WorldWideScience

Sample records for glycol methacrylate pegma

  1. Surface characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters functionalized with acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate using gamma-radiation

    Islas, Luisa [Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Ruiz, Juan-Carlos [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Depto. de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Muñoz-Muñoz, Franklin [Facultad de Ingeniería, Arquitectura y Diseño, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Carretera Transpeninsular Ensenada-Tijuana 3917, Ensenada, B.C. C.P 22860 (Mexico); Isoshima, Takashi [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Burillo, Guillermina, E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx [Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Polymer grafting using gamma-radiation allowed for acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate to graft on the inner and outer surface of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters. • HR-XPS revealed the different compositional percentages of the compounds present on the surface of the catheter. • Catheters that were grafted with PEGMA had the roughest surface as observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser microscopy (CLM). - Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) urinary catheters were modified with either a single or binary graft of acrylic acid (AAc) and/or poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) using gamma-radiation from {sup 60}Co to obtain PVC-g-AAc, PVC-g-PEGMA, [PVC-g-AAc]-g-PEGMA, and [PVC-g-PEGMA]-g-AAc copolymers. The outer and inner surfaces of the modified catheters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy (CLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analyses, by examining the correlation between the variation of the C{sub 1s} and O{sub 1s} content at the catheter’s surface, revealed that the catheter’s surfaces were successfully grafted with the chosen compounds, with those that were binary grafted showing a slightly more covered surface as was evidenced by the disappearance of PVC’s Cl peak. The SEM and CLM analyses revealed that catheters that had been grafted with PEGMA had a rougher outer surface as compared to those that had only been grafted with AAc. In addition, these imaging techniques showed that the inner surface of the singly grafted catheters, whether they had been grafted with AAc or PEGMA, retained some smoothness at the analyzed grafting percentages, while the binary grafted catheters showed many protuberances and greater roughness on both outer and inner surfaces.

  2. Hydrophilic PCU scaffolds prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilizing gelatin to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation

    Shi, Changcan; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir; Li, Qian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: yakaifeng@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Chemical Engineering (Tianjin) Tianjin 300072 (China); Yao, Fanglian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Wencheng, E-mail: wenchengzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin contains many functional motifs which can modulate cell specific adhesion, so we modified polycarbonate urethane (PCU) scaffold surface by immobilization of gelatin. PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatins onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds. To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto PCU scaffolds by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Then, following amination and immobilization, PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were obtained. Both modified scaffolds were characterized by chemical and biological methods. After immobilization of gelatin, the microfiber surface became rough, but the original morphology of scaffolds was maintained successfully. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were more hydrophilic than PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds. Because hydrophilic PEGMA and gelatin were grafted and immobilized onto the surface, the PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds showed low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity and excellent cell growth and proliferation capacity. It could be envisioned that PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds might have potential applications in tissue engineering artificial scaffolds. - Graphical abstract: PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatin onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds (method a). To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, PEGMAs were grafted onto the scaffold surface by SI-ATRP. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by method b. The gelatin modified scaffolds exhibited high hydrophilicity, low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity, and excellent cell adhesion and proliferation capacity. They might have potential applications as tissue engineering scaffolds for artificial blood vessels. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic scaffolds were prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilization of gelatins. • Grafting PEGMA enhanced the immobilization amount of gelatin

  3. Improved surface hydrophilicity and antifouling property of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate grafted graphene oxide nanofillers

    Wang, Haidong; Lu, Xiaofei; Lu, Xinglin; Wang, Zhenghui; Ma, Jun; Wang, Panpan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanoplates were first synthesized by grafting hydrophilic poly (poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. A novel polysulfone (PSF) nanocomposite membrane using GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanoplates as nanofillers was fabricated. FTIR, TGA, 1H NMR, GPC and TEM were applied to verify the successful synthesis of the prepared nanoplates, while SEM, AFM, XPS, contact angle goniometry and filtration experiments were used to characterize the fabricated nanocomposite membranes. It was found that the new prepared nanofillers were well dispersed in organic PSF matrix, and the PSF/GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanocomposite membrane showed significant improvements in water flux and flux recovery rate. Based on the results of resistance-in-series model, the nanocomposite membrane exhibited superior resistance to the irreversible fouling. The excellent filtration and antifouling performance are attributed to the segregation of GO-g-P(PEMGA) nanofillers toward the membrane surface and the pore walls. Notably, the blended nanofillers appeared a stable retention in/on nanocomposite membrane after 30 days of washing time. The demonstrated method of synthesis GO-g-P(PEGMA) in this study can also be extended to preparation of other nanocomposite membrane in future.

  4. GLYCOL METHACRYLATE EMBEDDING OF ALGINATE-POLYLYSINE MICROENCAPSULATED PANCREATIC-ISLETS

    FRITSCHY, WM; GERRITS, PO; WOLTERS, GHJ; PASMA, A; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    A method for processing and embedding alginate-polylysine microencapsulated pancreatic tissue in glycol methacrylate resin (GMA) is described. Fixation in 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde, processing in ascending concentrations of glycol methacrylate monomer and embedding in Technovit 7100 results

  5. A Versatile Approach to Unimolecular Water-Soluble Carriers: ATRP of PEGMA with Hydrophobic Star-Shaped Polymeric Core Molecules as an Alternative for PEGylation

    Schramm, O.G.; Pavlov, G.M.; Erp, van H.H.P; Meier, M.A.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    New amphiphilic star-shaped architectures with dense hydrophilic shells were synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of e-caprolactone (CL) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of different poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylates (PEGMAs). The PCL hydrophobic cores

  6. Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Magnetite Nanoparticles with Statistical Poly(tert-butyl acrylate-poly(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate Copolymers

    Patcharin Kanhakeaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the surface modification of magnetite nanoparticle (MNP with poly[(t-butyl acrylate-stat-(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate] copolymers (P[(t-BA-stat-PEGMA] via a surface-initiated “grafting from” atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP. Loading molar ratio of t-BA to PEGMA was systematically varied (100 : 0, 75 : 25, 50 : 50, and 25 : 75, resp. such that the degree of hydrophilicity of the copolymers, affecting the particle dispersibility in water, can be fine-tuned. The reaction progress in each step of the synthesis was monitored via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The studies in the reaction kinetics indicated that PEGMA had higher reactivity than that of t-BA in the copolymerizations. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC indicated that the molecular weights of the copolymers increased with the increase of the monomer conversion. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that the particles were spherical with averaged size of 8.1 nm in diameter. Dispersibility of the particles in water was apparently improved when the copolymers were coated as compared to P(t-BA homopolymer coating. The percentages of MNP and the copolymer in the composites were determined via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and their magnetic properties were investigated via vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM.

  7. Surface modification of poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) elastomer via photo-initiated graft polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol)

    Li Xiaomeng [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Luan Shifang, E-mail: sfluan@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yang Huawei; Shi Hengchong; Zhao Jie; Jin Jing [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin Jinghua, E-mail: yinjh@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Stagnaro, Paola [Istituto per Io Studio delle Macromolecole, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via de Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) (SEBS) copolymer biomedical elastomer was covalently grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) via a photo-initiated graft polymerization technique. The surface graft polymerization of SEBS with PEGMA was verified by ATR-FTIR and XPS. Effect of graft polymerization parameters, i.e., monomer concentration, UV irradiation time and initiator concentration on the grafting density was investigated. Comparing with the virgin SEBS film, the PEGMA-modified SEBS film presented an enhanced wettability and a larger surface energy. Besides, the surface grafting of PEGMA imparted excellent anti-platelet adhesion and anti-protein adsorption to the SEBS surface.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Bulk Properties of Amphiphilic Copolymers Containing Fluorinated Methacrylates from Sequential Copper-Mediated Radical Polymerization

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Gerstenberg, Michael; Haddleton, David M.

    2008-01-01

    acrylate (MEA), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. A kinetic study of the 3FM homopolymerization initiated with ethyl bromoisobutyrate and Cu(I)Br/N-(n-propyl)-2-pyridylmethanimine reveals a living/ controlled polymerization in the range 80...

  9. CO2-Philic Thin Film Composite Membranes: Synthesis and Characterization of PAN-r-PEGMA Copolymer

    Madhavan Karunakaran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the successful fabrication of CO2-philic polymer composite membranes using a polyacrylonitrile-r-poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PAN-r-PEGMA copolymer. The series of PAN-r-PEGMA copolymers with various amounts of PEG content was synthesized by free radical polymerization in presence of AIBN initiator and the obtained copolymers were used for the fabrication of composite membranes. The synthesized copolymers show high molecular weights in the range of 44–56 kDa. We were able to fabricate thin film composite (TFC membranes by dip coating procedure using PAN-r-PEGMA copolymers and the porous PAN support membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM were applied to analyze the surface morphology of the composite membranes. The microscopy analysis reveals the formation of the defect free skin selective layer of PAN-r-PEGMA copolymer over the porous PAN support membrane. Selective layer thickness of the composite membranes was in the range of 1.32–1.42 μm. The resulting composite membrane has CO2 a permeance of 1.37 × 10−1 m3/m2·h·bar and an ideal CO2/N2, selectivity of 65. The TFC membranes showed increasing ideal gas pair selectivities in the order CO2/N2 > CO2/CH4 > CO2/H2. In addition, the fabricated composite membranes were tested for long-term single gas permeation measurement and these membranes have remarkable stability, proving that they are good candidates for CO2 separation.

  10. CO2-Philic Thin Film Composite Membranes: Synthesis and Characterization of PAN-r-PEGMA Copolymer

    Karunakaran, Madhavan

    2017-07-06

    In this work, we report the successful fabrication of CO2-philic polymer composite membranes using a polyacrylonitrile-r-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PAN-r-PEGMA) copolymer. The series of PAN-r-PEGMA copolymers with various amounts of PEG content was synthesized by free radical polymerization in presence of AIBN initiator and the obtained copolymers were used for the fabrication of composite membranes. The synthesized copolymers show high molecular weights in the range of 44-56 kDa. We were able to fabricate thin film composite (TFC) membranes by dip coating procedure using PAN-r-PEGMA copolymers and the porous PAN support membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were applied to analyze the surface morphology of the composite membranes. The microscopy analysis reveals the formation of the defect free skin selective layer of PAN-r-PEGMA copolymer over the porous PAN support membrane. Selective layer thickness of the composite membranes was in the range of 1.32-1.42 mu m. The resulting composite membrane has CO2 a permeance of 1.37 x 10(-1) m(3)/m(2).h.bar and an ideal CO2/N-2, selectivity of 65. The TFC membranes showed increasing ideal gas pair selectivities in the order CO2/N-2 > CO2/CH4 > CO2/H-2. In addition, the fabricated composite membranes were tested for long-term single gas permeation measurement and these membranes have remarkable stability, proving that they are good candidates for CO2 separation.

  11. Poly(Poly(Ethylene Glycol Methyl Ether Methacrylate Grafted Chitosan for Dye Removal from Water

    Bryan Tsai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for textile products and synthetic dyes increases with the growing global population, textile dye wastewater is becoming one of the most significant water pollution contributors. Azo dyes represent 70% of dyes used worldwide, and are hence a significant contributor to textile waste. In this work, the removal of a reactive azo dye (Reactive Orange 16 from water by adsorption with chitosan grafted poly(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (CTS-GMA-g-PPEGMA was investigated. The chitosan (CTS was first functionalized with glycidyl methacrylate and then grafted with poly(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate using a nitroxide-mediated polymerization grafting to approach. Equilibrium adsorption experiments were carried out at different initial dye concentrations and were successfully fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Adsorption isotherms showed maximum adsorption capacities of CTS-g-GMA-PPEGMA and chitosan of 200 mg/g and 150 mg/g, respectively, while the Langmuir equations estimated 232 mg/g and 194 mg/g, respectively. The fundamental assumptions underlying the Langmuir model may not be applicable for azo dye adsorption, which could explain the difference. The Freundlich isotherm parameters, n and K, were determined to be 2.18 and 17.7 for CTS-g-GMA-PPEGMA and 0.14 and 2.11 for chitosan, respectively. An “n” value between one and ten generally indicates favorable adsorption. The adsorption capacities of a chitosan-PPEGMA 50/50 physical mixture and pure PPEGMA were also investigated, and both exhibited significantly lower adsorption capacities than pure chitosan. In this work, CTS-g-GMA-PPEGMA proved to be more effective than its parent chitosan, with a 33% increase in adsorption capacity.

  12. Quantitative aspects of enzyme histochemistry on sections of freeze-substituted glycol methacrylate-embedded rat liver

    Frederiks, W. M.; Bosch, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    Freeze-substituted rat liver embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA) has been used to demonstrate the activities of several enzymes. The following enzymes could be detected in GMA-sections by the indicated histochemical procedure(s): 5'-nucleotidase (lead salt, cerium-diaminobenzidine), alkaline

  13. THE EFFECTS OF GLYCOL METHACRYLATE AS A DEHYDRATING AGENT ON THE DIMENSIONAL CHANGES OF LIVER-TISSUE

    GERRITS, PO; HOROBIN, RW; STOKROOS, [No Value

    The dimensional changes of liver sections during the course of processing with glycol methacrylate (GMA) or with ethanol are described. Tissue processing with ethanol served as a control. During prolonged processing steps (24 h each), linear shrinkage of tissue specimens dehydrated with GMA at room

  14. Fast Switching Electrochromic Devices Containing Optimized BEMA/PEGMA Gel Polymer Electrolytes

    N. Garino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized thermoset gel polymer electrolyte based on Bisphenol A ethoxylate dimethacrylate and Poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (BEMA/PEGMA was prepared by facile photo-induced free radical polymerisation technique and tested for the first time in electrochromic devices (ECD combining WO3 sputtered on ITO as cathodes and V2O5 electrodeposited on ITO as anodes. The behaviour of the prepared ECD was investigated electrochemically and electro-optically. The ECD transmission spectrum was monitored in the visible and near-infrared region by varying applied potential. A switching time of ca. 2 s for Li+ insertion (coloring and of ca. 1 s for Li+ de-insertion (bleaching were found. UV-VIS spectroelectrochemical measurements evidenced a considerable contrast between bleached and colored state along with a good stability over repeated cycles. The reported electrochromic devices showed a considerable enhancement of switching time with respect to the previously reported polymeric ECD indicating that they are good candidates for the implementation of intelligent windows and smart displays.

  15. Non-woven PET fabric reinforced and enhanced the performance of ultrafiltration membranes composed of PVDF blended with PVDF-g-PEGMA for industrial applications

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Tong; Chen, Chen; Chen, Sheng; Liu, Baicang; Crittenden, John

    2018-03-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PVDF-g-PEGMA) can present high flux and excellent foulant removal efficiencies under suitable preparation conditions. However, these PVDF/PVDF-g-PEGMA blended membranes cannot be applied industrially because of the insufficient mechanical strength (strength-to-break value of 8.4 ± 0.6 MPa). We incorporated two types of non-woven polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics (thin hydrophobic and thick hydrophilic fabrics) as support layers to improve the mechanical properties of the blended membranes. The thin and thick PET fabrics were able to significantly improve the tensile strength to 23.3 ± 3.7 MPa and 30.1 ± 1.4 MPa, respectively. The PET fabrics had a limited impact on the separation-related membrane performance such as hydrophilicity, foulant rejection, whereas the mechanical strength and pure water flux was improved several folds. The enhanced flux was attributed to the higher surface porosity and wider finger-like voids in the cross-section. The thin PET fabric with larger porosity was able to maintain a consistent toughness simultaneously; thus it is recommended as a support material for this blended membrane.

  16. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)/clay composites

    Marinovic, S.; Vukovic, Z.; Nastasovic, A.; Milutinovic-Nikolic, A.; Jovanovic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We synthesized macroporous composites of poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) and either raw or acid modified clay. → Morphological, textural and thermal properties of the composite with acid modified clay were significantly changed with retained macroporosity. → Composite with raw clay has enhanced thermal stability. - Abstract: In this study, macroporous composites of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) i.e. poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) and clay were prepared by radical suspension copolymerization. The composites with either raw (S 0 ) or acid-modified clay (S A ) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric (TG) and textural analysis. The morphological, textural and thermal properties of the composite with raw clay (CP-S 0 ) differed slightly from those of the copolymer (CP), with exception of the thermal stability expressed in the shifting of the initial degradation temperature from 125 deg. C for CP to 210 deg. C for CP-S 0 . On the other hand, composite with modified clay (CP-S A ) was a material with significantly changed morphology, porous structure parameters and a qualitatively different thermal behavior in comparison to CP and CP-S 0 . CP-S A had mass residue, after heating at 600 deg. C, three times higher than the amount of S A introduced into the reaction system. This indicates a different manner of incorporation of S A , compared to S 0 , into the composite. Both the obtained composites retained their macroporosity and might be used in all applications that involve macroporous copolymers and, due to the altered thermal properties, their application may be extended.

  17. Biocompatible and bioadhesive hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, monofunctional poly(alkylene glycols and itaconic acid

    Mićić Maja M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available New types of hydrogels were prepared by the radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, itaconic acid and four different poly(alkylene glycol (methacrylate components (Bisomers in a water/ethanol mixture as solvent. The polymers swell in water at 25°C to yield homogeneous transparent hydrogels. All the hydrogels displayed pH sensitive behavior in buffers of the pH range from 2.20 to 7.40, under conditions similar to those of biological fluids. The presence of these two comonomers, which were added to HEMA, increased the swelling degree of the hydrogels and gave gels with better elasticity. The hydrogels were thermally stable in the vicinity of the physiological temperature (37°C. The copolymer containing pure poly(ethylene glycol acrylate units generally had the best properties. The tests performed on the hydrogels confirmed that they were neither hemolytic nor cytotoxic. The copolymer samples showed better cell viability and less hemolytic activity than the PHEMA sample, confirming the assumption that poly(alkylene glycols improve the biocompatibility of hydrogels. Due to their swelling and mechanical characteristics, as well as the very good biocompatibility and bioadhesive properties, poly(Bisomer/HEMA/IA hydrogels are promising for utilization in the field of biomedicals, especially for the controlled release of drugs.

  18. Towards bilirubin imprinted poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate) for the specific binding of α-bilirubin

    Syu, M.-J.; Deng, J.-H.; Nian, Y.-M.

    2004-01-01

    With α-bilirubin as a molecular template, polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) was carried out with the aid of the initiator 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) and the cross-linking agent ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA). Bulk polymerization was successfully carried out so that poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate) (poly(MAA-EGDMA)) imprinted with α-bilirubin was first developed. UV irradiation polymerization and heated polymerization methods were compared. Effect of different ratios of monomer to EGDMA during the polymerization was also discussed. Proper solvent for better desorption of α-bilirubin from the imprinted poly(MAA-EGDMA) was investigated. In addition, SEM photos were provided for observing the differences between the surfaces of the imprinted poly(MAA-EGDMA) before and after extraction. The corresponding binding results of α-bilirubin imprinted poly(MAA-EGDMA) and non-imprinted poly(MAA-EGDMA) both after extraction were compared. How the pH values during extraction stage affected the binding capacities of the imprinted polymer as well as non-imprinted polymer were also discussed. Similar study and comparison were made for different binding pH values. Different compounds of similar molecular weight were used to show the specific binding of the imprinted polymer for bilirubin. The results further confirmed the successful binding as well as specificity of the imprinted poly(MAA-EGDMA) for α-bilirubin

  19. Fluorinated polyimides grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) side chains by the RAFT-mediated process and their membranes

    Chen Yiwang; Chen Lie; Nie Huarong; Kang, E.T.; Vora, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Graft polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) from fluorinated polyimide (FPI) was carried out by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated process. The peroxides generated by the ozone treatment on FPI facilitated the thermally-initiated graft copolymerization from FPI backbone. The 'living' character of the graft chain growing was ascertained in the subsequent chain extension of PEGMA. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular weight measurements were used to characterize the chemical composition and structure of the copolymers. Microfiltration (MF) membranes were fabricated from the FPI-g-PEGMA comb copolymers by phase inversion in aqueous media. Surface composition analysis of the membranes scanned by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed a substantial surface enrichment of the hydrophilic components. The pore size distribution of the resulting membranes was found to be much more uniform than that of the corresponding membranes cast from FPI-g-PEGMA prepared by the conventional radical polymerization process in the absence of the chain transfer agent. The morphology of the membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  20. Preparation of poly(polyethylene glycol methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels by radiation and their physical properties

    Park, S.-E.; Nho, Y.-C.; Kim, H.-I.

    2004-01-01

    The pH-responsive copolymer hydrogels were prepared with the monomers of polyethylene glycol methacrylate and acrylic acid based on γ-ray irradiation technique. The gel content of these copolymer hydrogels varied depending on both the composition of monomers and the radiation dose. Maximum gel percent and degree of crosslinking were obtained at the composition of equal amount of comonomers. These copolymer hydrogels did not show any noticeable change in swelling at lower pH range. However they showed an abrupt increase in swelling at higher pH range due to the ionization of carboxyl groups. This pH-responsive swelling behavior was applied for the insulin carrier via oral delivery. Insulin-loaded copolymer hydrogels released most of their insulin in the simulated intestinal fluid which had a pH of 6.8 but not in the simulated gastric fluid which had a pH of 1.2

  1. Methacrylic Zwitterionic, Thermoresponsive, and Hydrophilic (Co)Polymers via Cu(0)-Polymerization: The Importance of Halide Salt Additives.

    Simula, Alexandre; Anastasaki, Athina; Haddleton, David M

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of hydrophilic, thermoresponsive, and zwitterionic polymethacrylates is reported by Cu(0)-mediated reversible deactivation radical polymerization in water and/or water/alcohol mixtures. The predisproportionation of [Cu(I) (PMDETA)Cl] in water prior to initiator and monomer addition is exploited to yield well-defined polymethacrylates with full monomer conversions in 30 min. The addition of supplementary halide salts (NaCl) enables the synthesis of various molecular weight poly[poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] (PEGMA475) (DPn = 10-80, Mn ≈ 10,000-40 000 g mol(-1)) with full monomer conversion and narrow molecular weight distributions attained in all cases (Đ ≈ 1.20-1.30). A bifunctional PEG initiator (average Mn ≈ 1000 g mol(-1)) is utilized for the polymerization of a wide range of methacrylates including 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, 2-morpholinoethyl methacrylate, [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide, and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine. Despite the high water content, high end group fidelity is demonstrated by in situ chain extensions and block copolymerizations with PEGMA475 yielding well-defined functional telechelic pentablock copolymers within 2.5 h. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Radiation-grafting of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate and oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate onto polypropylene films by one step method

    Ramirez-Jimenez, Alejandro [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bucio, Emilio, E-mail: ebucio@nucleares.unam.mx [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    Polypropylene films were modified with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) using the pre-irradiation method with gamma-rays (one step method). The effect of absorbed dose from 10 to 100 kGy, temperature (50, 60, and 70 {sup o}C), monomer concentration between 12.5% and 62.5%, monomers ratio from 10% to 90% and reaction time from 5 to 50 h; on the degree of grafting was determined. The grafted samples were analyzed by FTIR-ATR, TGA, DSC, swelling, and contact angle. Grafts onto polymeric films between 3% and 109% were obtained at doses from 10 to 100 kGy and a dose rate around 7.4 kGy/h. The graft percent increased with the content in HEMA in the HEMA:OEGMA feed mixture, which indicates a lower reactivity of OEGMA compared to HEMA. The hydrogel layer grafted on the polypropylene substrate increases the hydrophilicity of the surface and also provides certain temperature-responsiveness, which may be of interest for biomedical applications. - Highlights: > PP was grafted with a hydrogel layer applying the {gamma}-ray pre-irradiation method. > Effects of radiation dose, time, temperature and monomers concentration were evaluated. > Grafted layer increases the hydrophilicity of PP films. > HEMA and OEGMA grafted onto PP may be of interest for biomedical applications.

  3. Poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) dip-coating: turning cellulose paper into a protein-repellent platform for biosensors.

    Deng, Xudong; Smeets, Niels M B; Sicard, Clémence; Wang, Jingyun; Brennan, John D; Filipe, Carlos D M; Hoare, Todd

    2014-09-17

    The passivation of nonspecific protein adsorption to paper is a major barrier to the use of paper as a platform for microfluidic bioassays. Herein we describe a simple, scalable protocol based on adsorption and cross-linking of poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) (POEGMA) derivatives that reduces nonspecific adsorption of a range of proteins to filter paper by at least 1 order of magnitude without significantly changing the fiber morphology or paper macroporosity. A lateral-flow test strip coated with POEGMA facilitates effective protein transport while also confining the colorimetric reporting signal for easier detection, giving improved performance relative to bovine serum albumin (BSA)-blocked paper. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on POEGMA-coated paper also achieve lower blank values, higher sensitivities, and lower detection limits relative to ones based on paper blocked with BSA or skim milk. We anticipate that POEGMA-coated paper can function as a platform for the design of portable, disposable, and low-cost paper-based biosensors.

  4. Influence of Ethylene Glycol Methacrylate to the Hydration and Transition Behaviors of Thermo-Responsive Interpenetrating Polymeric Network Hydrogels

    Bing Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ethylene glycol methacrylate (EGMA to the hydration and transition behaviors of thermo-responsive interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN hydrogels containing sodium alginate, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm, and EGMA were investigated. The molar ratios of NIPAAm and EGMA were varied from 20:0 to 19.5:0.5 and 18.5:1.5 in the thermo-responsive alginate-Ca2+/P(NIPAAm-co-EGMA IPN hydrogels. Due to the more hydrophilicity and high flexibility of EGMA, the IPN hydrogels exhibited higher lower critical solution temperature (LCST and lower glass transition temperature (Tg when the ratio of EGMA increases. The swelling/deswelling kinetics of the IPN hydrogels could be controlled by adjusting the NIPAAm/EGMA molar ratio. A faster water uptake rate and a slower water loss rate could be realized by increase the amount of EGMA in the IPN hydrogel (the shrinking rate constant was decreased from 0.01207 to 0.01195 and 0.01055 with the changing of NIPAAm/EGMA ratio from 20:0, 19.5:0.5 to 18.5:1.5. By using 2-Isopropylthioxanthone (ITX as a photo initiator, the obtained alginate-Ca2+/P(NIPAAm-co-EGMA360 IPN hydrogels were successfully immobilized on cotton fabrics. The surface and cross section of the hydrogel were probed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. They all exhibited a porous structure, and the pore size was increased with the amount of EGMA. Moreover, the LCST values of the fabric-grafted hydrogels were close to those of the pure IPN hydrogels. Their thermal sensitivity remained unchanged. The cotton fabrics grafted with hydrogel turned out to be much softer with the continuous increase of EGMA amount. Therefore, compared with alginate-Ca2+/PNIPAAm hydrogel, alginate-Ca2+/P(NIPAAm-co-EGMA360 hydrogel is a more promising candidate for wound dressing in the field of biomedical textile.

  5. Physicochemical properties of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid film modified via blending with poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate

    Guoquan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA/poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate (P(BA-co-MMA blend films with different P(BA-co-MMA mole contents were prepared by casting the polymer blend solution in chloroform. Surface morphologies of the PLGAP(BA-co-MMA blend films were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of PLGAP(BA-co-MMA blend films were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, tensile tests, and surface contact angle tests. The introduction of P(BA-co-MMA could modify the properties of PLGA films.

  6. Evaluation of poly(ethylene glycol)-coated monodispersed magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres by PCR

    Horák, Daniel; Hlídková, Helena; Trachtová, Š.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Rittich, B.; Španová, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, July (2015), s. 687-696 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/0381; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : magnetic microspheres * poly(ethylene glycol) * real-time PCR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.485, year: 2015

  7. Mussel inspired preparation of MoS{sub 2} based polymer nanocomposites: The case of polyPEGMA

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Liu, Xinhua; Huang, Qiang; Xu, Dazhuang; Mao, Liucheng; Huang, Hongye; Deng, Fengjie [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: A facile and universal strategy has been developed for surface modification of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets via combination of mussel inspired chemistry and chain transfer free radical polymerization. - Highlights: • Fabrication of MoS{sub 2}-PDA-PPEGMA polymer nanocomposites through mussel inspired chemistry. • MoS{sub 2}-PDA- PPEGMA polymer nanocomposites showed enhanced stability in water. • The experimental conditions are rather mild. • The strategy described in this work is also useful for fabrication of many other MoS{sub 2} based polymer nanocomposites. - Abstract: In this work, we report a facile strategy to prepare PEGylated MoS{sub 2} nanosheets through the combination of mussel inspired chemistry and Michael addition reaction. The MoS{sub 2} nanosheets were obtained from lithium intercalation and exfoliation method. Meanwhile, the amino-contained poly((polyethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMA) were obtained via chain transfer free radical polymerization using cysteamine hydrochloride as the chain transfer agents and PEGMA as the monomer. To introduce PPEGMA on MoS{sub 2} nanosheets, polydopamine (PDA) thin films were first coated on the surface of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets through self polymerization of dopamine as the ad-layers, which can react with amino-terminated PPEGMA through Michael addition reaction. The structure, morphology and chemical compositions of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets and MoS{sub 2}-PDA-PPEGMA have been characterized by various characterization techniques. The results demonstrated that the amino-terminated PPEGMA can be successfully immobilized on MoS{sub 2} nanosheets via PDA thin films as the ad-layers. More importantly, the strategy described in this work could also be utilized for surface immobilization of various polymers on many other materials and surfaces because of the universal adhesion of PDA and the good monomer applicability of chain transfer free radical polymerization. Taken together, we

  8. Enhanced Mechanical Properties in Cellulose Nanocrystal-Poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) Injectable Nanocomposite Hydrogels through Control of Physical and Chemical Cross-Linking.

    De France, Kevin J; Chan, Katelyn J W; Cranston, Emily D; Hoare, Todd

    2016-02-08

    While injectable hydrogels have several advantages in the context of biomedical use, their generally weak mechanical properties often limit their applications. Herein, we describe in situ-gelling nanocomposite hydrogels based on poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) (POEGMA) and rigid rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) that can overcome this challenge. By physically incorporating CNCs into hydrazone cross-linked POEGMA hydrogels, macroscopic properties including gelation rate, swelling kinetics, mechanical properties, and hydrogel stability can be readily tailored. Strong adsorption of aldehyde- and hydrazide-modified POEGMA precursor polymers onto the surface of CNCs promotes uniform dispersion of CNCs within the hydrogel, imparts physical cross-links throughout the network, and significantly improves mechanical strength overall, as demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance gravimetry and rheometry. When POEGMA hydrogels containing mixtures of long and short ethylene oxide side chain precursor polymers were prepared, transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase segregation occurs with CNCs hypothesized to preferentially locate within the stronger adsorbing short side chain polymer domains. Incorporating as little as 5 wt % CNCs results in dramatic enhancements in mechanical properties (up to 35-fold increases in storage modulus) coupled with faster gelation rates, decreased swelling ratios, and increased stability versus hydrolysis. Furthermore, cell viability can be maintained within 3D culture using these hydrogels independent of the CNC content. These properties collectively make POEGMA-CNC nanocomposite hydrogels of potential interest for various biomedical applications including tissue engineering scaffolds for stiffer tissues or platforms for cell growth.

  9. Rheo-optical near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy study of partially miscible polymer blend of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2018-03-01

    Tensile deformations of a partially miscible blend of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) is studied by a rheo-optical characterization near-infrared (NIR) technique to probe deformation behavior during tensile deformation. Sets of NIR spectra of the polymer samples were collected by using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) NIR spectrometer coupled with a tensile testing machine as an excitation device. While deformations of the samples were readily captured as strain-dependent NIR spectra, the entire feature of the spectra was overwhelmed with the baseline fluctuation induced by the decrease in the sample thickness and subsequent change in the light scattering. Several pretreatment techniques, including multiplicative scatter collection (MSC) and null-space projection, are subjected to the NIR spectra prior to the determination of the sequential order of the spectral intensity changes by two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. The comparison of the MSC and null-space projection provided an interesting insight into the system, especially deformation-induced variation of light scattering observed during the tensile testing of the polymer sample. In addition, the sequential order determined with the 2D correlation spectra revealed that orientation of a specific part of PMMA chain occurs before that of the others because of the interaction between Cdbnd O group of PMMA and terminal sbnd OH group of PEG.

  10. Sorption of different phenol derivatives on functionalized macroporous nanocomposite of poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and acid modified bentonite

    Marinović Sanja R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous nanocomposite of poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and acid modified bentonite was prepared by radical suspension copolymerization. Nanocomposite was functionalized with diethylene triamine (deta, by ring-opening reaction of the pendant epoxy groups. Functionalization was performed in order to enable phenol derivatives sorption. This new, not sufficiently investigated material, with developed porous structure was denoted CP-SA-deta. In this study, the influence of temperature on 4-nitrophenol (4NP sorption on CP-SA-deta was investigated. The chemisorption was estimated as dominant process since activation energy of sorption of 4NP of 54.8 kJ mol-1 was obtained. After determining the optimal sorption conditions for 4NP, the sorption of 2-nitrophenol (2NP and 2-chloro 4-nitrophenol (2Cl4NP on CP-SA-deta was investigated with respect to pH, initial concentration and contact time. The 2NP sorption was seldom tested, while according to our knowledge, the 2Cl4NP sorption was not investigated. The isotherm data were best fitted with Langmuir model, while the sorption dynamics obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model for all derivatives. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001 i br. III 43009

  11. Blood compatibility of AAc, HEMA, and PEGMA-grafted cellulose film

    Nho, Young Chang.; Kwon, Oh Hyun

    2003-01-01

    To improve surface blood compatibility on cellulose film for hemodialysis, acrylic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and three kinds of polyethylene glycol methacrylates were grafted onto the cellulose film surface by radiation grafting technique. Heparin was introduced onto the grafted cellulose film surfaces. The grafting and heparinization were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. The blood compatibility of the modified cellulose film was examined by the determination of platelet adhesion and thrombus formation

  12. Radiation-induced synthesis and swelling properties of p(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-itaconic acid-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylate) copolymeric hydrogels

    Micic, M.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Since it is presumed that by incorporation of pH-responsive (IA) and temperature-responsive (OEGA) co-monomers it is possible to prepare P(HEMA-co-IA-co-OEGA) hydrogels with duel (pH and thermo) responsiveness, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of different mole fractions of IA and especially OEGA on the diversity of the swelling properties of obtained hydrogels. For that reason, a series of copolymeric hydrogels with different mole ratios of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), itaconic acid (IA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylates (OEGA) was synthesized by gamma radiation. The obtained hydrogels were characterized by swelling studies in the wide pH (2.2-9.0) and temperature range (25-70 deg C), confirming dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness and a large variation in swelling capability. It was observed that the equilibrium swelling of P(HEMA-co-IA-co-OEGA) hydrogels, for a constant amount of IA, increases progressively with increasing in OEGA share. On the other hand, the dissociation of carboxyl (-COOH) groups from IA occurs at pH > 4; therefore, small mole fractions of IA render good pH sensitivity and a large increase in the swelling capacity of these hydrogels at higher pH values. Additional characterization of structure and properties was conducted by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical measurements, confirming that the inherent properties of the P(HEMA-co-IA-co-OEGA) hydrogels can be significantly tuned by variation in their composition. According to all presented, it seems that the obtained copolymeric hydrogels can be a beneficial synergetic combination for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules such as drugs, nucleic acids, peptides, and proteins.

  13. Thermal and electrical conductivity enhancement of graphite nanoplatelets on form-stable polyethylene glycol/polymethyl methacrylate composite phase change materials

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GnPs), obtained by sonicating the expanded graphite, were employed to simultaneously enhance the thermal (k) and electrical (σ) conductivity of organic form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs). Using the method of in situ polymerization upon ultrasonic irradiation, GnPs serving as the conductive fillers and polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the phase change material (PCM) were uniformly dispersed and embedded inside the network structure of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which contributed to the well package and self-supporting properties of composite FSPCMs. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated that the GnPs were physically combined with PEG/PMMA matrix and did not participate in the polymerization. The GnPs additives were able to effectively enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCM. When the mass ratio of GnP was 8%, the k and σ of FSPCM changed up to 9 times and 8 orders of magnitude over that of PEG/PMMA matrix, respectively. The improvements in both k and σ were mainly attributed to the well dispersion and large aspect ratio of GnPs, which were endowed with benefit of forming conducting network in polymer matrix. It was also confirmed that all the prepared specimens possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability. -- Highlights: ► GnPs were employed to simultaneously enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCMs. ► PEG/PMMA/GnPs composite FSPCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. ► The composite FSPCMs exhibited well package and self-supporting properties. ► GnPs additives effectively enhanced the k and σ of composite FSPCMs. ► All the composites possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability.

  14. Radiation-induced synthesis and swelling properties of p(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/itaconic acid/oligo (ethylene glycol) acrylate) terpolymeric hydrogels

    Micic, M.; Stamenic, D.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2012-01-01

    Since it is presumed that by incorporation of pH-responsive (IA) and temperature-responsive (OEGA) co-monomers, it is possible to prepare P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels with dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness, the main purpose of our study is to investigate the influence of different mole fractions of IA and especially OEGA on the diversity of the swelling properties of the obtained hydrogels. For that reason, a series of terpolymeric hydrogels with different mole ratios of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), itaconic acid (IA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylates (OEGA) was synthesised by gamma radiation. The obtained hydrogels were characterised by swelling studies in the wide pH (2.2–9.0) and temperature range (20–70 °C), confirming dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness and a large variation in the swelling capability. It was observed that the equilibrium swelling of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels, for a constant amount of IA, increased progressively with an increase in OEGA share. On the other hand, the dissociation of carboxyl groups from IA occurs at pH>4; therefore, small mole fractions of IA render good pH sensitivity and a large increase in the swelling capacity of these hydrogels at higher pH values. Additional characterisation of structure and properties was conducted by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical measurements, confirming that the inherent properties of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels can be significantly tuned by variation in their composition. According to all presented, it seems that the obtained hydrogels can be a beneficial synergetic combination for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules such as drugs, peptides, proteins, etc. - Highlights: ► pH- and thermo-sensitive P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels were synthesised by γ radiation. ► OEGA units have a large hydrophilic potential. ► Swelling capacity increases with the OEGA content. ► Variation in composition of hydrogels can give

  15. Redox-Initiated Poly(methyl methacrylate) Emulsion Polymerizations Stabilized with Block Copolymers Based on Methoxy-Poly(ethylene glycol), epsilon-Caprolactone, and Linoleic Acid

    Tan, Boonhua; Nabuurs, Tijs; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    A redox initiating system, consisting of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHPO), isoascorbic acid (iAA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ferric-sodium salt (FeEDTA) was employed in emulsion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at high solids contents of 30 wt % in water. The system was stabilized

  16. Characterization of polymethyl methacrylate/polyethylene glycol/aluminum nitride composite as form-stable phase change material prepared by in situ polymerization method

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Form-stable PMMA/PEG/AlN PCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. → AlN additive effectively enhanced the heat transfer property of composite PCMs. → The composites exhibited desirable thermal performance and electric insulativity. → The composites were available for the thermal management of electronic device. - Abstract: This work was focused on the preparation and characterization of a new type of form-stable phase change material (PCM) employed in thermal management. Using the method of in situ polymerization, polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the PCM and aluminum nitride (AlN) serving as the thermal conductivity promoter were uniformly encapsulated and embedded inside the three-dimensional network structure of PMMA matrix. When the mass fraction of PEG was below 70%, the prepared composite PCMs remained solid without leakage above the melting point of the PEG. XRD and FT-IR results indicated that the PEG was physically combined with PMMA matrix and AlN additive and did not participate in the polymerization. Thermal analysis results showed that the prepared composite PCMs possess available latent heat capacity and thermal stability, and the AlN additive was able to effectively enhance the heat transfer property of organic PCM. Moreover, the volume resistivity of composite achieved (5.92 ± 0.16) x 10 10 Ω cm when the mass ratio of AlN was 30%. To sum up, the prepared form-stable PCMs were competent for the thermal management of electronic device due to their acceptable thermal performance and electric insulativity.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Drug Loading of Multiresponsive p[NIPAm-co-PEGMA] (core/p[NIPAm-co-AAc] (Shell Nanogels with Monodisperse Size Distributions

    Rajesh Raju

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and properties of temperature- and pH-responsive p([NIPAm-co-PEGMA] (core/[NIPAm-co-AAc] (shell nanogels with narrow size distributions, tunable sizes and increased drug loading efficiencies. The core-shell nanogels were synthesized using an optimized two-stage seeded polymerization methodology. The core-shell nanogels show a narrow size distribution and controllable physico-chemical properties. The hydrodynamic sizes, charge distributions, temperature-induced volume phase transition behaviors, pH-responsive behaviors and drug loading capabilities of the core-shell nanogels were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential measurements, dynamic light scattering and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The size of the core-shell nanogels was controlled by polymerizing NIPAm with crosslinker poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA of different molecular weights (Mn-200, 400, 550 and 750 g/mol during the core synthesis. It was found that the swelling/deswelling kinetics of the nanogels was sharp and reversible; with its volume phase transition temperature in the range of 40–42 °C. Furthermore, the nanogels loaded with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA, using a modified breathing-in mechanism, showed high loading and encapsulation efficiencies, providing potential possibilities of such nanogels for biomedical applications.

  18. Synthesis of Fluorinated Amphiphilic Block Copolymers Based on PEGMA, HEMA, and MMA via ATRP and CuAAC Click Chemistry

    Erol, Fatime Eren; Sinirlioglu, Deniz; Cosgun, Sedat; Muftuoglu, Ali Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of fluorinated amphiphilic block copolymers via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and Cu(I) catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) was demonstrated. First, a PEGMA and MMA based block copolymer carrying multiple side-chain acetylene moieties on the hydrophobic segment for postfunctionalization was carried out. This involves the synthesis of a series of P(HEMA-co-MMA) random copolymers to be employed as macroinitiators in the controlled synthesis of P(HEMA-co-M...

  19. The polymerisation of oligo(ethylene glycol methyl ether) methacrylate from a multifunctional poly(ethylene imine) derived amide : a stabiliser for the synthesis and dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles

    Kleine, A.; Altan, C.L.; Yarar, U.E.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Bucak, S.; Holder, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    A facile synthetic route to poly(ethylene imine)-graft-poly(oligo(ethylene glycol methyl ether)) (PEI-graft-POEGMA) functionalised superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles is described. The polymerisation of OEGMA from a model molecular amide demonstrated the feasibility of POEGMA synthesis under

  20. Textural properties of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) : acid-modified bentonite nanocomposites

    Zunic, M.; Milutinovic-Nikolic, A.; Nastasovic, A.; Vukovic, Z.; Loncarevic, D.; Vukovic, I.; Loos, K.; ten Brinke, G.; Jovanovic, D.; Sharma, Bhaskar; Ubaghs, Luc; Keul, Helmut; Höcker, Hartwig; Loontjens, Ton; Benthem, Rolf van; Žunić, M.; Milutinović-Nikolić, A.; Nastasović, A.; Vuković, Z.; Lončarević, D.; Vuković, I.; Jovanović, D.

    The aim of this study was to obtain enhanced textural properties of macroporous crosslinked copolymer poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) by synthesizing nanocomposites with acid-modified bentonite. Nanocomposites were obtained by introducing various amounts of

  1. Final report of the safety assessment of methacrylate ester monomers used in nail enhancement products.

    2005-01-01

    Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate are not sensitizers. Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate was not a sensitizer in one guinea pig study, but was a strong sensitizer in another. There is cross-reactivity between various methacrylate esters in some sensitization tests. Inhaled Butyl Methacrylate, HEMA, Hydroxypropyl Methacrylate, and Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate can be developmental toxicants at high exposure levels (1000 mg/kg/day). None of the methacrylate ester monomers that were tested were shown to have any endocrine disrupting activity. These methacrylate esters are mostly non-mutagenic in bacterial test systems, but weak mutagenic responses were seen in mammalian cell test systems. Chronic dermal exposure of mice to PEG-4 Dimethacrylate (25 mg, 2 x weekly for 80 weeks) or Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate (25 mg, 2 x weekly for 80 weeks) did not result in increased incidence of skin or visceral tumors. The carcinogenicity of Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (5, 25, or 50%) was assessed in a mouse skin painting study (50 microl for 5 days/week for 78 weeks), but was not carcinogenic at any dose level tested. The Expert Panel was concerned about the strong sensitization and crossor co-reactivity potential of the methacrylate esters reviewed in this report. However, data demonstrated the rates of polymerization of these Methacrylates were similar to that of Ethyl Methacrylate and there would be little monomer available exposure to the skin. In consideration of the animal toxicity data, the CIR Expert Panel decided that these methacrylate esters should be restricted to the nail and must not be in contact with the skin. Accordingly, these methacrylate esters are safe as used in nail enhancement products when skin contact is avoided.

  2. Star-shaped poly(oligoethylene glycol) copolymer-based gels: Thermo-responsive behaviour and bioapplicability for risedronate intranasal delivery.

    Soliman, Mahmoud E; Elmowafy, Enas; Casettari, Luca; Alexander, Cameron

    2018-05-30

    The aim of this work was to obtain an intranasal delivery system with improved mechanical and mucoadhesive properties that could provide prolonged retention time for the delivery of risedronate (RS). For this, novel in situ forming gels comprising thermo-responsive star-shaped polymers, utilizing either polyethylene glycol methyl ether (PEGMA-ME 188, Mn 188) or polyethylene glycol ethyl ether (PEGMA-EE 246, Mn 246), with polyethylene glycol methyl ether (PEGMA-ME 475, Mn 475), were synthesized and characterized. RS was trapped in the selected gel-forming solutions at a concentration of 0.2% w/v. The pH, rheological properties, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation as well as mucoadhesion were also examined. MTT assays were conducted to verify nasal tolerability of the developed formulations. Initial in vivo studies were carried out to evaluate anti-osteoporotic activity in a glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis model in rats. The results showed successful development of thermo-sensitive formulations with favorable mechanical properties at 37 °C, which formed non-irritant, mucoadhesive porous networks, facilitating nasal RS delivery. Moreover, sustained release of RS, augmented permeability and marked anti-osteoporotic efficacy as compared to intranasal (IN) and intravenous (IV) RS solutions were realized. The combined results show that the in situ gels should have promising application as nasal drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycol chitosan

    Danielsen, E Thomas; Danielsen, E Michael

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan is a polycationic polysaccharide consisting of β-(1-4)-linked glucosamine units and due to its mucoadhesive properties, chemical derivatives of chitosan are potential candidates as enhancers for transmucosal drug delivery. Recently, glycol chitosan (GC), a soluble derivative of chitosan...

  4. Ethylene glycol blood test

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  5. SYNTHESIS OF AMPHIPHILIC COMB-SHAPED COPOLYMERS USED FOR SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PVDF MEMBRANES

    徐又一

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of a novel amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer consisting of a main chain of styrene-(N-(4- hydroxyphenyl) maleimide)(SHMI) copolymer and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate(PEGMA) side groups was achieved by atom transfer radical polymerization(ATRP).The amphiphilic copolymers were characterized by ~1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography(GPC).From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),the decomposition temperature of SHMI-g-PEGMA is low...

  6. Synthesis of Fluorinated Amphiphilic Block Copolymers Based on PEGMA, HEMA, and MMA via ATRP and CuAAC Click Chemistry

    Fatime Eren Erol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of fluorinated amphiphilic block copolymers via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP and Cu(I catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC was demonstrated. First, a PEGMA and MMA based block copolymer carrying multiple side-chain acetylene moieties on the hydrophobic segment for postfunctionalization was carried out. This involves the synthesis of a series of P(HEMA-co-MMA random copolymers to be employed as macroinitiators in the controlled synthesis of P(HEMA-co-MMA-block-PPEGMA block copolymers by using ATRP, followed by a modification step on the hydroxyl side groups of HEMA via Steglich esterification to afford propargyl side-functional polymer, alkyne-P(HEMA-co-MMA-block-PPEGMA. Finally, click coupling between side-chain acetylene functionalities and 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl azide yielded fluorinated amphiphilic block copolymers. The obtained polymers were structurally characterized by 1H-NMR, 19F-NMR, FT-IR, and GPC. Their thermal characterizations were performed using DSC and TGA.

  7. Preparation and its drug release property of radiation-polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) capsule including potassium chloride

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1979-01-01

    Porous flat circular capsules including KCl as a drug were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate at room temperature in the presence of polyethylene glycol No. 600. The porous structure can be controlled by the methyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol No. 600 composition. The amount of drug released was linearly related to the square root of time. The magnitude of drug release increased roughly in proportional to the water content of capsule, which can be related to porosity in the capsule. (author)

  8. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres for protein capture.

