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Sample records for glycol induced urolithiasis

  1. Antiurolithic effect of olive oil in a mouse model of ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis

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    Mohammed Alenzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At present, commercially available antiurolithic drugs have more adverse effects than potential therapeutic or preventive effects with chronic use. With this in mind, the present study was designed to assess the antiurolithic effect of olive oil in a mouse model of ethylene glycol (EG-induced urolithiasis. Materials and Methods: Adult albino mice were divided into 6 groups. Group I was fed the vehicle only. Group II was supplemented with 0.75% EG alone in drinking water during the experimental period to initiate deposition of calcium oxalate in kidneys, which leads to urolithiasis in animals. Groups III (olive oil control group through V were fed olive oil orally at various doses during the experimental period. Group VI received cystone (750 mg/kg. Groups IV–VI additionally received 0.75% EG in drinking water ad libitum. SPSS ver.17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The study results showed significantly higher levels of serum urea, uric acid, and creatinine (p<0.05 in group II than in groups III–VI and I. Administration of olive oil at different doses restored the elevated serum parameters in groups IV and V compared with group II. Urine and kidney calcium, oxalate, and phosphate levels in groups IV–VI were significantly lower (p<0.05 than in animals with EG-induced urolithiasis (group II. Group V mice showed a significant restoration effect on serum as well as urine and kidney parameters compared with group II. Conclusions: Supplementation with olive oil (1.7 mL/kg body weight reduced and prevented the growth of urinary stones, possibly by inhibiting renal tubular membrane damage due to peroxidative stress induced by hyperoxaluria.

  2. Alteration in Oxidative/nitrosative imbalance, histochemical expression of osteopontin and antiurolithiatic efficacy of Xanthium strumarium (L.) in ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis.

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    Panigrahi, Padma Nibash; Dey, Sahadeb; Sahoo, Monalisa; Choudhary, Shyam Sundar; Mahajan, Sumit

    2016-12-01

    Xanthium strumarium has traditionally been used in the treatment of urolitiasis especially by the rural people in India, but its antiurolithiatic efficacy was not explored scientifically till now. Therefore, the present study was designed to validate the ethnic practice scientifically, and explore the possible antiurolithiatic effect to rationalize its medicinal use. Urolitiasis was induced in hyperoxaluric rat model by giving 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) for 28days along with 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for first 14days. Antiurolithiatic effect of aqueous-ethanol extract of Xanthium strumarium bur (xanthium) was evaluated based on urine and serum biochemistry, oxidative/nitrosative stress indices, histopathology, kidney calcium and calcium oxalate content and immunohistochemical expression of matrix glycoprotein, osteopontin (OPN). Administration of EG and AC resulted in hyperoxaluria, crystalluria, hypocalciuria, polyurea, raised serum urea, creatinine, erythrocytic lipid peroxidise and nitric oxide, kidney calcium content as well as crystal deposition in kidney section in lithiatic group rats. However, xanthium treatment significantly restored the impairment in above kidney function test as that of standard treatment, cystone. The up-regulation of OPN was also significantly decreased after xanthium treatment. The present findings demonstrate the curative efficacy of xanthium in ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis, possibly mediated through inhibition of various pathways involved in renal calcium oxalate formation, antioxidant property and down regulation of matrix glycoprotein, OPN. Therefore, future studies may be established to evaluate its efficacy and safety for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum extract as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model.

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    Bayir, Yasin; Halici, Zekai; Keles, Mevlut Sait; Colak, Suat; Cakir, Ahmet; Kaya, Yusuf; Akçay, Fatih

    2011-11-18

    Since ancient times, various herbal preparations have been used in treatment of urolithiasis, which is basically formation of calcium oxalate stones in kidney. The aim of our study is to assess the effects of Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum (HP) as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model in rats. The efficacy of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg HP extract was studied in 1% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride-induced urolithiasis for 21 days in rats. The weight difference and the levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid in both serum and 24h-urine were measured. The calcium oxalate (CaOx) and pH were defined in urine. Histo-pathological analyses in kidneys were also performed. The rats' weights were higher in HP groups than urolithiasis group. Urolithiasis caused a significant increase in both serum and urine biochemical parameters compared to healthy rats. HP extract decreased levels of these parameters. Urine CaOx level was high in urolithiasis rats, whereas it was decreased by HP extract. Histopathological examinations revealed extensive intratubular crystal depositions and degenerative tubular structures in urolithiasis group, but not in HP treatment groups. More studies will be necessary to elucidate the antiurolithiatic activity of HP. Nonetheless, having a beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys, HP extract may be a potential drug for urolithiasis treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Successful treatment of sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis with Helichrysum flowers.

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    Onaran, Metin; Orhan, Nilüfer; Farahvash, Amirali; Ekin, Hasya Nazlı; Kocabıyık, Murat; Gönül, İpek Işık; Şen, İlker; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    Helichrysum (Asteraceae) flowers, known as "altın otu, yayla çiçeği, kudama çiçeği" , are widely used to remove kidney stones and for their diuretic properties in Turkey. To determine the curative effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M. Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and H. stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on sodium oxalate induced kidney stones. Infusions prepared from the capitulums of HG and HS were tested for their curative effect on calcium oxalate deposition induced by sodium oxalate (70mg/kg i.p.). Following the injection of sodium oxalate for 5 days, plant extracts were administered to rats at two different doses. Potassium citrate was used as positive control. Water intake, urine volume, body, liver and kidney weights were measured; biochemical and hematological analyses were conducted on urine and blood samples. Additionally, histopathological examinations were done on kidney samples. H. stoechas extract showed prominent effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 0.33), whereas number of kidney stones was maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.33). The reduction in the uric acid and oxalate levels of urine samples and the elevation in the urine citrate levels are significant and promising in extract groups. Some hematological, biochemical and enzymatic markers are also ameliorated by the extracts. This is the first report on the curative effect of immortal flowers. Our preliminary study indicated that Helichrysum extracts may be used for treatment of urolithiasis and Helichrysum extracts are an alternative therapy to potassium citrate for patients suffering from kidney stones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of royal jelly on ethylene glycol induced renal inflammation in rats

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    Zeyneb Aslan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of Royal Jelly were investigated by inducing renal inflammation in rats with the use of ethylene glycol. For this purpose, the calcium oxalate urolithiasis model was obtained by feeding rats with ethylene glycol in drinking water. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided in five study groups. The 1st group was determined as the control group. The rats in the 2nd group received ethylene glycol (1% in drinking water. The rats in the 3rd group were daily fed with Royal Jelly by using oral gavage. The 4th group was determined as the preventive group and the rats were fed with ethylene glycol (1% in drinking water while receiving Royal Jelly via oral gavage. The 5th group was determined as the therapeutic group and received ethylene glycol in drinking water during the first 2 weeks of the study and Royal Jelly via oral gavage during the last 2 weeks of the study. Results: At the end of the study, proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in blood and renal tissue samples from the rats used in the application were measured. Conclusion: The results have shown that ethylene glycol does induce inflammation and renal damage. This can cause the formation of reactive oxygen species. Royal Jelly is also considered to have anti-inflammatory effects due to its possible antiradical and antioxidative effects. It can have positive effects on both the prevention of urolithiasis and possible inflammation during the existing urolithiasis and support the medical treatment.

  6. Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant efficacy of Musa paradisiaca pseudostem on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rat.

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    Panigrahi, Padma Nibash; Dey, Sahadeb; Sahoo, Monalisa; Dan, Ananya

    2017-01-01

    Musa paradisiaca has been used in the treatment of urolithiasis by the rural people in South India. Therefore, we plan to evaluate its efficacy and possible mechanism of antiurolithiatic effect to rationalize its medicinal use. Urolithiasis was induced in hyperoxaluric rat model by giving 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) for 28 days along with 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for the first 14 days. Antiurolithiatic effect of aqueous-ethanol extract of M. paradisiaca pseudostem (MUSA) was evaluated based on urine and serum biochemistry, microscopy of urine, oxidative/nitrosative indices, kidney calcium content, and histopathology. Administration of EG and AC resulted in increased crystalluria and oxaluria, hypercalciuria, polyuria, crystal deposition in urine, raised serum urea, and creatinine as well as nitric oxide concentration and erythrocytic lipid peroxidation in lithiatic group. However, MUSA treatment significantly restored the impairment in above kidney function test as that of standard treatment, cystone in a dose-dependent manner. The present findings demonstrate the efficacy of MUSA in EG-induced urolithiasis, which might be mediated through inhibiting various pathways involved in renal calcium oxalate formation, antioxidant effect, and potential to inhibit biochemical markers of renal impairment.

  7. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder on sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats

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    Rahul V Takawale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of advances in the present practice of medicine, the formation and growth of calculi continues to trouble mankind, as there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. In India, many indigenous drugs are in use for the treatment of urinary calculus disease. Objective: The present study was intended to determine anti-urolithiatic effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder (LSFP against sodium oxalate (NaOx induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were grouped as Vehicle Group (received vehicle gum acacia 2% w/v 1 mL/kg/p.o., NaOx Group(Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg,i.p., LSFP Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. LSFP suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg, Cystone Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. Cystone suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg. Result: The increased severity of microscopic calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals deposition along with increased concentration in the kidney was seen after 7 days of NaOx (70 mg/kg, i.p. pre-treatment. LSFP (500 mg/kg, p.o. and standard marketed formulation Cystone (500 mg/kg, p.o. caused a significant reversal of NaOx-induced changes in ion excretion and urinary CaOx concentration in 7 days treatment. Conclusion: From the results, it was concluded that LSFP showed beneficial effect against urolithiasis by decreasing CaOx excretion and preventing crystal deposition in the kidney tubules.

  8. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat.

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    Gandhi, M; Aggarwal, M; Puri, S; Singla, S K

    2013-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control) were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  9. Urolithiasis associated with topiramate

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    Scott Eggener

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide anticonvulsant used as adjunctive therapy for intractable refractory seizures. It is report a case of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old man presented with acute, right-sided, colicky flank pain. He denied hematuria or dysuria. He was in use of phenytoin, risperidone, phenobarbital, and topiramate. The total daily dose of topiramate was 375 mg. A CT scan showed a 7 x 1 mm curvilinear density at the right ureterovesical junction with proximal hydrouretronephrosis. He was managed with rigid ureteroscopic stone extraction and the calculus metabolic analysis revealed the stone was composed of carbonate apatite (70%, calcium oxalate dihydrate (20%, and calcium oxalate monohydrate (10%. COMMENTS: The present case typifies many features of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. Those who care for patients with urinary stone disease should be aware of this association.

  10. Antioxidants inhibition of high plasma androgenic markers in the pathogenesis of ethylene glycol (EG)-induced nephrolithiasis in Wistar rats.

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    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, Mahmood; Hedayati, Mehdi; Khalagi, Kazem

    2014-04-01

    The association between serum gonadal steroids and urolithiasis in males received only limited attention. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is induced by administration of ethylene glycol in drinking water. It appears that the administration of natural antioxidants has been used to protect against nephrolithiasis in human and experimental animals. The purpose is to study the potential role of antioxidants as inhibitors of high plasma androgenic markers or hyperandrogenicity in the pathogenesis of ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were studied in 4-week period. Group 1 (control) was fed a standard commercial diet. Group 2 received the same diet with 0.5 % of ethylene glycol. Group 3 received EG plus the diet and water added with antioxidant nutrients and lime juice as the dietary source of citrate. Group 4 and Group 5 were treated similar to Group 2 and Group 3 with 0.75 % of ethylene glycol. For antioxidant supplementation, the standard diet enriched with 4,000.0 μg vitamin E and 1,500.0 IU vitamin A for each rat per day added to the diet once a week, and provided daily with 5.0 mg vitamin C, 400.0 μg vitamin B6, 20.0 μg selenium, 12.0 mg zinc, and 2.0 mg boron for each rat per day in their drinking water. After treatment period, collection of blood was performed and kidneys were removed and used for histopathological examination. The results based on various assays, measuring size of crystal deposition, and histological examinations showed that high concentration of androgens acts as promoter for the formation of renal calculi due to ethylene glycol consumption and the inhibitory role of antioxidant complex in the formation of renal calculi disease. Data revealed that the size and the mean number of crystal deposits determined in EG 0.75 % treated groups (G4) were significantly higher than the EG-treated groups, added with antioxidant nutrients and lime juice (G5). The mean concentration of androgens in Group 4 increased after

  11. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with balanoposthitis in a Boer goat

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    Y. Abba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine®24 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit.

  12. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat

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    M. Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Results and Conclusion Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  13. Possibilities of urolithiasis crystallodiagnostics

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    A.K. Martusevich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most common groups of diseases in veterinary medicine is the urinary system pathology. Urolithiasis is widespread disease, could be found in many species, including cats, dogs, rabbits, guinea-pigs, turtles etc. Despite the large scale of this pathology in animal world, there are some challenges with diagnostic process and diagnosis’s verification. The aim of our study is estimation of diagnostic value of advanced urine tesiocrystalloscopy in urolithiasis (by the example of cats. We studied crystallogenic and initiated properties of 24 healthy cats and 32 animals with urolithiasis. Own and initiated crystallogenesis of the urine specimens was studied. For teziographic test we used sodium chloride solution (0.45%, 0.9%, 3% consequently, hydrochloric acid solution (0.1H and sodium hydroxide (0.1H as a crystal-forming substances. We used the original criterions to estimate crystalloscopic and tezigraphic facias. As the main parameters structure index (SI, crystallizability (Cr, facia's destruction degree (FDD and edge belt intensity (EB were used to describe free crystallogenesis, and main tezigraphic coefficient (Q, belt coefficient (B and FDD were used for the comparative tezigraphy data. Results showed that Cat’s urine in normal conditions has moderate crystallogenic activity, but in urolithiasis it acquires high level of crystallizing, with intermedium value of structure index, and significant destruction of crystal-forming elements. A similar changes of physical-chemical biomedium properties are detected during analysis of tezigraphic microslides of urines of cats with urolithiasis, that was prepared using 0.9% sodium chloride as basis substance. In conclusion, we fixed that tesiocristalloscopic „pattern“ of cats’ urine in urolithiasis significantly transforms into activation of crystal formation and increasing of biomedium’s initiating potential. So, the investigation of free or initialized urine

  14. Distraction induced enterogenesis: a unique mouse model using polyethylene glycol.

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    Okawada, Manabu; Maria, Haytham Mustafa; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the small intestine can be lengthened by applying mechanical forces to the bowel lumen-distraction-induced enterogenesis. However, the mechanisms which account for this growth are unknown, and might be best examined using a mouse model. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of developing distractive-induced small bowel growth in mouse. Twelve-week old C57BL/6J mice had a jejunal segment taken out of continuity, and distended with polyethylene glycol (PEG: 3350 KDa); this group was compared with a control group without stretching. Segment length and diameter were measured intra-operatively and after 5 d. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscle thickness in the isolated segment were assessed. Rate of epithelial cell proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine: BrdU incorporation) in crypts were also examined. The mucosal mRNA expression of targeted factors was performed to investigate potential mechanisms which might lead to distraction-induced enterogenesis. At harvest, the PEG-stretched group showed a significant increase in length and diameter versus controls. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscular layer thickness increased in the PEG group. The PEG group also showed significantly increased rates of epithelial cell proliferation versus controls. Real-time PCR showed a trend toward higher β-catenin and c-myc mRNA expression in the PEG-stretched group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Radial distraction-induced enterogenesis with PEG is a viable method for increasing small intestinal length and diameter. This model may provide a new method for studying the mechanisms leading to distraction-induced enterogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

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    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  16. Probiotics in urolithiasis

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    Monika Kusz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is considered a civilization disease. The prevalence is estimated at 5-20% of the population. There are many litogenesis risk factors such as hypercalciuria, hypophosphaturia, low urine pH or increased excretion of oxalates with urine - a condition called hyperoxaluria which is a major risk factor for renal stones. Oxalate urolithiasis can be caused by defects in oxalates metabolism, excessive intake in the diet or increased intestinal absorption of oxalates. The reason of hyperoxaluria might be a genetic defect (primary hyperoxaluria or excessive consumption due to improper diet (secondary hyperoxaluria. Human intestinal flora plays an important role in oxalates metabolism. Described in the 1980s Oxalobacter formigenes, inhabiting the human gastrointestinal tract is known for contributing to decrease the excretion of oxalates with urine and consequently, reduce the risk of recurrence of kidney stones. Other known bacteria which have a beneficial effect on the metabolism of oxalates include Lactobacillus, Enterococcus faecalis, Providentia retgerri. These bacteria may be useful in the future treatment of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

  17. Descriptive Study of an Outbreak of Avian Urolithiasis in a Large Commercial Egg Complex in Algeria

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    Hicham SID

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian urolithiasis is one of the major causes of mortality in poultry. However, in Algeria this condition has never been described. An outbreak of avian urolithiasis was observed on a large commercial egg complex in the department of Chlef (West of Algeria. The clinical features of this condition are to be described. Mortality associated to urolithiasis started at the onset of egg production, estimated to 0.7 % per week. Urolithiasis induced an egg drop estimated to 12%. Dead and live layers were both necropsied and examined for kidney lesions. Most of the birds examined presented enlarged ureters, renal atrophy and visceral gout deposition.

  18. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

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    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  19. The beneficial effect of cynodon dactylon fractions on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats.

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    Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Rajaei, Ziba; Mohammadian, Nema; Valiollahi, Saleh; Sonei, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    To assess the beneficial effect of different fractions of Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ethylene glycol, curative, and preventive groups. The control group received tap drinking water for 35 days. Ethylene glycol, curative, and preventive groups received 1% ethylene glycol for induction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) calculus formation. Preventive and curative subjects also received different fractions of C. dactylon extract in drinking water at 12.8 mg/kg, since day 0 and day 14, respectively. After 35 days, the kidneys were removed and examined for histopathological findings and counting the CaOx deposits in 50 microscopic fields. In curative protocol, treatment of rats with C. dactylon N-butanol fraction and N-butanol phase remnant significantly reduced the number of the kidney CaOx deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. In preventive protocol, treatment of rats with C. dactylon ethyl acetate fraction significantly decreased the number of CaOx deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. Fractions of C. dactylon showed a beneficial effect on preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition in the rat kidney. These results provide a scientific rational for preventive and treatment roles of C. dactylon in human kidney stone disease.

  20. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose.

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    Hammer, H F; Santa Ana, C A; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to gain insight into the pathophysiology of pure osmotic diarrhea and the osmotic diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption. Diarrhea was induced in normal volunteers by ingestion of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is nonabsorbable, not metabolized by colonic bacteria, and carries no electrical charge. In PEG-induced diarrhea, (a) stool weight was directly correlated with the total mass of PEG ingested; (b) PEG contributed 40-60% of the osmolality of the ...

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of childhood urolithiasis in Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. El Lekhlifi

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... Abstract. Objectives: Due to the increase observed in the incidence of pediatric urolithiasis in the world, and the scarcity of studies of this pathology in Morocco, we assessed whether epidemiological characteristics of pediatric urolithiasis have a similar profile like in developed countries further we tried to ...

  2. Inhibition of Cariogenic Plaque Formation on Root Surface with Polydopamine-Induced-Polyethylene Glycol Coating

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    May Lei Mei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Root caries prevention has been a challenge for clinicians due to its special anatomical location, which favors the accumulation of dental plaque. Researchers are looking for anti-biofouling material to inhibit bacterial growth on exposed root surfaces. This study aimed to develop polydopamine-induced-polyethylene glycol (PEG and to study its anti-biofouling effect against a multi-species cariogenic biofilm on the root dentine surface. Hydroxyapatite disks and human dentine blocks were divided into four groups for experiments. They received polydopamine-induced-PEG, PEG, polydopamine, or water application. Contact angle, quartz crystal microbalance, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the wetting property, surface affinity, and an infrared spectrum; the results indicated that PEG was induced by polydopamine onto a hydroxyapatite disk. Salivary mucin absorption on hydroxyapatite disks with polydopamine-induced-PEG was confirmed using spectrophotometry. The growth of a multi-species cariogenic biofilm on dentine blocks with polydopamine-induced-PEG was assessed and monitored by colony-forming units, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that dentine with polydopamine-induced-PEG had fewer bacteria than other groups. In conclusion, a novel polydopamine-induced-PEG coating was developed. Its anti-biofouling effect inhibited salivary mucin absorption and cariogenic biofilm formation on dentine surface and thus may be used for the prevention of root dentine caries.

  3. Limitations of polyethylene glycol-induced precipitation as predictive tool for protein solubility during formulation development.

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    Hofmann, Melanie; Winzer, Matthias; Weber, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2018-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced protein precipitation is often used to extrapolate apparent protein solubility at specific formulation compositions. The procedure was used for several fields of application such as protein crystal growth but also protein formulation development. Nevertheless, most studies focused on applicability in protein crystal growth. In contrast, this study focuses on applicability of PEG-induced precipitation during high-concentration protein formulation development. In this study, solubility of three different model proteins was investigated over a broad range of pH. Solubility values predicted by PEG-induced precipitation were compared to real solubility behaviour determined by either turbidity or content measurements. Predicted solubility by PEG-induced precipitation was confirmed for an Fc fusion protein and a monoclonal antibody. In contrast, PEG-induced precipitation failed to predict solubility of a single-domain antibody construct. Applicability of PEG-induced precipitation as indicator of protein solubility during formulation development was found to be not valid for one of three model molecules. Under certain conditions, PEG-induced protein precipitation is not valid for prediction of real protein solubility behaviour. The procedure should be used carefully as tool for formulation development, and the results obtained should be validated by additional investigations. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Imaging in the diagnosis of pediatric urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C.; Callahan, Michael J.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Chow, Jeanne S.; Nelson, Caleb P.; Cilento, Bartley G.; Baum, Michelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric urolithiasis is an important and increasingly prevalent cause of pediatric morbidity and hospital admission. Ultrasound (US) is the recommended primary imaging modality for suspected urolithiasis in children. There is, however, widespread use of CT as a first-line study for abdominal pain in many institutions involved in pediatric care. The objective of this review is to outline state-of-the-art imaging modalities and methods for diagnosing urolithiasis in children. The pediatric radiologist plays a key role in ensuring that the appropriate imaging modality is performed in the setting of suspected pediatric urolithiasis. Our proposed imaging algorithm starts with US, and describes the optimal technique and indications for the use of CT. We emphasize the importance of improved communication with a greater collaborative approach between pediatric and general radiology departments so children undergo the appropriate imaging evaluation. (orig.)

  5. Imaging in the diagnosis of pediatric urolithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C.; Callahan, Michael J.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Nelson, Caleb P.; Cilento, Bartley G. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Baum, Michelle A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Nephrology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Pediatric urolithiasis is an important and increasingly prevalent cause of pediatric morbidity and hospital admission. Ultrasound (US) is the recommended primary imaging modality for suspected urolithiasis in children. There is, however, widespread use of CT as a first-line study for abdominal pain in many institutions involved in pediatric care. The objective of this review is to outline state-of-the-art imaging modalities and methods for diagnosing urolithiasis in children. The pediatric radiologist plays a key role in ensuring that the appropriate imaging modality is performed in the setting of suspected pediatric urolithiasis. Our proposed imaging algorithm starts with US, and describes the optimal technique and indications for the use of CT. We emphasize the importance of improved communication with a greater collaborative approach between pediatric and general radiology departments so children undergo the appropriate imaging evaluation. (orig.)

  6. Epidemiological characteristics of childhood urolithiasis in Morocco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Due to the increase observed in the incidence of pediatric urolithiasis in the ... pain (28%), nephritic colic (22%), hematuria (22%) and urinary tract infection (13%). Stones were located in the upper urinary tract in 62.5% of cases.

  7. Childhood urolithiasis in North-Western Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ben Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews causes of urolithiasis and its manifestations in North-West (NW Libya. Libyan childhood urolithiasis accounted for 3.6% of nephrology out-patient work load. There were 59 children with urolithiasis, including 34 boys and 25 girls with a mean age of 2.8 ± 2.42 years. Urolithiasis was more common among younger age groups (P = 0.001 and in boys with primary oxaluria and infective etiology. The causes of urolithiasis included metabolic stones in 64%, infective in 26%, and it was idiopathic in 10%. Overall, family history of renal stone disease was elicited in 59%; it was 92% in patients with primary oxaluria. The main presenting features were abdominal pain (27%, gross hematuria (22%, associated urinary tract infection (UTI; 24%, and stone release in 19%. Stone location was bilateral in 64%, multiple in 68%, and in the upper tract in 93% (P = 0.05. Important complications encountered included chronic renal failure (13%, hydronephrosis (34%, systemic hypertension (8%, and rickets in 17%. Calcium oxalate was the most prominent constituent, seen in 41% of the calculi, followed by struvite (21%, uric acid (10%, carbapatite (7%, and cystine (3.5%. Diagnostically helpful findings were family history, age at presentation, UTI by urease producing organisms, rickets, imaging and chemical analysis of calculi. Early detection and prompt treatment helps in preventing long-term sequelae in patients with urolithiasis.

  8. Review of acute symptomatic urolithiasis in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeff, Stephanie; Saluja, Manmeet; Rice, Michael

    2018-02-02

    To evaluate the incidence of acute symptomatic urolithiasis in the Auckland region. Associated epidemiological factors and stone characteristics were also studied and compared to previous research conducted in order to analyse trends. All patients that presented acutely with symptomatic urolithiasis to the Auckland District Health Board (AHDB) between July 2014 and June 2015 were studied. Clinical data was obtained from medical records and population data was based on estimates provided by the Ministry of Health. Two-tailed tests and the Pearson Chi-Square tests were used for analysis. Overall, 1,125 patients (1,328 events) presented with an incidence of 85 per 100,000 per year, which was lower than that reported in 2006. The highest incidence was found among the Middle Eastern ethnic subgroup (0.130 %), followed by Māori (0.102%), Asian (0.087%), European (0.084%) and Pacific (0.041%) ethnicity. Males were more likely to be affected than females. Urolithiasis was most common in the fifth decade of life (25%). Forty-seven percent of the study population presented with multiple stones and 64% had recurrent urolithiasis or were 'high risk' stone formers. Distal ureteric stones Auckland. This deviation could be attributed to the large influx of Asian immigrants observed in this period of time. A caucasian male, between 40-49 years, with a calculus <5mm in the distal ureter with a history of a previous urolithiasis has the highest chance to present with renal colic.

  9. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H F; Santa Ana, C A; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to gain insight into the pathophysiology of pure osmotic diarrhea and the osmotic diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption. Diarrhea was induced in normal volunteers by ingestion of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is nonabsorbable, not metabolized by colonic bacteria, and carries no electrical charge. In PEG-induced diarrhea, (a) stool weight was directly correlated with the total mass of PEG ingested; (b) PEG contributed 40-60% of the osmolality of the fecal fluid, the remainder being contributed by other solutes either of dietary, endogenous, or bacterial origin; and (c) fecal sodium, potassium, and chloride were avidly conserved by the intestine, in spite of stool water losses exceeding 1,200 g/d. Diarrhea was also induced in normal subjects by ingestion of lactulose, a disaccharide that is not absorbed by the small intestine but is metabolized by colonic bacteria. In lactulose-induced diarrhea, (a) a maximum of approximate 80 g/d of lactulose was metabolized by colonic bacteria to noncarbohydrate moieties such as organic acids; (b) the organic acids were partially absorbed in the colon; (c) unabsorbed organic acids obligated the accumulation of inorganic cations (Na greater than Ca greater than K greater than Mg) in the diarrheal fluid; (d) diarrhea associated with low doses of lactulose was mainly due to unabsorbed organic acids and associated cations, whereas with larger doses of lactulose unmetabolized carbohydrates also played a major role; and (e) the net effect of bacterial metabolism of lactulose and partial absorption of organic acids on stool water output was done dependent. With low or moderate doses of lactulose, stool water losses were reduced by as much as 600 g/d (compared with equimolar osmotic loads of PEG); with large dose, the increment in osmotically active solutes within the lumen exceeded the increment of the ingested osmotic load, and the severity of diarrhea was augmented.

  10. Urolithiasis: evaluation, dietary factors, and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Andonian, Sero; Assimos, Dean

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to provide current best evidence for evaluation, dietary, and medical management of patients with urolithiasis. METHODS: Literature addressing evaluation, dietary, and medical management of urolithiasis was searched. Papers were analyzed and rated according...... the life of stone-forming individuals very differently, and that evaluation and medical management should be personalized according to risk of recurrence, severity of stone disease, presence of associated medical conditions, and patient's motivation. With regard to evaluation, dietary and medical...... management of patients with urolithiasis evidence from the literature suggest that selective metabolic evaluation may lead to rational dietary and medical management. Statements based on LOE and GOR are provided to guide clinical practice. CONCLUSION: The provided evidence for evaluation of patients...

  11. Ethylene glycol ethers induce apoptosis and disturb glucose metabolism in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomierny, Bartosz; Krzyżanowska, Weronika; Niedzielska, Ewa; Broniowska, Żaneta; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-02-01

    Ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) are compounds widely used in industry and household products, but their potential, adverse effect on brain is poorly understood, so far. The aim of the present study was to determine whether 4-week administration of 2-buthoxyethanol (BE), 2-phenoxyethanol (PHE), and 2-ethoxyethanol (EE) induces apoptotic process in the rat hippocampus and frontal cortex, and whether their adverse effect on the brain cells can result from disturbances in the glucose metabolism. Experiments were conducted on 40 rats, exposed to BE, PHE, EE, saline or sunflower oil for 4 weeks. Markers of apoptosis and glucose metabolism were determined in frontal cortex and hippocampus by western blot, ELISA, and fluorescent-based assays. BE and PHE, but not EE, increased expression of the active form of caspase-3 in the examined brain regions. BE and PHE increased caspase-9 level in the cortex and PHE also in the hippocampus. BE and PHE increased the level of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak) and/or reduced the concentration of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL); whereas, the effect of BE was observed mainly in the cortex and that of PHE in the hippocampus. It has also been found that PHE increased brain glucose level, and both BE and PHE elevated pyruvate and lactate concentration. It can be concluded that chronic treatment with BE and PHE induced mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, and disturbed glucose metabolism in the rat brain. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Diethylene glycol-induced toxicities show marked threshold dose response in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Greg M., E-mail: Landry.Greg@mayo.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Dunning, Cody L., E-mail: cdunni@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Abreo, Fleurette, E-mail: fabreo@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Latimer, Brian, E-mail: blatim@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Orchard, Elysse, E-mail: eorcha@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Division of Animal Resources, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); McMartin, Kenneth E., E-mail: kmcmar@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) exposure poses risks to human health because of widespread industrial use and accidental exposures from contaminated products. To enhance the understanding of the mechanistic role of metabolites in DEG toxicity, this study used a dose response paradigm to determine a rat model that would best mimic DEG exposure in humans. Wistar and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats were treated by oral gavage with 0, 2, 5, or 10 g/kg DEG and blood, kidney and liver tissues were collected at 48 h. Both rat strains treated with 10 g/kg DEG had equivalent degrees of metabolic acidosis, renal toxicity (increased BUN and creatinine and cortical necrosis) and liver toxicity (increased serum enzyme levels, centrilobular necrosis and severe glycogen depletion). There was no liver or kidney toxicity at the lower DEG doses (2 and 5 g/kg) regardless of strain, demonstrating a steep threshold dose response. Kidney diglycolic acid (DGA), the presumed nephrotoxic metabolite of DEG, was markedly elevated in both rat strains administered 10 g/kg DEG, but no DGA was present at 2 or 5 g/kg, asserting its necessary role in DEG-induced toxicity. These results indicate that mechanistically in order to produce toxicity, metabolism to and significant target organ accumulation of DGA are required and that both strains would be useful for DEG risk assessments. - Highlights: • DEG produces a steep threshold dose response for kidney injury in rats. • Wistar and F-344 rats do not differ in response to DEG-induced renal injury. • The dose response for renal injury closely mirrors that for renal DGA accumulation. • Results demonstrate the importance of DGA accumulation in producing kidney injury.

