies activity of the extracts was screened by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and molecular method. The Datura (fruit and seed) extracts were not cytotoxic below 5 mg/ml (CC50). Titer of 10 -4 rabies virus challenge virus standard (RV CVS) (1 50% tissue culture infective dose [1 TCID50]) was obtained by RFFT method and the challenge dose of 10 TCID50 was used for antirabies assay. Datura fruit and seed (soxhlet and cold) extracts showed 50% inhibition of RV CVS at 2.5 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]), respectively. The tested extracts showed selectivity index (CC50/IC50) ranging from 2 to 4. The viral RNA was extracted and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed which also revealed a 2-fold reduction of viral load at 1.25 mg/ml of the Datura seed (soxhlet methanolic and cold aqueous) extracts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of in vitro antiviral activity of D. metel Linn. against rabies virus. Datura seed extracts have a potential in vitro antirabies activity and, in future, can be further screened for in vivo activity against rabies virus in murine model. In the present study, Datura metel . Linn showed and in-vitro anti rabies activity in Vero cell line which was determined by RFFIT method and PCR method.

  1. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematologica...

  2. Comparison of microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismanto, A. W.; Kusuma, H. S.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    The comparison of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and microwave hydrodistillation (MHD) in the extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn. was examined. Dry cajuput leaves were used in this study. The purpose of this study is also to determine optimal condition (microwave power). The relative electric consumption of SFME and MHD methods are both showing 0,1627 kWh/g and 0,3279 kWh/g. The results showed that solvent-free microwave extraction methods able to reduce energy consumption and can be regarded as a green technique for extraction of cajuput oil.

  3. Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction.

  4. KARAKTERISTIK DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIFUNGI SABUN PADAT TRANSPARAN DENGAN BAHAN AKTIF EKSTRAK DAUN BUAS-BUAS (Premna cordifolia, Linn)

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Fitriani

    2017-01-01

    Soap is a cleaning product made by a chemical reaction between the bases with fatty acids. one additional ingredient in the process of making soap is herbal ingredients such as leaves of buas-buas (Premna cordifolia, Linn). Leaves buas-buas contain substances flavonoid, saponins and essential oils that have antimicrobial activity. based on these compounds, the leaves of wild-wild has potential ly for use as an additional herbal ingredients for herbal soaps. The aims of this study are to make ...

  5. Crude extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora Linn leaves showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Tamires Rocha; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; de Moraes Ramos, Rhayanne Thaís; Bezerra, Isabelle Cristinne Ferraz; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; de Souza Neto, Manoel André; Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Aguiar Guerra, Andreza Conceição Véras; de Medeiros, Juliana Silva; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo

    2018-03-09

    This study showed phytochemical composition and evaluates the anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of crude extract (CE) and fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves. Polyphenols present in crude extract (CE), in aqueous fraction (AqF), and ethyl acetate (EAF) treated fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves were shown by chromatographic analysis in order to conduct a phytochemical characterization. Antibacterial activity was evaluated based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined using the agar dilution method. Doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of the CE and fractions were applied for conducting in vivo models (male Swiss mice, 8-10 weeks old). The peritonitis experimental model was induced by carrageenan following of Myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), Total glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1β and TNF-α levels by spectroscopic UV/VIS analysis. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated based on an abdominal writhing model and hot plate test. The results were statistically evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc test. The level of statistical significance was p < 0.05. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) detected varying concentrations of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and myricitrin in the CE and fractions obtained from E. uniflora Linn leaves (0.05-0.87%w/w, 0.20-0.32%w/w, and 1.71-6.56%w/w, respectively). In general, the CE had lower MIC values than the fractions, including the lowest MIC against the MRSA strain. The CE and AqF also significantly reduced leukocyte migration and MPO activity (p < 0.05). In addition, AqF significantly reduced IL-1β and TNF-α levels (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CE and fractions exhibited an antioxidant effect (p < 0.05) and peripheral analgesic activity (p < 0.05). The CE and fractions from the studied E. uniflora Linn leaves exhibited antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic

  6. The effect of ethanol extract of mangostene (Garcinia Mangostana Linn. peel on tongue cancer cells Supri's Clone-1 apoptosis, in vitro

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    Maria Aurora Titiana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis or programmed cell death serves to regulate physiological and pathological conditions. Garcinia mangostana Linn. is one of the medical herbs that is widely used to suppress human tongue cancer growth by inducing apoptosis. The research aimed to analyze the effect of ethanol extract of Garcinia mangostana Linn. on tongue cancer cells apoptosis Supri's Clone-1 (SP-C1. The type of the research was an experimental laboratory. Tongue cancer cells SP-C1 were treated by various ethanol extract concentrations (0, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 pg/ml of Garcinia mangostana Linn. to detect the apoptosis, which was done by acridine orange and ethidium bromide coloring tests. The number of tongue cancer cells SP-C1 2x104 cells/dish. Observation on cells apoptosis was observed by a fluorescent microscope with 40 x magnification. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and was followed by Post Hoc test (Tukey-test with 95% significance level. The result showed that tongue cancer cells SP-C1 apoptosis treated by various ethanol extracts of Garcinia mangostana Linn. increase significantly. The highest effect of apoptosis was detected at the 700 pg/ml concentration that has an effect on the percentage of tongue cancer cells apoptosis by 65%.

  7. Upper Pleistocene Gulo gulo (Linne, 1758) remains from the Srbsko Chlum-Komin Hyena den cave in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, with comparisons to contemporary wolverines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajus G. Diedrich; Jeffrey P. Copeland

    2010-01-01

    Wolverine bone material is described from the famous Upper Pleistocene cave Srbsko Chlum-Komin in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, along with an overview of recently known Czech sites. The Gulo gulo Linne material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens in Europe. As a result of non-systematic excavations, the taphonomy is partly unclear. Lower-...

  8. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Carica papaya Linn. seed essential oil against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X; Ma, Y; Yi, G; Wu, J; Zhou, L; Guo, H

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the incidence of clinical yeast infections has increased dramatically. Due to the extensive use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents, there has been a notable increase in drug resistance among infections yeast species. As one of the most popular natural antimicrobial agents, essential oils (EOs) have attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition and examine the antifungal activity of the EO extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya Linn. The papaya seed EO was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (99·36%). The filter paper disc diffusion method and broth dilution method were employed. The EO showed inhibitory effect against all the tested Candida strains including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropical with inhibition zone diameters in the range of 14·2-33·2 mm, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4·0-16·0 μg ml -1 and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) in the range of 16·0-64·0 μg ml -1 . Here, we found that the papaya seed EO has promising anticandida activity and identify C. papaya L. as a potential natural source of antifungal agents. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Carica papaya seeds were studied. The oil of papaya seeds could inhibit the growth of Candida spp. for the first report. Carica Papaya may be recognized as a possible new source of natural antifungal agents. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. leaves and their synergistic effects with antibiotics

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    Kumari Jyoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of the efforts for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by green chemistry route, here we report a facile bottom-up ‘green’ route for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaves extract of Urtica dioica (Linn.. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Zeta-sizer and Zeta-potential, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that AgNPs were in the size range of 20–30 nm and crystallized in face-centered-cubic structure. The antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial pathogens was demonstrated by synthesized nanoparticles. Further, synergistic effects of AgNPs with various antibiotics were evaluated against above mentioned bacterial pathogens. The results showed that AgNPs in combination with antibiotics have better antibacterial effect as compared with AgNPs alone and hence can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. The maximum effect, with a 17.8 fold increase in inhibition zone, was observed for amoxicillin with AgNPs against S. marcescens proving the synergistic role of AgNPs. Therefore, it may be used to augment the activities of antibiotics.

  10. Variasi Cendana (Santalum album Linn. Berdasarkan Morfologi Daun dan Bunga di Desa Petir, Rongkop, Gunungkidul

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    Ridla Arifriana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn. is one of the flora that are commonly used as rehabilitation species, known as a plant that can grow in a lack of nutrient soil, and has a high economic value of santalol oil. This plant is indigenous in East Nusa Tenggara but it has a natural regenaration in some areas of Gunungkidul Yogyakarta, including in Petir Village, Rongkop, Gunungkidul. Morphological variation of Sandalwood in this area was relatively high. This research aimed to describe and classify sandalwood variations that exist in the research site based on the morphological characters. The materials used in this study were (1 sandalwood as the target species (including generative and vegetative organs with purposive sampling and (2 Ximenia americana as the outgroup species. Data were analyzed using description and phylogeny analysis using maximum parsimony method with morphological markers. Morphological characters of Sandalwoods were varied in size and leave shapes, flowers perigonium, lobes shapes, appendices shapes, stem color, shapes and fruit size. There were two characters that have not been described in the previous sources in Indonesia, form of leaves (oblong and oval and orange color of perigonium. Phylogeny results showed that a small leaf sandalwood character was closer to the outgroup character. Diagnostic characters explicitly classified small leaf size and leaf size large. Size of small leaf was from 2.8 -7.7 cm to 1.1-2.2 cm and from 7.9-10 cm to 3.1-4 cm for large leaf. Leaf form and colour of flower variation was found in each group of leaf size.