    Koubková, Jana; Müller, Petr; Hlídková, Helena; Plichta, Zdeněk; Proks, Vladimír; Vojtěšek, Bořivoj; Horák, Daniel

    2014-09-25

    The efficient isolation and concentration of protein antigens from complex biological samples is a critical step in several analytical methods, such as mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and immunochemistry. These techniques take advantage of magnetic microspheres as immunosorbents. The focus of this study was on the development of new superparamagnetic polymer microspheres for the specific isolation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Monodisperse macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres measuring approximately 5 μm and containing carboxyl groups were prepared by multistep swelling polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), 2-[(methoxycarbonyl)methoxy]ethyl methacrylate (MCMEMA) and ethylene dimethylacrylate (EDMA) as a crosslinker in the presence of cyclohexyl acetate as a porogen. To render the microspheres magnetic, iron oxide was precipitated within their pores; the Fe content in the particles received ∼18 wt%. Nonspecific interactions between the magnetic particles and biological media were minimized by coating the microspheres with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) terminated by carboxyl groups. The carboxyl groups of the magnetic PGMA microspheres were conjugated with primary amino groups of mouse monoclonal DO-1 antibody using conventional carbodiimide chemistry. The efficiency of protein p53 capture and the degree of nonspecific adsorption on neat and PEG-coated magnetic microspheres were determined by western blot analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Copolymerization of poly (ethylene oxide) and poly (methyl methacrylate) initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate

    Gomes, A.S.; Ferreira, A.A.; Coutinho, F.M.B.; Marinho, J.R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Cerium (IV) salts such as the ceric ammonium nitrate and ceric ammonium sulfate in aqueous acid solution with reducing agents such as alcohols, thiols, glycols, aldehydes and amines are well known initiators of vinyl polymerization. In this work, the polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate/HNO 3 -poly(ethylene oxide) with hydroxyl end group system was studied in aqueous solution at 25 0 C to obtain block copolymers. (Author) [pt

  10. Nanocompósitos de polietileno/argila bentonita nacional: influência da argila e do agente compatibilizante PE-g-MA nas propriedades mecânicas e de inflamabilidade Polyethylene/national bentonite clay nanocomposites: influence of clay and PE-g-MA coupling agent on the mechanical properties and flammability

    Gustavo F. Brito

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocompósitos de polietileno de alta densidade/argila bentonita nacional foram preparados por intercalação por fusão. A influência da adição da argila sem tratamento e da argila tratada com o sal quaternário de amônio Cetremide e do polietileno graftizado com anidrido maléico (PE-g-MA como agente compatibilizante foi avaliada. Os sistemas obtidos foram caracterizados por inflamabilidade, propriedades mecânicas e reológicas, difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Os resultados de difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão indicaram a obtenção de nanocompósitos com estruturas parcialmente esfoliadas e/ou intercaladas que conduziram ao aumento do módulo de elasticidade e do valor do torque. O teste de inflamabilidade mostrou que a adição da argila na matriz polimérica e a presença do PE-g-MA retardaram a velocidade de queima do sistema, ou seja, diminuíram a inflamabilidade do PE puro. Em geral, o sistema contendo o agente compatibilizante (PE-g-MA exibiu melhorias na estabilidade térmica e nanocompósitos parcialmente esfoliados foram formados, quando comparados à matriz de polietileno de alta densidade. O polietileno graftizado com anidrido maléico não apenas promoveu a esfoliação da argila, mas também facilitou a adesão carga-matriz, obtendo-se com isso melhorias nos resultados mecânicos do sistema.High density polyethylene/national bentonite clay nanocomposites were prepared with the melt intercalation technique. The effect of the clay without treatment and clay treated with quaternary ammonium salt Cetremide with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride as coupling agent was evaluated. The systems were characterized by flammability, mechanical and rheological properties, X ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. In general, the results of X ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed partially exfoliated and/or intercalated structures with

  11. Investigation of the role of hydrophilic chain length in amphiphilic perfluoropolyether/poly(ethylene glycol) networks: towards high-performance antifouling coatings

    Wang, Yapei; Pitet, Louis M.; Finlay, John A.; Brewer, Lenora H.; Cone, Gemma; Betts, Douglas E.; Callow, Maureen E.; Callow, James A.; Wendt, Dean E.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; DeSimone, Joseph M. (Birmingham UK); (NCSU); (UNC); (Cal. Polytech.); (UMM)

    2013-03-07

    The facile preparation of amphiphilic network coatings having a hydrophobic dimethacryloxy-functionalized perfluoropolyether (PFPE-DMA; M{sub w} = 1500 g mol{sup -1}) crosslinked with hydrophilic monomethacryloxy functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers (PEG-MA; M{sub w} = 300, 475, 1100 g mol{sup -1}), intended as non-toxic high-performance marine coatings exhibiting antifouling characteristics is demonstrated. The PFPE-DMA was found to be miscible with the PEG-MA. Photo-cured blends of these materials containing 10 wt% of PEG-MA oligomers did not swell significantly in water. PFPE-DMA crosslinked with the highest molecular weight PEG oligomer (ie PEG1100) deterred settlement (attachment) of algal cells and cypris larvae of barnacles compared to a PFPE control coating. Dynamic mechanical analysis of these networks revealed a flexible material. Preferential segregation of the PEG segments at the polymer/air interface resulted in enhanced antifouling performance. The cured amphiphilic PFPE/PEG films showed decreased advancing and receding contact angles with increasing PEG chain length. In particular, the PFPE/PEG1100 network had a much lower advancing contact angle than static contact angle, suggesting that the PEG1100 segments diffuse to the polymer/water interface quickly. The preferential interfacial aggregation of the larger PEG segments enables the coating surface to have a substantially enhanced resistance to settlement of spores of the green seaweed Ulva, cells of the diatom Navicula and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite as well as low adhesion of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva, adhesion being lower than to a polydimethyl elastomer, Silastic T2.

  12. Investigation of the role of hydrophilic chain length in amphiphilic perfluoropolyether/poly(ethylene glycol) networks: towards high-performance antifouling coatings.

    Wang, Yapei; Pitet, Louis M; Finlay, John A; Brewer, Lenora H; Cone, Gemma; Betts, Douglas E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Wendt, Dean E; Hillmyer, Marc A; DeSimonea, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    The facile preparation of amphiphilic network coatings having a hydrophobic dimethacryloxy-functionalized perfluoropolyether (PFPE-DMA; M(w) = 1500 g mol(-1)) crosslinked with hydrophilic monomethacryloxy functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers (PEG-MA; M(w) = 300, 475, 1100 g mol(-1)), intended as non-toxic high-performance marine coatings exhibiting antifouling characteristics is demonstrated. The PFPE-DMA was found to be miscible with the PEG-MA. Photo-cured blends of these materials containing 10 wt% of PEG-MA oligomers did not swell significantly in water. PFPE-DMA crosslinked with the highest molecular weight PEG oligomer (ie PEG1100) deterred settlement (attachment) of algal cells and cypris larvae of barnacles compared to a PFPE control coating. Dynamic mechanical analysis of these networks revealed a flexible material. Preferential segregation of the PEG segments at the polymer/air interface resulted in enhanced antifouling performance. The cured amphiphilic PFPE/PEG films showed decreased advancing and receding contact angles with increasing PEG chain length. In particular, the PFPE/PEG1100 network had a much lower advancing contact angle than static contact angle, suggesting that the PEG1100 segments diffuse to the polymer/water interface quickly. The preferential interfacial aggregation of the larger PEG segments enables the coating surface to have a substantially enhanced resistance to settlement of spores of the green seaweed Ulva, cells of the diatom Navicula and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite as well as low adhesion of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva, adhesion being lower than to a polydimethyl elastomer, Silastic T2.

  13. Process for production of an alkyl methacrylate

    Eastham, Graham Ronald; Johnson, David William; Fraaije, Marco; Winter, Remko

    2015-01-01

    A process for the production of an alkyl methacrylate, particularly methyl methacrylate, is provided, in which a Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase enzyme is used to convert an alkylisopropenylketone substrate to the relevant alkyl methacrylate by abnormal asymmetric oxygen insertion. The invention

  14. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    ... 3350 is in a class of medications called osmotic laxatives. It works by causing water to be ... experience either of them, call your doctor immediately: diarrhea hives Polyethylene glycol 3350 may cause other side ...

  15. Superhydrophobic terpolymer nanofibers containing perfluoroethyl alkyl methacrylate by electrospinning

    Cengiz, Ugur, E-mail: ucengiz@gyte.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Cayirova, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Avci, Merih Z. [Polymer Science and Technology, Deparment of Chemistry, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Erbil, H. Yildirim [Department of Chemical Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Cayirova, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Sarac, A. Sezai [Polymer Science and Technology, Deparment of Chemistry, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-05-15

    A new statistical terpolymer containing perfluoroethyl alkyl methacrylate (Zonyl-TM), methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate, poly(Zonyl-TM-ran-MMA-ran-BA) was synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide at 200 bar and 80 Degree-Sign C using AIBN as an initiator by heterogeneous free radical copolymerization. Nanofibers of this terpolymer were produced by electrospinning from its DMF solution. The structural and thermal properties of terpolymers and electrospun poly(Zonyl-TM-MMA-BA) nanofibers were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Nanofiber morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun nanofiber layer was found to be superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 172 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign and highly oleophobic with hexadecane, glycerol and ethylene glycol contact angles of 70 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign , 167 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign and 163 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign respectively. The change of the contact angle results on the electrospun fiber layer and flat terpolymer surfaces by varying feed monomer composition were compared and discussed in the text.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  17. Evaluating a simple blending approach to prepare magnetic and stimuli-responsive composite hydrogel particles for application in biomedical field

    H. Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of super paramagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles in stimuli-responsive hydrogel is expected to enhance the application potential for cellular therapy in cell labeling, separation and purification, protein immobilization, contrasting enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, localized therapeutic hyperthermia, biosensors etc. in biomedical field. In this investigation two different magnetic and stimuli-responsive composite hydrogel particles with variable surface property were prepared by simply blending Fe3O4/SiO2 nanocomposite particles with stimuli-responsive hydrogel particles. Of the hydrogel particles prepared by free-radical precipitation polymerization poly(styrene-N-isopropylacrylamide-methyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol methacrylate or P(S-NIPAM-MMA-PEGMA was temperature-sensitive and poly(S-NIPAM-methacrylic acid-PEGMA or P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA was both temperature- and pH-responsive. The morphological structure, size distributions and volume phase transitions of magnetic and stimuli-responsive composite hydrogel particles were analyzed. Temperature-responsive absorptions of biomolecules were observed on both magnetic and stimuli-responsive Fe3O4/SiO2/P(S-NIPAM-MMA-PEGMA and Fe3O4/SiO2/P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA composite hydrogel particles and separation of particles from the dispersion media could be achieved by applying magnetic field without time consuming centrifugation or decantation method.

  18. The thermal degradation of poly(iso-butyl methacrylate and poly(sec-butyl methacrylate

    IVANKA G. POPOVIC

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The non-oxidative thermal degradation of poly(iso-butyl methacrylate and poly(sec-butyl methacrylate was investigated by studying changes in the polymer residue. Due to the different number of b-hydrogens in their ester substituents, these two polymeric isomers behave differently when subjected to elevated temperatures. Poly(iso-butyl methacrylate degrades quantitatively by depolymerisation with zip lengths of the same order of magnitude as those of poly(methyl methacrylate. Poly(sec-butyl methacrylate degrades by a combined degradation mechanism of depolymerisation and de-esterification. De-esterification becomes a significant thermolysis route at temperatures higher than 240°C.

  19. PEGylation controls attachment and engulfment of monodisperse magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) microspheres by murine J774.2 macrophages

    Horák, Daniel; Hlídková, Helena; Klyuchivska, O.; Grytsyna, I.; Stoika, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 426, 31 December (2017), s. 315-324 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) * magnetic Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  20. Process for the production of methyl methacrylate

    Eastham, G.R.; Johnson, D.W.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Fraaije, Marco; Winter, Remko

    2015-01-01

    A process of producing methyl methacrylate or derivatives thereof is described. The process includes the steps of; (i) converting 2-butanone to methyl propionate using a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase, and (ii) treating the methyl propionate produced to obtain methyl methacrylate or derivatives

  1. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  2. Structure/property relationships in methacrylate/dimethacrylate polymers for dental applications

    Mehlem, Jeremy John

    Since its invention Bis-GMA or one of its analogs has been the main component of the polymer portion of composites for dental restorations. The need for dilution of Bis-GMA and its analogs to optimize its properties has long been recognized. Bis-GMA is a highly viscous monomer. This high viscosity leads to early vitrification, which limits conversion during cure. This viscosity also limits filler loading. Vitrification at low conversions leads to heterogeneous systems composed of low and high cross-link density phases. The low cross-link density phases behave as defects in the system; therefore, if the amount of low cross-link density phases in the system can be reduced and a more uniform network structure can be achieved, then the mechanical properties of the resin can be improved. Since the increase in viscosity during cure causes vitrification, it is logical that a system with a low initial viscosity will delay the onset of vitrification. Reactive diluents such as triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) are effective at lower levels. However, large amounts negatively affect matrix properties by increasing polymerization shrinkage and water sorption. Shrinkage has been cited as one of the main deficiencies in dental composites. The goal of this project is to improve upon standard viscosity modifying comonomers such as triethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The comonomers that were explored were phenyloxyethyl methacrylate, cyclohexyl methacrylate, and tert-butylcylcohexyl methacrylate. Multicomponent systems based on analogs of ethylene glycol dimethacrylates with different length ethyl glycol chains were also examined. The substitution of monomethacrylates for TEGDMA as a comonomer resulted in enhanced or negligible affects on the mechanical properties of Bis-MEPP based polymer systems while reducing polymerization shrinkage. 129Xenon NMR and TappingMode(TM) AFM were used to characterize the heterogeneity of dimethacrylates systems during their cure cycle as well

  3. Phase holograms in polymethyl methacrylate

    Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is described for the fabrication of complex computer-generated phase holograms in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by means of partial-exposure e-beam lithography and subsequent carefully controlled partial development. Following the development, the pattern appears (rendered in relief) in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 3 mm square, and consisted of up to 10 millions of 0.3-2.0-micron square pixels. Data files were up to 60 Mb-long, and the exposure times ranged to several hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated with a diffraction-limited optical performance of 83-percent efficiency.

  4. Stably dispersible P3HT/ZnO nanocomposites with tunable luminescence by in-situ hydrolysis and copolymerization of zinc methacrylate

    Zhang Lin; Li Fan; Chen Yiwang; Peng Xiaoming; Zhou Weihua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the copolymer shell with the internal hydrophobic polymethacrylate layer and the external hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether groups was successfully bonded on the surface of ZnO nanocrystals through a simple sol-gel method, i.e., radical polymerization of zinc methacrylate (Zn(MA) 2 ) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) and hydrolysis. The prepared ZnO-poly(methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (ZnO-PPEGMA) nanocrystals showed good dispersion and smaller particle size, due to the presence of copolymer shell. The optical properties of ZnO-PPEGMA nanocrystals were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the absorption edge and PL emission in the UV region of ZnO-PPEGMA nanocrystals appeared obvious blue-shift, due to the smaller particle size. Incorporation of ZnO-PPEGMA nanocrystals into poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrix, the dispersion of P3HT/ZnO-PPEGMA nanocomposites was greatly improved and the nanocomposites possessed excellent photoluminescence stability. Meanwhile, it was observed that the PL emission of P3HT/ZnO-PPEGMA nanocomposites was enhanced significantly, due to the presence of copolymer shell and the improvement of compatibility of ZnO-PPEGMA in the P3HT matrix. The results showed that the P3HT/ZnO-PPEGMA nanocomposites could be potential candidates for optical applications.

  5. Time resolved fluorescence anisotropy of basic dyes bound to poly(methacrylic acid in solution

    Oliveira Hueder Paulo M. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of atactic poly(methacrylic acid, PMAA, with molecular weights in the range of (1.6 to 3.4 x 10(5 g mol-1, and labeled with the fluorescent dyes 9-aminoacridine or Nile blue were studied by photophysical measurements as a function of solvent viscosity and polarity. The conformational behavior of the PMAA chain segments around the fluorescent probe was reported by the change in the rotational diffusion of the dyes. Ethylene glycol swells the polymer chain compared with the more contracted conformation of PMAA in 50% water/ethylene glycol. The change in the rotational relaxation time of the dye bound to PMAA with the decrease of water content in the solvent mixture indicates a progressive expansion of polymer chain to a more open coil form in solution.

  6. Polymerization of sodium methacrylate induced by irradiation

    Galvan S, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work has two objectives, first: it is pretended to localize the lines of carbon links in its IR spectra, and second: following the polymerization of sodium methacrylate according to that it is irradiated with gamma rays. (Author)

  7. HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE BASED NANOCOMPOSITE HYDROGELS WITH TUNABLE PORE ARCHITECTURE

    Erhan Bat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA based hydrogels have found increasing number of applications in areas such as chromatographic separations, controlled drug release, biosensing, and membrane separations. In all these applications, the pore size and pore interconnectivity are crucial for successful application of these materials as they determine the rate of diffusion through the matrix. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate is a water soluble monomer but its polymer, polyHEMA, is not soluble in water. Therefore, during polymerization of HEMA in aqueous media, a porous structure is obtained as a result of phase separation. Pore size and interconnectivity in these hydrogels is a function of several variables such as monomer concentration, cross-linker concentration, temperature etc. In this study, we investigated the effect of monomer concentration, graphene oxide addition or clay addition on hydrogel pore size, pore interconnectivity, water uptake, and thermal properties. PolyHEMA hydrogels have been prepared by redox initiated free radical polymerization of the monomer using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. As a nanofiller, a synthetic hectorite Laponite® XLG and graphene oxide were used. Graphene oxide was prepared by the Tour Method. Pore morphology of the pristine HEMA based hydrogels and nanocomposite hydrogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The formed hydrogels were found to be highly elastic and flexible. A dramatic change in the pore structure and size was observed in the range between 22 to 24 wt/vol monomer at 0.5 % of cross-linker. In this range, the hydrogel morphology changes from typical cauliflower architecture to continuous hydrogel with dispersed water droplets forming the pores where the pores are submicron in size and show an interconnected structure. Such controlled pore structure is highly important when these hydrogels are used for solute diffusion or when there’s flow through monolithic hydrogels

  8. Reproductive toxicity of the glycol ethers.

    Hardin, B D

    1983-06-01

    The glycol ethers are an important and widely used class of solvents. Recent studies have demonstrated that ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdiME), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) are teratogenic. Other studies have demonstrated that testicular atrophy or infertility follow treatment of males with EGME, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA), EGEE, EGEEA, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diEGdiME), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE). Experimental data are reviewed and structure-activity relationships are speculated upon.

  9. Selectivity enhancement of phosphate based functional polymeric gels towards Uranium(VI) using ion imprinting

    Chappa, Sankararao; Agarwal, Chhavi; Pandey, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The imprinting of gel containing polymer chains of ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate (EGMP) for U(VI) ions were carried out. The U(VI) imprinting has been carried out in pure EGMP and in EGMP: poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) = 1:9 composition. Complexation of the monomer with template (U(VI)) followed by polymerization have been used to imprint the U(VI) onto the polymer chains. The comparison of uptake studies of U(VI) and Pu(IV) at 3 M HNO 3 shows increased selectivity of U(VI) relative to Pu(IV) for both the gel compositions. The less uptake of U(VI) for imprinted EGMP:PEGMA gel relative to pure imprinted EGMP gel at tracer level can be possibly due to the requirement of two EGMP units in the vicinity for U(VI) complexation. (author)

  10. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and...

  11. Complexes of poly(ethylene glycol)-based cationic random copolymer and calf thymus DNA: a complete biophysical characterization.

    Nisha, C K; Manorama, Sunkara V; Ganguli, Munia; Maiti, Souvik; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2004-03-16

    Complete biophysical characterization of complexes (polyplexes) of cationic polymers and DNA is needed to understand the mechanism underlying nonviral therapeutic gene transfer. In this article, we propose a new series of synthesized random cationic polymers (RCPs) from methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate (MePEGMA) and (3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)trimethylammonium chloride with different mole ratios (32:68, 11:89, and 6:94) which could be used as a model system to address and answer the basic questions relating to the mechanism of the interaction of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and cationic polymers. The solubility of the complexes of CT-DNA and RCP was followed by turbidity measurements. It has been observed that complexes of RCP with 68 mol % MePEGMA precipitate near the charge neutralization point, whereas complexes of the other two polymers are water-soluble and stable at all compositions. Dnase 1 digestion experiments show that DNA is inaccessible when it forms complexes with RCP. Ethidium bromide exclusion and gel electrophoretic mobility show that both polymers are capable of binding with CT-DNA. Atomic force microscopy images in conjunction with light scattering experiments showed that the complexes are spherical in nature and 75-100 nm in diameter. Circular dichroism spectroscopy studies indicated that the secondary structure of DNA in the complexes is not perturbed due to the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) segments in the polymer. Furthermore, we used a combination of spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to determine complete thermodynamic profiles accompanying the helix-coil transition of CT-DNA in the complexes. UV and differential scanning calorimetry melting experiments revealed that DNA in the complexes is more stable than in the free state and the extent of stability depends on the polymer composition. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that the binding of these RCPs to CT-DNA is associated with small exothermic

  12. Polyol mediated nano size zinc oxide and nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophilic nano ZnO particles have been synthesized in various diols (ethylene glycol – EG, 1,2 propane diol – PD, 1,4 butane diol – BD and tetra(ethylene glycol – TEG in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid, p-TsOH, as an end capping agent. The addition of p-TsOH reduces the ZnO particle size and increases its crystallite size. With increasing diol main chain length the ZnO particle size increases (EG (32 nm < PD (33 nm < BD (72 nm < TEG (86 nm. Using the assynthesized and unmodified ZnO nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA, matrix have been prepared by the in-situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate, MMA. The addition of surface modifiers is avoided which is an advantage for the application since they can influence other properties of the material. ZnO particles, especially those with smaller particle sizes (EG – 32 nm, PD – 33 nm showed enhanced effect on the thermal stability of PMMA, ultraviolet, UV, absorption and transparency for visible light. Transparent materials with high UV absorption and with enhanced resistance to sunlight were obtained by optimizing the nanocomposite preparation procedure using ZnO particles of about 30 nm size in concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1 wt%. The reported nanocomposite preparation procedure is compatible with the industrial process of PMMA sheet production.

  13. Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates.

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Jungewelter, Soile; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta

    2009-07-01

    Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-acryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-GA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryl-oxyethoxy)phenyl] propane (bis-EMA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryloxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-MA), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is often manifested together with contact allergy to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin. To analyse patterns of concomitant allergic reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates in relation to exposure. We reviewed the 1994-2008 patch test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) for reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates, and examined the patients' medical records for exposure. Twenty-four patients had an allergic reaction to at least one of the studied epoxy (meth)acrylates, but specific exposure was found only in five patients: two bis-GMA allergies from dental products, two bis-GA allergies from UV-curable printing inks, and one bis-GA allergy from an anaerobic glue. Only 25% of the patients were negative to DGEBA epoxy resin. The great majority of allergic patch test reactions to bis-GMA, bis-GA, GMA and bis-EMA were not associated with specific exposure, and cross-allergy to DGEBA epoxy resin remained a probable explanation. However, independent reactions to bis-GA indicated specific exposure. Anaerobic sealants may induce sensitization not only to aliphatic (meth)acrylates but also to aromatic bis-GA.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a new photo-crosslinkable glycol chitosan thermogel for biomedical applications.

    Cho, Ik Sung; Cho, Myeong Ok; Li, Zhengzheng; Nurunnabi, Md; Park, Sung Young; Kang, Sun-Woong; Huh, Kang Moo

    2016-06-25

    The major limitations of typical thermogelling polymers for practical applications are low gel stability and weak mechanical properties under physiological conditions. In this study, we have synthesized a new polysaccharide-based thermogelling polymer that can be photo-crosslinked by UV irradiation to form a mechanically resilient and elastic hydrogel. Methacrylated hexanoyl glycol chitosan (M-HGC), was synthesized by a series of chemical modifications, N-hexanoylation and N-methacrylation, of glycol chitosan (GC). Various M-HGC polymers with different methacryl group contents were synthesized and their thermogelling and photo-crosslinkable properties were evaluated. The M-HGCs demonstrated a thermo-reversible sol-gel transition behavior in aqueous solutions. The thermally-induced hydrogels could be chemically crosslinked by UV-triggered photo-crosslinking. From the cytotoxicity studies using MTT and the live/dead assay, the M-HGC hydrogels showed non-cytotoxicity. These photo-crosslinkable thermogelling M-HGC polymers may hold great promises for various biomedical applications, such as an injectable delivery system and 3D cell culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Control of Chemical Structure for Biofouling Resistant, High Fouling Release Surfaces

    2014-06-02

    copolymer of a poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized methacrylate (PEGMA) and a fluoroalkyl acrylate (AF6) prepared by ATRP. The statistical block of...Under an argon atmosphere, benzyl alcohol initiator was added by gas-tight syringe through a 6-mm puresep septum. Potassium alkoxide initiators were...formed by titration of benzyl alcohol with potassium naphthalenide under argon until a green color persisted in solution indicating the

  16. Methacrylate and acrylate allergy in dental personnel.

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alanko, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta

    2007-11-01

    Methacrylates are important allergens in dentistry. The study aimed to analyse patch test reactivity to 36 acrylic monomers in dental personnel in relation to exposure. We reviewed the test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health from 1994 to 2006 for allergic reactions to acrylic monomers in dental personnel and analysed the clinical records of the sensitized patients. 32 patients had allergic reactions to acrylic monomers: 15 dental nurses, 9 dentists, and 8 dental technicians. The dentists and dental nurses were most commonly exposed to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA), and 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). 8 dentists and 12 dental nurses were allergic to 2-HEMA. The remaining dentist was positive to bis-GMA and other epoxy acrylates. The remaining 3 dental nurses reacted to diethyleneglycol diacrylate (DEGDA) or triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TREGDA), but not to monofunctional and multifunctional methacrylates. Our dental technicians were mainly exposed and sensitized to methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). 1 technician reacted only to 2-HEMA, and another to ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA). 2-HEMA was the most important allergen in dentists and dental nurses, and MMA and EGDMA in dental technicians. Reactions to bis-GMA, DEGDA, TREGDA, EMA and EA were relevant in some patients.

  17. 78 FR 55644 - Styrene, Copolymers with Acrylic Acid and/or Methacrylic Acid; Tolerance Exemption

    2013-09-11

    ..., 3-sulfopropyl acrylate, 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate, hydroxypropyl methacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate; and its sodium, potassium, ammonium..., hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and/or hydroxyethyl acrylate; and its sodium, potassium...

  18. Retention of krypton on polymethyl methacrylate

    Ciric, M.M.; Cvjeticanin, N.M.; Radak, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Retention of krypton on polymethyl methacrylate was studied as a function of kryptonation pressure (P), temperature (T) and time (t). It was found that the dependence of the retained quantity on P, T, and t is in accordance with the diffusion theory. The optimum results (i.e., the maximum retained quantity and the best stability of the kryptonate) were obtained at elevated kryptonation temperatures (200 0 C). The diffusion coefficients of krypton in polymethyl methacrylate, determined from the dekryptonation process, vary from 1 x 10 -10 cm 2 /s to 0.2 x 10 -10 cm 2 /s for samples kryptonated at 20 0 C and 200 0 C respectively. The results have been discussed from the viewpoint of radiation and thermal stability of kryptonated polymethyl methacrylate. Inadequate radiation stability could be the main obstacle for practical purposes. (U.S.)

  19. Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes

    Christian Dollendorf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethylphenylamino-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2, blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyloxyphenylaminoanthraquinone (6 and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethylaminoanthraquinone (12, as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-ylaminoanthraquinone (15 were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants.

  20. Methyl methacrylate oligomerically-modified clay and its poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites

    Zheng Xiaoxia; Jiang, David D.; Wilkie, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    A methyl methacrylate oligomerically-modified clay was used to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate) clay nanocomposites by melt blending and the effect of the clay loading level on the modified clay and corresponding nanocomposite was studied. These nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimetry. The results show a mixed intercalated/delaminated morphology with good nanodispersion. The compatibility between the methylacrylate-subsituted clay and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are greatly improved compared to other oligomerically-modified clays

  1. Synthesis and characterization of functionalized methacrylates for coatings and biomedical applications

    Shemper, Bianca Sadicoff

    The research presented in this dissertation involves the design of polymers for biomaterials and for coatings applications. The development of non-wettable, hard UV-curing, or reactive coatings is discussed. The biomaterials section involves the syntheses of linear and star-like polymers of the functionalized monomer poly(propylene glycol) monomethacrylate (PPGM) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) (Chapter II). Its copolymerization with a perfluoroalkyl ethyl methacrylate monomer (1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate) and the syntheses of linear and star-like amphiphilic copolymers containing the fluorinated monomer and poly(ethyleneglycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA) are discussed in Chapter III. The four-arm amphiphilic block copolymer obtained showed unique associative properties leading to micellization in selective solvents. Chapter IV includes research involving the design of films with low surface energy by incorporating fluorine into the polymer. The synthesis, characterization and polymerization of a perfluoroalkylether-substituted methacrylic acid (C8F7) are discussed, and the properties of coatings obtained after its photopolymerization on different substrates are evaluated to confirm formation of low-surface energy polymeric coatings. Subsequently, hard coatings based on methyl (alpha-hydroxymethyl)acrylate (MHMA) were prepared via photopolymerization using UV-light. Firstly, mechanistic investigations into the photopolymerization behavior of (alpha-hydroxymethyl)acrylates (RHMA's) are reported (Chapter V). RHMA derivatives were photopolymerized with various multifunctional acrylates and methacrylates and the effect of crosslinker type and degree of functionality on photopolymerization rates and conversions was investigated. Then, in Chapter VI the synthesis of a series of new crosslinkers is described and their photopolymerization kinetics was investigated in bulk. The effect of these novel crosslinkers on the

  2. A nonaqueous potentiometric titration study of the dissociation of t-butyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid copolymers.

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Yamashita, Jun; Sekine, Tomomi; Toriumi, Minoru; Itani, Toshiro

    2003-05-01

    The dissociation of t-butyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid copolymers in dimethyl sulfoxide was analyzed by a nonaqueous potentiometric titration technique. The negative logarithm of the dissociation constant of the monomer unit of a methacrylic acid (MAA) monotonously increased with the increasing degree of dissociation corresponding to the titrant/MAA amount ratio, and was highly influenced by the copolymerization ratio. The results are discussed in terms of the suppression of the dissociation of MAA by a neighboring charged methacrylate anion unit.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) Cross Linked Polymeric Network for the Delivery of Analgesic Agent

    Rashid, H.; Ahmad, M.; Minhas, M. U.; Aamir, M. F.; Sohail, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective of the study was to synthesize a chemically cross-linked poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogel (p(HEMA-co-MAA hydrogel)) for pH-responsive, controlled drug delivery of Flurbiprofen. pH-sensitive hydrogel drug delivery system was synthesized with the help of poly hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) by using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker. The monomers (HEMA and MAA) were successfully cross linked through free radical polymerization process, initiated by benzoyl peroxide in an aqueous medium. All formulations were loaded with Flurbiprofen as a model drug and evaluated at pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 to investigate pH-responsive nature of the system. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to confirm the cross-linking of copolymer while thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed to evaluate the thermal stability of the system. Swelling studies and in-vitro release studies were carried out to evaluate pH-responsive nature of the hydrogels. FTIR confirmed that monomers were successfully cross-linked to form a copolymer. Hydrogel system showed less swelling at lower pH while at higher pH, it showed higher swelling, releasing drug in the same fashion. It was concluded that a stable hydrogel network was chemically cross-linked showing pH-responsive nature and thus, synthesized p(HEMA-co-MAA) hydrogels can be successfully employed as potential candidate for controlled drug delivery. (author)

  4. Methacrylate hydrogels reinforced with bacterial cellulose

    Hobzová, Radka; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Michálek, Jiří; Karpushkin, Evgeny; Gatenholm, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2012), s. 1193-1201 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400500902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : bacterial cellulose * methacrylate hydrogel * composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2012

  5. Thermogravimetric studies on alkyl methacrylate polymers and poly(alkyl methacrylate)-grafted polypropylene fibers

    Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Taoda, Hiroshi; Kawase, Kaoru; Tazawa, Masato; Yamakita, Hiromi

    1986-01-01

    Thermal behavior of several kinds of poly (alkyl methacrylate) and polypropylene-g-poly (alkyl methacrylate) fibers prepared by γ-irradiation was investigated by thermogravimetric measurements with the intermittent analysis of the gaseous products. The degradation of poly (methyl methacrylate) proceeded according to the deploymerization mechanism reproducing the pristine monomer exclusively. The thermogram in inert atmosphere showed the features of a two-step depolymerization, while in air it showed no such a stepwise decrease with the elevating temperature. The dissolution-precipitation treatment of polymer seemed to affect the decomposition behavior. On other alkyl methacrylate polymers, the thermal decomposition generally proceeded also according to the depolymerization mechanism. But, for instance, at least two kinds of products besides its own monomer were formed from poly (isobutyl methacrylate), and their relative fractions differed with the temperature. Polypropylene-g-poly (alkyl methacrylate) fibers showed lowering of initiation temperature of decomposition with the increase in extent of the grafting, and their initiation temperatures of decomposition in air were lower than those in inert atmosphere. (author)

  6. [Physical properties of resins for veneer crown. (Part 1) Bending strength of thermosetting methacrylic resins (author's transl)].

    Kashiwada, T

    1979-01-01

    The physical properties of thermosetting methacrylic resins contain a kind or more than two kinds of cross linking agents were investigated. Knoop hardness and bending strength after drying, water sorption and thermal cycling were listed in table 4 and 5. Hydrophilic resins absorbed water about 3 times as much as hydrophobic resins. The materials contain a small amount of hydrophobic cross linking agents in MMA indicate comparatively excellent properties after drying, water sorption and thermal cycling. Knoop hardness of resins generally reduced by water sorption, especially in the case of the resin contains a large amount of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate.

  7. Multifunctional PEG-carboxylate copolymer coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical application

    Illés, Erzsébet; Szekeres, Márta; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Szabó, Ákos; Iván, Béla; Turcu, Rodica; Vékás, Ladislau; Zupkó, István; Jaics, György; Tombácz, Etelka

    2018-04-01

    Biocompatible magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by post-coating the magnetic nanocores with a synthetic polymer designed specifically to shield the particles from non-specific interaction with cells. Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) macromonomers and acrylic acid (AA) small molecular monomers were chemically coupled by quasi-living atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to a comb-like copolymer, P(PEGMA-co-AA) designated here as P(PEGMA-AA). The polymer contains pendant carboxylate moieties near the backbone and PEG side chains. It is able to bind spontaneously to MNPs; stabilize the particles electrostatically via the carboxylate moieties and sterically via the PEG moieties; provide high protein repellency via the structured PEG layer; and anchor bioactive proteins via peptide bond formation with the free carboxylate groups. The presence of the P(PEGMA-AA) coating was verified in XPS experiments. The electrosteric (i.e., combined electrostatic and steric) stabilization is efficient down to pH 4 (at 10 mM ionic strength). Static magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements showed that the P(PEGMA-AA)@MNPs are superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization value of 55 emu/g and that both single core nanoparticles and multicore structures are present in the samples. The multicore components make our product well suited for magnetic hyperthermia applications (SAR values up to 17.44 W/g). In vitro biocompatibility, cell internalization, and magnetic hyperthermia studies demonstrate the excellent theranostic potential of our product.

  8. Synthesis and self-assembly of four-armed star copolymer based on poly(ethylene brassylate) hydrophobic block as potential drug carries

    Chen, Jiucun, E-mail: chenjc@swu.edu.cn; Li, Junzhi; Liu, Jianhua; Weng, Bo; Xu, Liqun [Southwest University, Institute for Clean Energy & Advanced Materials (China)

    2016-05-15

    A novel well-defined four-armed star poly(ethylene brassylate)-b-poly(poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate) (s-PEB-b-P(PEGMA)) was synthesized and self-assembled via the combination of ring-opening polymerization and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) in this work. It proceeded firstly with the synthesis of hydrophobic four-armed star homopolymer of ethylene brassylate (EB) via ROP with organic catalyst, followed by the esterification reaction of s-PEB with chain transfer agent. Afterward, RAFT polymerization of PEGMA monomer was initialed using PEB-based macro-RAFT agent, resulting in the target amphiphilic four-armed star copolymer. The obtained s-PEB-b-P(PEGMA) can assemble into micelles with PEB segments as core and P(PEGMA) segments as shell in aqueous solution. The self-assembly behavior was studied by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. The micelles of s-PEB-b-P(PEGMA) exhibited higher loading capacity of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The investigation of DOX release from the micelles demonstrated that the release rate of the hydrophobic drug could be effectively controlled.Graphical Abstract.

  9. Composite poly(methyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) latex for immunoassay. The case of plasminogen.

    Miksa, B; Wilczynska, M; Cierniewski, C; Basinska, T; Slomkowski, S

    1995-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) latex (ACRYLAT) was synthesized by radical precipitation polymerization. The mass median diameter (MMD) and the geometrical standard deviation (GSD) of the ACRYLAT particles were 138 nm and 1.2, respectively. The concentration of the titrable carboxylic groups in the surface layer of latex particles was equal to 8.41 x 10(-6) mol m-2. Latex was able to bind up to 2.82 x 10(-7) mol of 1-aminopyrene per 1 m2 of the surface of the latex particles due to the ionic interactions between carboxylate anions and ammonium cations of protonated 1-aminopyrene. ACRYLAT was able to immobilize covalently human serum albumin in amounts up to 0.23 mg m-2. Aggregation of ACRYLAT with immobilized HSA, induced with specific antibodies (anti-HSA), was investigated turbidimetrically. The results indicated that in the model turbidimetric immunoassay, ACRYLAT coated with HSA can be used for the detection of anti-HSA in the goat anti-HSA serum diluted from 50 to 7000-fold. Immobilization of rabbit antibodies to plasminogen (anti-Plg) to ACRYLAT via the epsilon-aminocaproic acid linkers provided particles which were used for the development of the turbidimetric immunoassay for plasminogen. In this assay plasminogen could be detected in concentration ranging from 0.75 to 75 micrograms ml-1 in the blood plasma.

  10. Copolymerization of 4-Acetylphenyl Methacrylate with Ethyl Methacrylate: Synthesis, Characterization, Monomer Reactivity Ratios, and Thermal Properties

    Gamze Barim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methacrylates have high glass transition temperature (Tg values and high thermal stability. A new methacrylate copolymer, poly(4-acetylphenyl methacrylate-co-ethyl methacrylate (APMA-co-EMA, was synthesized. The thermal behaviors of copolymers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. They behaved as new single polymers with single Tg’s and the thermal stability of the copolymers increased with increasing 4-acetylphenyl methacrylate (APMA fraction, leading to the manufacture of copolymers with desired Tg values. Structure and composition of copolymers for a wide range of monomer feed ratios were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopic techniques. Copolymerization reactions were continued up to 40% conversions. The monomer reactivity ratios for copolymer system were determined by the Kelen-Tüdös (ra(APMA=0.81; rb(EMA=0.61 and extended Kelen-Tüdös (ra=0.77; rb=0.54 methods and a nonlinear least squares (ra=0.74; rb=0.49 method.

  11. Increased radiation degradation in methyl methacrylate copolymers

    Helbert, J.N; Wagner, G.E.; Caplan, P.J.; Poindexter, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of polar substituents at the quaternary carbon on degradation processes in several polymers and 10 to 20 percent copolymers of methyl methacrylate was explored. EPR was used to monitor radiation degradation products and to determine radiation G values. Irradiations were carried out at 77 0 K in a gamma irradiator at a dose rate of 0.3 Mrad/hr. (U.S.)

  12. Allylthioketone Mediated Free Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates

    Feng Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By combination of high trapping free radical efficiency of the thioketone and resonance of the allylic radical, a new type of mediating agent, 1,3,3-triphenylprop-2-ene-1-thione (TPPT has been successfully synthesized, and then is used to study controlled free radical polymerization of methacrylates. Very stable TPPT radicals at the end of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA are detected in the polymerization of MMA using TPPT and AIBN as the control agent and initiator. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra are used to identify terminal groups of the resultant poly(glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA, and major component of the obtained polymer has the structure, (CH32(CNC-PGMA-C7H9O3. Chain extension reaction tests ascertain formation of the dead polymers during the polymer storage and purification process of the polymers. Owing to very slow fragmentation reaction of the TPPT-terminated polymethacrylate radical and addition reaction of this radical with a primary radical, the growing chain radicals are difficult to be regenerated, leading to an unobvious change of the molecular weight with monomer conversion. The molecular weights of polymers can be controlled by the ratios of monomer/initiator and TPPT/initiator. However, the first order kinetics of the polymerization and the polymers with narrow polydispersity are obtained, and these phenomena are discussed. This study provides useful information on how to design a better controlling agent.

  13. Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition of cytocompatible poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) films.

    McMahon, Brian J; Pfluger, Courtney A; Sun, Bing; Ziemer, Katherine S; Burkey, Daniel D; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) is a widely utilized biomaterial due to lack of toxicity and suitable mechanical properties; conformal thin pHEMA films produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) would thus have broad biomedical applications. Thin films of pHEMA were deposited using photoinitiated CVD (piCVD). Incorporation of ethylene glycol diacrylate (EGDA) into the pHEMA polymer film as a crosslinker, confirmed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, resulted in varied swelling and degradation behavior. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate-only films showed significant thickness loss (up to 40%), possibly due to extraction of low-molecular-weight species or erosion, after 24 h in aqueous solution, whereas films crosslinked with EGDA (9.25-12.4%) were stable for up to 21 days. These results differ significantly from those obtained with plasma-polymerized pHEMA, which degraded steadily over a 21-day period, even with crosslinking. This suggests that the piCVD films differ structurally from those fabricated via plasma polymerization (plasma-enhanced CVD). piCVD pHEMA coatings proved to be good cell culture materials, with Caco-2 cell attachment and viability comparable to results obtained on tissue-culture polystyrene. Thus, thin film CVD pHEMA offers the advantage of enabling conformal coating of a cell culture substrate with tunable properties depending on method of preparation and incorporation of crosslinking agents. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Long-term toughness of photopolymerizable (meth)acrylate networks in aqueous environments.

    Smith, Kathryn E; Trusty, Phillip; Wan, Beatrice; Gall, Ken

    2011-02-01

    Photopolymerizable (meth)acrylate networks are potentially advantageous biomaterials due to their ability to be formed in situ, their fast synthesis rates and their tailorable material properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate how immersion time in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) affects the toughness of photopolymerizable methyl acrylate (MA)-co-methyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate networks containing various concentrations of MA. Stress-strain behavior was determined by performing tensile strain to failure testing after soaking in PBS for different periods (1 day up to 9 months). In tandem, differential scanning calorimetry and PBS content measurements were undertaken at each time point in order to determine whether time-dependent changes in toughness were related to changes in T(g) or PBS absorption. The effect of immersion time on network toughness was shown to be dependent upon composition in a manner related to the viscoelastic state of the polymer upon initial immersion in PBS. The results demonstrate that tough acrylate-based materials may not maintain their toughness after several months in PBS. In addition, decreasing the PBS content by changing the network hydrophobicity resulted in better toughness maintenance after 9 months. The results provide a possible means to toughen various amorphous acrylate-based implant materials that are being explored for load-bearing biomedical applications, beyond the systems considered in this work. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Stereosequence distributions of poly(t-butyl methacrylate)s prepared with butyllithium

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Yamada, Osamu; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Takegami, Yoshinobu

    1982-01-01

    13 C NMR spectra of poly(t-butyl methacrylate)s (PBMA) prepared with butyl-lithium (n-BuLi) were studied. Methylene carbon resonances appeared as five overlapped peaks, which were interpreted as a combination of hexad stereosequence distributions. The stereosequence distribution of PBMA prepared with n-BuLi at -78 0 C obeyed the first order Markov chain model even polymerized in tetrahydrofuran (THF). Syndiotactic PBMA was obtained with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator, and the stereosequence distribution of this polymer agreed well with Bernoullian statistics. (author)

  16. Multifunctional poly(alkyl methacrylate) films for dental care

    Nielsen, Birthe V; Nevell, Thomas G; Barbu, Eugen; Smith, James R; Tsibouklis, John; Rees, Gareth D

    2011-01-01

    Towards the evaluation of non-permanent dental coatings for their capacity to impart dental-care benefits, thin films of a homologous series of comb-like poly(alkyl methacrylate)s (ethyl to octadecyl) have been deposited, from aqueous latex formulations, onto dentally relevant substrates. AFM studies have shown that the thickness (40-300 nm) and surface roughness (8-12 nm) of coherent polymer films are influenced by the degree of polymerization and by the length of the pendant chain. Of the polymers under consideration, poly(butyl methacrylate) formed a close-packed film that conferred to dental substrates a high degree of inhibition to acid-mediated erosion (about 27%), as evaluated by released-phosphate determinations. The potential utility of the coatings to act as anti-sensitivity barriers has been evaluated by determining the hydraulic conductance of coated bovine-dentine substrates; single treatments of dentine discs with poly(butyl methacrylate) or with poly(ethyl methacrylate) effected mean respective reductions in fluid flow of about 23% with respect to water-treated controls; repeated applications of the poly(butyl methacrylate) latex led to mean reductions in fluid flow of about 80%. Chromometric measurements have shown that pellicle-coated hydroxyapatite discs treated with poly(butyl methacrylate), poly(hexyl methacrylate) or poly(lauryl methacrylate) exhibit significant resistance to staining by food chromogens.

  17. Multifunctional poly(alkyl methacrylate) films for dental care

    Nielsen, Birthe V; Nevell, Thomas G; Barbu, Eugen; Smith, James R; Tsibouklis, John [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Rees, Gareth D [GlaxoSmithKline R and D, St George' s Avenue, Weybridge, Surrey, KT13 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Towards the evaluation of non-permanent dental coatings for their capacity to impart dental-care benefits, thin films of a homologous series of comb-like poly(alkyl methacrylate)s (ethyl to octadecyl) have been deposited, from aqueous latex formulations, onto dentally relevant substrates. AFM studies have shown that the thickness (40-300 nm) and surface roughness (8-12 nm) of coherent polymer films are influenced by the degree of polymerization and by the length of the pendant chain. Of the polymers under consideration, poly(butyl methacrylate) formed a close-packed film that conferred to dental substrates a high degree of inhibition to acid-mediated erosion (about 27%), as evaluated by released-phosphate determinations. The potential utility of the coatings to act as anti-sensitivity barriers has been evaluated by determining the hydraulic conductance of coated bovine-dentine substrates; single treatments of dentine discs with poly(butyl methacrylate) or with poly(ethyl methacrylate) effected mean respective reductions in fluid flow of about 23% with respect to water-treated controls; repeated applications of the poly(butyl methacrylate) latex led to mean reductions in fluid flow of about 80%. Chromometric measurements have shown that pellicle-coated hydroxyapatite discs treated with poly(butyl methacrylate), poly(hexyl methacrylate) or poly(lauryl methacrylate) exhibit significant resistance to staining by food chromogens.

  18. Microporous gel electrolytes based on amphiphilic poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium batteries

    Yu Shicheng; Chen Lie; Chen Yiwang; Tong Yongfen

    2012-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) grafted poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PVDF-HFP-g-PPEGMA) is simply prepared by single-step synthesis directly via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) from poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP). Thermal, mechanical, swelling and electrochemical properties, as well as microstructures of the prepared polymer electrolytes, are evaluated and the effects of the various contents and average molecular weights of PEGMA on those properties are also been investigated. By phase inversion technique, the copolymer membranes tend to form well-defined microporous morphology with the increase of content and average molecular weight of PEGMA, due to the competition and cooperation between the hydrophilic PEGMA segments and hydrophobic PVDF-HFP. When these membranes are gelled with 1 M LiCF 3 SO 3 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) (1:1, v/v), their saturated electrolyte uptakes (up to 323.5%) and ion conductivities (up to 2.01 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) are dramatically improved with respect to the pristine PVDF-HFP, ascribing to the strong affinity of the hydrophilic PEGMA segments with the electrolytes. All the polymer electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.7 V versus Li/Li + , and show good mechanical properties. Coin cells based on the polymer electrolytes show stable charge-discharge cycles and deliver discharge capacities to LiFePO 4 is up to 156 mAh g -1 .

  19. THE KINETICS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE POLYMERIZATION INITIATED BY THE VOLATILE PRODUCTS OF A METHYL METHACRYLATE PLASMA

    杨梅林; 马於光; 郑莹光; 沈家骢

    1990-01-01

    It is found that the volatile products of methyl methacrylate plasma can very actively initiate the polymerization of the monomer to produce ultrahigh molecular weight polymers. This polymerization of MMA occurs by a livlng free radical mechanism with instantaneous initiation and monomer transfer.

  20. Radiation initiated polymerisation of phenyl methacrylate

    Raghunath, S.; Rao, M.H.; Rao, K.N.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation initiated polymerisation of phenyl methacrylate has been studied at various dose rates and temperature. Predominant chain transfer to the monomer was observed and ksub(tran)/Ksub(p) the chain transfer constant ratio was found to be 4 x 10 -2 .ksub(p)/ksub(tsup(1/2)) value determined by the kinetic data and the molecular weight data were 0.0821 and 0.0198, respectively. IR studies of polymer at low conversion showed the presence of terminal unsaturation which disappeared at saturation conversion, thus showing its participation in the formation of a three dimensional network. (author)

  1. Radiation copolymerization of tributyltin methacrylate and methylmathacrylate

    Zhao Binxi; Zhu Xiaohong; Murat; Han Zhewen

    1987-01-01

    The copolymer of tributytin methacrylate and methylmethacrylate is a useful self-polishing antifouling paints materials. It was synthesized by radiation polymerization using 60 Co γ ray at room temperature. The copolymerization kinetics of the pair of monomers was studied. The relationship between the reaction rate and the dose rate was found to be R p = K p ·I -053 and the reactivity ratios were measured to be less than 1. The overall activition energy was 1.29 x 10 4 J/mol. It was supposed that the copolymerization was of radical machanism

  2. A poly(alkyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene-vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride) monolithic column for solid-phase microextraction.

    Liu, Wan-Ling; Lirio, Stephen; Yang, Yicong; Wu, Lin-Tai; Hsiao, Shu-Ying; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2015-05-22

    In this study, an organic polymer monolithic columns, which were prepared via in situ polymerization of alkyl methacrylate-ester (AMA), divinylbenzene (DVB) and vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride (VBTA, charged monomer), were developed as adsorbent for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Different parameters affecting the extraction efficiency for nine (9) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the ratio of the stearyl methacrylate (SMA) to DVB monomer, column length, sample pH, extraction flow rate and desorption solvent were investigated to obtain the optimal SPME condition. Also, the permeability for each poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolithic column was investigated by adding porogenic solvent (poly(ethylene glycol), PEG). Using the optimized condition, a series of AMA-based poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolith columns were developed to determine the effect the extraction efficiency of NSAIDs by varying the alkyl chain length of the methacrylate ester (methyl-, butyl-, octyl-, or lauryl-methacrylate; (MMA, BMA, OMA, LMA)). Results showed that decreasing the AMA chain length increases the extraction efficiency of some NSAIDs (i.e. sulindac (sul), naproxen (nap), ketoprofen (ket) and indomethacin (idm)). Among the poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolithic columns, poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) showed a highly repeatable extraction efficiency for NSAIDs with recoveries ranging from 85.0 to 100.2% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 6.8% (n=3). The poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) can also be reused for at least 50 times without any significant effect in extraction efficiency for NSAIDs. Finally, using the established conditions, the poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) was used to extract trace-level NSAIDs (100μgL(-1)) in river water with good recoveries ranging from 75.8 to 90.8% (RSD<14.9%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymerization of methyl methacrylate by diphenylamido bis (methylcyclopentadienyl) ytterbium complex

    WANG, Yao-Rong(王耀荣); SHEN, Qi(沈琪); MA, Jia-Le(马家乐); ZHAO, Qun(赵群)

    2000-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) was effectively polymerized by diphenylamido bis(methyicyclopentadienyl) ytterbium complex (MeCp)2YbNPh2(THF). Tne reaction can be carried out over a range of polymerization temperature from - 40℃ to 40℃ and gives the polyMMA with high molecular weights.The initiation mechanism was demonstrated by diphenylamidoterminated methyl methacrylate oligomer.

  4. Investigation of Methacrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    Marshall, William G.; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows that pressure can be a low-intensity route to the synthesis of polymethacrylic acid. The exploration of perdeuterated methacrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction reveals that methacrylic acid exhibits two polymorphic phase transformations at relatively low...

  5. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pickenheim, B. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); BIBLER, N. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.