  13. Advances in CT imaging for urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Andrabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing prevalence worldwide and a lifetime-estimated recurrence risk of over 50%. Imaging plays a critical role in the initial diagnosis, follow-up and urological management of urinary tract stone disease. Unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT is highly sensitive (>95% and specific (>96% in the diagnosis of urolithiasis and is the imaging investigation of choice for the initial assessment of patients with suspected urolithiasis. The emergence of multi-detector CT (MDCT and technological innovations in CT such as dual-energy CT (DECT has widened the scope of MDCT in the stone disease management from initial diagnosis to encompass treatment planning and monitoring of treatment success. DECT has been shown to enhance pre-treatment characterization of stone composition in comparison with conventional MDCT and is being increasingly used. Although CT-related radiation dose exposure remains a valid concern, the use of low-dose MDCT protocols and integration of newer iterative reconstruction algorithms into routine CT practice has resulted in a substantial decrease in ionizing radiation exposure. In this review article, our intent is to discuss the role of MDCT in the diagnosis and post-treatment evaluation of urolithiasis and review the impact of emerging CT technologies such as dual energy in clinical practice.

  14. Tamsulosin for urolithiasis: a review of the recent literature and current controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Ali; Nadendla, Rahul; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; O'Connell, Francis

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, urolithiasis affects approximately 1 in 11 people, and there is evidence that the prevalence is increasing. A relatively recent treatment strategy for urolithiasis involves using medical expulsive therapy (MET) to increase the likelihood of spontaneous passage of ureteral stones. The 2 leading drug classes for MET are alpha-1-andrenergic receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers. Tamsulosin, an alpha-1-adrenocepter blocking agent, is thought to induce spontaneous stone passage by relaxing ureteral smooth muscle tone. However, tamsulosin has not been proven effective for increasing ureteral stone passage and is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for this indication. There is a relative paucity of data on the efficacy of tamsulosin for urolithiasis, and of the published results, there are conflicting conclusions from the data. Because of the acute and often severe nature of symptoms from urolithiasis, emergency medicine physicians are frequently the first to diagnose and treat this condition. This has led to tamsulosin being frequently prescribed from the emergency department (ED) for off-label use without the support of high-quality evidence. If tamsulosin is proven effective, its use in the treatment of urolithiasis could offer several important advantages. The number of procedures, length of hospital stay, and health care costs after the initial ED visit could potentially be reduced. Tamsulosin may also increase patient satisfaction by reducing the invasive treatment and decreasing the time to stone passage. This review focuses on the efficacy of tamsulosin based on stone location, after shock wave lithotripsy, compared with other MET drugs and in the acute setting of the ED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The association of urolithiasis and androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Sancak, Eyup Burak; Uysal, Fatma; Arslan, Muhammet; Diri, Akif; Adam, Gurhan; Akbas, Alpaslan; Sariyildirim, Abdullah; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Resorlu, Berkan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether patients with androgenetic alopecia were at risk in terms of urinary system stone disease. Patients with no baldness (Hamilton-Norwood Scala [HNS] stage I) were categorized as Group I, those with hair loss in the frontal region (HNS stages II, III, IIIa, and IVa) as Group II, those with hair loss in the vertex region (HNS stage III-vertex, V) as Group III and those with hair loss in both vertex and frontal regions (HNS stages IV, Va, VI, and VII) as Group IV. Patients in all groups were compared in terms of presence of stone, and the presence of any association between alopecia and urolithiasis, with common etiological risk factors, was investigated. Three hundred and two male patients were included in the study. The presence of urolithiasis was detected in 28.9% of patients in Group I; 26.5% of Group II; 36.9% of Group III; and 44.4% of Group IV (p = 0.085). Among patients aged under 60, urinary stone disease was detected in 30.8% of patients in Group I; 26.4% of Group II; 41.2% of Group III; and 53.8% of Group IV (p = 0.001). In patients aged over 60, urolithiasis was detected in 12.5% of patients in Group I; 26.9% of Group II; 32.2% of Group III; and 37.8% of Group IV (p = 0.371). We determined a significant correlation between vertex pattern and total alopecia with urolithiasis in patients younger than 60 years old.

  16. Association of erectile dysfunction and urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Otunctemur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In recent years, it has been shown that there is association between metabolic syndrome and urinary stone disease. Stone disease and erectile dysfunction (ED are considered as systemic diseases which are associated with hormonal and metabolic disorders. Therefore we investigated the relationship between ED and urinary tract calculi. Material and methods: 98 male patients with urolithiasis and 59 randomly selected male patients without stone disease were included in the study. Serum testosterone (T levels were measured and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15 questionnaire forms were used to assess ED. Results: The prevalence of ED was found 29% (29 patients in the urolithiasis group. Sixty-nine patients (71% had no ED; 16 (16.3% had mild, 5 (5.1% had moderate and 8 (8.2% had severe ED. None of the patients in the control group had severe or modarete ED, six patients (10.2% had mild ED. Serum T levels were detected at the level of biochemical hypogonadism on 13 patients with stones (13.3% and T levels were detected at the lower limit in 18 (18.3% patients. Conclusion: In our study we have shown that ED and low T levels are significantly associated with urolithiasis. We propose that the patients with urolitiasis should be evaluated for ED and hypogonadism.

  17. Multidetector computed tomography of urolithiasis. Technique and results; Multidetektor-Computertomografie der Urolithiasis. Technik und Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karul, M.; Regier, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Zentrum fuer Radiologie und Endoskopie; Heuer, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Zentrum fuer Operative Medizin

    2013-02-15

    The diagnosis of acute urolithiasis results from unenhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). This test analyses the functional and anatomical possibility for passing an ureteral calculi, the localization and dimension of which are important parameters for further therapy. Alternatively chronic urolithiasis could be ruled out by magnetic resonance urography (MRU). MRU is the first choice especially in pregnant women and children because of radiation hygiene. Enhanced MDCT must be emphasized as an alternative to intravenous urography (IVU) for diagnosis of complex drainage of urine and suspected disorder of the involved kidney. This review illustrates the principles of different tests and the clinical relevance thereof. (orig.)

  18. Struvite urolithiasis in a litter of miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, J S; Osborne, C A; O'Leary, T P; Gebhart, R N; Griffith, D P

    1980-05-01

    Magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi developed in the urinary bladders and urethras of four of five offspring of Miniature Schnauzer parents with recurrent struvite urolithiasis. Calculi were detected by radiograhy when the dogs were 12 to 15 months old. Males and females were affected. A significant number of urease-producing staphylococci were identified in the urine of three of four dogs before urolith formation, and in one dog after urolith formation. The dogs were evaluated until they were 26 months old. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium were inside usual limits throughout the study. Abnormalities that might predispose to urinary tract infection were not identified by radiography or necropsy studies. In one dog, bladder calculi recurred after surgical removal of multiple cystoliths. In another, urethral obstruction and acute generalized pyelonephritis induced a lethal uremic crisis. Gross and microscopic lesions, detected after necropsy of all dogs with uroliths, were typical of bacterial infection.

  19. Clinical Study of Uric Acid Urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Her Chou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid urolithiasis develops from various causes. To investigate the clinical and biochemical presentation of patients with uric acid urolithiasis, a retrospective study was designed. A total of 46 cases were enrolled between January 2004 and December 2005. The compositions of the stones were analyzed by infrared spectrophotometry. There were 39 males (84.8% and seven females (15.2%, with a mean age of 61.5 ± 10.6 years and mean body mass index (BMI of 26.7 ± 3.1 kg/m2. The stone location was kidney in 10 (21.7%, ureter in 22 (41.8%, and bladder in 14 (30.5%. Multiple stones were diagnosed in 36 patients (78.3%. Pre-existing comorbidities included diabetes mellitus in 11 patients (23.9%, hypertension in 23 (50%, gout in 13 (28.2%, and benign prostatic hyperplasia in 14 (30.4%. Mean serum creatinine and uric acid was 1.6 ± 0.6 mg/dL and 7.6 ± 1.8 mg/dL, respectively. There were 27 patients (58% with creatinine > 1.4 mg/dL. The mean urinary pH was 5.42 ± 0.46. Patients with uric acid urolithiasis were predominantly male, older, with higher BMI, multiple stone presentation, with lower urinary pH, and hyperuricemia. Exacerbation of the renal function should also be of concern because of the high proportion of patients with renal insufficiency diagnosed in this study.

  20. The Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee V. Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing prevalence of kidney stones over the last 2 decades worldwide. Many studies have indicated a possible association between metabolic syndrome and kidney stone disease, particularly in overweight and obese patients. Many different definitions of metabolic syndrome have been suggested by various organizations, although the definition by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF is universally considered as the most acceptable definition. The IDF definition revolves around 4 core components: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of urolithiasis resulting from metabolic syndrome, amongst which are the insulin resistance and Randall’s plaque hypothesis. Similarly the pathophysiology of calcium and uric acid stone formation has been investigated to determine a connection between the two conditions. Studies have found many factors contributing to urolithiasis in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, out of which obesity, overweight, and sedentary lifestyles have been identified as major etiological factors. Primary and secondary prevention methods therefore tend to revolve mainly around lifestyle improvements, including dietary and other preventive measures.

  1. Synthesis of single crystalline CdS nanowires with polyethylene glycol 400 as inducing template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Solvothermal technique, an one-step soft solution-processing route was successfully employed to synthesize single crystalline CdS nanowires in ethylenediamine medium at lower temperature (170 □) for 1-8 d. In this route, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400)was used as surfactant, which played a crucial role in preferentially oriented growth of semiconductor nanowires. Characterizations of as-prepared CdS nanowires by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) indicate that the naonowires,with typical diameters of 20nm and lengths up to several micrometers, have preferential [001] orientation. Also, investigations into the physical properties of the CdS nanowires were conducted with UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy. The excitonic photo-optical phenomena of the nanowires shows the potential in the practical applications.

  2. A Clinical and Radiological Observation on Urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Young Sun; Byun, Moung Ho; Yoon, I Ho

    1983-01-01

    A clinical and radiological observation was made on 167 cases of urolithiasis among the number of 150 patients during 1 year and 6 months from June, 1981 to November, 1982. The results were summarized as follows. 1. There were 101 man and 49 women, a ratio of 2:1. The ages of the patients ranged from 2 to 74 years, showing the highest incidence in 31 to 60 years (68.1%). 2. Locational distributions of urolithiasis were 80 cases (47.9%) in the ureter, 66 cases (39.5%) in the kidney, 11 cases (6.5%) in the urethra and 10 cases (5.9%) in the bladder. 3. Among the 66 cases of renal stone, pelvis stone was 55 cases (83.3%) with staghorn types in 23 cases (34.8%), and calyceal stone was 11 cases (16.6%). 4. The location of ureteral stone was 47.5% in lower, 40% in upper ureter and 12.5% in mid-ureter. 5. The location of urethra stone was 82% in the anterior urethra and 18% in the posterior urethra. 6. The chief complain of urolithiasis was flank pain in 59.2%, gross hematuria in 20.3%, renal colic in 13.1%, dysuria in 8.3%, nausea and vomiting in 4.7%, and sudden stoppage of urine stream in 3.5%. 7. On urinalysis, gross hematuria was found in 54.4%, pyuria in 28.7%, bacteriuria in 23.3%, microscopic hematuria in 18.5% and normal in 7.1%. 8. The size of urinary stone was 0.6-2.0 cm in length in 105 cases (62.8%). 9. On I.V.P. study of renal stones (66 cases), mild and moderate hydro nephrotic changes were detected in 38 kidneys (57.5%), and the relationship between the urinary stasis and renal stone size was relatively good. 10. On I.V.P. study of ureteral stones (80 cases), mild to severe hydro nephrotic changes were detected in 64 kidneys (80%). 11. On K.U.B. film, paralytic ileus was found in 25 cases (14.9%). 12. Among the urinary stones, the radiolucent stones were detected in 8 cases (4.7%). 13. Urinary stones disappeared in 11 cases (6.5%) spontaneously or medical treatment.

  3. A Clinical and Radiological Observation on Urolithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sun; Byun, Moung Ho; Yoon, I Ho [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-09-15

    A clinical and radiological observation was made on 167 cases of urolithiasis among the number of 150 patients during 1 year and 6 months from June, 1981 to November, 1982. The results were summarized as follows. 1. There were 101 man and 49 women, a ratio of 2:1. The ages of the patients ranged from 2 to 74 years, showing the highest incidence in 31 to 60 years (68.1%). 2. Locational distributions of urolithiasis were 80 cases (47.9%) in the ureter, 66 cases (39.5%) in the kidney, 11 cases (6.5%) in the urethra and 10 cases (5.9%) in the bladder. 3. Among the 66 cases of renal stone, pelvis stone was 55 cases (83.3%) with staghorn types in 23 cases (34.8%), and calyceal stone was 11 cases (16.6%). 4. The location of ureteral stone was 47.5% in lower, 40% in upper ureter and 12.5% in mid-ureter. 5. The location of urethra stone was 82% in the anterior urethra and 18% in the posterior urethra. 6. The chief complain of urolithiasis was flank pain in 59.2%, gross hematuria in 20.3%, renal colic in 13.1%, dysuria in 8.3%, nausea and vomiting in 4.7%, and sudden stoppage of urine stream in 3.5%. 7. On urinalysis, gross hematuria was found in 54.4%, pyuria in 28.7%, bacteriuria in 23.3%, microscopic hematuria in 18.5% and normal in 7.1%. 8. The size of urinary stone was 0.6-2.0 cm in length in 105 cases (62.8%). 9. On I.V.P. study of renal stones (66 cases), mild and moderate hydro nephrotic changes were detected in 38 kidneys (57.5%), and the relationship between the urinary stasis and renal stone size was relatively good. 10. On I.V.P. study of ureteral stones (80 cases), mild to severe hydro nephrotic changes were detected in 64 kidneys (80%). 11. On K.U.B. film, paralytic ileus was found in 25 cases (14.9%). 12. Among the urinary stones, the radiolucent stones were detected in 8 cases (4.7%). 13. Urinary stones disappeared in 11 cases (6.5%) spontaneously or medical treatment.

  4. Effect of polyethylene glycol induced drought stress on physio-hormonal attributes of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamayun, M.; Khan, A.L.; Ahmad, N.; Lee, In-Jung; Khan, S.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    Drought stress is a major abiotic constraint limiting crop production world wide. In current study, we investigated the adverse effects of drought stress on growth, yield and endogenous phytohormones of soybean. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of elevated strength (8% and 16%) were used for drought stress induction. Drought stress period span for two weeks each at pre and post flowering growth stage. It was observed that soybean growth and yield attributes significantly reduced under drought stress at both pre and post flowering period, while maximum reduction was caused by PEG (16%) applied at pre flowering time. The endogenous bioactive GA/sub 1/ and GA/sub 4/ content decreased under elevated drought stress. On the other hand, jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) content increased under drought stress. On the basis of current study, we concluded that application of earlier drought stress severely reduced growth and yield attributes of soybean when compared to its later application. Furthermore, increases in the endogenous contents of JA, SA and ABA in response to drought stress demonstrate the involvement of these hormones in drought stress resistance. (author)

  5. Is urolithiasis in children associated with obesity or malnutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimoğlu, Mukadder Ayşe; Menekşe, Engin; Tabel, Yılmaz

    2013-03-01

    Although it is known that obesity predisposes to urolithiasis, a tendency for malnutrition in children with urolithiasis owing to recurrent urinary infections and abdominal pain also makes sense. In this study, we aimed to determine the nutritional status of infants and children with urolithiasis, and to observe whether obesity or malnutrition is more prevalent in that population. One hundred eighty-seven children aged 4 months to 17 years (mean, 4.9 ± 4.4 years) with urolithiasis, and 278 age- and sex-matched children without any chronic diseases were included. Anthropometric evaluations, including weight and height standard deviation score (SDS), body mass index, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness (SFT), were performed. Mean weight SDSs of the patients was statistically lower than that of the control subjects (P Malnutrition rate was statistically higher in the patients with urolithiasis when evaluated according to weight SDS and percentiles of body mass index and SFT. When the age factor was taken into account, the percentage of malnutrition, determined by the percentiles of triceps and subscapular SFT measurements, was found to be higher in children younger than 2 years. Short stature was more prevalent in older children. Malnutrition among children with urolithiasis is not as rare as thought previously. A careful anthropometric evaluation should be included in the clinical assessment of those children. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Glycol chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Thomas; Danielsen, E Michael

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan is a polycationic polysaccharide consisting of β-(1-4)-linked glucosamine units and due to its mucoadhesive properties, chemical derivatives of chitosan are potential candidates as enhancers for transmucosal drug delivery. Recently, glycol chitosan (GC), a soluble derivative of chitosan...

  7. Dosimetry considerations in the enhanced sensitivity of male Wistar rats to chronic ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, R.A.; Wilson, D.M.; Hard, G.C.; Stebbins, K.E.; Bartels, M.J.; Soelberg, J.J.; Dryzga, M.D.; Gingell, R.; McMartin, K.E.; Snellings, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Male Wistar rats have been shown to be the most sensitive sex, strain and species to ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity in subchronic studies. A chronic toxicity and dosimetry study was therefore conducted in male Wistar rats administered ethylene glycol via the diet at 0, 50, 150, 300, or 400 mg/kg/day for up to twelve months. Subgroups of animals were included for metabolite analysis and renal clearance studies to provide a quantitative basis for extrapolating dose-response relationships from this sensitive animal model in human health risk assessments. Mortality occurred in 5 of 20 rats at 300 mg/kg/day (days 111-221) and 4 of 20 rats at 400 mg/kg/day (days 43-193), with remaining rats at this dose euthanized early (day 203) due to excessive weight loss. Increased water consumption and urine volume with decreased specific gravity occurred at 300 mg/kg/day presumably due to osmotic diuresis. Calculi (calcium oxalate crystals) occurred in the bladder or renal pelvis at ≥ 300 mg/kg/day. Rats dying early at ≥ 300 mg/kg/day had transitional cell hyperplasia with inflammation and hemorrhage of the bladder wall. Crystal nephropathy (basophilic foci, tubule or pelvic dilatation, birefringent crystals in the pelvic fornix, or transitional cell hyperplasia) affected most rats at 300 mg/kg/day, all at 400 mg/kg/day, but none at ≤ 150 mg/kg/day. No significant differences in kidney oxalate levels, the metabolite responsible for renal toxicity, were observed among control, 50 and 150 mg/kg/day groups. At 300 and 400 mg/kg/day, oxalate levels increased proportionally with the nephrotoxicity score supporting the oxalate crystal-induced nephrotoxicity mode of action. No treatment-related effects on the renal clearance of intravenously infused 3 H-inulin, a marker for glomerular filtration, and 14 C-oxalic acid were observed in rats surviving 12 months of exposure to ethylene glycol up to 300 mg/kg/day. In studies with naive male Wistar and F344 rats (a less sensitive

  8. Germinaton performance of selected local soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrills) cultivars during drought stress induced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, R. F.; Damanik, R. I.; Khardinata, E. H.

    2018-02-01

    Drought stress is one of the factors that can decreased growth and production, so that required a variety that has the ability to sustain cellular metabolism, and growth during the stress. This research was aimed to investigated the involvement of germination performance invitro of five local soybean cultivars, Grobogan, Kaba, Anjasmoro, Argomulyo, and Dering to drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%). The measurable seedling traits as the day appearance of shoots and roots, total of leaves, shoot length, root length, fresh plant weight, dry plant weight, fresh root weight, and dry root weight under control as well as water stress condition were recorded. The experiment units were arranged in factorial completely randomized design with four replications. The result showed that the value for most parameters was recorded highest for Argomulyo cultivar compared with Dering cultivar which is known to be tolerant to drought. In terms of roots performance, Grobogan and Argomulyo cultivars produced the longest and heaviest of roots, while Grobogan cultivar had no significant different for root length compared with control. In conclusion, the root length and fresh weight root parameters can be used as quick criteria for drought tolerance.

  9. Hemocompatibility and oxygenation performance of polysulfone membranes grafted with polyethylene glycol and heparin by plasma-induced surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Zheng, Zhi; Huang, Xin; Fan, Wenling; Yu, Wenkui; Zhang, Zhibing; Li, Lei; Mao, Chun

    2017-10-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and heparin (Hep) were grafted onto polysulfone (PSF) membrane by plasma-induced surface modification to prepare PSF-PEG-Hep membranes used for artificial lung. The effects of plasma treatment parameters, including power, gas type, gas flow rate, and treatment time, were investigated, and different PEG chains were bonded covalently onto the surface in the postplasma grafting process. Membrane surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, PEG grafting degree, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, critical water permeability pressure, and scanning electron microscopy. Protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and coagulation tests showed significant improvement in the hemocompatibility of PSF-PEG-Hep membranes compared to pristine PSF membrane. Gas exchange tests through PSF-PEG6000-Hep membrane showed that when the flow rate of porcine blood reached 5.0 L/min, the permeation fluxes of O 2 and CO 2 reached 192.6 and 166.9 mL/min, respectively, which were close to the gas exchange capacity of a commercial membrane oxygenator. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1737-1746, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diglycolic acid is the nephrotoxic metabolite in diethylene glycol poisoning inducing necrosis in human proximal tubule cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Greg M; Martin, Sarah; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2011-11-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG), a solvent and chemical intermediate, can produce an acute toxic syndrome, the hallmark of which is acute renal failure due to cortical tubular degeneration and proximal tubular necrosis. DEG is metabolized to two primary metabolites, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (2-HEAA) and diglycolic acid (DGA), which are believed to be the proximate toxicants. The precise mechanism of toxicity has yet to be elucidated, so these studies were designed to determine which metabolite was responsible for the proximal tubule cell death. Human proximal tubule (HPT) cells in culture, obtained from normal cortical tissue and passaged 3-6 times, were incubated with increasing concentrations of DEG, 2-HEAA, or DGA separately and in combination for 48 h at pH 6 or 7.4, and various parameters of necrotic and apoptotic cell death were measured. DEG and 2-HEAA did not produce any cell death. DGA produced dose-dependent necrosis at concentrations above 25 mmol/l. DGA did not affect caspase-3 activity and increased annexin V staining only in propidium iodide-stained cells. Hence, DGA induced necrosis, not apoptosis, as corroborated by severe depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate levels. DGA is structurally similar to citric acid cycle intermediates that are taken up by specific transporters in kidney cells. HPT cells, incubated with N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid, a sodium dicarboxylate-1 transporter inhibitor showed significantly decreased cell death compared with DGA alone. These studies demonstrate that DGA is the toxic metabolite responsible for DEG-induced proximal tubular necrosis and suggest a possible transporter-mediated uptake of DGA leading to toxic accumulation and cellular dysfunction.

  11. MRP-1 and BCRP Promote the Externalization of Phosphatidylserine in Oxalate-treated Renal Epithelial Cells: Implications for Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YiFu; Yu, ShiLiang; Gan, XiuGuo; Zhang, Ze; Wang, Yan; Wang, YingWei; An, RuiHua

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in the oxalate-induced redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) in renal epithelial cell membranes. A western blot analysis was used to examine the MRP-1 and BCRP expression levels. Surface-expressed PS was detected by the annexin V-binding assay. The cell-permeable fluorogenic probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to measure the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. A rat model of hyperoxaluria was obtained using 0.5% ethylene glycol and 1.0% ammonium chloride. In addition, certain animals received verapamil (50 mg/kg body weight), which is a common inhibitor of MRP-1 and BCRP. The degree of nephrolithiasis was assessed histomorphometrically using sections stained by Pizzolato method and by measuring the calcium oxalate crystal content in the renal tissue. Oxalate produced a concentration-dependent increase in the synthesis of MRP-1 and BCRP. Treatment with MK571 and Ko143 (MRP-1- and BCRP-specific inhibitors, respectively) significantly attenuated the oxalate-induced PS externalization. Adding the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly reduced MRP-1 and BCRP expression. In vivo, markedly decreased nephrocalcinosis was observed compared with that in the rat model of hyperoxaluria without verapamil treatment. Oxalate induces the upregulation of MRP-1 and BCRP, which act as phospholipid floppases causing PS externalization in the renal epithelial cell membrane. The process is mediated by intracellular ROS production. The ROS-mediated increase in the synthesis of MRP-1 and BCRP can play an important role in hyperoxaluria-promoted calcium oxalate urolithiasis by facilitating phosphatidylserine redistribution in renal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polyethylene glycol-functionalized poly (Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid and graphene oxide nanoparticles induce pro-inflammatory and apoptotic responses in Candida albicans-infected vaginal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Doug Wagner

    Full Text Available Mucous-penetrating nanoparticles consisting of poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-polyethylene glycol (PEG could improve targeting of microbicidal drugs for sexually transmitted diseases by intravaginal inoculation. Nanoparticles can induce inflammatory responses, which may exacerbate the inflammation that occurs in the vaginal tracts of women with yeast infections. This study evaluated the effects of these drug-delivery nanoparticles on VK2(E6/E7 vaginal epithelial cell proinflammatory responses to Candida albicans yeast infections. Vaginal epithelial cell monolayers were infected with C. albicans and exposed to 100 μg/ml 49.5 nm PLGA-PEG nanospheres or 20 μg/ml 1.1 x 500 nm PEG-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PEG sheets. The cells were assessed for changes in mRNA and protein expression of inflammation-related genes by RT-qPCR and physiological markers of cell stress using high content analysis and flow cytometry. C. albicans exposure suppressed apoptotic gene expression, but induced oxidative stress in the cells. The nanomaterials induced cytotoxicity and programmed cell death responses alone and with C. albicans. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles induced mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes and induced poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, increased BAX/BCL2 ratios, and chromatin condensation indicative of apoptosis. They also induced autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and DNA damage. They caused the cells to excrete inflammatory recruitment molecules chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, interleukin-1α (IL1A, interleukin-1β (IL1B, calprotectin (S100A8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF. GO-PEG nanoparticles induced expression of necrosis-related genes and cytotoxicity. They reduced autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic gene expression responses. The results show that stealth nanoparticle drug-delivery vehicles may cause intracellular damage to vaginal epithelial cells by several mechanisms and that

  13. Data in support of intermolecular interactions at early stage of protein/detergent particle association induced by salt/polyethylene glycol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Odahara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data provide information in support of the research article, “Intermolecular interactions at early stage of protein/detergent particle association induced by salt/polyethylene glycol mixtures” [1]. The data regarding variation of absorption spectra is used as an indicator of the duration of Rp. viridis PRU and RC, Rb. sphaeroides RC and LH2, and Rb. capsulatus LH2 in the native state in the presence of NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG mixture. The data about minimum concentrations of salt and PEG whose aqueous phases are mutually separated presents information on additional influence of Tris buffer and N-octyl-β-d-glucoside on the salt–PEG phase separation.

  14. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  15. Idiopathic urolithiasis in Tunisian children: A report of 134 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Alaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the metabolic and the nutritional aspects of 134 urolithiasis children in order to outline the characteristics of idiopathic urolithiasis in children. This prospective study group of 134 children (56 females, 78 males with renal calculi was evaluated. The age range of the patients was six months to 16 years. A dietary survey was performed on every child. All patients were investigated with respect to stone localization and serum and urine risk factors. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using software SPSS 11.0 for Windows. Hypercalciuria was the most common risk factor detected in this group (28.3%. A decrease of water intake was noted in all age groups, especially in the rural area (549.6 mL/day vs. 1150.6 mL/day, and there was an increase in animal protein intake in 17 cases (mean: 1.9 g/kg. In addition, increased intake of starchy foods and food with high oxalate content (sorgum were detected in the ten to 16 years age group (51% of our study. Calcium oxalate monohydrate represents the principal component of idiopathic stone (58.2%, which is more frequent in children (68% than in infants (51.7% (P <0.02. The major etiology of idiopathic urolithiasis highlights the influence of dietary habit in stone formers in our country. The increased occurrence of calcium oxalate stones in school age children confirms the change in the etiology of urolithiasis according to age.

  16. Canine primary hyperparathyroidism and its association with urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klausner, J.S.; Fernandez, F.R.; O'Leary, T.P.; Johnston, S.D.; Osborne, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism results from autonomous secretion of parathyroid hormone by a single or multiple parathyroid glands. Clinical signs result from various combinations of hypercalcemia, hypercalcemic nephropathy, urolithiasis, or mobilization of calcium and phosphorus from bone. Following parathyroidectomy, the prognosis for dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism is good if the disorder is diagnosed before renal disease is advanced

  17. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH UROLITHIASIS IN THE POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Sadulloev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Objective: To determine the most frequent causative agents of nosocomial infection in patients with urolithiasis in the postoperative period.Material and Methods. The study is based on the results of comprehensive studies conducted in 122 patients with nosocomial urinary tract infection, detected in 823 patients with urolithiasis treated by various methods. A cohort of 823 patients is isolated from 2688 patients treated without at admission signs of infections in the urinary tract for the period 2011–2014. All patients were treated at the Urological department of Avicenna Tajik State Medical University in the Republican Clinical Center of Urology. Main results. By the method of randomly selected 823 medical records of patients with urolithiasis various operations we carried out with 122 patients revealed cases of nosocomial infections. The diagnosis of nosocomial infections on the basis of established symptomatic urinary tract infection, asymptomatic bacteriuria or the presence of wound infection, use during the hospital stay for treatment of antibiotics, antiseptics, physiotherapy and other therapies. The incidence of nosocomial infections was studied in dependence with the severity of the underlying disease, the volume of surgical, invasive, endoscopic and other urological procedures, the timing and frequency of tests, the proportion of individual clinical manifestations in the overall structure of urinary tract infections, sex and age of patients.Conclusions. The leading microflora causing nosocomial infection in patients with urolithiasis in all treatments are gram-negative microorganisms, including prevailing E.coli (24,0%.