  11. Acute, subacute toxicity and mutagenic effects of anacardic acids from cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Laura Nicoletti; Annoni, Raquel; Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Mauad, Thais

    2011-06-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (cashew) is a Brazilian plant that is usually consumed in natura and is used in folk medicine. Anacardic acids (AAs) in the cashew nut shell liquid are biologically active as gastroprotectors, inhibitors of the activity of various deleterious enzymes, antitumor agents and antioxidants. Yet, there are no reports of toxicity testing to guarantee their use in vivo models. We evaluated AAs biosafety by measuring the acute, subacute and mutagenic effects of AAs administration in BALB/c mice. In acute tests, BALB/c mice received a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg, whereas animals in subacute tests received 300, 600 and 1000 mg/kg for 30 days. Hematological, biochemical and histological analyses were performed in all animals. Mutagenicity was measured with the acute micronucleus test 24h after oral administration of 250 mg/kg AAs. Our results showed that the AAs acute minimum lethal dose in BALB/c mice is higher than 2000 mg/kg since this concentration did not produce any symptoms. In subacute tests, females which received the highest doses (600 or 1000 mg/kg) were more susceptible, which was seen by slightly decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels coupled with a moderate increase in urea. Anacardic acids did not produce any mutagenic effects. The data indicate that doses less than 300 mg/kg did not produce biochemical and hematological alterations in BALB/c mice. Additional studies must be conducted to investigate the pharmacological potential of this natural substance in order to ensure their safe use in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de Anacardium occidentale Linn. em amostras multiresistentes de Staphylococcus aureus

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    Jackeline G. da Silva

    Full Text Available Plantas medicinais com propriedades terapêuticas são de grande relevância em todo o mundo, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. A planta Anacardium occidentale Linn. é largamente usada na medicina tradicional na nossa região, como antidiarréico, para amigdalite, bronquites, artrites, e antiiflamatório. No presente estudo avaliou-se a ação antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcóolico da casca do caule do cajueiro frente a amostras de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes e sensíveis à meticilina, obtidas a partir de pacientes internados do Hospital Universitário/Universidade Federal da Paraíba. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em meio sólido para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima do extrato, e foi observada no total de 30 amostras, pela presença ou não do halo de inibição. Todas as amostras ensaiadas mostraram-se sensíveis à ação do extrato do cajueiro, com diâmetros dos halos de inibição variando de 10 a 20 mm, demonstrando grande eficácia do cajueiro. Assim, o uso desta planta na nossa região pode inferir uma alternativa terapêutica eficiente e de baixo custo, contra infecções bacterianas causadas por Staphylococcus aureus.

  13. Combination of aerobic exercise and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. increased nitric oxide in rats

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    Donna Adriani Kusumadewi Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension and myocardial infarction account for the high rate of mortality globally. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS Linn. is rich in antioxidants and previous studies have demonstrated its anti-hypertensive effects. Several studies show that regular physical activity is an important component to reduce cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic exercise and HS extract on nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 in rats.   Methods An experimental study was conducted on 36 male Wistar rats, aged 4 weeks and 60-70 g in weight. The interventions were aerobic exercises and HS at 400 mg/kg BW/day administered for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The rats were randomized into 12 groups: 3 control groups (C4, C8, C12, 3 aerobic exercise groups (A4, A8, A12, 3 HS groups (H4, H8, H12, and 3 combination groups [aerobic exercise and HS] (HA4, HA8, HA12. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and their abdominal aorta was collected for determination of nitric oxide and ET-1 concentrations. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data.   Results There was a significant difference in NO levels between all groups, with the 4-week aerobic exercise group (A4 showing the highest NO levels compared to the other eleven groups (p<0.05. In contrast, the ET-1 levels were not significantly different between all groups.   Conclusions This study demonstrated that the combination of HS supplementation and aerobic exercise increases NO in rats, and provided further evidence to the traditional use of the plant as an antioxidants agent.

  14. Chemopreventive properties and molecular mechanisms of the bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne is a traditional Chinese rose tea and has been effectively used in folk medicines for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions. H. sabdariffa aqueous extracts (HSE) were prepared from the dried flowers of H. sabdariffa L., which are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In this review, we discuss the chemopreventive properties and possible mechanisms of various H. sabdariffa extracts. It has been demonstrated that HSE, H. sabdariffa polyphenol-rich extracts (HPE), H. sabdariffa anthocyanins (HAs), and H. sabdariffa protocatechuic acid (PCA) exert many biologic effects. PCA and HAs protected against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl droperoxide (t-BHP) in rat primary hepatocytes. In rabbits fed cholesterol and human experimental studies, these studies imply HSE could be pursued as atherosclerosis chemopreventive agents as they inhibit LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, as well as smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. The extracts also offer hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemia. PCA has also been shown to inhibit the carcinogenic action of various chemicals in different tissues of the rat. HAs and HPE were demonstrated to cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in leukemia and gastric cancer. More recent studies investigated the protective effect of HSE and HPE in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy. From all these studies, it is clear that various H. sabdariffa extracts exhibit activities against atherosclerosis, liver disease, cancer, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. These results indicate that naturally occurring agents such as the bioactive compounds in H. sabdariffa could be developed as potent chemopreventive agents and natural healthy foods.

  15. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.

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    Tarandeep Kaur

    Full Text Available Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70-90%. Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3 whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(- scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements.

  16. Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn. Vill

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    Rani Neerja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content, and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ of Stellaria media (Linn. Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6 weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26 mg/g, 1.4 mg/g and 1.19 μg/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes.

  17. Phytochemical Characterization of Terminalia catappa Linn. Extracts and Their antifungal Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Analucia G.; Monteiro, Andrea de Souza; Moffa, Eduardo B.; dos Santos, Julliana R. A.; de Sousa, Eduardo M.; Pinto, Anna R. B.; Costa, Paola C. da Silva; Borges, Antonio C. R.; Torres, Luce M. B.; Barros Filho, Allan K. D.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Monteiro, Cristina de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn bark is used to treat dysentery by various populations in Southeast Asian countries, and its leaves have also been used in traditional medicine to treat hepatitis in India and the Philippines. Here, the antifungal actions of crude hydro-alcoholic extract (TcHE) and fractions from T. catappa leaves were assessed via the agar diffusion and microdilution tests on Candida reference strains and clinical isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Additionally, the potential cytotoxic effects of TcHE were assessed on cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). T. catappa fractions and sub-fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact (GC/MS/EI), high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry “electrospray” ionization in positive mode (HPLC/MS/MS/ESI+) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR). TcHE and its fractions were able to inhibit the growth of all tested Candida strains with the n-butanol (FBuOH) fraction presenting the best antifungal activity. Testing of different FBuOH sub-fractions (SF) showed that SF10 was the most active against Candida spp. Fractioning of SF10 demonstrated that 5 out of its 15 sub-fractions were active against Candida spp., with SF10.5 presenting the highest activity. Chemical analysis of SF10 detected hydrolysable tannins (punicalin, punicalagin), gallic acid and flavonoid C-glycosides. Overall, the results showed that T. catappa L. leaf extract, fractions and sub-fractions were antifungal against Candida spp. and may be useful to treat diseases caused by this fungus. PMID:28443078

  18. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn.: A review of its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

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    Alhassan Muhammad Alhassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. is principally cultivated for medicinal purposes in many tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Literature survey about this plant shows that A. bilimbi is mainly used as a folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and as an antimicrobial agent. The prime objective of this review is to accumulate and organize literature based on traditional claims and correlate those with current findings on the use of A. bilimbi in the management of different ailments. Through interpreting already published scientific manuscripts (1995 through 2015 retrieved from the different scientific search engines, namely Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct databases, published articles and reports covering traditional and scientific literature related to A. bilimbi's potential role against various ailments have been thoroughly evaluated, interpreted, and discussed. Several pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to act as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, thrombolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic agent. A. bilimbi holds great value in the complementary and alternative medicine as evidenced by the substantial amount of research on it. Therefore, we aimed to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of A. bilimbi that covers its traditional and folk medicine uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Hence, this paper presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the ethnomedicinal uses, different chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi. So far, the biologically active agents have not been isolated from this plant and this can be a good scientific study for the future antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial implications. Hence, this review targets at emphasizing the diverse traditional claims and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi with respect to carrying out more scientific studies to isolate

  19. Phytochemical Characterization of Terminalia catappa Linn. Extracts and Their antifungal Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Analucia G; Monteiro, Andrea de Souza; Moffa, Eduardo B; Dos Santos, Julliana R A; de Sousa, Eduardo M; Pinto, Anna R B; Costa, Paola C da Silva; Borges, Antonio C R; Torres, Luce M B; Barros Filho, Allan K D; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Monteiro, Cristina de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn bark is used to treat dysentery by various populations in Southeast Asian countries, and its leaves have also been used in traditional medicine to treat hepatitis in India and the Philippines. Here, the antifungal actions of crude hydro-alcoholic extract (TcHE) and fractions from T. catappa leaves were assessed via the agar diffusion and microdilution tests on Candida reference strains and clinical isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Additionally, the potential cytotoxic effects of TcHE were assessed on cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). T. catappa fractions and sub-fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact (GC/MS/EI), high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry "electrospray" ionization in positive mode (HPLC/MS/MS/ESI + ) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 HNMR). TcHE and its fractions were able to inhibit the growth of all tested Candida strains with the n -butanol (FBuOH) fraction presenting the best antifungal activity. Testing of different FBuOH sub-fractions (SF) showed that SF10 was the most active against Candida spp. Fractioning of SF10 demonstrated that 5 out of its 15 sub-fractions were active against Candida spp., with SF10.5 presenting the highest activity. Chemical analysis of SF10 detected hydrolysable tannins (punicalin, punicalagin), gallic acid and flavonoid C-glycosides. Overall, the results showed that T. catappa L. leaf extract, fractions and sub-fractions were antifungal against Candida spp. and may be useful to treat diseases caused by this fungus.