  6. Biosynthetic mechanism of glycolate in Chromatium, 4

    Asami, Sumio; Takabe, Tetsuo; Akazawa, Takashi

    1977-01-01

    The metabolic transformation of glycolate to glycine occurring in photosynthesizing cells of Chromatium was investigated by the radioisotopic technique and by amino acid analysis. By analyzing the distribution of radiocarbon upon feeding (1- 14 C) glycolate, (2- 14 C) glyoxylate and (1- 14 C) glycine to bacterial cells, it was demonstrated that glycolate is converted to glycine via glyoxylate, and both glycolate and glycine are excreted extracellularly. Although the formation of serine was barely detected by the above two techniques in both N 2 and O 2 atmospheres, it was found that 14 CO 2 is evolved quite markedly from both (1- 14 C) glycolate and (1- 14 C) glycine fed to the Chromatium cells. Analytical results of transient changes in amino acid compositions under atmospheric changes of N 2 →O 2 and by the addition of exogenous glycolate in N 2 confirm the notion that glycolate is converted to glycine. Acidic amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid) appear to take part in glycine formation as amino donors. The formation of glycine from glycolate in a N 2 atmosphere suggests that an unknown glycolate dehydrogenation reaction may operate in the overall process. (auth.)

  7. Ethylene Glycol, Hazardous Substance in the Household

    Jiří Patočka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment.

  8. Study of the molecular mobility of methyl-methacrylate and methacrylic acid copolymers by solid state NMR

    Tavares, Maria Ines B.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.; Monteiro, Elisabeth E.C.

    1997-01-01

    Several methyl-methacrylate/methacrylic acid copolymers were prepared in the presence of concentrated nitric acid. The obtained copolymers were characterized by molecular weigh determination and hydrolization degree. The molecular mobility of these copolymers was studied by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Results are presented

  9. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Lambert, D. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickenheim, B. R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bibler, N. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hay, M. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-08

    This document has been revised due to recent information that the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments contains both formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in earlier revisions. Additional data concerning the properties of glycolic acid have also been added to this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in Technical Grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.033 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process. It has been cited that glycolic acid

  10. Studies on novel radiopaque methyl methacrylate: glycidyl methacrylate based polymer for biomedical applications.

    Dawlee, S; Jayakrishnan, A; Jayabalan, M

    2009-12-01

    A new class of radiopaque copolymer using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers was synthesized and characterized. The copolymer was made radiopaque by the epoxide ring opening of GMA using the catalyst o-phenylenediamine and the subsequent covalent attachment of elemental iodine. The copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, energy dispersive X-ray analysis using environmental scanning electron microscope (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray visibility of the copolymer was checked by X-radiography. Blood compatibility and cytotoxicity of the newly synthesized copolymer were also evaluated. The iodinated copolymer was thermally stable, blood compatible, non-cytotoxic, and highly radiopaque. The presence of bulky iodine group created a new copolymer with modified properties for potential use in biomedical applications.

  11. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  12. Surface PEGylation of mesoporous silica materials via surface-initiated chain transfer free radical polymerization: Characterization and controlled drug release.

    Huang, Long; Liu, Meiying; Mao, Liucheng; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Hongye; Wan, Qing; Tian, Jianwen; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-12-01

    As a new type of mesoporous silica materials with large pore diameter (pore size between 2 and 50nm) and high specific surface areas, SBA-15 has been widely explored for different applications especially in the biomedical fields. The surface modification of SBA-15 with functional polymers has demonstrated to be an effective way for improving its properties and performance. In this work, we reported the preparation of PEGylated SBA-15 polymer composites through surface-initiated chain transfer free radical polymerization for the first time. The thiol group was first introduced on SBA-15 via co-condensation with γ-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS), that were utilized to initiate the chain transfer free radical polymerization using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) and itaconic acid (IA) as the monomers. The successful modification of SBA-15 with poly(PEGMA-co-IA) copolymers was evidenced by a series of characterization techniques, including 1 H NMR, FT-IR, TGA and XPS. The final SBA-15-SH- poly(PEGMA-co-IA) composites display well water dispersity and high loading capability towards cisplatin (CDDP) owing to the introduction of hydrophilic PEGMA and carboxyl groups. Furthermore, the CDDP could be released from SBA-15-SH-poly(PEGMA-co-IA)-CDDP complexes in a pH dependent behavior, suggesting the potential controlled drug delivery of SBA-15-SH-poly(PEGMA-co-IA). More importantly, the strategy should be also useful for fabrication of many other functional materials for biomedical applications owing to the advantages of SBA-15 and well monomer adoptability of chain transfer free radical polymerization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate coated natural fabric Sterculia urens

    Jayaramudu, J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available stress, Young's modulus and % elongation at break were determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The effect of alkali treatment and the polymethyl methacrylate coating on tensile properties of the fabric was studied. The morphology of the fabric...

  14. Equilibrium and kinetics study on hexavalent chromium adsorption onto diethylene triamine grafted glycidyl methacrylate based copolymers

    Maksin, Danijela D.; Nastasović, Aleksandra B.; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra D.; Suručić, Ljiljana T.; Sandić, Zvjezdana P.; Hercigonja, Radmila V.; Onjia, Antonije E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Methacrylate based copolymers grafted with diethylene triamine as Cr(VI) sorbents. ► Chemisorption and pore diffusion are characteristics of this sorption system. ► Langmuir isotherm provided best fit and maximum adsorption capacity was 143 mg g −1 . ► Cr(VI) sorption onto amino-functionalized copolymer was endothermic and spontaneous. ► A simple, efficient and cost-effective hexavalent chromium removal method. - Abstract: Two porous and one non-porous crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [abbreviated PGME] were prepared by suspension copolymerization and functionalized with diethylene triamine [abbreviated PGME-deta]. Samples were characterized by elemental analysis, mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption by PGME-deta were investigated in batch static experiments, in the temperature range 25–70 °C. Sorption was rapid, with the uptake capacity higher than 80% after 30 min. Sorption behavior and rate-controlling mechanisms were analyzed using five kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion and Bangham model). Kinetic studies showed that Cr(VI) adsorption adhered to the pseudo-second-order model, with definite influence of pore diffusion. Equilibrium data was tested with Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption isotherm models. Langmuir model was the most suitable indicating homogeneous distribution of active sites on PGME-deta and monolayer sorption. The maximum adsorption capacity from the Langmuir model, Q max , at pH 1.8 and 25 °C was 143 mg g −1 for PGME2-deta (sample with the highest amino group concentration) while at 70 °C Q max reached the high value of 198 mg g −1 . Thermodynamic parameters revealed spontaneous and endothermic nature of Cr(VI) adsorption onto PGME-deta.

  15. Adsorption of lead from aqueous solutions by poly (methyl methacrylate)

    Din, M.; Hussain, R.

    1992-01-01

    The adsorption capability of commercially manufactured poly (methyl methacrylate) for lead in aqueous medium has been investigated. Percent adsorption and distribution coefficient values have been determined in relation to the shaking time, amount of adsorbent, pH effects and concentration of lead in the solution. The experimental results are compatible with Freundlich type of adsorption behavior. It is discernible from the experimental results that poly (methyl methacrylate) can be used for the removal of lead from slightly acidic aqueous solutions. (author)

  16. Facile synthesis of polymeric fluorescent organic nanoparticles based on the self-polymerization of dopamine for biological imaging.

    Shi, Yingge; Jiang, Ruming; Liu, Meiying; Fu, Lihua; Zeng, Guangjian; Wan, Qing; Mao, Liucheng; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-08-01

    Polymeric fluorescent organic nanoparticles (polymer-FONs) have raised considerable research attention for biomedical applications owing to their advantages as compared with fluorescent inorganic nanoparticles and small organic molecules. In this study, we presented an efficient, facile and environment-friendly strategy to produce polymer-FONs, which relied on the self-polymerization of dopamine and polyethyleneimine (PEI) in rather mild conditions. To obtain the final polymer-FONs, aldehyde group-containing copolymers (named as poly(UA-co-PEGMA)) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization using polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) and 1-undecen-10-al (UA) as monomers. The dopamine was conjugated onto poly(UA-co-PEGMA) through a multicomponent reaction between UA and dopamine to obtain poly(UA-co-PEGMA)-DA, which was further utilized for preparation of polymer-FONs through self-polymerization of dopamine and PEI. 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to characterize the structure, morphology, compositions and optical properties of these polymer-FONs. Cell viability and cell uptake behavior results suggested that these polymer-FONs possess good biocompatibility and can be potentially utilized for biomedical applications. More importantly, the method can be also applied to fabricate many other multifunctional polymer-FONs with great potential for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Luminescent polymethyl methacrylate modified by gamma radiation

    Morais, Guilherme F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-ZL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Forster, Pedro L.; Marchini, Leonardo G.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Thin films of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) doped with luminescent complexes have been studied and developed for applications in advanced technologies. The problem of stability of these films is focused in this study. Films stabilization by reaction with fluorinated monomers is a recent study that aims to increase its luminescence properties for long time. The films were prepared by dilution of PMMA in chloroform with addition of europium complex, at proportion of 5% by weight of polymer. The luminescent polymer films were obtained by casting. Thin layer slides of the film were separated in three parts. One was reacted with fluorinated monomers (C{sub 2}F{sub 4}) in closed reactor for 48 hours. A second part was reacted with C{sub 2}F{sub 4} after irradiation in gamma source at 5 kGy in simultaneous process. The last part was used as obtained. The luminescent polymer matrices were characterized using the techniques of infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG). Samples of the films were, in presence of fluorine monomers, exposed to ionizing radiation in dose of 5 kGy, for react with monomers in the doped polymer surface. In this case the effects of radiation were evaluated on the luminescent films. (author)

  18. Luminescent polymethyl methacrylate modified by gamma radiation

    Morais, Guilherme F.; Forster, Pedro L.; Marchini, Leonardo G.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) doped with luminescent complexes have been studied and developed for applications in advanced technologies. The problem of stability of these films is focused in this study. Films stabilization by reaction with fluorinated monomers is a recent study that aims to increase its luminescence properties for long time. The films were prepared by dilution of PMMA in chloroform with addition of europium complex, at proportion of 5% by weight of polymer. The luminescent polymer films were obtained by casting. Thin layer slides of the film were separated in three parts. One was reacted with fluorinated monomers (C 2 F 4 ) in closed reactor for 48 hours. A second part was reacted with C 2 F 4 after irradiation in gamma source at 5 kGy in simultaneous process. The last part was used as obtained. The luminescent polymer matrices were characterized using the techniques of infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG). Samples of the films were, in presence of fluorine monomers, exposed to ionizing radiation in dose of 5 kGy, for react with monomers in the doped polymer surface. In this case the effects of radiation were evaluated on the luminescent films. (author)

  19. Osmotic effects of polyethylene glycol.

    Schiller, L R; Emmett, M; Santa Ana, C A; Fordtran, J S

    1988-04-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used to increase the osmotic pressure of fluids used to cleanse the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about its osmotic activity. To investigate this activity systematically, solutions of PEG of differing molecular weights were made and subjected to measurement of osmolality by both freezing point depression and vapor pressure osmometry. Measured osmolality was increasingly greater than predicted from average molecular weight as PEG concentration increased. Measurement of sodium activity in NaCl/PEG solutions by means of an ion-selective electrode suggested that the higher than expected osmolality could be due in part to interactions that, in effect, sequestered water from the solution. Osmolality was consistently greater by freezing point osmometry than by vapor pressure osmometry. To determine which osmometry method reflected biologically relevant osmolality, normal subjects underwent steady-state total gut perfusion with an electrolyte solution containing 105 g/L of PEG 3350. This produced rectal effluent that was hypertonic by freezing point osmometry but isotonic by vapor pressure osmometry. Assuming that luminal fluid reaches osmotic equilibrium with plasma during total gut perfusion, this result suggests that the vapor pressure osmometer accurately reflects the biologically relevant osmolality of intestinal contents. We conclude that PEG exerts more of an osmotic effect than would be predicted from its molecular weight. This phenomenon may reflect interactions between PEG and water molecules that alter the physical chemistry of the solution and sequester water from the solution.

  20. Alterations of energy metabolism and glutathione levels of HL-60 cells induced by methacrylates present in composite resins.

    Nocca, G; De Palma, F; Minucci, A; De Sole, P; Martorana, G E; Callà, C; Morlacchi, C; Gozzo, M L; Gambarini, G; Chimenti, C; Giardina, B; Lupi, A

    2007-03-01

    Methacrylic compounds such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and bisphenol A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol) dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) are largely present in auto- or photopolymerizable composite resins. Since the polymerization reaction is never complete, these molecules are released into the oral cavity tissues and biological fluids where they could cause local adverse effects. The aim of this work was to verify the hypothesis that the biological effects of HEMA, TEGDMA and Bis-GMA - at a non-cytotoxic concentration - depend on the interaction with mitochondria and exert consequent alterations of energy metabolism, GSH levels and the related pathways in human promyelocytic cell line (HL-60). The biological effects of methacrylic monomers were determined by analyzing the following parameters: GSH concentration, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity, oxygen and glucose consumption and lactate production along with cell differentiation and proliferation. All monomers induced both cellular differentiation and decrease in oxygen consumption. Cells treated with TEGDMA and Bis-GMA showed a significant enhancement of glucose consumption and lactate production. TEGDMA and HEMA induced GSH depletion stimulating G6PDH and GR activity. All the monomers under study affect the metabolism of HL-60 cells and show differentiating activity. Since alterations in cellular metabolism occurred at compound concentrations well below cytotoxic levels, the changes in energy metabolism and glutathione redox balance could be considered as potential mechanisms for inducing clinical and sub-clinical adverse effects and thus providing useful parameters when testing biocompatibility of dental materials.

  1. Obtaining new composite biomaterials by means of mineralization of methacrylate hydrogels using the reaction–diffusion method

    Ramadan, Yousof; González-Sánchez, M. Isabel; Hawkins, Karl; Rubio-Retama, Jorge; Valero, Edelmira; Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, Polina; López-Cabarcos, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction–diffusion method. The scaffold of this biomaterial was a hydrogel constituted by biocompatible polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM), which were cross-linked with N-N’-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). The cross-linking content of the hydrogels was varied from 0.25% to 15% (w/w). The gels were used as matrix where two reactants (Na 2 HPO 4 and CaCl 2 ) diffused from both ends of the gel and upon encountering produced calcium phosphate crystals that precipitated within the polymer matrix forming bands. The shape of the crystals was tuned by modifying the matrix porosity in such a way that when the polymer matrix was slightly reticulated the diffusion reaction produced round calcium phosphate microcrystals, whilst when the polymer matrix was highly reticulated the reaction yielded flat calcium phosphate crystals. Selected area electron diffraction performed on the nanocrystals that constitute the microcrystals showed that they were formed by Brushite (CaHPO 4 .2H 2 O). This new composite material could be useful in medical and dentistry applications such as bone regeneration, bone repair or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • New polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction-diffusion method.-Growing of brushite nanocrystals within a polymeric matrix. • Mineralization by reaction diffusion method controls the crystal growth within gels

  2. Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol ...

    Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol versus normal saline. ... In children, (is this standard of care?: this method is mostly followed) this is usually ... Patients and Methods: Thirty patients, admitted in the Department of ...

  3. Inert Reassessment Document for Ethylene Glycol

    Ethylene Glycol has many uses and are also used as antifreeze and deicers, as solvents, humectants, as chemical intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, and as components of many products such as brake fluids, lubricants, inks,and lacquers.

  4. Intensification of ethylene glycol production process

    Wisutwattanaa, Apiwit; Frauzem, Rebecca; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to generate an alternative design for ethylene glycol production process focusing on a reduction of operating cost and emissions. To achieve this, the phenomena-based method for process intensification was applied. 3 stages of process intensification were performed. First, the base......-case design was obtained, resulting in the production of ethylene glycol via two steps: ethylene oxidation synthesis followed by ethylene oxide hydration to produce ethylene glycol. Feasibility of the design was verified and the process was rigorously designed using a computer process simulation program...... solutions. As the result of intensification method, membrane separation was suggested and applied to the design. With the operation of the new equipment, the ethylene glycol production process was improved for 54.51 percent in terms of energy consumption....

  5. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness...

  6. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) beads for nattokinase purification from fermentation broth.

    Yang, Chengli; Xing, Jianmin; Guan, Yueping; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-09-01

    An effective method for purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth using magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads immobilized with p-aminobenzamidine was proposed in this study. Firstly, magnetic PMMA beads with a narrow size distribution were prepared by spraying suspension polymerization. Then, they were highly functionalized via transesterification reaction with polyethylene glycol. The surface hydroxyl-modified magnetic beads obtained were further modified with chloroethylamine to transfer the surface amino-modified magnetic functional beads. The morphology and surface functionality of the magnetic beads were examined by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. An affinity ligand, p-aminobenzamidine was covalently immobilized to the amino-modified magnetic beads by the glutaraldehyde method for nattokinase purification directly from the fermentation broth. The purification factor and the recovery of the enzyme activity were found to be 8.7 and 85%, respectively. The purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth by magnetic beads only took 40 min, which shows a very fast purification of nattokinase compared to traditional purification methods.

  7. Glycidyl methacrylate macroporous copolymer grafted with diethylene triamine as sorbent for Reactive Black 5

    Sandić Zvjezdana P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, macroporous glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer functionalized with diethylene triamine [PGME-deta], was evaluated as Reactive Black 5 (RB5 sorbent. Batch RB5 removal from aqueous solution by PGME-deta was investigated by varying pH, contact time, sorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature. The sorption is pH sensitive having maximum at pH 2 (dye removal of 85%, decreasing with the increase of pH (dye removal of 24% at pH=11 after 60 min. Sorption kinetics was fitted to chemical-reaction and particle-diffusion models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Mckay models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model accurately predicted the RB5 amount sorbed under all investigated operating conditions, while the intraparticle diffusion was the dominant rate-limiting mechanism. The diffusion mechanism was more prevalent with the decrease in temperature and the increase in concentration. The isotherm data was best fitted with the Langmuir model, indicating homogeneous distribution of active sites on PGME-deta and monolayer sorption, with the maximum sorption capacity of 353 mg g-1. The calculated sorption rates improved with increasing temperature and an activation energy close to 40 kJ mol-1 was determined, suggesting that chemisorption was also rate-controlling. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009, br. TR 37021 i br. III 45001

  8. Engineering of poly(ethylene glycol) chain-tethered surfaces to obtain high-performance bionanoparticles

    Nagasaki, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    A poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] block copolymer possessing a reactive acetal group at the end of the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain, that is, acetal-PEG-b-PAMA, was synthesized by a proprietary polymerization technique. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using the thus-synthesized acetal-PEG-b-PAMA block copolymer. The PEG-b-PAMA not only acted as a reducing agent of aurate ions but also attached to the nanoparticle surface. The GNPs obtained had controlled sizes and narrow size distributions. They also showed high dispersion stability owing to the presence of PEG tethering chains on the surface. The same strategy should also be applicable to the fabrication of semiconductor quantum dots and inorganic porous nanoparticles. The preparation of nanoparticles in situ, i.e. in the presence of acetal-PEG-b-PAMA, gave the most densely packed polymer layer on the nanoparticle surface; this was not observed when coating preformed nanoparticles. PEG/polyamine block copolymer was more functional on the metal surface than PEG/polyamine graft copolymer, as confirmed by angle-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We successfully solubilized the C 60 fullerene into aqueous media using acetal-PEG-b-PAMA. A C 60 /acetal-PEG-b-PAMA complex with a size below 5 nm was obtained by dialysis. The preparation and characterization of these materials are described in this review. (topical review)

  9. Novel pH responsive polymethacrylic acid-chitosan-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles for oral peptide delivery.

    Sajeesh, S; Sharma, Chandra P

    2006-02-01

    In present study, novel pH sensitive polymethacrylic acid-chitosan-polyethylene glycol (PCP) nanoparticles were prepared under mild aqueous conditions via polyelectrolyte complexation. Free radical polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) was carried out in presence of chitosan (CS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) using a water-soluble initiator and particles were obtained spontaneously during polymerization without using organic solvents or surfactants/steric stabilizers. Dried particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particles dispersed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) were visualized under transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM studies indicated that PCP particles have an aggregated and irregular morphology, however, TEM revealed that these aggregated particles were composed of smaller fragments with size less than 1 micron. Insulin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model proteins were incorporated into the nanoparticles by diffusion filling method and their in vitro release characteristics were evaluated at pH 1.2 and 7.4. PCP nanoparticles exhibited good protein encapsulation efficiency and pH responsive release profile was observed under in vitro conditions. Trypsin inhibitory effect of these PCP nanoparticles was studied using casein substrate and these particles displayed lesser inhibitory effect than reference polymer carbopol. Preliminary investigation suggests that these particles can serve as good candidate for oral peptide delivery. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Two-Step Syneretic Formation of Highly Porous Morphology During Copolymerization of Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate and Ethylene Glycol Dimethylacrylate.

    Paljevac, M.; Krajnc, P.; Hanková, Libuše; Holub, Ladislav; Le Droumaguet, B.; Grande, D.; Jeřábek, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUN (2016), s. 16-21 ISSN 2352-4928 Grant - others:MESS(SI) 31196XF; MESS(SI) BI-FR/14-15-PROTEUS-003 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : crystal morphology * phase separation * porosity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  11. Biosynthetic mechanism of glycolate in Chromatium, (3)

    Asami, Sumio; Akazawa, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of α-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonate (α-HPMS), 2,3-epoxypropionate(glycidate), and cyanide on the photosynthetic activity of Chromatium were investigated. The α-HPMS stimulated the photosynthetic CO 2 fixation in the bacterial cells in both N 2 and O 2 environments. The formation and subsequent excretion of both glycolate and glycine in the O 2 atmosphere were markedly enhanced by the HPMS. In contrast to the recent report that glycidate especially inhibits the glycolate formation in tabacco leaf disks, the authors found that it had no influence on the CO 2 fixation by Chromatium in either N 2 or O 2 atmosphere, and that the synthesis and extracellular excretion of glycolate were markedly stimulated by glycidate treatment. The cyanide (0.01 - 1mM) exerted some marked inhibitory effect on the photosynthetic CO 2 fixation in N 2 . In O 2 atmosphere, the photosynthesis was stimulated by the 0.01 mM cyanide, and inhibited by it above this level. Both the incorporation of 14 CO 2 into glycolate and the total synthesis of glycolate in light were also enhanced by the 0.01 mM cyanide, and strongly inhibited above that concentration. (J.P.N.)

  12. Investigation of the homogeneity of methacrylate allergens in commercially available patch test preparations

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2013-01-01

    The homogeneity of methacrylates in commercial patch test preparations has not yet been investigated. Inhomogeneous patch test preparations may give rise to false-negative or false-positive patch test results in patients suspected of having methacrylate allergy.......The homogeneity of methacrylates in commercial patch test preparations has not yet been investigated. Inhomogeneous patch test preparations may give rise to false-negative or false-positive patch test results in patients suspected of having methacrylate allergy....

  13. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  14. [Carcinogenic activity of ethylene oxide and its reaction products 2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. III. Research on ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol for carcinogenic effects].

    Dunkelberg, H

    1987-03-01

    Ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol were each administered once weekly subcutaneously to groups of 100 female NMRI mice at 3 dosages (30; 10 und 3 mg single dose per mouse). Tricaprylin was used as solvent. The mean total dosage per mouse was 2110.5; 707.0 and 196.2 mg for ethylene glycol and 2029.8; 671.7 and 213.3 mg for diethylene glycol. Neither ethylene glycol nor diethylene glycol induced tumors at the injection site or away from the point of administration.

  15. Monoclonal antibody to DNA containing thymine glycol

    Leadon, S A; Hanawalt, P C [Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1983-08-01

    Exposure of DNA to ionizing or near ultraviolet radiation modifies thymine to form ring-saturated products. One of the major products formed is 5,6-dihydroxy-5.6-dihydrothymine (thymine glycol). Thymine glycol can also be selectively formed by oxidizing DNA with OsO/sub 4/. We have isolated hybrids that produce monoclonal antibodies against thymine glycol by fusing mouse myeloma cells (P3X63-Ag8-6.5.3) with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with OsO/sub 4/-oxidized poly(dT) complexed with methylated bovine serum albumin. This report describes the characterization of the antibody from one hybridoma using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibody reacted with both single- and double-stranded DNA treated with OsO/sub 4/, and with OsO/sub 4/-treated poly(dA-dT) and poly(dT); it did not crossreact with unmodified or apurinic DNA. It also reacted with DNA treated with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or with ..gamma..-rays at doses as low as 250 rad. We were able to detect 2 fmoles of thymine glycol in OsO/sub 4/-treated DNA and could quantitate 1 thymine glycol per 220000 thymines. Using the antibody and the ELISA, the formation and removal of thymine glycol was examined in cultures of African green monkey cells irradiated with 25 krad of ..gamma..-rays. The antibody reactive sites produced by irradiation (8.5 per 10/sup 6/ thymines) were efficiently removed from the cellular DNA.

  16. The proton dynamics of ethylene glycol

    Novikov, A G; Sobolev, O V

    2002-01-01

    The results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments on ethylene glycol at T=300 K, T=348 K and T=393 K by using the 'direct-geometry' double time-of-flight neutron-scattering spectrometer DIN-2PI (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna) are presented. The quasi-elastic and inelastic components of the neutron scattering have been considered. The diffusion characteristics and generalized frequency distributions for protons of ethylene glycol molecules were obtained from the neutron-scattering spectra. (orig.)

  17. Tuning Surface Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Film Using Poly(perfluoromethyl methacrylate)s with Short Perfluorinated Side Chains.

    Sohn, Eun-Ho; Ha, Jong-Wook; Lee, Soo-Bok; Park, In Jun

    2016-09-27

    To control the surface properties of a commonly used polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(perfluoromethyl methacrylate)s (PFMMAs) with short perfluorinated side groups (i.e., -CF3, -CF2CF3, -(CF3)2, -CF2CF2CF3) were used as blend components because of their good solubility in organic solvents, low surface energies, and high optical transmittance. The surface energies of the blend films of PFMMA with the -CF3 group and PMMA increased continuously with increasing PMMA contents from 17.6 to 26.0 mN/m, whereas those of the other polymer blend films remained at very low levels (10.2-12.6 mN/m), similar to those of pure PFMMAs, even when the blends contained 90 wt %PMMA. Surface morphology and composition measurements revealed that this result originated from the different blend structures, such as lateral and vertical phase separations. We expect that these PFMMAs will be useful in widening the applicable window of PMMA.

  18. Crosslinked superhydrophobic films fabricated by simply casting poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) solution

    Wen, Xiufang; Ye, Chao; Cai, Zhiqi; Xu, Shouping; Pi, Pihui; Cheng, Jiang; Zhang, Lijuan; Qian, Yu

    2015-06-01

    This study focuses on the preparation of superhydrophobic films by crosslinkable polymer material-Poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-Poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) (P (MMA-BA-HEMA)-b-PFMA) with a simple one-step casting process. Nanoscale micelle particles with core-shell structure was obtained by dissolving the polymer and curing agent in the mixture of acetone and 1H, 1H, 5H octafluoropentyl-1,1,2,2 tetrafluoroethyl ether (FHT). Superhydrophobic films were fabricated by casting the micelle solution on the glass slides. By controlling the polymer concentration and acetone/FHT volume ratio, superhydrophobic polymer film with water contact angle of 153.2 ± 2.1° and sliding angle of 4° was obtained. By introducing a curing agent into the micelle solution, mechanical properties of the films can be improved. The adhension grade and hardness of the crosslinked superhydrophobic films reached 2 grade and 3H, respectively. The hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness by nanoscale micelle particles and low surface energy of fluoropolymer. This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  19. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Pospiech, Doris, E-mail: pospiech@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Jehnichen, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Bünker, Tobias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Wollenberg, Anne [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer [IDUS Biologisch Analytisches Umweltlabor GmbH, Ottendorf-Okrilla (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Methacrylate-Based Copolymers for Polymer Optical Fibers

    Daniel Zaremba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waveguides made of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA play a major role in the homogeneous distribution of display backlights as a matrix for solid-state dye lasers and polymer optical fibers (POFs. PMMA is favored because of its transparency in the visible spectrum, low price, and well-controlled processability. Nevertheless, technical drawbacks, such as its limited temperature stability, call for new materials. In this work, the copolymerization technique is used to modify the properties of the corresponding homopolymers. The analytical investigation of fourteen copolymers made of methyl-methacrylate (MMA or ethyl-methacrylate (EMA as the basis monomer is summarized. Their polymerization behaviors are examined by NMR spectroscopy with subsequent copolymerization parameter evaluation according to Fineman-Ross and Kelen-Tüdös. Therefore, some r-parameter sets are shown to be capable of copolymerizations with very high conversions. The first applications as high-temperature resistant (HT materials for HT-POFs are presented. Copolymers containing isobornyl-methacrylate (IBMA as the comonomer are well-suited for this demanding application.

  1. Kinetics and mechanism of polymerization of methyl methacrylate ...

    Unknown

    Kinetics and mechanism of polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by stibonium ylide. A K SRIVASTAVA and AJEY KUMAR CHAURASIA. Department of Chemistry, H B Technological Institute, Kanpur 208 002, India e-mail: akspolym@rediffmail.com. MS received 6 September 2002; revised 25 July 2003. Abstract.

  2. Fabrication and Evaluation of 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate-co ...

    Purpose: To fabricate and evaluate oral 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate co-acrylic acid hydrogels as a drug delivery system for sustained release of nicorandil. Methods: HEMA-co-AA hydrogels using different monomer concentrations were prepared by free radical polymerization. N, N-methylene bis acrylamide (MBA) was ...

  3. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. Redox Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in the Fluorous Triphasic System

    Shi Zhen CHEN; Yun Peng BAI; Zhao Long LI

    2006-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) was polymerized by using of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA) as an redox initiator in fluorous triphasic system at room temperature.The polymerization was occurred in both initiator layer and monomer layer in a U-tube. It was found that PMMA obtained from the initiator layer with relatively narrow polydispersity.(PDI =1.38)

  5. Synthesis of acrylates and methacrylates from coal-derived syngas

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Jang, B.W.L. [Bechtel, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Acrylates and methacrylates are among the most widely used chemical intermediates in the world. One of the key chemicals of this type is methyl methacrylate. Of the 4 billion pounds produced each year, roughly 85% is made using the acetone-cyanohydrin process, which requires handling of large quantities of hydrogen cyanide and produces ammonium sulfate wastes that pose an environmental disposal challenge. The U.S. Department of Energy and Eastman Chemical Company are sharing the cost of research to develop an alternative process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate from syngas. Research Triangle Institute is focusing on the synthesis and testing of active catalysts for the condensation reactions, and Bechtel is analyzing the costs to determine the competitiveness of several process alternatives. Results thus far show that the catalysts for the condensation of formaldehyde and the propionate are key to selectively producing the desired product, methacrylic acid, with a high yield. These condensation catalysts have both acid and base functions and the strength and distribution of these acid-base sites controls the product selectivity and yield.

  6. Novel fluorescent poly(glycidyl methacrylate) - silica microspheres

    Grama, Silvia; Boiko, N.; Bilyy, R.; Klyuchivska, O.; Antonyuk, V.; Stoika, R.; Horák, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, July (2014), s. 92-104 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : microspheres * silica * poly(glycidyl methacrylate) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  7. 21 CFR 177.1830 - Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers. 177.1830 Section 177.1830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Us...

  8. Release of Water Soluble Drugs from Dynamically Swelling POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL Methacrylate - CO - Methacrylic Acid) Hydrogels.

    Kou, Jim Hwai-Cher

    In this study, ionizable copolymers of HEMA and methacrylic acid (MA) are investigated for their potential use in developing pH dependent oral delivery systems. Because of the MA units, these gels swell extensively at high pH. Since solute diffusion in the hydrophilic polymers depends highly on the water content of the matrix, it is anticipated that the release rate will be modulated by this pH induced swelling. From a practical point of view, the advantage of the present system is that one can minimize drug loss in the stomach and achieve a programmed release in intestine. This approach is expected to improve delivery of acid labile drugs or drugs that cause severe gastrointestinal side effects. This work mainly focuses on the basic understanding of the mechanism involved in drug release from the poly(HEMA -co- MA) gels, especially under dynamic swelling conditions. Equilibrium swelling is first characterized since water content is the major determinant of transport properties in these gels. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is chosen as the model drug for the release study and its diffusion characteristics in the gel matrix determined. The data obtained show that the PPA diffusivity follows the free volume theory of Yasuda, which explains the accelerating effect of swelling on drug release. A mathematical model based on a diffusion mechanism has been developed to describe PPA release from the swelling gels. Based on this model, several significant conclusions can be drawn. First, the release rate can be modulated by the aspect ratio of the cylindrical geometry, and this has a practical implication in dosage form design. Second, the release rate can be lowered quite considerably if the dimensional increase due to swelling is significant. Consequently, it is the balance between the drug diffusivity increase and the gel dimensional growth that determines the release rate from the swelling matrix. Third, quasi-steady release kinetics, which are characteristic of swelling

  9. Hydrophilic magnetic nanoclusters with thermo-responsive properties and their drug controlled release

    Meerod, Siraprapa; Rutnakornpituk, Boonjira; Wichai, Uthai; Rutnakornpituk, Metha

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis and drug controlled release properties of thermo-responsive magnetic nanoclusters grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm)) and poly(NIPAAm-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PEGMA) copolymers were described. These magnetic nanoclusters were synthesized via an in situ radical polymerization in the presence of acrylamide-grafted magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Poly(NIPAAm) provided thermo-responsive properties, while PEGMA played a role in good water dispersibility to the nanoclusters. The ratios of PEGMA to NIPAAm in the (co)polymerization in the presence of the MNPs were fine-tuned such that the nanoclusters with good water dispersibility, good magnetic sensitivity and thermo responsiveness were obtained. The size of the nanoclusters was in the range of 50–100 nm in diameter with about 100–200 particles/cluster. The nanoclusters were well dispersible in water at room temperature and can be suddenly agglomerated when temperature was increased beyond the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) (32 °C). The release behavior of an indomethacin model drug from the nanoclusters was also investigated. These novel magnetic nanoclusters with good dispersibility in water and reversible thermo-responsive properties might be good candidates for the targeting drug controlled release applications. - Highlights: • Nanoclusters with good water dispersibility and magnetic response were prepared. • They were grafted with thermo-responsive poly(NIPAAm) and/or poly(PEGMA). • Poly(NIPAAm) provided thermo-responsive properties to the nanoclusters. • Poly(PEGMA) provided good water dispersibilityto the nanoclusters. • Accelerated and controllable releases of a drug from the nanoclusters were shown

  10. Stabilization of Polyethylene Glycol in Archaeological Wood

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig

    Projektet har fokuseret på polythylen glycol (PEG) stabilitet og nedbrydning i træ fra konserverede skibsvrag som Vasa (Stockholm) og Skuldelev skibene. En række avancerede analyseteknikker er anvendt til at undersøge indtrængningsdybden for forskellige molekylstørrelser PEG i ikke-nedbrudt træ f...

  11. Polyethylene glycols (PEG) and related structures

    Wenande, Emily; Kroigaard, Mogens; Mosbech, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We describe hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols (PEGs), with cross-reactivity to a structural analog, polysorbate 80, in a 69-year-old patient with perioperative anaphylaxis and subsequent, severe anaphylactic reactions to unrelated medical products. PEGs and PEG analogs are prevalent in the...

  12. Radiation synthesis of biocompatible hydrogels of dextran methacrylate

    Szafulera, Kamila; Wach, Radosław A.; Olejnik, Alicja K.; Rosiak, Janusz M.; Ulański, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize biocompatible dextran-based hydrogels through crosslinking initiated by ionizing radiation. A series of derivatives of dextran has been synthesized by coupling of methacrylated glycidyl to the structure of this polysaccharide, yielding dextran methacrylate (Dex-MA) of the degree of methacrylate substitution (DS) up to 1.13 as characterised by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Chemically crosslinked hydrogels were formed by electron-beam irradiation of Dex-MA in aqueous solution in the absence of low-molecular-weight additives such as catalysts, monomers or crosslinking agents. Crosslinking of Dex-MA in aqueous solutions of 20 g/l and above was an efficient process, the gels were formed at doses as low as 0.5 kGy (experiments conducted up to 100 kGy) and were characterised by high content of insoluble fraction (70–100%). Due to high crosslinking density the equilibrium degree of swelling of fabricated gels was controlled principally by the initial concentration of Dex-MA solution subjected to irradiation, and it was in the range of 20 to over 100 g of water absorbed by gram of gel. Cytocompatibility of hydrogels was examined using XTT assay through evaluation of the cell viability being in indirect contact with hydrogels. The results indicated that hydrogels of Dex-MA of the average DS below 1 were not cytotoxic. Altogether, our data demonstrate that irradiation of methacrylated dextran in aqueous solution is an efficient method of fabrication of biocompatible hydrogels, which applications in regeneration medicine are anticipated. - Highlights: • Synthesis of dextran methacrylate with various degrees of substitutions. • Synthesis of dextran-based hydrogels through radiation technique. • Gel faction (GF) and equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) study. • Cytocompatibility of Dex-MA hydrogels demonstrated (XTT test).

  13. Enthalpy of phase transition and prediction of phase Equilibria in systems of glycols and glycol ethers

    Esina, Zoya; Miroshnikov, Aleksandr; Korchuganova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The PCEAS model was used to study the liquid-solid and liquid-vapor phase transitions at constant pressure in systems containing glycols and glycol ethers. This method is based on minimizing the excess Gibbs energy over the solvation parameter, which takes into account the processes of association of molecules in various phases. To compute the diagrams, the data on enthalpy and phase transition temperatures of pure components are required, while the information about the interactions in the b...

  14. Radiation synthesis and characterization of zinc phthalocyanine composite based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate copolymer

    Abdel Ghaffar, A.M., E-mail: am_abdelghaffar@yahoo.com [Radiation Research of Polymer Chemistry Department, Industrial Irradiation Division, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Youssef, Tamer E. [Applied Organic Chemistry Department, Chemical Industries Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, 12622 (Egypt); Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah, 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Mohamed, Hanan H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis and characterization of new 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate/zinc phthalocyanine composite Poly(HEMA/MMA/ZnPc) is described for the first time in this study. The aim of this research is to present possibility of radiation synthesis of the newly zinc phthalocyanine composites as potential candidates for wide range of applications. Gel (%) and swelling for Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Poly(HEMA) and the based Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate) copolymer Poly(HEMA/MMA) with different composition 100/0, 95/5, 90/10 and 80/20 wt % were evaluated. It was found that Poly(HEMA/MMA) copolymer with composition 95/5 wt % characterized by its high swelling property at pH 7.4. The prepared composites I and II Poly(HEMA/MMA/ZnPc) with composition (95/5/1 wt%) and (95/5/1.5 wt%) respectively have been characterized by FTIR and TGA. The effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical properties of composite I was described. It is observed that the Zinc phthalocyanine with low concentration 1 wt % enhance chemical, thermal properties and stabilization against gamma radiation of the prepared composite I. - Highlights: • The preparation of Poly(HEMA/MMA/ZnPc) by radiation forming modified composites. • The low concentration of ZcPc (1 or 1.5 wt %) lead to form outstanding properties. • These composites are a potential candidate for wide range of applications.

  15. Radiation synthesis and characterization of zinc phthalocyanine composite based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate copolymer

    Abdel Ghaffar, A.M.; Youssef, Tamer E.; Mohamed, Hanan H.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of new 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate/zinc phthalocyanine composite Poly(HEMA/MMA/ZnPc) is described for the first time in this study. The aim of this research is to present possibility of radiation synthesis of the newly zinc phthalocyanine composites as potential candidates for wide range of applications. Gel (%) and swelling for Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Poly(HEMA) and the based Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate) copolymer Poly(HEMA/MMA) with different composition 100/0, 95/5, 90/10 and 80/20 wt % were evaluated. It was found that Poly(HEMA/MMA) copolymer with composition 95/5 wt % characterized by its high swelling property at pH 7.4. The prepared composites I and II Poly(HEMA/MMA/ZnPc) with composition (95/5/1 wt%) and (95/5/1.5 wt%) respectively have been characterized by FTIR and TGA. The effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical properties of composite I was described. It is observed that the Zinc phthalocyanine with low concentration 1 wt % enhance chemical, thermal properties and stabilization against gamma radiation of the prepared composite I. - Highlights: • The preparation of Poly(HEMA/MMA/ZnPc) by radiation forming modified composites. • The low concentration of ZcPc (1 or 1.5 wt %) lead to form outstanding properties. • These composites are a potential candidate for wide range of applications.

  16. Densities and derived thermodynamic properties of the binary systems of 1,1-dimethylethyl methyl ether with allyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid, and vinyl acetate at T = (298.15 and 308.15) K

    Wisniak, Jaime; Peralta, Rene D.; Infante, Ramiro; Cortez, Gladis

    2005-01-01

    Densities of the binary systems of 1,1-dimethylethyl methyl ether (MTBE) with allyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid, and vinyl acetate have been measured as a function of the composition, at 298.15 and 308.15 K and atmospheric pressure, using an Anton Paar DMA 5000 oscillating U-tube densimeter. The calculated excess molar volumes were correlated with the Redlich-Kister equation and with a series of Legendre polynomials. The excess molar volumes are negative for the binaries of MTBE + methacrylates; the system MTBE with vinyl acetate presents near ideal behavior. The excess coefficient of thermal expansion is positive for all the systems studied here; the value of the coefficient for the system MTBE + allyl methacrylate is at least three times larger than that for the other systems

  17. Sync-measurement experimental study of (fluoroethane + dimethylether tetraethylene glycol), (fluoroethane + dimethylether triethylene glycol) and (fluoroethane + dimethylether diethylene glycol) systems

    Feng, Lejun; Zheng, Danxing; Huang, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three new working pairs are proposed for absorption power cycle. • Sync-measured the solubility and absorption enthalpy data at 303.15 K. • Thermokinetic experiment is consistent with the previous thermodynamics study. - Abstract: In this work, three new working pairs, {fluoroethane (HFC161) + dimethylether tetraethylene glycol (DMETEG)}, {HFC161 + dimethylether triethylene glycol (DMETrEG)} and {HFC161 + dimethylether diethylene glycol (DMEDEG)}, are proposed for absorption power cycle. The working pairs are assessed from both thermodynamics and thermokinetic perspective. By combining the microcalorimetry and isothermal synthesis methods, an experimental apparatus was developed to simultaneously obtain the microcalorimetry and vapour–liquid equilibrium data. Then, the solubility and absorption enthalpy data of the three new working pairs were sync-measured at 303.15 K by this sync-measurement experimental apparatus. The thermodynamics data indicated that the affinities of the three working pairs increased from strong to weak in the following order: HFC161 + DMETEG > HFC161 + DMETrEG > HFC161 + DMEDEG. Then the thermokinetic parameters of the absorption rate constant and activation energy were analysed based on the thermokinetic experiment at (303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. As a result, the affinities of the three working pairs are consistent with the previous thermodynamics study. In addition, the intermolecular interactions within the three systems were analysed according to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds; overall, the (HFC161 + DMETEG) system is considered to be the potential option for applications.

  18. Obtaining new composite biomaterials by means of mineralization of methacrylate hydrogels using the reaction–diffusion method

    Ramadan, Yousof [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); González-Sánchez, M. Isabel [Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Industrial Engineering, Castilla-La Mancha University, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Hawkins, Karl [Centre of Nanohealth, Institute of Life Sciences, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Rubio-Retama, Jorge [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valero, Edelmira [Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Industrial Engineering, Castilla-La Mancha University, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Perni, Stefano [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF103NB (United Kingdom); Department of Biological Engineering, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Prokopovich, Polina [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF103NB (United Kingdom); Institute of Medical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Department of Biological Engineering, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); López-Cabarcos, Enrique, E-mail: cabarcos@farm.ucm.es [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction–diffusion method. The scaffold of this biomaterial was a hydrogel constituted by biocompatible polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM), which were cross-linked with N-N’-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). The cross-linking content of the hydrogels was varied from 0.25% to 15% (w/w). The gels were used as matrix where two reactants (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} and CaCl{sub 2}) diffused from both ends of the gel and upon encountering produced calcium phosphate crystals that precipitated within the polymer matrix forming bands. The shape of the crystals was tuned by modifying the matrix porosity in such a way that when the polymer matrix was slightly reticulated the diffusion reaction produced round calcium phosphate microcrystals, whilst when the polymer matrix was highly reticulated the reaction yielded flat calcium phosphate crystals. Selected area electron diffraction performed on the nanocrystals that constitute the microcrystals showed that they were formed by Brushite (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O). This new composite material could be useful in medical and dentistry applications such as bone regeneration, bone repair or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • New polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction-diffusion method.-Growing of brushite nanocrystals within a polymeric matrix. • Mineralization by reaction diffusion method controls the crystal growth within gels.

  19. PEGylation of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles for microfluidic bioassays

    Kucerova, Jana; Svobodova, Zuzana; Knotek, Petr; Palarcik, Jiri; Vlcek, Milan; Kincl, Miloslav; Horak, Daniel; Autebert, Julien; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Bilkova, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    In this study, magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles containing carboxyl groups (PGMA-COOH) were coated using highly hydrophilic polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG was used to reduce nonspecific interactions with proteins and cells while decreasing adhesion of particles to the walls of a microfluidic devices from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Zeta potential measurement, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, anti-PEG ELISA assay, and bioaffinity interactions between biotin and streptavidin-HRP successfully proved the presence of PEG on the surface of microspheres. Both neat and PEGylated microspheres were then incubated with the inert protein bovine serum albumin or cells to evaluate the rate of nonspecific adsorption (NSA). PEG with Mr of 30,000 Da was responsible for 45% reduction in NSA of proteins and 74% for cells compared to neat particles. The microspheres' behavior in PDMS and COC microchannels was then evaluated. Aggregation and adhesion of PEGylated microspheres significantly decreased compared to neat particles. Finally, the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on the microspheres through the heterobifunctional PEG chain. The possibility for subsequent covalent coupling of the ligand of interest was confirmed. Such PEGylated microparticles can be efficiently used in PDMS microchips as a carrier for bioaffinity separation or of enzyme for catalysis. - Highlights: • Magnetic polymer microspheres with highly hydrophilic PEG coating were prepared. • PEG reduced microsphere adhesion in microchannels versus neat particles. • Suitability of methods for detecting PEG on magnetic microspheres was investigated. • PEG on microsphere surfaces decreased nonspecific adsorption of proteins and cells

  20. Covalently coating dextran on macroporous polyglycidyl methacrylate microsphere enabled rapid protein chromatographic separation

    Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Qiang; Li, Juan; Zhou, Weiqing; Ye, Peili; Gao, Yang; Ma, Guanghui, E-mail: ghma@home.ipe.ac.cn; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-12-01

    Protein denaturation and nonspecific adsorption on polymer media as a chromatographic support have been a problem which needs to be overcome. Macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbezene) (PGMA-DVB) microspheres prepared in this study were firstly covalently coated with dextran through a three-step method. The dextran was firstly adsorbed onto the microspheres and then covalently bound to the PGMA-DVB microsphere through ether bonds which were formed by hydroxyl group reacting with epoxy group at the presence of 4-(Dimethylamino) pyridine. Finally, the coating dextran layer was crosslinked by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether to form the continuous network coating. The coated microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscope, mercury porosimetry measurements, laser scanning confocal microscope, and protein adsorption experiments. Results showed that PGMA-DVB microspheres coated with dextran successfully maintained the macroporous structure and high permeability. The backpressure was only 1.69 MPa at a high flow rate of 2891 cm/h. Consequently, the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of modified microspheres were greatly improved, and the contact angle decreased from 184 Degree-Sign to 13 Degree-Sign , and nonspecific adsorption of proteins was decreased to little or none. The clad dextran coating with large amounts of hydroxyl group was easily derived to be various functional groups. The derived media have great potential applications in rapid protein chromatography. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Macroporous PGMA-DVB microspheres were covalently coated with dextran. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrophilicity of the coated microspheres was significantly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The irreversible adsorption of proteins was reduced to zero. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coated microspheres can maintain the macropore structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coated microspheres

  1. PEGylation of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles for microfluidic bioassays

    Kucerova, Jana; Svobodova, Zuzana [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Knotek, Petr [Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of IMC and University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Palarcik, Jiri [Institute of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Vlcek, Milan; Kincl, Miloslav; Horak, Daniel [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Autebert, Julien; Viovy, Jean-Louis [Macromolecules and Microsystems in Biology and Medicine, Institute Curie, UMR 168, 26 Rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Bilkova, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.bilkova@upce.cz [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles containing carboxyl groups (PGMA-COOH) were coated using highly hydrophilic polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG was used to reduce nonspecific interactions with proteins and cells while decreasing adhesion of particles to the walls of a microfluidic devices from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Zeta potential measurement, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, anti-PEG ELISA assay, and bioaffinity interactions between biotin and streptavidin-HRP successfully proved the presence of PEG on the surface of microspheres. Both neat and PEGylated microspheres were then incubated with the inert protein bovine serum albumin or cells to evaluate the rate of nonspecific adsorption (NSA). PEG with Mr of 30,000 Da was responsible for 45% reduction in NSA of proteins and 74% for cells compared to neat particles. The microspheres' behavior in PDMS and COC microchannels was then evaluated. Aggregation and adhesion of PEGylated microspheres significantly decreased compared to neat particles. Finally, the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on the microspheres through the heterobifunctional PEG chain. The possibility for subsequent covalent coupling of the ligand of interest was confirmed. Such PEGylated microparticles can be efficiently used in PDMS microchips as a carrier for bioaffinity separation or of enzyme for catalysis. - Highlights: • Magnetic polymer microspheres with highly hydrophilic PEG coating were prepared. • PEG reduced microsphere adhesion in microchannels versus neat particles. • Suitability of methods for detecting PEG on magnetic microspheres was investigated. • PEG on microsphere surfaces decreased nonspecific adsorption of proteins and cells.

  2. Penetration enhancer: monoethylether of diethylene glycol

    Koprda, V.; Kassai, Z.; Bohacik, L.; Bezek, S.; Hadcrafft, J.; Falson-Rieg, F.

    1999-01-01

    The monoethylether of diethylene glycol (Transcutol), an excellent solubilising agent, has been suggested as a penetration enhancer compatible with trans-dermal drug delivery systems. Using the abdominal skin of 5 day old rats and Franz-type diffusion cells the following topics were studied in this contribution: (1) Flux of Transcutol, labelled with [Ethyl- 14 C]-ether, across an intact skin model, (2) Changes in properties of the skin barrier after stripping with adhesive tape, and (3) Changes in flux of Transcutol when mixed with different co-solvents. The flux from pure solvent in donor compartment reached around 50 μg cm -2 hr -1 across the intact skin horny layer, whilst after 12 strips the flux increased about 200 times. In the presence of propylene glycol dipelargonate, the flux over 2 mg cm -2 hr -1 across non stripped skin was achieved. (authors)

  3. SYNTHESIS OF METHACRYLATES FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Jang, B.W.L.; Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.