  18. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. leaves using ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apexa Bhanuprasad Shukla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (B. pinnatum on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six equal groups. group A animals received distilled water for 28 days. Group B to group F animals received 1% v/v ethylene glycol in distilled water for 28 days and group B served as ethylene glycol control. Groups C and D (preventive groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively for 28 days. Groups E and F (treatment groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively from 15th to 28th day. On days 0 and 28, 24 hrs urine samples were collected for urinary volume and urinary oxalate measurement. On day 28, blood was collected for serum creatinine and blood urea level monitoring. All animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed, weighed, and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate crystals deposition. Results: Administration of aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum reduced urine oxalate level significantly, as compared with Group B (p

  19. Efficacy Management of Urolithiasis: Flexible Ureteroscopy versus Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Volkmar; Wohlmuth, Martin; Hochmuth, Andreas; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Schimetta, Wofgang; Krause, F Steffen

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of flexible ureterscopy (fURS) and extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the treatment of urolithiasis, complemented by a subgroup analysis of lower pole calyx. Retrospective analysis of patients treated by fURS or SWL was performed by independent variables such as gender, age, nephrolith size, double-J stent (DJ stent) and stone localisation. Out of 326 patients, 165 were treated by SWL and 161 by fURS. Complete stone removal was achieved by fURS in 83.2% and by SWL in 43.0% (p auxillary DJ stent was performed more often preoperative before fURS. The subgroup analysis of lower pole calyx confirmed these evaluations. Complete stone-free removal was almost 8 times higher after fURS compared to SWL. The efficacy of fURS in treatment of urolithiasis is substantially higher than the efficacy of SWL. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. [Carcinogenic activity of ethylene oxide and its reaction products 2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. III. Research on ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol for carcinogenic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberg, H

    1987-03-01

    Ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol were each administered once weekly subcutaneously to groups of 100 female NMRI mice at 3 dosages (30; 10 und 3 mg single dose per mouse). Tricaprylin was used as solvent. The mean total dosage per mouse was 2110.5; 707.0 and 196.2 mg for ethylene glycol and 2029.8; 671.7 and 213.3 mg for diethylene glycol. Neither ethylene glycol nor diethylene glycol induced tumors at the injection site or away from the point of administration.

  1. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    OpenAIRE

    Touhami, Mohammed; Laroubi, Amine; Elhabazi, Khadija; Loubna, Farouk; Zrara, Ibtissam; Eljahiri, Younes; Oussama, Abdelkhalek; Grases, Félix; Chait, Abderrahman

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered n...

  2. Perinatal Outcomes with Tamsulosin Therapy for Symptomatic Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, George; Vaughan, Lisa; Rose, Carl; Krambeck, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Medical expulsive therapy represents an effective adjunctive treatment for nonpregnant patients with symptomatic urolithiasis. Tamsulosin is classified by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) as a category B medication. However, to our knowledge no published data exist for human pregnancy. We explored the safety and efficacy of tamsulosin therapy for symptomatic urolithiasis occurring during pregnancy. We retrospectively identified patients treated with tamsulosin for stone disease during pregnancy at the Mayo Clinic during 2000 to 2014. This medical expulsive therapy cohort was matched 2:1 to pregnant women with symptomatic urolithiasis during pregnancy who did not receive medical expulsive therapy. Groups were compared using linear mixed models for continuous variables and exact conditional logistic regression models for nominal variables to take into account correlation due to matching. A total of 27 patients receiving medical expulsive therapy comprised the study cohort. Median duration of antepartum tamsulosin exposure was 3 days (range 1 to 110), occurring during the first, second and third trimester in 3 (11%), 11 (40.7%) and 18 (67%) patients, respectively. Mean gestational age at delivery was 38.1 weeks (SD 2.4) and 6 (22%) infants were born preterm. All infant birthweights were considered appropriate for gestational age, and no cases of spontaneous abortion, intrauterine demise or neonatal congenital anomalies were encountered. Comparison between the medical expulsive therapy and control groups demonstrated no significant differences in maternal or infant outcomes for any of the examined variables. Tamsulosin medical expulsive therapy does not appear to be associated with adverse maternal or fetal outcomes and may be considered as adjunctive therapy for urolithiasis during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contemporary diagnostic imaging approaches in treatment of urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkov, B.; Naoumov, N.

    2004-01-01

    Based on an extensive review of the literature and on their own clinical experience, authors attempts to present clear guidelines for the management of urolithiasis. Ninety-eight per cent of stones can be successfully fragmented by the application of shock-waves, but the ability of the kidney and ureter to clear the resulting fragments is far more important in terms of successful treatment outcome. Extracorporeal shock-waves lithotripsy (ESWL) is a safe procedure for the treatment of urolithiasis; nevertheless some problems remain. In ureteric stones, ureteroscopy (rigid or flexible device) allows a rate of stone-free patients better than ESWL. For treatment of large staghorn calculi combined approach of Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) and ESWL is preferred. For stones located at lower calyx, the stone-free rate in patients treated by ESWL fell to 50%, when unfavourable anatomy is present. Ultimate goal of treating stones by whatever means is to get the patient stone-free and prevent recurrence. The good technique of performing and interpretation of diagnostic imaging modalities is of critical importance in terms of diagnosing, successful treatment and follow up of results of treatment of urolithiasis

  4. Neurite extension and neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neural stem cells on polyethylene glycol hydrogels containing a continuous Young's Modulus gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Matthew C; Lim, Hyun Ju; Chen, Jing; Yang, Yueh-Hsun; Li, Shenglan; Liu, Ying; Smith Callahan, Laura A

    2017-03-01

    Mechanotransduction in neural cells involves multiple signaling pathways that are not fully understood. Differences in lineage and maturation state are suggested causes for conflicting reports on neural cell mechanosensitivity. To optimize matrices for use in stem cell therapy treatments transplanting human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neural stem cells (hNSC) into lesions after spinal cord injury, the effects of Young's Modulus changes on hNSC behavior must be understood. The present study utilizes polyethylene glycol hydrogels containing a continuous gradient in Young's modulus to examine changes in the Young's Modulus of the culture substrate on hNSC neurite extension and neural differentiation. Changes in the Young's Modulus of the polyethylene glycol hydrogels was found to affect neurite extension and cellular organization on the matrices. hNSC cultured on 907 Pa hydrogels were found to extend longer neurites than hNSC cultured on other tested Young's Moduli hydrogels. The gene expression of β tubulin III and microtubule-associated protein 2 in hNSC was affected by changes in the Young's Modulus of the hydrogel. The combinatory method approach used in the present study demonstrates that hNSC are mechanosensitive and the matrix Young's Modulus should be a design consideration for hNSC transplant applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 824-833, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bioceramic/Poly (glycolic-poly (lactic acid composite induces mineralized barrier after direct capping of rat tooth pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gala-Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the histopathological pulp response following direct pulp capping of mechanically exposed teeth in rats with a composite of beta-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite bioceramic (BC and poly (glycolic-poly (lactic acid (PLGA material or a calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] material, compared to BC alone and a negative control of water. Pulp of the maxillary molars was exposed, followed by capping with the experimental material. The pulpal tissue response was assessed post-operatively at 1, 7, 14 and 30 d, followed by histological analysis. The Ca(OH2 group exhibited severe acute inflammatory cell infiltration at day 14. However after 30 d, a new hard tissue with macro porous obliteration of the pulp chamber and a characteristic necrotic area had appeared. BC and Ca(OH2 capping were associated with moderate inflammation and dentinal bridge similar. Meanwhile, in the BC/PLGA composite group, there was moderate inflammatory infiltrate and formation of a dense and complete dentinal bridge. In conclusion, the BC/PLGA composite material showed a large zone of tertiary dentin, and effectively reorganized the dentin-pulp complex.

  6. Effect of the Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Leaf Extract on the Ethylene Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Barbosa de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the Copaifera langsdorffii leaves extract to prevent stone formation was analyzed by means of an ethylene glycol (EG animal model of nephrolithiasis and an in vitro crystallization assay. Different doses of the C. langsdorffii leaves extract were administered to rats treated with EG. Urine biochemical parameters were quantified. CaOx deposits count and analysis of osteopontin expression were conducted on kidneys fixed in formalin. The in vitro assay was performed by turbidimetry. Phytochemical analyses of the extract were accomplished by HPLC-UV-DAD, and several compounds were isolated. C. langsdorffii leaf extract was able to avoid stone formation. The number of deposits was 50.30±31.29 at the higher extract dose, compared to the value of 179.5±45.96 achieved with the EG control. Significantly lower oxalate levels and OPN expression and increased citrate levels were observed after extract administration. In the in vitro assay, the extract diluted the formed crystals. Phytochemical analyses showed that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds that are capable of preventing stone formation. Thus, on the basis of our results, we suggest that the C. langsdorffii leaf extract has potential application in the prevention of kidney stone formation.

  7. Gene transfection mediated by polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol nanocarrier prevents cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-gui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG, a novel nanocarrier, has been used for transfection and gene therapy in a variety of cells. In our previous study, we successfully carried out PEI-PEG-mediated gene transfer in spiral ganglion cells. It remains unclear whether PEI-PEG could be used for gene therapy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP in the inner ear. In the present study, we performed PEI-PEG-mediated XIAP gene transfection in the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats, via scala tympani fenestration, before daily cisplatin injections. Auditory brainstem reflex tests demonstrated the protective effects of XIAP gene therapy on auditory function. Immunohistochemical staining revealed XIAP protein expression in the cytoplasm of cells in the spiral ganglion, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. Reverse transcription-PCR detected high levels of XIAP mRNA expression in the cochlea. The present findings suggest that PEI-PEG nanocarrier-mediated XIAP gene transfection results in XIAP expression in the cochlea, prevents damage to cochlear spiral ganglion cells, and protects hearing.

  8. Biomimetic sulfated polyethylene glycol hydrogel inhibits proteoglycan loss and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression pattern in an osteoarthritis in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati-Sadeghi, Shabnam; Dey, Pradip; Ringe, Jochen; Haag, Rainer; Sittinger, Michael; Dehne, Tilo

    2018-04-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of an anti-inflammatory polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel for osteoarthritis (OA) management in an OA in vitro model. Freshly isolated porcine chondrocytes were maintained in high-density cultures to form cartilage-like three-dimensional micromasses. Recombinant porcine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was used to induce OA-like changes. Normal and OA-like micromasses were treated with dendritic polyglycerol sulfate-based PEG hydrogel. Live/dead staining showed that all micromasses remained vital and presented similar morphological characteristics. Safranin-O staining demonstrated a typical depletion of glycosaminoglycans in TNF-α-treated micromasses but not in the presence of the hydrogel. There was no distinct difference in immunohistochemical detection of type II collagen. Microarray data showed that rheumatoid arthritis and TNF signaling pathways were down regulated in hydrogel-treated OA-like micromasses compared to nontreated OA-like micromasses. The hydrogel alone did not affect genes related to OA such as ANPEP, COMP, CXCL12, PTGS2, and TNFSF10, but it prevented their regulation caused by TNF-α. This study provides valuable insights toward a fully synthetic hydrogel for the intra-articular treatment of OA. The findings proved the potential of this hydrogel to prevent the development of TNF-α-induced OA with regard to proteoglycan loss and TNF-α-induced expression pattern without additional signs of differentiation and inflammation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Characteristic of x-ray picture of urolithiasis in children and juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramnij, Yi.O.; Bortnij, M.O.; Voron'zhev, Yi.O.; Ul'yanchenko, Yi.M.

    1999-01-01

    More exactly the characteristics of urolithiasis x-ray picture in children and juveniles was defined. X-ray study of 42 patients. Mainly x-ray positive calculi localized in the pelvis and ureters occur in children patients

  10. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen) and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was ...

  11. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    2015-04-10

    Apr 10, 2015 ... food animals. Balanoposthitis which is an inflammation of the penis and prepuce can be found in male animals with urethral obstruction (Radostits et al., 2007). This can be ... A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria ...

  12. UV-induced polymerization of size-controlled platinum/poly[styrene-divinylbenzene-tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate] hydrophobic catalyst beads in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wi, Jun; Li, Xiang; Song, Tong; Song, Zi Fan; Chang, Zhen Qi; Meng, Da Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic exchange of hydrogen isotopes between hydrogen and water has been known to be a very useful process for the separation of tritium from tritiated water. For the process, a highly active hydrophobic catalyst is needed. This study provides an effective fabrication method of size-controlled platinum/poly[styrene-divinylbenzene-tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate] [Pt/poly(SDB-TPGDA)] hydrophobic catalyst beads with a narrow size distribution. Platinum nanoparticles were prepared by γ-ray-induced reduction in the aqueous phase first, and then uniformly dispersed in SDB-TPGDA comonomer after the hydrophobization of platinum nanoparticles with alkylamine stabilizers. The porous Pt/poly(SDB-TPGDA) hydrophobic catalyst beads were synthesized by the UV-initiated polymerization of the mixture droplets prepared in a capillary-based microfluidic system. The size of as-prepared catalyst beads can be controlled in the range of 200-1,000 μm by adjusting the flow rate of dispersed and continuous phases, as well as the viscosity of the continuous phase. Sorbitan monooleate and cyclohexanol were used as coporogens to control the porosities of the catalyst beads

  13. UV-induced polymerization of size-controlled platinum/poly[styrene-divinylbenzene-tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate] hydrophobic catalyst beads in microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wi, Jun; Li, Xiang; Song, Tong; Song, Zi Fan; Chang, Zhen Qi [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Meng, Da Qiao [Si Chuan Institute of Materials and Technology, Jiang You (China)

    2015-10-15

    The catalytic exchange of hydrogen isotopes between hydrogen and water has been known to be a very useful process for the separation of tritium from tritiated water. For the process, a highly active hydrophobic catalyst is needed. This study provides an effective fabrication method of size-controlled platinum/poly[styrene-divinylbenzene-tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate] [Pt/poly(SDB-TPGDA)] hydrophobic catalyst beads with a narrow size distribution. Platinum nanoparticles were prepared by γ-ray-induced reduction in the aqueous phase first, and then uniformly dispersed in SDB-TPGDA comonomer after the hydrophobization of platinum nanoparticles with alkylamine stabilizers. The porous Pt/poly(SDB-TPGDA) hydrophobic catalyst beads were synthesized by the UV-initiated polymerization of the mixture droplets prepared in a capillary-based microfluidic system. The size of as-prepared catalyst beads can be controlled in the range of 200-1,000 μm by adjusting the flow rate of dispersed and continuous phases, as well as the viscosity of the continuous phase. Sorbitan monooleate and cyclohexanol were used as coporogens to control the porosities of the catalyst beads.

  14. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3350 is in a class of medications called osmotic laxatives. It works by causing water to be ... experience either of them, call your doctor immediately: diarrhea hives Polyethylene glycol 3350 may cause other side ...

  15. A single dose of dexamethasone encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss following round window membrane administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Chen, Dongye; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shi, Fuxin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the sustained drug release properties and hearing protection effect of polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) stealth nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone (DEX). DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using an emulsion and evaporation technique, as previously reported. The DEX-loaded PEG-PLA nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) had a hydrodynamic diameter of 130±4.78 nm, and a zeta potential of -26.13±3.28 mV. The in vitro release of DEX from DEX-NPs lasted 24 days in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4), 5 days in artificial perilymph (pH 7.4), and 1 day in rat plasma. Coumarin 6-labeled NPs placed onto the round window membrane (RWM) of guinea pigs penetrated RWM quickly and accumulated to the organs of Corti, stria vascularis, and spiral ganglion cells after 1 hour of administration. The DEX-NPs locally applied onto the RWM of guinea pigs by a single-dose administration continuously released DEX in 48 hours, which was significantly longer than the free DEX that was cleared out within 12 hours after administration at the same dose. Further functional studies showed that locally administrated single-dose DEX-NPs effectively preserved outer hair cells in guinea pigs after cisplatin insult and thus significantly attenuated hearing loss at 4 kHz and 8 kHz frequencies when compared to the control of free DEX formulation. Histological analyses indicated that the administration of DEX-NPs did not induce local inflammatory responses. Therefore, prolonged delivery of DEX by PEG-PLA nanoparticles through local RWM diffusion (administration) significantly protected the hair cells and auditory function in guinea pigs from cisplatin toxicity, as determined at both histological and functional levels, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefits in clinical applications.

  16. Tuning of thermally induced sol-to-gel transitions of moderately concentrated aqueous solutions of doubly thermosensitive hydrophilic diblock copolymers poly(methoxytri(ethylene glycol) acrylate)-b-poly(ethoxydi(ethylene glycol) acrylate-co-acrylic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Naixiong; Zhang, Hao; Jin, Shi; Dadmun, Mark D; Zhao, Bin

    2012-03-15

    We report in this article a method to tune the sol-to-gel transitions of moderately concentrated aqueous solutions of doubly thermosensitive hydrophilic diblock copolymers that consist of two blocks exhibiting distinct lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) in water. A small amount of weak acid groups is statistically incorporated into the lower LCST block so that its LCST can be tuned by varying solution pH. Well-defined diblock copolymers, poly(methoxytri(ethylene glycol) acrylate)-b-poly(ethoxydi(ethylene glycol) acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PTEGMA-b-P(DEGEA-co-AA)), were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and postpolymerization modification. PTEGMA and PDEGEA are thermosensitive water-soluble polymers with LCSTs of 58 and 9 °C, respectively, in water. A 25 wt % aqueous solution of PTEGMA-b-P(DEGEA-co-AA) with a molar ratio of DEGEA to AA units of 100:5.2 at pH = 3.24 underwent multiple phase transitions upon heating, from a clear, free-flowing liquid (sol-to-gel transition temperature (T(sol-gel)) shifted to higher values, while the gel-to-sol transition (T(gel-sol)) and the clouding temperature (T(clouding)) of the sample remained essentially the same. These transitions and the tunability of T(sol-gel) originated from the thermosensitive properties of two blocks of the diblock copolymer and the pH dependence of the LCST of P(DEGEA-co-AA), which were confirmed by dynamic light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Using the vial inversion test method, we mapped out the C-shaped sol-gel phase diagrams of the diblock copolymer in aqueous buffers in the moderate concentration range at three different pH values (3.24, 5.58, and 5.82, all measured at ~0 °C). While the upper temperature boundaries overlapped, the lower temperature boundary shifted upward and the critical gelation concentration increased with the increase of pH. The AA content in PTEGMA-b-P(DEGEA-co-AA) was found to have a significant

  17. Humidity-dependent compression-induced glass transition of the air-water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Jung, Hyunjung; Choi, Yun Hwa; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Bang, Joona; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-07-28

    Constant rate compression isotherms of the air-water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA) show a distinct feature of an exponential increase in surface pressure in the high surface polymer concentration regime. We have previously demonstrated that this abrupt increase in surface pressure is linked to the glass transition of the polymer film, but the detailed mechanism of this process is not fully understood. In order to obtain a molecular-level understanding of this behavior, we performed extensive characterizations of the surface mechanical, structural and rheological properties of Langmuir PLGA films at the air-water interface, using combined experimental techniques including the Langmuir film balance, X-ray reflectivity and double-wall-ring interfacial rheometry methods. We observed that the mechanical and structural responses of the Langmuir PLGA films are significantly dependent on the rate of film compression; the glass transition was induced in the PLGA film only at fast compression rates. Surprisingly, we found that this deformation rate dependence is also dependent on the humidity of the environment. With water acting as a plasticizer for the PLGA material, the diffusion of water molecules through the PLGA film seems to be the key factor in the determination of the glass transformation properties and thus the mechanical response of the PLGA film against lateral compression. Based on our combined results, we hypothesize the following mechanism for the compression-induced glass transformation of the Langmuir PLGA film; (1) initially, a humidified/non-glassy PLGA film is formed in the full surface-coverage region (where the surface pressure shows a plateau) during compression; (2) further compression leads to the collapse of the PLGA chains and the formation of new surfaces on the air side of the film, and this newly formed top layer of the PLGA film is transiently glassy in character because the water evaporation rate

  18. Assessment of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) Therapeutic Efficiency in Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu, P; Pănuş, A; Mitroi, G; Drăgoescu, O; Stoica, L; Dena, S; Enache, E

    2009-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) revolutionized the treatment of urolithiasis and gradually became the favorite treatment option so that today it is considered to be the first line of treatment for more than 75% of the patients with urolithiasis. The purpose of this study was the assessment of the therapeutic efficiency, complications and limitations of ESWL in urolithiasis in the initial experience using a third generation electromagnetic lithotripter.  Between 2007 and 2008 we performed ESWL for 167 patients with urolithiasis. We recorded 92 patients with single stone (55.1%) and 72 with multiple lithiasis (44.9%). Stone size varied between 7 and 24 mm with an average of 12.3±7.1 mm. Radioopac stones were found in 104 patients (62.3%) while radiolucent stones in 63 only (37.6%).    Complete stone disintegration and clearance was achieved in most cases (86.2%). Complications were mostly minor and rare (transitory haematuria, renal colic). Severe complications (renal hematoma, steinstrasse) were diagnosed for a limited number of patients (3.6%) and their management was mostly nonsurgical or minimally invasive (retrograde ureteroscopy). ESWL is therefore the first line of treatment for urolithiasis with stone size smaller than 2.5 cm. It has an efficiency rate above 85%, low procedure time, high safety and good tolerability (new generation lithotripters do not require anesthesia) and minimal complications.

  19. Tube cystostomy for management of obstructive urolithiasis in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamilmahan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the simple tube cystostomy procedure for management of urethral obstruction cases in ruminants. Materials and Methods: Tube cystostomy was used to treat a total of 58 ruminants, which included 35 buffalo calves and 23 goats. Diagnosis of the disease was made with the history of anuria, clinical signs, and physical examinations. Physical parameters like heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature dehydration status of animals by skin tenting test, and intraoperative findings were compared. Results: Young ruminants were most commonly affected and the mean age was 4-5 months in both species. Only male were considered for the study in which buffalo calves were not castrated but in goat's 73.91% animal were castrated and 34.7% not castrated. Rupture of bladder was more common in buffalo calves as compared to goats. The confirmed cases of obstructive urolithiasis were selected for tube cystostomy with Foley's catheter. Postoperatively all cases were administered with broad spectrum antibiotic, anti-inflammatory agent, and caliculolytic agents like ammonium chloride. Postoperative complications recorded only in 10 animals and remaining 48 animals had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion: Tube cystostomy is a simple and effective procedure particularly in intact urinary bladder, which can be adopted at field level.

  20. [Guidelines on urolithiasis: an outline and effective use of the revised version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Koji

    2012-12-01

    Progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of urolithiasis over the last 10 years, after the first version of the Guidelines on Urolithiasis was published in December 2002. Considering such a situation, the revised version is due for publication soon. At this symposium, 3 persons who were engaged in the revision of the guidelines presented its digest. The revised version is characterized by the adoption of a "Frequently asked questions style", aiming to facilitate its usage as a reference book or dictionary readers can refer to when a question is raised in practice. It may be possible to further promote the medical treatment of urolithiasis by effectively using this in combination with the relatively textbook-like first version.

  1. Evaluation of imaging methods in the diagnosis of urolithiasis: review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Ricardo Miguel Costa de; Silva, Luciana Costa; Santos, Jovita Lane Soares; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare helical computed tomography with imaging studies currently used to evaluate patients with acute low back pain. In addition, we briefly review the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. The literature published in the last 30 years was reviewed, and the following methods were discussed: plain abdominal radiographs, intravenous pyelography, ultrasound of the urinary tract, and helical computed tomography. Helical computed tomography showed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting urolithiasis, virtually showing all stones, except in patients receiving indinavir. The accuracy of plain abdominal radiographs associated with ultrasound was similar to helical computed tomography, although the latter showed superiority as an isolated method. Data from literature suggest that whenever helical computed tomography is available, it is helpful in the evaluation of low back pain and also allows differential diagnosis between conditions that mimic the symptoms of urolithiasis.(author)

  2. Assessment of Collagen-Induced Arthritis Using Cyanine 5.5 Conjugated with Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles: Correlation with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Sheen Woo; Moon, Dae Huk [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyoung Soon [Biomedical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biswal, Sandip [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To evaluate the potential and correlation between near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging using cyanine 5.5 conjugated with hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles (HGC-Cy5.5) and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) imaging of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We used 10 CIA and 3 normal mice. Nine days after the injecting collagen twice, microPET imaging was performed 40 minutes after the intravenous injection of 9.3 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG in 200 {mu}L PBS. One day later, NIRF imaging was performed two hours after the intravenous injection of HGC-cy5.5 (5 mg/kg). We assessed the correlation between these two modalities in the knees and ankles of CIA mice. The mean standardized uptake values of {sup 18}F-FDG for knees and ankles were 1.68 {+-} 0.76 and 0.79 {+-} 0.71, respectively, for CIA mice; and 0.57 {+-} 0.17 and 0.54 {+-} 0.20 respectively for control mice. From the NIRF images, the total photon counts per 30 mm{sup 2} for knees and ankles were 2.32 {+-} 1.54 X 10{sup 5} and 2.75 {+-} 1.51 X 10{sup 5}, respectively, for CIA mice, and 1.22 {+-} 0.27 X 10{sup 5} and 0.88 {+-} 0.24 X 10{sup 5}, respectively, for control mice. These two modalities showed a moderate correlation for knees (r = 0.604, p = 0.005) and ankles (r = 0.464, p = 0.039). Moreover, both HGC-Cy5.5 (p = 0.002) and {sup 18}F-FDG-PET (p = 0.005) imaging also showed statistically significant differences between CIA and normal mice. NIRF imaging using HGC-Cy5.5 was moderately correlated with {sup 18}F-FDG-PET imaging in the CIA model. As such, HGC-Cy5.5 imaging can be used for the early detection of rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Metabolic evaluation of urolithiasis and obesity in a midwestern pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, John T; Ghousheh, Anas I; Christensen, Melissa A; Durkee, Charles T

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of urolithiasis has been proved to be increasing in the adult population, and evidence to date suggests that the same holds true for the pediatric population. While adult urolithiasis is clearly linked to obesity, studies of pediatric patients have been less conclusive. We hypothesized that a population of otherwise healthy children with stones would have an increased body mass index compared to a control population, and that obese pediatric stone formers would have results on metabolic assessment that are distinct from nonobese stone formers. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients 10 to 17 years old with upper tract urolithiasis without comorbidities treated between 2006 and 2011. Mean body mass index of our population was compared to state data, and 24-hour urine collection results were compared between obese and nonobese patients with stones. The obesity rate in 117 patients with urolithiasis did not differ significantly from the obesity rate derived from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (observed/expected ratio 1.11, 95% CI 0.54-1.95). Using t-test and chi-square comparisons, overall 24-hour urine collection data did not show statistically significant differences. Our results do not confirm obesity as a risk factor for pediatric urolithiasis in otherwise healthy patients. We also found no substantial metabolic differences between healthy nonobese stone formers and obese patients. While the pediatric literature is mixed, our study supports the majority of published series that have failed to establish a link between pediatric urolithiasis and obesity. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-Dose CT for Evaluation of Suspected Urolithiasis: Diagnostic Yield for Assessment of Alternative Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Bannas, Peter; Regier, Marc; Keller, Sarah; Kluth, Luis; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic yield of low-dose (LD) CT for alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected urolithiasis. In this retrospective study, we included 776 consecutive patients who underwent unenhanced abdominal CT for evaluation of suspected urolithiasis. All examinations were performed with an LD CT protocol; images were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction. The leading LD CT diagnosis was recorded for each patient and compared with the final clinical diagnosis, which served as the reference standard. The mean (± SD) effective dose of CT was 1.9 ± 0.6 mSv. The frequency of urolithiasis was 82.5% (640/776). LD CT reached a sensitivity of 94.1% (602/640), a specificity of 100.0% (136/136), and an accuracy of 95.1% (738/776) for the detection of urolithiasis. In 93 of 136 patients (68.4%) without urolithiasis, alternative diagnoses were established as the final clinical diagnoses. Alternative diagnoses were most commonly located in the genitourinary (n = 53) and gastrointestinal (n = 18) tracts. LD CT correctly provided alternative diagnoses for 57 patients (61.3%) and was false-negative for five patients (5.4%). The most common clinical alternative diagnoses were urinary tract infections (n = 22). Seven diagnoses missed at LD CT were located outside the FOV. For 43 of all 776 patients (5.5%), neither LD CT nor clinical workup could establish a final diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of LD CT for the detection of alternative diagnoses were 91.9% (57/62), 95.6% (43/45), and 93.5% (100/107), respectively. LD CT enables the diagnosis of most alternative diagnoses in the setting of suspected urolithiasis. The most frequent alternative diagnoses missed by LD CT are urinary tract infections or diagnoses located outside the FOV of the abdominopelvic CT scan.

  5. A single dose of dexamethasone encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss following round window membrane administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun CL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Changling Sun,1,3,* Xueling Wang,1,* Zhaozhu Zheng,2 Dongye Chen,1 Xiaoqin Wang,2 Fuxin Shi,1 Dehong Yu,1 Hao Wu11Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Ear Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine on Ear and Nose Diseases, Shanghai, 2National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou, 3Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, The Fourth People’s Hospital of Wuxi City, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China*These authors have contributed equally to this workAbstract: This study aimed to investigate the sustained drug release properties and hearing protection effect of polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA stealth nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone (DEX. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using an emulsion and evaporation technique, as previously reported. The DEX-loaded PEG-PLA nanoparticles (DEX-NPs had a hydrodynamic diameter of 130±4.78 nm, and a zeta potential of -26.13±3.28 mV. The in vitro release of DEX from DEX-NPs lasted 24 days in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4, 5 days in artificial perilymph (pH 7.4, and 1 day in rat plasma. Coumarin 6-labeled NPs placed onto the round window membrane (RWM of guinea pigs penetrated RWM quickly and accumulated to the organs of Corti, stria vascularis, and spiral ganglion cells after 1 hour of administration. The DEX-NPs locally applied onto the RWM of guinea pigs by a single-dose administration continuously released DEX in 48 hours, which was significantly longer than the free DEX that was cleared out within 12 hours after administration at the same dose. Further functional studies showed that locally administrated single-dose DEX-NPs effectively preserved outer hair cells in guinea pigs after cisplatin insult and thus significantly attenuated hearing loss at 4 kHz and 8

  6. The effects of topically applied glycolic acid and salicylic acid on ultraviolet radiation-induced erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Wei, Rong-Rong; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Coelho, Sergio G; Kaidbey, Kays; Barton, Curtis; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Beer, Janusz Z; Miller, Sharon A; Hearing, Vincent J

    2009-07-01

    alpha-Hydroxy acids (alphaHAs) are reported to reduce signs of aging in the skin and are widely used cosmetic ingredients. Several studies suggest that alphaHA can increase the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet radiation. More recently, beta-hydroxy acids (betaHAs), or combinations of alphaHA and betaHA have also been incorporated into antiaging skin care products. Concerns have also arisen about increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation following use of skin care products containing beta-HA. To determine whether topical treatment with glycolic acid, a representative alphaHA, or with salicylic acid, a betaHA, modifies the short-term effects of solar simulated radiation (SSR) in human skin. Fourteen subjects participated in this study. Three of the four test sites on the mid-back of each subject were treated daily Monday-Friday, for a total of 3.5 weeks, with glycolic acid (10%), salicylic acid (2%), or vehicle (control). The fourth site received no treatment. After the last treatment, each site was exposed to SSR, and shave biopsies from all four sites were obtained. The endpoints evaluated in this study were erythema (assessed visually and instrumentally), DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Treatment with glycolic acid resulted in increased sensitivity of human skin to SSR, measured as an increase in erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Salicylic acid did not produce significant changes in any of these biomarkers. Short-term topical application of glycolic acid in a cosmetic formulation increased the sensitivity of human skin to SSR, while a comparable treatment with salicylic acid did not.