  20. Cissampelos pareira Linn: Natural Source of Potent Antiviral Activity against All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ruchi; Raut, Rajendra; Tyagi, Poornima; Pareek, Pawan Kumar; Barman, Tarani Kanta; Singhal, Smita; Shirumalla, Raj Kumar; Kanoje, Vijay; Subbarayan, Ramesh; Rajerethinam, Ravisankar; Sharma, Navin; Kanaujia, Anil; Shukla, Gyanesh; Gupta, Y K; Katiyar, Chandra K; Bhatnagar, Pradip K; Upadhyay, Dilip J; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Khanna, Navin

    2015-12-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a significant global public health risk. In tropical countries such as India where periodic dengue outbreaks can be correlated to the high prevalence of the mosquito vector, circulation of all four dengue viruses (DENVs) and the high population density, a drug for dengue is being increasingly recognized as an unmet public health need. Using the knowledge of traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, we developed a systematic bioassay-guided screening approach to explore the indigenous herbal bio-resource to identify plants with pan-DENV inhibitory activity. Our results show that the alcoholic extract of Cissampelos pariera Linn (Cipa extract) was a potent inhibitor of all four DENVs in cell-based assays, assessed in terms of viral NS1 antigen secretion using ELISA, as well as viral replication, based on plaque assays. Virus yield reduction assays showed that Cipa extract could decrease viral titers by an order of magnitude. The extract conferred statistically significant protection against DENV infection using the AG129 mouse model. A preliminary evaluation of the clinical relevance of Cipa extract showed that it had no adverse effects on platelet counts and RBC viability. In addition to inherent antipyretic activity in Wistar rats, it possessed the ability to down-regulate the production of TNF-α, a cytokine implicated in severe dengue disease. Importantly, it showed no evidence of toxicity in Wistar rats, when administered at doses as high as 2g/Kg body weight for up to 1 week. Our findings above, taken in the context of the human safety of Cipa, based on its use in Indian traditional medicine, warrant further work to explore Cipa as a source for the development of an inexpensive herbal formulation for dengue therapy. This may be of practical relevance to a dengue-endemic resource-poor country such as India.

  1. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Bauhinia variegata Linn. against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Pandey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of hydromethanolic extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. (B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower to justify the traditional claim endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana in Ayurveda. This study thus can be further utilized to formulate the natural antioxidant which can be used as a dietary supplement to fight against several diseases such as cancer, ageing, arthrosclerosis, etc. Methods: The study showed that the number of different phytoconstituents present in the plant which makes it remarkable for its use by traditional practitioners. On the another set of experiment, the hydromethanolic extract of B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower were evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative by using disk diffusion assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of all extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponin, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and organic acids. The antibacterial activity of all the extracts (leaf, stem bark and flower of B. variegata was determined by agar well diffusion method at four different concentrations i.e., 1 000 mg/mL, 750 mg/mL, 500 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL using Gram-positive Bacillus subtilius, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Shegilla flexineria, Pseudomonas auriginosa bacteria. Conclusions: These studies show that hydromethanolic extracts of B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower inhibited the growth of microorganism ’s in dose dependently. B. variegata leaf, stem bark and flower extracts have several phytochemical constituents who possess the antimicrobial activity. A tiny amount of data is presented, as the preliminary antimicrobial properties of the B. variegata here accessed, under the urgent necessity of new antibiotics in the market and in face of the increased resistance of infectious microorganisms to antimicrobials.

  2. Experimental and Clinical Evaluation of Nootropic Activity of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Dhawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi is an annual creeper belonging to familyScrophulariaceae and growing all over the Indian sub-continent in marshy areas. It is a major Medhya Rasayana used in Ayurveda for treatment of memory disorders. Large number of saponins and glycosides has been isolated from the plant. Most of the experimental and clinical studies have been done with crude extracts or standardized preparation of the two active saponins Bacosides A and B.Extracts or saponin mixture facilitate learning, improve consolidation of learned behavior and delay extinction in several models of learnt behavior in normal rats and mice as well as in chemically induced or transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease. They also prevent or reverse amnesia produced by drugs, stress or ischemic hypoxia. Other CNS effects include anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant and analgesic activity. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the mechanism of these CNS effects.Extracts as well as the bacoside preparation have been found safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers in single dose or chronic administration for several weeks in a number of double blind placebo controlled studies in India and abroad. Chronic administration significantly improved information processing, learning and memory consolidation. It was found more effective than caffeine in a comparative study.Double blind placebo controlled studies with bacoside preparation have demonstrated beneficial effects and safety in elderly patients with Age Related Memory Impairment and in children with Attention Deficit Memory Disorder. It has also been found useful in anxiety neurosis, epilepsy and sleep disturbances in post menopausal women.The standardized preparation is marketed as a prescription drug after having obtained the necessary regulatory approval in India, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa and as an OTC product in several other south east Asian and African countries.Bacopa monniera Linn

  3. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC 50 of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants

  4. Cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of the Origanum majorana Linn. oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Ferraz, Vanny; Picoli, Tony; Cleff, Marlete Brum; de Faria, Renata Osório; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram), its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17) from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1) were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3) and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The MIC 50 and MIC 90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2μg/mL and 8μg/mL, respectively, and the MFC 50 and MFC 90 were 2μg/mL and >16μg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1μg/mL and MFC of 8μg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18mg/mL. The MIC 50 and MIC 90 were ≤2.25mg/mL and 4.5mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC 50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID) and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT) assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days.

  6. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Fractions of Leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanwase, Anil Subhash; Alagawadi, Kallanagouda Ramappa

    2016-01-01

    Ficus benghalensis is a folk medicine indigenous plant of India. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological profile of the plant. This study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of F. benghalensis leaf extract using various in vitro screening methods of both parameters. Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and it's four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) of leaves of F. benghalensis investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using 1-1-diphneyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. A dose-response curve was plotted and IC50 values were determined to assess antioxidant activity. Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and candidacidal assay were carried out to assess the immunomodulatory activity. Positive non-lymphoid cell number, mean particle number of killed C. albicans, percent value of killed C. albicans by neutrophils were calculated and presented. All extracts showed antioxidant and prominent immunomodulatory activity with compared to standard. Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and its four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) showed promising antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. Hydroalcoholic extract and its fractions of F. benghalensis Linn exhibited different DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity in concentration dependent manner.The extract, fractions and reference antioxidants showed DPPH scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB2 > FB1 > FB5 > FB4> FB3 and ABTS scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB1> FB2 > FB5 > FB3> FB4.FB2 and FB3 showed promising immunomodulatory activity at all concentrations.

  7. Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) whole-plant aqueous extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, John A O; Adewole, Stephen O; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2006-01-01

    Various morphological parts (roots, stems, leaves and fruits) of Momordica charantia Linn (family: Cucurbitaceae) are used traditionally in African folk medicine to manage, control and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the folkloric, anecdotal and ethnomedical uses of M charantia, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of M charantia whole-plant aqueous extract (MCE) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycaemic effect of the plant extract was examined in normal and diabetic rats, using streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetes mellitus models. Normotensive (normal), and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to probe the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract. Chlorpropamide was used as reference hypoglycaemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of the plant extract caused dose-related, significant hypoglycaemia in normal (normoglycaemic) and STZ-treated, diabetic rats. Furthermore, acute intravenous administrations of MCE produced dose-dependent, significant reductions in systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rates of normal, and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Although the exact hypoglycaemic and hypotensive mechanisms of action of the plant extract remain speculative at the moment, it is unlikely that the herb causes hypotension in the mammalian experimental animal model used via cholinergic mechanisms, since its cardiovascular effects are resistant to atropine pretreatment. However, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses hypoglycaemic and hypotensive properties, and therefore, lend pharmacological credence to folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management and/or control of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in some rural African communities.