    1999-12-01

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel have developed a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the US Department of Energy/Fossil Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC). This project has resulted in five US patents (four already published and one pending publication). It has served as the basis for the technical and economic assessment of the production of this high-volume intermediate from coal-derived synthesis gas. The three-step process consists of the synthesis of a propionate from ethylene carbonylation using coal-derived CO, condensation of the propionate with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA); and esterification of MAA with methanol to yield MMA. The first two steps, propionate synthesis and condensation catalysis, are the key technical challenges and the focus of the research presented here.

  4. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup −1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  5. Penile enlargement with methacrylate injection: is it safe?

    Fabio Cesar Miranda Torricelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXTPenis size is a great concern for men in many cultures. Despite the great variety of methods for penile augmentation, none has gained unanimous acceptance among experts in the field. However, in this era of minimally invasive procedure, injection therapy for penile augmentation has become more popular. Here we report a case of methacrylate injection in the penis that evolved with penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. This work also reviews the investigation and management of this pathological condition.CASE REPORTA 36-year-old male sought medical care with a complaint of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction after methacrylate injection. The treatment administered was surgical removal. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were reached after two months.CONCLUSIONSThere is a need for better structured scientific research to evaluate the outcomes and complication rates from all penile augmentation procedures.

  6. Penile enlargement with methacrylate injection: is it safe?

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Andrade, Enrico Martins de; Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Claro, Joaquim Francisco Almeida; Cury, Jose; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Penis size is a great concern for men in many cultures. Despite the great variety of methods for penile augmentation, none has gained unanimous acceptance among experts in the field. However, in this era of minimally invasive procedure, injection therapy for penile augmentation has become more popular. Here we report a case of methacrylate injection in the penis that evolved with penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. This work also reviews the investigation and management of this pathological condition. CASE REPORT A 36-year-old male sought medical care with a complaint of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction after methacrylate injection. The treatment administered was surgical removal. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were reached after two months. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for better structured scientific research to evaluate the outcomes and complication rates from all penile augmentation procedures.

  7. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: jafeli@iq.unesp.br [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  8. Poly(ethylene glycol) interactions with proteins

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 613-618 ISSN 0044-2968. [European Powder Diffraction Conference /9./. Prague, 02.09.2004-05.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * PEO * protein-polymer interaction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  9. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe 3 O 4 with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g −1 and 131 emu g −1 , respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  10. Kinetics and mechanism of polymerization of methyl methacrylate ...

    Homopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out in the presence of triphenylstibonium 1,2,3,4-tetraphenyl-cyclopentadienylide as an initiator in dioxane at 65°C ± 0·1°C. The system follows non-ideal radical kinetics ( ∝ [M]1.4 [I]0.44) due to primary radical termination as well as degradative ...

  11. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres for protein capture

    Koubková, Jana; Müller, P.; Hlídková, Helena; Plichta, Zdeněk; Proks, Vladimír; Vojtěšek, B.; Horák, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2014), s. 482-491 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP207/12/J013; GA MŠk 7E12053 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 246513 - NADINE Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : glycidyl methacrylate * microspheres * protein p53 Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.898, year: 2014

  12. Radiation synthesis of biocompatible hydrogels of dextran methacrylate

    Szafulera, Kamila; Wach, Radosław A.; Olejnik, Alicja K.; Rosiak, Janusz M.; Ulański, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize biocompatible dextran-based hydrogels through crosslinking initiated by ionizing radiation. A series of derivatives of dextran has been synthesized by coupling of methacrylated glycidyl to the structure of this polysaccharide, yielding dextran methacrylate (Dex-MA) of the degree of methacrylate substitution (DS) up to 1.13 as characterised by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Chemically crosslinked hydrogels were formed by electron-beam irradiation of Dex-MA in aqueous solution in the absence of low-molecular-weight additives such as catalysts, monomers or crosslinking agents. Crosslinking of Dex-MA in aqueous solutions of 20 g/l and above was an efficient process, the gels were formed at doses as low as 0.5 kGy (experiments conducted up to 100 kGy) and were characterised by high content of insoluble fraction (70-100%). Due to high crosslinking density the equilibrium degree of swelling of fabricated gels was controlled principally by the initial concentration of Dex-MA solution subjected to irradiation, and it was in the range of 20 to over 100 g of water absorbed by gram of gel. Cytocompatibility of hydrogels was examined using XTT assay through evaluation of the cell viability being in indirect contact with hydrogels. The results indicated that hydrogels of Dex-MA of the average DS below 1 were not cytotoxic. Altogether, our data demonstrate that irradiation of methacrylated dextran in aqueous solution is an efficient method of fabrication of biocompatible hydrogels, which applications in regeneration medicine are anticipated.

  13. Immobilization of biomolecules to plasma polymerized pentafluorophenyl methacrylate.

    Duque, Luis; Menges, Bernhard; Borros, Salvador; Förch, Renate

    2010-10-11

    Thin films of plasma polymerized pentafluorophenyl methacrylate (pp-PFM) offer highly reactive ester groups throughout the structure of the film that allow for subsequent reactions with different aminated reagents and biological molecules. The present paper follows on from previous work on the plasma deposition of pentafluorophenyl methacrylate (PFM) for optimum functional group retention (Francesch, L.; Borros, S.; Knoll, W.; Foerch, R. Langmuir 2007, 23, 3927) and reactivity in aqueous solution (Duque, L.; Queralto, N.; Francesch, L.; Bumbu, G. G.; Borros, S.; Berger, R.; Förch, R. Plasma Process. Polym. 2010, accepted for publication) to investigate the binding of a biologically active peptide known to induce cellular adhesion (IKVAV) and of biochemically active proteins such as BSA and fibrinogen. Analyses of the films and of the immobilization of the biomolecules were carried out using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The attachment of the biomolecules on pulsed plasma polymerized pentafluorophenyl methacrylate was monitored using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR). SPR analysis confirmed the presence of immobilized biomolecules on the plasma polymer and was used to determine the mass coverage of the peptide and proteins adsorbed onto the films. The combined analysis of the surfaces suggests the covalent binding of the peptide and proteins to the surface of the pp-PFM.

  14. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating's upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Role of surface functionality on the formation of raspberry-like polymer/silica composite particles: Weak acid–base interaction and steric effect

    Wang, Lan; Song, LinYong; Chao, ZhiYin; Chen, PengPeng; Nie, WangYan; Zhou, YiFeng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Core–shell structured polymer/SiO 2 was obtained with carboxylic-functionalized templates. • Raspberry-like structure was observed with carboxylic and poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid-functionalized polymer microspheres. • Carboxylic groups contributed to the nucleation and the poly(ethylene glycol) chains was used to control the growth of silica particles. • Super-hydrophobic surface was obtained and the contact angle of water on the dual-sized structured surface was up to 160°. - Abstract: The surface functionality of polymer microspheres is the crucial factor to determine the nucleation and growth of silica particles and to construct the organic/inorganic hierarchical structures. The objective of this work was to evaluate the surface functionality and hierarchical morphology relationship via in situ sol–gel reaction. Carboxylic-functionalized poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) [P(S-co-MA)], poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized poly(styrene-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) [P(S-co-PEGMA)], and hybrid functionalized poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) [P(S-co-MA-co-PEGMA)] microspheres were synthesized by emulsifier-free polymerization and used as templates. The morphologies of the composite particles were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that core–shell structure was obtained with P(S-co-MA) as templates; raspberry-like structure was observed by using P(S-co-MA-co-PEGMA) as templates; and no silica particles were attached onto the surface of P(S-co-PEGMA) microspheres. These results indicated that the carboxylic groups on the surface formed by hydrolysis of anhydride groups were the determinate factor to control the nucleation of silica nanoparticles, and the PEG chains on the surface can affect the growth of silica particles. In addition, the particulate films were constructed by assembling these

  16. Radiation-induced change of optical property of hydroxypropyl cellulose hydrogel containing methacrylate compounds: As a basis for development of a new type of radiation dosimeter

    Yamashita, Shinichi; Hiroki, Akihiro; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels with matrix of a cellulose derivative, hydrogel of hydroxpropyl cellulose (HPC), containing two of methacrylate compounds (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (9G)) were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays. The gels become white with irradiation, and thus, could be candidates of a new type of radiation dosimeter utilized in radiation therapy because the gels become white with irradiation and can be confirmed directly by human eyes even at low doses of 1–2 Gy. Radiation-induced change of optical properties, haze value and UV–vis absorption spectrum, of the irradiated gels was measured. Dose response of the white turbidity appearance was different for different compositions of the methacrylate compounds as well as for different dose rates. The degree of the radiation-induced white turbidity was quantified by measuring haze value, showing linear dose response in low dose region (<2 Gy). We also analyzed the gels with a UV–vis spectrometer and HEMA- and 9G-rich gels gave different spectral shapes, indicating that there are at least two mechanisms leading to the white turbidity. In addition, dose rate dependence was smaller for 9G-rich gels than HEMA-rich gels in the range of 0.015–1.5 Gy/min. - Highlights: • White turbidity appeared even at 1 or 2 Gy of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation. • Haze could be used as an index of the degree of white turbidity. • UV–vis spectroscopy indicated multiple mechanisms leading to white turbidity

  17. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures. PMID:27189842

  18. PEGylation controls attachment and engulfment of monodisperse magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) microspheres by murine J774.2 macrophages

    Horák, Daniel; Hlidková, Helena; Klyuchivska, Olga; Grytsyna, Iryna; Stoika, Rostyslav

    2017-12-01

    The first objective of this work was to prepare biocompatible magnetic polymer microspheres with reactive functional groups that could withstand nonspecific protein adsorption from biological media. Carboxyl group-containing magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mgt.PHEMA) microspheres ∼4 μm in size were prepared by multistage swelling polymerization, precipitation of iron oxide inside their pores, and coating with an α-methoxy-ω-amino poly(ethylene glycol) (CH3O-PEG750-NH2 or CH3O-PEG5,000-NH2)/α-amino-ω-t-Boc-amino poly(ethylene glycol) (H2N-PEG5,000-NH-t-Boc) mixture. The mgt.PHEMA@PEG microspheres contained ∼10 μmol COOH per g. Biocompatibility of the particles was evaluated by their treatment with human embryonic kidney cells of the HEK293 line. The microspheres did not interfere with the growth of these cells, suggesting that the particles can be considered non-toxic. A second goal of this study was to address on the interaction of the developed microspheres with macrophages that commonly eliminate foreign microbodies appearing in organisms. Murine J774.2 macrophages (J774.2) were cultured in the presence of the neat and PEGylated microspheres for 2 h. Mgt.PHEMA@PEG5,000 microspheres significantly adhered to the surface of J774.2 macrophages but were minimally engulfed. Due to these properties, the mgt.PHEMA@PEG microspheres might be useful for application in drug delivery systems and monitoring of the efficiency of phagocytosis.

  19. Preparation of Rhodamine B Fluorescent Poly(methacrylic acid) Coated Gelatin Nanoparticles

    Gan, Zhenhai; Ju, Jianhui; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Daocheng

    2011-01-01

    Poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA)-coated gelatin nanoparticles encapsulated with fluorescent dye rhodamine B were prepared by the coacervation method with the aim to retard the release of rhodamine B from the gelatin matrix. With sodium sulfate as coacervation reagent for gelatin, a kind of biopolymer with excellent biocompatibility, the formed gelatin nanoparticles were cross-linked by formaldehyde followed by the polymerization of methacrylic acid coating. The fluorescent poly(methacrylic acid)...

  20. FTIR and dielectric studies of molecular interaction between alkyl methacrylates and primary alcohols

    Dharmalingam, K.; Ramachandran, K.; Sivagurunathan, P.

    2007-01-01

    The molecular interaction between alkyl methacrylates (methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate) and primary alcohols (1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 1-decanol) has been studied in carbon tetrachloride by FTIR spectroscopic and dielectric methods. The results show that the most likely association between alcohol and ester is 1:1 complex through the free hydroxyl group of the alcohol and the carbonyl group of ester, and the alkyl chain length of both the alcohols and esters plays an important role in the determination of the strength of hydrogen bond (O-H:O=C) formed

  1. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for efficient ethylene glycol utilization.

    Franden, Mary Ann; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Li, Wing-Jin; Wagner, Neil J; Cleveland, Nicholas S; Michener, William E; Hauer, Bernhard; Blank, Lars M; Wierckx, Nick; Klebensberger, Janosch; Beckham, Gregg T

    2018-06-07

    Ethylene glycol is used as a raw material in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, in antifreeze, as a gas hydrate inhibitor in pipelines, and for many other industrial applications. It is metabolized by aerobic microbial processes via the highly toxic intermediates glycolaldehyde and glycolate through C2 metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has been engineered for environmental remediation applications given its high toxicity tolerance and broad substrate specificity, is not able to efficiently metabolize ethylene glycol, despite harboring putative genes for this purpose. To further expand the metabolic portfolio of P. putida, we elucidated the metabolic pathway to enable ethylene glycol via systematic overexpression of glyoxylate carboligase (gcl) in combination with other genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that all of the four genes in genomic proximity to gcl (hyi, glxR, ttuD, and pykF) are transcribed as an operon. Where the expression of only two genes (gcl and glxR) resulted in growth in ethylene glycol, improved growth and ethylene glycol utilization were observed when the entire gcl operon was expressed. Both glycolaldehyde and glyoxal inhibit growth in concentrations of ethylene glycol above 50 mM. To overcome this bottleneck, the additional overexpression of the glycolate oxidase (glcDEF) operon removes the glycolate bottleneck and minimizes the production of these toxic intermediates, permitting growth in up to 2 M (~124 g/L) and complete consumption of 0.5 M (31 g/L) ethylene glycol in shake flask experiments. In addition, the engineered strain enables conversion of ethylene glycol to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). Overall, this study provides a robust P. putida KT2440 strain for ethylene glycol consumption, which will serve as a foundational strain for further biocatalyst development for applications in the remediation of waste polyester plastics and

  2. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Neurologie, Lille (France); Sengler, C. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Laboratoire de Pharmaco-Toxicologie, Guadeloupe (France); Benabdallah, E. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Radiologie, Guadeloupe (France); Colombani, S. [Centre d' Imagerie medicale, Martinique (France)

    2005-02-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  3. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M.; Sengler, C.; Benabdallah, E.; Colombani, S.

    2005-01-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  4. Preparation of robust braid-reinforced poly(vinyl chloride) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane with antifouling surface and application to filtration of activated sludge solution.

    Zhou, Zhuang; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Fang, Lifeng; Miyoshi, Taro; Kakihana, Yuriko; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-08-01

    Braid-reinforced hollow fiber membranes with high mechanical properties and considerable antifouling surface were prepared by blending poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with poly(vinyl chloride-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (poly(VC-co-PEGMA)) copolymer via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). The tensile strength of the braid-reinforced PVC hollow fiber membranes were significantly larger than those of previously reported various types of PVC hollow fiber membranes. The high interfacial bonding strength indicated the good compatibility between the coating materials and the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-braid. Owing to the surface segregation phenomena, the membrane surface PEGMA coverage increased upon increasing the poly(VC-co-PEGMA)/PVC blending ratio, resulting in higher hydrophilicities and bovine serum albumin (BSA) repulsion. To compare the fouling properties, membranes with similar PWPs were prepared by adjusting the dope solution composition to eliminate the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the membrane fouling performance. The blend membranes surface exhibited considerable fouling resistance to the molecular adsorption from both BSA solution and activated sludge solution. In both cases, the flux recovered to almost 80% of the initial flux using only water backflush. Considering their great mechanical properties and antifouling resistance to activated sludge solution, these novel membranes show good potential for application in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radioprotection by polyethylene glycol-protein complexes in mice

    Gray, B.H.; Stull, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol of about 5000 D was activated with cyanuric chloride, and the activated compound was complexed to each of three proteins. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase were each radioprotectants when administered prophylactically to female B6CBF1 mice before irradiation. The dose reduction factor for these mice was 1.2 when 5000 units of polyethylene glycol-catalase was administered before 60 Co irradiation. Female B6CBF1 mice administered prophylactic intravenous injections of catalase, polyethylene glycol-albumin, or heat-denatured polyethylene glycol-catalase had survival rates similar to phosphate-buffered saline-injected control mice following 60 Co irradiation. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase have radioprotective activity in B6CBF1 mice, which appears to depend in part on enzymatic activities of the complex. However, no radioprotective effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice injected with each polyethylene glycol-protein complex at either 3 or 24 hr before irradiation. The mechanism for radioprotection by these complexes may depend in part on other factors

  6. Investigation of Complexation of Linear Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone with Poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate Gel

    Guoqin Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contraction of poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate (P(MAA-co-MMA gel induced by complexation with linear poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP is quite different from that of poly(acrylic acid (PAA or poly(methacrylic acid (PMAA gel. It was found that the concentration of PVP has a strong effect on the complexation with P(MAA-co-MMA gel. When PVP was introduced into the P(MAA-co-MMA network, its dynamic mechanic properties vary greatly between complexed and uncomplexed networks. It had the following results: (1 the higher modulus ratio; (2 a slight contraction of gel.

  7. Investigation of Complexation of Linear Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) with Poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) Gel

    Liu, Guoqin; Yan, Guojin; Zou, Wenjun; Li, Zhengxin

    2011-01-01

    The contraction of poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (P(MAA-co-MMA)) gel induced by complexation with linear poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) is quite different from that of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) gel. It was found that the concentration of PVP has a strong effect on the complexation with P(MAA-co-MMA) gel. When PVP was introduced into the P(MAA-co-MMA) network, its dynamic mechanic properties vary greatly between complexed and uncomplexed netwo...

  8. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Bekkali, Noor L. H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E. J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G. P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes

  9. Manipulating Interfaces through Surface Confinement of Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(vinyldimethylazlactone), a Dually Reactive Block Copolymer

    Lokitz, Bradley S.; Wei, Jifeng; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Browning, James B.; Ankner, John Francis; Kilbey, S. Michael II; Messman, Jamie M.

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of dually reactive, well-defined diblock copolymers incorporating the chemoselective/functional monomer, 4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (VDMA) and the surface-reactive monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is examined to understand how competition between surface attachment and microphase segregation influences interfacial structure. Reaction of the PGMA block with surface hydroxyl groups not only anchors the copolymer to the surface, but limits chain mobility, creating brush-like structures comprising PVDMA blocks, which contain reactive azlactone groups. The block copolymers are spin coated at various solution concentrations and annealed at elevated temperature to optimize film deposition to achieve a molecularly uniform layer. The thickness and structure of the polymer thin films are investigated by ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and neutron reflectometry. The results show that deposition of PGMA-b-PVDMA provides a useful route to control film thickness while preserving azlactone groups that can be further modified with biotin-poly(ethylene glycol)amine to generate designer surfaces. The method described herein offers guidance for creating highly functional surfaces, films, or coatings through the use of dually reactive block copolymers and postpolymerization modification.

  10. Production of sorption-active polypropylene fibers by radiation-induce grafting of glycidyl methacrylate as a precursor monomer

    Bondar, Yu.V.; Kim, H.J.; Lim, Y.J.; Kravets, L.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Two types of sorption-active polypropylene fiber carrying strong-acid sulfonate groups and amino groups have been synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) with subsequent chemical modification of the epoxy groups of poly-GMA graft chains. The effect of various polymerization parameters on the GMA grafting degree was investigated in detail. The epoxy ring-opening of poly-GMA graft chains with introduction of strong-acid sulfonate groups was carried out with sodium hydrogen sulfite in water-dimethylformamide solution at 70 o C. The main peculiarities of the sulfonation reaction in depending on the reaction time and GMA grafting degree have been investigated. It was shown that for the samples with GMA grafting degree more than 50% two simultaneous processes take place during the sulfonation reaction, namely the incorporation of the sulfonate groups via opening of the GMA epoxy-rings as well as hydrolysis of the GMA epoxy-rings with the formation of α-glycol groups. Amine groups were incorporated by treatment of GMA-grafted polypropylene fibers with excess of diethylene triamine reagent. The conversion of the epoxy groups into the functional groups was investigated as a function of the degree of GMA grafting and reaction time. The ion-exchange characteristics of obtained sorption-active polypropylene fibers were determined

  11. Production of sorption-active polypropylene fiber by radiation-induce grafting of glycidyl methacrylate as a precursor monomer

    Bondar, Yu.V.; Kim, H.J.; Lim, Y.J.; Kravets, L.I.

    2004-01-01

    Two types of sorption-active polypropylene fiber carrying strong-acid sulfonate groups and amino groups have been synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) with subsequent chemical modification of the epoxy groups of poly-GMA graft chains. The effect of various polymerization parameters on the GMA grafting degree was investigated in detail. The epoxy ring-opening of poly-GMA graft chains with introduction of strong-acid sulfonate groups was carried out with sodium hydrogen sulfite in water-dimethylformamide solution at 70 o C. The main peculiarities of the sulfonation reaction in depending on the reaction time and GMA grafting degree have been investigated. It was shown that for the samples with GMA grafting degree more than 50% two simultaneous processes take place during the sulfonation reaction, namely the incorporation of the sulfonate groups via opening of the GMA epoxy-rings as well as hydrolysis of the GMA epoxy-rings with the formation of α-glycol groups. Amine groups were incorporated by treatment of GMA-grafted polypropylene fibers with excess of diethylene triamine reagent. The conversion of the epoxy groups into the functional groups was investigated as a function of the degree of GMA grafting and reaction time. The ion-exchange characteristics of obtained sorption-active polypropylene fibers were determined. (author)

  12. Experimental study and phase equilibrium modeling of systems containing acid gas and glycol

    Afzal, Waheed; Breil, Martin P.; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study phase equilibria of systems containing acid gases and glycols. The acid gases include carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2) while glycols include monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG). A brief lit...

  13. Ecological approach to graphene oxide reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites.

    Morimune, Seira; Nishino, Takashi; Goto, Takuya

    2012-07-25

    Graphene oxide (GO) possesses the desirable characteristic of aqueous solution processability attributed to the oxygen-containing functional groups on the basal planes and edges of graphene. To provide an alternative to conventional procedures for fabricating poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/GO nanocomposites, which use organic solutions and/or surfactants, we have developed an environmentally friendly technique in which PMMA is polymerized by soap-free emulsion polymerization and incorporated with GO using water as a processing medium. Experimental results showed that the fabricated PMMA/GO nanocomposites had excellent mechanical, thermal, and O2 barrier properties with the nanodispersion of GO.

  14. Rotational characterization of methyl methacrylate: Internal dynamics and structure determination

    Herbers, Sven; Wachsmuth, Dennis; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Rotational constants, Watson's S centrifugal distortion coefficients, and internal rotation parameters of the two most stable conformers of methyl methacrylate were retrieved from the microwave spectrum. Splittings of rotational energy levels were caused by two non equivalent methyl tops. Constraining the centrifugal distortion coefficients and internal rotation parameters to the values of the main isotopologues, the rotational constants of all single substituted 13C and 18O isotopologues were determined. From these rotational constants the substitution structures and semi-empirical zero point structures of both conformers were precisely determined.

  15. Microindentation of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA Based Bone Cement

    F. Zivic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA based bone cement subjected to cyclical loading using microindentation technique is presented in this paper. Indentation technique represents flexible mechanical testing due to its simplicity, minimal specimen preparation and short time needed for tests. The mechanical response of bone cement samples was studied. Realised microindentation enabled determination of the indentation testing hardness HIT and indentation modulus EIT of the observed bone cement. Analysis of optical photographs of the imprints showed that this technique can be effectively used for characterization of bone cements.

  16. Radiation initiated polymerisation of phenyl methacrylate. [Gamma radiation

    Raghunath, S.; Rao, M.H.; Rao, K.N. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Chemistry Div.)

    1983-01-01

    Radiation initiated polymerisation of phenyl methacrylate has been studied at various dose rates and temperature. Predominant chain transfer to the monomer was observed and ksub(tran)/Ksub(p) the chain transfer constant ratio was found to be 4 x 10/sup -2/.ksub(p)/ksub(tsup(1/2)) value determined by the kinetic data and the molecular weight data were 0.0821 and 0.0198, respectively. IR studies of polymer at low conversion showed the presence of terminal unsaturation which disappeared at saturation conversion, thus showing its participation in the formation of a three dimensional network.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Gold Loading of Polystyrene-Poly(pyridyl methacrylate) Core-Shell Latex Systems

    Oláh, A.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2004-01-01

    In this research, novel 3-(2-pyridyl)propyl methacrylate and 3-(3-pyridyloxy)propyl methacrylate monomers were synthesized and emulsion polymerized on colloidal polystyrene seeds, resulting in core–shell latex systems. The cores and the core–shell particles were characterized by static light

  18. Structure and properties of hybrid poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/SiO2 monoliths

    Ji, Xiangling; Jiang, Shichun; Qiu, Xuepeng

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Hybrid poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA)/SiO2 monoliths were synthesized via a sol-gel process of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and the in situ free-radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The weight ratio of the starting chemicals, TEOS...

  19. Monodisperse macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres coated with silica: Design, preparation and characterization

    Grama, Silvia; Plichta, Zdeněk; Trchová, Miroslava; Kovářová, Jana; Beneš, Milan J.; Horák, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, April (2014), s. 11-17 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : multistep swelling polymerization * poly(glycidyl methacrylate) * poly(2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2014

  20. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate...

  1. Determination of the Thermodynamic Properties of Poly [2-(3-phenyl-3-methylcyclobutyl)-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid] at Infinite Dilution by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    KAYA, İsmet

    2014-01-01

    Some thermodynamic quantities were obtained for the interactions of poly [2-(3-phenyl -3- methylcyclobutyl)-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid] Poly (PCHEMA-co-MA) with alcohols, ketones, acetates, aromatics and n-alkanes by inverse gas chromatography in the temperature range of 150-180oC. The specific retention volumes, Vgo, weight fraction activity coefficients of solute probes at infinite dilution, W1\\infty and Flory-Huggins thermodynamic interaction parameters, c12...

  2. PEG-modified macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) microspheres to reduce non-specific protein adsorption

    Hlídková, Helena; Horák, Daniel; Proks, Vladimír; Kučerová, Z.; Pekárek, Michal; Kučka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2013), s. 503-511 ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP207/12/J013; GA ČR GAP206/12/0381; GA MŠk 7E12053 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 246513 - NADINE Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : coatings * glycidyl methacrylate * 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.650, year: 2013

  3. Fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methacrylic acid) diblock copolymer as a self-embrittling strippable coating for radioactive decontamination

    Liu Renlong; Zhang Huiyan; Li Yintao; Zhou Yuanlin; Zhang Quanping; Zheng Jian; Wang Shanqiang

    2016-01-01

    The poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methacrylic acid) diblock copolymer with different monomer compositions was synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Meanwhile, a novel self-embrittling strippable coating was prepared using the diblock copolymers, which is proposed to be used as radioactive decontamination agents without manual operation. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies of self-embrittling strippable coatings for radioactive contamination on glass, marble, and stainless steel surfaces were studied. (author)

  4. KINETICS OF SUSPENDED EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE

    Yong-zhong Bao; Cheng-xi Wang; Zhi-ming Huang; Zhi-xue Weng

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of suspended emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), in which water acted as the dispersed phase and the mixture of MMA and cyclohexane as the continuous phase, was investigated. It showed that the initial polymerization rate (Rp0) and steady-state polymerization rate (Rp) were proportional to the mass ratio between water and oil phase, and increased as the polymerization temperature, the potassium persulphate concentration ([I]) and the Tween20 emulsifier concentration ([S]) increased. The relationships between the polymerization rate and [I] and [S] were obtained as follows: Rp0 ∝ [I]0.73[S]0.32 and Rp ∝ [I]0.71[S]0.23. The above exponents were close to those obtained from normal MMA emulsion polymerization. It also showed that the average molecular weight of the resulting poly(methyl methacrylate) decreased as the polymerization temperature, [I] and [S] increased. Thus, MMA suspended emulsion polymerization could be considered as a combination of many miniature emulsion polymerizations proceeding in water drops and obeyed the classical kinetics of MMA emulsion polymerization.

  5. Graft Copolymerization Of Methyl Methacrylate Onto Agave Cellulose

    Noor Afizah Rosli; Ishak Ahmad; Ibrahim Abdullah; Farah Hannan Anuar

    2014-01-01

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and Agave cellulose was prepared and the grafting reaction conditions were optimized by varying the reaction time and temperature, and ratio of monomer to cellulose. The resulting graft copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the optimal conditions were at a temperature of 45 degree Celsius for 90 min with ratio monomer to cellulose at 1:1 (g/ g). An additional peak at 1738 cm -1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted cellulose, respectively. Grafting of MMA onto cellulose enhanced its thermal stability and SEM observation further furnished evidence of grafting MMA onto Agave cellulose with increasing cellulose diameter and surface roughness. (author)

  6. Neural Network Models for Free Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

    Curteanu, S.; Leon, F.; Galea, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a neural network modeling of the batch bulk methyl methacrylate polymerization is performed. To obtain conversion, number and weight average molecular weights, three neural networks were built. Each was a multilayer perception with one or two hidden layers. The choice of network topology, i.e. the number of hidden layers and the number of neurons in these layers, was based on achieving a compromise between precision and complexity. Thus, it was intended to have an error as small as possible at the end of back-propagation training phases, while using a network with reduced complexity. The performances of the networks were evaluated by comparing network predictions with training data, validation data (which were not uses for training), and with the results of a mechanistic model. The accurate predictions of neural networks for monomer conversion, number average molecular weight and weight average molecular weight proves that this modeling methodology gives a good representation and generalization of the batch bulk methyl methacrylate polymerization. (author)

  7. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    Ebert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  8. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (CAS...

  9. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg

  10. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2012-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2...

  11. Electrical properties of a novel lead alkoxide precursor: Lead glycolate

    Tangboriboon, Nuchnapa; Pakdeewanishsukho, Kittikhun; Jamieson, Alexander; Sirivat, Anuvat; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of lead acetate trihydrate Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 .3H 2 O and ethylene glycol, using triethylenetetramine (TETA) as a catalyst, provides in one step access to a polymer-like precursor of lead glycolate [-PbOCH 2 CH 2 O-]. On the basis of high-resolution mass spectroscopy, chemical analysis composition, FTIR, 13 C-solid state NMR and TGA, the lead glycolate precursor can be identified as a trimer structure. The FTIR spectrum demonstrates the characteristics of lead glycolate; the peaks at 1086 and 1042 cm -1 can be assigned to the C-O-Pb stretchings. The 13 C-solid state NMR spectrum gives notably only one peak at 68.639 ppm belonging to the ethylene glycol ligand. The phase transformations of lead glycolate and lead acetate trihydrate to lead oxide, their microstructures, and electrical properties were found to vary with increasing temperature. The lead glycolate precursor has superior electrical properties relative to those of lead acetate trihydrate, suggesting that the lead glycolate precursor can possibly be used as a starting material for producing electrical and semiconducting ceramics, viz. ferroelectric, anti-ferroelectric, and piezoelectric materials

  12. Role of Glycol Chitosan-incorporated Ursolic Acid Nanoparticles in ...

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA)-incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles on inhibition of human osteosarcoma. Methods: U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with ursolic acid (UA) incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was used ...

  13. Adhesive PEG-based binder for aqueous fabrication of thick Li4Ti5O12 electrode

    Tran, Binh; Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Wang, Zedong; Calderon, Jean; Chai, Guangyu; Atherton, David; Zhai, Lei

    2013-01-01

    We report the first fully compressed Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrode designed by an aqueous process. An adhesive, elastomeric, and lithium ion conductive PEG-based copolymer is used as a binder for the aqueous fabrication thick, flexible, and densely packed Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) electrodes. Self-adherent cathode films exceeding 200 μm in thickness and withholding high active mass loadings of 28 mg/cm 2 deliver 4.2 mAh/cm 2 at C/2 rate. Structurally defect-free electrodes are fabricated by casting aqueous cathode slurries onto nickel foam, dried, and hard-calendared at 10 tons/cm 2 . As a multifunctional material, the binder is synthesized by the copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and isobutyl vinyl ether (IBVE) in optimal proportions. Furthermore, coordinating the binder with lithium salt is necessary for the electrode to function

  14. Modeling of a Buss-Kneader as a Polymerization Reactor for Acrylates. Part II: Methyl Methacrylate Based Resins

    Troelstra, E.J; van Dierendonck, L.L.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Renken, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Buss-Kneader has proven to be a suitable reactor for the polymerization of acrylates. In this second part, the polymerization of methyl methacrylate and the ter-polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), hydroxyethyl methacrylate and n-butylmethacrylate is carried out in a pilot Buss-Kneader.

  15. Polyethylene glycol: a game-changer laxative for children.

    Alper, Arik; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2013-08-01

    Constipation is a common problem in children worldwide. It can also be a chronic problem persisting for many months to years. Successful treatment of constipation requires long-term use of laxatives. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol. Compared with other laxatives, polyethylene glycol (with and without electrolytes) is a relatively new laxative used during the last decade. Recent studies report excellent efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of excellent patient acceptance, polyethylene glycol has become a preferred choice of laxative for many practitioners. This article reviews the recently published pediatric literature on biochemistry, efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and pharmacoeconomics of polyethylene glycol.

  16. Role of polyethylene glycol in childhood constipation.

    Phatak, Uma Padhye; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2014-09-01

    Constipation is a common and chronic problem in children worldwide. Long-term use of laxatives is necessary for successful treatment of chronic constipation. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recent studies report the efficacy and safety of PEG for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of its excellent patient acceptance, PEG is being used widely in children for constipation. In this commentary, we review the recently published pediatric literature on the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptance of PEG. We also assess the role of PEG in childhood constipation by comparing it with other laxatives in terms of efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and cost. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Millimetre Wave Rotational Spectrum of Glycolic Acid

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczolkowski, Lech; Bialkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, was studied in the region 115-318 GHz. For the most stable SSC conformer, transitions in all vibrational states up to 400 cm(exp -1) have been measured and their analysis is reported. The data sets for the ground state, v21 = 1, and v21 = 2 have been considerably extended. Immediately higher in vibrational energy are two triads of interacting vibrational states and their rotational transitions have been assigned and successfully fitted with coupled Hamiltonians accounting for Fermi and Coriolis resonances. The derived energy level spacings establish that the vibrational frequency of the v21 mode is close to 100 cm(exp -1). The existence of the less stable AAT conformer in the near 50 C sample used in our experiment was also confirmed and additional transitions have been measured.

  18. Structural characterization of a poly(methacrylic acid)-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry

    Giordanengo, Remi [Universites Aix-Marseille I, II et III - CNRS, UMR 6264: Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Spectrometries Appliquees a la Chimie Structurale, F-13397 Marseille (France); Viel, Stephane [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, UMR 6263: Institut des Sciences Moleculaires de Marseille, Chimiometrie et Spectrometries, F-13397 Marseille (France); Hidalgo, Manuel; Allard-Breton, Beatrice [ARKEMA, Centre de Recherche Rhone Alpes, Rue Henri Moissan, F-69493 Pierre-Benite (France); Thevand, Andre [Universites Aix-Marseille I, II et III - CNRS, UMR 6264: Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Spectrometries Appliquees a la Chimie Structurale, F-13397 Marseille (France); Charles, Laurence, E-mail: laurence.charles@univ-provence.fr [Universites Aix-Marseille I, II et III - CNRS, UMR 6264: Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Spectrometries Appliquees a la Chimie Structurale, F-13397 Marseille (France)

    2009-11-03

    Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been combined to achieve the complete microstructural characterization of a poly(methacrylic acid)-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMAA-PMMA) copolymer synthesized by nitroxide-mediated polymerization. Various PMAA-PMMA species could be identified which mainly differ in terms of terminaisons. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR experiments revealed the structure of the end-groups as well as the proportion of each co-monomer in the copolymers. These end-group masses were further confirmed from m/z values of doubly charged copolymer anions detected in the single stage mass spectrum. In contrast, copolymer composition derived from MS data was not consistent with NMR results, obviously due to strong mass bias well known to occur during electrospray ionization of these polymeric species. Tandem mass spectrometry could reveal the random nature of the copolymer based on typical dissociation reactions, i.e., water elimination occurred from any two contiguous MAA units while MAA-MMA pairs gave rise to the loss of a methanol molecule. Polymer backbone cleavages were also observed to occur and gave low abundance fragment ions which allowed the structure of the initiating end-group to be confirmed.

  19. Validation of an analytical methodology for the determination of diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol as impurities in glycerin and propylene glycol

    Rosabal Cordovi, Ursula M; Fonseca Gola, Antonio; Cordovi Velazquez, Juan M; Morales Torres, Galina

    2014-01-01

    A methodology for the quantification of diethylene glycol (DEG) and the ethylene glycol (EG) impurities by gas Chromatography with flame ionization detector in glycerol and propylene glycol samples was developed and validated. It was selected dimethyl sulphoxide as internal standard. It was used hydrogen as carrier and auxiliary gas. The temperature program was 100°C holding one minute, then ramp to rate of 7.5°C/ min up to 200 °C. A Restek 624 column was used, with a flow in column of 4.20 ml/ min. Temperatures of the injector and detector were set at 220°C and 250 °C, respectively. The linearity was determined at 25-75 ?μg/ml as interval of concentrations for both impurities with correlation coefficients larger than 0.999. Detection Limits were settled down in 0.0350 μ?g/ml to the diethylene glycol, and 0.0572 μg/ml to ethylene glycol, while the quantitation limits were 0.1160 μ?g/ml to DEG and 0.1897 μg/ml to the EG. The recoveries were 99.98 % and 100.00 %, respectively; with RSD % 1.18 % to DEG, and 0.60 % to the EG. The obtained results demonstrated that the methodology was linear, accurate, robustness, sensitive and selective to be used in the determination of both impurities in the quality control of the glycerol and propylene glycol as raw materials

  20. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Bekkali, Noor L.H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E.J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G.P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). Methods: In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of

  1. Hydrolytically and reductively degradable high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene glycol)s

    Braunová, Alena; Pechar, Michal; Laga, Richard; Ulbrich, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 24 (2007), s. 2642-2653 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable * drug delivery systems * gene delivery vectors * poly(ethylene glycol) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2007

  2. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and Separation of Telechelic Carborane-Containing Poly(ethylene glycol)s

    Matějíček, P.; Uchman, M.; Lepšík, Martin; Srnec, Martin; Zedník, J.; Kozlík, P.; Kalíková, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 6 (2013), s. 528-535 ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00320901 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP208/12/P236 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : carboranes * click chemistry * poly(ethylene glycol) * quantum chemistry * reaction mechanisms Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.242, year: 2013

  4. Effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic metabolizing enzymes.

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Hirai, M; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1990-06-01

    Glycol ethers have been extensively used in industry over the past 40-50 years. Numerous studies on the toxicity of glycol ethers have been performed, however, the effects of glycol ethers on the hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes are still unknown. We studied the changes of the putative metabolic enzymes, that is, the hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system and cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, by the oral administration of diEGME and EGME. Adult male Wistar rats were used. DiEGME was administered orally; 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days and EGME was 100, 300 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days. Decreases in liver weights were produced by highest doses of diEGME (2000 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days) and EGME (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days). DiEGME increased hepatic microsomal protein contents and induced cytochrome P-450, but not cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was not affected by diEGME administration. On the other hand, EGME did not change cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was increased by repeated EGME treatment. Therefore it is suspected that the enzyme which takes part in the metabolism of diEGME is different from that of EGME, although diEGME is a structural homologue of EGME.

  5. IPN hydrogel nanocomposites based on agarose and ZnO with antifouling and bactericidal properties

    Wang, Jingjing, E-mail: jjwang1@hotmail.com; Hu, Hongkai; Yang, Zhonglin; Wei, Jun; Li, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate modified ZnO (ZnO-PEGMA) and 4-azidobenzoic agarose (AG-N{sub 3}) were prepared by a one-pot strategy under UV irradiation. The hydrogels exhibited a highly macroporous spongelike structure, and the pore size decreased with the increase of the ZnO-PEGMA content. Due to the entanglement and favorable interactions between the two crosslinked networks, the IPN hydrogels exhibited excellent mechanical strength and light transmittance. The maximum compressive and tensile strengths of the IPN hydrogels reached 24.8 and 1.98 MPa respectively. The transparent IPN hydrogels transmitted more than 85% of visible light at all wavelengths (400–800 nm). The IPN hydrogels exhibited anti-adhesive property towards Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and the bactericidal activity increased with the ZnO-PEGMA content. The incorporation of ZnO-PEGMA did not reduce the biocompatibility of the IPN hydrogels and all the IPN nanocomposites showed negligible cytotoxicity. The present study not only provided a facile method for preparing hydrogel nanocomposites with IPN structure but also developed a new hydrogel material which might be an excellent candidate for wound dressings. - Highlights: • IPN hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared by a one-pot strategy. • The maximum compressive and tensile strengths reached 24.8 and 1.98 MPa. • IPN hydrogels displayed excellent antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility. • This study provided a facile method for preparing IPN hydrogel nanocomposites.

  6. Surface polyPEGylation of Eu3+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Heng, Chunning; Huang, Qiang; Mao, Liucheng; Huang, Hongye; Hui, Junfeng; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-01

    The Eu3+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with uniform size and morphology can be synthesized by hydrothermal route. However, these HAp nanorods are coated by hydrophobic oleylamine, which makes them difficult to be dispersed in aqueous solution and impede their biomedical applications. In this work, Eu3+ doped luminescent polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. In this procedure, the amino group functionalized HAp nanorods were first prepared by ligand exchange reaction using adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as ligand. Then the Br-containing initiators (HAp-Br) were introduced onto the surface of HAp-AMP nanorods through the amidation reaction. Finally, polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared by metal free ATRP method using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as monomer and 10-phenylphenothiazine (PTH) as organic photocatalyst. The properties of these obtained HAp nanocomposites (HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods) were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis in detail. The cell imaging of these HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods was examined using laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate their biomedical applications. We demonstrated for the first time that hydrophobic luminescent HAp nanorods can be functionalized with polyPEGMA through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated ATRP. As compared with the traditional ATRP, the metal free ATRP can overcome the toxic and fluorescence quenching effects of metal catalysts such as copper ions. More importantly, the strategy described in this work should also be utilized for fabrications of many other luminescent polymer nanocomposites due to its good monomer adoptability.

  7. Biomimetic PEGylation of carbon nanotubes through surface-initiated RAFT polymerization.

    Shi, Yingge; Zeng, Guanjian; Xu, Dazhuang; Liu, Meiying; Wang, Ke; Li, Zhen; Fu, Lihua; Zhang, Qingsong; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a type of one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials that possess excellent physicochemical properties and have been potentially utilized for a variety of applications. Surface modification of CNTs with polymers is a general route to expand and improve the performance of CNTs and has attracted great research interest over the past few decades. Although many methods have been developed previously, most of these methods still showed some disadvantages, such as low efficiency, complex experimental procedure and harsh reaction conditions etc. In this work, we reported a practical and novel way to fabricate CNTs based polymer composites via the combination of mussel inspired chemistry and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. First, the amino group was introduced onto the surface of CNTs via self-polymerization of dopamine. Then, chain transfer agent can be immobilized on the amino groups functionalized CNTs to obtain CNT-PDA-CTA, which can be utilized for surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. A water soluble and biocompatible monomer poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) was adopted to fabricate pPEGMA functionalized CNTs through RAFT polymerization. The successful preparation of CNTs based polymer composites (CNT-pPEGMA) was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in details. The CNT-pPEGMA showed good dispersibility and desirable biocompatibility, making them highly potential for biomedical applications. More importantly, a large number of CNTs based polymer composites could also be fabricated through the same strategy when different monomers were used due to the good monomer adaptability of RAFT polymerization. Therefore, this strategy should be a general method for preparation of various multifunctional CNTs based polymer composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Synthesis and characterization of sugar-based methacrylates and their random copolymers by ATRP

    G. Acik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Various sugar-based methacrylate monomers have been prepared and randomly copolymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA using classical atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP. Firstly, four different sugar-based methacrylates are synthesized by two-step method: (i etherification of protected monosaccharides with epichlorohydrin and (ii following ring-opening reaction of obtained epoxides with methacrylic acid (MAA in the presence of triethylamine. Next, these monomers are copolymerized with MMA via ATRP at 90 °C to obtain corresponding random copolymers. The molecular weights of the copolymers are determined by both GPC (gel permeation chromatography and 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses and found as 10600~16800 and 12200~18500 g/mol, respectively. Moreover, the copolymer compositions are also determined by 1H-NMR analysis using characteristic signals of the monomers and found as about 94.1~97.8%, which are good agreement with feeding ratio. In addition, the glass transition temperatures of copolymers are found as 101.2~102.9 °C by changing type and composition of sugar-based methacrylate monomers. Overall, a series of well-defined random copolymers comprising different sugar-based methacrylates and methyl methacrylates were successfully synthesized by classical ATRP method.

  9. OH radical induced depolymerization of poly(methacrylic acid)

    Ulanski, Piotr; Bothe, Eberhard; von Sonntag, Clemens

    1999-05-01

    Hydroxyl radicals (generated pulse radiolytically in dilute N 2O-saturated aqueous solutions) react with poly(methacrylic acid) producing two kinds of radicals. The primary radical is converted into a secondary one by H-abstraction ( k=3.5 × 10 2 s -1) as monitored by changes in the UV spectrum. Subsequently, the secondary radicals undergo chain scission ( k=1.8 s -1 at pH 7-9). This process has been followed both by spectrophotometry as well as by conductometry. In competition with the bimolecular decay of the radicals the ensuing end-chain radicals undergo efficient depolymerization resulting in the release of monomer. Since the lifetime of the radicals is much longer at high pH, where the polymer attains a rod-like conformation, depolymerization is most efficient in basic solution.

  10. Radiation grafting of methacrylate onto carbon nanofiber surface

    Evora, M.C.; Klosterman, D.; Lafdi, K.; Li, L.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation can be used to modify and improve the properties of materials. Electron beam irradiation has potential application in modifying the structure of carbon fibers in order to produce useful defects in the graphite structure and create reactive sites. In this study, vapor grown carbon nano fibers (VGCF) were irradiated with a high energy (3 MeV) electron beam in air to dose of 1000 kGy to create active sites and added to methyl methacrylate (MMA) dissolved in water/methanol (50% V). The irradiated samples were analyzed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy to assess the impact on surface and bulk properties. Oxygen was readily incorporated enhancing the dispersion of VGCF. Raman spectroscopy analyses indicated that the sample irradiated and preirradiated grafted sample with MMA had the intensity ratio increased. (author)

  11. Thiol-ene/methacrylate systems for mechanical damping

    McNair, Olivia; Senyurt, Askim; Wei, Huanyu; Gould, Trent; Piland, Scott; Hoyle, Charles; Savin, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Ternary thiol-ene-methacrylate (TEMA) networks as materials for mechanical energy damping are unique to the sports world. Using a photoinitiation process, TEMA systems are formed via an initial thiol-ene step-growth mechanism along with traditional radical polymerization of acrylate and ene monomers. Final networks have two-part morphologies: acrylate homopolymer sectors imbedded in a multi-component mesh. Several (TEMA) systems have been synthesized and analyzed via thermal and mechanical probing. Initial studies on these ternary systems have shown excellent properties compared to traditional ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVA) copolymers. For example, PEMA networks exhibit glass transition temperatures 33 K higher than EVA, resulting in improved damping at room temperature. This research will help develop relationships between tan delta, glass transition and their effects on mechanical energy damping for ternary (TEMA) systems.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate)

    Augustinho, Tiago R.; Abarca, Silvia A.C.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) is nowadays commonly used due its advantages over competitors. PS presents a lower cost when compared with Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and with Polyethylene Tere-phthalate (PET), and can be easier processed than polypropylene (PP). At expandable form (EPS), can be used as projective equipment, thermal insulation, floating boards, refrigerators, isothermal, and low cost applications such as packaging and disposable material. Searching for more resistant materials and with a low cost, researches with copolymers materials are being developed. In this study, copolymerization reactions were carried out by suspension polymerization using monomers styrene and methyl methacrylate (MMA) with styrene. Styrene was in the highest percentage in relation to the MMA. The MMA was selected because is a monomer that presents a higher resistance than PS. The copolymerization was confirmed by performing infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen (RMN 1 H), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA). (author)

  13. Synthesis, characterization and photoinduced curing of polysulfones with (methacrylate functionalities

    Cemil Dizman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The UV-curable telechelic polysulfones with (methacrylate functionalities were synthesized by condensation polymerization and subsequent esterification. The final polymers and intermediates at various stages were characterized by 1H NMR, FT-ATR, and GPC. The oligomeric films prepared from the appropriate solutions containing these telechelics and 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA as the photoinitiator undergo rapid polymerization upon irradiation forming insoluble networks. The photo-curing behavior was investigated by photo-DSC and the effects of the molecular weight of the polysulfone precursor and type of functionality on the rate of polymerization and conversion were evaluated. Thermal properties of the photochemically cured films were studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA.

  14. Gamma radiation-polymerized methacrylates used as heavy metals adsorbents

    Barrera D, C.; Roa M, G.; Balderas H, P.; Bilyeu, B.; Urena N, F.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal removal from aqueous solution is a priority research area since the actual methods are costly and a major drawback is the large amounts of sludge generated when applying traditional techniques. Adsorption is a physiochemical wastewater treatment process, which is gaining prominence as a means of producing high quality effluents, which are low in metal ion concentrations. The development of inexpensive adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater is an important area in environmental sciences. In this work we describe some of the physical and chemical phenomena that take place in the polymerization of methacrylates when gamma radiation is used. We explain how polymeric material characterization equipment are used for obtaining information regarding the material properties. Then we explain how the new polymeric material obtained can be use for the wastewater treatment. Finally, a comparison in the heavy metal removal from aqueous solution with other sorbent materials is presented. (Author)

  15. Novel orthodontic cement containing dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate with strong antibacterial capability.

    Feng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Bai, Yuxing; Zhang, Ke

    2017-09-26

    Orthodontic treatments increase the incidence of white spot lesions. The objectives of this study were to develop an antibacterial orthodontic cement to inhibit demineralization, and to evaluate its enamel shear bond strength and anti-biofilm properties. Novel antibacterial monomer dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) was synthesized and incorporated into Transbond XT at 0, 1.5 and 3% by mass. Anti-biofilm activity was assessed using a human dental plaque microcosm biofilm model. Shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index were also tested. Biofilm activity precipitously dropped when contacting orthodontic cement with DMAHDM. Orthodontic cement containing 3% DMAHDM significantly reduced biofilm metabolic activity and lactic acid production (p0.1). By incorporating DMAHDM into Transbond XT for the first time, the modified orthodontic cement obtained a strong antibacterial capability without compromising the enamel bond strength.