  7. [Metaphylaxis of urolithiasis: new look, modern approach, implementation in a mobile application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, N K; Brovkin, S S; Grigorev, V E; Dmitriev, V V; Malkhasyan, V A; Shkarupa, D D; Pisarev, A V; Mazurenko, D A; Obidnyak, V M; Orlov, I N; Popov, S V; Tagirov, N S; Petrov, S V

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the sub-segment of mHealth devoted to assessing of the risk of recurrent stone formation and metaphylaxis of stone formation. To design a smartphone application (app.) in Russian language for urolithiasis patients. Three working groups of urologists from three St. Petersburg clinics searched for downloadable medical applications relevant to the above requirements. After searching and analyzing existing medical applications, the most acceptable design and structure of our own application were identified. The developed "Urolithiasis" application is available for free download in Russian language versions in App Store (Apple, Inc.) and Google Play (Android market, Google, Inc.). It features the following sections: 1) "Take the test" (personalized calculation of the risk of kidney stone recurrence and providing relevant recommendations using ROKS nomogram), 2) "Water" (with reminders to drink water and automatic logging of the water intake), 3) "Food" (Nutrition facts on the content of calcium, oxalate, purine, protein, citrate and calories in common foods), 4) "My doctor" (in the future this option will allow for on-line communication with a patients physician), 5) "Feedback" (if the patient does not find the desired product or has a question - this section is for him/her). The smartphone application "Urolithiasis" in Russian may be recommended to patients with urolithiasis for improving the effectiveness of metaphylaxis.

  8. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  9. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  10. Analysis of the domestic pharmaceutical market drugs for the treatment of urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Shevina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a metabolic disease caused by various endogenous and (or exogenous factors, often is hereditary and is defined by the stone presence in the urinary system. Antibacterial therapies, herbal medicine, dietary restrictions, mineral water are used in the complex treatment of patients with urolithiasis after removal of concrement by different methods. The search for new and improvement of already known methods of treatment of urolithiasis remains relevant to date. Along with the use of synthetic drugs the use of herbal remedies that have diuretic, antispasmodic, bacteriostatic and many other effects is appropriate. An extremely valuable feature of herbal products is their ability to enhance excretion of urea and other nitrogenous waste products of metabolism, which is especially important in cases of severe renal failure of different aetiology. Note, however, that the range of herbal medicines used for the treatment of urolithiasis with symptoms of azotaemia is rather limited. The aim of our study was to investigate the range of medicines used to treat urolithiasis presented in the domestic pharmaceutical market by different countries, as well as to determine whether the Ukrainian medicines are available in the domestic market. Materials and Methods The analysis of products’ range was performed according to the State Register of Medicines of Ukraine and АТС classification system. The object of the study was the medicinal products, which are used for treatment of urolithiasis. Results The products were analysed according to three АТС groups: products that inhibit uric acid synthesis; other urologicals; solvents of urinary concrement. The study has shown that 21 products are registered in Ukraine (June 2014. It has been established that the market is distributed almost equally between domestic and foreign manufacturers i.e. 8 foreign and 7 domestic manufacturers are present in the pharmaceutical market. The next stage of research

  11. Salt-Induced Control of the Grafting Density in Poly(ethylene glycol) Brush Layers by a Grafting-to Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Roberto; Olsen, Stefan; Thormann, Esben

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a method to obtain control of the grafting density during the formation of polymer brush layers by the grafting-to method of thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) onto gold is presented. The grafting density of the polymer chains was adjusted by adding Na2SO4 in concentrations between 0.......2 and 0.9 M to the aqueous polymer solution during the grafting process. The obtained grafting densities ranged from 0.26 to 1.60 chains nm-2, as determined by surface plasmon resonance. The kinetics of the grafting process were studied in situ by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation......, and a mushroom to brush conformational transition was observed when the polymer was grafted in the presence of Na2SO4. The transition from mushroom to brush was only observed for long periods of grafting, highlighting the importance of time to obtain high grafting densities. Finally, the prepared brush layer...

  12. Minimal invasive surgery for patients with urolithiasis with early postoperative rehabilitation in Truskavets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Derkach

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Undoubtedly, technological progress, the "conquest" of civilization leads to a deterioration of the environmental situation. It affects the human body, causing a violation of homeostasis, due to disorders in it. The purpose of the work. In view of the above, the task was to study the peculiarities of the process of the use of minimally invasive techniques in patients with urolithiasis treated in the period from 2012 to 2017 in the urological department of the Truskavets City Hospital and in the private office of lithotripsy Ya.V. Feciak in the complex with the use of medical water "Naftusya" during treatment and in the early postoperative period as a means of metaphysics of recurrent stone formation and quicker rehabilitation of patients. Materials and methods of research. The treatment of 1757 patients with urolithiasis in the urological department of Truskavets city hospital and the private office of lithotripsy Ya.V. Fetsiak for the period of 2012 - 2017. The study included 681 patients with kidney stones, 1045 patients - with ureteric stones and 31 patients with urinary bladder specimens. 357 contact nephrolithotripsy, 491 contact ureterolithotripsy (CULT, 27 contact cystolithotripsy and 2074 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL sessions were performed for these patients. Men were 946 (54%, women 811 (46%. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 84 years. The size of the concretions localized in the ureter ranged from 0.6 cm to 3.4 cm and, as a rule, was 0.9-1.2 cm. The maximum size of the kidney stone was 9.5 cm, and the average size varied within 1 , 4-27cm. ESWL was performed on the Dornier Compact S machine. In the 882 patients, 2074 procedures were carried out for the ESWL, which was 2.35 procedures per patient. In the planned period, 71% of patients, 29% in urgent (at the height of the renal colic or within the next 30 hours were treated. Results In the contingent of patients treated with ESWL, medical water

  13. Laparascopic-assisted nephroureterectomy for shaped urolithiasis and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: Case report and review of literature

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    Valentina Pastore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP complicated by shaped urolithiasis, severe hydroureteronephrosis and kidney exclusion treated by laparoscopic-assisted nephroureterectomy. A 9 year-old boy was referred to us for recurrent episodes of urinary tract infection, abdominal pain and severe hydronephrosis. Abdominal CT and a Tc-99m MAG3 scan showed a non-functioning obstructed kidney with shaped urolithiasis of the distal ureter. XGP was suspected, and nephroureterectomy was performed by laparoscopic distal ureterectomy and open extraperitoneal nephrectomy. This technique avoided the need for a more extended nephrectomy incision or even a second iliac incision. It also ensured complete excision of the distal ureter with minimal risk of developing the ureteral stump syndrome, which sometimes follows nephroureterectomy. We believe that laparoscopic-assisted nephroureterectomy may be a suitable technique in those cases of difficult nephrectomy where a ureteral stump syndrome is likely to develop.

  14. Clinical Assessment of glutathione peroxidase and catalase to the status of malondialdehyde in urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, R.H.; Ewadh, M.J.; Al-Hamadani, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in serum of urolithiasis patients. Methodology: Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and malondialadehyde (MDA) in serum of urolithiasis patients have been measured. Results: The study has revealed a significant increase in MDA and a significant decrease in GPx and CAT. There have been no significant correlations of serum MDA, GPx and CAT to the size and number of stones with no differences in their levels among patients with one stone, two stones and multiple stones. Anatomically the distributions of urinary stones have been 70.14% renal, 19.30% ureteric and 3.15% urinary bladder. There have been no significant difference in serum levels of neither MDA nor CAT among all the anatomical sites of the stone, while GPx has shown a significant difference in serum of patients with renal calyceal, renal pelvic, ureteric and vesical stones. Patients with recurrent episode of urinary stone have been 63.33%. Family histories of urolithiasis have been negative in 73.33% of the patients. Neither recurrence of urinary stone nor family history of urolithiasis have shown a significant correlation with serum levels of MDA, GPx and CAT. Conclusion: The role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes is present in the pathogenesis of urinary stone, but their levels don't affect by the size, the number and the anatomical position of stones (apart of GPx which has been affected by the anatomical position of the stone) and the duration, recurrence, and family history of the disease. (author)

  15. Application of nuclear medicine methods for diagnosis of urolithiasis and its complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhiyska, V.

    2012-01-01

    The most common complications of urolithiasis are obstructive nephropathy and pyelonephritis, which often lead to irreversible consequences for the affected kidney. For the diagnosis is not sufficient just to visualize the stone, but also to evaluate the extent of functional changes in renal parenchyma, which will determine the type of therapeutic approach. The most common diagnostic algorithm of imaging methods in the diagnosis of urolithiasis includes ultrasound, X-ray overview and intravenous urography. Less commonly are performed CT, renal scintigraphy and retrograde urography and others. Problems in application of that algorithm are mainly related to incorrect localization of stones and difficulties to assess its effects on renal function. Dynamic renal scintigraphy (DRS) and its variety the diuretic scintigraphy is an established method for assessing the functional status of parenhima and drainage disorders of the kidney in renal colic and long standing hydronephrosis. Advantages of the method is rapid, accurate and noninvasive determination of the renal parenchyma and function, urodynamics of upper urinary tract, and the ability to present the relative percentage contribution of each kidney in total renal function. DRS is characterized by precise quantitative results, lack of bias and low radiation dose. However, recently in the literature we found some contradictory views on the application protocol and the importance of diuretic renal scintigraphy in the evaluation of renal obstruction. Moreover, there are some different viewpoints about the exact location of DRS in the diagnostic algorithm of patients with urolithiasis. In could be summarized that there are various imaging methods which provide extensive diagnostic capabilities in diagnoses of urolithiasis and its complications. Nevertheless, an express and complex method that combine functional and morphological data and provides comprehensive and reliable information hasn't been described yet. (authors)

  16. Quality of life and urolithiasis: the patient - reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS

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    Nishant Patel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: With a high rate of recurrence, urolithiasis is a chronic disease that impacts quality of life. The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System is an NIH validated questionnaire to assess patient quality of life. We evaluated the impact of urolithiasis on quality of life using the NIH-sponsored PROMIS-43 questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Patients reporting to the kidney stone clinic were interviewed to collect information on stone history and demographic information and were asked to complete the PROMIS-43 questionnaire. Quality of life scores were analyzed using gender and age matched groups for the general US population. Statistical comparisons were made based on demographic information and patient stone history. Statistical significance was P<0.05. Results: 103 patients completed the survey. 36% of respondents were male, the average age of the group was 52 years old, with 58% primary income earners, and 35% primary caregivers. 7% had never passed a stone or had a procedure while 17% passed 10 or more stones in their lifetime. Overall, pain and physical function were worse in patients with urolithiasis. Primary income earners had better quality of life while primary caregivers and those with other chronic medical conditions were worse. Patients on dietary and medical therapy had better quality of life scores. Conclusions: Urolithiasis patients subjectively have worse pain and physical function than the general population. The impact of pain on quality of life was greatest in those patients who had more stone episodes, underscoring the importance of preventive measures. Stone prevention measures improve quality of life.

  17. Validity of plain film radiograph (KUB) in the diagnosis of urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maravilla, L.M.; Castillo, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    The article is about the study on the validity of plain film radiograph (KUB) in the diagnosis of urolithiasis in Filipino patients. This is based on the fact that 75% to 85% of stones are composed of calcium phosphate. Radiolucent, uric acid, urate, xanthine and matrix stones which comprised 5% to 8% cases may also contain radiographically detectable amounts of calcium oxalates. The study will also determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of KUB. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  18. Reproductive toxicity of the glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, B D

    1983-06-01

    The glycol ethers are an important and widely used class of solvents. Recent studies have demonstrated that ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdiME), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) are teratogenic. Other studies have demonstrated that testicular atrophy or infertility follow treatment of males with EGME, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA), EGEE, EGEEA, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diEGdiME), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE). Experimental data are reviewed and structure-activity relationships are speculated upon.

  19. Quality of Health Information on the Internet for Urolithiasis on the Google Search Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dwayne T S; Abouassaly, Robert; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . To compare the quality of health information on the Internet for keywords related to urolithiasis, to assess for difference in information quality across four main Western languages, and to compare the source of sponsorship in these websites. Methods . Health On the Net (HON) Foundation principles were utilised to determine quality information. Fifteen keywords related to urolithiasis were searched on the Google search engine. The first 150 websites were assessed against the HON principles and the source of sponsorship determined. Results . A total of 8986 websites were analysed. A proportion of HON-accredited websites for individual search terms range between 2.5% and 12.0%. The first 50 websites were more likely to be HON-positive compared to websites 51-100 and 101-150. French websites searched were more likely to be HON-positive whereas German websites were less likely to be HON-positive than English websites. There was no statistically significant difference between the rate of HON-positive English and Spanish websites. The three main website sponsors were from government/educational sources (40.2%), followed by commercial (29.9%) and physician/surgeon sources (18.6%). Conclusions . Health information on most urolithiasis websites was not validated. Nearly one-third of websites in this study have commercial sponsorship. Doctors should recognise the need for more reliable health websites for their patients.

  20. Comparative study of obstructive urolithiasis and its sequelae in buffalo calves

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    Yasmin H. Bayoumi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was designed to study the incidence of obstructive urolithiasis and to apply comparative diagnosis to urine retention cases. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 non-castrated buffalo calves aging 3-11 months were included in this study, 68 calves were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Zagazig University, Egypt, during the study period with a history of anuria, and they were classified into three groups; intact bladder group (19 calves, uroperitoneum group (45 calves, and ruptured urethra group (4 calves. 10 apparently healthy calves were used for comparison. On the basis of history, clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings diagnosis was achieved. Results: There was a marked increase in the incidence of obstructive urolithiasis in winter season, especially in winter months of 2016. Calves within the age of 3-4 months and 6-8 months were mostly affected. Inappetence to anorexia, restlessness or depression, and abdominal distension were the most observed signs in the diseased calves. Laboratory findings revealed hemoconcentration and a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels in all diseased groups. Hyperproteinemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia with electrolytes imbalance were recorded in the uroperitoneum group. Ultrasonographically, distended urinary bladder with distal acoustic enhancement revealed obstructive urolithiasis with intact bladder while anechoic fluid in abdominal cavity indicates uroperitoneum. Conclusion: On the basis of all findings, calves with intact bladder were in superior condition than those with a ruptured urethra and both were better than those with uroperitoneum.

  1. Radiation dose reduction for CT assessment of urolithiasis using iterative reconstruction. A prospective intra-individual study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Annemarie M. den; Willemink, Martin J.; Wessels, Frank J.; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Doormaal, Pieter J. van; Budde, Ricardo P.J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lock, M.T.W.T. [University Medical Center, Department of Urology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2018-01-15

    To assess the performance of hybrid (HIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MIR) in patients with urolithiasis at reduced-dose computed tomography (CT). Twenty patients scheduled for unenhanced abdominal CT for follow-up of urolithiasis were prospectively included. Routine dose acquisition was followed by three low-dose acquisitions at 40%, 60% and 80% reduced doses. All images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), HIR and MIR. Urolithiasis detection rates, gall bladder, appendix and rectosigmoid evaluation and overall subjective image quality were evaluated by two observers. 74 stones were present in 17 patients. Half the stones were not detected on FBP at the lowest dose level, but this improved with MIR to a sensitivity of 100%. HIR resulted in a slight decrease in sensitivity at the lowest dose to 72%, but outperformed FBP. Evaluation of other structures with HIR at 40% and with MIR at 60% dose reductions was comparable to FBP at routine dose, but 80% dose reduction resulted in non-evaluable images. CT radiation dose for urolithiasis detection can be safely reduced by 40 (HIR)-60 (MIR) % without affecting assessment of urolithiasis, possible extra-urinary tract pathology or overall image quality. (orig.)

  2. Radiation-induced synthesis and swelling properties of p(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-itaconic acid-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylate) copolymeric hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, M.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Since it is presumed that by incorporation of pH-responsive (IA) and temperature-responsive (OEGA) co-monomers it is possible to prepare P(HEMA-co-IA-co-OEGA) hydrogels with duel (pH and thermo) responsiveness, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of different mole fractions of IA and especially OEGA on the diversity of the swelling properties of obtained hydrogels. For that reason, a series of copolymeric hydrogels with different mole ratios of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), itaconic acid (IA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylates (OEGA) was synthesized by gamma radiation. The obtained hydrogels were characterized by swelling studies in the wide pH (2.2-9.0) and temperature range (25-70 deg C), confirming dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness and a large variation in swelling capability. It was observed that the equilibrium swelling of P(HEMA-co-IA-co-OEGA) hydrogels, for a constant amount of IA, increases progressively with increasing in OEGA share. On the other hand, the dissociation of carboxyl (-COOH) groups from IA occurs at pH > 4; therefore, small mole fractions of IA render good pH sensitivity and a large increase in the swelling capacity of these hydrogels at higher pH values. Additional characterization of structure and properties was conducted by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical measurements, confirming that the inherent properties of the P(HEMA-co-IA-co-OEGA) hydrogels can be significantly tuned by variation in their composition. According to all presented, it seems that the obtained copolymeric hydrogels can be a beneficial synergetic combination for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules such as drugs, nucleic acids, peptides, and proteins.

  3. A Soil-Plate Based Pipeline for Assessing Cereal Root Growth in Response to Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Induced Water Deficit Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sven K; Oliver, Melvin J

    2017-01-01

    Drought is a serious problem that causes losses in crop-yield every year, but the mechanisms underlying how roots respond to water deficit are difficult to study under controlled conditions. Methods for assaying root elongation and architecture, especially for seedlings, are commonly achieved on artificial media, such as agar, moistened filter paper, or in hydroponic systems. However, it has been demonstrated that measuring root characteristics under such conditions does not accurately mimic what is observed when plants are grown in soil. Morphological changes in root behavior occur because of differences in solute diffusion, mechanical impedance, exposure to light (in some designs), and gas exchange of roots grown under these conditions. To address such deficiencies, we developed a quantitative method for assaying seedling root lengths and germination in soil using a plate-based approach with wheat as a model crop. We also further developed the method to include defined water deficits stress levels using the osmotic properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Seeds were sown into soil-filled vertical plates and grown in the dark. Root length measurements were collected using digital photography through the transparent lid under green lighting to avoid effects of white light exposure on growth. Photographs were analyzed using the cross-platform ImageJ plugin, SmartRoot, which can detect root edges and partially automate root detection for extraction of lengths. This allowed for quick measurements and straightforward and accurate assessments of non-linear roots. Other measurements, such as root width or angle, can also be collected by this method. An R function was developed to collect exported root length data, process and reformat the data, and output plots depicting root/shoot growth dynamics. For water deficit experiments, seedlings were transplanted side-by-side into well-watered plates and plates containing PEG solutions to simulate precise water deficits.

  4. The G Allele of CaSR R990G Polymorphism Increases Susceptibility to Urolithiasis and Hypercalciuria: Evidences from a Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

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    Kang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The calcium-sensing receptor gene (CaSR is a candidate to explain urolithiasis. A number of case-control studies were conducted to investigate associations between CaSR polymorphisms with risks of hypercalciuria and urolithiasis in humans. But the results were still inconsistent. Methods. A meta-analysis was performed to address this issue. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of associations between CaSR polymorphisms and the risk of urolithiasis. The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD with 95% CI was used for the meta-analysis of CaSR polymorphisms and urine calcium concentration. Results. For urolithiasis association, the SS genotype of A986S polymorphism was a risk factor for urolithiasis in Asians and PHPT patients, but a protective factor in Caucasians. The GG genotype of R990 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of urolithiasis, especially in Caucasians and healthy population. Regarding urine calcium concentration association, individuals with the G allele had a higher level of urine calcium than the noncarriers. Conclusions. This meta-analysis revealed that the G allele of CaSR R990G polymorphism increases susceptibility to urolithiasis and hypercalciuria. The A986S and Q1011E polymorphisms were associated with urolithiasis and hypercalciuria in specific populations.

  5. Radiation-induced synthesis and swelling properties of p(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/itaconic acid/oligo (ethylene glycol) acrylate) terpolymeric hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, M.; Stamenic, D.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2012-01-01

    Since it is presumed that by incorporation of pH-responsive (IA) and temperature-responsive (OEGA) co-monomers, it is possible to prepare P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels with dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness, the main purpose of our study is to investigate the influence of different mole fractions of IA and especially OEGA on the diversity of the swelling properties of the obtained hydrogels. For that reason, a series of terpolymeric hydrogels with different mole ratios of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), itaconic acid (IA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylates (OEGA) was synthesised by gamma radiation. The obtained hydrogels were characterised by swelling studies in the wide pH (2.2–9.0) and temperature range (20–70 °C), confirming dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness and a large variation in the swelling capability. It was observed that the equilibrium swelling of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels, for a constant amount of IA, increased progressively with an increase in OEGA share. On the other hand, the dissociation of carboxyl groups from IA occurs at pH>4; therefore, small mole fractions of IA render good pH sensitivity and a large increase in the swelling capacity of these hydrogels at higher pH values. Additional characterisation of structure and properties was conducted by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical measurements, confirming that the inherent properties of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels can be significantly tuned by variation in their composition. According to all presented, it seems that the obtained hydrogels can be a beneficial synergetic combination for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules such as drugs, peptides, proteins, etc. - Highlights: ► pH- and thermo-sensitive P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels were synthesised by γ radiation. ► OEGA units have a large hydrophilic potential. ► Swelling capacity increases with the OEGA content. ► Variation in composition of hydrogels can give

  6. Hemagglutination and biofilm formation as virulence markers of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in acute urinary tract infections and urolithiasis

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    Uma B Maheswari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTI are a major public health concern in developing countries. Most UTIs are caused by E. coli, accounting for up to 90% of community-acquired UTIs (CAUTI. Recurrent UTI is considered as a major risk factor for urolithiasis. Virulence factors like adhesins and biofilm have been extensively studied by authors on UPEC isolated from recurrent UTI.The studies on isolates from infection stones in kidney are scanty . In a prospective study, we aimed to determine the expression of Haemagglutinins, (Type 1 and P fimbriae , Biofilm production and resistance pattern to common antibiotics of Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC isolates from Community acquired Acute Urinary Tract Infection(CAUTI and Urolithiasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 UPEC isolates , 23 mid-stream urine (MSU samples from patients with CAUTI attending Out Patient Departments and 20 from renal calculi of urolithiasis patients at the time of Percutaneous nephrolithostomy (PCNL were included in the study and the expression of Haemagglutinins,(Type 1 and P fimbriae , Biofilm production and resistance pattern to common antibiotics was assessed. Results: A total of 43 UPEC isolates 23 from CAUTI and 20 from renal calculi were tested for production of biofilm and hemagglutinins. In CAUTI, biofilm producers were 56.52% and hemagglutinins were detected in all isolates 100%. In urolithiasis, biofilm producers were 100% but hemagglutinins were detected only in 70% of isolates. All isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics used. CAUTI isolates were susceptible to 3 rd generation cephalosporins, whereas urolithiasis isolates were resistant to 3 rd generation cephalosporins and 25% were Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases ESBL producers. Conclusions: HA mediated by type 1 fimbriae plays an important role in CAUTI (P < 0.001 highly significant, whereas, in chronic conditions like urolithiasis, biofilm plays an important role in persistence of infection and

  7. Serum paraoxonase-1 gene polymorphism and enzyme activity in patients with urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Arda; Gedikbasi, Asuman; Sonmezay, Erkan; Kiraz, Zeynep Kusku; Abbasoglu, Semra; Tasci, Ali Ihsan; Tugcu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by protecting lipoproteins against peroxidation. PON1 has two genetic polymorphisms both due to amino acid substitution, one involving glutamine and arginine at position 192 and the other leucine and methionine at position 55. Recent reports suggest that nephrolithiasis and atherosclerosis share a number of risk factors. Our study aimed to compare the effects of PON1 192, PON1 55 polymorphisms, and PON1 activity in patients with urolithiasis and controls. PON1's arylesterase/paraoxonase activities and phenotype were determined in 158 stone forming cases (Group 1) and 138 non-stone forming controls (Group 2). The PON1 192 and PON1 55 polymorphisms were studied by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Paraoxonase activity was significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 (112 ± 31.8 vs. 208 ± 53.1 IU/L) (p < 0.001). The PON1 L55M polymorphism was significantly higher in Group 1. The "M" allele coding for PON1 was higher in Group 1 (p < 0.001). PON1 192 RR homozygotes had significantly higher PON1 activity than QR and QQ genotypes among all the patients (p < 0.001). The results of our study demonstrate that the PON1 55 gene "M" allele is associated with renal stone disease. Individuals possessing the "M" allele have a higher incidence of urolithiasis. The results of this study provide genetic evidence that the PON1 gene may play a role in stone formation. PON1 genotype determination may provide a tool to identify individuals who are at risk of urolithiasis.

  8. The most common cause of non-functioning kidney nephrectomy: Urolithiasis

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    Şenol Adanur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate and present the characteristics of patients underwent nephrectomy due to nonfunctional kidney secondary to urolithiasis in our clinic. Methods:Totally 696 patients were anlyzed retrospectively who underwent nephrectomy in our clinic between January 2000 and December 2012. Etiologies and characteristics of nephrectomy applied patients due to nontumoral non-functional kidney related with urinary tract stones are evaluated. Diagnoses of the patients were confirmed by using urinary system ultrasonography, ab dominal computed tomography, intravenous urography and renal scintigraphy. Results:Nephrectomy was performed for 280 (40.2% patients due to tumor formation and for 416 (59.8% patients due to non-functional kidney of totally 696 patients.43.8% (182 of non-funtional kidney cases were resulted by upper urinary tract stones. Mean age of nephrectomy performed urolithiasis patients were 43.7±16.9 years. 53.3% (97 of patients were male and 46.7% (85 patients were female. Preoperative mean creatinine value of patients were detected 2.98±0.47 mg/dl. Renal stone local izatian was ureteropelvic junction in 81.3% (148, ureter in 14.3% (26 and renal+ureter in 4.4% (8 of the patients. 66.8% of reteropelvic junction stones were 10-30 mm in size. Conclusion: Upper urinary tract stones are primer responsible of non-functional kidney development besides forming most of the non-tumor related nephrectomies. Routine urinary system examination should be suggested to patients with a history of urolithiasis in order to prevent later probable organ losses.

  9. Urine and serum fetuin-A levels in patients with urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajat; Abrol, Nitin; Antonisamy, B; Vanitha, S; Chandrasingh, J; Kumar, Santosh; Kekre, Nitin; Devasia, Antony

    2017-01-01

    Fetuin-A is a glycoprotein secreted by liver and has been shown to inhibit extraosseous mineralization. Urolithiasis may be a manifestation in the urinary tract due to fetuin deficiency in urine. The objective of this study was to compare the 24-h urine and serum fetuin-A levels of patients with and without urolithiasis. Serum and 24-h urine fetuin-A levels were measured in 41 patients with bilateral, multiple, or recurrent urinary tract calculi (Group A) and 41 matched controls with no calculi (Group B). Fetuin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Serum and urine fetuin-A levels in the two groups were compared. The median (range) 24-h urine fetuin-A value in Group A was 11.9 (1.12-221) mg/day and in Group B was 37.7 (1.28-125) mg/day. This difference was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.0169). The median (range) serum fetuin-A in Group A was 0.67 (0.05-2.68) g/L and in Group B was 0.99 (0.01-5.5) g/L. The difference between serum values in the two arms was not statistically significant (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.1817). However, the serum creatinine-adjusted mean log serum fetuin and urine fetuin were significantly different in the two arms ( P = 0.003). The mean ± standard deviation (range) serum creatinine in Group A was 0.98 ± 0.25 (0.56-1.58) mg% and in Group B was 0.83 ± 0.16 (0.58-1.18) mg% (two sample t -test, P = 0.0031). Patients with urolithiasis have lower urine fetuin-A and creatinine-adjusted serum fetuin-A levels.

  10. [Bone and Calcium Research Update 2015. Clinical update of urolithiasis--ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Taro; Nakatani, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy) is widely used for upper urinary stones and successfully treats most patients with uncomplicated kidney stones. ESWL is still of high strategic importance despite ureteroscopy and PNL occupy an essential place in the treatment of urinary stones by technologic advancements. However ESWL is just one of treatment tool and the best procedure should be selected for the patients. Moreover urolithiasis is one of lifestyle-related diseases and should be treated as systemic illness in the daily medical practice.

  11. Crosslinking polymerization of tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, K; Paluch, M; Ziolo, J [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Bogoslovov, R; Roland, C M [Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375-5342 (United States)], E-mail: kaminski@us.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The polymerization reaction of tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate was induced by application of high pressure. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was employed to investigate dielectric properties of the produced polymers. Additionally swelling experiment was performed to determine the degree of crossliniking of the polymers.

  12. Natural history and quality of life in patients with cystine urolithiasis: a single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Justin M; Desai, Devang; Winkle, David

    2015-10-01

    To describe the natural history and quality of life (QoL) in patients with cystine urolithiasis. A cohort study was carried out involving participants recruited from a single surgeon's case mix. Patients with cystinuria and related urolithiasis were invited to complete a questionnaire involving demographic information, use of medical treatment, surgical interventions and the 36-item short-form 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). In all, 14 patients completed the survey. The SF-36 survey showed lower QoL than the general public in seven of eight domains. The mean interventional rate in patients with cystinuria was 10.6 procedures per patient. Most patients reported previous use of d-penicillamine and urinary alkalinisation medications, with most ceasing due to side-effects or lack of perceived efficacy. Cystinuria is associated with a high rate of surgical intervention and lower QoL than the general public. Individuals with this condition report that medical management is either ineffective or poorly tolerated. There is a need for further improvements in medical management of cystinuria, to reduce the rate of operative intervention. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Clinical and pathological study of an outbreak of obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretti Alexandre Paulino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, clinical picture and pathology of an outbreak of urolithiasis in cattle in southern Brazil are described. The disease occurred in August 1999 in a feedlot beef cattle herd. Five out of 1,100 castrated steers were affected. Clinical signs included colic and ventral abdominal distension. White, sand-grain-like mineral deposits precipitated on the preputial hairs. Affected cattle died spontaneously 24-48 hrs after the onset of the clinical signs. Only one animal recovered after perineal urethrostomy. Necropsy findings included calculi blocking the urethral lumen of the distal portion of the penile sigmoid flexure, urinary bladder rupture with leakage of urine into the abdominal cavity and secondary fibrinous peritonitis. Daily water intake was low since water sources were scarce and not readily available. The animals were fed rations high in grains and received limited amounts of roughage. Biochemical analysis revealed that the calculi were composed of ammonium phosphate. A calcium-phosphorus imbalance (0.4:0.6 was detected in the feedlot ration. For the outbreak, it is suggested that contributing factors to urolith formation include insufficient fiber ingestion, low water intake and high dietary levels of phosphorus. No additional cases were observed in that feedlot after preventive measures were established. Similar dietary mismanagement in fattening steers has been associated with obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot beef cattle in other countries.

  14. The usefulness of ultrasound colour-Doppler twinkling artefact for detecting urolithiasis compared with low dose nonenhanced computerized tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; Kalhauge, Anna; Fredfeldt, Knud-Erik

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study evaluates the usefulness of the twinkling artefact (TA) seen on colour-Doppler ultrasound (US) in diagnosing urolithiasis. US and standard computed tomography (CT) were performed blinded on 105 patients. B-mode US and colour-Doppler used separately and in combination showed...

  15. Increased water hardness and magnesium levels may increase occurrence of urolithiasis in cows from the Burdur region (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinduran, S; Buyukoglu, T; Gulay, M S; Tasci, F

    2007-08-01

    Objectives of the study were to measure water hardness in Burdur, and to establish its possible association with urolithiasis in cattle. Water samples were obtained from different stables (n = 15). Water hardness and the concentrations of potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese and copper ions were calculated from these water samples. Total hardness of the samples (mean 285 ppm) exceeded the standards and the water was characterized by high content of magnesium ions. Kidneys (n = 500) were collected randomly from slaughterhouses and examined for urolithiasis. Urolithiasis was observed in 102 kidneys (20.4%). The weights of the stones were between 0.02 and 237.44 g and the colour varied from white to brown. The calculi collected had various shapes and composed of calcium apatite (42.45%), struvite (20.15%), magnesium carbonate (15.15%), calcium carbonate (12.12%), and calcium phosphate cystine (10.13%). It was concluded that high water hardness with high magnesium ion concentrations in water may contribute to urolithiasis and needs to be investigated further in future studies.