  8. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  9. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf solid phase extraction fraction and its anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Li Teng; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abas, Faridah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-02-24

    The aims of this study were to examine the bioactive component(s) responsible for the anticoagulant activity of M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract via bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the effect of bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. The active anticoagulant fraction of F3 was subjected to a series of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the effect of the bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway was studied through immediate and time incubation mixing studies. Through Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assay-guided fractionation, Subfraction B was considered the most potent anticoagulant fraction. Characterisation of Subfraction B indicated that anticoagulant activity could partly be due to the presence of cinnamic acid and a cinnamic acid derivative. APTT assays for both the immediate and time incubation mixing were corrected back into normal clotting time range (35.4-56.3 s). In conclusion, cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivative from Subfraction B were the first such compounds to be discovered from M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract that possess anticoagulant activity. This active anticoagulant Subfraction B prolonged blood clotting time by causing factor(s) deficiency in the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway.

  10. Radioprotective activity of Mentha piperita (Linn) against radiation induced alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, R.M.; Goyal, P.K.; Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Mentha piperita (Linn.) (RUBL 19443) against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Mentha extract (ME) (1 gm/kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (10 Gy) without ME pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 10 days post-irradiation. Conversely, animals pre-treated with ME showed 58 percent survival until 30 days after exposure. A significant decline in hematological constituents was evident until day 5, at later period of observation (day 5 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in ME pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. The results from the present study suggest that Mentha piperita (Linn.) has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral blood of mice against lethal dose of gamma radiation. (author)

  11. ANTIPLAQUE AND ANTIGINGIVITIS EFFECTS OF A GEL CONTAINING PUNICA GRANATUM LINN EXTRACT. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Alexandre Daher Yunes; Maia, Juliana Lemos; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract were evaluated using a 21-day partial-mouth experimental model of gingivitis. Methods: 23 volunteers participated in this cross-over, doubleblind study, carried out in 2 phases of 21 days each. For each period of the experiment, an acrylic toothshield was made for each volunteer to carry the test or placebo gel as well as to avoid brushing of the 4 experimental teeth (posterior teeth in the lower left quadrant). The subjects were randomly assigned to use either the placebo gel (control group) or the test gel (experimental group) and were instructed to brush the remaining teeth normally 3 times a day. On days 0 and 21, the visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded. Results: The results did not show statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups for either of the indices (VPI and GBI). Conclusion: The gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract was not efficient in preventing supragingival dental plaque formation and gingivitis. PMID:19089066

  12. Volatiles profiling in medicinal licorice roots using steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2012-11-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) is a plant of considerable commercial importance in traditional medicine and for the flavor and sweets industry. Although Glycyrrhiza species are very competitive targets for phytochemical studies, very little is known about the volatiles composition within that genus, although such knowledge can be suspected to be relevant for understanding the olfactory and taste properties. To provide insight into Glycyrrhiza species aroma composition and for its use in food and pharmaceutical industry, volatile constituents from G. glabra, G. inflata, and G. echinata roots were profiled using steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction. Two phenols, thymol and carvacrol, were found exclusively in essential oil and headspace samples of G. glabra, and with highest amounts for samples that originated from Egypt. In G. echinata oil, (2E, 4E)-decadienal (21%) and β-caryophyllene oxide (24%) were found as main constituents, whereas 1α, 10α-epoxyamorpha-4-ene (13%) and β-dihydroionone (8%) predominated G. inflata. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses clearly separated G. echinata and G. inflata from G. glabra; with phenolics and aliphatic aldehydes contributing mostly for species segregation. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) has large economic, nutritional, and medicinal values. The data presented in this article help in licorice quality control analysis to identify G. glabra from its closely allied species. The presence of thymol and carvacrol exclusively in G. glabra suggests that these volatiles could serve as chemotaxonomic markers and also might be considered as potentially relevant for taste. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raçadefinida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (AST. Research on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de VigilânciaSanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainlytannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form.However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  14. Optimization of Astilbin Extraction from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra, and Evaluation of Its Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Probable Underlying Mechanism in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Li Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Astilbin, a dihydroflavonol derivative found in many food and medicine plants, exhibited multiple pharmacological functions. In the present study, the ethanol extraction of astilbin from the rhizome of smilax glabra Roxb was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM using Box-Behnken design. Results indicated that the obtained experimental data was well fitted to a second-order polynomial equation by using multiple regression analysis, and the optimal extraction conditions were identified as an extraction time of 40 min, ethanol concentration of 60%, temperature of 73.63 °C, and liquid-solid ratio of 29.89 mL/g for the highest predicted yield of astilbin (15.05 mg/g, which was confirmed through validation experiments. In addition, the anti-inflammatory efficiency of astilbin was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results showed that astilbin, at non-cytotoxicity concentrations, significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, as well as the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and TNF-α in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, but did not affect interleukin-6 (IL-6 release or its mRNA expression. These effects may be related to its up-regulation of the phosphorylation of p65, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK.

  15. Prenylated isoflavonoids from soya and licorice : analysis, induction and in vitro estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.

    2011-01-01


    Prenylatedisoflavonoids are found in large amountsin soya bean (Glycine max) germinated under stress and in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Prenylation of isoflavonoids has been associated with modification of theirestrogenic activity.
    The aims of this thesis were (1) to provide a

  16. Hair Growth Promotant Activity of Petroleum Ether Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on hair growth in female Wistar rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were used for the hair growth promotion studies. They were divided into three groups(n = 6) and their dorsal skin was completely denuded to completely remove hair. Paraffin oil (control), 2 ...

  17. Haemostatic effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper® seen during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Turkey, Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) has been approved for the management of external haemorrhages and bleedings occurring during dental surgeries (Goker et al., 2008). Ankaferd comprises a standardized mixture of plants, including Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and ...

  18. Assessment of antibacterial activity of three plants used in Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Justicia adhatoda, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Hyssopus officinalis extracts were studied against selected bacteria by using agar well diffusion assay. Methanol, ethanol, chloroform, diethyl-ether and aqueous extracts were tested in crude form for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtillus, ...

  19. Biochemistry and Chemotherapy of Malaria and Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-06

    Agents and Chemotherapy. 12:1763-68. (13) Focke M. Feld A. Lichtenthaler K. 1989. Allicin, a Naturally Occurring Antibiotic from Garlic , Specifically...ethanol plant extracts including; nutmeg (Myristicaceae sp.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), goldenseal root (Hydrastis canadensis), garlic (Allium...sativum), elephant garlic (Allium scorodoprasum), onion (Allium cepa), and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Cells of Leish- mania mexicana 227 and

  20. Comparative anti-inflammatory properties of Capsaicin and ethyl-aAcetate extract of Capsicum frutescens linn [Solanaceae] in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolayemi, A T; Ojewole, J A O

    2013-06-01

    The analgesic effect of capsaicin (the active ingredient in Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae]) had been reported in several studies. Current research is being directed at producing analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents with better side effect profile. To investigate if either the ethyl acetate extract of Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae] (CFE) or capsaicin (Fluka Biotechnika-CPF) (in addition to the known analgesic properties) has any anti-inflammatory effect comparable to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDS). The effects of ethyl acetate extract of Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae] (CFE) and capsaicin (Fluka Biotechnika-CPF) was examined on rat hind paw. Inflammation was induced in the rat's hind paw by subplantar injections of fresh egg albumin (0.5 ml/kg). Diclofenac (100 mg/kg) was used as the reference anti-inflammatory agent for comparison, while distilled water was used as the placebo. The leucocytes count, corticosterone and C - reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured as biomarkers of inflammation. Data obtained were pooled and analysed using repeated ANOVA, in a general linear model with the CPSS software. Sub-plantar injections of fresh egg albumin (0.5 ml/kg) produced profound and time-related oedema in the rat hind paw of the 'control' rats. Diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) and reference capsaicin (CPF, 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited paw swelling at (p<0.05-0.001) (CI 95%) compared to distilled water-treated 'controls'. While the corticosterone levels were all very low in 7 rats treated with capsaicin, the leucocytes count was within normal range in 9 rats. However, in 16 specimens randomly assigned for CRP levels, there were very high CRP readings, up to a magnitude of 10 times the normal range. Capsaicin in both forms (CFE and CPF) produced anti-inflammatory effects that were comparable to diclofenac in the experimental rat model at p<0.05. It may be concluded that capsaicin has both analgesic and anti

  1. Atividade antioxidante da polpa, casca e sementes do noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn

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    Adriana Barbosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Na busca pela identificação de novas fontes de antioxidantes naturais e de esclarecer lacunas acerca das reais propriedades benéficas atribuídas ao Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn, este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a caracterização química e avaliar a atividade antioxidante da polpa, casca e sementes do noni. Foram determinadas a composição centesimal (umidade, cinzas, proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios; os compostos bioativos (fenólicos totais, carotenoides totais e vitamina C e a atividade in vitro em extratos aquoso, etanólico e acetônico. Os resultados demonstraram que o Noni possui quantidades significativas de carboidratos (27,21%; 9,70% e 8,37% e de proteínas (2,64%; 2,23%; e 2,24% nas sementes, casca e polpa, respectivamente. A polpa apresentou maior teor de vitamina C (23,1 mg/100g e de carotenoides totais (3,90 mg/100g. No extrato acetônico da polpa, foram quantificados 109,81 mg/100g de fenólicos totais, seguidos pelos extratos acetônicos da casca (76,01 mg/100g, das sementes (28,75 mg/100g e do extrato etanólico da polpa (20,33 mg/100g. Todos os extratos avaliados apresentaram atividade antioxidante in vitro; os extratos acetônico e etanólico da casca e das sementes do Noni apresentaram maior atividade pelo método β-caroteno/ ácido linoleico, enquanto o extrato etanólico da polpa teve maior atividade antioxidante pelo ensaio DPPH e ABTS, e o extrato acetônico da polpa, pelo método ABTS. O noni é um fruto com significativo teor de compostos fenólicos totais que apresentam atividade antioxidante in vitro.