  16. Polyglycidyl methacrylate based immunoaffinity cryogels for insulin adsorption

    Memmedova, Türkan; Armutcu, Canan; Uzun, Lokman; Denizli, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) is a kind of bioaffinity chromatography which used antibodies or antibody-related molecules as the stationary phase. IAC is used by many applications for analytical, clinical and diagnostic purposes, particularly preferring in analytical purposes on one-step separation and purification of target compounds. Moreover, immunoaffinity chromatography is used in antibody enrichment and separation of cells. IAC columns are usually applied in the antibody experiments due to powerful and selective binding of antibodies and/or their target antigens. Antigen or antibody molecules could be immobilized to the solid support. Therefore, target antibody or cell is purified. Specific bioligands can be immobilized directly on glycidyl based polymeric material with simple acid–base catalyst. In this study, polyglycidyl methacrylate based therefore cryogels were prepared and anti-insulin antibodies were immobilized on porous surface of cryogels. Swelling test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to characterize cryogels developed. To optimize separation conditions, effects of pH, initial insulin concentration, flow rate, salt concentration, contact time and temperature on insulin adsorption capacity were examined. The results indicated that the immunoaffinity cryogel developed here could be classified as good alternative with prominent properties such as high reusability and cost-friendly adsorbent and would be one of the primary reports for immunoaffinity purification of insulin molecules in not only lab-scale but also for industrial purposes. - Highlights: • Polyglycidyl methacrylate based cryogels developed as stationary phase • Immunoaffinity cryogels for reusable and cost-friendly insulin adsorption • Increase in worldwide prevalence of diabetes, type 1 or 2 • An exponential increase in the demand on insulin market • Guiding researchers for not

  17. Polyglycidyl methacrylate based immunoaffinity cryogels for insulin adsorption

    Memmedova, Türkan; Armutcu, Canan; Uzun, Lokman, E-mail: lokman@hacettepe.edu.tr; Denizli, Adil

    2015-07-01

    Immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) is a kind of bioaffinity chromatography which used antibodies or antibody-related molecules as the stationary phase. IAC is used by many applications for analytical, clinical and diagnostic purposes, particularly preferring in analytical purposes on one-step separation and purification of target compounds. Moreover, immunoaffinity chromatography is used in antibody enrichment and separation of cells. IAC columns are usually applied in the antibody experiments due to powerful and selective binding of antibodies and/or their target antigens. Antigen or antibody molecules could be immobilized to the solid support. Therefore, target antibody or cell is purified. Specific bioligands can be immobilized directly on glycidyl based polymeric material with simple acid–base catalyst. In this study, polyglycidyl methacrylate based therefore cryogels were prepared and anti-insulin antibodies were immobilized on porous surface of cryogels. Swelling test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to characterize cryogels developed. To optimize separation conditions, effects of pH, initial insulin concentration, flow rate, salt concentration, contact time and temperature on insulin adsorption capacity were examined. The results indicated that the immunoaffinity cryogel developed here could be classified as good alternative with prominent properties such as high reusability and cost-friendly adsorbent and would be one of the primary reports for immunoaffinity purification of insulin molecules in not only lab-scale but also for industrial purposes. - Highlights: • Polyglycidyl methacrylate based cryogels developed as stationary phase • Immunoaffinity cryogels for reusable and cost-friendly insulin adsorption • Increase in worldwide prevalence of diabetes, type 1 or 2 • An exponential increase in the demand on insulin market • Guiding researchers for not

  18. Densities, isobaric thermal compressibilities and derived thermodynamic properties of the binary systems of cyclohexane with allyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid, and vinyl acetate at t = (298.15 and 308.15) K

    Wisniak, Jaime [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: wisniak@bgumail.bgu.ac.il; Peralta, Rene D. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Saltillo 25100, Coahuila (Mexico); Infante, Ramiro [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Saltillo 25100, Coahuila (Mexico); Cortez, Gladis [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Saltillo 25100, Coahuila (Mexico); Lopez, R.G. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Saltillo 25100, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2005-10-15

    Densities of the binary systems of cyclohexane with allyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid, and vinyl acetate have been measured as a function of the composition, at 298.15 and 308.15 K and atmospheric pressure, using an Anton Paar DMA 5000 oscillating U-tube densimeter. The calculated excess molar volumes were correlated with the Redlich-Kister equation and with a series of Legendre polynomials. The excess molar volumes are positive for the four binaries studied. Within the short temperature range considered here the coefficient of thermal expansion is positive for all the systems studied; it varies only slightly with the nature of the acrylate except for the system cyclohexane + vinyl acetate.

  19. Glycolic Acid Physical Properties, Impurities, And Radiation Effects Assessment

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-01-01

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H 2 and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O 2 when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. A

  20. A simple route to synthesize conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole nanocomposite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties and their performance for removal of hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution

    Ahmad, Hasan, E-mail: samarhass@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammad Mostafizar; Ali, Mohammad Azgar [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Minami, Hideto [Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tauer, Klaus [Max Planck Institute of Colloid and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg, 14476 Golm (Germany); Gafur, Mohammad Abdul [Pilot Plant and Process Development Centre, BCSIR, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubor [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2016-08-15

    A combination of maghemite polypyrrole (PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and stimuli-responsive properties in the same hydrogel microspheres is expected to enhance their application potential in various fields such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biosensors, biomedical applications and removal of heavy metals from waste water, catalysis etc. In this investigation a simple two step process is used to prepare conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole (PPy) composite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties. Poly(styrene-methacrylic acid-N-isopropylacrylamide-polyethelene glycol methacrylate) or P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles are first prepared by soap-free precipitation copolymerization. The copolymer hydrogel particles exhibited both temperature- and pH-responsive volume phase transition. Conductive P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite hydrogel particles are then prepared by seeded chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles using FeCl{sub 3} as a oxidant and p-toluene sulfonic acid ( p-TSA) as a dopant. In the reaction system FeCl{sub 3} functioned as a source of Fe(III) for the formation of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This reaction also requires the initial presence of Fe(II) provided by the addition of FeCl{sub 2}. The size and size distribution, surface structure, and morphology of the prepared conductive composite hydrogel particles are confirmed by FTIR, electron micrographs, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–visible spectroscopy. The performance of nanocomposite hydrogel particles has been evaluated for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr) ions from water. - Highlights: • P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel particles were prepared. • P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite hydrogel particles were prepared. • Oxidative polymerization of pyrrole and precipitation of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3

  1. Magnetic fluids stabilized by polypropylene glycol

    Lebedev, A.V., E-mail: lav@icmm.r [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 1, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation); Lysenko, S.N. [Institute of Technical Chemistry, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 3, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    A series of samples of magnetic fluids stabilized with low-molecular weight polypropylene glycol (PPG) of different molecular masses were synthesized. The use of PPG allowed the maximum extension of the carrier fluid range to include ethyl- and butyl-acetate, ethanol, butanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, kerosene and PPG itself. Magnetic and rheological properties of the samples were investigated. Based on the results of investigation it has been concluded that magnetic nanoparticles are covered by a monolayer of surfactant molecules. At low temperatures the propanol-based sample preserves fluidity up to -115 {sup o}C. Measurement of critical temperatures of other base fluids showed that alcohols are the best carrier medium. Coagulation stability of the ethanol-based ferrocolloid with respect to water and kerosene was explored. It has been found that kerosene, whose fraction by weight exceeds 22.5%, does not mix with the colloid. This effect can be used to produce magneto-controllable extractors of ethyl alcohol. Under the action of water the colloid coagulates, which allows one to substitute the carrier fluid and to separate the colloid into fractions. - Research highlights: PPG stabilizes the magnetic particles in the polar and non-polar media. The minimum operating temperature reaches -115 {sup o}C. Alcohols are the best environment for PPG-stabilized particles. PPG magnetic fluids can be used as magnetic extractors of alcohol. PPG MF can be divided into fractions by partial coagulation with water.

  2. Storage stability of biodegradable polyethylene glycol microspheres

    Jain, Era; Sheth, Saahil; Polito, Kristen; Sell, Scott A.; Zustiak, Silviya P.

    2017-10-01

    Degradable hydrogel microspheres are popular choices for multiple biomedical applications, including drug, protein, or cell carriers for minimally invasive delivery. Clinical transitioning of such new, sensitive pharmaceutical preparations requires investigation of storage methods that retain key properties for extended time. In this study, we sought to determine the influence of seven common storage conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of degradable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel microspheres: 25 °C, 4 °C, -80 °C, lyophilization/-20 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/-80 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/lyophilization/-20 °C, vacuum/-20 °C. We have outlined the storage conditions in detail and explained their effect on swelling ratio, stiffness and degradation rate post-storage. Additionally, we have implemented protein-loaded hydrogels to evaluate the effect of storage conditions on diffusivity as well as protein stability post-storage. We found that hydrogels could be stored short-term (1-4 d) under moist conditions (i.e. storage without drying) without a substantial loss of properties. For extended storage (7-28 d), they could be stored either at  -80 °C (moist condition) or vacuum drying (dry condition).

  3. Selected polyethylene glycols as DOP substitutes. Addendum 1

    Gerber, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    The recommendation is made that Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators producing a polydisperse distribution for testing the integrity of filters and for testing respirator fit. Further, the recommendation is made that pentaethylene glycol (PTAEG) and possibly hexaethylene glycol be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators thermally producing monodisperse aerosol for quality acceptance tests according tu US federal specifications and standards. The toxicology data base available on the polyethylene glycol family of chemical compounds is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that the probability of approval and acceptance as a non-hazardous substance in the filter and filter media test role is high. Data and analysis supporting PTAEG performance equivalent to DOP in the filter and filter media test role are given or referenced. Cost and availability of the substitute materials is discussed. Conclusions based on the present data and information are given and recommendations for further work are made

  4. The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl ...

    mahlos

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Key words: Acetone, tannin, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). ... hydrolysable tannins may occur in the same plant. ..... Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 38: 421-464. Cornell. (2000). Tannins: Chemical analysis.

  5. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes for children with constipation and encopresis.

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2002-04-01

    Children with functional constipation and encopresis benefit from behavior modification and from long-term laxative medication. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes has become the first option for many pediatric gastroenterologists. Twenty-eight children treated with polyethylene glycol without electrolytes were compared with 21 children treated with milk of magnesia to evaluate the efficiency, acceptability, side effects, and treatment dosage of polyethylene glycol in long-term treatment of functional constipation and encopresis. Children were rated as "doing well," "improved," or "not doing well," depending on resolution of constipation and encopresis. At the 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, bowel movement frequency increased and soiling frequency decreased significantly in both groups. At the 1-month follow-up, children on polyethylene glycol were soiling more frequently (P encopresis.

  6. Material compatibility evaluation for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid-literature review

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-06-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid.

  7. Bio-based methacrylic acid via catalytic decarboxylation of itaconic and citric acids

    Methacrylic acid is an important commodity monomer for the plastics industry that is produced industrially from acetone, hydrogen cyanide and concentrated sulfuric acid via the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. Disadvantages to the ACH process include nonrenewable starting materials, stoichiometric...

  8. Polymerization of sodium methacrylate induced by irradiation; Polimerizacion del metacrilato de sodio inducida por la irradiacion

    Galvan S, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    This work has two objectives, first: it is pretended to localize the lines of carbon links in its IR spectra, and second: following the polymerization of sodium methacrylate according to that it is irradiated with gamma rays. (Author)

  9. Ultraviolet-induced surface grafting of octafluoropentyl methacrylate on polyether ether ketone for inducing antibiofilm properties.

    Amdjadi, Parisa; Nojehdehian, Hanieh; Najafi, Farhood; Ghasemi, Amir; Seifi, Massoud; Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-07-01

    Since octafluoropentyl methacrylate is an antifouling polymer, surface modification of polyether ether ketone with octafluoropentyl methacrylate is a practical approach to obtaining anti-biofilm biocompatible devices. In the current study, the surface treatment of polyether ether ketone by the use of ultraviolet irradiation, so as to graft (octafluoropentyl methacrylate) polymer chains, was initially implemented and then investigated. The Fourier-transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra corroborated the appearance of new signals associated with the fluoroacrylate group. Thermogravimetric curves indicated enhanced asymmetry in the polymer structure due to the introduction of the said new groups. Measuring the peak area in differential scanning calorimetry experiments also showed additional bond formation. Static water contact angle measurements indicated a change in wettability to the more hydrophobic surface. The polyether ether ketone-octafluoropentyl methacrylate surface greatly reduced the protein adsorption. This efficient method can modulate and tune the surface properties of polyether ether ketone according to specific applications.

  10. High temperature initiator-free RAFT polymerization of methyl methacrylate in a microwave reactor

    Paulus, R.M.; Becer, C.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    The reversible additionfragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was investigated under microwave irradiation. At first, a comparison was made between microwave and thermal heating for the RAFT polymerization of MMA with azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as

  11. Ethylene- and diethylene glycol metabolism, toxicity and treatment

    Wiener, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Each year numerous men and domestic animals suffer from ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning. The present approach to treating EG poisoning by administering ethanol is aimed at preventing the oxidation of EG to glycolate, the toxic mediator. When treatment is delayed or the amount of EG consumed is large, successful treatment is rarely obtained, since the concentration of glycolate becomes excessive. In an effort to develop a better approach to treating EG poisoning, studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pig liver glycolic acid oxidase (GAO) as a means of enzyme therapy in male rats receiving EG. Pig liver GAO was active in vitro in rat blood, oxidizing glycolate to glyoxylate. When injected intravenously into male rats, GAO had an approximate half-life of twenty five minutes and its elimination followed first order kinetics. Despite activity in vitro, native pig liver GAO did not display detectable activity in vivo. Diethylene glycol (DEG) when ingested also results in toxicity. The metabolism and toxicity of DEG was investigated in male Wistar rats using [ 14 C]-DEG synthesized from [U- 14 C]-EG and ethylene oxide and purified by high performance liquid chromatography. (2-Hydroxyethoxy)acetic acid (HEAA) was identified as the major product of DEG oxidation. These results suggest that the treatment of DEG poisoning should follow the same regimen as treatment for EG poisoning

  12. Formation of carbonyl compounds in radiolysis of ethylene glycol in methanol

    Bezborodova, S.G.; Vetrov, V.S.; Kalyazin, E.P.; Korolev, V.M.; Salamatov, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    Radiolysis of diluted solutions of ethylene glycol has been investigated. It is shown that acetaldehyde, glycol aldehyde and formaldehyde are the main products of radiolysis of methanol solutions of ethylene glycol. Acetaldehyde and glycol aldehyde yields increase in radiolysis of methanol solutions of ethylene glycol with an increase of the original concentration of ethylene glycol and a temperature rise of radiolysis. Formaldehyde yields increase with the ethylene glycol concentration but decrease with a temperature rise (the formation of formaldehyde from methanol is taken into account). A mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations of ethylene glycol in methanol is explained. It is concluded that the main directions of ethylene glycol decomposition, detected in water solutions of ethylene glycol, are also realized in methanol solutions. However, a role of different directions of decomposition depends on the medium

  13. Preparation and evaluation of poly(alkyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic columns for separating polar small molecules by capillary liquid chromatography

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Wu, Yu-Ru; Lin, Tzuen-Yeuan; Fuh, Ming-Ren, E-mail: msfuh@scu.edu.tw

    2015-04-29

    Highlights: • Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to increase hydrophilicity of polymeric monoliths. • Fast separation of phenol derivatives was achieved in 5 min using MAA-incorporated column. • Separations of aflatoxins and phenicol antibiotics were achieved using MAA-incorporated column. - Abstract: In this study, methacrylic acid (MAA) was incorporated with alkyl methacrylates to increase the hydrophilicity of the synthesized ethylene dimethacrylate-based (EDMA-based) monoliths for separating polar small molecules by capillary LC analysis. Different alkyl methacrylate–MAA ratios were investigated to prepare a series of 30% alkyl methacrylate–MAA–EDMA monoliths in fused-silica capillaries (250-μm i.d.). The porosity, permeability, and column efficiency of the synthesized MAA-incorporated monolithic columns were characterized. A mixture of phenol derivatives is employed to evaluate the applicability of using the prepared monolithic columns for separating small molecules. Fast separation of six phenol derivatives was achieved in 5 min with gradient elution using the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column. In addition, the effect of acetonitrile content in mobile phase on retention factor and plate height as well as the plate height-flow velocity curves were also investigated to further examine the performance of the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column. Moreover, the applicability of prepared polymer-based monolithic column for potential food safety applications was also demonstrated by analyzing five aflatoxins and three phenicol antibiotics using the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column.

  14. Concomitant sensitization to glutaraldehyde and methacrylic monomers among dentists and their patients

    Maya Grigorievna Lyapina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A multitude of methacrylic monomers is used in dentistry. Glutaraldehyde (G is used in dental practice and consumer products as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the frequency and the risk of concomitant sensitization to some methacrylic monomers (methyl methacrylate (MMA, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 2,2-bis-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacrylo-xypropoxyphenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA, 2-hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate (THFMA and glutaraldehyde in students of dentistry, students from the dental technician school, dental professionals and dental patients. Material and Methods: A total of 262 participants were included in the study: students of dentistry, students from the dental technician school, dental professionals, and dental patients as a control group. All were patch-tested with methacrylic monomers and glutaraldehyde. The results were subject to the statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: Among the group of dental students, the highest frequency of concomitant sensitization was to TEGDMA and G (15.5%. In the group of patients the highest frequency of concomitant sensitization was to EGDMA and G (16.4%. The frequency of concomitant sensitization among dental professionals was much lower, with the highest rate to TEGDMA and G (7.7%, too. We consider the students from the dental technician school, where the exposure to glutaraldehyde is less likely, to be the group at a lesser risk of concomitant sensitization. Conclusions: Dental students and dental patients could be outlined as groups at the risk of concomitant sensitization to glutaraldehyde and methacrylic monomers. For dental professionals, we assumed an increased risk for concomitant sensitization to TEGDMA and aldehydes that are commonly used in dentistry. We consider the students from the dental technician school to be the group at a lesser risk of

  15. Organic inorganic hybrid coating (poly(methyl methacrylate)/monodisperse silica)

    Rubio, E.; Almaral, J.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Castaño, V.; Rodríguez, V.

    2005-04-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate-silica hybrid coatings were prepared from methyl methacrylate and monodisperse colloidal silica prepared by the Stöber method. The surfaces of the spheres were successfully modified by chemical reaction with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) to compatibilise the organic and inorganic components of the precursor solution mixture. The coatings were deposited by dip-coating on glass substrates. They result with good properties of homogeneity, optical transparence, hardness and adhesion.

  16. Wettability and ζ potentials of a series of methacrylate polymers and copolymers

    Hogt, A.H.; Gregonis, D.E.; Andrade, J.D.; Kim, S.W.; Dankert, J.; Feijen, Jan

    1985-01-01

    Polymers and copolymers of different methacrylates were synthesized and coated on glass slides. The surfaces of the polymer films were characterized by their water contact angles and potentials using the Wilhelmy plate technique and streaming potential measurements, respectively. From contact-angle measurements information was also obtained about mobility of surface polymer chains. Receding contact angles of methyl methacrylate (MMA) copolymers containing hydrophilic or charged units were dec...

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol by Ditelluratoargentate (III in Alkaline Medium

    Jinhuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol by ditelluratoargentate (III (DTA in alkaline liquids has been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range of 293.2 K–313.2 K. The reaction rate showed first-order dependence in DTA and fractional order with respect to triethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol. It was found that the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs increased with an increase in concentration of OH− and a decrease in concentration of H4TeO6 2−. There was a negative salt effect and no free radicals were detected. A plausible mechanism involving a two-electron transfer was proposed, and the rate equations derived from the mechanism explained all the experimental results and observations. The activation parameters along with the rate constants of the rate-determining step were calculated.

  18. Development and Characterisation of the Imiquimod Poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxyethyl Methacrylate Hydrogel Dressing for Keloid Therapy

    Wei-Chih Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The imiquimod-poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxyethyl methacrylate hydrogel (poly(MEO2MA hydrogel dressing was developed for the keloid therapy application. Four groups of the hydrogels, including the imiquimod-poly(MEO2MA hydrogel, crosslinked with 0.2 mol %, 0.4 mol %, 0.6 mol %, and 0.8 mol % of di(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate cross-linker (DEGDMA, were synthesised and characterised for fabricating the imiquimod-poly(MEO2MA hydrogel pad. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST of the poly(MEO2MA hydrogel was measured at approximately 28 °C and was used as a trigger to control the imiquimod loading and release. The loaded amounts of the imiquimod in the poly(MEO2MA hydrogel, crosslinked with 0.2 mol % and 0.8 mol % of DEGDMA, were about 27.4 μg and 14.1 μg per 1 mm3 of the hydrogel, respectively. The imiquimod-release profiles of two samples were characterised in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS solution at 37 °C and the released imiquimod amount were about 45% and 46% of the total loaded imiquimod. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay was utilised to analyse the cell viability of keloid fibroblasts cultured on the samples of imiquimod-poly(MEO2MA hydrogel, crosslinked with 0.2 mol % and 0.8 mol % of DEGDMA. There was around a 34% decrease of the cell viabilities after 2 days, compared with the pure-poly(MEO2MA hydrogel samples. Therefore, the developed imiquimod-poly(MEO2MA hydrogel dressing can affect the proliferation of keloid fibroblasts. It should be possible to utilise the hydrogel dressing for the keloid therapy application.

  19. T-style keratoprosthesis based on surface-modified poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel for cornea repairs

    Xiang, Jun; Sun, Jianguo; Hong, Jiaxu; Wang, Wentao; Wei, Anji; Le, Qihua; Xu, Jianjiang

    2015-01-01

    Corneal disease is a common cause of blindness, and keratoplasty is considered as an effective treatment method. However, there is a severe shortage of donor corneas worldwide. This paper presents a novel T-style design of a keratoprosthesis and its preparation methods, in which a mechanically and structurally effective artificial cornea is made based on a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel. The porous skirt was modified with hyaluronic acid and cationized gelatin, and the bottom of the optical column was coated with poly(ethylene glycol). The physical properties of the T-style Kpro were analyzed using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry and electron scanning microscopy. The surface chemical properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface modification in the spongy skirt promoted cell adhesion and produced a firm bond between the corneal tissue and the implant device, while the surface modification in the optic column resisted cell adhesion and prevented retroprosthetic membrane formation. Through improved surgical techniques, the novel T-style keratoprosthesis provides enough mechanical stability to facilitate long-term biointegration with the host environment. In vivo implantation experiments showed that the T-style keratoprosthesis is a promising cornea alternative for patients with severe limbal stem cell deficiency and corneal opacity. - Highlights: • T-style keratoprosthesis was designed and prepared based on a PHEMA hydrogel. • Selective surface modifications effectively regulated cells' selective adhesion. • T-style keratoprosthesis provides enough mechanical stability to facilitate long-term biointegration with host tissues

  20. T-style keratoprosthesis based on surface-modified poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel for cornea repairs

    Xiang, Jun [Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); Sun, Jianguo [Research Center, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University (China); Hong, Jiaxu [Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); Wang, Wentao [Research Center, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); Wei, Anji [Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); Le, Qihua [Research Center, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China); Xu, Jianjiang, E-mail: jianjiang-xu@163.com [Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University (China); Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University (China)

    2015-05-01

    Corneal disease is a common cause of blindness, and keratoplasty is considered as an effective treatment method. However, there is a severe shortage of donor corneas worldwide. This paper presents a novel T-style design of a keratoprosthesis and its preparation methods, in which a mechanically and structurally effective artificial cornea is made based on a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel. The porous skirt was modified with hyaluronic acid and cationized gelatin, and the bottom of the optical column was coated with poly(ethylene glycol). The physical properties of the T-style Kpro were analyzed using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry and electron scanning microscopy. The surface chemical properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface modification in the spongy skirt promoted cell adhesion and produced a firm bond between the corneal tissue and the implant device, while the surface modification in the optic column resisted cell adhesion and prevented retroprosthetic membrane formation. Through improved surgical techniques, the novel T-style keratoprosthesis provides enough mechanical stability to facilitate long-term biointegration with the host environment. In vivo implantation experiments showed that the T-style keratoprosthesis is a promising cornea alternative for patients with severe limbal stem cell deficiency and corneal opacity. - Highlights: • T-style keratoprosthesis was designed and prepared based on a PHEMA hydrogel. • Selective surface modifications effectively regulated cells' selective adhesion. • T-style keratoprosthesis provides enough mechanical stability to facilitate long-term biointegration with host tissues.

  1. Surface roughness comparison of methacrylate and silorane-based composite resins after 40% hydrogen peroxide application

    Rori Sasmita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of the tooth colour could be restored with bleaching. The tooth bleaching will affects the surface roughness of the composite resins. Recently, the material basis for composite resins has developed, among others are methacrylate-based and silorane based composite resins. The objective of this study was to distinguish the surface roughness value of methacrylate-based composite resin and silorane based composite resins. This research was quasi-experimental. The sample used in this study were methacrylate and silorane based composite resins in discs form, with the size of 6 mm and the thickness of 3 mm, manufactured into 20 specimens and divided into 2 groups. The control group was immersed in the artificial saliva, and the treatment group was applied with 40% hydrogen peroxide. The result of the experiment analyzed using unpaired sample t-test showed significant differences in the average value of the surface roughness after the application of 40% hydrogen peroxide. The average value of methacrylate and silorane based composite resins were 2.744 μm and 3.417 μm, respectively. There was a difference in the surface roughness of methacrylate and silorane based composite resin compounds after the application of 40% hydrogen peroxide. The surface roughness value of the silorane-based composite resin was higher than the methacrylate-based.

  2. Overnight efficacy of polyethylene glycol laxative.

    Di Palma, Jack A; Smith, Julie R; Cleveland, Mark vB

    2002-07-01

    Clinical studies in constipated adult patients have shown that a 17- or 34-g daily dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLax) is safe and effective for the treatment of constipation, with the best efficacy seen in wk 2 of treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dose of PEG to provide satisfactory relief of constipation within 24 h. A total of 24 adult study subjects who met Rome II criteria for constipation were randomized in a double-blind, parallel pilot study to receive a single dose of placebo or PEG laxative at doses of 51, 68, or 85 g in 500 ml of flavored water. Over a 72-h period, subjects rated bowel movements (BM), completeness of evacuation, and satisfaction. The 68-g dose seemed to be most satisfactory. Five of six subjects had a BM within 24 h. The time to first BM was 14.8 h for 68 g versus 27.3 h for placebo (p = NS). The time to second BM was 19.2 h versus 47.2 h for 68 g and placebo, respectively (p = 0.003). Of the subjects receiving 68 g of PEG, 50% and 100% reported complete evacuation for the first and second BM, respectively. The average number of BMs in 24 h for placebo, 51 g, 68 g, and 84 g were 0.5, 2.2, 2.2, and 4.2, respectively (p = 0.004). There were no adverse reactions, and no patient reported incontinence or complained of cramps or diarrhea at any dose. There were no changes in measured electrolytes, calcium, glucose, BUN, creatinine, or serum osmolality. A 68-g dose of PEG laxative seems to provide safe and effective relief in constipated adults within a 24-h period.

  3. Mutagenicity testing of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether.

    Thompson, E D; Coppinger, W J; Valencia, R; Iavicoli, J

    1984-01-01

    The mutagenic potential of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (diEGBE) was examined with a Tier I battery of in vitro assays followed by a Tier II in vivo Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay. The in vitro battery consisted of: the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the L5178Y mouse lymphoma test, a cytogenetics assay using Chinese hamster ovary cells and the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in rat hepatocytes. Results of the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the cytogenetics test, and the rat hepatocyte assay were negative at concentrations up to 20 microL/plate, 7.92 microL/mL, and 4.4 microL/mL, respectively. Toxicity was clearly demonstrated at all high doses. A weak, but dose-related increase in the mutation frequency (4-fold increase over the solvent control at 5.6 microL/mL with 12% survival) was obtained in the L5178Y lymphoma test in the absence of metabolic activation. Results of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay results were assessed by performing the Tier II sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila in which the target tissue is maturing germinal cells. Both feeding (11,000 ppm for 3 days) and injection (0.3 microL of approximately 14,000 ppm solution) routes of administration were employed in the Drosophila assay. Approximately 11,000 individual crosses with an equal number of negative controls were performed for each route of administration. diEGBE produced no increase in recessive lethals under these conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6389113

  4. Radiation synthesis of nanosilver nanohydrogels of poly(methacrylic acid)

    Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Gautam, Deepti; Anjum, Sadiya; Saxena, Shalini; Kapil, Arti

    2013-01-01

    Nanosilver nanohydrogels (nSnH) of poly(methacrylic acid) were synthesized and stabilized using gamma irradiation. The main objective of this study was to develop silver nanoparticles and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. Radiation helps in the polymerization, crosslinking and reduction of silver nitrate as well. Highly stable and uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles have been obtained within hydrogel network by water in oil nanoemulsion polymerization and were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. TEM showed almost spherical and uniform distribution of silver nanoparticles through the hydrogel network. The mean size of silver nanoparticles ranging is 10–50 nm. The nanohydrogels showed good swelling in water. Antibacterial studies of nSnH suggest that it can be a good candidate as coating material in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Nanosilver nanohydrogels of PMAA were synthesized and stabilized using Υ-irradiation. • The mean size of silver nanoparticles ranging is 10–50 nm. • Antibacterial studies of nSnH suggest it to be a good candidate for biomedical applications

  5. In vivo genotoxicity assessment of acrylamide and glycidyl methacrylate.

    Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Pacheco-Martinez, M Monserrat; McDaniel, L Patrice; Pearce, Mason G; Ding, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) are structurally related compounds used for making polymers with various properties. Both chemicals can be present in food either as a byproduct of processing or a constituent of packaging. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of ACR and GMA genotoxicity in Fisher 344 rats using repeated gavage administrations. Clastogenicity was measured by scoring micronucleated (MN) erythrocytes from peripheral blood, DNA damage in liver, bone marrow and kidneys was measured using the Comet assay, and gene mutation was measured using the red blood cell (RBC) and reticulocyte Pig-a assay. A limited histopathology evaluation was performed in order to determine levels of cytotoxicity. Doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day of ACR and up to 250 mg/kg/day of GMA were used. ACR treatment resulted in DNA damage in the liver, but not in the bone marrow. While ACR was not a clastogen, it was a weak (equivocal) mutagen in the cells of bone marrow. GMA caused DNA damage in the cells of bone marrow, liver and kidney, and induced MN reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant RBCs in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that both compounds are in vivo genotoxins, but the genotoxicity of ACR is tissue specific. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Pyrogallol-imprinted polymers with methyl methacrylate via precipitation polymerization

    Mehamod, Faizatul Shimal; Othman, Nor Amira; Bulat, Ku Halim Ku; Suah, Faiz Bukhari Mohd

    2018-06-01

    Molecular simulation techniques are important to study the understanding of chemical and physical properties of any material. Computational modeling is considered as time reducer in finding the best recipes for Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers (MIPs). In this study, Pyrogallol-imprinted polymers (PIP) and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were synthesized via precipitation polymerization using Pyrogallol (Py), methyl methacrylate (MMA), divinylbenzene (DVB) as template, functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. The recipe was according to the results from computational techniques. The synthesized PIP and NIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). Studies on adsorption isotherm showed that PIP and NIPs follow Scatchard isotherm models. Sorption kinetic study found that PIP and NIPs follow pseudo-second order which indicates the rate-limiting step is the surface adsorption. The imprinting factor of PIP was determined by selectivity study and showed the value of k >1, which proved that PIP was selective toward Pyrogallol compared to NIP.

  7. Thermal Properties of Polymethyl Methacrylate Composite Containing Copper Nanoparticles.

    Yu, Wei; Xie, Huaqing; Xin, Sha; Yin, Junshan; Jiang, Yitong; Wang, Mingzhu

    2015-04-01

    Thermal functional Materials have wide applications in thermal management fields, and inserting highly thermal conductive materials is effective in enhancing thermal conductivity of matrix. In this paper, copper nanoparticles were selected as the additive to prepare polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based nanocomposite with enhanced thermal properties. Uniform copper nanoparticles with pure face-centered lattice were prepared by liquid phase reduction method. Then, they were added into PMMA/N, N-Dimethylmethanamide (DMF) solution according to the different mass fraction for uniform dispersion. After DMF was evaporated, Cu-PMMA nanocomposites were gained. The thermal analysis measurement results showed that the decomposition temperature of nanocomposites decreased gradually with the increasing particle loadings. The thermal conductivity of the Cu-PMMA nanocomposites rose with the increasing contents of copper nanoparticles. With a 20 vol.% addition, the thermal conductivity was up to 1.2 W/m · K, a 380.5% increase compared to the pure PMMA. The results demonstrate that copper nanoparticles have great potential in enhancing thermal transport properties of polymer.

  8. Strengthening of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) through Electron Irradiation

    Yoo, Sung Ho; Lim, Hyung San; Ha, Jun Mok; Cho, Sung Oh [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) was previously known to show the deteriorating mechanical properties when irradiated with electrons. This is true for low electron irradiation does, but it was found, through experimentation, that at high irradiation dose, PMMA demonstrates improved mechanical properties. With enough electron irradiation dose, the scissions can form new links amongst one another to achieve stability that surpasses that of the PMMA in pre-irradiation treatment state. With higher irradiation dosage and beam strength, hardness of irradiated PMMA could be increased to a much greater extent. Electrons with 50keV of energy can only penetrate around 30 μm of PMMA, thus increasing the beam energy could potentially allow for hardening of not just the surface of the PMMA samples, but the whole samples themselves. Furthermore, Pencil Hardness Test is a method to roughly analyze a material's hardness and does not provide an accurate feedback on the mechanical properties of the material of interest. Hence, a more thorough and effective method of measuring data from the use of equipment such as IZOD Impact Tester, Strain-Stress Tester and Haze Meter will be utilized in the future.

  9. Methacrylate monolithic columns functionalized with epinephrine for capillary electrochromatography applications.

    Carrasco-Correa, Enrique Javier; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2013-07-12

    Epinephrine-bonded polymeric monoliths for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) were developed by nucleophilic substitution reaction of epoxide groups of poly(glycidyl-methacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) monoliths using epinephrine as nucleophilic reagent. The ring opening reaction under dynamic conditions was optimized. Successful chemical modification of the monolith surface was ascertained by in situ Raman spectroscopy characterization. In addition, the amount of epinephrine groups that was bound to the monolith surface was evaluated by oxidation of the catechol groups with Ce(IV), followed by spectrophotometric measurement of unreacted Ce(IV). About 9% of all theoretical epoxide groups of the parent monolith were bonded to epinephrine. The chromatographic behavior of the epinephrine-bonded monolith in CEC conditions was assessed with test mixtures of alkyl benzenes, aniline derivatives and substituted phenols. In comparison to the poly(GMA-co-EDMA) monoliths, the epinephrine-bonded monoliths exhibited a much higher retention and slight differences in selectivity. The epinephrine-bonded monolith was further modified by oxidation with a Ce(IV) solution and compared with the epinephrine-bonded monoliths. The resulting monolithic stationary phases were evaluated in terms of reproducibility, giving RSD values below 9% in the parameters investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) using commercial additives

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterelizable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its mechanical properties. Therefore, radiolytic of PMMA is important for it to become commercially radiosterizable. In this work some commercial additives, originally used in photo-and thermo-oxidate stabilization of polymers, were tested. Only two additives, type HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer), denoted Scavenger, showed a good protective quality. The investigation of radiation-induced main scissions was carried out by viscosimetric method. The most effective additive, added to the polymer system at 0.3 w/w%, promotes a great molecular radioprotection of 93%. That means a reduction of G-value (scissions/100 eV) from 0.611 to 0.053. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (T g ) of PMMA (no additive) significantly changed by radiation does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. The spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H), showed that the radioprotector added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. (author)

  11. Methyl methacrylate and respiratory sensitization: A Critical review

    Borak, Jonathan; Fields, Cheryl; Andrews, Larry S; Pemberton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a respiratory irritant and dermal sensitizer that has been associated with occupational asthma in a small number of case reports. Those reports have raised concern that it might be a respiratory sensitizer. To better understand that possibility, we reviewed the in silico, in chemico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology literature, and also epidemiologic and occupational medicine reports related to the respiratory effects of MMA. Numerous in silico and in chemico studies indicate that MMA is unlikely to be a respiratory sensitizer. The few in vitro studies suggest that MMA has generally weak effects. In vivo studies have documented contact skin sensitization, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and weakly positive responses on local lymph node assay; guinea pig and mouse inhalation sensitization tests have not been performed. Cohort and cross-sectional worker studies reported irritation of eyes, nose, and upper respiratory tract associated with short-term peaks exposures, but little evidence for respiratory sensitization or asthma. Nineteen case reports described asthma, laryngitis, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis in MMA-exposed workers; however, exposures were either not well described or involved mixtures containing more reactive respiratory sensitizers and irritants.The weight of evidence, both experimental and observational, argues that MMA is not a respiratory sensitizer. PMID:21401327

  12. Poly(methyl methacrylate) films for organic vapour sensing

    Capan, R; Hassan, A K; Tanrisever, T

    2003-01-01

    Optical constants and fabrication parameters are investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies on spun films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) derivatives in contact with two different dielectric media. A value of 1.503 for the refractive index of PMMA films produced from a solution having concentration of 1 mg ml sup - sup 1 at the speed of 3000 rpm is in close agreement with the data obtained from ellipsometric measurements. The film thickness shows a power-law dependence on the spin speed but the thickness increases almost linearly with the concentration of the spreading solution. These results are in good agreement with the hydrodynamic theory for a low-viscosity and highly volatile liquid. On the basis of SPR measurements under dynamic conditions, room temperature response of PMMA films to benzene vapours is found to be fast, highly sensitive and reversible. The sensitivity of detection of toluene, ethyl benzene and m-xylene is much smaller than that of benzene.

  13. Radiation degradation of methyl methacrylate grafted natural rubber

    Perera, M.C.S.

    1998-01-01

    M G rubber is a mixture consisting of the graft copolymer and two home polymers. Natural rubber is known to undergo crosslinking during exposure to high energy radiation where as poly methyl methacrylate is a polymer where high energy radiation causes chain scission. It is interesting to determine how this partially miscible blend of scission and crosslinking polymers will behave under high energy radiation. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study the variations in the glass transition regions during high energy treatment of the polymers. Another techniques that is available to obtain motional information and miscibility of blends is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR).The present study is aimed at understanding the changes in the molecular structure of rubber when exposed to high energy radiation. The changes in the dynamic mechanical properties in the glass transition region and solid state NMR were made used of for this investigation. The data obtained from the DMA results were analysed to calculate the radiation chemical yields. The local dynamics were investigated with measurement of carbon relaxation times and molecular structure was studied with focus on the level of intermolecular mixing by proton relaxation times

  14. Erythrocyte membrane stabilization effect and antioxidant activity of methyl methacrylate

    Popov, B.

    2004-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMK) is a synthetic product with mild impact on human health that is not well studied on cellular basis. Here, human erythrocytes were used to investigate the effects MMK exerts on acid and heat-induced hemolysis. Biphasic effect of MMK was observed for acid-induced hemolysis; i.e., protection at low (0 - 0.05% v/v) and stimulation at higher (0.1- 0.4% v/v) concentrations. The maximal protective effect was produced at 0.03% (v/v). At this concentration MMK increased the temperatures of heat denaturation of erythrocyte membrane proteins, spectrin and integral proteins, by about 2 0 C and inhibited the heat-induced hemolysis by 20 %. This membrane stabilization effect of MMK is similar to that produced by some anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs. The increased acid resistance possibly indicated anti-oxidant properties of MMK. The nonenzymatic antioxidant activity test evidenced that MMK has no superoxide dismutase-like activity but demonstrates strong catalase-like activity (about 900 kU/mmol at 0.05-0.1 mmol/l concentration). The results indicate that at low concentration MMK exerts benign effect on cellular membrane that could find therapeutic usage. (author)

  15. Radiolytic stabilization of industrial poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterilisable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its physical properties. Therefore, radiolytic stabilization of PMMA is important for to become it commercially radio sterilisable. In this work we investigated the radiolytic stabilization of PMMA by using HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer) additive, commercially used for photo and thermo oxidative stabilization of polymers. The investigation of the radiation-induced main chain scissions was carried out by viscometric method. The additive added to the polymer system at 0.3 % w/w promotes a molecular radioprotection of 61%. That means a reduction of G value (scissions/100 eV) from 2.6 to 1.0. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (Tg) of PMMA (no additive), significantly changed by radiation, does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. TGA analysis showed that the additive promotes thermal stability to the system, increasing decomposition temperature of PMMA. Spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and RMN ( 1 H), showed that the radioprotector additive added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. Analysis on mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and optical (yellowness index and refractive index) properties showed a good influence of the additive on polymer system. (author)

  16. Surface modification of silk fibroin fibers with poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tributylsilyl methacrylate) via RAFT polymerization for marine antifouling applications

    Buga, Mihaela-Ramona [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICIT Rm. Valcea, 240050 Rm. Valcea, Uzinei 4, CP7, Raureni, Valcea (Romania); Zaharia, Cătălin, E-mail: zaharia.catalin@gmail.com [Advanced Polymer Materials Group, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1-7, Gh. Polizu Street, Sector 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Bălan, Mihai [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICIT Rm. Valcea, 240050 Rm. Valcea, Uzinei 4, CP7, Raureni, Valcea (Romania); Bressy, Christine [Université de Toulon, MAPIEM, EA 4323, 83957 La Garde (France); Ziarelli, Fabio [Fédération des Sciences Chimiques de Marseille, CNRS-FR1739, Spectropole, 13397 Marseille (France); Margaillan, André [Université de Toulon, MAPIEM, EA 4323, 83957 La Garde (France)

    2015-06-01

    In this study, silk fibroin surface containing hydroxyl and aminogroups was firstly modified using a polymerizable coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS), in order to induce vinyl groups onto the fiber surface. The reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and tributylsilyl methacrylate (TBSiMA) through the immobilized vinyl bond on the silk fibroin surface in the presence of 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain-transfer agent and 2,2′-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator was conducted in toluene solution at 70 °C for 24 h. The structure and properties of the modified fiber were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, {sup 13}C, {sup 29}Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confirming the presence of the coupling molecule and the methacrylate groups onto the silk fibroin fiber surface. Molecular weight distributions were assessed by triple detection size exclusion chromatography (TD-SEC) in order to verify the livingness of the polymerization. - Highlights: • SF surface containing hydroxyl and amino groups was firstly modified with MPS. • RAFT polymerizations of MMA and TBSiMA were studied. • TD-SEC was used to verify the livingness of the RAFT polymerization. • The grafted polymer chains enhance the thermal stability of the SF fibers. • The grafted fibers could be potentially promising candidates as antifouling agents.

  17. Surface modification of silk fibroin fibers with poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tributylsilyl methacrylate) via RAFT polymerization for marine antifouling applications

    Buga, Mihaela-Ramona; Zaharia, Cătălin; Bălan, Mihai; Bressy, Christine; Ziarelli, Fabio; Margaillan, André

    2015-01-01

    In this study, silk fibroin surface containing hydroxyl and aminogroups was firstly modified using a polymerizable coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS), in order to induce vinyl groups onto the fiber surface. The reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and tributylsilyl methacrylate (TBSiMA) through the immobilized vinyl bond on the silk fibroin surface in the presence of 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain-transfer agent and 2,2′-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator was conducted in toluene solution at 70 °C for 24 h. The structure and properties of the modified fiber were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, 13 C, 29 Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confirming the presence of the coupling molecule and the methacrylate groups onto the silk fibroin fiber surface. Molecular weight distributions were assessed by triple detection size exclusion chromatography (TD-SEC) in order to verify the livingness of the polymerization. - Highlights: • SF surface containing hydroxyl and amino groups was firstly modified with MPS. • RAFT polymerizations of MMA and TBSiMA were studied. • TD-SEC was used to verify the livingness of the RAFT polymerization. • The grafted polymer chains enhance the thermal stability of the SF fibers. • The grafted fibers could be potentially promising candidates as antifouling agents

  18. Ethylene glycol intercalation in smectites. molecular dynamics simulation studies

    Szczerba, Marek; Klapyta, Zenon; Kalinichev, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Intercalation of ethylene glycol in smectites (glycolation) is widely used to discriminate smectites and vermiculites from other clays and among themselves. During this process, ethylene glycol molecules enter into the interlayer spaces of the swelling clays, leading to the formation of two-layer structure (∼17 A) in the case of smectites, or one-layer structure (∼14 A) in the case of vermiculites. In spite of the relatively broad literature on the understanding/characterization of ethylene glycol/water-clays complexes, the simplified structure of this complex presented by Reynolds (1965) is still used in the contemporary X-ray diffraction computer programs, which simulate structures of smectite and illite-smectite. The monolayer structure is only approximated using the assumption of the interlayer cation and ethylene glycol molecules lying in the middle of interlayer spaces. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the structure of ethylene glycol/water-clays complex in more detail using molecular dynamics simulation. The structural models of smectites were built on the basis of pyrophyllite crystal structure (Lee and Guggenheim, 1981), with substitution of particular atoms. In most of simulations, the structural model assumed the following composition, considered as the most common in the mixed layer illite-smectites: EXCH 0.4 (Si 3.96 Al 0.04 )(Al 1.46 Fe 0.17 Mg 0.37 )O 10 (OH) 2 Atoms of the smectites were described with CLAYFF force field (Cygan et al., 2004), while atoms of water and ethylene glycol with flexible SPC and OPLS force fields, respectively. Ewald summation was used to calculate long range Coulombic interactions and the cutoff was set at 8.5 A. Results of the simulations show that in the two-layer glycolate the content of water is relatively small: up to 0.8 H 2 O per half of the smectite unit cell. Clear thermodynamic preference of mono- or two-layer structure of the complex is

  19. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers – Reproductive and developmental toxicity

    Beata Starek-Świechowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. Med Pr 2015;66(5:725–737

  20. Repair Strength in Simulated Restorations of Methacrylate- or Silorane-Based Composite Resins.

    Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Marinho, Tatiane; Bacchi, Atais; Caldas, Ricardo Armini; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The study verified the bond strength in simulated dental restorations of silorane- or methacrylate-based composites repaired with methacrylate-based composite. Methacrylate- (P60) or silorane-based (P90) composites were used associated with adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2). Twenty-four hemi-hourglass-shaped samples were repaired with each composite (n=12). Samples were divided according to groups: G1= P60 + Adper Single Bond 2+ P60; G2= P60 + Adper Single Bond 2 + P60 + thermocycling; G3= P90 + Adper Single Bond 2 + P60; and G4= P90 + Adper Single Bond 2 + P60 + thermocycling. G1 and G3 were submitted to tensile test 24 h after repair procedure, and G2 and G4 after submitted to 5,000 thermocycles at 5 and 55 ?#61616;C for 30 s in each bath. Tensile bond strength test was accomplished in an universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data (MPa) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). Sample failure pattern (adhesive, cohesive in resin or mixed) was evaluated by stereomicroscope at 30?#61655; and images were obtained in SEM. Bond strength values of methacrylate-based composite samples repaired with methacrylate-based composite (G1 and G2) were greater than for silorane-based samples (G3 and G4). Thermocycling decreased the bond strength values for both composites. All groups showed predominance of adhesive failures and no cohesive failure in composite resin was observed. In conclusion, higher bond strength values were observed in methacrylate-based resin samples and greater percentage of adhesive failures in silorane-based resin samples, both composites repaired with methacrylate-based resin.

  1. Sources of Propylene Glycol and Glycol Ethers in Air at Home

    Hyunok Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building’s structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samples. The samples were analyzed for four groups of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and semi-VOCs (SVOCs, including summed concentrations of 16 PGEs, 8 terpene hydrocarbons, 2 Texanols, and the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP, and di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP. Home cleaning with water and mop ≥ once/month, repainting ≥ one room prior to or following the child’s birth, and “newest” surface material in the child’s bedroom explained largest portion of total variability in PGE concentrations. High excess indoor humidity (g/m3 additionally contributed to a sustained PGE levels in indoor air far beyond several months following the paint application. No behavioral or building structural factors, except for water-based cleaning, predicted an elevated terpene level in air. No significant predictor of Texanols emerged from our analysis. Overall disparate sources and low correlations among the PGEs, terpenes, Texanols, and the phthalates further confirm the lack of confounding in the analysis reporting the associations of the PGE and the diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively.

  2. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  3. Poly(methyl-methacrylate) nanocomposites with low silica addition.

    Balos, Sebastian; Pilic, Branka; Markovic, Dubravka; Pavlicevic, Jelena; Luzanin, Ognjan

    2014-04-01

    Poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) represents the most popular current denture material. However, its major drawbacks are insufficient ductility and strength. The purpose of this study was to improve the mechanical properties of PMMA in denture base application by adding small quantities of nanosilica. Silica nanoparticles were added to the liquid component of the tested materials. The standard heat polymerizing procedure was followed to obtain 6 PMMA--silicon dioxide (/SiO2) concentrations (0.023%, 0.046%, 0.091%, 0.23%, 0.46%, and 0.91% by volume). Microhardness and fracture toughness of each set of specimens was compared with the unmodified specimens. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy analyses were conducted, and the results obtained were correlated with the results of mechanical properties. It was found that the maximum microhardness and fracture toughness values of the materials tested were obtained for the lowest nanosilica content. A nanosilica content of 0.023% resulted in an almost unchanged glass transition temperature (Tg), whereas the maximum amount of nanosilica induced a considerable increase in Tg. A higher Tg indicated the possible existence of a thicker interfacial layer caused by the chain immobility due to the presence of the particles. However, scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated extensive agglomeration at 0.91% nanosilica, which may have prevented the formation of a homogenous reinforced field. At a nanosilica content of 0.023%, no agglomeration was observed, which probably influenced a more homogenous distribution of nanoparticles as well as uniform reinforcing fields. Low nanoparticle content yields superior mechanical properties along with the lower cost of nanocomposite synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gelation of photopolymerized hyaluronic acid grafted with glycidyl methacrylate

    Prado, S.S.; Weaver, J.M.; Love, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments have tracked the ambient gelation of a series of hydrophilic hyaluronic acid (HA) resins grafted with glycidyl methacrylate (GM) and photopolymerized as a function of dose. The resin mixtures range in GMHA concentration between 0.5 and 1.5% w/w in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Illuminated at 20 mW/cm 2 , the dynamic viscosity (η(t)) has been tracked and characterized using the Boltzmann log-sigmoidal model. A gelled viscosity of ∼ 10 Pa s was determined at 0.5% w/w which rose to ∼ 50 Pa s at or above 1% w/w. More curing agent marginally increased the gel viscosity at each concentration. Time constants associated with viscosity advancement were shortest at [GMHA] = 1.0%; higher concentrations are attributed with lower quantum efficiency when illuminated. Subsequent frequency sweeps replicated already published work using similar GHMA concentrations in PBS. G' values ranged from 100 to 500 Pa over the formulation range with expected sensitivity to GMHA and curing agent concentration. Overall, the sigmoidal model represented this advancing viscosity data well, and further analysis of the physical significance of these model parameters may help in understanding photopolymerization of this complicated formulation more broadly. Highlights: → The ambient dynamic viscosity of photopolymerized GMHA gels has been measured. → 2 physical parameters and two time constants were extracted from the sigmoidal model. → Higher crosslinker content for a fixed GMHA concentration led to higher gel viscosity. → The time to toggle between the initial and final viscosity ranged between 5 and 10 s. → Dynamic frequency sweep tests on cured gels also revealed G' values between 100 and 500 Pa.