  16. Increased Incidence of Urolithiasis and Bacteremia During Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii Coinfection Due to Synergistic Induction of Urease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Smith, Sara N.; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. Methods. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Results. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. Conclusions. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI. PMID:24280366

  17. Increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia during Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii coinfection due to synergistic induction of urease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-05-15

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI.

  18. Effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Hirai, M; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1990-06-01

    Glycol ethers have been extensively used in industry over the past 40-50 years. Numerous studies on the toxicity of glycol ethers have been performed, however, the effects of glycol ethers on the hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes are still unknown. We studied the changes of the putative metabolic enzymes, that is, the hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system and cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, by the oral administration of diEGME and EGME. Adult male Wistar rats were used. DiEGME was administered orally; 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days and EGME was 100, 300 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days. Decreases in liver weights were produced by highest doses of diEGME (2000 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days) and EGME (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days). DiEGME increased hepatic microsomal protein contents and induced cytochrome P-450, but not cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was not affected by diEGME administration. On the other hand, EGME did not change cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was increased by repeated EGME treatment. Therefore it is suspected that the enzyme which takes part in the metabolism of diEGME is different from that of EGME, although diEGME is a structural homologue of EGME.

  19. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid loaded nano-insulin has greater potentials of combating arsenic induced hyperglycemia in mice: Some novel findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadder, Asmita; Das, Jayeeta; Das, Sreemanti; De, Arnab; Saha, Santu Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman, E-mail: prof_arkb@yahoo.co.in

    2013-02-15

    Diabetes is a menacing problem, particularly to inhabitants of groundwater arsenic contaminated areas needing new medical approaches. This study examines if PLGA loaded nano-insulin (NIn), administered either intraperitoneally (i.p.) or through oral route, has a greater cost-effective anti-hyperglycemic potential than that of insulin in chronically arsenite-fed hyperglycemic mice. The particle size, morphology and zeta potential of nano-insulin were determined using dynamic light scattering method, scanning electronic and atomic force microscopies. The ability of the nano-insulin (NIn) to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) was also checked. Circular dichroic spectroscopic (CD) data of insulin and nano-insulin in presence or absence of arsenic were compared. Several diabetic markers in different groups of experimental and control mice were assessed. The mitochondrial functioning through indices like cytochrome c, pyruvate-kinase, glucokinase, ATP/ADP ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell membrane potential and calcium-ion level was also evaluated. Expressions of the relevant marker proteins and mRNAs like insulin, GLUT2, GLUT4, IRS1, IRS2, UCP2, PI3, PPARγ, CYP1A1, Bcl2, caspase3 and p38 for tracking-down the signaling cascade were also analyzed. Results revealed that i.p.-injected nano-encapsulated-insulin showed better results; NIn, due to its smaller size, faster mobility, site-specific release, could cross BBB and showed positive modulation in mitochondrial signaling cascades and other downstream signaling molecules in reducing arsenic-induced-hyperglycemia. CD data indicated that nano-insulin had less distorted secondary structure as compared with that of insulin in presence of arsenic. Thus, overall analyses revealed that PLGA nano-insulin showed better efficacy in combating arsenite-induced-hyperglycemia than that of insulin and therefore, has greater potentials for use in nano-encapsulated form. - Highlights: ► PLGA encapsulated nano

  20. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid loaded nano-insulin has greater potentials of combating arsenic induced hyperglycemia in mice: Some novel findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadder, Asmita; Das, Jayeeta; Das, Sreemanti; De, Arnab; Saha, Santu Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a menacing problem, particularly to inhabitants of groundwater arsenic contaminated areas needing new medical approaches. This study examines if PLGA loaded nano-insulin (NIn), administered either intraperitoneally (i.p.) or through oral route, has a greater cost-effective anti-hyperglycemic potential than that of insulin in chronically arsenite-fed hyperglycemic mice. The particle size, morphology and zeta potential of nano-insulin were determined using dynamic light scattering method, scanning electronic and atomic force microscopies. The ability of the nano-insulin (NIn) to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) was also checked. Circular dichroic spectroscopic (CD) data of insulin and nano-insulin in presence or absence of arsenic were compared. Several diabetic markers in different groups of experimental and control mice were assessed. The mitochondrial functioning through indices like cytochrome c, pyruvate-kinase, glucokinase, ATP/ADP ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell membrane potential and calcium-ion level was also evaluated. Expressions of the relevant marker proteins and mRNAs like insulin, GLUT2, GLUT4, IRS1, IRS2, UCP2, PI3, PPARγ, CYP1A1, Bcl2, caspase3 and p38 for tracking-down the signaling cascade were also analyzed. Results revealed that i.p.-injected nano-encapsulated-insulin showed better results; NIn, due to its smaller size, faster mobility, site-specific release, could cross BBB and showed positive modulation in mitochondrial signaling cascades and other downstream signaling molecules in reducing arsenic-induced-hyperglycemia. CD data indicated that nano-insulin had less distorted secondary structure as compared with that of insulin in presence of arsenic. Thus, overall analyses revealed that PLGA nano-insulin showed better efficacy in combating arsenite-induced-hyperglycemia than that of insulin and therefore, has greater potentials for use in nano-encapsulated form. - Highlights: ► PLGA encapsulated nano

  1. [Complex hygiene evaluation of the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors on the occurance of urolithiasis in the children of the Primorye Territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval'chuk, V K; Luchaninova, V N; Koldaev, V M

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of the influence of 43 exogenous and 14 endogenous factors on the occurrence of urolithiasis in children with regional features of the Primorye Territory being kept in mind. Multidimensional mathematical analysis was used to reveal continuous and intermittent risk factors of this disease. The authors show it necessary to take into account the findings in substantiating measures for primary prevention of urolithiasis among the children of the Primorye Territory.

  2. A urethrorectal fistula due to prostatic abscess associated with urolithiasis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut, A; Lucas, X; Castro, A; De Membiela, F; Soler, M; Belda, E

    2006-06-01

    An 8-year-old, entire male crossbreed dog had a 2-day history of abdominal pain and straining to urinate and defecate. A diagnosis of urolithiasis with urinary retention, and probable prostatitis was made. The dog was treated with fluids and enrofloxacin. Five days later, ultrasonography of the prostate showed two hypoechoic areas compatible with abscesses. Twelve hours later, the patient started to urinate from the rectum during micturition and urethrorectal fistula was diagnosed. The omentalization of the prostatic abscesses and castration were performed and calculi were removed. The urethrorectal fistula was treated conservatively with an indwelling urinary catheter, a low residue diet and antibiotics. The dog recovered uneventfully without recurrence of the fistula.

  3. Inter-annual variability of urolithiasis epidemic from semi-arid part of Deccan Volcanic Province, India: climatic and hydrogeochemical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sanjay S; Ghole, Vikram Shantaram; Pawar, N J; Jagtap, Deepak V

    2014-01-01

    Semi-arid Karha basin from Deccan Volcanic Province, India was investigated for inter-annual variability of urolithiasis epidemic. The number of reported urolith patient, weather station data and groundwater quality results was used to assess impact of geoenvironment on urolithiasis. Data of 7081 urolith patient were processed for epidemiological study. Gender class, age group, year-wise cases and urolith type were studied in epidemiology. Rainfall, temperature, pan evaporation and sunshine hours were used to correlate urolithiasis. Further, average values of groundwater parameters were correlated with the number of urolith episodes. A total of 52 urolith samples were collected from hospitals and analysed using FTIR technique to identify dominant urolith type in study area. Result shows that male population is more prone, age group of 20-40 is more susceptible and calcium oxalate uroliths are dominant in study area. Year-wise distribution revealed that there is steady increase in urolithiasis with inflation in drought years. In climatic parameters, hot days are significantly correlated with urolithiasis. In groundwater quality, EC, Na and F are convincingly correlated with urolith patients, which concludes the strong relation between geo-environment and urolithiasis.

  4. Role of Spiritual Sentiments in Improving the Compliance of Water Intake in Patients with Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Ali, Saima; Hussain, Syed Awlad; Haider, Fayyaz; Ali, Shehla

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the compliance for water intake and rate of recurrence between spiritually motivated and non-motivated patients of renal tract stone disease. It is a multi centric prospective cohort study, conducted in Department of Urology, Institute of Kidney Diseases and Peshawar Medical College, from January 10, 2009 to December 2012. A total of 180 patients with comparable demographic, IQ, EQ and BMI after achieving complete stone clearance were divided into two equal groups. Both groups were instructed to increase the water intake timetable according to AUA guidelines. Group 'A' comprising of 90 patients who were identified as spiritually motivated patients based on questioner of FICA 12 is also instructed that increasing the water intake is mentioned in contemporary Islamic medicine. No spiritual instruction was given to Group B. The instructed guidelines and practice for amount and timing of water intake were recalled from participants at the end of 6 and 12 months. The data were recorded on structured proforma and was analyzed using SPSS version 17. The mean age of the patient in Group A was 37.5 years (18-70 years), while in Group B it was 34 years (18-65 years). Urolithiasis affected predominantly male gender in both groups. Sixty-five patients (72.2 %) in Group A have significant compliance (p < 0.001) for water intake over Group B (46 %). The spiritually motivated Group A has significantly reduced rate of recurrence of stones in 23 patients versus 37 in Group B. The spiritually motivated patients had significantly better compliance for water intake and reduced rate of recurrence versus non-motivated individuals in urolithiasis.

  5. Diagnostics and correction of metabolic disorders in patients with recurrent urolithiasis after endoscopic removal of stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kh. Nazarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of kidney stones. The authors provide the results of a study of 107 men aged 48 to 76 years, were divided into three groups – primary and two control groups. The main and the first control group consisted of 40 patients with recurrent urolithiasis without urinary tract obstruction after endoscopic stone removal and partial androgen deficiency. The second control group consisted of 27 healthy men aged 48 to 70 years. Patients for one year he was promoted endoscopic removal of urinary stones: transurethral nephrolithotripsy – 55 patients, and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy – 25. After discharge from hospital all patients had a diagnosis and correction of metabolic disorders using physical-chemical and biochemical indicators of urine and blood. To study the mineral composition and structural-textural features of urinary stones and their fragments after surgical interventions were performed: x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, polarization and electron microscopy. Was carried out following the relapse of urolithiasis: patients of the main group received pathogenetic androgen therapy as monotherapy, and patients in the control group conventional treatment (antibiotics, spasmolytic, herbal remedies. The results of therapy and follow-up care for 6 years showed a low recurrence of stone formation in patients of the main group and highest in the control. Age-related decline in androgen levels in men may be an additional factor in stone formation. Pathogenic androgen replacement therapy leads to normalization of the content of lithogenic substances in the blood and urine, as well as physico-chemical properties of urine, thereby reducing the process of stone formation.

  6. [Clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with urolithiasis in the presence and absence of primary hyperparathyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzerganov, N K; Egshatian, L V; Mokrysheva, N G; Peretokina, E V

    2013-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings in 78 patients with various forms of urolithiasis depending on the presence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) were analyzed. PHPT was diagnosed in 17 patients. Group "without PHPT" and group "with PHPT" differed significantly in terms of parathyroid hormone (PTH) level, serum calcium, phosphorus, chloride, alkaline phosphatase, calciuria and kaliuria. In patients with staghorn calculi, PHPT was diagnosed in 12.5%, and staghorn calculi in the presence of PHPT were identified in 17.7% of cases. Hypercalciuria in the group "with PHPT" was detected in 82.4% of patients (all 3 patients with staghorn calculi), and in the group "without PHPT"--in 18% of patients (2 of 21 patients with staghorn calculi). Hyperoxaluria was observed in 42.3% of patients "without PHPT" and in 35.3% of patients "with PHPT", in 36.8% of patients with simple stones and in 57.2%--with staghorn calculi. In 39% of patients "without PHPT", secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) was diagnosed. SHPT prevalence was 28% in patients with staghorn calculi, and 45% in patients with simple stones. In 87.5% of patients with hypomagnesemia, staghorn calculi were observed. Significant relationship between magnesium and triglycerides (r(s) = -0.296; P = 0.041), and magnesium and high-density lipoproteins (r(s) = 0.339; P = 0.032) in all patients with urolithiasis were revealed. Thus, the study found no association between staghorn nephrolithiasis and PHPT. Elevated PTH levels usually indicate SHPT rather than PHPT. In hypocalcemia, there was more strong association between PTH and calcium, in normocalcaemia--between PTH and magnesium.

  7. Urolithiasis, Urinary Cancer, and Home Drinking Water Source in the United States Territory of Guam, 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Haddock

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis—also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis—upon discharge from Guam’s sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients’ residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer. We analyzed hospital discharge diagnoses of urolithiasis or renal calculi by calculating the incidence of first-mentioned discharge for urolithiasis or renal calculi and comparing rates across demographic or geographic categories while adjusting by age, sex, and ethnicity/race. We reviewed cancer registry records of urinary cancer deaths by patient residence. The annual incidence of hospitalization for urolithiasis was 5.22 per 10,000. Rates adjusted for sex or age exhibited almost no change. The rate of 9.83 per 10,000 among Chamorros was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the rates among any other ethnic group or race. When villages were grouped by water source, rates of patients discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis, adjusted for ethnicity/race, were similar for villages using either well water (5.44 per 10,000 or mixed source water (5.39 per 10,000, and significantly greater than the rate for villages using exclusively reservoir water (1.35 per 10,000. No statistically significant differences were found between the water source or village of residence and urinary cancer mortality. Some Guam residents living in villages served completely or partly by deep well water high in calcium carbonate may be at increased risk for urolithiasis compared with residents living in villages served by surface waters. Although the risk appears to be highest in villagers of Chamorro

  8. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pickenheim, B. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); BIBLER, N. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.

  9. Development of CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluids for efficient energy management: Assessment of potential for energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen Zennifer, M.; Manikandan, S.; Suganthi, K.S.; Leela Vinodhan, V.; Rajan, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluids prepared and characterized. • Maximum thermal conductivity enhancement of 14.1% at 50 °C for 1 vol% nanofluid. • Heat transfer performance in correspondence with improved transport properties. • 11.8% enhancement in heat transfer rate for 1 vol% nanofluid. - Abstract: Ethylene glycol (EG) plays an important role as coolant in sub-artic and artic regions owing to its low freezing point. However one of the limitations of ethylene glycol for energy management is its low thermal conductivity, which can be improved by addition of nanoparticles. In the present work, cupric oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized followed by dispersion in ethylene glycol through extended probe ultrasonication without addition of chemical dispersing agent. Temperature dependency of thermal conductivity of 1 vol% CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluid exhibited a minimum at a critical temperature corresponding to lower thickness of interfacial layers and negligible Brownian motion. The influence of liquid layering on thermal conductivity was predominant at temperatures below critical temperature leading to higher thermal conductivity at lower temperature. Brownian motion-induced microconvection resulted in thermal conductivity increase with temperature above the critical temperature. About 14.1% enhancement in thermal conductivity was obtained at 50 °C for 1 vol% CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluid. The viscosity of CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluid was lower than the viscosity of ethylene glycol at temperatures below 50 °C and 120 °C for 1 vol% and 0.5 vol% CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluids. Our data reveal that the CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluids are better coolants than ethylene glycol for transient cooling under constant heat flux conditions with 11.8% enhancement in heat transfer rate for 1 vol% CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluid. Hence the use of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids is a promising approach for energy management.

  10. Admission rates and costs associated with emergency presentation of urolithiasis: analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Samuel H; Cashy, John; Pearl, Jeffrey A; Stein, Daniel M; Perry, Kent; Nadler, Robert B

    2013-12-01

    We sought to examine a large nationwide (United States) sample of emergency department (ED) visits to determine data related to utilization and costs of care for urolithiasis in this setting. Nationwide Emergency Department Sample was analyzed from 2006 to 2009. All patients presenting to the ED with a diagnosis of upper tract urolithiasis were analyzed. Admission rates and total cost were compared by region, hospital type, and payer type. Numbers are weighted estimates that are designed to approximate the total national rate. An average of 1.2 million patients per year were identified with the diagnosis of urolithiasis out of 120 million visits to the ED annually. Overall average rate of admission was 19.21%. Admission rates were highest in the Northeast (24.88%), among teaching hospitals (22.27%), and among Medicare patients (42.04%). The lowest admission rates were noted for self-pay patients (9.76%) and nonmetropolitan hospitals (13.49%). The smallest increases in costs over time were noted in the Northeast. Total costs were least in nonmetropolitan hospitals; however, more patients were transferred to other hospitals. When assessing hospital ownership status, private for-profit hospitals had similar admission rates compared with private not-for-profit hospitals (16.6% vs 15.9%); however, costs were 64% and 48% higher for ED and inpatient admission costs, respectively. Presentation of urolithiasis to the ED is common, and is associated with significant costs to the medical system, which are increasing over time. Costs and rates of admission differ by region, payer type, and hospital type, which may allow us to identify the causes for cost discrepancies and areas to improve efficiency of care delivery.

  11. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-bin Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compelling findings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1 polyethylene glycol as an adjustable biomolecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2 Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3 Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting substrates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury

  12. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-bin Kong; Qiu-yan Tang; Xu-yi Chen; Yue Tu; Shi-zhong Sun; Zhong-lei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compellingfindings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1) polyethylene glycol as an adjustable bio-molecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2) Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3) Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting sub-strates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury.

  13. Effect of urinary tract infection on the urinary metabolic characteristic as a risk factor in producing urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eskandarifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary metabolic disorders are one of the most common causes of stone formation in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of urinary tract infections in the urinary metabolic characteristics as a risk factor in the incidence of urolithiasis. This case-control study was conducted in 222 children with urolithiasis in the range of 6 months to 16 years old in Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran during 2012-14. Patients were divided into two groups based on those with urinary tract infection and without urinary tract infection. Then, urine samples were collected from both groups, and levels of calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, creatinine, and cysteine were measured. The collected information was analyzed using software SPSS (version 16. The ratio Average levels of calcium, magnesium, oxalate, cysteine, uric acid to creatinine in urine showed no significant difference between two groups based on statistical analysis. However, the amount of citrate to creatinine in children with urinary tract infection and urolithiasis was clearly less P=0.01. The results of this study show that the urinary tract infection cannot change the urinary metabolic characteristics, but it can be considered as a risk factor in kidney stone formation due to the reduced amount of citrate in the urine.

  14. Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from indwelling Foley catheters following tube cystostomy in goats with obstructive urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Mavangira, Vengai; Byrne, Barbara A; Angelos, John A

    2017-05-01

    Tube cystostomy is a surgical method used for managing obstructive urolithiasis and involves placement of a Foley catheter into the urinary bladder. We identified and evaluated the antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from indwelling Foley catheters following tube cystostomy in goats with obstructive urolithiasis. Urine samples collected over a 10-y period from catheter tips at the time of removal were submitted for bacteriologic culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Resistance patterns to antibiotics, trends in the resistance patterns over the study period, and the probability of a bacterial isolate being resistant as a function of the identity of the isolate and antibiotic tested were determined. A total of 103 urine samples from 103 male goats with obstructive urolithiasis managed surgically with tube cystostomy were included in the study. Aerococcus (36.9%) and Enterococcus (30.1%) were isolated most frequently. The susceptibility patterns of all bacteria isolated did not change over the study period ( p > 0.05). Proportions of isolates resistant to 1, 2, and ≥3 antibiotics were 36.9%, 18.5%, and 23.3%, respectively. Thus, 41.8% of bacterial isolates were resistant to 2 or more antibiotics tested. The probability of Aerococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to be resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, penicillin, or tetracycline ranged from 0.59 to 0.76.

  15. Biosynthetic mechanism of glycolate in Chromatium, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Sumio; Takabe, Tetsuo; Akazawa, Takashi

    1977-01-01

    The metabolic transformation of glycolate to glycine occurring in photosynthesizing cells of Chromatium was investigated by the radioisotopic technique and by amino acid analysis. By analyzing the distribution of radiocarbon upon feeding (1- 14 C) glycolate, (2- 14 C) glyoxylate and (1- 14 C) glycine to bacterial cells, it was demonstrated that glycolate is converted to glycine via glyoxylate, and both glycolate and glycine are excreted extracellularly. Although the formation of serine was barely detected by the above two techniques in both N 2 and O 2 atmospheres, it was found that 14 CO 2 is evolved quite markedly from both (1- 14 C) glycolate and (1- 14 C) glycine fed to the Chromatium cells. Analytical results of transient changes in amino acid compositions under atmospheric changes of N 2 →O 2 and by the addition of exogenous glycolate in N 2 confirm the notion that glycolate is converted to glycine. Acidic amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid) appear to take part in glycine formation as amino donors. The formation of glycine from glycolate in a N 2 atmosphere suggests that an unknown glycolate dehydrogenation reaction may operate in the overall process. (auth.)

  16. Ethylene Glycol, Hazardous Substance in the Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Patočka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment.

  17. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickenheim, B. R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bibler, N. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hay, M. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-08

    This document has been revised due to recent information that the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments contains both formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in earlier revisions. Additional data concerning the properties of glycolic acid have also been added to this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in Technical Grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.033 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process. It has been cited that glycolic acid

  18. PHOSPHATE CRYSTALLURIA IN VARIOUS FORMS OF UROLITHIASIS AND POSSIBILITIES OF ITS PROGNOSTICATION IN PATIENTS WITH PHOSPHATE STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Konstantinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition of types of crystalluria in various forms of urolithiasis and biochemical signs of phosphate crystals in the urine, while phosphate urolithiasis (infectious origin.Patients and methods. The study involved 144 patients with recurrent urolithiasis — 75 women and 69 men. Of these, 46 — diagnosed calculi with uric acid, 44 — calcium oxalate or mixed with a prevalence of calcium oxalate, in 54 — phosphate rocks (carbonate-apatite and/or struvite. The age of patients ranged from 21 to 74 years. 93 people have been under long-term, within 2–15 years, outpatient observation. The examination included the collection of anamnesis, general and microbiological analysis of urine, biochemical blood serum and urine on 10 indicators, reflecting renal function, state of the protein, water and electrolyte metabolism, uric acid metabolism, the chemical composition of the stone analysis.Results. It was found that in patients with calcium oxalate stones phosphaturia has been diagnosed in 2% of cases. And, along with calcium phosphate crystals they had oxalate crystals. In patients with phosphate urolithiasis phosphaturia observed in 96% of patients, in two patients (4% they determined except phosphates also oxalate salt in urine sediment. Patients with phosphate urolithiasis at occurrence of phosphate crystalluria have metabolic state changes: increased serum uric acid concentration from 0.322 ± 0.009 to 0.367 ± 0.018 mmol/l daily renal excretion of inorganic phosphate 23.94 ± 2.93 mmol/day to 32.12 ± 4.39 mmol/day, and reduced total calcium content in urine 6.61 ± 0.94 mmol/day to 3.37 ± 0.89 mmol/day. The results led to the following conclusion.Conclusion. Biochemical signs of occurrence of phosphate crystalluria in patients with stones of infectious origin can be: the approaching level of excretion in the urine of inorganic phosphates to 32,12 ± 4,39 mmol/day, serum uric acid concentration to 0,367 ± 0,018 mmol/l, and the

  19. Comparison of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urolithiasis Between Children and Adults: A Single Centre Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, Salman; Rahat Aleman Bhatti, Joshua; Hasan, Aisha; Shabbir, Muhammad Usman; Akhter, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urolithiasis and compare the results between children and adults. Materials and methods From January 2011 to January 2015 (four years), ESWL was performed in 104 children and 300 adults for urolithiasis. MODULITH® SLX-F2 lithotripter (Storz Medical AG, Tägerwilen, Switzerland) equipment was used for ESWL. The stone-free rates, the number of ESWL sessions required, complication rates and ancillary procedures used were evaluated in a comparative manner. Results The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of children was 7.84±4.22 years and of adults was a 40.22±1.57 years. Mean ± SD of the stone size was 1.28±61 cm in the adults while 1.08 ± 0.59 cm in the children. In adults, the complications included steinstrasse in six (1.98%) patients, fever in 15 (4.95%), hematuria in 19 (6.28%) and sepsis in six (1.98%) patients. In children, steinstrasse was observed in two (1.9%), mild fever in two (1.9%), hematuria in six (5.7%) and sepsis was seen in four (3.8%) patients. The overall complication rate in the adults and in the children, it was found to be 46/300 (15%) and in the children, it was seen to be 14/104 (13%). No statistical difference was found in post-ESWL complications between children and adults (P>0.05). Ancillary procedures including double J (DJ) stent were used in 13 (12.5%) children and 87 (29%) adults. There was a better stone clearance rate in children i.e. 79% as compared to 68% in adults (X2: P=0.036). Conclusion Children can achieve high stone-free rates after ESWL with a lower need for repeat ancillary procedures as compared to adults. However, there is a difference in the post-ESWL complications between these groups. PMID:27800291

  20. Long-term functional outcome of kidneys in children with urolithiasis after ESWL treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlajković, M; Slavković, A; Radovanović, M; Sirić, Z; Stefanović, V; Perović, S

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term functional outcome of kidneys in children with urolithiasis treated by means of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The effectiveness and safety of this method in the management of pediatric urinary stone disease was also studied. This prospective study enrolled 84 children, 33 boys (age: 9.1 +/- 3.8 yrs) and 51 girls (age: 9.6 +/- 3.9 yrs), with urolithiasis who were treated using a second-generation "Siemens" Lithostar lithotriptor, in the period between 1988 and 1998. Dynamic kidney scintigraphy using (99 m)Tc-DTPA was done prior to, immediately following ESWL treatment, three months later, and again after an observation period of 12 - 67 months (38 +/- 13 months). Immediate fragmentation rate was 90 %, while the calculus clearance rate was 61 %. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), measured by clearance of (99 m)Tc-DTPA, immediately after an ESWL treatment of 107 +/- 6 ml/min was significantly lower compared to the pretreatment value of 118 +/- 7 ml/min, but returned three months later to 121 +/- 6 ml/min, and to 131 +/- 10 ml/min at the end of the observation period. A separate analysis was performed on three groups of patients treated by ESWL: with acute calculous disease, chronic calculous disease, and chronic calculous with partial stasis. ESWL treatment in children with acute obstruction was associated with an immediate increase in GFR; however, in chronic calculous disease a decrease in GFR was found. A return of GFR to the pretreatment level was observed at the three-month control in these patients. In patients with acute stone obstruction, at 3 and 12 - 67 months after ESWL treatment, GFR of the treated kidney was found to be significantly increased compared to the pretreatment level. In contrast, in children with chronic calculous disease this increase was modest. This study has demonstrated ESWL to be an effective treatment option for urinary calculi management, which can be safely performed

  1. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  2. Acute oxalate nephropathy caused by ethylene glycol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Woong Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (EG is a sweet-tasting, odorless organic solvent found in many agents, such as anti-freeze. EG is composed of four organic acids: glycoaldehyde, glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid in vivo. These metabolites are cellular toxins that can cause cardio-pulmonary failure, life-threatening metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression, and kidney injury. Oxalic acid is the end product of EG, which can precipitate to crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the tubular lumen and has been linked to acute kidney injury. We report a case of EG-induced oxalate nephropathy, with the diagnosis confirmed by kidney biopsy, which showed acute tubular injury of the kidneys with extensive intracellular and intraluminal calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal depositions.

  3. [EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY IN PATIENTS WITH UROLITHIASIS OF A SOLITARY KIDNEY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshenkova, I G; Dutov, V V; Rumjancev, A A; Mamedov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in 62 patients with urolithiasis of a solitary kidney. In 50 (80.6%) patients calculi were located in the kidney and in 12 (19.4%) patients in the ureter. Effectiveness of ESWL at 3 month follow-up was 85.5%, which is somewhat lower than in patients with two healthy kidneys due to the choice of sparing low-energy modes of lithotripsy. The effectiveness of ESWL depended on the size of the original calculi (ppre-drainage of the kidney before a session of ESWL in patients with large and multiple calculi. There was no correlation between the occurrence of complications during treatment and the clinical form of a solitary kidney (p>0.05). In patients with stones larger than 1 cm and a moderate baseline abnormalities of the upper urinary tract urodynamics ESWL was less effective (pcalculus (p=0.504). Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a highly effective and safe treatment of stones of a solitary kidney. Rational choice of indications and contraindications for the use of ESWL in a specific clinical situation is of great importance.

  4. Urolithiasis on the ketogenic diet with concurrent topiramate or zonisamide therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Elahna; Conant, Kerry D.; Dunne, Irie E.; Pfeifer, Heidi H.; Lyczkowski, David A.; Linshaw, Michael A.; Thiele, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Children with refractory epilepsy who are co-treated with the ketogenic diet (KD) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CA-I) anti-epileptic medications including topiramate (TPM) and zonisamide (ZNS) are at risk for urolithiasis. Retrospective chart review of all children treated with ketogenic therapy at our institution was performed in order to estimate the minimal risk of developing signs or symptoms of stone disease. Children (N = 93) were classified into groups according to KD +/− CA-I co-therapy. Fourteen patients had occult hematuria or worse, including 6 with radiologically confirmed stones. Three of 6 calculi developed in the KD + ZNS group of 17 patients who were co-treated for a cumulative total of 97 months (3.1 stones per 100 patient months). One confirmed stone was in the KD + TPM group of 22 children who were co-treated for a cumulative total of 263 months (0.4 stones per 100 patient months). All six patients had at least three of five biochemical risk factors including metabolic acidosis, concentrated urine, acid urine, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia. Standard of care interventions to minimize hypercalciuria, crystalluria and stone formation used routinely by pediatric nephrologists should also be prescribed by neurologists treating patients with combination anti-epileptic therapy. Non-fasting KD initiation, fluid liberalization, potassium citrate prophylaxis as well as regular laboratory surveillance are indicated in this high risk population. PMID:20466520

  5. Damage and recovery of skin barrier function after glycolic acid chemical peeling and crystal microdermabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Youn; Kang, Hyun A; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2004-03-01

    Superficial chemical peeling and microdermabrasion have become increasingly popular methods for producing facial rejuvenation. However, there are few studies reporting the skin barrier function changes after these procedures. To evaluate objectively the degree of damage visually and the time needed for the skin barrier function to recover after glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Superficial chemical peeling using 30%, 50%, and 70% glycolic acid and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion were used on the volar forearm of 13 healthy women. The skin response was measured by a visual observation and using an evaporimeter, corneometer, and colorimeter before and after peeling at set time intervals. Both glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion induced significant damage to the skin barrier function immediately after the procedure, and the degree of damage was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with glycolic acid peeling. The damaged skin barrier function had recovered within 24 hours after both procedures. The degree of erythema induction was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with the glycolic acid peeling procedure. The degree of erythema induced after the glycolic acid peeling procedure was not proportional to the peeling solution concentration used. The erythema subsided within 1 day after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure and within 4 days after the glycolic acid peeling procedure. These results suggest that the skin barrier function is damaged after the glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure but recovers within 1 to 4 days. Therefore, repeating the superficial peeling procedure at 2-week intervals will allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function.