  2. Anxiolytic activity of aerial part hydroethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum Linn. (Liliaceae in mice

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    Abidemi J. Akindele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allium ascalonicum Linn. (Liliaceae is a mildly aromatic annual herb used to flavor food. Ethnobotanical survey revealed application of A. ascalonicum in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS disorders. Objective: To investigate the anxiolytic activity of aerial part hydroethanolic extract of A. ascalonicum. Methods: The hole-board, elevated plus maze, light/dark exploration, open field and social interaction tests were used in this study. Groups of mice were treated orally with distilled water (10 ml/kg, diazepam (1 mg/kg, and A. ascalonicum (50-400 mg/kg. Evaluations were done 1 h post-treatment and the duration of observation was mostly 5 min. In the hole-board test, mice were observed for number/duration of head dips and number of sectional crossings. In the elevated plus maze test, the time spent in the open/closed arms and the number of entries by mice were observed. In the light/dark exploration test, the latency of entry into the dark box, time spent in the light and dark compartments, number of rearing and assisted rearing were determined. In respect of the open field test, observations were made for the number of rearing, assisted rearing, and sectional crossings. In the social interaction test, pairs of mice were observed for number of interactions including sniffing, following, and partner grooming. Results: In the hole-board test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05, 0.01 increased the number/duration of head dips and number of sectional crossings. In the elevated plus maze test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05 increased the number of entries into the open arm with Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(11:448-459 Page 449 of 459corresponding reduction in number of entries into the closed arm. In the light/dark exploration test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05, 0.01 increased the latency of entry into the dark box, time spent in the light box, and number of rearing and assisted rearing. In

  3. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

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    Chaudhary Mueen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn., whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 μM. When tested on K+ (80 mM-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 μM, caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml. The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to

  4. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendar, B.; Bharavi, K.; Rao, G. S.; Kishore, P.V.S; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C.S.V Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week). In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage) and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage), respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results: In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular

  5. The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Asaduzzaman, Md; Morshed, Helal; Hossain, Md Monir; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Rahman, Md Rezowanur

    2013-07-30

    Experimental evidences have demonstrated that Nigella sativa Linn. seed (NS) has positive modulation effects on aged rats with memory impairments, prevents against hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and enhances consolidation of recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in rats. NS has neuroprotective, nephroprotective, lung protective, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective activities as established by previous studies on animals. Several clinical trials with NS on human have also demonstrated beneficial effect. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NS on memory, attention and cognition in healthy elderly volunteers. Furthermore, safety profile of NS was assessed during the nine-week study period. Forty elderly volunteers were recruited and divided randomly into group A and group B--each consisting of 20 volunteers. The treatment procedure for group A was 500 mg NS capsule twice daily for nine weeks and Group B received placebo instead of NS in the similar manner. All the volunteers were assessed for neuropsychological state and safety profile twice before treatment and after nine weeks. The neuropsychological tests were logical memory test, digit span test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, letter cancellation test, trail making test and stroop test. Safety profile was assessed by measuring biochemical markers of Cardiac (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase-MB); Liver (aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, bilirubin) and Kidney (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) through using commercial kits. There was significant difference (pmemory test-I and II, total score of digit span, 30 min delayed-recall, percent score in Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, time taken to complete letter cancellation test, time taken in trail making test-A and test

  6. Histologia e histoquímica do magno, um dos segmentos do oviduto de Numida meleagris (Linné (Numididae, Galliformes Histological and histochemical of the magnum, a segment of oviduct of Numida meleagris (Linné (Numididae, Galliformes

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    Maria das Graças Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Numida meleagris (Linné, 1758 is an african bird that was brought to Brazil. As the bird adapted to the climate of this new habitat and spread ali around the country, it is nowadays part of our avifauna. The present study continues topographic and morphofunctional researches on the female genital apparatus of this species, since it describes histological and histochemical aspects of magnum, a segment of oviduct. Magnum was dissected and processed according to routine and histochemical staining procedures to detect glycogen and mucous substances in the epithelial tissue and mucous glands. Besides focusing morphological aspects, the study compares the data obtained with those of other species aiming to contribute to the enlargement of the knowledge on reproductive biology of brazilian birds what may be important to make their biological control easier.

  7. Hypolipidemic effect of soluble fiber isolated from seeds of Cassia tora Linn. in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Il Jin; Lee, Chan; Ha, Tae Youl

    2007-02-21

    Soluble fibers isolated from the seeds of Cassia tora Linn. (SFC) have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to their phenomenal rheological behavior. In this study were investigated the effects of SFC on lipid metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of three experimental diets, a normal diet, a high-cholesterol diet, or a high-cholesterol diet with 5% SFC, for 5 weeks. The serum concentration of total cholesterol in rats fed SFC was 27% lower (p < 0.05) compared to that of the control group, but the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was increased in the SFC group. Liver total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in rats fed the SFC diet. In addition, fecal bile acid and lipid excretion was significantly increased by SFC consumption. These results indicate that SFC enhances fecal lipid excretion and may cause a reduction in serum and hepatic lipid concentrations in rats.

  8. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2015-10-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  9. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn Terhadap Kadar Malondialdehid dan Aktivitas Katalase Tikus yang Terpapar Karbon Tetraklorida

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    Zuraida ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pemberian rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn diharapkan melindung hepar tikus dari kerusakkan akibat stres oksidatif pada keracunan karbon tetraklorida (CCl 4. Senyawa yang sering dijadikan petunjuk adanya kerusakan tersebut adalah malondialdehid (MDA. Rosella mengandung vitamin C, flavonoid, polifenol dan beta karoten. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh pemberian ekstrak rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn terhadap MDA dan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan desain Post test Only Control Group Design. Sampel 24 ekor tikus Strain Wistar berumur 2-3 bulan, berat 150-200 gr. Sampel diambil secara acakdan dibagi 4 kelompok terdiri dari kelompok kontrol negatif, kontrol positif (CCl 4, perlakuan 1 (CCl 4 dan ekstrak rosella 250 mg/kg bb dan perlakuan 2 (CCl4  dan ekstrak rosella 500 mg/kg bb. Pemberian CCl 4secara oral dosis tunggal, setelah 24 jam kemudian diberi ekstrak rosella secara oral selama 14 hari. Data dianalisis dengan uji Anova, tingkatkepercayaan 95%.Pemberian ekstrak rosella secara statistik didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan rerata kadar MDA dan katalase antar kelompok (p < 0,05. Disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak rosella dapat menurunkan kadar MDA dan meningkatkan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Kata kunci: karbon tetraklorida, MDA, katalase, rosella Abstract Administering roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn is expected to protect rat liver from damage caused by oxidative stress in CCl4 poisoning. Rosella contains vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenol and beta carotene. Compounds which was often used as marker of the damage caused by free radicals wa MDA. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn on MDA and catalase activity of rats exposed to CCl4. Experimental research design with Post test Only Control Group Design. Samples of 24 male Wistar Strain rats were 2-3 months old. weighing 150-200 gr

  10. Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, I.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe. - Highlights: ► Elemental contents of three medicinal seeds have been analyzed using INAA. ► All three seeds contain K as major element with ample contents of Fe and Na. ► This baseline data that can be used in future research for medicinal preparations.

  11. Comparative potentials of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake and biomass of Sorghum bicolor Linn

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    Pattarawadee Sumthong Nakmee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Linn. seedlings were grown in pots using Pakchong soil from Nakhon Ratchasima province. Ten species of native Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Acaulospora longula, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora spinosa and Scutellospora sp., were used to inoculate sorghum seedlings. The sorghum growth and uptake of several major nutrients were evaluated at the harvesting stage. The results revealed that sorghum inoculated with A. scrobiculata produced the greatest biomass, grain dry weight and total nitrogen uptake in shoots. The highest phosphorus uptake in shoots was found in A. spinosa-inoculated plants, followed by Glomus sp. and A. scrobiculata, whereas Scutellospora sp.-inoculated plants showed the highest potassium uptake in shoots followed by A. scrobiculata. Overall, the most efficient AM fungi for improvement of nutrient uptake, biomass and grain dry weight in sorghum were A. scrobiculata.