  5. Modeling of the Free-Radical Copolymerization Kinetics with Crosslinking of Methyl Methacrylate / Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate Up to High Conversions and Considering Thermal Effects

    Vivaldo-Lima, Eduardo; García-Pérez, Rosalba; Celedón-Briones, Oswaldo J.

    2003-01-01

    Se usa un modelo matemático para copolimerización por radicales libres con entrecruzamiento para modelar el comportamiento del sistema de copolimerización metacrilato de metilo (MMA) / dimetacrilato de etilén glicol (EGDMA). Las predicciones del modelo se comparan contra datos experimentales de literatura, teniendo buena concordancia a bajas conversiones, y bajas concentraciones de agente de entrecruzamiento. Si se consideran en el modelo los efectos térmicos asociados a la polimerización con...

  6. Monodisperse carboxyl-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-coated magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres: application to the immunocapture of .beta.-amyloid peptides

    Horák, Daniel; Hlídková, Helena; Hiraoui, M.; Taverna, M.; Proks, Vladimír; Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Smadja, C.; Kučerová, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 11 (2014), s. 1590-1599 ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12053 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 246513 - NADINE Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : β-amyloid peptides * CE-LIF detection * functionalization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.851, year: 2014

  7. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to thymidine glycol monophosphate

    Chen, B.X.; Hubbard, K.; Ide, H.; Wallace, S.S.; Erlanger, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody specific for thymine glycol (TG) in irradiated or OsO4-treated DNA was obtained by immunizing with thymidine glycol monophosphate (TMP-glycol) conjugated to bovine serum albumin by a carbodiimide procedure. Screening by dot-immunobinding and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) procedures gave eight clones that bound OsO4- treated DNA. One of them, 2.6F.6B.6C, an IgG2a kappa, was characterized further. Hapten inhibition studies with OsO4-treated DNA showed that the antibody was specific for TMP-glycol. Among the various inhibitors tested, inhibition was in the order TMP-glycol greater than 5,6-dihydrothymidine phosphate greater than TMP greater than thymidine glycol greater than TG. Inhibition by 5,6-dihydrothymidine, thymidine, thymine, AMP, and CMP was negligible. In OsO4-treated DNA, as few as 0.5 TG per 10,000 bp were detectable by direct ELISA. Inhibition assays could detect as few as 1.5 TG per 10,000 bp. The antibody was equally reactive with native or denatured DNA containing TG. Among the X-irradiated homopolymers dC, dA, dG, and dT, only dT reacted with the antibody. Using an ELISA, the antibody could detect damage in irradiated DNA at the level of 20 Gy. Thus the antibody is of potential use in assays for DNA damage caused by X rays or other agents that damage DNA by free radical interactions

  8. Simultaneous determination of glycols based on fluorescence anisotropy

    Garcia Sanchez, F.; Navas Diaz, A.; Lopez Guerrero, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of non-fluorescent glycols in mixtures without separation or chemical transformation steps is described. Two methods based in the measure of fluorescence anisotropy of a probe such as fluorescein dissolved in the analyte or analyte mixtures are described. In the first method, the anisotropy spectra of pure and mixtures of analytes are used to quantitative determination (if the fluorophor concentration is in a range where fluorescence intensity is proportional to concentration). In the second method, a calibration curve anisotropy-concentration based on the application of the Perrin equation is established. The methods presented here are capable of directly resolving binary mixtures of non-fluorescent glycols on the basis of differences on the fluorescence anisotropy of a fluorescence tracer. Best analytical performances were obtained by application of the method based on Perrin equation. This method is simple, rapid and allows the determination of mixtures of glycols with reasonable accuracy and precision. Detection limits are limited by the quantum yield and anisotropy values of the tracer in the solvents. Recovery values are related to the differences in anisotropy values of the tracer in the pure solvents. Mixtures of glycerine/ethylene glycol (GL/EG), ethylene glycol/1,2-propane diol (EG/1,2-PPD) and polyethylene glycol 400/1,2-propane diol (PEG 400/1,2-PPD) were analysed and recovery values are within 95-120% in the Perrin method. Relative standard deviation are in the range 1.3-2.9% and detection limits in the range 3.9-8.9%

  9. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction.

    Mínguez, Miguel; López Higueras, Antonio; Júdez, Javier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely) NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish), sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age) and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis). Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two), psyllium (one), tegaserod (one), prucalopride (one), paraffin oil (one), fiber combinations (one) and Descurainia sophia (one). Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose) and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long-term. They are as efficacious as enemas in fecal

  10. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction

    Miguel Mínguez

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG, with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Methodology: Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish, sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis. Results: Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two, psyllium (one, tegaserod (one, prucalopride (one, paraffin oil (one, fiber combinations (one and Descurainia sophia (one. Conclusions: Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long

  11. Peculiarities of the photoinitiator-free photopolymerization of pentabrominated and pentafluorinated aromatic acrylates and methacrylates.

    Daikos, Olesya; Naumov, Sergej; Knolle, Wolfgang; Heymann, Katja; Scherzer, Tom

    2016-11-30

    Pentabrominated and fluorinated aromatic (meth)acrylates as well as their non-halogenated counterparts have been studied with the aim to avoid conventional photoinitiators and to overcome some negative consequences related to their use. Therefore, RTIR spectroscopy, laser flash photolysis and GC/MS were utilized. Even low concentrations (1 to 5 wt%) of brominated (meth)acrylates in the model varnish lead to initiation of a photopolymerization reaction under exposure to UV light with λ > 300 nm. This is due to the fact that excitation of the aryl moiety leads to the homolysis of bromine-phenyl bonds with a high quantum yield of ∼0.15-0.3. Both, bromine radicals released from either ortho, meta or para position as well as the corresponding tetrabromoaryl radicals, may initiate the polymerization of brominated aromatic (meth)acrylates. In contrast, fluorinated aromatic (meth)acrylates undergo α-cleavage of the carboxyl group (as in the case of non-halogenated aromatic (meth)acrylates), if excitation of the acrylic double bonds is done with UV-C light (λ fluorinated) and 0.16-0.36 (non-halogenated compounds), despite the different pathway of fragmentation. Thus, in all cases the efficiency of initiation is comparable to conventional photoinitiators. Quantum chemical calculations of orbitals involved and of the Gibbs free energy of transients and products support the suggested reaction pathway.

  12. (Meth)Acrylate Occupational Contact Dermatitis in Nail Salon Workers: A Case Series.

    DeKoven, Samuel; DeKoven, Joel; Holness, D Linn

    Recently, many cases of acrylate-associated allergic contact dermatitis have appeared among nail salon workers. Common acrylate-containing products in nail salons include traditional nail polish, ultraviolet-cured shellac nail polish, ultraviolet-cured gel nails, and press-on acrylic nails. Nail salon technicians seen in the occupational medicine clinic in 2015 and 2016 were identified, and their patch test results and clinical features were summarized. Patch testing was done with the Chemotechnique (Meth)Acrylate nail series, and either the North American Standard series or the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening series. Six patients were identified, all women, ages 38 to 58. Common presentations included erythematous dermatitis of the dorsa of the hands, palms, and forearms and fissures on the fingertips. Less common sites of eruptions included the periorbital region, cheeks, posterior ears, neck, sacral area, lateral thighs, and dorsa of the feet. All patients reacted to hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and 5 patients reacted to ethyl acrylate. Each patient also reacted to (meth)acrylates that are not found on either standard series, including ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The authors report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in nail technicians seen over the past year, representing a new trend in their clinic. These cases are reflective of a growing trend of nail technicians with allergic contact dermatitis associated with occupational (meth)acrylate exposure. Efforts to improve prevention are needed.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Surface-Charged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate as Denture Resins

    Sang E. Park

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of a new surface-modified denture resin for its suitability as denture base material. This experimental resin is made by copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA to poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA to produce a negative charge. Four experimental groups consisted of Orthodontic Dental Resin (DENTSPLY Caulk as a control and three groups of modified PMMA (mPMMA produced at differing ratios of methacrylic acid (5 : 95, 10 : 90, and 20 : 80 MA : MMA. A 3-point flexural test using the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp. measured force-deflection curves and a complete stress versus strain history to calculate the transverse strength, transverse deflection, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Analysis of Variance and Scheffe Post-test were performed on the data. Resins with increased methacrylic acid content exhibited lower strength values for the measured physical properties. The most significant decrease occurred as the methacrylic acid content was increased to 20% mPMMA. No significant differences at P<.05 were found in all parameters tested between the Control and 5% mPMMA.

  14. Anomalous behavior of secondary dielectric relaxation in polypropylene glycols

    Grzybowska, K; Grzybowski, A; Ziolo, J; Rzoska, S J; Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2007-09-19

    A surprising slow down in the dielectric secondary {gamma}-relaxation with temperature increasing near the glass transition is confirmed for several polypropylene glycols. The peculiar behavior diminishes as the molecular weight grows. The minimal model (Dyre and Olsen 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 155703) is applied successfully to describe the temperature dependences of the {gamma}-relaxation times. The minimal model parameters are analyzed for different molecular weights. A molecular explanation of the {gamma}-process anomaly for polypropylene glycols is proposed on the basis of the minimal model prediction.

  15. Bubble-point measurement for the binary mixture of propargyl acrylate and propargyl methacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Baek, Seung-Hyun; Byun, Hun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase behaviours for the (CO_2 + propargyl (meth)acrylate) systems by static method were measured. • (P, x) isotherms is obtained at pressures up to 19.14 MPa and at temperature of (313.2 to 393.2) K. • The (CO_2 + propargyl acrylate) and (CO_2 + propargyl methacrylate) systems exhibit type-I behaviour. - Abstract: Acrylate and methacrylate (acrylic acid type) are compounds with weak polarity which show a non-ideal behaviour. Phase behaviour of these systems play a significant role as organic solvents in industrial processes. High pressure phase behaviour data were reported for binary mixture of propargyl acrylate and propargyl methacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide. The bubble-point curves for the (carbon dioxide + propargyl acrylate) and (carbon dioxide + propargyl methacrylate) mixtures were measured by static view cell apparatus at temperature range from 313.2 K to 393.2 K and at pressures below 19.14 MPa. The (carbon dioxide + propargyl acrylate) and (carbon dioxide + propargyl methacrylate) systems exhibit type-I phase behaviour. The (carbon dioxide + (meth)acrylate) systems had continuous critical mixture curves with maximums in pressure located between the critical temperatures of carbon dioxide and propargyl acrylate or carbon dioxide and propargyl methacrylate. The solubility behaviour of propargyl (meth)acrylate in the (carbon dioxide + propargyl acrylate) and (carbon dioxide + propargyl acrylate) systems increases as the temperature increases at a fixed pressure. The experimental results for the (carbon dioxide + propargyl acrylate) and (carbon dioxide + propargyl methacrylate) systems correlate with the Peng–Robinson equation of state using a van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule. The critical properties of propargyl acrylate and propargyl methacrylate were predicted with the Joback–Lyderson group contribution and Lee–Kesler method.

  16. Thermodynamics of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol Containing Systems Described by the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    A thorough investigation of triethylene glycol (TEG) containing systems has been performed. The introduction of a new six-site association scheme for the TEG molecule has shown to be advantageous. Glycols are often modeled using a four-site scheme (abbreviated as 4C) hence ignoring the internal...... lone pairs of oxygen. The new association scheme also takes these sites into account. The new parameters of TEG are based on the vapor pressure data, liquid density data, and liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data (n-heptane), and they are tested for binary systems (methane, n-octane, n-nonane, n...

  17. Surface modification of silica nanoparticles by UV-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

    Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Eunhye; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Woosik

    2005-12-01

    In this study we modified the surface of silica nanoparticles with methyl methacrylate by UV-induced graft polymerization. It is a surface-initiated polymerization reaction induced by ultraviolet irradiation. The resulting organic-inorganic nanocomposites were near-monodisperse and fabricated without homopolymerization of the monomer. Substantial increase in mean particle size was observed by SEM image analysis after UV-induced grafting of methyl methacrylate onto pure silica particles. FT-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of these materials revealed the successful grafting of methyl methacrylate onto the silica surface. The formation of a covalent bond between the grafted PMMA chains and silica surface was indicated by FT-Raman spectra. Thermogravimetric analysis of the PMMA-grafted silica particles indicated the polymer contents in good agreement with SEM photographs.

  18. ANIONIC POLYMERIZATION OF ALKYL METHACRYLATES INITIATED BY nBuCu(NCy2)Li

    Bing-yong Han; Jian-guo Liang; Jian-min Lu; Feng An; Wan-tai Yang

    2009-01-01

    Anionic polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) initiated by nBuCu(NCy2)Li (1) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at -50℃ to -10℃ was investigated. It was found that the polymerization of MMA and nBMA initiated by 1 proceeded quantitatively in THF to afford PMMA and PBMA with polydispersity index 1.15-1.30 and nearly 100% initiator efficiencies at -10℃. The molecular weights increased linearly with the ratio of [monomer]/[1]. However, a post-polymerization experiment carried out on this system revealed a double polymer peak by GPC when fresh monomer was added after an interval of 10 rain. Polymerization of styrene could be initiated by 1, but the initiator efficiency was low.

  19. Thrombin immobilization to methacrylic acid grafted poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its in vitro application.

    Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan

    2013-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) is nontoxic and biodegradable, with good biocompatibility and potential support for long-term implants. For this reason, it is a good support for enzyme immobilization. Enzyme immobilization could not be done directly because poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) has no functional groups. Therefore, modification should be done for enzyme immobilization. In this study, methacrylic acid was graft polymerized to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and thrombin was immobilized to polymethacrylic acid grafted poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). In fact, graft polymerization of methacrylic acid to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and thrombin immobilization was a model study. Biomolecule immobilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) could be used as an implant. Thrombin was selected as a biomolecule for this model study and it was immobilized to methacrylic acid grafted poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Then the developed product was used to stop bleeding.

  20. 78 FR 76567 - Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs...

    2013-12-18

    ..., Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs.; Tolerance Exemption... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of tall oil, polymer with polyethylene..., polymer with polyethylene glycol and succinic anhydride monopolyisobutylene derivs. on food or feed...

  1. Assessment of the skin sensitising potency of the lower alkyl methacrylate esters.

    Kimber, Ian; Pemberton, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    There is continued interest in, and imperatives for, the classification of contact allergens according to their relative skin sensitising potency. However, achieving that end can prove problematic, not least when there is an apparent lack of concordance between experimental assessments of potency and the prevalence allergic contact dermatitis as judged by clinical experience. For the purpose of exploring this issue, and illustrating the important considerations that are required to reach sound judgements about potency categorisation, the lower alkyl methacrylate esters (LAM) have been employed here as a case study. Although the sensitising potential of methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been reviewed previously, there is available new information that is relevant for assessment of skin sensitising potency. Moreover, for the purposes of this article, analyses have been extended to include also other LAM for which relevant data are available: ethyl methacrylate (EMA), n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA), isobutyl methacrylate (iBMA), and 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate (EHMA). In addressing the skin sensitising activity of these chemicals and in drawing conclusions regarding relative potency, a number of sources of information has been considered, including estimates of potency derived from local lymph node assay (LLNA) data, the results of guinea pig assays, and data derived from in silico methods and from recently developed in vitro approaches. Moreover, clinical experience of skin sensitisation of humans by LAM has also been evaluated. The conclusion drawn is that MMA and other LAM are contact allergens, but that none of these chemicals has any more than weak skin sensitising potency. We have also explored here the possible bases for this modest sensitising activity. Finally, the nature of exposure to LAM has been reviewed briefly and on the basis of that information, together with an understanding of skin sensitising potency, a risk assessment has been prepared. Copyright © 2014

  2. Effect of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) Substituents on the Rheological Behavior in Butyl Methacrylate/POSS Copolymers

    2008-10-27

    was repeated twice, dissolving the product in chloroform and diethyl ether, respectively. The polymer was dried at 60 °C under vacuum overnight...the Tg of the i Bu remains the same. Table 1. Tg for Butyl Methacrylate-co- Propyl Methacryl POSS Polymers with Various POSS Substituents

  3. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation†

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K.; Loland, Claus J.; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research.

  4. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation.

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K; Loland, Claus J; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-10-04

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research.

  5. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation†

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K.; Loland, Claus J.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research. PMID:27711401

  6. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S; Ribeiro, Orquidea

    2016-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared...

  7. Crosslinking polymerization of tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate under high pressure

    Kaminski, K; Paluch, M; Ziolo, J [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Bogoslovov, R; Roland, C M [Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375-5342 (United States)], E-mail: kaminski@us.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The polymerization reaction of tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate was induced by application of high pressure. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was employed to investigate dielectric properties of the produced polymers. Additionally swelling experiment was performed to determine the degree of crossliniking of the polymers.

  8. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol 4000 on constipation of

    ZHANG Lian-yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of themost common chronic gastrointestinal problems. The estimated incidence of constipation in the United States is3% to 19% in general population.1,2 Patientswith head injuries, spinal cord injuries, pelvic fractures, lower extremity fractures ormultiple traumas require a long-term bed rest, during which the incidence of constipation reached as high as 50%.3,4 Constipation always brings inconvenience and tremendous suffering to patientsand strongly influences the recovery from primary disease. Irritants or lubricants can relieve the symptoms, but long-term application of them may lead to side effects like melanosis coli5 and cathartic colon6. The absorption of fat soluble vitamins is also affected.7 Polyethylene glycol 4000 (trade name: Forlax®, a long chain polymer with a high molecular weight, can conjugate withwater molecule through hydrogen bond to increase the water content and volume of stools, thereby, facilitate bowelmovement and defecation.8,9 It is neither absorbed nor metabolized in the digestive tract, hence it is highly safe and well tolerable. Thus, long-term medication of polyethylene glycol 4000 is conducive to the reconstruction of normal defecation pattern. Therefore, polyethylene glycol 4000 is now being widely used as the mainstay adult chronic functional constipation management.10,11 The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 4000 on adult functional constipation of posttraumatic bedridden patients.

  9. Upstream petroleum industry glycol dehydrator benzene emissions status report

    1999-07-01

    The population of dehydrators referred to are located in the Western Sedimentary Basin in northeast British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, and includes units installed at wellsites, compressor stations, gas plants, central crude oil treating facilities, and reservoir or salt cavern gas storage facilities. Benzene emissions from the still column vent on glycol dehydrators occur as a result of glycol's strong affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene. A study was carried out to: 1) develop a list of oil and gas companies operating in Canada, 2) develop an equipment and benzene emissions inventory of glycol dehydrators, 3) develop a database in Microsoft Access format to gather and maintain inventory and emission data, 4) evaluate and validate at least 10% of the reported data, 5) develop a list of companies that manufacture dehydrators and incinerators to determine how many new dehydrators were sold for use in Canada in 1998, and 6) prepare a report summarizing findings and recommendations. The companies included in the survey were the oil and gas companies identified by the Nickels' Oil and Gas Index and others provided by CAPP, CGA, and SEPAC. The project was carried out to gather glycol dehydrator equipment and still column vent benzene emissions information. 8 refs

  10. Electrospinnability of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.; Aho, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, the electrospinnability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) solutions was investigated, with a focus on understanding the influence of molecular weight of PLGA, solvent type and solvent composition on the physical properties of electrospun nanofibers. METHOD: Various s...

  11. Unusual calcium oxalate crystals in ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Godolphin, W; Meagher, E P; Sanders, H D; Frohlich, J

    1980-06-01

    A patient poisoned with ethylene glycol exhibited the symptoms of (1) hysteria, (2) metabolic acidosis with both a large anion gap and osmolal gap, and (3) crystalluria. However, the shape of the urinary crystals was prismatic and resembled hippurate rather than the expected dipyramidal calcium oxalate dihydrate. X-ray crystallography positively identified them as calcium oxalate monohydrate.

  12. Reaction of aryl diazonium tetrafluoro borates with allyl methacrylate in the presence of rhodanide-anion

    Grishchuk, B.D.; Baranovskij, V.S.; Simchak, R.V.; Tulajdan, G.N.; Gorbovoj, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Reaction of aryl diazonium tetrafluoro borates (I) with allyl ester of methacrylic acid in the water-acetone (1:5) medium is studied by means of IR spectroscopy and 1 H NMR. It is established that (I) reacts with aryl methacrylate in the presence of rhodanide-anion and catalytic quantities of copper salts with the formation of allyl esters of 2-thiocyanato-2-methyl-3-aryl propionic acids with the yield of 32-56%. Allyl fragment of biunsaturated compound shows no reaction under the tested conditions [ru

  13. Modification of polyethylene films by radiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and immobilization of {beta}-cyclodextrin

    Nava-Ortiz, C.A.B. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Burillo, G. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx; Bucio, E. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Lorenzo, C. [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Glycidyl methacrylate was grafted onto polyethylene films using a preirradiation method with {gamma} rays. The effect of absorbed dose, monomer concentration, and reaction time on the degree of grafting was determined. The grafted samples were verified by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. {beta}-Cyclodextrin was immobilized onto polypropylene modified with glycidyl methacrylate, and the ability of the cavities of {beta}-cyclodextrin to form inclusion complexes was demonstrated using the typically organic compound approach with m-toluic acid (3-MBA) as a probe.

  14. Graft copolymerization of a series of alkyl acrylates and alkyl methacrylates onto polyethylene

    Zurakowska-Orszagh, J.; Soerjosoeharto, K.; Busz, W.; Oldziejewski, J.

    1977-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of a series of alkyl acrylates and alkyl methacrylates into polyethylene of Polish production was investigated, using benzoyl peroxide as the initiator as well as preirradiation technique, namely ionizing radiation from a 60 Co γ-source. The effect of α-carbon methyl substituent of methacrylates as well as the influence of the length of alkyl chains in the ester groups of both series of monomers into the grafting process was observed. The ungrafted and some of the grafted polyethylene film obtained was studied by infrared spectrophotometry. (author)

  15. Antimicrobial bacterial cellulose nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization of 2-aminoethyl methacrylate.

    Figueiredo, Ana R P; Figueiredo, Andrea G P R; Silva, Nuno H C S; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Almeida, Adelaide; Silvestre, Armando J D; Freire, Carmen S R

    2015-06-05

    Antimicrobial bacterial cellulose/poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate) (BC/PAEM) nanocomposites were prepared by in situ radical polymerization of 2-aminoethyl methacrylate, using variable amounts of N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBA) as cross-linker. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized in terms of their structure, morphology, thermal stability, mechanical properties and antibacterial activity. The ensuing composite membranes were significantly more transparent than those of pure BC and showed improved thermal and mechanical properties. The antibacterial activity of the obtained nanocomposites was assessed towards a recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli and only the non-crosslinked nanocomposite (BC/PAEM) proved to have antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of nanocomposites made with poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate)/poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Guoqin, Liu; Wei, Miao [College of Material Science and Engineering, Henan University of Technology (China); Lin-Jian, Shangguan, E-mail: mikepolymer@126.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power (China)

    2014-06-01

    Poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (P(MAA-co-MMA)) was prepared in the presence of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) via ultrasonic assisted solution free radical polymerization, i.e., P(MAA-co-MMA)/PVP/MWNTs nanocomposites. The morphology, glassy-state storage modulus, thermal behavior and swelling characteristics of P(MAA-co-MMA)/PVP/MWNTs nanocomposites were investigated. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed that MWNTs at low concentration could be uniformly dispersed into P(MAA-co-MMA)/PVP blends. With increasing MWNTs weight fraction, the average glassy-state modulus, glass transition temperatures and decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites increased, but their swelling characteristics decreased. (author)

  17. Investigation of nanocomposites made with poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate/poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone/multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Liu Guoqin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate (P(MAA-co-MMA was prepared in the presence of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs via ultrasonic assisted solution free radical polymerization, i.e., P(MAA-co-MMA/PVP/MWNTs nanocomposites. The morphology, glassy-state storage modulus, thermal behavior and swelling characteristics of P(MAA-co-MMA/PVP/MWNTs nanocomposites were investigated. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM revealed that MWNTs at low concentration could be uniformly dispersed into P(MAA-co-MMA/PVP blends. With increasing MWNTs weight fraction, the average glassy-state modulus, glass transition temperatures and decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites increased, but their swelling characteristics decreased.

  18. High pressure phase behaviour of the binary mixture for the 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Byun, Hun-Soo; Choi, Min-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Experimental data of high pressure phase behaviour for binary mixtures of {carbon dioxide + 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)}, {carbon dioxide + 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (HPA)}, and {carbon dioxide + 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA)} were determined using a static type with the variable-volume cell at temperatures from (313.2 to 393.2) K and pressures up to 27.10 MPa. Among these binary experimental data, the bubble-point data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using a van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule containing two interaction parameters (k ij and η ij ). The (carbon dioxide + HEMA), (carbon dioxide + HPA), and (carbon dioxide + HPMA) systems exhibit type-I phase behaviour. At constant pressure, the solubility of HEMA, HPA, and HPMA for the (Carbon dioxide + HEMA), (carbon dioxide + HPA), and (carbon dioxide + HPMA) systems increases as the temperature increases

  19. Biocompatible and Biodegradable Ultrafine Nanoparticles of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate-co-Methacrylic Acid Prepared via Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization: Kinetics and Product Characterization

    Henned Saade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine nanoparticles, less than 10 nm in mean diameter, of the FDA approved copolymer methyl methacrylate- (MMA- co-methacrylic acid (MAA, 2/1 (mol/mol, were prepared. The method used for the preparation of these particles stabilized in a latex containing around 11% solids includes the dosing of the monomers mixture on a micellar solution preserving monomer starved conditions. It is thought that the operation at these conditions combined with the hydrophilicity of MMA and MAA units favors the formation of ultrafine particles; the propagation reaction carried out within so small compartments renders copolymer chains rich in syndiotactic units very likely as consequence of the restricted movements of the end propagation of the chains. Because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their extremely small size these nanoparticles could be used as vehicles for improved drug delivery in the treatment of chronic-degenerative diseases.

  20. Glycolic acid synthesis during dark glucose U14C metabolism, in French Bean and Maize leaves

    Cailliau-Commanay, Lucienne; Calmes, Jean; Latche, J.-C.; Cavalie, Gerard

    1977-01-01

    Serine, glycerate and glycolate are among the first radioactive compounds when French Bean and Maize leaves are fed with glucose U 14 C. Failing to detect radioactive glycine suggests that glycolate so synthesized is unavailable for the photorespiration glycolate pool [fr

  1. 40 CFR 180.1040 - Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene glycol; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1040 Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ethylene glycol as a component of pesticide formulations is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when...

  2. 40 CFR 63.765 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.765 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or...

  4. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409 of...

  5. Impact of scaling on the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet

    Lambert, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is considering using glycolic acid as a replacement for formic acid in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Catalytic decomposition of formic acid is responsible for the generation of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas, during processing. To prevent the formation of a flammable mixture in the offgas, an air purge is used to dilute the hydrogen concentration below the 60% of the Composite Lower Flammability Limit (CLFL). The offgas is continuously monitored for hydrogen using Gas Chromatographs (GCs). Since formic acid is much more volatile and toxic than glycolic acid, a formic acid spill would lead to the release of much larger quantities to the environment. Switching from formic acid to glycolic acid is expected to eliminate the hydrogen flammability hazard leading to lower air purges, thus downgrading of Safety Significant GCs to Process Support GCs, and minimizing the consequence of a glycolic acid tank leak in DWPF. Overall this leads to a reduction in process operation costs and an increase in safety margin. Experiments were completed at three different scales to demonstrate that the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet scales from the 4-L lab scale to the 22-L bench scale and 220-L engineering scale. Ten process demonstrations of the sludge-only flowsheet for SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed using Sludge Batch 8 (SB8)-Tank 40 simulant. No Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product or strip effluent was added during the runs. Six experiments were completed at the 4-L scale, two experiments were completed at the 22-L scale, and two experiments were completed at the 220-L scale. Experiments completed at the 4-L scale (100 and 110% acid stoichiometry) were repeated at the 22-L and 220-L scale for scale comparisons.

  6. Surface polyPEGylation of Eu{sup 3+} doped luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Heng, Chunning [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Shaanxi R& D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Huang, Qiang; Mao, Liucheng; Huang, Hongye [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Hui, Junfeng [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Shaanxi R& D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Deng, Fengjie, E-mail: fengjiedeng@aliyun.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: weiyen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and The Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Surface modification of HAp nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free SI-ATRP. • HAp-polyPEGMA displayed high water dispersibility, good biocompatibility and biological imaging capability. • Metal free ATRP can overcome the toxic and fluorescence quenching effects of metal catalysts of conventional ATRP. - Abstract: The Eu{sup 3+} doped luminescent hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with uniform size and morphology can be synthesized by hydrothermal route. However, these HAp nanorods are coated by hydrophobic oleylamine, which makes them difficult to be dispersed in aqueous solution and impede their biomedical applications. In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped luminescent polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. In this procedure, the amino group functionalized HAp nanorods were first prepared by ligand exchange reaction using adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as ligand. Then the Br-containing initiators (HAp-Br) were introduced onto the surface of HAp-AMP nanorods through the amidation reaction. Finally, polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared by metal free ATRP method using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as monomer and 10-phenylphenothiazine (PTH) as organic photocatalyst. The properties of these obtained HAp nanocomposites (HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods) were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis in detail. The cell imaging of these HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods was examined using laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate their biomedical applications. We demonstrated for the first time that hydrophobic luminescent HAp nanorods can be functionalized with polyPEGMA through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface

  7. Surface polyPEGylation of Eu"3"+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Heng, Chunning; Huang, Qiang; Mao, Liucheng; Huang, Hongye; Hui, Junfeng; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface modification of HAp nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free SI-ATRP. • HAp-polyPEGMA displayed high water dispersibility, good biocompatibility and biological imaging capability. • Metal free ATRP can overcome the toxic and fluorescence quenching effects of metal catalysts of conventional ATRP. - Abstract: The Eu"3"+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with uniform size and morphology can be synthesized by hydrothermal route. However, these HAp nanorods are coated by hydrophobic oleylamine, which makes them difficult to be dispersed in aqueous solution and impede their biomedical applications. In this work, Eu"3"+ doped luminescent polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. In this procedure, the amino group functionalized HAp nanorods were first prepared by ligand exchange reaction using adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as ligand. Then the Br-containing initiators (HAp-Br) were introduced onto the surface of HAp-AMP nanorods through the amidation reaction. Finally, polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared by metal free ATRP method using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as monomer and 10-phenylphenothiazine (PTH) as organic photocatalyst. The properties of these obtained HAp nanocomposites (HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods) were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis in detail. The cell imaging of these HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods was examined using laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate their biomedical applications. We demonstrated for the first time that hydrophobic luminescent HAp nanorods can be functionalized with polyPEGMA through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated

  8. Comparison of Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution vs Polyethylene Glycol-3350 for the Treatment of Fecal Impaction in Pediatric Patients.

    Boles, Erin E; Gaines, Cameryn L; Tillman, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution vs polyethylene glycol-3350 for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients. A retrospective, observational, institutional review board-approved study was conducted over a 1-year time period. Patients were included in the study if they were admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of fecal impaction or constipation and were treated with either polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) or polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG-3350). Patients were excluded if they were discharged prior to resolution of treatment and/or did not receive PEG-ES or PEG-3350. Fifty-one patients (ranging in age from 1 month to 15 years) were evaluated: 23 patients received PEG-ES and 28 patients received PEG-3350. Sex, race, age, and weight were not statistically different between the 2 groups. Resolution of fecal impaction was not significantly different between PEG-ES vs PEG-3350 (87% and 86%, respectively; p = 0.87). There was only 1 reported side effect with PEG-3350, vs 11 reported side effects with PEG-ES (p PEG-3350 is as effective as PEG-ES for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients and is associated with fewer side effects.

  9. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  10. Functionalization and Chemical Modification of 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate with Carboxylic Acid

    Mohammad Hossein Nasirtabrizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radical polymerization of the resulting monomers methyl methacrylate (MMA, ethyl methacrylate (EMA, methylacrylate (MA and ethylacrylate (EA with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA (in 1:1 mole ratio were carried out using azobis(isoboutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator at the temperature ranges 60-70°C. The modification of polymers were carried out by 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid (9-ACA via the esterification reaction between —OH of poly(HEMA and —COOH of 9-ACA, in presence of N,N′-dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide (DCC, 4-(dimethylamino pyridine (DMAP and N,N-dimethyl formamid (DMF. It was found that the molar ratio acid/alcohol/catalysts= 0.02: 0.02: 0.02 and 0.002, optimal for preparation of the ester. As demonstrated by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. The Tg value of methacrylate and acrylate copolymers containing 9-ACA groups was found to increase with incorporation of 9-ACA groups in polymer structures. The presence of 9-ACA groups in the polymer side chains created new polymers with novel modified properties that find some applications in polymer industry. These anthracenic factors could take part in cyclo addition reaction with other factors such as anhydrides and kinons.

  11. Olefin copolymerization via controlled radical polymerization : copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and 1-octene

    Venkatesh, R.; Klumperman, B.

    2004-01-01

    The atom transfer radical (co)polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with 1-octene was investigated. Well controlled homopolymer of MMA was obtained with 2,2,2-trichoroethanol (TCE) and p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (pTsCl), although, uncontrolled copolymerization occurred when pTsCl was

  12. Rheological properties of homogeneous and heterogeneous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels

    Karpushkin, Evgeny; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Remmler, T.; Lapčíková, Monika; Dušek, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2012), s. 328-336 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : hydrogel * 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate * phase separation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2012

  13. Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Monomer onto Starch and Natural Rubber Latex Initiated by Gamma Irradiation

    S. Iskandar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To obtain the degradable plastic, the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto starch and natural rubber latex was conducted by a simultaneous irradiation technique. Gamma-ray from cobalt-60 source was used as the initiator. The grafted copolymer of starch-polymethyl methacrylate and the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate were mixed in the blender, and dried it in the oven. The dried grafted copolymer mixture was then molded using hydraulic press machine. The effect of irradiation dose, composition of the grafted copolymer mixture, film forming condition and recycle effect was evaluated. The parameters observed were tensile strength, gel fraction and soil burial degradability of grafted copolymer mixture. It was found that the tensile strength of grafted copolymer mixture increased by -ray irradiation. Increasing of the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate content, the gel fraction and tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture increased. The tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture was increased from 18 MPa to 23 MPa after recycled (film forming reprocessed 3 times. The grafted copolymer mixture was degraded completely after soil buried for 6 months

  14. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate copolymer identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of articles... monomer content of the finished copolymer articles is not more than 11 parts per million as determined by... available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration...

  15. Refractive microlenses produced by excimer laser machining of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Jensen, Martin Frøhling; Krühne, Ulrich; H., L.

    2005-01-01

    A method has been developed whereby refractive microlenses can be produced in poly (methyl methacrylate) by excimer laser irradiation at λ = 248 nm. The lenses are formed by a combined photochemical and thermal process. The lenses are formed as depressions in the substrate material (negative foca...

  16. Mössbauer studies of iron doped poly(methyl methacrylate) before ...

    Unknown

    Mössbauer studies of iron doped poly(methyl methacrylate) before and after ion beam modification. D R S SOMAYAJULU, C N MURTHY†, D K AWASTHI‡, N V PATEL and M SARKAR. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, MS University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, India. †Applied Chemistry Department, Faculty ...

  17. Silica-coated poly(glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate) beads containing organic phase change materials

    Feczkó, T.; Trif, L.; Németh, B.; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 641, 10 October (2016), s. 24-28 ISSN 0040-6031 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate) beads * paraffin * cetyl alcohol Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.236, year: 2016

  18. Morphology and film formation of poly(butyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole core-shell latex particles

    Huijs, F; Lang, J

    Core-shell latex particles made of a poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) core and a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell were synthesized by two-stage polymerization. In the first stage, PBMA latex particles were synthesized in a semicontinuous process by free-radical polymerization. PBMA latex particles were

  19. New soluble functional polymers by free-radical copolymerization of methacrylates and bipyridine ruthenium complexes

    Holder, E.; Meier, M.A.R.; Marin, V.N.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    The luminescent complex [4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-4-methyl-2,2-bipyridine]-bis(2,2-bipyridine)-ruthenium(II)-bis(hexafluoroantimonate) and its methacrylate derivative were successfully synthesized and fully characterized by two-dimensional 1H and 13C{1H} NMR techniques [correlation spectroscopy (COSY)

  20. Continuous ARGET ATPR of methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate in a stirred tank reactor

    Chan, N.; Meuldijk, J.; Cunningham, M.F.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    ARGET ATRP (activator regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization) of butyl acrylate (BA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was successfully adapted from a batch process to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with 50 ppm copper. A series of batch polymerizations were first

  1. The effect of reducing monosaccharides on the atom transfer radical polymerization of butyl methacrylate

    Vries, de Andrew; Klumperman, B.; Wet-Roos, de D.; Sanderson, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of various reducing monosaccharides on the rate of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of butyl methacrylate is reported in this study. The addition of reducing sugars affects the rate of ATRP positively with a 100% increase in the rate of polymerization in some cases. In

  2. Versatility of Alkyne-Modified Poly(Glycidyl Methacrylate) Layers for Click Reactions

    Soto-Cantu, Erick; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan Pablo; Deodhar, Chaitra; Messman, Jamie M.; Ankner, John Francis; Kilbey, S. Michael II

    2011-01-01

    Functional soft interfaces are of interest for a variety of technologies. We describe three methods for preparing substrates with alkyne groups, which show versatility for 'click' chemistry reactions. Two of the methods have the same root: formation of thin, covalently attached, reactive interfacial layers of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) via spin coating onto silicon wafers followed by reactive modification with either propargylamine or 5-hexynoic acid. The amine or the carboxylic acid moieties react with the epoxy groups of PGMA, creating interfacial polymer layers decorated with alkyne groups. The third method consists of using copolymers comprising glycidyl methacrylate and propargyl methacrylate (pGP). The pGP copolymers are spin coated and covalently attached on silicon wafers. For each method, we investigate the factors that control film thickness and content of alkyne groups using ellipsometry, and study the nanophase structure of the films using neutron reflectometry. Azide-terminated polymers of methacrylic acid and 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization were attached to the alkyne-modified substrates using 'click' chemistry, and grafting densities in the range of 0.007-0.95 chains nm -2 were attained. The maximum density of alkyne groups attained by functionalization of PGMA with propargylamine or 5-hexynoic acid was approximately 2 alkynes nm -3 . The alkyne content obtained by the three decorating approaches was sufficiently high that it was not the limiting factor for the click reaction of azide-capped polymers.

  3. Thionine-modified poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanospheres as labels of antibodies for biosensing applications

    Zasońska, Beata Anna; Čadková, M.; Kovářová, A.; Bílková, Z.; Korecká, L.; Horák, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 44 (2015), s. 24926-24931 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : glycidyl methacrylate * nanospheres * thionine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.145, year: 2015

  4. Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate with Samarocene Complex Supported on Mesoporous Silica

    2001-01-01

    Samarocene complex was supported on a series of mesoporous silica with various pore sizes. Polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) by these catalysts provide highly syndiotactic PMMAs with higher molecular weights compared with those obtained by solution polymerization with homogeneous catalyst system.

  5. Wettability and ζ potentials of a series of methacrylate polymers and copolymers

    Hogt, A.H.; Gregonis, D.E.; Andrade, J.D.; Kim, S.W.; Dankert, J.; Feijen, Jan

    1985-01-01

    Polymers and copolymers of different methacrylates were synthesized and coated on glass slides. The surfaces of the polymer films were characterized by their water contact angles and potentials using the Wilhelmy plate technique and streaming potential measurements, respectively. From contact-angle

  6. In situ stabilizer formation from methacrylic acid macromonomers in emulsion polymerization

    Schreur-Piet, Ingeborg; Heuts, Johan P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Oligomers of methacrylic acid containing a propenyl ω-endgroup (i.e. MAA-macromonomers) were synthesized by cobalt-mediated catalytic chain transfer polymerization and used as precursors to stabilizers in emulsion polymerization. It was found that only in those polymerizations in which these

  7. Adhesion of cultured human endothelial cells onto methacrylate polymers with varying surface wettability and charge

    van Wachem, P.B.; Hogt, A.H.; Beugeling, T.; Feijen, Jan; Bantjes, A.; Detmers, J.P.; van Aken, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    The adhesion of human endothelial cells (HEC) onto a series of well-characterized methacrylate polymer surfaces with varying wettabilities and surface charges was studied either in serum-containing (CMS) or in serum-free (CM) culture medium. HEC adhesion in CMS onto (co)polymers * of hydroxyethyl

  8. Preparation of Methacrylate End-functionalized Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) Macromonomers

    Weber, C.; Becer, C.R.; Baumgaertel, A.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Three methods for the functionalization of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx) oligomers with a methacrylate or methacrylamide unit are compared to identify the best suitable route to obtain such macromolecules. In the first method, a functional initiator, namely methacryloyl chloride, was used for the

  9. Design rules for carbazole derivatized n-alkyl methacrylate polymeric memristors

    McFarlane, T. M.; Zdyrko, B.; Bandera, Y.; Worley, D.; Klep, O.; Jurča, M.; Tonkin, C.; Foulger, S. H.; Vilčáková, J.; Sáha, P.; Pfleger, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 10 (2018), s. 2533-2545 ISSN 2050-7526 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : n-alkyl methacrylate polymers * charge transport * composites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.256, year: 2016

  10. Molecular Mobility of n-Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate Glass Formers Upon Free Radical Polymerization

    Plaza, Maria Teresa Viciosa

    the highly crosslinked network originating a clear phase separation (Chapter 4). Knowing that phase separation occurs upon the polymerization reaction, the next step was the separate study of the isothermal polymerization of di-, tri- and tetra- EGDMA, giving special attention to the changes in the unreacted monomer's mobility. With the restrictions imposed by the formation of chemical bonds, the alpha and beta relaxations detected in bulk monomers tend to vanish in the newly formed polymer network, while the secondary gamma relaxation kept almost unaffected. The high sensitivity of the beta relaxation to low contents of unreacted monomer was used as a probe of the reaction's advance. These different behaviours shown under polymerization allowed the assignment of the molecular origin of the secondary processes: the gamma relaxation associated to the ethylene glycol twisting motions, while the rotation of the carboxyl groups seems to be related to the beta relaxation (Chapter 5). In what concerns the polymer itself, an additional secondary process was found, betapol, namely in poly-DEGDMA, poly-TrEGDMA and poly-TeEGDMA, with similar characteristics to the one found in poly( n-alkyl methacrylates). This process was confirmed and well characterized when the copolymerization of TrEGDMA with methyl acrylate (MA) was studied varying its composition (Chapter 6). Finally, EGDMA, the smaller monomer of this family, apart from vitrifying, also shows a high tendency to crystallize by coming from both melt and glassy states. The formation of a rigid phase affects mainly the alpha-process whose intensity decreases without suffering significant changes in the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time. On the other hand, the secondary beta process becomes very well defined and narrowest, indicating a more homogeneous environment around the local-motions (Chapter 7).

  11. Impact of Glycolate Anion on Aqueous Corrosion in DWPF and Downstream Facilities

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-12

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The SRS liquid waste contractor requested an assessment of the impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system since this impact had not been previously evaluated. A literature review revealed that corrosion data were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion. For the proprietary coating systems applied to the DWPF concrete, glycolic acid was deemed compatible since the coatings were resistant to more aggressive chemistries than glycolic acid. Additionally similar coating resins showed acceptable resistance to glycolic acid.

  12. Impact of Glycolate Anion on Aqueous Corrosion in DWPF and Downstream Facilities

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-20

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The SRS liquid waste contractor requested an assessment of the impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system since this impact had not been previously evaluated. A literature review revealed that corrosion data were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion. For the proprietary coating systems applied to the DWPF concrete, glycolic acid was deemed compatible since the coatings were resistant to more aggressive chemistries than glycolic acid. Additionally, similar coating resins showed acceptable resistance to glycolic acid.

  13. Material Compatibility Evaluation for DWPF Nitric-Glycolic Acid - Literature Review

    Mickalonis, J. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of novel siloxane-methacrylate monomers used as dentin adhesives.

    Ge, Xueping; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize two new siloxane-methacrylate (SM) monomers for application in dentin adhesives and to investigate the influence of different functionality of the siloxane-containing monomers on the adhesive photopolymerization, water sorption, and mechanical properties. Two siloxane-methacrylate monomers (SM1 and SM2) with four and eight methacrylate groups were synthesized. Dentin adhesives containing BisGMA, HEMA and the siloxane-methacrylate monomers were photo-polymerized. The experimental adhesives were compared with the control adhesive (HEMA/BisGMA, 45/55, w/w) and characterized with regard to degree of conversion (DC), water miscibility of the liquid resin, water sorption and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The experimental adhesives exhibited improved water miscibility as compared to the control. When cured in the presence of 12 wt% water to simulate the wet environment of the mouth, the SM-containing adhesives showed DC comparable to the control. The experimental adhesives showed higher rubbery modulus than the control under dry conditions. Under wet conditions, the mechanical properties of the formulations containing SM monomer with increased functionality were comparable with the control, even with more water sorption. The concentration and functionality of the newly synthesized siloxane-methacrylate monomers affected the water miscibility, water sorption and mechanical properties of the adhesives. The experimental adhesives show improved water compatibility compared with the control. The mechanical properties were enhanced with an increase of the functionality of the siloxane-containing monomers. The results provide critical structure/property relationships and important information for future development of durable, versatile siloxane-containing dentin adhesives. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Mechanisms of Action of (Methacrylates in Hemolytic Activity, in Vivo Toxicity and Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC Liposomes Determined Using NMR Spectroscopy

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the quantitative structure-activity relationships between hemolytic activity (log 1/H50 or in vivo mouse intraperitoneal (ip LD50 using reported data for α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds such as (methacrylate monomers and their 13C-NMR β-carbon chemical shift (δ. The log 1/H50 value for methacrylates was linearly correlated with the δCβ value. That for (methacrylates was linearly correlated with log P, an index of lipophilicity. The ipLD50 for (methacrylates was linearly correlated with δCβ but not with log P. For (methacrylates, the δCβ value, which is dependent on the π-electron density on the β-carbon, was linearly correlated with PM3-based theoretical parameters (chemical hardness, η; electronegativity, χ; electrophilicity, ω, whereas log P was linearly correlated with heat of formation (HF. Also, the interaction between (methacrylates and DPPC liposomes in cell membrane molecular models was investigated using 1H-NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The log 1/H50 value was related to the difference in chemical shift (ΔδHa (Ha: H (trans attached to the β-carbon between the free monomer and the DPPC liposome-bound monomer. Monomer-induced DSC phase transition properties were related to HF for monomers. NMR chemical shifts may represent a valuable parameter for investigating the biological mechanisms of action of (methacrylates.

  16. Phase behavior for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+supercritical CO2+DME mixture at high pressures

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Chio, Sang-Won; Byun, Hun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The phase behavior curves of binary and ternary system were measured for poly(alkyl methacrylate) in supercritical CO 2 , as well as for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+dimethyl ether (DME) (or 1-butene) in CO 2 . The solubility curves are reported for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+DME in supercritical CO 2 at temperature from (300 to 465) K and a pressure from (3.66 to 248) MPa. Also, The high-pressure static-type apparatus of cloud-point curve was tested by comparing the measured phase behavior data of the poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA]+CO 2 +20.0 and 30.4 wt% methyl methacrylate (MMA) system with literature data of 10.4, 28.8 and 48.4 wt% MMA concentration. The phase behavior data for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+CO 2 +DME mixture were measured in changes of the pressure-temperature (p, T) slope and with DME concentrations. Also, the cloud-point pressure for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+1- butene solution containing supercritical CO 2 shows from upper critical solution temperature (UCST) region to lower critical solution temperature (LCST) region at concentration range from (0.0 to 95) wt% 1-butene at below 455 K and at below 245MPa.

  17. Phase behavior for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+supercritical CO{sub 2}+DME mixture at high pressures

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Chio, Sang-Won; Byun, Hun-Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The phase behavior curves of binary and ternary system were measured for poly(alkyl methacrylate) in supercritical CO{sub 2}, as well as for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+dimethyl ether (DME) (or 1-butene) in CO{sub 2}. The solubility curves are reported for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+DME in supercritical CO{sub 2} at temperature from (300 to 465) K and a pressure from (3.66 to 248) MPa. Also, The high-pressure static-type apparatus of cloud-point curve was tested by comparing the measured phase behavior data of the poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA]+CO{sub 2}+20.0 and 30.4 wt% methyl methacrylate (MMA) system with literature data of 10.4, 28.8 and 48.4 wt% MMA concentration. The phase behavior data for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+CO{sub 2}+DME mixture were measured in changes of the pressure-temperature (p, T) slope and with DME concentrations. Also, the cloud-point pressure for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+1- butene solution containing supercritical CO{sub 2} shows from upper critical solution temperature (UCST) region to lower critical solution temperature (LCST) region at concentration range from (0.0 to 95) wt% 1-butene at below 455 K and at below 245MPa.

  18. Acute oxalate nephropathy caused by ethylene glycol poisoning

    Jung Woong Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (EG is a sweet-tasting, odorless organic solvent found in many agents, such as anti-freeze. EG is composed of four organic acids: glycoaldehyde, glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid in vivo. These metabolites are cellular toxins that can cause cardio-pulmonary failure, life-threatening metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression, and kidney injury. Oxalic acid is the end product of EG, which can precipitate to crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the tubular lumen and has been linked to acute kidney injury. We report a case of EG-induced oxalate nephropathy, with the diagnosis confirmed by kidney biopsy, which showed acute tubular injury of the kidneys with extensive intracellular and intraluminal calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal depositions.

  19. A polyethylene glycol radioimmunoprecipitation assay for human immunoglobulin G

    Waller, S.J.; Taylor, R.P.; Andrews, B.S.

    1979-01-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) radioimmunoprecipitation assay for human IgG is described that is sufficiently sensitive to detect 0.5 ng of IgG. This model antibody-antigen system was also used to study the stoichiometries of PEG-precipitation complexes. The results suggest that the presence of PEG may affect the stoichiometry of the complexes which precipitate from solution. (Auth.)

  20. The extraction of plutonium with triethylene glycol dichloride

    Aikin, A.M.; Moss, M.; Bruce, T.