  6. Clinical Effectiveness of Prospectively Reported Sonographic Twinkling Artifact for the Diagnosis of Renal Calculus in Patients Without Known Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masch, William R; Cohan, Richard H; Ellis, James H; Dillman, Jonathan R; Rubin, Jonathan M; Davenport, Matthew S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical effectiveness of prospectively reported sonographic twinkling artifact for the diagnosis of renal calculus in patients without known urolithiasis. All ultrasound reports finalized in one health system from June 15, 2011, to June 14, 2014, that contained the words "twinkle" or "twinkling" in reference to suspected renal calculus were identified. Patients with known urolithiasis or lack of a suitable reference standard (unenhanced abdominal CT with ≤ 2.5-mm slice thickness performed ≤ 30 days after ultrasound) were excluded. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio of sonographic twinkling artifact for the diagnosis of renal calculus were calculated by renal unit and stratified by two additional diagnostic features for calcification (echogenic focus, posterior acoustic shadowing). Eighty-five patients formed the study population. Isolated sonographic twinkling artifact had sensitivity of 0.78 (82/105), specificity of 0.40 (26/65), and a positive likelihood ratio of 1.30 for the diagnosis of renal calculus. Specificity and positive likelihood ratio improved and sensitivity declined when the following additional diagnostic features were present: sonographic twinkling artifact and echogenic focus (sensitivity, 0.61 [64/105]; specificity, 0.65 [42/65]; positive likelihood ratio, 1.72); sonographic twinkling artifact and posterior acoustic shadowing (sensitivity, 0.31 [33/105]; specificity, 0.95 [62/65]; positive likelihood ratio, 6.81); all three features (sensitivity, 0.31 [33/105]; specificity, 0.95 [62/65]; positive likelihood ratio, 6.81). Isolated sonographic twinkling artifact has a high false-positive rate (60%) for the diagnosis of renal calculus in patients without known urolithiasis.

  7. The clinical meaning of oxaluria in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with comorbid chronic pyelonephritis on the background of urolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Khukhlina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study clinical peculiarities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with comorbid chronic pyelonephritis on the background of urolithiasis with oxaluria. Materials and methods. 60 patients were included into the study and divided into 3 groups. Study groups: I-st group - 18 patients with isolated course of chronic pyelonephritis (CP and urolithiasis (U of oxalic and mixed genesis, II-nd group - 19 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, study group III - 23 patients with COPD, CP and U of oxalic genesis. Additional control group consisted of 20 practically healthy individuals (PHI of corresponding age and gender. Laboratory and clinical examination of the patients was conducted. Spectrophotometry with polarization of biologic material was performed. Statistical analysis was done in Primer of Biostatistics, Origin 8.0. Results. Systemic inflammation in patients with COPD and comorbid CP with oxaluria form the syndrome of mutual burdening. This fact was proved by inverse correlation between oxalate salts in sputum (15,5±1,0 mg/24h and reduction of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 in group III. This result was in 2,1 lower than in PHI (r = -0,53,р<0,05. Conclusions. Taking into account data of the anamnesis, patients with COPD, comorbid CP and urolithiasis with oxaluria, had more severe course of COPD than patients with isolated COPD. This can be explained by the oxalic acid crystals deposition in bronchial wall. Stated above clinical characteristics are the features of respiratory oxalosis that needs special treatment.

  8. Osmotic effects of polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, L R; Emmett, M; Santa Ana, C A; Fordtran, J S

    1988-04-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used to increase the osmotic pressure of fluids used to cleanse the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about its osmotic activity. To investigate this activity systematically, solutions of PEG of differing molecular weights were made and subjected to measurement of osmolality by both freezing point depression and vapor pressure osmometry. Measured osmolality was increasingly greater than predicted from average molecular weight as PEG concentration increased. Measurement of sodium activity in NaCl/PEG solutions by means of an ion-selective electrode suggested that the higher than expected osmolality could be due in part to interactions that, in effect, sequestered water from the solution. Osmolality was consistently greater by freezing point osmometry than by vapor pressure osmometry. To determine which osmometry method reflected biologically relevant osmolality, normal subjects underwent steady-state total gut perfusion with an electrolyte solution containing 105 g/L of PEG 3350. This produced rectal effluent that was hypertonic by freezing point osmometry but isotonic by vapor pressure osmometry. Assuming that luminal fluid reaches osmotic equilibrium with plasma during total gut perfusion, this result suggests that the vapor pressure osmometer accurately reflects the biologically relevant osmolality of intestinal contents. We conclude that PEG exerts more of an osmotic effect than would be predicted from its molecular weight. This phenomenon may reflect interactions between PEG and water molecules that alter the physical chemistry of the solution and sequester water from the solution.

  9. Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol versus normal saline. ... In children, (is this standard of care?: this method is mostly followed) this is usually ... Patients and Methods: Thirty patients, admitted in the Department of ...

  10. Inert Reassessment Document for Ethylene Glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene Glycol has many uses and are also used as antifreeze and deicers, as solvents, humectants, as chemical intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, and as components of many products such as brake fluids, lubricants, inks,and lacquers.

  11. Intensification of ethylene glycol production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisutwattanaa, Apiwit; Frauzem, Rebecca; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to generate an alternative design for ethylene glycol production process focusing on a reduction of operating cost and emissions. To achieve this, the phenomena-based method for process intensification was applied. 3 stages of process intensification were performed. First, the base......-case design was obtained, resulting in the production of ethylene glycol via two steps: ethylene oxidation synthesis followed by ethylene oxide hydration to produce ethylene glycol. Feasibility of the design was verified and the process was rigorously designed using a computer process simulation program...... solutions. As the result of intensification method, membrane separation was suggested and applied to the design. With the operation of the new equipment, the ethylene glycol production process was improved for 54.51 percent in terms of energy consumption....

  12. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness...

  13. Interleukin-18 and NGAL in assessment of ESWL treatment safety in children with urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs, Katarzyna; Straż-Żebrowska, Ewa; Placzyńska, Małgorzata; Zdanowski, Robert; Kalicki, Bolesław; Lewicki, Sławomir; Jung, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Urolithiasis is recurrent chronic disease and a complex nephro-urological problem. Currently it is diagnosed in very young children, even infants in the first quarter of life. Until recently the main method of treatment for stones, which for various reasons did not pass spontaneously, was open surgery. At present, the main method replacing open surgery is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Usefulness of common known indicators of the renal function to assess the safety of ESWL procedure is evaluated and verified. The basic markers are serum creatinine, cystatin C, urea, glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria assessment. Unfortunately all these methods show little sensitivity in the case of acute injury processes. There are efforts to use new biomarkers of renal tubular activity, which include among others interleukin 18 (IL-18) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). The aim of the study was to assess the safety of ESWL by means of albumin to creatinine ratio, serum cystatin C levels and concentration of two new markers: IL -18 and NGAL. Albumin to creatinine ratio (p = 0.28) and serum cystatin C (p = 0.63) collected before and 48 hours after ESWL did not show statistically significant differences. Similarly, both new markers (IL -18 and NGAL) showed no significant differences (urine IL -18 p = 0.31; serum NGAL p = 0.11; urine NGAL p = 0.29). In conclusion, serum cystatin C tests, urine albumin to creatinine ratio and new early markers of renal tubular injury confirmed the safety of the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and show that the procedure does not cause any episode of acute renal injury.

  14. Polyethylene glycol enhances lipoplex-cell association and lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P C; Hui, S W

    1999-10-15

    The association between liposome-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) and targeted cell membranes is a limiting step of cationic liposome-mediated transfection. A novel technique was developed where lipoplex-cell membrane association is enhanced by the addition of 2-6% polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the transfection media. Lipoplex-cell association was found to increase up to 100 times in the presence of PEG. Transfection increased correspondingly in the presence of PEG. This increase was found in several cell lines. These results show that lipoplex adsorption to cell membranes is a critical step in liposome-mediated transfection. This step can be facilitated by PEG-induced particle aggregation.

  15. Xanthine urolithiasis in a cat: a case report and evaluation of a candidate gene for xanthine dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Shuichi; Kagi, Akiko; Koyama, Hidekazu; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2007-12-01

    Xanthine urolithiasis was found in a 4-year-old spayed female Himalayan cat with a 10-month history of intermittent haematuria and dysuria. Ultrasonographs indicated the existence of several calculi in the bladder that were undetectable by survey radiographic examination. Four bladder stones were removed by cystotomy. The stones were spherical brownish-yellow and their surface was smooth and glossy. Quantitative mineral analysis showed a representative urolith to be composed of more than 95% xanthine. Ultrasonographic examination of the bladder 4.5 months postoperatively indicated the recurrence of urolithiasis. Analysis of purine concentration in urine and blood showed that the cat excreted excessive amounts of xanthine. In order to test the hypothesis that xanthinuria was caused by a homozygote of the inherited mutant allele of a gene responsible for deficiency of enzyme activity in purine degradation pathway, the allele composition of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) gene (one of the candidate genes for hereditary xanthinuria) was evaluated. The cat with xanthinuria was a heterozygote of the polymorphism. A single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the cat XDH gene strongly indicated that the XDH gene of the patient cat was composed of two kinds of alleles and ruled out the hypothesis that the cat inherited the same recessive XDH allele suggesting no activity from a single ancestor.

  16. Comparative study of dynamic renal scintigraphy and conventional ultrasonography for the diagnosis of hydronephrosis as a complication of urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhiyska, V.; Petrov, T.; Kostadinova, I.; Krusteva, R.; Marianovski, V.

    2010-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is the most common complication of the nephrolithiasis which often leads to irreversible and long lasting consequences for the kidney involved. The aim of the study is to compare the results from the Ultrasonography (US) and the Dynamic renal scintigraphy (DRS) in the diagnosis of hydronephrosis as a complication of nephro- and urolithiasis. Forty-six patients (21 male, 26 female), aged between 13 and 85 years, with mainly unilateral proved or suspected hydronephrosis are studied. All of them have history for nephro- or urolithiasis. A DRS with 99mTc-DTPA is done by using 255 MBq dose and 25 min. protocol. Diuretic test is performed in 24 (52 %) of the patients. The results from the US and the DRS are compared for all patients. The results from the comparative study show that the DRS confirm and precise the diagnosis from the US in 72% of the cases, while in the rest of them the findings from the DRS differs from the US diagnosis. In 32 % of the cases where diuretic test was performed an obstructive hydronephrosis is found. The comparative investigation provides evidence that the DRS corrects and precise the diagnosis of hydronephrosis, determined by US in significant percentage of the cases, provides additional information by using functional parameters and should be used as a basic diagnostic method for the last therapeutic decision. (authors)

  17. Plain radiography, renography, and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munck, O.; Gerquari, I.; Moeller, J.T.; Jensen, L.I.; Thomsen, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    Eighteen patients were evaluated before and 5 weeks after the first treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using abdominal plain radiography, 131 I-hippuran probe renography, and 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. In 6 patients no urolithiasis was present on the post ESWL plain radiograph, in 7 the size had decreased, and in 5 the stone mass was unchanged. The renograms were within normal range in the 6 patients who were cured by ESWL, whereas this was the case for only 4 of the 12 who still had renal calculi. In 2 patients pelvic stones had descended into the ureter after ESWL, and the renograms indicated obstruction. Another 3 patients had ureteral stones, whereas in the remaining 7 patients only pelvic stones were found on the plain radiographs. In no patient did the scintigrams reveal scars. It is concluded that abdominal plain radiography of the urinary tract and probe renography are complementary and sufficient in the monitoring of patients with urolithiasis post ESWL. (orig.)

  18. Inhibition of crystallization caused by Proteus mirabilis during the development of infectious urolithiasis by various phenolic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Rozalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urolithiasis is a consequence of persistent urinary tract infections caused by urease producing bacteria e.g. Proteus mirabilis. These stones are composed of struvite and carbonate apatite. Their rapid growth and high recurrence indicate that so far appropriate methods of treatment have not been found. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds was investigated in vitro against formation of struvite/apatite crystals. The impact of these substances with different chemical structures on crystallization caused by clinical isolates of P. mirabilis was tested spectrophotometrically using a microdilution method. Among the 11 tested compounds resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, peralgonidin, vanillic and coffee acids at the concentrations 250-1000 μg/ml inhibited P. mirabilis urease activity and crystallization. However, only vanillic acid had such an effect on all tested strains of P. mirabilis. Therefore, using an in vitro model, bacterial growth, crystallization, urease activity and pH were examined for 24h in synthetic urine with vanillic acid. Effect of vanillic acid was compared with that of other known struvite/apatite crystallization inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid, pyrophosphate) and it was shown that vanillic acid strongly inhibited bacterial growth and the formation of crystals. It can be assumed that this compound, after further studies, can be used in the treatment or prophylaxis of infectious urolithiasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissolution of infection-induced struvite bladder stones by using a noncalculolytic diet and antibiotic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract An 8-year-old, female spayed miniature schnauzer was presented for pollakiuria and gross hematuria. Infection-induced struvite urolithiasis with concurrent bacterial urinary tract infection was diagnosed. The treatment is described, followed by a brief discussion of struvite stones and their medical management. PMID:15532883

  20. Level of evidence, sponsorship, conflict of interest policy and commercial impact of PubMed-listed clinical urolithiasis-related trials in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Wilhelm, Konrad; Schlager, Daniel; Schoeb, Dominik Stefan; Adams, Fabian; Dahm, Philipp; Hein, Simon

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate published trials on urolithiasis regarding level of evidence, type of sponsorship and declared conflicts of interest (COIs), and to elucidate a potential commercial impact. We performed a systematic PubMed(®) literature search using a predefined Boolean search term to identify PubMed-listed clinical research studies on urolithiasis in 2014 (fourth quarter). All authors screened the results for eligibility criteria and two independent reviewers evaluated and performed data extraction of predefined endpoints, including level of evidence, declaration of COI and sponsorship/funding (as indicated in the published print version), and commercial impact. A total of 110 clinical trials in urolithiasis listed in PubMed met the inclusion criteria. Levels of evidence 1, 2, 3 and 4 were found in 15%, 14%, 21% and 51% of trials, respectively. A COI was indicated in a total of 90% of publications, 93% of which declared no existing conflict of interest. Sponsorship was indicated in 36% of publications, 55% of which stated public funding, 33% institutional funding, 10% industrial funding and 2% both public and industrial funding. A total of 11% of the published trials were rated as having a high commercial impact. The present study provides evidence of increasing levels of evidence for published clinical trials on urolithiasis in 2014 (as compared with earlier data). Ninety percent of publications indicated conflicts of interest, whereas sponsoring of studies was declared only by one-third. A considerable number of trials involved issues of high commercial impact. Recently established legal programmes and voluntary acts on self-reporting of financial relationships will enhance transparency in the future; however, increased public funding will be needed to further promote the quality of trials on urolithiasis. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Biosynthetic mechanism of glycolate in Chromatium, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Sumio; Akazawa, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of α-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonate (α-HPMS), 2,3-epoxypropionate(glycidate), and cyanide on the photosynthetic activity of Chromatium were investigated. The α-HPMS stimulated the photosynthetic CO 2 fixation in the bacterial cells in both N 2 and O 2 environments. The formation and subsequent excretion of both glycolate and glycine in the O 2 atmosphere were markedly enhanced by the HPMS. In contrast to the recent report that glycidate especially inhibits the glycolate formation in tabacco leaf disks, the authors found that it had no influence on the CO 2 fixation by Chromatium in either N 2 or O 2 atmosphere, and that the synthesis and extracellular excretion of glycolate were markedly stimulated by glycidate treatment. The cyanide (0.01 - 1mM) exerted some marked inhibitory effect on the photosynthetic CO 2 fixation in N 2 . In O 2 atmosphere, the photosynthesis was stimulated by the 0.01 mM cyanide, and inhibited by it above this level. Both the incorporation of 14 CO 2 into glycolate and the total synthesis of glycolate in light were also enhanced by the 0.01 mM cyanide, and strongly inhibited above that concentration. (J.P.N.)

  2. Association between Circulating Vitamin D Level and Urolithiasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henglong Hu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies compared the serum/plasma 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D and 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD between people with and without nephrolithiasis, and their results were conflicting. After systematically searching PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, and the Wanfang Database, we conducted a meta-analysis. Thirty-two observational studies involving 23,228 participants were included. Meta-analysis of these studies showed that of stone formers (SFs, calcium SFs had significantly higher concentrations of 1,25(OH2D (weighted mean difference (WMD, 10.19 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval (CI, 4.31–16.07; p = 0.0007 and WMD, 11.28 pg/mL; 95% CI, 4.07–18.50; p = 0.002, respectively than non-stone formers, while the levels of 25(OHD (WMD, 0.88 ng/mL; 95% CI, −1.04–2.80; p = 0.37 and WMD, −0.63 ng/mL; 95% CI, −2.72–1.47; p = 0.56, respectively are similar. Compared with controls and normocalciuria SFs, hypercalciuria SFs had increased circulating 1,25(OH2D (WMD, 9.41 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.15–18.67; p = 0.05 and WMD, 2.75 pg/mL; 95% CI, −0.20–5.69; p = 0.07, respectively and markedly higher 25(OHD (WMD, 5.02 ng/mL; 95% CI, 0.99–9.06; p = 0.01 and WMD, 5.02 ng/mL; 95% CI, 2.14–7.90; p = 0.0006, respectively. Normocalciuria SFs had elevated 1,25(OH2D level (WMD, 6.85 pg/mL; 95% CI, −5.00–18.71; p = 0.26 and comparable 25(OHD (WMD, 0.94 ng/mL; 95% CI, −3.55–5.43; p = 0.68. Sensitivity analysis generated similar results. Current evidence suggests that increased circulating 1,25(OH2D is associated with urinary stones and a higher level of circulating 25(OHD is significantly associated with hypercalciuria urolithiasis. Further studies are still needed to reconfirm and clarify the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of stones.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of 22 Plants Used in Urolithiasis Medicine in Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bouabdelli

    2012-05-01

    importance of such plants in urolithiasis medicine and alternative healthcare.

  4. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  5. Monoclonal antibody to DNA containing thymine glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leadon, S A; Hanawalt, P C [Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1983-08-01

    Exposure of DNA to ionizing or near ultraviolet radiation modifies thymine to form ring-saturated products. One of the major products formed is 5,6-dihydroxy-5.6-dihydrothymine (thymine glycol). Thymine glycol can also be selectively formed by oxidizing DNA with OsO/sub 4/. We have isolated hybrids that produce monoclonal antibodies against thymine glycol by fusing mouse myeloma cells (P3X63-Ag8-6.5.3) with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with OsO/sub 4/-oxidized poly(dT) complexed with methylated bovine serum albumin. This report describes the characterization of the antibody from one hybridoma using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibody reacted with both single- and double-stranded DNA treated with OsO/sub 4/, and with OsO/sub 4/-treated poly(dA-dT) and poly(dT); it did not crossreact with unmodified or apurinic DNA. It also reacted with DNA treated with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or with ..gamma..-rays at doses as low as 250 rad. We were able to detect 2 fmoles of thymine glycol in OsO/sub 4/-treated DNA and could quantitate 1 thymine glycol per 220000 thymines. Using the antibody and the ELISA, the formation and removal of thymine glycol was examined in cultures of African green monkey cells irradiated with 25 krad of ..gamma..-rays. The antibody reactive sites produced by irradiation (8.5 per 10/sup 6/ thymines) were efficiently removed from the cellular DNA.

  6. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone

  7. The proton dynamics of ethylene glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, A G; Sobolev, O V

    2002-01-01

    The results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments on ethylene glycol at T=300 K, T=348 K and T=393 K by using the 'direct-geometry' double time-of-flight neutron-scattering spectrometer DIN-2PI (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna) are presented. The quasi-elastic and inelastic components of the neutron scattering have been considered. The diffusion characteristics and generalized frequency distributions for protons of ethylene glycol molecules were obtained from the neutron-scattering spectra. (orig.)

  8. Contrast radiography of the lower urinary tract in the management of obstructive urolithiasis in small ruminants and swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.L.; Dykes, N.L.; Love, K.; Fubini, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    Contrast radiographic visualization of the small ruminant and porcine lower urinary tract is an infrequently used modality for the evaluation and management of obstructive urolithiasis. The administration of contrast medium through a tube cystostomy catheter used to divert urine flow until the resolution of the obstruction may provide an easy method to evaluate the status of the urethral obstruction. Contrast fluoroscopy is utilized to monitor and visualize therapeutic flushing of the urethra. A review of 26 patients seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital suggested that among the radiographic techniques used, positive contrast normograde cystourethrography through the tube cystostomy catheter allowed the best visualization of the lower urinary tract structures and enabled assessment of the resolution of the obstructive lesion

  9. Stabilization of Polyethylene Glycol in Archaeological Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig

    Projektet har fokuseret på polythylen glycol (PEG) stabilitet og nedbrydning i træ fra konserverede skibsvrag som Vasa (Stockholm) og Skuldelev skibene. En række avancerede analyseteknikker er anvendt til at undersøge indtrængningsdybden for forskellige molekylstørrelser PEG i ikke-nedbrudt træ f...

  10. Polyethylene glycols (PEG) and related structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, Emily; Kroigaard, Mogens; Mosbech, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We describe hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols (PEGs), with cross-reactivity to a structural analog, polysorbate 80, in a 69-year-old patient with perioperative anaphylaxis and subsequent, severe anaphylactic reactions to unrelated medical products. PEGs and PEG analogs are prevalent in the...

  11. Enthalpy of phase transition and prediction of phase Equilibria in systems of glycols and glycol ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Esina, Zoya; Miroshnikov, Aleksandr; Korchuganova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The PCEAS model was used to study the liquid-solid and liquid-vapor phase transitions at constant pressure in systems containing glycols and glycol ethers. This method is based on minimizing the excess Gibbs energy over the solvation parameter, which takes into account the processes of association of molecules in various phases. To compute the diagrams, the data on enthalpy and phase transition temperatures of pure components are required, while the information about the interactions in the b...

  12. Sync-measurement experimental study of (fluoroethane + dimethylether tetraethylene glycol), (fluoroethane + dimethylether triethylene glycol) and (fluoroethane + dimethylether diethylene glycol) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lejun; Zheng, Danxing; Huang, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three new working pairs are proposed for absorption power cycle. • Sync-measured the solubility and absorption enthalpy data at 303.15 K. • Thermokinetic experiment is consistent with the previous thermodynamics study. - Abstract: In this work, three new working pairs, {fluoroethane (HFC161) + dimethylether tetraethylene glycol (DMETEG)}, {HFC161 + dimethylether triethylene glycol (DMETrEG)} and {HFC161 + dimethylether diethylene glycol (DMEDEG)}, are proposed for absorption power cycle. The working pairs are assessed from both thermodynamics and thermokinetic perspective. By combining the microcalorimetry and isothermal synthesis methods, an experimental apparatus was developed to simultaneously obtain the microcalorimetry and vapour–liquid equilibrium data. Then, the solubility and absorption enthalpy data of the three new working pairs were sync-measured at 303.15 K by this sync-measurement experimental apparatus. The thermodynamics data indicated that the affinities of the three working pairs increased from strong to weak in the following order: HFC161 + DMETEG > HFC161 + DMETrEG > HFC161 + DMEDEG. Then the thermokinetic parameters of the absorption rate constant and activation energy were analysed based on the thermokinetic experiment at (303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. As a result, the affinities of the three working pairs are consistent with the previous thermodynamics study. In addition, the intermolecular interactions within the three systems were analysed according to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds; overall, the (HFC161 + DMETEG) system is considered to be the potential option for applications.

  13. Association of minor and trace elements with mineralogical constituents of urinary stones: A hard nut to crack in existing studies of urolithiasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuta, J.; Machát, J.; Benová, D.; Červenka, R.; Zeman, J.; Martinec, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2013), s. 511-522 ISSN 0269-4042 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1394 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : urinary stones * trace elements * biomonitoring * urolithiasis * mineral constituents Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.573, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10653-013-9511-5

  14. 256-MDCT for evaluation of urolithiasis: iterative reconstruction allows for a significant reduction of the applied radiation dose while maintaining high subjective and objective image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Simon; Laqmani, Azien; Derlin, Thorsten; Karul, Murat; Hammerle, Diego; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc; Buhk, Jan-Hendrick; Sehner, Susanne; Nagel, Hans D.; Chun, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) is the established imaging modality in diagnostics of urolithiasis. The aim of iterative reconstruction (IR) is to allow for a radiation dose reduction while maintaining high image quality. This study evaluates its performance in MDCT for assessment of urolithiasis. Fifty-two patients underwent non-contrast abdominal MDCT. Twenty-six patients were referred to MDCT under suspicion of urolithiasis, and examined using a dose-reduced scan protocol (RDCT). Twenty-six patients, who had undergone standard-dose MDCT, served as reference for radiation dose comparison. RDCT images were reconstructed using an IR system (iDose4™, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA). Objective image noise (OIN) was recorded and five radiologists rated the subjective image quality independently. Radiation parameters were derived from the scan protocols. The CTDIvol could be reduced by 50% to 5.8 mGy (P < 0.0001). The same reduction was achieved for DLP and effective dose to 253 ± 27 mGy*cm (P < 0.0001) and 3.9 ± 0.4 mSv (P < 0.0001). IR led to a reduction of the OIN of up to 61% compared with classic filtered back projection (FBP) (P < 0.0001). The OIN declined with increasing IR levels. RDCT with FBP showed the lowest scores of subjective image quality (2.32 ± 0.04). Mean scores improved with increasing IR levels. iDose6 was rated with the best mean score (3.66 ± 0.04). The evaluated IR-tool and protocol may be applied to achieve a considerable radiation dose reduction in MDCT for diagnostics of urolithiasis while maintaining a confident image quality. Best image quality, suitable for evaluation of the entire abdomen concerning differential diagnoses, was achieved with iDose6.

  15. Penetration enhancer: monoethylether of diethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.; Kassai, Z.; Bohacik, L.; Bezek, S.; Hadcrafft, J.; Falson-Rieg, F.

    1999-01-01

    The monoethylether of diethylene glycol (Transcutol), an excellent solubilising agent, has been suggested as a penetration enhancer compatible with trans-dermal drug delivery systems. Using the abdominal skin of 5 day old rats and Franz-type diffusion cells the following topics were studied in this contribution: (1) Flux of Transcutol, labelled with [Ethyl- 14 C]-ether, across an intact skin model, (2) Changes in properties of the skin barrier after stripping with adhesive tape, and (3) Changes in flux of Transcutol when mixed with different co-solvents. The flux from pure solvent in donor compartment reached around 50 μg cm -2 hr -1 across the intact skin horny layer, whilst after 12 strips the flux increased about 200 times. In the presence of propylene glycol dipelargonate, the flux over 2 mg cm -2 hr -1 across non stripped skin was achieved. (authors)

  16. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: jafeli@iq.unesp.br [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  17. Poly(ethylene glycol) interactions with proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 613-618 ISSN 0044-2968. [European Powder Diffraction Conference /9./. Prague, 02.09.2004-05.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * PEO * protein-polymer interaction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  18. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe 3 O 4 with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g −1 and 131 emu g −1 , respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  19. Simulation of polyethylene glycol and calcium-mediated membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannuzzo, Martina; De Jong, Djurre H.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Raudino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We report on the mechanism of membrane fusion mediated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Ca 2+ by means of a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation approach. Our data provide a detailed view on the role of cations and polymer in modulating the interaction between negatively charged apposed membranes. The PEG chains cause a reduction of the inter-lamellar distance and cause an increase in concentration of divalent cations. When thermally driven fluctuations bring the membranes at close contact, a switch from cis to trans Ca 2+ -lipid complexes stabilizes a focal contact acting as a nucleation site for further expansion of the adhesion region. Flipping of lipid tails induces subsequent stalk formation. Together, our results provide a molecular explanation for the synergistic effect of Ca 2+ and PEG on membrane fusion

  20. Triethylene glycol, an active component of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera leaves, is responsible for sleep induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K Kaushik

    Full Text Available Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10-30 mg/mouse manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy.

  1. Triethylene glycol, an active component of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaves, is responsible for sleep induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Mahesh K; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10-30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy.

  2. The effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1992-11-22

    In this paper, we determined whether ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (diEGME) induce hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Male adult Wistar rats weighing 220 g were used as experimental animals. EGME (100, 300 mg/kg per day) and diEGME (500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg per day) were administered by gavage for 1, 2 or 5 days or 4 weeks. In the 4-week study, experimental animals were administered EGME or diEGME once a day orally, 5 days/week. EGME treatment increased the serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) level significantly, however, diEGME did not. The activities of three other enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP) in serum were not altered by EGME or diEGME treatment and thus there was no biochemical indices of hepatic damage by EGME or diEGME. EGME treatment increased the GGT activities in the liver and lungs. Of the organs examined, the induction of GGT was the greatest in the liver. The inducibility in the liver was 216% for the 5-day treatment and 460% for the 4-week treatment. A dose-dependent increase of hepatic microsomal GGT activity by EGME was observed. On the other hand, renal GGT activities were declined to 72% and 60% of control by the 5-day and 4-week EGME treatments, respectively. DiEGME did not affect the GGT activities in any of the tissues except those of the brain. In the histochemical study, most hepatocytes at the periportal zones were stained with GGT staining after the 4-week treatment. However, the hepatocytes at the central zones were negative.