  12. Sintesis Biodiesel dari Minyak Biji Ketapang (Terminalia Catappa Linn. yang berasal dari Tumbuhan di Kampus UI Depok

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    Wahyudi Priyono Suwarso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan sintesis Biodiesel dengan bahan dasar minyak biji Ketapang (Terminaliacatappa Linn., dengan tujuan utama adalah untuk menurunkan viskositas atau kekentalanminyak nabati. Biodiesel tersebut berupa metil ester asam lemak penyusun trigliserida minyakbiji ketapang, yang dibuat dengan mereaksikan minyak biji ketapang dengan larutan KOHalkoholisdan metanol, dengan perbandingan mol antara minyak biji ketapang : larutan KOHalkoholis: metanol = 1,0 : 0,21 : 12,0, pada suhu 65C dengan waktu reaksi 2 jam dan denganpengadukan menggunakan pengaduk magnit. Dari reaksi trans-esterifikasi tersebut, akandihasilkan metil ester asam lemak sebanyak 74,52% dihitung dari jumlah mol rata-rata (Mrminyak biji ketapang yang direaksikan. Hasil uji karakteristik terhadap biodiesel yang dihasilkanmenunjukkan, bahwa biodiesel dari minyak biji ketapang mendekati karakteristik minyak dieselno. 2-D, yang biasa digunakan pada mesin-mesin industri dan kendaraan berat.

  13. Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

    2015-03-01

    A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  14. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (Pmuricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.

  15. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2014-11-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  16. Aromatic Plants growing in Nigeria: Essential Oil Constituents of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb. and Helianthus annuus L.

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    Yusuff O. Kamil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents identified from the leaves of two Nigerian plants are being reported. The oil samples were obtained from the studied plant species by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and then subsequently analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The quantitatively significant constituents of the leaf oil of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb., (Fabaceae were 1, 8-cineole (39.8%, β-caryophyllene (19.1% and caryophyllene oxide (12.7%. Limonene (5.2%, germacrene D (5.5% and α-selinene (5.4% constituted the other significant compounds present in the oil. T he sunflower oil, Helianthus annuus L., (Asteraceae was rich in α-pinene (16.0%, germacrene D (14.4%, sabinene (9.4% and 14-hydroxy-α-muurolene (9.0%.

  17. Antithrombocytopenic activity of carpaine and alkaloidal extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in busulfan induced thrombocytopenic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunjar, Vishwanath; Dash, Ranjeet Prasad; Jivrajani, Mehul; Trivedi, Bhavna; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2016-04-02

    The decoction of Carica papaya Linn. leaves is used in folklore medicine in certain parts of Malaysia and Indonesia for the treatment of different types of thrombocytopenia associated with diseases and drugs. There are several scientific studies carried out on humans and animal models to confirm the efficacy of decoction of papaya leave for the treatment of disease induced and drug induced thrombocytopenia, however very little is known about the bio-active compounds responsible for the observed activity. The aim of present study was to identify the active phytochemical component of Carica papaya Linn. leaves decoction responsible for anti-thrombocytopenic activity in busulfan-induced thrombocytopenic rats. Antithrombocytopenic activity was assessed on busulfan induced thrombocytopenic Wistar rats. The antithrombocytopenic activity of different bio-guided fractions was evaluated by monitoring blood platelet count. Bioactive compound carpaine was isolated and purified by chromatographic methods and confirmed by spectroscopic methods (LC-MS and 1D/2D-1H/13C NMR) and the structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Quantification of carpaine was carried out by LC-MS/MS equipped with XTerra(®) MS C18 column and ESI-MS detector using 90:10 CH3CN:CH3COONH4 (6mM) under isocratic conditions and detected with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Two different phytochemical groups were isolated from decoction of Carica papaya leaves: phenolics, and alkaloids. Out of these, only alkaloid fraction showed good biological activity. Carpaine was isolated from the alkaloid fraction and exhibited potent activity in sustaining platelet counts upto 555.50±85.17×10(9)/L with no acute toxicity. This study scientifically validates the popular usage of decoction of Carica papaya leaves and it also proves that alkaloids particularly carpaine present in the leaves to be responsible for the antithrombocytopenic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  18. Antibacterial activity of fig leaf (Ficus carica Linn. extract against Enterococcus faecalis and its cytotoxicity effects on fibroblast cells

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    Intan Nirwana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the bacteria that commonly found in root canal and pulp infection after root canal treatment. Sodium hypochlorite is the most widely used root canal irrigation, but it has toxic properties if exposed to periradicular tissues. It is necessary to develop an alternative for root canal irrigation. Fig leaf (Ficus carica Linn. extract contains active substances such as flavonoid, tannin, and terpenoid which have been known for their antibacterial potency. Aim: This study aimed to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of fig leaf (F. carica Linn. extract against E. faecalis and its cytotoxicity on fibroblast cells in vitro. Materials and Methods: A serial dilution method was used to determine the MBC of fig leaf extract on E. faecalis which grown on nutrient agar media. Inoculation was carried out at concentrations that suspected minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, MBC, concentration between MIC and MBC, and control groups on different nutrient agar. MIC and MBC of fig leaf extract against E. faecalis were known by counting the growth of bacteria colonies on nutrient agar media in CFU/ml. The cytotoxicity of MIC and MBC of the extract acquired were tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the results were read using an ELISA reader. Data of E. faecalis colonies were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. Results: The result showed a significant difference among the groups (p<0.05. Fig leaf extract at a concentration of 50% showed no bacterial growth, and cell viability at this concentration was 77.7%. Conclusion: Fig leaf extract has antibacterial effect on E. faecalis with MBC at 50% and not cytotoxic to fibroblast cells.

  19. Clinical effect of a mouthwash containing Anacardium occidentale Linn. on plaque and gingivitis control: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra; Cavalcante, Dhiogo Gonçalves; Filho, José Eduardo Girão; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; da Silva Pereira, Sérgio Luís

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-associated gingivitis is a prevalent disease and research in its treatment using herbal agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range or chemotherapeutic treatment options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing 10% Anacardium occidentale (AO) Linn., a typical plant commonly found in the Northeast Region of Brazil, on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in comparison to a gold-standard chemotherapeutic agent. Thirty normosystemic adult volunteers of both genders, who had a minimum of twenty natural teeth, aging between 18 and 32 years, were enrolled in this crossover, controlled, examiner-blind clinical study. They were randomly allocated into three groups: 10% AO Linn. (n = 10); 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX, n = 10); or placebo (PB, n = 10). All volunteers were instructed to brush their teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice two times a day (12/12 h) and to rinse for 1 min with one of the mouthwashes (AO, CLX, or PB) 30 min after tooth brushing for 1 month. Plaque index (PLI) and gingival bleeding index (BLI) were recorded on days 0 and 30. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05) were performed to evaluate statistical differences among groups. There was a significant reduction (P gingivitis at day 30 just in CLX ([PLI = 0.47 ± 0.16; -30%]; [BLI = 0.15 ± 0.09; -55.8%]) and AO ([PLI = 0.49 ± 0.21; -31%]; [BLI = 0.13 ± 0.10; -56.6%]) groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (P > 0.05). Mouthwash containing 10% AO was effective as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent, in a similar manner that 0.12% CLX.

  20. Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium

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    Siti Nurhadis Che Omar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs. In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8 was determined.

  1. Protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens Linn. leaves on indomethacin and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats

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    Tarique, Mohd.; Siddiqui, Hefazat H.; Khushtar, Mohd.; Rahman, Md. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    Background: The search for an ideal and new antiulcer drug has been extended to herbals for novel molecules that decrease the incidence of relapse and afford better protection. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens (RGE) Linn. leaves on indomethacin (IND) and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats. Materials and methods: The rats of all the six groups were deprived of food for 24 h. The...

  2. Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Shin-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chin; Owaga, Eddy E.; Tsai, I-Jong; Wang, Pei-Yuan; Tsai, Jeng-I; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Hsieh, Rong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by multiple factors including hepatic oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Obesity is among the risk factors for NAFLD alongside type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. ?- mangostin (?-MG) extracts from the pericarps of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) may regulate high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate...

  3. An Investigation of Insect Ovipositing Repellent Activity of Andrographis paniculata Ness, Acacia auriculiformis and Piper betle Linn Leaves Extracts to Batrocera carambolae

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    Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf  having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.