    1951-03-01

    The extraction of plutonium by triethylene glycol dichloride (trigly) has been investigated briefly. The effect of (1) the valence state of the plutonium, (2) the concentration of nitric acid, (3) the concentration of ammonium nitrate and (4) the conditioning of the trigly was measured. The solubility of plutonium IV in trigly was found to be 70 mgms/ml. Solutions of plutonium in trigly and in concentrated nitric acid solutions have been examined spectrophotometrically. (author)

  1. Multimeric, Multifunctional Derivatives of Poly(ethylene glycol

    Gian Maria Bonora

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of multifunctional polymers founded on high-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. The design of new PEG derivatives assembled in a dendrimer-like multimeric fashion or bearing different functionalities on the same molecule is described. Their use as new drug delivery systems based on the conjugation of multiple copies or diversely active drugs on the same biocompatible support is illustrated.

  2. Retrospective Study: Glycolic Acid Peel in Photoaging Patient

    Rachmantyo, Brama; Indramaya, Diah Mira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Photoaging is premature skin aging that is caused by sun exposure in long periode. Glycolic acid peel is one of photoaging treatment that improve skin at epidermal layer. Improper patient selection and irregular follow-up may become factors of unsuccessful treatment. Purpose: To evaluate gycolic acid peel treatment for photoaging for improvement of medical service in the future. Methods: A retrospective study to photoaging patiens that were managed with glicolyc acid peel in Medic...

  3. The extraction of plutonium with triethylene glycol dichloride

    Aikin, A M; Moss, M; Bruce, T

    1951-03-15

    The extraction of plutonium by triethylene glycol dichloride (trigly) has been investigated briefly. The effect of (1) the valence state of the plutonium, (2) the concentration of nitric acid, (3) the concentration of ammonium nitrate and (4) the conditioning of the trigly was measured. The solubility of plutonium IV in trigly was found to be 70 mgms/ml. Solutions of plutonium in trigly and in concentrated nitric acid solutions have been examined spectrophotometrically. (author)

  4. Moessbauer investigation of maghemite-based glycolic acid nanocomposite

    Santos, J. G.; Silveira, L. B.; Oliveira, A. C.; Garg, V. K.; Lacava, B. M.; Tedesco, A. C.; Morais, P. C.

    2007-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used in the characterization of a nanocomposite containing magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a glycolic acid-based template. Maghemite nanoparticles were identified as the iron oxide phase dispersed in the polymeric template. From the low-temperature Moessbauer data the amount of the iron-based, non-magnetic material at the nanoparticle surface was estimated as roughly one monolayer in thickness.

  5. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Bekkali, Noor L H; Hoekman, Daniël R; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E J; van Wijk, Michiel P; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G P; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A

    2018-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of PEG3350 + E or PEG4000. Primary outcomes were change in total sum score (TSS) at week 52 compared to baseline, and dose range determination. TSS was the sum of the severity of 5 constipation symptoms rated on a 4-point scale (0-3). Noninferiority margin was a difference in TSS of ≤1.5 based on a 95%-confidence interval [CI]. Treatment success was defined as a defecation frequency of ≥3 per week with PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Noninferiority criteria were not met (maximum difference between groups: -1.81 to 1.68). Daily sachet use was: 0 to 2 years: 0.4 to 2.3 and 0.9 to 2.1; 2 to 4 years: 0.1 to 3.5 and 1.2 to 3.2; 4 to 8 years: 1.1 to 2.8 and 0.7 to 3.8; 8 to 16 years 0.6 to 3.7 and 1.0 to 3.7, in PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Treatment success after 52 weeks was achieved in 50% and 45% of children, respectively (P = 0.69). Rates of adverse events were similar between groups, and no drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Noninferiority regarding long-term constipation-related symptoms of PEG3350 + E compared to PEG4000 was not demonstrated. However, analysis of secondary outcomes suggests similar efficacy and safety of these agents.

  6. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Szabó, Gábor; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m −3 for benzene, 3 mg m −3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m −3 for benzene and 6 g m −3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature. (paper)

  7. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  8. Surface modification of magnetite nanoparticle with azobenzene-containing water dispersible polymer

    Theamdee, Pawinee; Traiphol, Rakchart; Rutnakornpituk, Boonjira; Wichai, Uthai; Rutnakornpituk, Metha

    2011-01-01

    We here report the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticle (MNP) grafted with poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA)-azobenzene acrylate (ABA) statistical copolymer via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for drug entrapment and photocontrolled release. MNP was synthesized via thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in benzyl alcohol and surface functionalized to obtain ATRP initiating sites. Molar compositions of the copolymer on MNP surface were systematically varied (100:0, 90:10, 70:30, and 50:50 of PEGMA:ABA, respectively) to obtain water dispersible particles with various amounts of azobenzene. The presence of polymeric shell on MNP core was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Drug loading and entrapment efficiencies as well as drug release behavior of the copolymer–MNP complexes were investigated. It was found that when percent of ABA in the copolymers was increased, entrapment and loading efficiencies of prednisolone model drug were enhanced. Releasing rate and percent of the released prednisolone of the complex exposed in UV light were slightly enhanced as compared to the system without UV irradiation. This copolymer–MNP complex with photocontrollable drug release and magnetic field-directed properties is warranted for further studies for potential uses as a novel drug delivery vehicle.

  9. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    Wang, Jingjing; Wei, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  10. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    Wang, Jingjing; Wei, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from SS surfaces for marine antifouling. • All brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of biofouling. • The antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density of hydrogels. - Abstract: Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  11. A novel self-catalyzed photoATRP strategy for preparation of fluorescent hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and their biological imaging

    Jiang, Ruming; Liu, Meiying; Huang, Hongye; Huang, Long; Huang, Qiang; Wen, Yuanqing; Cao, Qian-yong; Tian, Jianwen; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2018-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp), as an important biomaterial for the regeneration and reconstruction of bone tissue, has attracted more and more attention of researchers and scientists due to its unique structure and compositions. However, the preparation of fluorescent HAp with controllable morphology has achieved only limited success. In this work, we reported a novel strategy to construct the water dispersible fluorescent HAp nanorods via the combination of ligand exchange and metal-free atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The Br-containing fluorescent HAp nanorods with controllable size and morphology were first prepared through hydrothermal treatment. A multifunctional organic molecule (named as PTH-Br) with aggregation-induced emission feature was immobilized on the surface of hydrophobic HAp nanorods through ligand exchange reaction. The PTH-Br could be used as the initiator and catalyst for surface-initiated metal-free ATRP using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate as monomer to obtain hydrophilic fluorescent HAp polymer nanoparticles. This strategy successfully endowed HAp nanorods excellent fluorescence properties and favorable water dispersibility but well preserved their regular morphology. Biological assays demonstrated that the HAp-PTH-poly(PEGMA) nanoparticles exhibited good biocompatibility and efficient cell uptake performance. Taken together, we have developed a rather facile strategy based on the surface ligand exchange reaction and metal-free photoATRP to fabricate fluorescent HAp with controllable size and morphology, high water dispersibility and biological properties. These HAp-PTH-poly(PEGMA) nanoparticles should be novel and promising candidates for biomedical applications.

  12. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    Wang, Jingjing, E-mail: jjwang1@hotmail.com; Wei, Jun

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from SS surfaces for marine antifouling. • All brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of biofouling. • The antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density of hydrogels. - Abstract: Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  13. Deuterohemin-Peptide Enzyme Mimic-Embedded Metal-Organic Frameworks through Biomimetic Mineralization with Efficient ATRP Catalytic Activity.

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xinghuo; Chen, Jiawen; Liu, Ying; Han, Haobo; Ding, Yi; Li, Quanshun; Tang, Jun

    2017-08-16

    An enzyme mimic harboring iron porphyrin (DhHP-6) embedded in zeolite imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was constructed through a biomimetic mineralization approach to obtain composite DhHP-6@ZIF-8. The composite was then used as a catalyst in the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA 500 ) in which poly(PEGMA 500 ) could be synthesized with monomer conversion of 76.1% and M n of 45 900 g/mol, stronger than that obtained when using free DhHP-6 as a catalyst. More importantly, it could efficiently overcome the drawbacks of free DhHP-6 and achieve the easy separation of DhHP-6 from the catalytic system and the elimination of iron residues in the synthesized polymer. In addition, it exhibited an enhanced recyclability with monomer conversion of 75.7% after five cycles and favorable stability during the ATRP reaction with mimic-ZIF-8 composite developed through biomimetic mineralization can be potentially used as an effective catalyst for preparing well-defined polymers with biomedical applications.

  14. Effect of cyclic loading on microleakage of silorane based composite compared with low shrinkage methacrylate-based composites

    Hamid Kermanshah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Silorane did not provide better marginal seal than the low shrinkage methacrylate-based composites (except Aelite. In addition, cyclic loading did not affect the marginal microleakage of evaluated composite restorations .

  15. ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION OF N-BUTYL METHACRYLATE IN AQUEOUS DISPERSED SYSTEMS: A MINIEMULSION APPROACH. (R826735)

    Ultrasonication was applied in combination with a hydrophobe for the copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate in an aqueous dispersed system. A controlled polymerization was successfully achieved, as demonstrated by a linear correlation between...

  16. Poly(methacrylic) Acid and g-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy Silane/Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by In-Situ Polymerization

    GÜLTEK, Ahmet; SEÇKİN, Turgay

    2002-01-01

    Poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ polymerization of g-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (A174)/clay nanocomposites in which the macromonomer was generated by grafting A-174 onto activated clay samples via hydroxyl groups or via intercalation. In- situ polymerization was carried out in the presence of an initiator. It was found that the structural affinity between the methacrylic or acrylic acid monomers and the amount of clay playe...

  17. Healing of Osteochondral Defects Implanted with Biomimetic Scaffolds of Poly(ε-Caprolactone)/Hydroxyapatite and Glycidyl-Methacrylate-Modified Hyaluronic Acid in a Minipig.

    Hsieh, Yi-Ho; Shen, Bo-Yuan; Wang, Yao-Horng; Lin, Bojain; Lee, Hung-Maan; Hsieh, Ming-Fa

    2018-04-09

    Articular cartilage is a structure lack of vascular distribution. Once the cartilage is injured or diseased, it is unable to regenerate by itself. Surgical treatments do not effectively heal defects in articular cartilage. Tissue engineering is the most potential solution to this problem. In this study, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) and hydroxyapatite at a weight ratio of 2:1 were mixed via fused deposition modeling (FDM) layer by layer to form a solid scaffold. The scaffolds were further infiltrated with glycidyl methacrylate hyaluronic acid loading with 10 ng/mL of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and photo cross-linked on top of the scaffolds. An in vivo test was performed on the knees of Lanyu miniature pigs for a period of 12 months. The healing process of the osteochondral defects was followed by computer tomography (CT). The defect was fully covered with regenerated tissues in the control pig, while different tissues were grown in the defect of knee of the experimental pig. In the gross anatomy of the cross section, the scaffold remained in the subchondral location, while surface cartilage was regenerated. The cross section of the knees of both the control and experimental pigs were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining. The cartilage of the knee in the experimental pig was partially matured, e.g., few chondrocyte cells were enclosed in the lacunae. In the knee of the control pig, the defect was fully grown with fibrocartilage. In another in vivo experiment in a rabbit and a pig, the composite of the TGF-β1-loaded hydrogel and scaffolds was found to regenerate hyaline cartilage. However, scaffolds that remain in the subchondral lesion potentially delay the healing process. Therefore, the structural design of the scaffold should be reconsidered to match the regeneration process of both cartilage and subchondral bone.

  18. Healing of Osteochondral Defects Implanted with Biomimetic Scaffolds of Poly(ε-Caprolactone/Hydroxyapatite and Glycidyl-Methacrylate-Modified Hyaluronic Acid in a Minipig

    Yi-Ho Hsieh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a structure lack of vascular distribution. Once the cartilage is injured or diseased, it is unable to regenerate by itself. Surgical treatments do not effectively heal defects in articular cartilage. Tissue engineering is the most potential solution to this problem. In this study, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(ε-caprolactone (mPEG-PCL and hydroxyapatite at a weight ratio of 2:1 were mixed via fused deposition modeling (FDM layer by layer to form a solid scaffold. The scaffolds were further infiltrated with glycidyl methacrylate hyaluronic acid loading with 10 ng/mL of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and photo cross-linked on top of the scaffolds. An in vivo test was performed on the knees of Lanyu miniature pigs for a period of 12 months. The healing process of the osteochondral defects was followed by computer tomography (CT. The defect was fully covered with regenerated tissues in the control pig, while different tissues were grown in the defect of knee of the experimental pig. In the gross anatomy of the cross section, the scaffold remained in the subchondral location, while surface cartilage was regenerated. The cross section of the knees of both the control and experimental pigs were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining. The cartilage of the knee in the experimental pig was partially matured, e.g., few chondrocyte cells were enclosed in the lacunae. In the knee of the control pig, the defect was fully grown with fibrocartilage. In another in vivo experiment in a rabbit and a pig, the composite of the TGF-β1-loaded hydrogel and scaffolds was found to regenerate hyaline cartilage. However, scaffolds that remain in the subchondral lesion potentially delay the healing process. Therefore, the structural design of the scaffold should be reconsidered to match the regeneration process of both cartilage and subchondral bone.

  19. Phase Equilibria Measurement of Binary Mixture for the Propoxylated Neopentyl Glycol Diacrylate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Byun, Hun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data are reported on the phase equilibrium of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide. Phase equilibria data were measured in static method at a temperature of (313.2, 333.2, 353.2, 373.2 and 393.2) K and at pressures up to 27.82 MPa. At a constant pressure, the solubility of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system increases as temperature increases. The (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system exhibits type-I phase behavior. The experimental result for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system is correlated with Peng- Robinson equation of state using mixing rule. The critical property of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate is predicted with Joback and Lyderson method

  20. Phase Equilibria Measurement of Binary Mixture for the Propoxylated Neopentyl Glycol Diacrylate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Byun, Hun-Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Experimental data are reported on the phase equilibrium of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide. Phase equilibria data were measured in static method at a temperature of (313.2, 333.2, 353.2, 373.2 and 393.2) K and at pressures up to 27.82 MPa. At a constant pressure, the solubility of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system increases as temperature increases. The (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system exhibits type-I phase behavior. The experimental result for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system is correlated with Peng- Robinson equation of state using mixing rule. The critical property of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate is predicted with Joback and Lyderson method.

  1. Surface modification of hydroxyapatite with poly(methyl methacrylate) via surface-initiated ATRP

    Wang Yan; Zhang Xi; Yan Jinliang; Xiao Yan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lang Meidong, E-mail: mdlang@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-05-01

    This article describes the fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites grafted with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out from hydroxyapatite particles derivatized with ATRP initiators. The structure and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements, and contact angle analyses. TGA was used to estimate the grafting density of ATRP initiators (0.49 initiator/nm{sup 2}) and the amount of grafted PMMA on the HAP surface. The contact angle analyses indicated that grafting PMMA onto the HAP surface dramatically increased the hydrophobicity of the surface. Moreover, the HAP nanocomposites showed excellent dispersibility in both aqueous solution and organic solvent.

  2. Preparation and performances of porous polyacrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate membrane for lithium-ion batteries

    Zhou, D.Y.; Wang, G.Z.; Tan, C.L.; Rao, M.M.; Liao, Y.H. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, W.S.; Li, G.L. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2008-10-01

    A copolymer, polyacrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate P(AN-MMA), was synthesized by suspension polymerization with acrylonitrile (AN) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomers. With this copolymer, polymer membrane was prepared by phase inversion. The performances of the polymer were characterized by FTIR, SEM, DSC/TG, EIS and LSV. The copolymer contains CH{sub 2}, CN and CO bonds, and shows its thermal stability up to 300 C. The polymer membrane has a porous structure with an average pore diameter of 0.5 {mu}m. The conductivity of the polymer electrolyte is 1.25 mS cm{sup -1} at room temperature, and it is electrochemically stable up to 5 V (vs. Li). Using the polymer electrolyte as the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), the cell Li/GPE/LiCoO{sub 2} shows its cyclic stability as good as the cell with liquid electrolyte. (author)

  3. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Adam, Nurul Ilham [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, KampusTapah, 35400 Tapah Road, Tapah, Perak (Malaysia); Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan [Faculty of Defence Sciences and Technology, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ali, Ab Malik Marwan [Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in {sup 1}HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR)

  4. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in 1 HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF 3 SO 3 show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF 3 SO 3 were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR)

  5. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-08-01

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in 1HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF3SO3 show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF3SO3 were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR).

  6. Surface modification of hydroxyapatite with poly(methyl methacrylate) via surface-initiated ATRP

    Wang Yan; Zhang Xi; Yan Jinliang; Xiao Yan; Lang Meidong

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites grafted with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out from hydroxyapatite particles derivatized with ATRP initiators. The structure and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements, and contact angle analyses. TGA was used to estimate the grafting density of ATRP initiators (0.49 initiator/nm 2 ) and the amount of grafted PMMA on the HAP surface. The contact angle analyses indicated that grafting PMMA onto the HAP surface dramatically increased the hydrophobicity of the surface. Moreover, the HAP nanocomposites showed excellent dispersibility in both aqueous solution and organic solvent.

  7. Rehabilitation of orbital cavity after orbital exenteration using polymethyl methacrylate orbital prosthesis

    Sumeet Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eye with the incidence of 0.09 and 2.42 cases/100 000 people. Orbital invasion is a rare complication but, if recognized early, can be treated effectively with exenteration. Although with advancements in technology such as computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, material science, and retentive methods like implants, orbital prosthesis with stock ocular prosthesis made of methyl methacrylate retained by anatomic undercuts is quiet effective and should not be overlooked and forgotten. This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of two male patients with polymethyl methacrylate resin orbital prosthesis after orbital exenteration, for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid. The orbital prosthesis was sufficiently retained by hard and soft tissue undercuts without any complications. The patients using the prosthesis are quite satisfied with the cosmetic results and felt comfortable attending the social events.

  8. Radioisotope investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly/methyl methacrylate/grafted onto leather

    Pietrucha, K.; Kroh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly/methyl methacrylate/ in leather follow our earlier experiments on radiation grafting of vinyl monomers in situ. Polymer distribution was determined for pigskins and cattlehides tanned with basic sulphates of chromium/III/. 14 C-labelled methyl methacrylate was used in present experiments. Precision slicing technique was employed to cut consecutive slices parallel to the grain surface of the radiation modified leather. Quantative analysis of polymer distribution in leather was based on radioactivity measurements. Each layer was burned in Oxymat apparatus and resulting 14 CO 2 was analysed by liquid scintillation method. On the basis of radioactivity measurements and visual observations with light microscope conclusion on desirable distribution of polymer was reached. In the midcorium part of leather polymer is evenly distributed and its content is much higher than for outer layers next to surface and flesh. Mechanism of relevant processes as well as formation and role played by peroxide compounds is discussed

  9. Radioisotope investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted onto leather

    Pietrucha, K.; Kroh, J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly(methyl methacrylate) in leather follow our earlier experiments on radiation grafting of vinyl monomers in situ. Polymer distribution was determined for pigskins and cattlehides tanned with basic sulphates of chromium (III). 14 C-labelled methyl methacrylate was used in present experiments. Precision slicing technique was employed to cut consecutive slices parallel to the grain surface of the radiation modified leather. Quantitative analysis of polymer distribution in leather was based on radioactivity measurements. Each layer was burned in Oxymat apparatus and resulting 14 CO 2 was analysed by liquid scintillation method. On the basis of radioactivity measurements and visual observations with light microscope conclusion on desirable distribution of polymer was reached. In the midcorium part of leather polymer is evenly distributed and its content is much higher than for outer layers next to surface and flesh. Mechanism of relevant processes as well as formation and role played by peroxide compounds are discussed. (author)

  10. Chemical structure of chromium(III) crosslinked collagen-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers in radiation grafting

    Pietrucha, K.

    1991-01-01

    Upon γ-irradiation of aqueous emulsions of methyl methacrylate embedded into chrome tanned skin, the formation of graft copolymers is observed. The number-average molecular weight of the grafted poly(methyl methacrylate) side chains was in the range of 430000 (for a dose of 10 kGy) and practically independent of grafting degree. However, the number of branches per graft copolymer molecule increases from 0.3 to 0.8 when the degree of grafting increases from 32% to 88%. Similarly, the radiation yield, i.e. the number of branches formed per 100 eV of energy absorbed in the substrate polymer increases from 0.75 to 1.94. The value and meaning of molecular weight of graft copolymer is discussed along with the mechanism of polymer chain termination. (author) 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  11. An effective approach to synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)/silica nanocomposites

    Ding Xuefeng; Wang Zichen; Han Dongxue; Zhang Yuanjian; Shen Yanfei; Wang Zhijuan; Niu Li

    2006-01-01

    A novel synthetic route for nearly monodispersed poly(methyl methacrylate)/SiO 2 composite particles (PMSCP) is reported. Silica nanoparticles modified with oleic acid were used as 'seeds'. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer was copolymerized with oleic acid via in situ emulsion polymerization, in the presence of an initiator; it resulted finally in the formation of composites with core-shell morphology. The composite particles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The number of silica particles inside the composite particles increases with an increase in the silica concentration. The effect of grafted silica concentration on the morphology of PMSCP is also reported in detail. It was found by thermogravimetric analysis that PMSCP show a potential application for fire retardance

  12. Mechanical and thermal properties of hydroxyapatite filled poly(methyl methacrylate) heat processed denture base material

    Mohamed, S.H.; Arifin, A.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.; Nizam, A.; Samsudin, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powder-to-liquid ratio on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the tensile properties of denture base material prepared from poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) previously treated with 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (γ-MPS). Specimens for, mechanical testing were prepared by adding composites powder (PMMA, BPO and RA) to the monomer (MMA and EGDMA) followed by hand mixing as in dental laboratory description usage. The glass transition temperature was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSQ. It was observed that the tensile properties and the Tg were affected by the powder-to-liquid ratio. The mechanical characterization of the materials were performed by using single edge notch-tension (SEN-T) specimens; the fracture toughness was slightly higher in formulation which contained RA filler compared to commercial denture base material. (Author)

  13. Preparation and Characterization of InP/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Films.

    Kwon, Younghoon; Kim, Jongsung

    2017-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are nanocrystalline semiconductors with many unusual optical properties. They exhibit very high fluorescence intensities and possess exceptional stability against photo-bleaching. In this study, we report the preparation of InP QDs-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrids by fabricating QDs via a thermal decomposition reaction, followed by radical polymerization. The InP QDs were synthesized using indium(III) chloride and tris(dimethylamino)phosphine. Flexible composite films were obtained by radical polymerization using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as the monomer and 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as a radical initiator. The PL intensity of the QDs was lowered upon composite formation with PMMA. However, the composites exhibited higher thermal stability than pure PMMA.

  14. Preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted titanate nanotubes by in situ atom transfer radical polymerization

    Gao Yuan; Zhou Yongfeng; Yan Deyue; Gao Xueping

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the successful preparation of core-shell hybrid nanocomposites by a 'grafting from' approach based on in situ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from titanate nanotubes (TNTs). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the products provide direct evidence for the formation of a core-shell structure, possessing a hard core of TNTs and a soft shell of poly-MMA (PMMA). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to determine the chemical structure, morphology, and the grafted PMMA quantities of the resulting products. The grafted PMMA content was well controlled and increased with increasing monomer/initiator ratio. Further copolymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with PMMA-coated TNTs as initiators was realized, illustrating the 'living' characteristics of the ATRP method used in this paper.

  15. Preparation of poly (methyl methacrylate)/nanometer calcium carbonate composite by in-situ emulsion polymerization

    史建明; 包永忠; 黄志明; 翁志学

    2004-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) emulsion polymerization in the presence of nanometer calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO3) surface modified with (-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) was carried out to prepare poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/nano-CaCO3 composite. The reaction between nano-CaCO3 and MPTMS, and the grafting of PMMA onto nano-CaCO3 were confirmed by infrared spectrum. The grafting ratio and grafting efficiency of PMMA on nano-CaCO3 modified with MPTMS were much higher than that on nano-CaCO3 modified with stearic acid. The grafting ratio of PMMA increased as the weight ratio between MMA and nano-CaCO3 increased, while the grafting efficiency of PMMA decreased. Transmission electron micrograph showed that nano-CaCO3 covered with PMMA was formed by in-situ emulsion polymerization.

  16. PREPARATION OF POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)/LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES NANOCOMPOSITES via in situ SOLUTION POLYMERIZATION

    2007-01-01

    An exfoliated layered double hydroxides/poly(methyl methacrylate) (LDHs/PMMA) nanocomposite was prepared by in situ solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate intercalated LDHs(MgAl-VBS LDHs). MgAl-VBS LDHs was prepared by the ion exchange method, and the structure and composition of the MgAl-VBS LDHs were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to examine the structure of LDHs/PMMA nanocomposite. It was indicated that the LDHs layers were well exfoliated and dispersed in the PMMA matrix. The grafting of PMMA onto LDHs was confirmed by the extraction result and the weight fraction of grafted PMMA increased as the weight fraction of LDHs in the nanocomposites increased.

  17. Stable Poly(methacrylic acid Brush Decorated Silica Nano-Particles by ARGET ATRP for Bioconjugation

    Marcello Iacono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of polymer brush decorated silica nano-particles is demonstrated by activator regeneration by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP grafting of poly(tert-butyl methacrylate. ATRP initiator decorated silica nano-particles were obtained using a novel trimethylsiloxane derivatised ATRP initiator obtained by click chemistry. Comparison of de-grafted polymers with polymer obtained from a sacrificial initiator demonstrated good agreement up to 55% monomer conversion. Subsequent mild deprotection of the tert-butyl ester groups using phosphoric acid yielded highly colloidal and pH stable hydrophilic nano-particles comprising approximately 50% methacrylic acid groups. The successful bio-conjugation was achieved by immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase to the polymer brush decorated nano-particles and the enzyme activity demonstrated in a conversion of o-phenylene diamine dihydrochloride assay.

  18. Molecular changes in copolymers of styrene and methyl methacrylate caused by radiation

    Busfield, W.K.; O'Donnell, J.H.; Smith, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Homopolymers of styrene and methyl methacrylate and copolymers of these monomers were irradiated in vacuo at room temperature using 60 Co γ-radiation to various doses. The gaseous radiolysis products of the polymers were analysed by gas chromatography. The radiation chemical yield, G values, of the gaseous and liquid products were calculated for the homopolymers and copolymers. The G values obtained for the homopolymers were compared with those obtained by previous workers. The graphs of G value versus composition (% Styrene) showed a marked deviation from linearity which indicated that the styrene in the copolymer had a greater effect on the behaviour than did the methyl methacrylate units. It has been postulated that the benzene ring on the styrene unit acts in some way as an energy sink, and hence protects the copolymer from radiation damage in an analogous way to that suggested for hydrocarbon mixtures. Mechanisms for the process are discussed. (author)

  19. Radiation polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-vinyl pyrrolidone-water system

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1988-01-01

    Polymerization was studied using mixtures of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA)-water, vinyl pyrrolidone(NVP)-water and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-vinyl pyrrolidone-water. The mixtures were irradiated with gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. Irradiation was carried out at temperatures of 0, -24, -45, -63, -78, and -196 degC. The dependence was studied of the polymerization rate on temperature during irradiation for the individual mixtures, as were the effect of monomer composition on the polymerization of the HEMA-NVP-water system at 0 degC, the effect of water on NVP polymerization and the relationship between water absorption and the composition of the monomer. (E.S.). 4 figs., 6 refs

  20. Density and vapour pressure of mixed-solvent desiccant systems (propylene glycol or dipropylene glycol or tripropylene glycol + magnesium chloride + water)

    Chen, Shang-Yi; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, Meng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapour pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {40 wt% glycol (propylene or dipropylene or tripropylene) + (4 or 9 or 16 wt%) magnesium chloride salt + water} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The density and vapour pressure data obtained are presented as a function of temperature and composition. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the density values. A model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the vapour pressure as a function of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapour pressure calculations

  1. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-A soft template for the facile preparation of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core-copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite

    Mohammed Safiullah, S.; Abdul Wasi, K.; Anver Basha, K.

    2015-12-01

    Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core/copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite (PGMA/Cu nanohybrid) was prepared by simple two step method (i) The synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) beads by free radical suspension polymerization followed by (ii) direct deposition of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on activated PGMA beads. The PGMA beads were used as a soft template to host the CuNPs without surface modification of it. In this method the CuNPs were formed by chemical reduction of copper salts using sodium borohydride in water medium and deposited directly on the activated PGMA. Two different concentrations of copper salts were employed to know the effect of concentration on the shape and size of nanoparticles. The results showed that, the different sizes and shapes of CuNPs were deposited on the PGMA matrix. The X-ray Diffraction study results showed that the CuNPs were embedded on the surface of the PGMA matrix. The scanning electron microscopic images revealed that the fabrication of CuNPs on the PGMA matrix possess different shapes and changes the morphology and nature of PGMA beads significantly. The fluorescent micrograph also confirmed that the CuNPs were doped on the PGMA surface. The thermal studies have demonstrated that the CuNPs deposition on the surface of PGMA beads had a significant effect.

  2. Optimum dose of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate based bonding material on pulp cells toxicity

    Saraswati, Widya

    2010-01-01

    Background: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), one type of resins commonly used as bonding base material, is commonly used due to its advantageous chemical characteristics. Several preliminary studies indicated that resin is a material capable to induce damage in dentin-pulp complex. It is necessary to perform further investigation related with its biological safety for hard and soft tissues in oral cavity. Purpose: The author performed an in vitro test to find optimum dose of HEMA resin mon...

  3. New results in pulsed laser deposition of poly-methyl-methacrylate thin films

    Cristescu, R.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Popescu, M.; Sava, F.; Ion, E.; Morosanu, C.O.; Stamatin, I.

    2003-01-01

    Thin organic films based on poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) polymer have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on silicon substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). We observed that the film composition and structure depend on the laser fluence and on the temperature of the substrate during deposition

  4. Influence of topology of highly porous methacrylate polymers on their mechanical properties

    Paljevac, M.; Kotek, Jiří; Jeřábek, Karel; Krajnc, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 2 (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 1700337. ISSN 1438-7492 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : mechanical properties * methacrylate monoliths * polymer topology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CC - Organic Chemistry (UCHP-M) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Organic chemistry (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 2.863, year: 2016

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Sulfides Nanoparticles/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Nanocomposites

    Ajibade, Peter A.; Mbese, Johannes Z.

    2014-01-01

    Metal sulfides nanoparticles in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices were prepared and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The FTIR confirms the dispersion of the nanoparticles in PMMA matrices with the C=O and C–O–C bonds of the PMMA shifting slightly which may be attributed to the interactions between the nanoparticles and PMMA. The ZnS nanoparticles in PMM...

  6. Nanoclay filled hydrogels of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide) copolymers prepared by gamma radiation

    Rapado Paneque, M.; Matos Cause, W.; Barreras Gonzalez, G.; Griffith Perez, J.; Amalvy, J. I.; Van Espen, P.; Peniche, C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogels are polymers characterized by their ability to absorb a considerable amount of water. Hydrogels consist of polymer molecules physically or chemically crosslinked, forming a molecular network, so that in water they swell to an equilibrium value, preserving their shape [1]. The aim of this work was to prepare by gamma radiation poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide) hydrogels, p(HEMA-co-AAm), doped with Nanoclay (laponite XLG). (Author)

  7. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres for Campylobacter jejuni detection in food

    Horák, Daniel; Hochel, I.

    061, - (2005), s. 1-12 ISSN 1618-7229 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/05/0311; GA ČR(CZ) GA525/02/0287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : magnetic * microspheres * glycidyl methacrylate Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.926, year: 2005 http://www.e-polymers.org

  8. Reductively degradable poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels with oriented porosity for tissue engineering applications

    Macková, Hana; Plichta, Zdeněk; Hlídková, Helena; Sedláček, Ondřej; Konefal, Rafal; Sadakbayeva, Zhansaya; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Horák, Daniel; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2017), s. 10544-10553 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-14961S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) * 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine * hydrogel Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; JJ - Other Materials (UEM-P) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Nano-materials (production and properties) (UEM-P) Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  9. Synthesis of indenyllanthanide amides: the effective initiators for polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    赵群; 姚英明; 沈琪

    2000-01-01

    Diisopropylamido bisindenyl lanthanides ( C9H7)2LnN( i-Pr)2(Ln=Gd (1), Y(2), Er (3)) were successfully synthesized in satisfied yield by the reaction of Ln(N(i-Pr)2)3(THF) with indene in 1:2 molar ratio in toluene. All of the complexes exhibit very high catalytic activity in the polymerization of methyl methacrylate. The resulting polymers have narrow molecular weight distributions and syndiotacticity.

  10. The Evaluation of Relationship between Spirometric Disorders and Methyl methacrylate in Dental Laboratories Personnel

    E. Nadi; M.J. Asari; A. Zamanian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Methyl methacrylate (MMA), as a monomer of acrylic resin that has a wide variety of usages in denture fabrication, is considered as an air pollution indicator in the laboratories. Occupational exposure to these compound vapors can cause respiratory hypersensitivity, occupational asthma, eye and skin irritation and Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD). Therefore control of MMA exposure may promote the personnel’s health. The aim of this study was to determine the relati...

  11. Property improvement by gamma polymerization of methyl methacrylate impregnated local Thai wood Yang (Dipterocarpus Sp.)

    Saisomboon, S.; Sumitra, T.

    1990-01-01

    Property improvement of a local Thai wood (Yang-Dipterocarpus Sp.) was studied by impregnating with methyl methacrylate before polymerizing with gamma ray. The polymer loading were 126 and 68 percent for sapwood and heart wood, respectively. Significant improvements in impact, compressive and bending strength were observed in the wood polymer composite (WPC). In addition, the microstructure and the impact fractured-surfaces of WPC were also carried with a scanning electron-microscope

  12. Investigation of magnetic nanoparticles in acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene mesoporous template

    Rabelo, D. E-mail: denilson@quimica.ufg.br; Lima, E.C.D.; Barbosa, D.P.; Silva, V.J.; Silva, O.; Azevedo, R.B.; Silva, L.P.; Lemos, A.P.C.; Morais, P.C

    2002-11-01

    Preparation and characterization of nanosized magnetic particles using alkaline oxidation of ferrous ion retained in acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene (AN-MMA-DVB) spherical micron-sized polymer template is described. Atomic absorption, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic resonance were used to investigate chemically cycled nanoparticle-based composites. The resonance field shifts towards higher values as the nanoparticle concentration reduces in the polymeric template, following two very distinct regimes.

  13. Hydrogel tissue expanders for stomatology. Part I. methacrylate-based polymers

    Hrib, Jakub; Širc, Jakub; Lesný, P.; Hobzová, Radka; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Michálek, Jiří; Šmucler, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 12. ISSN 0957-4530 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hydrogel * tissue expander * methacrylates Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.325, year: 2016

  14. Outcome of patients in acute poisoning with ethylene glycol - factors which may have influence on evolution

    Tanasescu, A; Macovei, RA; Tudosie, MS

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Intoxication with ethylene glycol occurs as a result of intentional ingestion in suicide attempts or accidentally. Clinical ethylene glycol poisoning is not specific and occurs in many poisoning cases therefore the diagnosis is difficult. Early diagnostic and establishment of therapy are very important for a favorable evolution. The mortality rate of ethylene glycol intoxication ranges between 1 and 22% depending on the amount of alcohol ingestion and the time period between alc...

  15. Investigations into the use of water glycol as the hydraulic fluid in a servo system

    Cole, G.V.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of water glycol on the performance of a hydraulic system and on the life of the system components have been investigated and a guide to the design of systems using water glycol is given. The dynamic performance of the system using water-glycol was compared with that using mineral oil, then the system was endurance tested to determine its service life. (author)

  16. Reactive electrospinning and biodegradation of cross-linked methacrylated polycarbonate nanofibers

    Wu Ruizhi; Zhang Jianfeng; Fan Yuwei; Xu Xiaoming [Department of Comprehensive Dentistry and Biomaterials, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1100 Florida Avenue, Box 137, New Orleans, LA 70119 (United States); Stoute, Diana; Lallier, Thomas, E-mail: xxu@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, 1100 Florida Avenue, Box 137, New Orleans, LA 70119 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The objectives of this study were to fabricate cross-linked biodegradable polycarbonate nanofibers and to investigate their biodegradability by different enzymes. Poly(2,3-dihydroxycarbonate) was synthesized from naturally occurring l-tartaric acid. The hydroxyl groups on the functional polycarbonate were converted to methacrylate groups to enable the polymer to cross-link under UV irradiation. Smooth cross-linked methacrylated polycarbonate nanofibers (300-1800 nm) were fabricated by a reactive electrospinning process with in situ UV radiation from a mixed solution of linear methacrylated polycarbonate (MPC) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (MPC:PEO = 9:1) in methanol/chloroform (50/50). These cross-linked nanofibers have shown excellent solvent resistance and their solubility decreases with increasing degree of cross-linking. The thermal properties of linear and cross-linked polycarbonate nanofibers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The cross-linked polycarbonate nanofibers show no melting point below 200 {sup 0}C and their decomposition temperature increases with increasing cross-linking degree. Their biodegradation products by five different enzymes were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The biodegradability of the polycarbonate nanofibers decreases with increasing cross-linking degree. These nanofibers were found to support human fibroblast survival and to promote cell attachment. This study demonstrates that cross-linked biodegradable polycarbonate nanofibers with different chemical properties and biodegradability can be fabricated using the novel reactive electrospinning technology to meet the needs of different biomedical applications.

  17. NMR characterization of segmental dynamics in poly(alkyl methacrylate) using CODEX and PUREX exchange techniques

    Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Slow side group dynamics in a series of five poly(alkyl methacrylate)s with varying side group sizes (PMAA, PMMA, PEMA, PiBMA, and PcHMA, with -H, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH(CH 3 ) 2 , and -cyclohexyl alkyl substituents, respectively) have been studied quantitatively by center band-only detection of exchange (CODEX) and pure exchange (PUREX) 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Flips and small-angle motions of the ester groups associated with the β-relaxation are observed distinctly, and the fraction of slowly flipping groups has been measured with 3% precision. In PMMA, 34% of side groups flip, while the fraction is 31% in PEMA at 25 C. Even the large isobutyl ether and cyclohexylester side groups can flip in the glassy state, although the flipping fraction is reduced to 22% and ∼10%, respectively. In poly methacrylic acid, no slow side group flips are detected. In PMMA, the flipping fraction is temperature-independent between 25 C and 80 C, while in Pemal it increases continuously from 31 to 60% between 25 C and 60 C. A similar doubling is also observed in Pi BMA. (author)

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Magnetoresponsive Electrospun Nanocomposite Membranes Based on Methacrylic Random Copolymers and Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Ioanna Savva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoresponsive polymer-based fibrous nanocomposites belonging to the broad category of stimuli-responsive materials, is a relatively new class of “soft” composite materials, consisting of magnetic nanoparticles embedded within a polymeric fibrous matrix. The presence of an externally applied magnetic field influences the properties of these materials rendering them useful in numerous technological and biomedical applications including sensing, magnetic separation, catalysis and magnetic drug delivery. This study deals with the fabrication and characterization of magnetoresponsive nanocomposite fibrous membranes consisting of methacrylic random copolymers based on methyl methacrylate (MMA and 2-(acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AEMA (MMA-co-AEMA and oleic acid-coated magnetite (OA·Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The AEMA moieties containing β-ketoester side-chain functionalities were introduced for the first time in this type of materials, because of their inherent ability to bind effectively onto inorganic surfaces providing an improved stabilization. For membrane fabrication the electrospinning technique was employed and a series of nanocomposite membranes was prepared in which the polymer content was kept constant and only the inorganic (OA·Fe3O4 content varied. Further to the characterization of these materials in regards to their morphology, composition and thermal properties, assessment of their magnetic characteristics disclosed tunable superparamagnetic behaviour at ambient temperature.

  19. Determination of thermodynamic properties of poly (cyclohexyl methacrylate) by inverse gas chromatography.

    Kaya, Ismet; Pala, Cigdem Yigit

    2014-07-01

    In this work, some thermodynamic properties of poly (cyclohexyl methacrylate) were studied by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). For this purpose, the polymeric substance was coated on Chromosorb W and which was filled into a glass column. The retention times (t(r)) of the probes were determined from the interactions of poly (cyclohexyl methacrylate) with n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, n-decane, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, butanol, acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, benzene, toluene and o-xylene by IGC technique. Then, the specific volume (Vg(0)) was determined for each probe molecule. By using (1/T; lnVg(0)) graphics, the glass transition temperature of poly (cyclohexyl methacrylate) was found to be 373 K. The adsorption heat under the glass transition temperature (deltaH(a)), and partial molar heat of sorption above the glass transition (deltaH1(S)), partial molar free energy of sorption (deltaG1(S)) and partial molar entropy of sorption (deltaS1(S)) belonging to sorption for every probe were calculated. The partial molar heat of mixing at infinite dilution (deltaH1(infinity)), partial molar free energy of mixing at infinite dilution (deltaG1(infinity)), Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (chi12(infinity)) and weight fraction activity coefficient (a1/w1)(infinity) values of polymer-solute systems were calculated at different column temperatures. The solubility parameters (delta2) of the polymer were obtained by IGC technique.

  20. Preparation of Rhodamine B Fluorescent Poly(methacrylic acid Coated Gelatin Nanoparticles

    Zhenhai Gan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methacrylic acid (PMAA-coated gelatin nanoparticles encapsulated with fluorescent dye rhodamine B were prepared by the coacervation method with the aim to retard the release of rhodamine B from the gelatin matrix. With sodium sulfate as coacervation reagent for gelatin, a kind of biopolymer with excellent biocompatibility, the formed gelatin nanoparticles were cross-linked by formaldehyde followed by the polymerization of methacrylic acid coating. The fluorescent poly(methacrylic acid coated gelatin (FPMAAG nanoparticles had a uniform spherical shape and a size distribution of 60±5 nm. Infrared spectral analysis confirmed the formation of PMAA coating on the gelatin nanoparticles. Based on UV-Vis spectra, the loading efficiency of rhodamine B for the FPMAAG nanoparticles was 0.26 μg per mg nanoparticles. The encapsulated rhodamine B could sustain for two weeks. Favorable fluorescence property and fluorescence imaging of cells confirmed that the FPMAAG nanoparticles have promising biochemical, bioanalytical, and biomedical applications.

  1. Polypropylene fumarate/phloroglucinol triglycidyl methacrylate blend for use as partially biodegradable orthopaedic cement.

    Jayabalan, M; Thomas, V; Rajesh, P N

    2001-10-01

    Polypropylene fumarate/phloroglucinol triglycidyl methacrylate oligomeric blend-based bone cement was studied. Higher the percentage of phloroglucinol triglycidyl methacrylate, lesser the setting time. An optimum setting time could be arrived with 50:50 blend composition of the two oligomers. Composite cement of 50:50 blend prepared with hydroxyapatite granules of particle size 125 microm binds bovine rib bones. The tensile strength of this adhesive bond was found to be 1.11 kPa. The thermal studies suggest the onset of cross-linking reaction in the cured blend if the blend is heated. The absence of softening endotherm in the cured blend shows the thermosetting-like amorphous nature of blend system, which may restrict the changes in creep properties. The in vitro biodegradation studies reveal possible association of calcium ions with negatively charged units of degrading polymer chain resulting in slow down of degradation. Relatively slow degradation was observed in Ringer's solution. The study reveals the potential use of polypropylene fumarate/phloroglucinol triglycidyl methacrylate as partially degradable polymeric cement for orthopaedic applications.

  2. Iodinated glycidyl methacrylate copolymer as a radiopaque material for biomedical applications.

    Dawlee, S; Jayabalan, M

    2013-07-01

    Polymeric biomaterial was synthesized by copolymerizing 50:50 mol% of monomers, glycidyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate. Iodine atoms were then grafted to the epoxide groups of glycidyl methacrylate units, rendering the copolymer radiopaque. The percentage weight of iodine in the present copolymer was found to be as high as 23%. The iodinated copolymer showed higher glass transition temperature and thermal stability in comparison with unmodified polymer. Radiographic analysis showed that the copolymer possessed excellent radiopacity. The iodinated copolymer was cytocompatible to L929 mouse fibroblast cells. The in vivo toxicological evaluation by intracutaneous reactivity test of the copolymer extracts has revealed that the material was nontoxic. Subcutaneous implantation of iodinated copolymer in rats has shown that the material was well tolerated. Upon explantation and histological examination, no hemorrhage, infection or necrosis was observed. The samples were found to be surrounded by a vascularized capsule consisting of connective tissue cells. The results indicate that the iodinated copolymer is biocompatible and may have suitable applications as implantable materials.

  3. Polyethylene glycol enhances lipoplex-cell association and lipofection.

    Ross, P C; Hui, S W

    1999-10-15

    The association between liposome-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) and targeted cell membranes is a limiting step of cationic liposome-mediated transfection. A novel technique was developed where lipoplex-cell membrane association is enhanced by the addition of 2-6% polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the transfection media. Lipoplex-cell association was found to increase up to 100 times in the presence of PEG. Transfection increased correspondingly in the presence of PEG. This increase was found in several cell lines. These results show that lipoplex adsorption to cell membranes is a critical step in liposome-mediated transfection. This step can be facilitated by PEG-induced particle aggregation.

  4. Dipropylene glycol allergy: A hidden cause of perfume contact dermatitis

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Ernst Jemec, Gregor Borut

    1994-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by a hand lotion is presented. A positive patch test reaction to the perfume formulation from the lotion was found, establishing a case of perfume allergy. However, when all 16 ingredients of the perfume were tested, the patient reacted not only...... to a fragrance material but also to the solvent used in the perfume, dipropylene glycol. The diagnosis of perfume allergy is common. However, the substances in the responsible perfume are rarely obtained for testing, and significant allergies to the solvent of the perfume may be overlooked....

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  6. The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology

    Grover C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%, melasma (36.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12% and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%. A final evaluation done at 16 weeks revealed that this modality is useful especially in superficial scarring and melasma, moderately successful in acne patients with no response in dermal pigmentation. No significant untoward effects were seen.

  7. Exposure to glycols and their renal effects in motor servicing workers.

    Laitinen, J; Liesivuori, J; Savolainen, H

    1995-10-01

    Ten car mechanics frequently exposed to glycol-based cooling liquids were followed during a workshift. Airborne ethylene and propylene glycol concentrations in the car mechanics' environment were measured. The car mechanics gave urine samples after the workshift and their excretion of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, oxalic acid, calcium and ammonia was analysed and compared to that of unexposed office workers. Urinary succinate dehydrogenase activity and glycosaminoglycans were also measured in both groups. Airborne ethylene and propylene glycol concentrations in the car mechanics' environment were negligible. Urinary ethylene glycol excretion in exposed workers was significantly higher than that in unexposed workers, but propylene glycol excretion was at the same levels as in controls. In the exposed group, the excretion of the end metabolite of ethylene glycol, oxalic acid (47 +/- 11 mmol/mol creatinine, mean +/- SD, n = 10) differed slightly from that of controls (36 +/- 14 mmol/mol creatinine, mean +/- SD, n = 10). Urinary excretion of ammonia was higher among exposed workers than office workers. The excretion of calcium did not differ from that of controls. A marginally decreased urinary succinate dehydrogenase activity was found in the exposed men. The excretion of glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower in exposed workers. Therefore, it seems that ethylene glycol is absorbed by skin contact. The internal body burden is associated with oxaluria and increased ammoniagenesis typical of chronic acidosis.

  8. Exploring Poly(ethylene glycol-Polyzwitterion Diblock Copolymers as Biocompatible Smart Macrosurfactants Featuring UCST-Phase Behavior in Normal Saline Solution

    Noverra M. Nizardo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonionic-zwitterionic diblock copolymers are designed to feature a coil-to-globule collapse transition with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST in aqueous media, including physiological saline solution. The block copolymers that combine presumably highly biocompatible blocks are synthesized by chain extension of a poly(ethylene glycol (PEG macroinitiator via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP of sulfobetaine and sulfabetaine methacrylates. Their thermoresponsive behavior is studied by variable temperature turbidimetry and 1H NMR spectroscopy. While the polymers with polysulfobetaine blocks exhibit phase transitions in the physiologically interesting window of 30–50 °C only in pure aqueous solution, the polymers bearing polysulfabetaine blocks enabled phase transitions only in physiological saline solution. By copolymerizing a pair of structurally closely related sulfo- and sulfabetaine monomers, thermoresponsive behavior can be implemented in aqueous solutions of both low and high salinity. Surprisingly, the presence of the PEG blocks can affect the UCST-transitions of the polyzwitterions notably. In specific cases, this results in “schizophrenic” thermoresponsive behavior displaying simultaneously an UCST and an LCST (lower critical solution temperature transition. Exploratory experiments on the UCST-transition triggered the encapsulation and release of various solvatochromic fluorescent dyes as model “cargos” failed, apparently due to the poor affinity even of charged organic compounds to the collapsed state of the polyzwitterions.

  9. Formation of Underbrushes on thiolated Poly (ethylene glycol) PEG monolayers by Oligoethylene glycol (OEG) terminated Alkane Thiols on Gold

    Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2011-01-01

    Adding underbrushes of oligoethylene glycol (OEG) to monolayers of long chain PEG molecules on a surface is one of the strategies [1] in designing a suitable platform for antifouling purpose, where it is possible to have high graft density and molecular conformational freedom[4] simultaneously......, there by maximal retention of activity of covalently immobilised antifouling enzyme [2] on PEG surfaces along with resistance to protein adsorption[3]. Here we present some our studies on the addition of OEG thiol molecules over a self assembled monolayer of PEG thiol on gold. The kinetics of addition of OEG thiol...

  10. Crystal structure and thermal property of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether

    Meng, Jie-yun; Tang, Xiao-fen; Li, Wei; Shi, Hai-feng; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. ► Polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether crystallizes perfectly. ► The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. ► The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat unit. - Abstract: The crystal structure, phase change property and thermal stable temperature (T d ) of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether [HO(CH 2 CH 2 O) n C 18 H 37 , C18En] with various numbers of repeat units (n = 2, 10, 20 and 100) as phase change materials (PCMs) were investigated using temperature variable Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). C18En crystallizes perfectly at 0 °C; and the crystal structure for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. The number of repeat units has great effect on the phase change properties of C18En. The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. They approach to that of PEG-2000 as the number of repeat units is more than 10. T d increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. C18En are a series of promising polymeric PCMs

  11. Temperature dependent viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids

    Kharat, Prashant B.; Somvanshi, Sandeep B.; Kounsalye, Jitendra S.; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Khirade, Pankaj P.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluid is prepared in 0 to 1 (in the step of 0.2) volume fraction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single phase spinel structure. The Raman spectra have been deconvoluted into individual Lorentzian peaks. Cobalt ferrite has cubic spinel structure with Fd3m space group. FT-IR spectra consist of two major absorption bands, first at about 586 cm-1 (υ1) and second at about 392 cm-1 (υ2). These absorption bands confirm the formation of spinel-structured cobalt ferrite. Brookfield DV-III viscometer and programmable temperature-controlled bath was used to study the relationship between viscosity and temperature. Viscosity behavior with respect to temperature has been studied and it is revealed that the viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids increases with an increase in volume fraction of cobalt ferrite. The viscosity of the present ferrofluid was found to decrease with increase in temperature.