  3. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for efficient ethylene glycol utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franden, Mary Ann; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Li, Wing-Jin; Wagner, Neil J; Cleveland, Nicholas S; Michener, William E; Hauer, Bernhard; Blank, Lars M; Wierckx, Nick; Klebensberger, Janosch; Beckham, Gregg T

    2018-06-07

    Ethylene glycol is used as a raw material in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, in antifreeze, as a gas hydrate inhibitor in pipelines, and for many other industrial applications. It is metabolized by aerobic microbial processes via the highly toxic intermediates glycolaldehyde and glycolate through C2 metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has been engineered for environmental remediation applications given its high toxicity tolerance and broad substrate specificity, is not able to efficiently metabolize ethylene glycol, despite harboring putative genes for this purpose. To further expand the metabolic portfolio of P. putida, we elucidated the metabolic pathway to enable ethylene glycol via systematic overexpression of glyoxylate carboligase (gcl) in combination with other genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that all of the four genes in genomic proximity to gcl (hyi, glxR, ttuD, and pykF) are transcribed as an operon. Where the expression of only two genes (gcl and glxR) resulted in growth in ethylene glycol, improved growth and ethylene glycol utilization were observed when the entire gcl operon was expressed. Both glycolaldehyde and glyoxal inhibit growth in concentrations of ethylene glycol above 50 mM. To overcome this bottleneck, the additional overexpression of the glycolate oxidase (glcDEF) operon removes the glycolate bottleneck and minimizes the production of these toxic intermediates, permitting growth in up to 2 M (~124 g/L) and complete consumption of 0.5 M (31 g/L) ethylene glycol in shake flask experiments. In addition, the engineered strain enables conversion of ethylene glycol to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). Overall, this study provides a robust P. putida KT2440 strain for ethylene glycol consumption, which will serve as a foundational strain for further biocatalyst development for applications in the remediation of waste polyester plastics and

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    manicuring preparations" product category. This ingredient, with an oral LD50 in rats of 32.77 g/kg, has low acute toxicity. Rats given up to 50,000 ppm PEG-4 in drinking water for 5 days showed no permanent signs of toxicity. Rats given daily oral doses up to 2 g/kg/day of PEG-4 for 33 days showed no signs of toxicity. Undiluted PEG-4 produced only minimal injury to the rabbit eye. PEG-4 was not mutagenic in Ames-type assays, did not induce chromosome aberration in an in vivo bone marrow assay, and was negative for genotoxicity in a dominant lethal assay using rats. Other PEG compounds, which have previously been reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, e.g., PEG-6, are mixtures that likely include Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4, so these data were also considered. PEG-6 and PEG-8 were not dermal irritants in several rabbit studies. PEG-2 Stearate had a potential for slight irritation in rabbits but was not a sensitizer in guinea pigs. PEG-2 Cocamine was a moderate irritant in rabbits, producing severe erythema. In one dermal study, PEG-2 Cocamine was determined to be corrosive to rabbit skin, causing eschar and necrosis. PEG-6 and PEG-8 caused little to no ocular irritation. PEG-8 was not mutagenic or genotoxic in a Chinese hamster ovary assay, a sister-chromatid exchange assay, and in an unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. In clinical studies on normal skin, PEG-6 and PEG-8 caused mild cases of immediate hypersensitivity; PEG-8 was not a sensitizer; PEG-2 Stearate was not an irritant, a sensitizer, or a photosensitizer; and PEG-6 Stearate was not an irritant or sensitizer. In damaged skin, cases of systemic toxicity and contact dermatitis in burn patients were attributed to a PEG-based topical ointment. The CIR Expert Panel acknowledged the lack of dermal sensitization data for Triethylene Glycol and dermal irritation and sensitization data for PEG-4. That PEG-6, PEG-8, and PEG-2 Stearate were not irritants or sensitizers suggested that Triethylene Glycol

  5. Effective radiation exposure evaluation during a one year follow-up of urolithiasis patients after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynar, Mehmet; Tekinarslan, Erdem; Keskin, Suat; Buldu, İbrahim; Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Karatag, Tuna; Istanbulluoglu, Mustafa Okan

    2015-01-01

    To determine and evaluate the effective radiation exposure during a one year follow-up of urolithiasis patients following the SWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy) treatment. Total Effective Radiation Exposure (ERE) doses for each of the 129 patients: 44 kidney stone patients, 41 ureter stone patients, and 44 multiple stone location patients were calculated by adding up the radiation doses of each ionizing radiation session including images (IVU, KUB, CT) throughout a one year follow-up period following the SWL. Total mean ERE values for the kidney stone group was calculated as 15, 91 mSv (5.10-27.60), for the ureter group as 13.32 mSv (5.10-24.70), and in the multiple stone location group as 27.02 mSv (9.41-54.85). There was no statistically significant differences between the kidney and ureter groups in terms of the ERE dose values (p = 0.221) (p >0.05). In the comparison of the kidney and ureter stone groups with the multiple stone location group; however, there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.000) (p ionized radiation, different imaging modalities with low dose and/or totally without a dose should be employed in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up bearing the aim to optimize diagnosis while minimizing the radiation dose as much as possible.

  6. Protective effect of magnesium lactate gluconate and Garcinia cambogia fruit extract in experimentally induced renal calculi in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashishkumar Kyada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antiurolithiatic acitivity of magnesium lactate gluconate (MLG and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia (GC fruit was studied. Methods: Study was performed during December 2016 to April 2017. Urolithiasis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 0.75 % v/v ethylene glycol for 21 days. From 8th day onwards, intervention with MLG (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. and GC (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. was started. At the end of treatment period, biochemical parameters affecting renal stone formation were estimated in serum, urine, kidney homogenate and histopathology of harvested kidneys was performed. Results: From in vivo evaluation, it was observed that MLG 400 mg/kg b.w., GC 100 mg/kg b.w. and GC 200 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced nitrogenous waste products in serum (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid as well as calculogenic promoters in urine (phosphate, oxalate and kidney homogenate (calcium, phosphate, oxalate when compared to disease control animals. The MLG 200 and MLG 400 were ineffective in restoring superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzyme activity whereas GC 100, GC 200 and Cystone® 400 mg/kg b.w. significantly elevated SOD and CAT enzymes in urolithiatic rat kidney. Conclusions: MLG and GC extract are capable of preventing calcium oxalate (CaOx crystal formation and subsequent deposition in renal tubules. The principle mechanism underlying nephroprotective effect of test drugs might be attributed to their calcium ion cheating ability and CaOx crystallization inhibitory activity. It is further asserted that GC was more potent than MLG in overall kidney protection by virtue of its antioxidant potential. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 378-384

  7. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Neurologie, Lille (France); Sengler, C. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Laboratoire de Pharmaco-Toxicologie, Guadeloupe (France); Benabdallah, E. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Radiologie, Guadeloupe (France); Colombani, S. [Centre d' Imagerie medicale, Martinique (France)

    2005-02-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  8. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M.; Sengler, C.; Benabdallah, E.; Colombani, S.

    2005-01-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  9. Radioprotection by polyethylene glycol-protein complexes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.H.; Stull, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol of about 5000 D was activated with cyanuric chloride, and the activated compound was complexed to each of three proteins. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase were each radioprotectants when administered prophylactically to female B6CBF1 mice before irradiation. The dose reduction factor for these mice was 1.2 when 5000 units of polyethylene glycol-catalase was administered before 60 Co irradiation. Female B6CBF1 mice administered prophylactic intravenous injections of catalase, polyethylene glycol-albumin, or heat-denatured polyethylene glycol-catalase had survival rates similar to phosphate-buffered saline-injected control mice following 60 Co irradiation. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase have radioprotective activity in B6CBF1 mice, which appears to depend in part on enzymatic activities of the complex. However, no radioprotective effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice injected with each polyethylene glycol-protein complex at either 3 or 24 hr before irradiation. The mechanism for radioprotection by these complexes may depend in part on other factors

  10. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkali, Noor L. H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E. J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G. P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes

  11. Experimental study and phase equilibrium modeling of systems containing acid gas and glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Waheed; Breil, Martin P.; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study phase equilibria of systems containing acid gases and glycols. The acid gases include carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2) while glycols include monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG). A brief lit...

  12. Influence of polyethylene glycol on percolation dynamics of reverse microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethu, P. M.; Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, V. K.; Satapathy, D. K.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the influence of a hydrophilic polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), on the structure and the percolation dynamics of reverse microemulsions (ME) stabilized by an anionic surfactant AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). The percolation transition of MEs is probed using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). Notably, an increase in percolation temperature is observed by the incorporation of PEG-polymer into larger ME droplets which is explained by considering the model of polymer adsorption at surfactant-water interface. The stability of the droplet phase of microemulsion after the incorporation of PEG is confirmed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment. Further, a net decrease in percolation transition temperature is observed with the addition of PEG polymer for smaller ME droplets and is discussed in relation with the destabilization of droplets owing to the polymer induced bridging and the associated clustering of droplets. We conjecture that the adsorption of PEG polymer chains at the surfactant-water interface as well as the PEG-induced bridging of droplets are due to the strong ion-dipole interaction between anionic head group of AOT surfactant and dipoles present in PEG polymer chains.

  13. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  14. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (CAS...

  15. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg

  16. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2012-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2...

  17. Electrical properties of a novel lead alkoxide precursor: Lead glycolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangboriboon, Nuchnapa; Pakdeewanishsukho, Kittikhun; Jamieson, Alexander; Sirivat, Anuvat; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of lead acetate trihydrate Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 .3H 2 O and ethylene glycol, using triethylenetetramine (TETA) as a catalyst, provides in one step access to a polymer-like precursor of lead glycolate [-PbOCH 2 CH 2 O-]. On the basis of high-resolution mass spectroscopy, chemical analysis composition, FTIR, 13 C-solid state NMR and TGA, the lead glycolate precursor can be identified as a trimer structure. The FTIR spectrum demonstrates the characteristics of lead glycolate; the peaks at 1086 and 1042 cm -1 can be assigned to the C-O-Pb stretchings. The 13 C-solid state NMR spectrum gives notably only one peak at 68.639 ppm belonging to the ethylene glycol ligand. The phase transformations of lead glycolate and lead acetate trihydrate to lead oxide, their microstructures, and electrical properties were found to vary with increasing temperature. The lead glycolate precursor has superior electrical properties relative to those of lead acetate trihydrate, suggesting that the lead glycolate precursor can possibly be used as a starting material for producing electrical and semiconducting ceramics, viz. ferroelectric, anti-ferroelectric, and piezoelectric materials

  18. Role of Glycol Chitosan-incorporated Ursolic Acid Nanoparticles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA)-incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles on inhibition of human osteosarcoma. Methods: U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with ursolic acid (UA) incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was used ...

  19. Polyethylene glycol: a game-changer laxative for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Arik; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2013-08-01

    Constipation is a common problem in children worldwide. It can also be a chronic problem persisting for many months to years. Successful treatment of constipation requires long-term use of laxatives. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol. Compared with other laxatives, polyethylene glycol (with and without electrolytes) is a relatively new laxative used during the last decade. Recent studies report excellent efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of excellent patient acceptance, polyethylene glycol has become a preferred choice of laxative for many practitioners. This article reviews the recently published pediatric literature on biochemistry, efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and pharmacoeconomics of polyethylene glycol.

  20. Increased Risk of New-Onset Hypertension After Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Urolithiasis: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Wei; Tsai, Chung-You; Wang, Jui; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Pei-Chun; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2017-10-01

    Although shock wave lithotripsy is minimally invasive, earlier studies argued that it may increase patients' subsequent risk of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the association between shock wave lithotripsy and new-onset hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify 20 219 patients aged 18 to 65 years who underwent the first stone surgical treatment (shock wave lithotripsy or ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy) between January 1999 and December 2011. A Cox proportional model was applied to evaluate associations. Time-varying Cox models were applied to evaluate the association between the number of shock wave lithotripsy sessions and the incidence of hypertension or diabetes mellitus. After a median follow-up of 74.9 and 82.6 months, 2028 and 688 patients developed hypertension in the shock wave lithotripsy and ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy groups, respectively. Patients who underwent shock wave lithotripsy had a higher probability of developing hypertension than patients who underwent ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy, with a hazard ratio of 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.31) after adjusting for covariates. The risk increased as the number of shock wave lithotripsy sessions increased. However, the diabetes mellitus risk was similar in the shock wave lithotripsy and ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy groups. Furthermore, the hazard ratio did not increase as the number of shock wave lithotripsy sessions increased. Shock wave lithotripsy consistently increased the incidence of hypertension on long-term follow-up. Therefore, alternatives to urolithiasis treatment (eg, endoscopic surgery or medical expulsion therapy) could avoid the hypertension risk. Furthermore, avoiding multiple sessions of shock wave lithotripsy could also evade the hypertension risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Role of polyethylene glycol in childhood constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Uma Padhye; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2014-09-01

    Constipation is a common and chronic problem in children worldwide. Long-term use of laxatives is necessary for successful treatment of chronic constipation. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recent studies report the efficacy and safety of PEG for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of its excellent patient acceptance, PEG is being used widely in children for constipation. In this commentary, we review the recently published pediatric literature on the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptance of PEG. We also assess the role of PEG in childhood constipation by comparing it with other laxatives in terms of efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and cost. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Millimetre Wave Rotational Spectrum of Glycolic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczolkowski, Lech; Bialkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, was studied in the region 115-318 GHz. For the most stable SSC conformer, transitions in all vibrational states up to 400 cm(exp -1) have been measured and their analysis is reported. The data sets for the ground state, v21 = 1, and v21 = 2 have been considerably extended. Immediately higher in vibrational energy are two triads of interacting vibrational states and their rotational transitions have been assigned and successfully fitted with coupled Hamiltonians accounting for Fermi and Coriolis resonances. The derived energy level spacings establish that the vibrational frequency of the v21 mode is close to 100 cm(exp -1). The existence of the less stable AAT conformer in the near 50 C sample used in our experiment was also confirmed and additional transitions have been measured.

  3. Validation of an analytical methodology for the determination of diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol as impurities in glycerin and propylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosabal Cordovi, Ursula M; Fonseca Gola, Antonio; Cordovi Velazquez, Juan M; Morales Torres, Galina

    2014-01-01

    A methodology for the quantification of diethylene glycol (DEG) and the ethylene glycol (EG) impurities by gas Chromatography with flame ionization detector in glycerol and propylene glycol samples was developed and validated. It was selected dimethyl sulphoxide as internal standard. It was used hydrogen as carrier and auxiliary gas. The temperature program was 100°C holding one minute, then ramp to rate of 7.5°C/ min up to 200 °C. A Restek 624 column was used, with a flow in column of 4.20 ml/ min. Temperatures of the injector and detector were set at 220°C and 250 °C, respectively. The linearity was determined at 25-75 ?μg/ml as interval of concentrations for both impurities with correlation coefficients larger than 0.999. Detection Limits were settled down in 0.0350 μ?g/ml to the diethylene glycol, and 0.0572 μg/ml to ethylene glycol, while the quantitation limits were 0.1160 μ?g/ml to DEG and 0.1897 μg/ml to the EG. The recoveries were 99.98 % and 100.00 %, respectively; with RSD % 1.18 % to DEG, and 0.60 % to the EG. The obtained results demonstrated that the methodology was linear, accurate, robustness, sensitive and selective to be used in the determination of both impurities in the quality control of the glycerol and propylene glycol as raw materials

  4. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkali, Noor L.H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E.J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G.P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). Methods: In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of

  5. Hydrolytically and reductively degradable high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene glycol)s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braunová, Alena; Pechar, Michal; Laga, Richard; Ulbrich, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 24 (2007), s. 2642-2653 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable * drug delivery systems * gene delivery vectors * poly(ethylene glycol) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2007

  6. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation and Separation of Telechelic Carborane-Containing Poly(ethylene glycol)s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, P.; Uchman, M.; Lepšík, Martin; Srnec, Martin; Zedník, J.; Kozlík, P.; Kalíková, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 6 (2013), s. 528-535 ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00320901 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP208/12/P236 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : carboranes * click chemistry * poly(ethylene glycol) * quantum chemistry * reaction mechanisms Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.242, year: 2013

  8. A Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic) Acid Nanovaccine Based on Chimeric Peptides from Different Leishmania infantum Proteins Induces Dendritic Cells Maturation and Promotes Peptide-Specific IFNγ-Producing CD8+ T Cells Essential for the Protection against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Evita; Agallou, Maria; Tastsoglou, Spyros; Kammona, Olga; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis; Kiparissides, Costas; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania ( L .) donovani and L. infantum protozoan parasites, can provoke overwhelming and protracted epidemics, with high case-fatality rates. An effective vaccine against the disease must rely on the generation of a strong and long-lasting T cell immunity, mediated by CD4 + T H1 and CD8 + T cells. Multi-epitope peptide-based vaccine development is manifesting as the new era of vaccination strategies against Leishmania infection. In this study, we designed chimeric peptides containing HLA-restricted epitopes from three immunogenic L. infantum proteins (cysteine peptidase A, histone H1, and kinetoplastid membrane protein 11), in order to be encapsulated in poly(lactic- co -glycolic) acid nanoparticles with or without the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) or surface modification with an octapeptide targeting the tumor necrosis factor receptor II. We aimed to construct differentially functionalized peptide-based nanovaccine candidates and investigate their capacity to stimulate the immunomodulatory properties of dendritic cells (DCs), which are critical regulators of adaptive immunity generated upon vaccination. According to our results, DCs stimulation with the peptide-based nanovaccine candidates with MPLA incorporation or surface modification induced an enhanced maturation profile with prominent IL-12 production, promoting allogeneic T cell proliferation and intracellular production of IFNγ by CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets. In addition, DCs stimulated with the peptide-based nanovaccine candidate with MPLA incorporation exhibited a robust transcriptional activation, characterized by upregulated genes indicative of vaccine-driven DCs differentiation toward type 1 phenotype. Immunization of HLA A2.1 transgenic mice with this peptide-based nanovaccine candidate induced peptide-specific IFNγ-producing CD8 + T cells and conferred significant protection against L. infantum infection. Concluding, our findings supported that

  9. Analysis of complications of percutaneous X-Ray endoscopic surgical operations of patients with urolithiasis and nephrolithiasis with a single functioning kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented article focuses on the important matters of development of intraoperative and postoperative complications in patients with urolithiasis undergoing percutaneous operative treatment for coral calculus of a solitary or sole functioning kidney. Complications of percutaneous X-ray-endoscopic operations in these patients always require careful medical and diagnostic approach, as they can lead to oppression of an already impaired solitary kidney function and, as a consequence, can have life-threatening nature. They are divided into two groups: intraoperative and postoperative complications. Intraoperative complications include: bleeding, damage of the renal pelvis in the course of creating of puncture access, perforation of internal organs, loss of stroke. Postoperative complications include: development of acute inflammation in a single kidney, bleeding, urinoma or hematoma development, progression of renal failure, leave of residual concretions, organ loss. There is a sufficient amount of data on the development of complications after percutaneous endoscopic surgeries in the literature, but very few works are devoted to a solitary kidney matter. The object of this study was the group of patients with urolithiasis, coral nephrolithiasis by a solitary or a single functioning kidney, who were on treatment in the urology department of the N.I. Pirogov City Clinical Hospital No. 1 from January 2007 to July 2014. All patients underwent percutaneous operative treatment for the removal of coral calculi. 

  10. Risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in infants with melamine-associated urolithiasis and follow-up: a multi-center retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiqi; Yue, Zhongjin; Tang, XiaoShuang; Chang, Hong; Wang, Wei; Shi, Wei; Wang, Zhiping; Shang, Panfeng

    2014-10-01

    Abstract An epidemic of urinary tract stones was noted among infants in China, 2008. This event was believed to be associated with consumption melamine-contaminated powdered formula. The patients with symptoms and clinical manifests had already been analyzed in our previous studies. In this study, our aim is to investigate the risk factors of melamine-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) and the potential relationship toward children growth in our five years follow-up. A total of 619 infants with melamine-associated urolithiasis were admitted into 20 different hospitals in the Gansu province, China. All clinical data were divided into AKI and control groups according to the occurrence of AKI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with a logistic regression model to assess the independent risk factors of AKI. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of AKI was 19.62 in the group of infants who consumed Sanlu® milk powdered infant milk formula. A higher prevalence of AKI was observed in infants age of 6-11 months (OR: 9.59, p Sanlu® milk powdered infant formula), age (6-17 months) and symptoms of URTI, diarrhea, dehydration or fever were risk factors of AKI in infants with melamine-associated urolithiasis.

  11. Plain radiography, renography, and [sup 99m]Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urolithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munck, O.; Gerquari, I.; Moeller, J.T.; Jensen, L.I.; Thomsen, H.S. (Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark))

    1992-11-01

    Eighteen patients were evaluated before and 5 weeks after the first treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using abdominal plain radiography, [sup 131]I-hippuran probe renography, and [sup 99m]Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. In 6 patients no urolithiasis was present on the post ESWL plain radiograph, in 7 the size had decreased, and in 5 the stone mass was unchanged. The renograms were within normal range in the 6 patients who were cured by ESWL, whereas this was the case for only 4 of the 12 who still had renal calculi. In 2 patients pelvic stones had descended into the ureter after ESWL, and the renograms indicated obstruction. Another 3 patients had ureteral stones, whereas in the remaining 7 patients only pelvic stones were found on the plain radiographs. In no patient did the scintigrams reveal scars. It is concluded that abdominal plain radiography of the urinary tract and probe renography are complementary and sufficient in the monitoring of patients with urolithiasis post ESWL. (orig.).

  12. Effect of drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Corn is an important cereal crop grown all over the world. (Farhad et al., 2009). Also, it is a stable food and commercial crop (Ti-da et al., 2006). On the other hand, drought stress is one of the most important environmental factors in reduction of growth, development and production of plants. It can be said ...

  13. Glycolic Acid Physical Properties, Impurities, And Radiation Effects Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-01-01

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H 2 and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O 2 when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. A

  14. Ethylene glycol as bore fluid for hollow fiber membrane preparation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-03-31

    We proposed the use of ethylene glycol and its mixture with water as bore fluid for the preparation of poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow fiber membranes and compared their performance and morphology with membranes obtained with conventional coagulants (water and its mixture with the solvent N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)). Thermodynamics and kinetics of the systems were investigated. Water and 1:1 water:EG mixtures lead to fast precipitation rates. Slow precipitation is observed for both pure EG and 9:1 NMP:water mixture, but the reasons for that are different. While low osmotic driving force leads to slow NMP and water transport when NMP:water is used, the high EG viscosity is the reason for the slow phase separation when EG is the bore fluid. The NMP:water mixture produces fibers with mixed sponge-like and finger-like structure with large pores in the inner and outer layers; and hence leading to a high water permeance and a high MWCO suitable for separation of large-sized proteins. As compared to NMP:water, using EG as bore fluid provides fibers with a finger-like bilayered structure and sponge-like layers near the surfaces, and hence contributing to the higher water permeance. It also induces small pores for better protein rejection.

  15. Ethylene glycol as bore fluid for hollow fiber membrane preparation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    We proposed the use of ethylene glycol and its mixture with water as bore fluid for the preparation of poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow fiber membranes and compared their performance and morphology with membranes obtained with conventional coagulants (water and its mixture with the solvent N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)). Thermodynamics and kinetics of the systems were investigated. Water and 1:1 water:EG mixtures lead to fast precipitation rates. Slow precipitation is observed for both pure EG and 9:1 NMP:water mixture, but the reasons for that are different. While low osmotic driving force leads to slow NMP and water transport when NMP:water is used, the high EG viscosity is the reason for the slow phase separation when EG is the bore fluid. The NMP:water mixture produces fibers with mixed sponge-like and finger-like structure with large pores in the inner and outer layers; and hence leading to a high water permeance and a high MWCO suitable for separation of large-sized proteins. As compared to NMP:water, using EG as bore fluid provides fibers with a finger-like bilayered structure and sponge-like layers near the surfaces, and hence contributing to the higher water permeance. It also induces small pores for better protein rejection.

  16. Hydrophilization of poly(caprolactone copolymers through introduction of oligo(ethylene glycol moieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Wurth

    Full Text Available In this study, a new family of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL copolymers that bear oligo(ethylene glycol (OEG moieties is described. The synthesis of three different oligo(ethylene glycol functionalized epoxide monomers derived from 2-methyl-4-pentenoic acid, and their copolymerization with ε-caprolactone (CL to poly(CL-co-OEG-MPO copolymers is presented. The statistical copolymerization initiated with SnOct2/BnOH yielded the copolymers with varying OEG content and composition. The linear relationship between feed ratio and incorporation of the OEG co-monomer enables control over backbone functional group density. The introduction of OEG moieties influenced both the thermal and the hydrophilic characteristics of the copolymers. Both increasing OEG length and backbone content resulted in a decrease in static water contact angle. The introduction of OEG side chains in the PCL copolymers had no adverse influence on MC-3TE3-E1 cell interaction. However, changes to cell form factor (Φ were observed. While unmodified PCL promoted elongated (anisotropic morphologies (Φ = 0.094, PCL copolymer with tri-ethylene glycol side chains at or above seven percent backbone incorporation induced more isotropic cell morphologies (Φ = 0.184 similar to those observed on glass controls (Φ = 0.151.

  17. Effect of an isotonic rehydration sports drink and exercise on urolithiasis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu N.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of physical exercise as well as the influence of hydration with an isotonic sports drink on renal function in male Wistar rats. Four groups were studied over a period of 42 days: 1 control (N = 9; 2 physical exercise (Exe, N = 7; 3 isotonic drink (Drink, N = 8; 4 physical exercise + isotonic drink (Exe + Drink, N = 8. Physical exercise consisted of running on a motor-driven treadmill for 1 h/day, at 20 m/min, 5 days a week. The isotonic sports drink was a commercial solution used by athletes for rehydration after physical activity, 2 ml administered by gavage twice a day. Urine cultures were performed in all animals. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages at the beginning and at the end of the protocol period. Urinary and plasma parameters (sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, calcium did not differ among groups. However, an amorphous material was observed in the bladders of animals in the Exe + Drink and Drink groups. Characterization of the material by Western blot revealed the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein and angiotensin converting enzyme. Physical exercise and the isotonic drink did not change the plasma or urinary parameters measured. However, the isotonic drink induced the formation of intravesical matrix, suggesting a potential lithogenic risk.

  18. Magnetic fluids stabilized by polypropylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A.V., E-mail: lav@icmm.r [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 1, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation); Lysenko, S.N. [Institute of Technical Chemistry, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 3, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    A series of samples of magnetic fluids stabilized with low-molecular weight polypropylene glycol (PPG) of different molecular masses were synthesized. The use of PPG allowed the maximum extension of the carrier fluid range to include ethyl- and butyl-acetate, ethanol, butanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, kerosene and PPG itself. Magnetic and rheological properties of the samples were investigated. Based on the results of investigation it has been concluded that magnetic nanoparticles are covered by a monolayer of surfactant molecules. At low temperatures the propanol-based sample preserves fluidity up to -115 {sup o}C. Measurement of critical temperatures of other base fluids showed that alcohols are the best carrier medium. Coagulation stability of the ethanol-based ferrocolloid with respect to water and kerosene was explored. It has been found that kerosene, whose fraction by weight exceeds 22.5%, does not mix with the colloid. This effect can be used to produce magneto-controllable extractors of ethyl alcohol. Under the action of water the colloid coagulates, which allows one to substitute the carrier fluid and to separate the colloid into fractions. - Research highlights: PPG stabilizes the magnetic particles in the polar and non-polar media. The minimum operating temperature reaches -115 {sup o}C. Alcohols are the best environment for PPG-stabilized particles. PPG magnetic fluids can be used as magnetic extractors of alcohol. PPG MF can be divided into fractions by partial coagulation with water.

  19. Storage stability of biodegradable polyethylene glycol microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Era; Sheth, Saahil; Polito, Kristen; Sell, Scott A.; Zustiak, Silviya P.

    2017-10-01

    Degradable hydrogel microspheres are popular choices for multiple biomedical applications, including drug, protein, or cell carriers for minimally invasive delivery. Clinical transitioning of such new, sensitive pharmaceutical preparations requires investigation of storage methods that retain key properties for extended time. In this study, we sought to determine the influence of seven common storage conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of degradable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel microspheres: 25 °C, 4 °C, -80 °C, lyophilization/-20 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/-80 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/lyophilization/-20 °C, vacuum/-20 °C. We have outlined the storage conditions in detail and explained their effect on swelling ratio, stiffness and degradation rate post-storage. Additionally, we have implemented protein-loaded hydrogels to evaluate the effect of storage conditions on diffusivity as well as protein stability post-storage. We found that hydrogels could be stored short-term (1-4 d) under moist conditions (i.e. storage without drying) without a substantial loss of properties. For extended storage (7-28 d), they could be stored either at  -80 °C (moist condition) or vacuum drying (dry condition).

  20. Selected polyethylene glycols as DOP substitutes. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    The recommendation is made that Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators producing a polydisperse distribution for testing the integrity of filters and for testing respirator fit. Further, the recommendation is made that pentaethylene glycol (PTAEG) and possibly hexaethylene glycol be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators thermally producing monodisperse aerosol for quality acceptance tests according tu US federal specifications and standards. The toxicology data base available on the polyethylene glycol family of chemical compounds is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that the probability of approval and acceptance as a non-hazardous substance in the filter and filter media test role is high. Data and analysis supporting PTAEG performance equivalent to DOP in the filter and filter media test role are given or referenced. Cost and availability of the substitute materials is discussed. Conclusions based on the present data and information are given and recommendations for further work are made

  1. The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mahlos

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Key words: Acetone, tannin, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). ... hydrolysable tannins may occur in the same plant. ..... Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 38: 421-464. Cornell. (2000). Tannins: Chemical analysis.

  2. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes for children with constipation and encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2002-04-01

    Children with functional constipation and encopresis benefit from behavior modification and from long-term laxative medication. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes has become the first option for many pediatric gastroenterologists. Twenty-eight children treated with polyethylene glycol without electrolytes were compared with 21 children treated with milk of magnesia to evaluate the efficiency, acceptability, side effects, and treatment dosage of polyethylene glycol in long-term treatment of functional constipation and encopresis. Children were rated as "doing well," "improved," or "not doing well," depending on resolution of constipation and encopresis. At the 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, bowel movement frequency increased and soiling frequency decreased significantly in both groups. At the 1-month follow-up, children on polyethylene glycol were soiling more frequently (P encopresis.

  3. Material compatibility evaluation for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid-literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-06-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid.

  4. Ethylene- and diethylene glycol metabolism, toxicity and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiener, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Each year numerous men and domestic animals suffer from ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning. The present approach to treating EG poisoning by administering ethanol is aimed at preventing the oxidation of EG to glycolate, the toxic mediator. When treatment is delayed or the amount of EG consumed is large, successful treatment is rarely obtained, since the concentration of glycolate becomes excessive. In an effort to develop a better approach to treating EG poisoning, studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pig liver glycolic acid oxidase (GAO) as a means of enzyme therapy in male rats receiving EG. Pig liver GAO was active in vitro in rat blood, oxidizing glycolate to glyoxylate. When injected intravenously into male rats, GAO had an approximate half-life of twenty five minutes and its elimination followed first order kinetics. Despite activity in vitro, native pig liver GAO did not display detectable activity in vivo. Diethylene glycol (DEG) when ingested also results in toxicity. The metabolism and toxicity of DEG was investigated in male Wistar rats using [ 14 C]-DEG synthesized from [U- 14 C]-EG and ethylene oxide and purified by high performance liquid chromatography. (2-Hydroxyethoxy)acetic acid (HEAA) was identified as the major product of DEG oxidation. These results suggest that the treatment of DEG poisoning should follow the same regimen as treatment for EG poisoning

  5. Formation of carbonyl compounds in radiolysis of ethylene glycol in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezborodova, S.G.; Vetrov, V.S.; Kalyazin, E.P.; Korolev, V.M.; Salamatov, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    Radiolysis of diluted solutions of ethylene glycol has been investigated. It is shown that acetaldehyde, glycol aldehyde and formaldehyde are the main products of radiolysis of methanol solutions of ethylene glycol. Acetaldehyde and glycol aldehyde yields increase in radiolysis of methanol solutions of ethylene glycol with an increase of the original concentration of ethylene glycol and a temperature rise of radiolysis. Formaldehyde yields increase with the ethylene glycol concentration but decrease with a temperature rise (the formation of formaldehyde from methanol is taken into account). A mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations of ethylene glycol in methanol is explained. It is concluded that the main directions of ethylene glycol decomposition, detected in water solutions of ethylene glycol, are also realized in methanol solutions. However, a role of different directions of decomposition depends on the medium

  6. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol by Ditelluratoargentate (III in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol by ditelluratoargentate (III (DTA in alkaline liquids has been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range of 293.2 K–313.2 K. The reaction rate showed first-order dependence in DTA and fractional order with respect to triethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol. It was found that the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs increased with an increase in concentration of OH− and a decrease in concentration of H4TeO6 2−. There was a negative salt effect and no free radicals were detected. A plausible mechanism involving a two-electron transfer was proposed, and the rate equations derived from the mechanism explained all the experimental results and observations. The activation parameters along with the rate constants of the rate-determining step were calculated.