  4. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

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    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  5. Wound healing effect of Euphorbia hirta linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhin, Riazul Haque; Begum, Mst Marium; Rahman, Md Sohanur; Karim, Rubaba; Begum, Taslima; Ahmed, Siraj Uddin; Mostofa, Ronia; Hossain, Amir; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Begum, Rayhana

    2017-08-24

    Euphorbia hirta linn., is a species of Euphorbiaceae family. They are known as asthma plant, barokhervi. The plant E. hirta is famous for its medicinal importance among the tribal population. It is a common practice to use the whole to heal wounds. Several pharmacological properties including antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antidibetic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticonvulsant, nootropic, antifertility and aphrodisiac properties have already been reported for this plant. The aim of present work was to evaluate the wound healing property in diabetic animals by oral and topical administration of ethanolic extract of E. hirta whole plant. The ethanolic extract of E. hirta was subjected to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using galic acid and quercetin, respectively as standard. A single injection of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) prepared in normal saline was administered to produce diabetes in rats, after overnight fasting. For analyzing the rate of contraction of wound, excision wounds sized 4.90cm 2 and of 2 mm depth were used. Oral (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day; p.o.) and topical treatment with the extract (5% and 10% ointment 50 mg/kg/day) and standard (5% povidone iodine ointment 50 mg/kg/day) was started on the day of induction of wound and continued up to 16 days. The means of wound area measurement between groups at different time intervals were compared using ANOVA and Dunnet's test. The diabetic wound healing mechanism was studied by measuring the plasma level of glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in both control and treated groups. For the confirmation of activity, histopathology of the wounds tissues from excision wound model was performed. Phytochemical investigations showed the presence of various phytoconstituents (carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, tannins). In the ethanolic extract of E. hirta the total phenol content was 285

  6. Modulation of apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells) by a standardized herbal decoction of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus roots and Smilax glabra rhizomes with anti- hepatocarcinogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, Sameera R; Thabrew, Ira; Galhena, Prasanna B; Tennekoon, Kamani H

    2012-03-29

    A standardized poly-herbal decoction of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus roots and Smilax glabra rhizomes used traditionally in Sri Lanka for cancer therapy has been demonstrated previously, to have anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and up regulation of p53 and p21 activities are considered to be some of the possible mechanisms through which the above decoction may mediate its anti-hepatocarcinogenic action. The main aim of the present study was to determine whether apoptosis is also a major mechanism by which the decoction mediates its anti-hepatocarcinogenic action. Evaluation of apoptosis in HepG2 cells was carried out by (a) microscopic observations of cell morphology, (b) DNA fragmentation analysis, (c) activities of caspase 3 and 9, as well as by (d) analysis of the expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins associated with cell death. The results demonstrated that in HepG2 cells, the decoction can induce (a) DNA fragmentation and (b) characteristic morphological changes associated with apoptosis (nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies). The decoction could also, in a time and dose dependent manner, up regulate the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax and down regulate expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene (as evident from RT-PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry and western blotting). Further, the decoction significantly (p < .001) enhanced the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a time and dose dependent manner. Overall findings provide confirmatory evidence to demonstrate that the decoction may mediate its reported anti-hepatocarcinogenic effect, at least in part, through modulation of apoptosis.

  7. A GLABRA1 ortholog on LG A9 controls trichome number in the Japanese leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey): evidence from QTL analysis.

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    Kawakatsu, Yaichi; Nakayama, Hokuto; Kaminoyama, Kaori; Igarashi, Kaori; Yasugi, Masaki; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Nagano, Atsushi J; Yano, Kentaro; Kubo, Nakao; Kimura, Seisuke

    2017-05-01

    Brassica rapa show a wide range of morphological variations. In particular, the leaf morphologies of the Japanese traditional leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey) are distinctly different, even though they are closely related cultivars that are easy to cross. In addition to the differences in the gross morphology of leaves, some cultivars of Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki) have many trichomes on its leaves, whereas Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) does not. To identify the genes responsible for the different number of trichomes, we performed a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of Mizuna and Mibuna. To construct linkage maps for these cultivars, we used RNA-seq data to develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. We also performed a restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) analysis to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two QTL analyses were performed in different years, and both analyses indicated that the largest effect was found on LG A9. Expression analyses showed that a gene homologous to GLABRA1 (GL1), a transcription factor implicated in trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the sequences 3'-flanking (downstream) of BrGL1, differed considerably between Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) and Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki). These results indicate that BrGL1 on LG A9 is one of the candidate genes responsible for the difference in trichome number between Mizuna and Mibuna. Detecting genes that are responsible for morphological variations allows us to better understand the breeding history of Mizuna and Mibuna.

  8. SENYAWA KIMIA DAN ARAH WARNA KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan Linn DAN GAMBIR (Uncaria gambir PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI EKSTRAKSI UNTUK PEWARNAAN BATIK

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    Titiek Pujilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTumbuhan pembawa warna mengandung senyawa kimia yang berbeda beda baik jumlah maupun jenis senyawanya. Senyawa-senyawa dominan pembawa warna mempunyai ketahanan tertentu pada berbagai kondisi suhu . Suhu ekstraksi zat warna alam dari tumbuhan mempengaruhi arah warna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimia dan arah warna kayu secang dan gambir. Ekstraksi zat warna alam dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu pemanasan yaitu 50 oC, 75 oC, 100 oC dan perendaman dalam alkohol selama 7 (tujuh hari pada suhu kamar. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik pada kain katun dan sutera. Arah warna ditentukan melalui fiksasi menggunakan tawas, kapur dan tujung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh pada senyawa kimia zat warna alam kayu secang dan gambir.  Jumlah senyawa zat warna alam pada kayu secang semakin berkurang seiring dengan peningkatan suhu ekstraksi.  Pada gambir jumlah senyawa zat warna paling banyak diperoleh pada suhu ekstraksi 75 oC. Senyawa zat warna dominan pada kayu secang adalah cyclohexanone sedang pada gambir  adalah methyl 3,4 dideutero 3 nonenoate 3. Arah warna kayu secang merah sampai merah kecoklatan dan pada gambir warna kecoklatan sampai coklat tua.ABSTRACTColor bearing plant contains chemical compounds that vary both the number and types of compounds. Compounds dominant color carriers having different resistance at various temperature conditions. The temperature of the extraction of natural dyes from plants affects the direction of color. This study aims to determine the content of chemical compounds and direction color of Caesalpinia sappan Linn and Uncaria gambir. Extraction of natural dyes made at various heating temperature is 50 ° C, 75 ° C, 100 ° C and soaking in alcohol for seven (7 days at room temperature. Natural dyes obtained is applied to dye batik on cotton and silk. Directions color is determined by fixation using alum, lime and

  9. Normalização dos níveis séricos de ácido ascórbico por suplementação com suco de acerola (Malpighia glabra L. ou farmacológica em idosos institucionalizados Normalize the ascorbic acid serum levels the ascorbic acid of the for suplementation with acerola juice (Malpighia glabra L. and the pills, institutionalized elderly

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    Flávia Queiroga Aranha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo investigou o tempo necessário de suplementação com vitamina C, para a normalização dos níveis séricos em idosos com deficiência dessa vitamina e comparar o efeito da vitamina natural do suco de acerola (Malpighia glabra L. com o da vitamina na forma de fármaco. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 37 idosos institucionalizados do município de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil, divididos em 3 grupos: Grupo I - controle, Grupo II - suplementação com o suco de acerola e Grupo III - suplementação com fármaco. A metodologia empregada consistiu na dosagem sérica de ácido ascórbico e na verificação do consumo alimentar por inquérito dietético. Constatou-se um aumento significativo (pINTRODUCTION: Thirty-seven elderly citizens, deficient in vitamin C and institutionalized in the city of João Pessoa/Paraíba/Brazil, were studied with the objective of investigating the period of vitamin C supplementation necessary to normalize their blood serum levels. METHODS: The study also compared the efficiency of the natural vitamin, supplied in the form of West Indian cherry juice, (Malpighia glabra L. to that of the pharmaceutical product (tablets. The aged citizens were divided into 3 groups: Group I - control, Group II - supplemented with West Indian cherry juice, and Group III - supplemented with tablets. The methodology applied consisted of dosing the serum vitamin C levels and making a dietary enquiry to determine food consumption. RESULTS: A significant increase (p<0.05 in the mean serum ascorbic acid levels was shown after 10 (1.27±0.41mg/dL, 20 (1.69±0.45mg/dL and 30 (1.55±0.42mg/dL days of supplementation, as compared to the initial values (0.38±0.28mg/dL. On the 10th day of supplementation, those supplemented with West Indian cherry juice showed levels significantly higher (1.41±0.43mg/dL than those supplemented with tablets (1.03±0.25mg/dL. CONCLUSION: On the 20th day, the supplementation had satisfactorily

  10. Modulating effect of the piperine, the main alkaloid from Piper nigrum Linn., on murine B lymphocyte function

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    Aline Rodrigues Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Bernardo A.R., da Rocha J.D.B., de Lima M.E.F., Decote-Ricardo D., Pinto-da-Silva L.H., Peçanha L.M.T. & Danelli M. dasG.M. Modulating effect of the piperine, the main alkaloid from Piper nigrum Linn., on murine B lymphocyte function. [Efeito modulador da piperina, principal alcalóide da Piper nigrum Linn., sobre a função de linfócitos B murinos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:209-216, 2015. Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: danelli @ufrrj.br Piperine is the main alkaloid of black and long peppers and it is conventionally used as immune-enhancers in Indian system of traditional medicine. The main of this study was evaluated for the first time the effect of piperine on B cells functions in vitro and its effects on humoral immune response to T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Different concentrations of piperine (1 µM, 3 µM and 15 µM were assayed on B cells purified from BALB/c spleen cells and evaluated its effects on proliferation, IgM secretion and expression of CD86 on murine B cells. At 15 µM piperine was able to inhibit the proliferative response induced by LPS and α-IgM antibody and inhibited the secretion IgM antibody in vitro. Also, piperine at 3 µM and 15 µM reduced the CD86 expression on B cells stimulated with LPS and α-IgM antibody in vitro. However, piperine 2.5 and 4.5 mg/Kg did not modulated antibody production for T-independet (TNP-Ficoll in vivo.