  12. Magnetic fluid poly(ethylene glycol) with moderate anticancer activity

    Zavisova, Vlasta, E-mail: zavisova@saske.s [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Koneracka, Martina [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Muckova, Marta; Lazova, Jana [Hameln, rds a.s., Horna 36, Modra (Slovakia); Jurikova, Alena; Lancz, Gabor; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Kovac, Jozef [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Vavra, Ivo [IEE SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Fabian, Martin [IGT SAS, Watsonova 45, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Feoktystov, Artem V. [FLNP JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna Moscow Reg. 141980 (Russian Federation); KNU, Academician Glushkov Ave. 2/1, 03187 Kyiv (Ukraine); Garamus, Vasil M. [GKSS research center, Max-Planck-Str.1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [FLNP JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna Moscow Reg. 141980 (Russian Federation); Kopcansky, Peter [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing magnetic fluids - magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) stabilized by sodium oleate - were prepared. Magnetic measurements confirmed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The structure of that kind of magnetic fluid was characterized using different techniques, including electron microscopy, photon cross correlation spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering, while the adsorption of PEG on magnetic particles was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the in vitro toxicity tests it was found that a magnetic fluid containing PEG (MFPEG) partially inhibited the growth of cancerous B16 cells at the highest tested dose (2.1 mg/ml of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in MFPEG). - Research Highlights: A new type of biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF) with poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared. Structuralization effects of magnetite particles depend on PEG concentration. Large fractals of magnetite nanoparticles in MF were observed (SANS indication). MF partially inhibited (approximately 50%) the growth of cancerous B16 cells.

  13. Magnetic fluid poly(ethylene glycol) with moderate anticancer activity

    Zavisova, Vlasta; Koneracka, Martina; Muckova, Marta; Lazova, Jana; Jurikova, Alena; Lancz, Gabor; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Kovac, Jozef; Vavra, Ivo; Fabian, Martin; Feoktystov, Artem V.; Garamus, Vasil M.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Kopcansky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing magnetic fluids - magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) stabilized by sodium oleate - were prepared. Magnetic measurements confirmed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The structure of that kind of magnetic fluid was characterized using different techniques, including electron microscopy, photon cross correlation spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering, while the adsorption of PEG on magnetic particles was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the in vitro toxicity tests it was found that a magnetic fluid containing PEG (MFPEG) partially inhibited the growth of cancerous B16 cells at the highest tested dose (2.1 mg/ml of Fe 3 O 4 in MFPEG). - Research Highlights: → A new type of biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF) with poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared. → Structuralization effects of magnetite particles depend on PEG concentration. → Large fractals of magnetite nanoparticles in MF were observed (SANS indication). → MF partially inhibited (approximately 50%) the growth of cancerous B16 cells.

  14. End-group characterisation of poly(propylene glycol)s by means of electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

    Jackson, Anthony T; Slade, Susan E; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Scrivens, James H

    2008-10-01

    The end-group functionalisation of a series of poly(propylene glycol)s has been characterised by means of electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). A series of peaks with mass-to-charge ratios that are close to that of the precursor ion were used to generate information on the end-group functionalities of the poly(propylene glycol)s. Fragment ions resulting from losses of both of the end groups were noted from some of the samples. An example is presented of how software can be used to significantly reduce the length of time involved in data interpretation (which is typically the most time-consuming part of the analysis).

  15. Noncovalent pegylation by dansyl-poly(ethylene glycol)s as a new means against aggregation of salmon calcitonin.

    Mueller, Claudia; Capelle, Martinus A H; Arvinte, Tudor; Seyrek, Emek; Borchard, Gerrit

    2011-05-01

    During all stages of protein drug development, aggregation is one of the most often encountered problems. Covalent conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), also called PEGylation, to proteins has been shown to reduce aggregation of proteins. In this paper, new excipients based on PEG are presented that are able to reduce aggregation of salmon calcitonin (sCT). Several PEG polymers consisting of a hydrophobic dansyl-headgroup attached to PEGs of different molecular weights have been synthesized and characterized physicochemically. After addition of dansyl-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) 2 kDa to a 40 times molar excess of sCT resulted in an increase in dansyl-fluorescence and a decrease in 90° light scatter suggesting possible interactions. The aggregation of sCT in different buffer systems in presence or absence of the different dansyl-PEGs was measured by changes in Nile red fluorescence and turbidity. Dansyl-mPEG 2 kDa in a 1:1 molar ratio to sCT strongly reduced aggregation. Reduction of sCT aggregation was also measured for the bivalent dansyl-PEG 3 kDa in a 1:1 molar ratio. Dansyl-mPEG 5 kDa deteriorated sCT aggregation. Potential cytotoxicity and hemolysis were investigated. This paper shows that dansyl-PEGs are efficacious in reducing aggregation of sCT. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol from gas–liquid chromatography

    Williams-Wynn, Mark D.; Letcher, Trevor M.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • γ 13 ∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the solvents DEG and TEG. • Measurements undertaken using the glc technique at T = (333.2, 348.2, and 363.2) K. • Measurements at elevated temperature possible by pre-saturation of carrier gas. • Comparison of DEG and TEG performance with a number of solvents. -- Abstract: The infinite dilution activity coefficients for 25 hydrocarbon solutes in diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG) were measured using the gas–liquid chromatography technique with pre-saturation of the carrier gas. The hydrocarbon solutes included n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes and alkanols. At the temperatures at which measurements were conducted, the solvents were volatile, and pre-saturation was considered necessary. The measurements were made at T = (333.2, 348.2 and 363.2) K. Values of the selectivity and capacity relating to DEG and TEG, for two sets of mixtures, which are usually difficult to separate by distillation or solvent extraction, were calculated from the experimental results. The two sets of mixtures were: cyclohexane and benzene; and benzene and methanol. The results obtained in this work were then compared to values for other solvents, at similar temperatures, which were obtained or calculated from literature data

  17. A subchronic dermal exposure study of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the male guinea pig.

    Hobson, D W; D'Addario, A P; Bruner, R H; Uddin, D E

    1986-02-01

    Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME) has been selected as a replacement anti-icing additive for ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) in Navy jet aircraft fuel. This experiment was performed to determine whether DEGME produced similar toxicity to EGME following dermal exposure. Male guinea pigs were dermally exposed to 1.00, 0.20, 0.04, or 0 (control) g/kg/day DEGME for 13 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day. Another group of animals was similarly exposed to 1.00 g/kg/day EGME. Body weights as well as testicular and splenic weights were reduced as a result of exposure to EGME, DEGME-exposed animals exhibited decreased splenic weight in the high- and medium-dose (1.00 and 0.20 g/kg/day) exposure groups only. Hematologic changes in EGME-exposed animals included mild anemia with increased erythrocytic mean corpuscular volumes and a lymphopenia with increased neutrophils. Similar hematological changes were not observed in any animals exposed to DEGME. Serum creatine kinase activity was increased in animals exposed to EGME, and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in EGME and 1.00 g/kg/day DEGME-exposed animals. In general, DEGME produced minimal toxicological changes following dermal exposure, whereas the toxicological changes observed following similar exposure to EGME were much more profound.

  18. A Facile Strategy for Catalyst Separation and Recycling Suitable for ATRP of Hydrophilic Monomers Using a Macroligand.

    Jiang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Lifen; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhu, Xiulin

    2016-01-01

    How to simply and efficiently separate and recycle catalyst has still been a constraint for the wide application of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), especially for the polymerization systems with hydrophilic monomers because the polar functional groups may coordinate with transition metal salts, resulting in abundant catalyst residual in the resultant water-soluble polymers. In order to overcome this problem, a latent-biphasic system is developed, which can be successfully used for ATRP catalyst separation and recycling in situ for various kinds of hydrophilic monomers for the first time, such as poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMA), and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM). Herein, random copolymer of octadecyl acrylate (OA), MA-Ln (2-(bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)ethyl acrylate), and POA-ran-P(MA-Ln) is designed as the macroligand, and heptane/ethanol is selected as the biphasic solvent. Copper(II) bromide (CuBr2 ) is employed as the catalyst, PEG-bound 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (PEG350 -Br) as the water-soluble ATRP initiator and 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as the azo-initiator to establish an ICAR (initiators for continuous activator regeneration) ATRP system. Importantly, well-defined water-soluble polymers are obtained even though the recyclable catalyst is used for sixth times. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Rana, Rohini R

    2010-01-01

    proteins remain difficult to study owing to a lack of suitable detergents. We introduce a class of amphiphiles, each built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from neopentyl glycol, with hydrophilic groups derived from maltose. Representatives of this maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphile...

  20. DISINTEGRATION EFFICIENCY OF SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATES, PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT NATIVE STARCHES

    BOLHUIS, GK; ARENDSCHOLTE, AW; STUUT, GJ; DEVRIES, JA

    1994-01-01

    In a comparative evaluation, the disintegration efficiency of sodium starch glycolates prepared from seven different native starches (potato, maize, waxy maize, wheat, rice, sago and tapioca) were compared. All the sodium starch glycolates tested had a high swelling capacity, but the rate of water

  1. Glycolate adsorption at gold and platinum electrodes: A theoretical and in situ spectroelectrochemical study

    Delgado, Jose Manuel; Blanco, Raquel; Orts, Jose Manuel; Perez, Juan Manuel; Rodes, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of glycolate anions at sputtered gold thin-film electrodes was studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry experiments combined with in situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS). Theoretical harmonic vibrational frequencies and band intensities obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ,6-31+G(d) calculations for glycolate species adsorbed on Au clusters with (1 1 1) orientation were used to interpret the experimental spectra. Vibrational data confirm the bidentate bonding of glycolate anions through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, in a bridge configuration with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. The DFT calculations show no significant effect of the total charge of the metal cluster-adsorbate adduct on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed glycolate species. The infrared experimental study is extended to platinum films electrochemically deposited onto sputtered gold thin-film electrodes showing the potential-dependent formation of adsorbed CO upon dissociative adsorption of glycolate anions. As in the case of gold, the reversible adsorption of glycolate anions takes place in a bidentate configuration as predicted by DFT calculations for glycolate adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1) clusters. At low glycolic acid concentration, the in situ ATR-SEIRA spectra evidence the formation of adsorbed oxalate as reaction intermediate.

  2. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and...

  3. Polyalkylene glycols, base fluids for special lubricants and hydraulic fluids; Polyalkylenglykole, Basisoele fuer Spezialschmierstoffe und Hydraulikfluessigkeiten

    Poellmann, K. [Clariant GmbH (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    For many years polyalkylene glycols have been used as base fluids for special lubricants. In this matter they compete with polyol esters and polyalphaolefines. Synthesis of polyalkylen glycols is founded upon the anionic polymerisation of ethyleneoxid, propyleneoxid and if necessary of other oxigen-containing monomeres. The flexibility of this synthesis is the reason that polyalkylene glycole is a collective term, including a broad group of base fluids with partly extreme different properties. Typical for polyalkylene glycols is a high viscosity-index, watersolubility and adsorbing power for water, low friction numbers, but also the incompatibility with current mineral-oil-soluble additive systems. Because of this quality profile there has been developped specific niche-applications in the lubricant-area for polyalkylene glycols in the last 30 years, where each of the specific benefits has been used. Among them are watercontaining HFC hydraulicfluids, refrigerator oils, and oils for ethylene-compressors. HFC fluids are formulated with high-viscous, water-soluble polyalkylene glycols. For refrigerator oils in motor-car conditioning the R 134A compatibility of water-insoluble polyalkylene glycols is essential. For the use in ethylene-compressors the crucial point is the insolubility of polyalkylene glycol in ethylene. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis of Monodispersed Tantalum(V) oxide Nanospheres by an Ethylene Glycol Mediated Route

    Tantalum(V) oxide (Ta2O5) nanospheres have been synthesized by a very simple ethylene glycol mediated route. The two-step process involves the formation of glycolate nanoparticles and their subsequent hydrolysis and calcination to generate the final Ta2O5 nanospheres. The synthes...

  5. Sludge batch 9 follow-on actual-waste testing for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-23

    An actual-waste Sludge Batch 9 qualification run with the nitric-glycolic flowsheet (SC-18) was performed in FY16. In order to supplement the knowledge base for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, additional testing was performed on the product slurries, condensates, and intermediate samples from run SC-18.

  6. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the system (propylene glycol + water + tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphthoate)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Shazad, Maryam; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is an important low toxic glycol, widely used in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and the chemical industries. The recovery of PG from aqueous streams using conventional unit operations such as evaporation is highly energy demanding because of the large amounts of water that

  7. Status Epilepticus due to Intraperitoneal Injection of Vehicle Containing Propylene Glycol in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Evon S. Ereifej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Published reports of status epilepticus due to intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol in rats are sparse. In fact, there are no reports specifying a maximum safe dose of propylene glycol through intraperitoneal administration. We report here a case of unexpected seizures in Sprague Dawley rats after receiving an intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol. Nine-week-old, 225–250 gram male rats were reported to experience tremor progressing to seizures within minutes after given injections of resveratrol (30 mg/kg dissolved in a 40 : 60 propylene glycol/corn oil vehicle solution by direct intraperitoneal (IP slow bolus injection or via a preplaced intraperitoneal catheter. The World Health Organization suggests a maximum dose of 25 mg/kg/day of propylene glycol taken orally and no more than 25 mg/dL in blood serum, whereas the animals used in our study got a calculated maximum 0.52 g/kg (25 times lower dose. Blood tests from the seizing rat support a diagnosis of hemolysis and lactic acidosis which may have led to the seizures, all of which appeared to be a consequence of the propylene glycol administration. These findings are consistent with oral and intravenous administration of propylene glycol toxicity as previously reported in other species, including humans. To our knowledge, this report represents the first published case of status epilepticus due to an IP injection containing propylene glycol.

  8. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)—A soft template for the facile preparation of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core-copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite

    Mohammed Safiullah, S.; Abdul Wasi, K.; Anver Basha, K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PGMA/Cu nanohybrids have been synthesized by Surface deposition method. • The CuNPs were deposited on the PGMA surface without surface modification. • CuNP deposition on PGMA has a significant effect on morphology and thermal stability. - Abstract: Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core/copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite (PGMA/Cu nanohybrid) was prepared by simple two step method (i) The synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) beads by free radical suspension polymerization followed by (ii) direct deposition of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on activated PGMA beads. The PGMA beads were used as a soft template to host the CuNPs without surface modification of it. In this method the CuNPs were formed by chemical reduction of copper salts using sodium borohydride in water medium and deposited directly on the activated PGMA. Two different concentrations of copper salts were employed to know the effect of concentration on the shape and size of nanoparticles. The results showed that, the different sizes and shapes of CuNPs were deposited on the PGMA matrix. The X-ray Diffraction study results showed that the CuNPs were embedded on the surface of the PGMA matrix. The scanning electron microscopic images revealed that the fabrication of CuNPs on the PGMA matrix possess different shapes and changes the morphology and nature of PGMA beads significantly. The fluorescent micrograph also confirmed that the CuNPs were doped on the PGMA surface. The thermal studies have demonstrated that the CuNPs deposition on the surface of PGMA beads had a significant effect.

  9. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)—A soft template for the facile preparation of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core-copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite

    Mohammed Safiullah, S., E-mail: safichem@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, C. Abdul Hakeem College of Engineering & Technology, Melvisharam, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu 632509 (India); P.G. & Research Department of Chemistry, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu 632509 (India); Abdul Wasi, K. [P.G. & Research Department of Chemistry, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu 632509 (India); Anver Basha, K., E-mail: kanverbasha@gmail.com [P.G. & Research Department of Chemistry, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu 632509 (India)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PGMA/Cu nanohybrids have been synthesized by Surface deposition method. • The CuNPs were deposited on the PGMA surface without surface modification. • CuNP deposition on PGMA has a significant effect on morphology and thermal stability. - Abstract: Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core/copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite (PGMA/Cu nanohybrid) was prepared by simple two step method (i) The synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) beads by free radical suspension polymerization followed by (ii) direct deposition of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on activated PGMA beads. The PGMA beads were used as a soft template to host the CuNPs without surface modification of it. In this method the CuNPs were formed by chemical reduction of copper salts using sodium borohydride in water medium and deposited directly on the activated PGMA. Two different concentrations of copper salts were employed to know the effect of concentration on the shape and size of nanoparticles. The results showed that, the different sizes and shapes of CuNPs were deposited on the PGMA matrix. The X-ray Diffraction study results showed that the CuNPs were embedded on the surface of the PGMA matrix. The scanning electron microscopic images revealed that the fabrication of CuNPs on the PGMA matrix possess different shapes and changes the morphology and nature of PGMA beads significantly. The fluorescent micrograph also confirmed that the CuNPs were doped on the PGMA surface. The thermal studies have demonstrated that the CuNPs deposition on the surface of PGMA beads had a significant effect.

  10. [Quantitative analysis of urinary ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide].

    Koga, M; Hori, H; Tanaka, I; Akiyama, T; Inoue, N

    1985-03-01

    A gas chromatographic method was used for determining ethylene glycol in urine. The analytical procedure is based on an azeotropic distillation and on esterification with n-butyl boronic acid. The linear calibration curve was obtained up to 500 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. The detection limit was estimated to be 10 micrograms/ml and relative standard deviation was 3.5% for 100 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. This method was applied to determine the urinary excretion of ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide at various concentrations (from 50 to 500 ppm). The excretion amounts of ethylene glycol were observed to be dependent on the concentration of ethylene oxide exposed.

  11. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Xian-bin Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compelling findings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1 polyethylene glycol as an adjustable biomolecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2 Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3 Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting substrates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury

  12. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Xian-bin Kong; Qiu-yan Tang; Xu-yi Chen; Yue Tu; Shi-zhong Sun; Zhong-lei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compellingfindings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1) polyethylene glycol as an adjustable bio-molecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2) Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3) Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting sub-strates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury.

  13. One-pot synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8/poly (methyl methacrylate-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) monolith coating for stir bar sorptive extraction of phytohormones from fruit samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    You, Linna; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2017-11-17

    In this work, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8)/poly (methyl methacrylate-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) (MMA-EGDMA) composite monolith was in situ synthesized on stir bar by one-pot polymerization. Compared with the neat monolith, ZIF-8/poly(MMA-EGDMA) composite monolith has larger surface area and pore volume. It also exhibits higher extraction efficiency for target phytohormones than poly(MMA-EGDMA) monolith and commercial polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated stir bar. Based on it, a method of ZIF-8/poly(MMA-EGDMA) monolith coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was established for the analysis of five phytohormones in apple and pear samples. The developed method exhibited low limits of detection (0.11-0.51μg/L), wide linear range (0.5-500μg/L) and good recoveries (82.7-111%), which demonstrated good application potential of the ZIF-8/monolith coated stir bar in trace analysis of organic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of Fe3O4 poly(styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres and application in the immobilization of Klebsiella sp. FD-3 to reduce Fe(III)EDTA in a NO(x) scrubbing solution.

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Zuoming; Jing, Guohua

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic poly(styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) porous microspheres (MPPM) with high magnetic contents were prepared by surfactant reverse micelles and emulsion polymerization of monomers, in which the well-dispersed Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and oleic acid (OA) respectively. The characterizations showed that both of the OA-MPPM and the PEG-MPPM were ferromagnetic, however, the OA-MPPM was used to immobilize the bacteria for more advantages. Therefore, the effects of monomer ratio, surfactant, crosslinker and amount of Fe(3)O(4) on the structure, morphology and magnetic contents of the OA-MPPM were investigated. Then, the OA-MPPM was utilized to immobilize Klebsiella sp. FD-3, an iron-reducing bacterium for Fe(III)EDTA reduction applied in NO(x) removal. Compared with free bacteria, the immobilized FD-3 showed a better tolerance to the unbeneficial pH and temperature conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quasielastic neutron scattering and microscopic dynamics of liquid ethylene glycol

    Sobolev, O. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, BP 53, Maison des Geosciences - Domaine Universitaire, 38041 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: Oleg.Sobolev@ujf-grenoble.fr; Novikov, A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Sq. 1, Obninsk, Kaluga Reg. 249033 (Russian Federation); Pieper, J. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17, Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-04-20

    Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) by liquid ethylene glycol was analyzed using different model approaches. It was found that approximation of the QENS spectra by a set of Lorentzian functions corresponding to the translational and rotational motions produce physically unrealistic results. At the same time, the Fourier transform of the stretched-exponential function exp(-(t/{tau}){sup {beta}}) fits the experimental data well, and results of the fit are in good agreement with those obtained earlier for other systems. The stretching parameter {beta} was found Q independent and shows weak temperature dependence. The mean relaxation time as a function of Q departs strongly from the simple diffusion low and can be approximated by a power law <{tau}{sub w}> = {tau}{sub 0}Q{sup -{gamma}} with the exponent parameter {gamma} = 2.4.

  16. A compact 100 kV high voltage glycol capacitor.

    Wang, Langning; Liu, Jinliang; Feng, Jiahuai

    2015-01-01

    A high voltage capacitor is described in this paper. The capacitor uses glycerol as energy storage medium, has a large capacitance close to 1 nF, can hold off voltages of up to 100 kV for μs charging time. Allowing for low inductance, the capacitor electrode is designed as coaxial structure, which is different from the common structure of the ceramic capacitor. With a steady capacitance at different frequencies and a high hold-off voltage of up to 100 kV, the glycol capacitor design provides a potential substitute for the ceramic capacitors in pulse-forming network modulator to generate high voltage pulses with a width longer than 100 ns.

  17. Phase Diagram of the Ethylene Glycol-Dimethylsulfoxide System

    Solonina, I. A.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Kiselev, M. R.; Khoroshilov, A. V.; Shirokova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The phase diagram of ethylene glycol (EG)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) system is studied in the temperature range of +25 to -140°C via differential scanning calorimetry. It is established that the EG-DMSO system is characterized by strong overcooling of the liquid phase, a glass transition at -125°C, and the formation of a compound with the composition of DMSO · 2EG. This composition has a melting temperature of -60°C, which is close to those of neighboring eutectics (-75 and -70°C). A drop in the baseline was observed in the temperature range of 8 to -5°C at DMSO concentrations of 5-50 mol %, indicating the existence of a phase separation area in the investigated system. The obtained data is compared to the literature data on the H2O-DMSO phase diagram.

  18. Definitive characterization of human thymine glycol N-glycosylase activity

    Higgins, S.A.; Frenkel, K.; Cummings, A.; Teebor, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    An N-glycosylase activity that released cis-[ 3 H]-5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (thymine glycol, TG) from chemically oxidized poly(dA-[ 3 H]dT) was unambiguously characterized both in extracts of HeLa cells and in purified Escherichia coli endonuclease III. This was accomplished by use of a microderivatization procedure that quantitatively converted cis-TG to 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantoin (HMH). The reaction products were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography before and after derivation by using cis-[ 14 C]TG and [ 14 C]HMH, which had been independently synthesized, as reference compounds. This technique facilitated construction of a v/[E]/sub t/ plot for the enzyme activity in HeLa cells, permitting estimation of its specific activity. The results obtained prove the existence of both human and bacterial N-glycosylase activities that effect removal of TG from DNA

  19. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  20. Simulation of polyethylene glycol and calcium-mediated membrane fusion

    Pannuzzo, Martina; De Jong, Djurre H.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Raudino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We report on the mechanism of membrane fusion mediated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Ca 2+ by means of a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation approach. Our data provide a detailed view on the role of cations and polymer in modulating the interaction between negatively charged apposed membranes. The PEG chains cause a reduction of the inter-lamellar distance and cause an increase in concentration of divalent cations. When thermally driven fluctuations bring the membranes at close contact, a switch from cis to trans Ca 2+ -lipid complexes stabilizes a focal contact acting as a nucleation site for further expansion of the adhesion region. Flipping of lipid tails induces subsequent stalk formation. Together, our results provide a molecular explanation for the synergistic effect of Ca 2+ and PEG on membrane fusion

  1. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat, E-mail: atiyeabednejad@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amoabediny, Ghasem [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 63894-14179, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaee, Azadeh [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma graft polymerization of PEG on polypropylene membrane was carried out. • Changes in surface properties were investigated by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and AFM. • Surface wettability enhanced as a result of poly ethylene glycol grafting. • PEG grafting degree increase causes reduction of fouling and adhesion.

  2. Effect of Accelerated Artificial Aging on Translucency of Methacrylate and Silorane-Based Composite Resins.

    Shirinzad, Mehdi; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Mirtorabi, Maryam Sadat; Vahdatinia, Farshid

    2016-03-01

    Composite restorations must have tooth-like optical properties namely color and translucency and maintain them for a long time. This study aimed to compare the effect of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the translucency of three methacrylate-based composites (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT and Filtek Z350XT) and one silorane-based composite resin (Filtek P90). For this in vitro study, 56 composite discs were fabricated (n=14 for each group). Using scanning spectrophotometer, CIE L*a*b* parameters and translucency of each specimen were measured at 24 hours and after AAA for 384 hours. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and paired t-test at P=0.05 level of significance. The mean (±standard deviation) translucency parameter for Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT, Filtek Z350XT and Filtek P90 was 5.67±0.64, 4.59±0.77, 7.87±0.82 and 4.21±0.71 before AAA and 4.25±0.615, 3.53±0.73, 5.94±0.57 and 4.12±0.54 after AAA, respectively. After aging, the translucency of methacrylate-based composites decreased significantly (P0.05). The AAA significantly decreased the translucency of methacrylate-based composites (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT and Filtek Z350XT) but no change occurred in the translucency of Filtek P90 silorane-based composite.

  3. Determination of thermodynamic properties of poly(cyclohexyl methacrylate)by inverse gas chromatography

    Ismet KAYA; Cigdem Yigit PALA

    2014-01-01

    In this work,some thermodynamic properties of poly( cyclohexyl methacrylate)were studied by inverse gas chromatography( IGC). For this purpose,the polymeric substance was coated on Chromosorb W and which was filled into a glass column. The retention times(tr)of the probes were determined from the interactions of poly(cyclohexyl methacrylate)with n-pentane,n-hexane,n-heptane,n-octane,n-decane, methanol,ethanol,2-propanol,butanol,acetone,ethyl methyl ketone,benzene,toluene and o-xylene by IGC technique. Then,the specific volume(V0g)was determined for each probe molecule. By using(1/T;lnV0g) graphics,the glass transition temperature of poly( cyclohexyl methacrylate)was found to be 373 K. The adsorp-tion heat under the glass transition temperature(ΔH a ),and partial molar heat of sorption above the glass tran-sition(ΔHS1 ),partial molar free energy of sorption(ΔGS1 )and partial molar entropy of sorption(ΔSS1 )belong-ing to sorption for every probe were calculated. The partial molar heat of mixing at infinite dilution(ΔH∞1 ), partial molar free energy of mixing at infinite dilution(ΔG∞1 ),Flory-Huggins interaction parameter(χ∞12 )and weight fraction activity coefficient(a1/w1)∞ values of polymer-solute systems were calculated at different col-umn temperatures. The solubility parameters(δ2 )of the polymer were obtained by IGC technique.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of the silver methacrylate and its polymerization with gamma radiation

    Figueroa de Paz, Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the traditional objectives in research has been the development of new and useful materials that combine the properties of polymers with metals. Synthesis of monomers containing metal, followed by a polymerization process, is a method to introduce metal ions in the structure of a polymer, and the gamma radiation was easily applied to initiate polymerization. The coordination polymers have high insolubility, which is a general problem of these materials, besides the lack of structural information available. Also, due to the difficulty of obtaining single crystals, it has hindered the identification of the structures of some coordination polymers, requiring the use of indirect methods for structural characterization. In this work the synthesis of silver poly-methacrylate (PMAAg), was performed using the gamma radiation as polymerization initiator, having as precursor to silver methacrylate monomer (MAAg). The combination of spectroscopic methods revealed structural changes in the coordination polymers. With scanning electron microscopy, it was observed that the morphology of the monomer and its polymers is fiber, which grows with increasing radiation dose; furthermore, this increase in size is related to Bet analysis result, since the monomer has a bigger superficial area to the irradiated polymers. In monomer and irradiated polymers the crystalline structure CCC was observed by X-ray diffraction. By thermogravimetric analysis the decomposition temperature of the products was determined, finding around 150 degrees C. The infrared spectroscopy confirmed the silver methacrylate polymerization, as with increasing radiation dose, also increases the degree of polymerization; likewise the form of coordination of the monomer was determined and its irradiated polymers which corresponds to a bi-dentate chelate, confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (Author)

  5. Polydimethylsiloxane microspheres with poly(methyl methacrylate) coating: Modelling, preparation, and characterization

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    functional PDMS microspheres were coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by spin coating with different concentrations of PMMA solutions. The quality of the resulting PMMA shell is investigated using rheological measurements at 50 8C with a timesweep procedure. The results strongly suggest that PMMA-coated...... PDMS microspheres react around 20 times slower than the uncoated ones, and that the PMMA shell significantly hinders the reaction between the PDMS microsphere and cross-linker. Thus the thin PMMA shells are very efficient in protecting the reactive PDMS microspheres, since the PMMA shell forms...

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Mesoporous Zirconia Made by Using a Poly (methyl methacrylate Template

    Zhang Chunxiang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSuperfine powders of poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA have been prepared by means of an emulsion polymerization method. These have been used as templates in the synthesis of tetragonal phase mesoporous zirconia by the sol–gel method, using zirconium oxychloride and oxalic acid as raw materials. The products have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, N2adsorption-desorption isotherms, and pore size distribution. The results indicate that the average pore size was found to be 3.7 nm.

  7. Antifouling peptide dendrimer surface of monodisperse magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres

    Hlídková, Helena; Kotelnikov, Ilya; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Proks, Vladimír; Horák, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2017), s. 1302-1311 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-01128J; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02702S; GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(glycidyl methacrylate) * magnetic microspheres * peptides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.835, year: 2016

  8. Determination of trace elements in poly(methyl methacrylate) by neutron activation analysis

    Kobayashi, M.

    1979-01-01

    The results are reported of the neutron activation analysis of poly(methyl methacrylate) polymerized with a redox system of chromium (II) acetate and p-chlorobenzyl peroxide in dimethylformamide at 30 0 C. Since the polymer was originally synthesized in experiments for kinetic studies, the results indicate an arbitrary background of purity of polymers obtained in a laboratory. Samples were irradiated for 28m and gamma spectra detected trace amounts of chlorine, aluminum, vanadium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, copper, zinc, sodium, bromine, lanthanum, gold, and chromium. 2 figures, 1 table

  9. High Performance Affinity Chromatography of Antithrombin III Based on Monodisperse Poly (glycidyl methacrylate) Beads

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for the separation of antithrombin III with high performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) was described. A novel monodisperse,non-porous,cross-linked poly (glycidyl methacrylate) beads (PGMA) were used as the affinity support. With the water-soluble carbodiimide,heparin was linked covalently to amino-PGMA-beads,which was prepared by amination of PGMA. The adsorbent obtained exhibits high binding activity to antithrombin III (ATIII),good resolution and excellent mechanical properties and can be used under high flow rate.

  10. Properties of cellulase as template molecule on chitosan—methyl methacrylate membrane

    Lian, Qi; Zheng, Xuefang; Wu, Haixia; Song, Shitao; Wang, Dongjun

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a novel molecular imprinting membrane made of chitosan and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was fabricated with cellulase as template molecule and the thermal response to cellulase was characterized. The film was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the permeation experiment. The results showed that the space structure of the film was as similar as the cellulase. Moreover, the membrane had advanced molecular imprinting capability to cellulase comparing to pepsin and pectinase at any temperature and the film had excellent ability to identify specific template molecule (cellulase) at the synthesis temperature compared to other temperatures.

  11. Radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate onto polyethylene separators for lithium secondary batteries

    Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Sohn, Joon-Yong; An, Sung-Jun; Ihm, Young-Eon; Nho, Young-Chang

    2008-08-01

    Micro-porous polyethylene separator was modified by radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate in order to improve its affinity with a liquid electrolyte. The degree of grafting (DOG) increased with the monomer concentration and grafting time. The morphological change of the modified separator was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The degree of crystallinity upon grafting was reduced due to the formation of an amorphous PMMA layer. The electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity of the separator increased with an increase in the DOG. The ionic conductivity reached 2.0 mS/cm for the grafted polyethylene separator with 127 wt% DOG.

  12. Radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate onto polyethylene separators for lithium secondary batteries

    Gwon, Sung-Jin [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Chnugnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Hak; Sohn, Joon-Yong; An, Sung-Jun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Ihm, Young-Eon [Department of Materials Engineering, Chnugnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Young-Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-08-15

    Micro-porous polyethylene separator was modified by radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate in order to improve its affinity with a liquid electrolyte. The degree of grafting (DOG) increased with the monomer concentration and grafting time. The morphological change of the modified separator was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The degree of crystallinity upon grafting was reduced due to the formation of an amorphous PMMA layer. The electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity of the separator increased with an increase in the DOG. The ionic conductivity reached 2.0 mS/cm for the grafted polyethylene separator with 127 wt% DOG.

  13. Gold Nanoparticles Size Design and Control by Poly(N,N′-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)

    Cortez-Lemus, Norma A.; Licea-Claverie, Angel; Paraguay-Delgado, Francisco; Alonso-Nuñez, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Poly(N,N′-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM) with different molecular weights was used to stabilize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) obtained by in situ reduction of tetrachloroauric acid using citrates under acidic conditions and in organic/alcoholic medium. The influence of the pH value on gold nanoparticle size in the presence of PDEAEM was investigated. Results show that the pH of the reacting mixture has a dramatic effect on the size, polydispersity, and morphology of the resulting AuNPs...

  14. Eosin blue dye based poly(methacrylate) films for data storage

    Sankar, Deepa; Palanisamy, P. K.; Manickasundaram, S.; Kannan, P.

    2006-06-01

    Eosin dye based poly(methacrylates) with variation in the number of methylene spacers have been prepared by free radical polymerization process. The utility of the polymers for high-density optical data storage using holography has been studied by grating formation with the 514.5 nm line of the Argon ion laser as source. The influence of various parameters on the diffraction efficiency of the polymers has been studied. The effect of increase in the number of methylene spacers, hooked to the eosin blue dye, on the diffraction efficiency of the grating formed has also been discussed. Optical microscopic observations showing grating formation in the polymers have also been presented.

  15. Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composites with Size-selected Silver Nanoparticles Fabricated Using Cluster Beam Technique

    Muhammad, Hanif; Juluri, Raghavendra R.; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    based on cluster beam technique allowing the formation of monocrystalline size-selected silver nanoparticles with a ±5–7% precision of diameter and controllable embedment into poly (methyl methacrylate). It is shown that the soft-landed silver clusters preserve almost spherical shape with a slight...... tendency to flattening upon impact. By controlling the polymer hardness (from viscous to soft state) prior the cluster deposition and annealing conditions after the deposition the degree of immersion of the nanoparticles into polymer can be tuned, thus, making it possible to create composites with either...

  16. Influence of wood extractives in the polymerization of methyl methacrylate by gamma irradiation

    Burillo de V, G.; Loyola V, V.M.; Albarran S, G.; Candelas, J.

    1975-01-01

    Those materials that can be extracted from pine or oak by ether, ethanol, methyl methacrylate (MMA), or benzene--alcohol all act as inhibitors in the γ polymerization of MMA--wood composites. It was found that preirradiation of either the wood or of the wood--monomer combination reduces or eliminates the inhibitory effect. The most practical industrial solution to this problem is to increase the dose, thereby achieving high molecular polymer in the composite. However, the presence of a maximum in the molecular weight--dose curves means that each wood--monomer pair may have a different optimum dose

  17. Fracture resistance of Kevlar-reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) resin: a preliminary study.

    Berrong, J M; Weed, R M; Young, J M

    1990-01-01

    The reinforcing effect of Kevlar fibers incorporated in processed poly(methyl methacrylate) resin samples was studied using 0% (controls), 0.5%, 1%, and 2% by weight of the added fibers. The samples were subjected to impact testing to determine fracture resistance, and sample groups were statistically compared using an ANOVA. Each reinforced sample had significantly greater fracture resistance (P less than 0.05) than the control, and no difference was found either within or between control groups. The use of reinforcing Kevlar fibers appears to enhance the fracture resistance of acrylic resin denture base materials.

  18. Mineralogical and Thermal Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Alite Composite

    Ismail, M.R.; El-Fass, M.M.; Abd-El-Rahman, H.A.; El-Miligy, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) characteristics and thermal stability of PMMA alite composite have been studied. The dried alite samples were impregnated by methyl methacrylate monomer and then subjected to gamma irradiation. The mineralogical and thermal properties of the PMMA alite composite materials were investigated by using XRD, DTA, and TGA techniques. The results indicate that, a markedly reduction of the peaks intensities of XRD for tricalcium silicate and calcium hydroxide. TGA data showed that PMMA alite composite has a high thermal stability as compared to PMMA

  19. 76 FR 77709 - Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption

    2011-12-14

    ...This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate and ethenylbenzene (CAS Reg. No. 25036-16-2); also known as butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation. Momentive Performance Materials submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. This regulation eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate and ethenylbenzene on food or feed commodities.

  20. Reduction of space charge breakdown in e-beam irradiated nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites

    Zheng Feihu; Zhang Yewen; An Zhenlian; Dong Jianxing; Lei Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    Fast discharge of numerous space charges in dielectric materials can cause space charge breakdown. This letter reports the role of nanoparticles in affecting space charge breakdown of nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites. Space charge distributions in the composites, implanted by electron beam irradiation, were measured by pressure wave propagation method. The results show that the nanoparticles have significant effects on the isothermal charge decay and space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites. The resistance to space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites is attributed to the combined action of the introduction of deep trapping states and the scattering effect by the added nanoparticles.

  1. Low-weight Impact Behaviour of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Methyl Methacrylate Nanocomposites

    Virginija Jankauskaitė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inthis study, the carbon fibre reinforced methyl methacrylate (CF/MMA compositetoecap for safety shoes was manufactured to increase the energy absorptioncapacity during impact. Different types of nanofillers such as organic andinorganic nanotubes, unmodified and organically modified nanoclays were appliedto modify matrix impact properties. The drop-weight impact tests of thenanocomposite toecap were performed with respect to nanofiller nature andcarbon fibre stacking sequence. It was found that the most influence on thestiffness and impact damage of the carbon fibre methyl methacrylatenanocomposite toecaps besides stacking sequence show organic and inorganic nanotubesor unmodified nanoclay.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.7075

  2. 40 CFR 63.63 - Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl... Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.63 Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE,2-Butoxyethanol...

  3. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. I: TECHNICAL REPORT

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions tests data at two triethylene glycol units to provide data for comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. (NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas indu...

  4. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. II: APPENDICES

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions test data st two triethylene glycol units to provide data for the comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. [NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas i...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky...

  6. Literature Review On Impact Of Glycolate On The 2H Evaporator And The Effluent Treatment Facility

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-01-01

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations (le) 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  7. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  8. Influence Of Initiator Types And Emulsion Polymerization Techniques To Particle Size Of Copolymerization Styrene-Butyl Acrylate-Methyl Methacrylate

    Ariyanti Sarwono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Influence of initiator types and emulsion polymerization techniques to particle size of copolymerization styrene-butyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate. Copoly(styrene/butyl acrylic/methyl methacrylic was prepared by emulsion polymerization method. This paper describes effect of insiator types i.e. ammonium persulfate (APS, hydrogen peroxide, ters-butyl peroxide (TBHP, initiator redox (H2O2/ascorbic acid and polymerization techniques i.e. batch and semicontinue to particle size distribution of copoly(styrene/butyl acrylic/methyl methacrylic. Initiator TBHP and H2O2 could not initiate copolymerization properly, but initiator APS and redox initiate copolymerization with batch and semi continue techniques could well perform. The higher concentration of APS, the greater particle size of the copolymer, but the copolymer is polymodal. Initiator redox (H2O2/ascorbic acid produced greater particle size than initiator redox (ascorbic acid/ H2O2.

  9. Visible Light-Induced Metal Free Surface Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate on SBA-15

    Liang Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP is one of the most versatile techniques to modify the surface properties of materials. Recent developed metal-free SI-ATRP makes such techniques more widely applicable. Herein photo-induced metal-free SI-ATRP of methacrylates, such as methyl methacrylate, N-isopropanyl acrylamide, and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, on the surface of SBA-15 was reported to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid materials. A SBA-15-based polymeric composite with an adjustable graft ratio was obtained. The structure evolution during the SI-ATRP modification of SBA-15 was monitored and verified by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, BET, and TEM. The obtained polymeric composite showed enhanced adsorption ability for the model compound toluene in aqueous conditions. This procedure provides a low-cost, readily available, and easy modification method to synthesize polymeric composites without the contamination of metal.

  10. Itching for nail fashion: chronic urticaria and chronic hand dermatitis secondary to acrylate and methacrylate allergy in gel nail varnish.

    Dickison, P; Smith, S D

    2018-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) secondary to acrylates and methacrylates is a well- described occurrence, particularly in those who wear or handle gel nail varnish. Management involves avoidance of the identified allergen. The cause of chronic urticaria (CI) is often not identified, and CU is not known to be associated with acrylates or methacrylates. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who initially presented with hand dermatitis exacerbated by gel nail varnish on a background of CU. Avoiding all nail varnishes because of her ACD also resulted in improvement of her CU. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of CU secondary to the acrylates and methacrylates found in nail cosmetics. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. The effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1992-11-22

    In this paper, we determined whether ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (diEGME) induce hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Male adult Wistar rats weighing 220 g were used as experimental animals. EGME (100, 300 mg/kg per day) and diEGME (500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg per day) were administered by gavage for 1, 2 or 5 days or 4 weeks. In the 4-week study, experimental animals were administered EGME or diEGME once a day orally, 5 days/week. EGME treatment increased the serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) level significantly, however, diEGME did not. The activities of three other enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP) in serum were not altered by EGME or diEGME treatment and thus there was no biochemical indices of hepatic damage by EGME or diEGME. EGME treatment increased the GGT activities in the liver and lungs. Of the organs examined, the induction of GGT was the greatest in the liver. The inducibility in the liver was 216% for the 5-day treatment and 460% for the 4-week treatment. A dose-dependent increase of hepatic microsomal GGT activity by EGME was observed. On the other hand, renal GGT activities were declined to 72% and 60% of control by the 5-day and 4-week EGME treatments, respectively. DiEGME did not affect the GGT activities in any of the tissues except those of the brain. In the histochemical study, most hepatocytes at the periportal zones were stained with GGT staining after the 4-week treatment. However, the hepatocytes at the central zones were negative.

  12. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    Traynor, Matthew J.; Wilkinson, Simon C.; Williams, Faith M.

    2007-01-01

    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents

  13. Molybdenum/alkali metal/ethylene glycol complexes useful as epoxidation catalysts

    Marquis, E.T.; Sanderson, J.R.; Keating, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a clear, storage stable solution of a molybdenum/alkali metal/ethylene glycol complex in ethylene glycol made by the process comprising: reacting at an elevated temperature between about 25 0 and 150 0 C a solid ammonium molybdate or a hydrate thereof and a solid alkali metal molybdate or a hydrate thereof with ethylene glycol, such that the ratio of moles of ethylene glycol to total gram atoms of molybdenum in the molybdates ranges from about 7:10 to 10:1, and the ratio of gram atoms of molybdenum in the ammonium molybdate or hydrate thereof to gram atoms of molybdenum in the alkali metal molybdate is from about 1:1 to about 20:1 to thereby provide a reaction product composed of a solution of an alkali metal-containing complex of molybdenum, alkali metal and ethylene glycol and by-products, including water, in the ethylene glycol and subsequently stripping the solution at a reduced pressure to remove from about 5 to about 25% of the reaction product, as distillate, to thereby provide a storage stable solution of the complex in the ethylene glycol having a molybdenum content of about 6 wt. % to about 20 wt. %, a water concentration of about 0.1 wt. % to about 6 wt. % and an acid number of more than about 60

  14. CONCERNING CHAIN GROWTH SPECIFIC REACTION RATE AS A PART OF THE PROCESS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE MASS RADICAL POLYMERIZATION

    A. A. Sultanova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is the chain growth specific reaction rate that was determined for the process of methyl methacrylate mass radical polymerization within the temperature range of 40–900 С in quasi-steady approximation by means of Monte Carlo method. The theoretical model of radical polymerization was developed taking the gel effect into account. Computer software was developed that enables to imitate radical polymerization process taking gel effect into account within the minimum run time. The programme was tested on asymptotic examples as well as was applied for methyl methacrylate mass radical polymerization. The programme makes it possible to calculate monomer conversion, molecular mass variation, molecular-mass distribution, etc.

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in study of the toxicity of trialkyltin-methacrylic copolymer as an antifouling agent

    Lin, S.M.; Ching, C.H.; Tseng, C.L.; Yang, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of tin in biological materials is rarely reported. In this study instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the tin together with some other trace elements in various organs of rats treated with trialkyltin-methacrylic copolymer. No appreciable accumulation of tin and variation of distribution of trace elements (Cr, Fe, Zn and Co) in various organs were found. The pathological changes in the liver sections can not be observed either. This, therefore, indicates that the toxicity of trialkyltin-methacrylic copolymer is low, if any. (author)

  16. Proton-transfer lasers based on solid copolymers of modified 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles with methacrylate monomers

    Costela, A.; García-Moreno, I.; Mallavia, Ricardo; Amat-Guerri, F.; Barroso, J.; Sastre, R.

    1998-06-01

    We report on the lasing action of two newly synthesized 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazole derivatives copolymerized with methyl methacrylate. The laser samples were transversely pumped with a N 2 laser at 337 nm. The influence on the proton-transfer laser performance of the distance between the chromophore group and the polymeric main chain and of the rigidity of the polymeric host matrix, were studied. Significant increases in lasing efficiency and photostability are demonstrated for some of the new materials, as compared to those previously obtained with related proton-transfer dyes also covalently bound to methacrylic monomers.

  17. Molecular structure impacts on secondary organic aerosol formation from glycol ethers

    Li, Lijie; Cocker, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Glycol ethers, a class of widely used solvents in consumer products, are often considered exempt as volatile organic compounds based on their vapor pressure or boiling points by regulatory agencies. However, recent studies found that glycol ethers volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents indicating the potential of glycol ethers to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This is the first work on SOA formation from glycol ethers. The impact of molecular structure, specifically -OH, on SOA formation from glycol ethers and related ethers are investigated in the work. Ethers with and without -OH, with methyl group hindrance on -OH and with -OH at different location are studied in the presence of NOX and under "NOX free" conditions. Photooxidation experiments under different oxidation conditions confirm that the processing of ethers is a combination of carbonyl formation, cyclization and fragmentation. Bulk SOA chemical composition analysis and oxidation products identified in both gas and particle phase suggests that the presence and location of -OH in the carbon bond of ethers determine the occurrence of cyclization mechanism during ether oxidation. The cyclization is proposed as a critical SOA formation mechanism to prevent the formation of volatile compounds from fragmentation during the oxidation of ethers. Glycol ethers with -CH2-O-CH2CH2OH structure is found to readily form cyclization products, especially with the presence of NOx, which is more relevant to urban atmospheric conditions than without NOx. Glycol ethers are evaluated as dominating SOA precursors among all ethers studied. It is estimated that the contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources. The contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources and will play a more important role in future anthropogenic SOA

  18. Inducing β Phase Crystallinity in Block Copolymers of Vinylidene Fluoride with Methyl Methacrylate or Styrene

    Nahal Golzari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Block copolymers of poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF with either styrene or methyl methacrylate (MMA were synthesized and analyzed with respect to the type of the crystalline phase occurring. PVDF with iodine end groups (PVDF-I was prepared by iodine transfer polymerization either in solution with supercritical CO2 or in emulsion. To activate all iodine end groups Mn2(CO10 is employed. Upon UV irradiation Mn(CO5 radicals are obtained, which abstract iodine from PVDF-I generating PVDF radicals. Subsequent polymerization with styrene or methyl methacrylate (MMA yields block copolymers. Size exclusion chromatography and NMR results prove that the entire PVDF-I is converted. XRD, FT-IR, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses allow for the identification of crystal phase transformation. It is clearly shown that the original α crystalline phase of PVDF-I is changed to the β crystalline phase in case of the block copolymers. For ratios of the VDF block length to the MMA block length ranging from 1.4 to 5 only β phase material was detected.

  19. Synthesis of polymer gel electrolyte with high molecular weight poly(methyl methacrylate)-clay nanocomposite

    Meneghetti, Paulo; Qutubuddin, Syed; Webber, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposite gel electrolytes consisting of high molecular weight poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA-clay nanocomposite, ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticizer, and LiClO 4 electrolyte are reported. Montmorillonite clay was ion exchanged with a zwitterionic surfactant (octadecyl dimethyl betaine) and dispersed in methyl methacrylate, which was then polymerized to synthesize PMMA-clay nanocomposites. The nanocomposite was dissolved in a mixture of EC/PC with LiClO 4 , heated and pressed to obtain polymer gel electrolyte. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the gels indicated intercalated clay structure with d-spacings of 2.85 and 1.40 nm. In the gel containing plasticizer, the clay galleries shrink suggesting intercalation rather than partial exfoliation observed in the PMMA-clay nanocomposite. Ionic conductivity varied slightly and exhibited a maximum value of 8 x 10 -4 S/cm at clay content of 1.5 wt.%. The activation energy was determined by modeling the conductivity with a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher expression. The clay layers are primarily trapped inside the polymer matrix. Consequently, the polymer does not interact significantly with LiClO 4 electrolyte as shown by FTIR. The presence of the clay increased the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the gel as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The PMMA nanocomposite gel electrolyte shows a stable lithium interfacial resistance over time, which is a key factor for use in electrochemical applications

  20. Synthesis of TiO(2)-PMMA nanocomposite: using methacrylic acid as a coupling agent.

    Khaled, S M; Sui, Ruohong; Charpentier, Paul A; Rizkalla, Amin S

    2007-03-27

    Inorganic-polymer nanocomposites are of significant interest for emerging materials due to their improved properties and unique combination of properties. Methacrylic acid (MA), a functionalization agent that can chemically link TiO2 nanomaterials (n-TiO2) and polymer matrix, was used to modify the surface of n-TiO2 using a Ti-carboxylic coordination bond. Then, the double bond in MA was copolymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA) to form a n-TiO2-PMMA nanocomposite. The resulting n-TiO2-PMMA nanocomposite materials were characterized by using thermal analysis, electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. The dynamic mechanical properties (Young's and shear modulus) were measured using an ultrasonic pulse technique. The electron microscopy results showed a good distribution of the nanofillers in the polymer matrix. The glass transition temperature, thermal degradation temperature, and dynamic elastic moduli of the nanocomposites were shown to increase with an increase in the weight percentage of nanofibers in the composite. The resulting nanocomposites exhibited improved elastic properties and have potential application in dental composites and bone cements.