  11. Anti-cancer effect of Annona Muricata Linn Leaves Crude Extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Najmuddin, Syed Umar Faruq; Romli, Muhammad Firdaus; Hamid, Muhajir; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan

    2016-08-24

    Annona muricata Linn which comes from Annonaceae family possesses many therapeutic benefits as reported in previous studies and to no surprise, it has been used in many cultures to treat various ailments including headaches, insomnia, and rheumatism to even treating cancer. However, Annona muricata Linn obtained from different cultivation area does not necessarily offer the same therapeutic effects towards breast cancer (in regards to its bioactive compound production). In this study, anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects of Annona muricata crude extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. A screening of nineteen samples of Annona muricata from different location was determined by MTT assay on breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and 4 T1) which revealed a varied potency (IC50) amongst them. Then, based on the IC50 profile from the anti-proliferative assay, further downward assays such as cell cycle analysis, Annexin V/FITC, AO/PI, migration, invasion, and wound healing assay were performed only with the most potent leaf aqueous extract (B1 AMCE) on 4 T1 breast cancer cell line to investigate its anti-cancer effect. Then, the in vivo anti-cancer study was conducted where mice were fed with extract after inducing the tumor. At the end of the experiment, histopathology of tumor section, tumor nitric oxide level, tumor malondialdehyde level, clonogenic assay, T cell immunophenotyping, and proteome profiler analysis were performed. Annona muricata crude extract samples exhibited different level of cytotoxicity toward breast cancer cell lines. The selected B1 AMCE reduced the tumor's size and weight, showed anti-metastatic features, and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo of the 4 T1 cells. Furthermore, it decreased the level of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in tumor while also increased the level of white blood cell, T-cell, and natural killer cell population. The results suggest that, B1 AMCE is a promising candidate for cancer

  12. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Petals Modulates Glycogen Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis Signalling Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Sneha S; Mini, S

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is becoming more and more serious and reaches epidemic proportions worldwide. Scientific research is constantly looking for new agents that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against diabetes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. petals on experimental diabetes at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight and it was compared with standard anti-diabetic drug metformin. The elevated levels of serum glucose (398.56 ± 35.78) and glycated haemoglobin (12.89 ± 1.89) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased (156.89 ± 14.45 and 6.12 ± 0.49, respectively) by Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals (EHRS) administration. Hepatotoxicity marker enzyme levels in serum were normalized. The fraction supplementation restored the glycogen content by regulating the activities of glycogen metabolizing enzymes. It significantly modulated the expressions of marker genes involved in glucose homeostasis signalling pathway. Histopathological analysis of liver and pancreas supported our findings. The overall effect was comparable with metformin. Hence, our study reveals the role of hibiscus petals for alleviation of diabetes complications, thus it can be propagated as a nutraceutical agent.

  13. Antioxidant Capacity Comparison of Ethanolic Extract of Soursop (Annona muricata Linn. Leaves and Seeds as Cancer Prevention Candidate

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    Dyah Ayu Widyastuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata Linn. (soursop is one of  tropical plants which have relatively complete chemical compounds. It has flavonoid, tannin, phytosterol, alkaloid, etc. The high antioxidant compound in soursop is believed as cancer prevention so the cancer threat in the world can be minimized. The antioxidant compound in soursop can be found not only in its fruit, but also in other parts like leaves, seeds, etc. Based on that potency, this study aimed to compare antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds, also to study about the utilization of soursop parts which is usually not used. This research began with maceration to extract leaves and seeds with 96% ethanol. Ethanolic extract of soursop leaves and seeds were then tested for antioxidant capacity with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The result showed that antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds are 85,66875% and 39,0166, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of leaves is higher than seeds due to seed’s extraction difficulty so its antioxidant compound could not be extracted optimally. However, either leaves or seeds extract in this study are potential as antioxidant resources because there are no significant differences between antioxidant capacity of both extract.

  14. Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S K; Upadhyay, Shikha; Tripathi, A K

    2009-08-01

    Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD(50) values of 48.88 and 80.77 microg/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of A. stephensi was much significantly reduced when exposed to vapors of thymol compared to the oil of T. ammi seeds, and similar effects were recorded for subsequent egg hatching and larval survival. Vapor toxicity assay showed LC(50) value of 79.5 mg/mat for thymol against adults of A. stephensi, whereas the crude oil exhibited the LC(50) value of 185.4 mg/mat. Thymol provided complete repellency toward A. stephensi adults at the dose of 25.0 mg/mat after 1 h duration, whereas same degree of repellency was obtained by the oil at the dose of 55.0 mg/mat, indicating its double-fold activity than the oil.

  15. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Edvane Borges da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu, E-mail: elba@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of {sup 60}Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  16. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the optimum extraction conditions for maximum recovery of the content of total phenolics (TPC) and total antioxidant abilities were analyzed for Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology. The effects of ethanol percentage (X1 ,%), ultrasonic power (X2 , W) and extraction temperature (X3 , °C) on the total phenolic content (Y1 ) and antioxidant ability (Y2 ) were evaluated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.9942, P antioxidant ability (R(2) = 0.9966, P extraction temperature of 51.1°C for TPC and 60.5%, 311.4 W, 51.6°C for antioxidant ability, the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. Results implied that the major phenolic compounds in obtained extracts as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-gal/glu, quercetin-3-xyl/ara, phloretin-2-xyloside, quercetin-3- rhamnoside, and phloridzin. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Development of dielectric barrier discharge for reducing microbial contamination in pepper (Piper nigrum) and sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promping, J.; Prakongsil, P.; Picha, R.; Traikool, T.

    2017-09-01

    This research is designed to determine the efficacy of DBD plasma to reduce the microbial contamination of pepper and sesame powder. The AC high voltage power supply was used with voltages of up to 20 kV and the frequency of 5.5 kHz was applied to the DBD. The gap of DBD electrodes was set at 5 mm. In raw initial samples, the total aerobic count of pepper (Piper nigrum) was found at quite a high level at 5.40 × 105 CFU/g. Coliform bacteria was also found in both the sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder and pepper (Piper nigrum) powder. Both kinds of samples were treated with plasma for 2, 4, 6 and 10 minutes. Results indicated that plasma treatment at 2-10 minutes reduced the total aerobic count of pepper allowed to achieve the acceptable microbial level for spices. The plasma treatment times in this experiment were also effective in reducing faecal coliform bacteria in both pepper and sesame powders (MPN/g <3) as indicated in the standard. Plasma from dielectric barrier charge can reduce Staphylococcus epidermidis in sesame powder which was artificially contaminated with 3.50 × 102 CFU/g resulting in 0.15-0.5 log cycle reductions of microbial load.

  18. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  19. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiah Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group at 0 (control, 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  20. Optimization of Concentration and EM4 Augmentation for Improving Bio-Gas Productivity from Jatropha curcas Linn Capsule Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praptiningsih G.A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most literature suggests that two-phase digestion is more efficient than single-phase. The series of two-phase digestion studies have been conducted from 2011 to 2013 at the research farm of PT Bumimas Ekapersada, West Java, Indonesia. This paper reports on a research on optimation of concentration and augmentation of EM-4 (effective microorganism-4, a local commercial decomposer, as efforts to stabilize a biogas technology which made ​​from husk capsules of Jatropha curcas Linn (DH-JcL. The studies of increasing organic loading rate (OLR for the two-phase digestion was conducted to improve efficiency.  The concentration variable studied was 1: 8 (1 part DH-JCL and 8 parts water, compared to 1: 12 as a control. The augmentation treatment is the addition of EM-4 by 5% (v/v. It was also examined the augmentation of F2-EM4 (150 times duplication of EM-4 due to cost consideration. The studies were conducted in the laboratory which using a liter and two liters of glass digester and glass wool as immobilized growth. The results of this study support the previous studies: the optimum concentration was 1: 8, EM-4 was able to increase biogas production in two-phase digestion, yet biogas production decrease at single-phase. F2-EM4’s ability to support production of biogas were equivalent to that of EM-4.