  7. The Efficacy and Safety of Tamsulosin Combined with Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy for Urolithiasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Mi, Hua; Xu, Guangyu; Liu, Lin; Sun, Xiubin; Wang, Shiping; Meng, Qingrong; Lv, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have been conducted to investigate adjunctive tamsulosin therapy after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) for urolithiasis. The results from those studies, however, are still inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to provide an update on the clinical efficacy and safety of tamsulosin combined with SWL for urolithiasis. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase to identify all relevant randomized controlled trials until January 2015. Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Meta-analysis was conducted with Review Manager (RevMan), version 5.1. Twenty-one studies (2093 subjects in total) were identified in the current meta-analysis. Compared with a control group, the experimental group (tamsulosin combined with SWL) showed an increased overall benefit for stone expulsion, with pooled risk ratio (RR) of 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.26). With respect to the different geographic regions, European and American had a high possibility of improvement in stone expulsion (RR: 1.33, 95% CI, 1.19-1.49). According to the stone locations (renal, upper and lower ureteral) and sizes (4-10 mm and 11-24 mm), tamsulosin is more useful for lower ureteral stone (RR: 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14-1.43) and larger sized stones (RR: 1.49; 95% CI, 1.28-1.75). The effect estimates did not vary markedly when stratified by follow-up durations but varied by dose of tamsulosin. Furthermore, a shorter expulsion time, reduced occurrence of steinstrasse, fewer incidences of colic, and lower analgesic requirements were observed within the experimental group. In addition, tamsulosin is well tolerated, and its adverse events rarely led to dropouts of patients. Overall, evidence suggests that tamsulosin combined with SWL is safe and effective in enhancing stone expulsion for patients with urolithiasis. Furthermore, high-quality, randomized and placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and

  8. Overnight efficacy of polyethylene glycol laxative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Jack A; Smith, Julie R; Cleveland, Mark vB

    2002-07-01

    Clinical studies in constipated adult patients have shown that a 17- or 34-g daily dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLax) is safe and effective for the treatment of constipation, with the best efficacy seen in wk 2 of treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dose of PEG to provide satisfactory relief of constipation within 24 h. A total of 24 adult study subjects who met Rome II criteria for constipation were randomized in a double-blind, parallel pilot study to receive a single dose of placebo or PEG laxative at doses of 51, 68, or 85 g in 500 ml of flavored water. Over a 72-h period, subjects rated bowel movements (BM), completeness of evacuation, and satisfaction. The 68-g dose seemed to be most satisfactory. Five of six subjects had a BM within 24 h. The time to first BM was 14.8 h for 68 g versus 27.3 h for placebo (p = NS). The time to second BM was 19.2 h versus 47.2 h for 68 g and placebo, respectively (p = 0.003). Of the subjects receiving 68 g of PEG, 50% and 100% reported complete evacuation for the first and second BM, respectively. The average number of BMs in 24 h for placebo, 51 g, 68 g, and 84 g were 0.5, 2.2, 2.2, and 4.2, respectively (p = 0.004). There were no adverse reactions, and no patient reported incontinence or complained of cramps or diarrhea at any dose. There were no changes in measured electrolytes, calcium, glucose, BUN, creatinine, or serum osmolality. A 68-g dose of PEG laxative seems to provide safe and effective relief in constipated adults within a 24-h period.

  9. Mutagenicity testing of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E D; Coppinger, W J; Valencia, R; Iavicoli, J

    1984-01-01

    The mutagenic potential of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (diEGBE) was examined with a Tier I battery of in vitro assays followed by a Tier II in vivo Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay. The in vitro battery consisted of: the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the L5178Y mouse lymphoma test, a cytogenetics assay using Chinese hamster ovary cells and the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in rat hepatocytes. Results of the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the cytogenetics test, and the rat hepatocyte assay were negative at concentrations up to 20 microL/plate, 7.92 microL/mL, and 4.4 microL/mL, respectively. Toxicity was clearly demonstrated at all high doses. A weak, but dose-related increase in the mutation frequency (4-fold increase over the solvent control at 5.6 microL/mL with 12% survival) was obtained in the L5178Y lymphoma test in the absence of metabolic activation. Results of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay results were assessed by performing the Tier II sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila in which the target tissue is maturing germinal cells. Both feeding (11,000 ppm for 3 days) and injection (0.3 microL of approximately 14,000 ppm solution) routes of administration were employed in the Drosophila assay. Approximately 11,000 individual crosses with an equal number of negative controls were performed for each route of administration. diEGBE produced no increase in recessive lethals under these conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6389113

  10. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Polyetylene Glycol on Wheat Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Marin SOARE; Paula IANCU; Elena BONCIU; Ovidiu PĂNIȚĂ

    2018-01-01

    The present paper analyses the effect of pre-treatment with salicylic acid (SA) on germination and the growth of winter wheat seedlings in water stress conditions induced by polyetylene glycol (PEG). A two-factor experiment was conducted in a completely randomized projection. The first factor (A) included three levels: a1- distilled water - control; a2 - 0.25 mM SA; a3 - 0.75 mM SA and the second factor (B) included three levels: b1- distilled water; b2 - 15% PEG and b3 - 25% PEG. Biological ...

  11. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo en Yucatán, México, para litiasis urinaria Urolithiasis prevalence and risk factors in Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Medina-Escobedo

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de urolitiasis en el estado de Yucatán, México, y una posible asociación de ésta con antecedentes familiares de la enfermedad y la dureza del agua. Material y métodos. Durante 1996 se efectuó una encuesta transversal en población abierta mayor de un año de edad, del estado de Yucatán. Los sujetos se clasificaron como litiasis definitiva (LD, litiasis probable (LP y sin litiasis (SL. Se determinó dureza total, dureza de calcio y dureza de magnesio a las muestras de agua empleadas para el consumo humano. Se emplearon ji cuadrada y t de student para comparación de medias de muestras independientes en el análisis. Resultados. De un total de 5 832 encuestas, 323 sujetos (5.5% se catalogaron como LD, y 282 (4.8% como LP. La prevalencia de litiasis se incrementó con la edad, partiendo de 1% en población de 18 años o menor, hasta 11.3% en los mayores de 50. El 44% del grupo LD y 34% del LP tuvieron antecedente familiar de urolitiasis, comparado con 28% del grupo SL (pObjective. To measure the prevalence of urolithiasis in Yucatan, and to establish a possible association of the disease with family history and water hardness. Material and Methods. During 1996, a survey was conducted on the population over one year of age in the State of Yucatan. Subjects were classified as having definite lithiasis (DL, probable lithiasis (PL, or no lithiasis (NL. Total hardness, calcium hardness, and magnesium hardness, were determined in drinking water samples. Results. From a total of 5 832 questionnaires, 323 subjects (5.5% were found to have DL, and 282 (4.8% PL. The prevalence of lithiasis increased sharply with age, ranging from 1% in the population 18 years or younger, to 11.3% in those over 50 years. A family history of urolithiasis was positive in 44% of subjects with DL and in 34 % of those with PL, compared to 28% of those with NL (OR=2.8, 95% CI=2.2-3.4, p<0.0001, and OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, p<0

  12. Biocompatibility Assessment of Polyethylene Glycol-Poly L-Lysine-Poly Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Nanoparticles In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liting; Chen, Baoan; Liu, Ran; Xia, Guohua; Wang, Yonglu; Li, Xueming; Wei, Chen; Wang, Xuemei; Jiang, Hulin

    2015-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the biocompatibility of nanoparticles polyethylene glycol (PEG)-poly L-lysine (PLL)-poly lactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) (PEG-PLL-PLGA) before clinical application. We applied some tests to assess the safety of PEG-PLL-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs). There was low cytotoxicity of PEG-PLL-PLGA NPs in vitro as detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of PEG-PLL-PLGA were determined by FCM assay. The apoptotic rate induced by nanoparticles and the fluorescence intensity of intracellular daunorubicin (DNR) demonstrated that DNR-PEG-PLL-PLGA could be taken up by the mouse fibroblast cells (L929 cells). Hemolysis test and micronucleus (MN) assay demonstrated that the nanoparticles have no obviously blood toxicity and genotoxicity. DNR-PEG-PLL-PLGA NPs were injected into mice through tail vein to calculate the median lethal dose (LD50), the results showed that they had a wide safe scale. Blood was taken by removing the eyeball of mice to study the influence of DNR-PEG-PLL-PLGA in hepatic and renal functions. The results revealed that there was no significant difference as compared with the control group. Interestingly, the pathologic changes of heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney were observed in nanoparticles treated mice. Thus, this study demonstrates that PEG-PLL-PLGA NPs appear to be highly biocompatible and safe nanoparticles that can be suitable for further application in the treatment of tumor.

  13. Ethylene glycol intercalation in smectites. molecular dynamics simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerba, Marek; Klapyta, Zenon; Kalinichev, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Intercalation of ethylene glycol in smectites (glycolation) is widely used to discriminate smectites and vermiculites from other clays and among themselves. During this process, ethylene glycol molecules enter into the interlayer spaces of the swelling clays, leading to the formation of two-layer structure (∼17 A) in the case of smectites, or one-layer structure (∼14 A) in the case of vermiculites. In spite of the relatively broad literature on the understanding/characterization of ethylene glycol/water-clays complexes, the simplified structure of this complex presented by Reynolds (1965) is still used in the contemporary X-ray diffraction computer programs, which simulate structures of smectite and illite-smectite. The monolayer structure is only approximated using the assumption of the interlayer cation and ethylene glycol molecules lying in the middle of interlayer spaces. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the structure of ethylene glycol/water-clays complex in more detail using molecular dynamics simulation. The structural models of smectites were built on the basis of pyrophyllite crystal structure (Lee and Guggenheim, 1981), with substitution of particular atoms. In most of simulations, the structural model assumed the following composition, considered as the most common in the mixed layer illite-smectites: EXCH 0.4 (Si 3.96 Al 0.04 )(Al 1.46 Fe 0.17 Mg 0.37 )O 10 (OH) 2 Atoms of the smectites were described with CLAYFF force field (Cygan et al., 2004), while atoms of water and ethylene glycol with flexible SPC and OPLS force fields, respectively. Ewald summation was used to calculate long range Coulombic interactions and the cutoff was set at 8.5 A. Results of the simulations show that in the two-layer glycolate the content of water is relatively small: up to 0.8 H 2 O per half of the smectite unit cell. Clear thermodynamic preference of mono- or two-layer structure of the complex is

  14. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers – Reproductive and developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Starek-Świechowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. Med Pr 2015;66(5:725–737

  15. Sources of Propylene Glycol and Glycol Ethers in Air at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunok Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building’s structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samples. The samples were analyzed for four groups of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and semi-VOCs (SVOCs, including summed concentrations of 16 PGEs, 8 terpene hydrocarbons, 2 Texanols, and the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP, and di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP. Home cleaning with water and mop ≥ once/month, repainting ≥ one room prior to or following the child’s birth, and “newest” surface material in the child’s bedroom explained largest portion of total variability in PGE concentrations. High excess indoor humidity (g/m3 additionally contributed to a sustained PGE levels in indoor air far beyond several months following the paint application. No behavioral or building structural factors, except for water-based cleaning, predicted an elevated terpene level in air. No significant predictor of Texanols emerged from our analysis. Overall disparate sources and low correlations among the PGEs, terpenes, Texanols, and the phthalates further confirm the lack of confounding in the analysis reporting the associations of the PGE and the diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively.

  16. UROLITHIASIS IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-01

    Oct 1, 2010 ... of Human Anatomy, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Request ... Management: Fourty seven had laser or pneumatic lithotripsy while four had stone removal by .... for ureteroscopy in our resource poor setting and compares ... A. J., (Eds) Campbell's Urology.7th Ed Philadelphia:.

  17. A tetraethylene glycol coat gives gold nanoparticles long in vivo half-lives with minimal increase in size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willett JDS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Julian DS Willett, Marlon G Lawrence, Jennifer C Wilder, Oliver Smithies† Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA †Dr Oliver Smithies passed away on January 10, 2017 Abstract: In this study, we describe the experiments determining whether coating gold nanoparticles with tetraethylene glycol (TEG provides pharmacologically relevant advantages, such as increased serum half-life and resistance to protein adsorption. Monodisperse TEG-coated, NaBH4-reduced gold nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic size comparable to albumin were synthesized by reducing gold chloride with NaBH4 under alkaline conditions in the presence of TEG-SH. The particles were characterized by gel electrophoresis, column chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were subsequently injected intravenously into mice, and their half-lives and final destinations were determined via photometric analysis, light microscopy (LM, and transmission electron microscopy. The TEG particles had a long half-life (~400 minutes that was not influenced by splenectomy. After 500 minutes of injection, TEG particles were found in kidney proximal tubule cell vesicles and in spleen red and white pulp. The particles induced apoptosis in the spleen red pulp but not in white pulp or the kidney. Some of the TEG particles appeared to have undergone ligand exchange reactions that increased their charge. The TEG particles were shown to be resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, as judged by gel electrophoresis and column chromatography. These results demonstrate that naturally monodisperse, small-sized gold nanoparticles coated with TEG have long in vivo plasma half-lives, are minimally toxic, and are resistant to protein adsorption. This suggests that a TEG coating should be considered as an alternative to a polyethylene glycol coating, which is polydisperse and of much larger size. Keywords

  18. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  19. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to thymidine glycol monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.X.; Hubbard, K.; Ide, H.; Wallace, S.S.; Erlanger, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody specific for thymine glycol (TG) in irradiated or OsO4-treated DNA was obtained by immunizing with thymidine glycol monophosphate (TMP-glycol) conjugated to bovine serum albumin by a carbodiimide procedure. Screening by dot-immunobinding and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) procedures gave eight clones that bound OsO4- treated DNA. One of them, 2.6F.6B.6C, an IgG2a kappa, was characterized further. Hapten inhibition studies with OsO4-treated DNA showed that the antibody was specific for TMP-glycol. Among the various inhibitors tested, inhibition was in the order TMP-glycol greater than 5,6-dihydrothymidine phosphate greater than TMP greater than thymidine glycol greater than TG. Inhibition by 5,6-dihydrothymidine, thymidine, thymine, AMP, and CMP was negligible. In OsO4-treated DNA, as few as 0.5 TG per 10,000 bp were detectable by direct ELISA. Inhibition assays could detect as few as 1.5 TG per 10,000 bp. The antibody was equally reactive with native or denatured DNA containing TG. Among the X-irradiated homopolymers dC, dA, dG, and dT, only dT reacted with the antibody. Using an ELISA, the antibody could detect damage in irradiated DNA at the level of 20 Gy. Thus the antibody is of potential use in assays for DNA damage caused by X rays or other agents that damage DNA by free radical interactions

  20. Simultaneous determination of glycols based on fluorescence anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Sanchez, F.; Navas Diaz, A.; Lopez Guerrero, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of non-fluorescent glycols in mixtures without separation or chemical transformation steps is described. Two methods based in the measure of fluorescence anisotropy of a probe such as fluorescein dissolved in the analyte or analyte mixtures are described. In the first method, the anisotropy spectra of pure and mixtures of analytes are used to quantitative determination (if the fluorophor concentration is in a range where fluorescence intensity is proportional to concentration). In the second method, a calibration curve anisotropy-concentration based on the application of the Perrin equation is established. The methods presented here are capable of directly resolving binary mixtures of non-fluorescent glycols on the basis of differences on the fluorescence anisotropy of a fluorescence tracer. Best analytical performances were obtained by application of the method based on Perrin equation. This method is simple, rapid and allows the determination of mixtures of glycols with reasonable accuracy and precision. Detection limits are limited by the quantum yield and anisotropy values of the tracer in the solvents. Recovery values are related to the differences in anisotropy values of the tracer in the pure solvents. Mixtures of glycerine/ethylene glycol (GL/EG), ethylene glycol/1,2-propane diol (EG/1,2-PPD) and polyethylene glycol 400/1,2-propane diol (PEG 400/1,2-PPD) were analysed and recovery values are within 95-120% in the Perrin method. Relative standard deviation are in the range 1.3-2.9% and detection limits in the range 3.9-8.9%

  1. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, Miguel; López Higueras, Antonio; Júdez, Javier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely) NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish), sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age) and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis). Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two), psyllium (one), tegaserod (one), prucalopride (one), paraffin oil (one), fiber combinations (one) and Descurainia sophia (one). Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose) and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long-term. They are as efficacious as enemas in fecal

  2. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mínguez

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG, with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Methodology: Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish, sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis. Results: Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two, psyllium (one, tegaserod (one, prucalopride (one, paraffin oil (one, fiber combinations (one and Descurainia sophia (one. Conclusions: Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long

  3. Curcumin Encapsulated into Methoxy Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Nanoparticles Increases Cellular Uptake and Neuroprotective Effect in Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marslin, Gregory; Sarmento, Bruno Filipe Carmelino Cardoso; Franklin, Gregory; Martins, José Alberto Ribeiro; Silva, Carlos Jorge Ribeiro; Gomes, Andreia Ferreira Castro; Sárria, Marisa Passos; Coutinho, Olga Maria Fernandes Pereira; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound isolated from turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) with well-demonstrated neuroprotective and anticancer activities. Although curcumin is safe even at high doses in humans, it exhibits poor bioavailability, mainly due to poor absorption, fast metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. To overcome these issues, several approaches, such as nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery, have been undertaken with different degrees of success. The present study was conducted to compare the neuroprotective effect of curcumin encapsulated in poly( ε -caprolactone) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles in U251 glioblastoma cells. Prepared nanoparticles were physically characterized by laser doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results from laser doppler anemometry confirmed that the size of poly( ε -caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles ranged between 200-240 nm for poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles and 30-70 nm for poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles, and transmission electron microscopy images revealed their spherical shape. Treatment of U251 glioma cells and zebrafish embryos with poly( ε -caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles loaded with curcumin revealed efficient cellular uptake. The cellular uptake of poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles was higher in comparison to poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles. Moreover, poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) di-block copolymer-loaded curcumin nanoparticles were able to protect the glioma cells against tBHP induced-oxidative damage better than free curcumin. Together, our results show that curcumin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) di-block copolymer nanoparticles possess significantly stronger neuroprotective effect in U251 human glioma cells compared to

  4. Anomalous behavior of secondary dielectric relaxation in polypropylene glycols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybowska, K; Grzybowski, A; Ziolo, J; Rzoska, S J; Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2007-09-19

    A surprising slow down in the dielectric secondary {gamma}-relaxation with temperature increasing near the glass transition is confirmed for several polypropylene glycols. The peculiar behavior diminishes as the molecular weight grows. The minimal model (Dyre and Olsen 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 155703) is applied successfully to describe the temperature dependences of the {gamma}-relaxation times. The minimal model parameters are analyzed for different molecular weights. A molecular explanation of the {gamma}-process anomaly for polypropylene glycols is proposed on the basis of the minimal model prediction.

  5. The potential of at-home prediction of the formation of urolithiasis by simple multi-frequency electrical conductivity of the urine and the comparison of its performance with urine ion-related indices, color and specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Angelito A; Chung, Wen-Yaw; Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wang, Hai-Lung; Kung, Chien-Min; Chen, Jun; Tsai, Vincent F S

    2016-04-01

    It is important to control daily diet, water intake and life style as well as monitor the quality of urine for urolithiasis prevention. For decades, many ion-related indices have been developed for predicting the formation of urinary stones or urolithiasis, such as EQUILs, relative supersaturation (RSS), Tiselius indices (TI), Robertson risk factor algorithms (RRFA) and more recently, the Bonn risk index. However, they mostly demand robust laboratory analysis, are work-intensive, and even require complex computational programs to get the concentration patterns of several urine analytes. A simple and fast platform for measuring multi-frequency electrical conductivity (MFEC) of morning spot urine (random urine) to predict the onset of urolithiasis was implemented in this study. The performance thereof was compared to ion-related indices, urine color and specific gravity. The concentrations of relevant ions, color, specific gravity (SG) and MFEC (MFEC tested at 1, 10, 100, 5001 KHz and 1 MHz) of 80 random urine samples were examined after collection. Then, the urine samples were stored at 4 °C for 24 h to determine whether sedimentation would occur or not. Ion-activity product index of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) EQ2) was calculated. The correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color, SG and MFEC were analyzed. AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color and MFEC (at 5 frequencies) all demonstrated good prediction (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, respectively) for stone formation. The positive correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2 and MFEC is also significant (p = 0.01). MFEC provides a good metric for predicting the onset of urolithiasis, which is comparable to conventional ion-related indices and urine color. This technology can be implemented with much ease for objectively monitoring the quality of urine at points-of-care or at home.

  6. Formulation of polylactide-co-glycolic acid nanospheres for encapsulation and sustained release of poly(ethylene imine-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers complexed to oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheatley Margaret A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs have been shown to induce dystrophin expression in muscles cells of patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and in the mdx mouse, the murine model of DMD. However, ineffective delivery of AOs limits their therapeutic potential. Copolymers of cationic poly(ethylene imine (PEI and non-ionic poly(ethylene glycol (PEG form stable nanoparticles when complexed with AOs, but the positive surface charge on the resultant PEG-PEI-AO nanoparticles limits their biodistribution. We adapted a modified double emulsion procedure for encapsulating PEG-PEI-AO polyplexes into degradable polylactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanospheres. Formulation parameters were varied including PLGA molecular weight, ester end-capping, and sonication energy/volume. Our results showed successful encapsulation of PEG-PEI-AO within PLGA nanospheres with average diameters ranging from 215 to 240 nm. Encapsulation efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%, and zeta potential measurements confirmed shielding of the PEG-PEI-AO cationic charge. Kinetic measurements of 17 kDa PLGA showed a rapid burst release of about 20% of the PEG-PEI-AO, followed by sustained release of up to 65% over three weeks. To evaluate functionality, PEG-PEI-AO polyplexes were loaded into PLGA nanospheres using an AO that is known to induce dystrophin expression in dystrophic mdx mice. Intramuscular injections of this compound into mdx mice resulted in over 300 dystrophin-positive muscle fibers distributed throughout the muscle cross-sections, approximately 3.4 times greater than for injections of AO alone. We conclude that PLGA nanospheres are effective compounds for the sustained release of PEG-PEI-AO polyplexes in skeletal muscle and concomitant expression of dystrophin, and may have translational potential in treating DMD.

  7. The Profile of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Syzigium Aromaticum Volatile Oil in Lotion with Variation Composition of Oleic Acid and Propylene Glycol as Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriah Ardiawijianti Iriani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum containing eugenol has an anti-inflammatory activity. The study was aimed to develop the formulation of lotion by adding of oleic acid and propylene glycol as penetration enhancer. The effect of enhancer composition was also studied. Lotion was prepared with the composition of oleic acid (AO and propylene glycol (PG as follow: 1:0 (FI, 0,5:0,5 (FII, 0:1 (FIII. Capacity an anti-inflammatory of formulation based on parameters of the amount of cells with COX-2 expression, the number of inflammatory cells and the epidermis thickness was evaluated using male mouse strain BALb/C induced by crotton oil as inflammatory agents. The results showed that the increasing composition propylene glycol caused the decreasing of the amount of cells with COX-2 expression (p <0.05, the inflammatory cells (P <0.05 and the epidermis thickness (p <0.05

  8. Thermodynamics of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol Containing Systems Described by the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    A thorough investigation of triethylene glycol (TEG) containing systems has been performed. The introduction of a new six-site association scheme for the TEG molecule has shown to be advantageous. Glycols are often modeled using a four-site scheme (abbreviated as 4C) hence ignoring the internal...... lone pairs of oxygen. The new association scheme also takes these sites into account. The new parameters of TEG are based on the vapor pressure data, liquid density data, and liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data (n-heptane), and they are tested for binary systems (methane, n-octane, n-nonane, n...

  9. GLYCOL METHACRYLATE EMBEDDING OF ALGINATE-POLYLYSINE MICROENCAPSULATED PANCREATIC-ISLETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRITSCHY, WM; GERRITS, PO; WOLTERS, GHJ; PASMA, A; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    A method for processing and embedding alginate-polylysine microencapsulated pancreatic tissue in glycol methacrylate resin (GMA) is described. Fixation in 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde, processing in ascending concentrations of glycol methacrylate monomer and embedding in Technovit 7100 results

  10. 78 FR 76567 - Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs.; Tolerance Exemption... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of tall oil, polymer with polyethylene..., polymer with polyethylene glycol and succinic anhydride monopolyisobutylene derivs. on food or feed...

  11. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation†

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K.; Loland, Claus J.; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research.

  12. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K; Loland, Claus J; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-10-04

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research.

  13. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K.; Loland, Claus J.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research. PMID:27711401

  14. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S; Ribeiro, Orquidea

    2016-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared...

  15. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol 4000 on constipation of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Lian-yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of themost common chronic gastrointestinal problems. The estimated incidence of constipation in the United States is3% to 19% in general population.1,2 Patientswith head injuries, spinal cord injuries, pelvic fractures, lower extremity fractures ormultiple traumas require a long-term bed rest, during which the incidence of constipation reached as high as 50%.3,4 Constipation always brings inconvenience and tremendous suffering to patientsand strongly influences the recovery from primary disease. Irritants or lubricants can relieve the symptoms, but long-term application of them may lead to side effects like melanosis coli5 and cathartic colon6. The absorption of fat soluble vitamins is also affected.7 Polyethylene glycol 4000 (trade name: Forlax®, a long chain polymer with a high molecular weight, can conjugate withwater molecule through hydrogen bond to increase the water content and volume of stools, thereby, facilitate bowelmovement and defecation.8,9 It is neither absorbed nor metabolized in the digestive tract, hence it is highly safe and well tolerable. Thus, long-term medication of polyethylene glycol 4000 is conducive to the reconstruction of normal defecation pattern. Therefore, polyethylene glycol 4000 is now being widely used as the mainstay adult chronic functional constipation management.10,11 The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 4000 on adult functional constipation of posttraumatic bedridden patients.

  16. Upstream petroleum industry glycol dehydrator benzene emissions status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The population of dehydrators referred to are located in the Western Sedimentary Basin in northeast British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, and includes units installed at wellsites, compressor stations, gas plants, central crude oil treating facilities, and reservoir or salt cavern gas storage facilities. Benzene emissions from the still column vent on glycol dehydrators occur as a result of glycol's strong affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene. A study was carried out to: 1) develop a list of oil and gas companies operating in Canada, 2) develop an equipment and benzene emissions inventory of glycol dehydrators, 3) develop a database in Microsoft Access format to gather and maintain inventory and emission data, 4) evaluate and validate at least 10% of the reported data, 5) develop a list of companies that manufacture dehydrators and incinerators to determine how many new dehydrators were sold for use in Canada in 1998, and 6) prepare a report summarizing findings and recommendations. The companies included in the survey were the oil and gas companies identified by the Nickels' Oil and Gas Index and others provided by CAPP, CGA, and SEPAC. The project was carried out to gather glycol dehydrator equipment and still column vent benzene emissions information. 8 refs

  17. Electrospinnability of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.; Aho, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, the electrospinnability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) solutions was investigated, with a focus on understanding the influence of molecular weight of PLGA, solvent type and solvent composition on the physical properties of electrospun nanofibers. METHOD: Various s...

  18. Unusual calcium oxalate crystals in ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Meagher, E P; Sanders, H D; Frohlich, J

    1980-06-01

    A patient poisoned with ethylene glycol exhibited the symptoms of (1) hysteria, (2) metabolic acidosis with both a large anion gap and osmolal gap, and (3) crystalluria. However, the shape of the urinary crystals was prismatic and resembled hippurate rather than the expected dipyramidal calcium oxalate dihydrate. X-ray crystallography positively identified them as calcium oxalate monohydrate.

  19. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louisse, Jochem; Bai Yanqing; Verwei, Miriam; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de; Blaauboer, Bas J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as the model compound. The results obtained demonstrate an MAA-induced decrease of the intracellular pH (pH i ) of embryonic BALB/c-3T3 cells as well as of embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cells, at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation. These results suggest a mechanism for MAA-mediated embryotoxicity similar to the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the drugs valproic acid and acetazolamide (ACZ), known to decrease the pH i in vivo, and therefore used as positive controls. The embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid also caused an intracellular acidification of BALB/c-3T3 cells at concentrations that are known to inhibit ES-D3 cell differentiation. Two other embryotoxic compounds, all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil, did not decrease the pH i of embryonic cells at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation, pointing at a different mechanism of embryotoxicity of these compounds. MAA and ACZ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ES-D3 cell differentiation, which was enhanced by amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na + /H + -antiporter, corroborating an important role of the pH i in the embryotoxic mechanism of both compounds. Together, the results presented indicate that a decrease of the pH i may be the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the alkoxyacetic acid metabolites of the glycol ethers.

  20. Glycolic acid synthesis during dark glucose U14C metabolism, in French Bean and Maize leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cailliau-Commanay, Lucienne; Calmes, Jean; Latche, J.-C.; Cavalie, Gerard

    1977-01-01

    Serine, glycerate and glycolate are among the first radioactive compounds when French Bean and Maize leaves are fed with glucose U 14 C. Failing to detect radioactive glycine suggests that glycolate so synthesized is unavailable for the photorespiration glycolate pool [fr

  1. 40 CFR 180.1040 - Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene glycol; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1040 Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ethylene glycol as a component of pesticide formulations is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when...

  2. 40 CFR 63.765 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.765 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or...

  4. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409 of...

  5. Impact of scaling on the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is considering using glycolic acid as a replacement for formic acid in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Catalytic decomposition of formic acid is responsible for the generation of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas, during processing. To prevent the formation of a flammable mixture in the offgas, an air purge is used to dilute the hydrogen concentration below the 60% of the Composite Lower Flammability Limit (CLFL). The offgas is continuously monitored for hydrogen using Gas Chromatographs (GCs). Since formic acid is much more volatile and toxic than glycolic acid, a formic acid spill would lead to the release of much larger quantities to the environment. Switching from formic acid to glycolic acid is expected to eliminate the hydrogen flammability hazard leading to lower air purges, thus downgrading of Safety Significant GCs to Process Support GCs, and minimizing the consequence of a glycolic acid tank leak in DWPF. Overall this leads to a reduction in process operation costs and an increase in safety margin. Experiments were completed at three different scales to demonstrate that the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet scales from the 4-L lab scale to the 22-L bench scale and 220-L engineering scale. Ten process demonstrations of the sludge-only flowsheet for SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed using Sludge Batch 8 (SB8)-Tank 40 simulant. No Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product or strip effluent was added during the runs. Six experiments were completed at the 4-L scale, two experiments were completed at the 22-L scale, and two experiments were completed at the 220-L scale. Experiments completed at the 4-L scale (100 and 110% acid stoichiometry) were repeated at the 22-L and 220-L scale for scale comparisons.

  6. Engineering Poly(ethylene glycol) Materials to Promote Cardiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda Walker

    Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the current costs of treatment put a significant economic burden on our societies. After an infarction, fibrotic tissue begins to form as part of the heart failure cascade. Current options to slow this process include a wide range of pharmaceutical agents, and ultimately the patient may require a heart transplant. Innovative treatment approaches are needed to bring down costs and improve quality of life. The possibility of regenerating or replacing damaged tissue with healthy cardiomyocytes is generating considerable excitement, but there are still many obstacles to overcome. First, while cell injections into the myocardium have demonstrated slight improvements in cardiac function, the actual engraftment of transplanted cells is very low. It is anticipated that improving engraftment will boost outcomes. Second, cellular differentiation and reprogramming protocols have not yet produced cells that are identical to adult cardiomyocytes, and immunogenicity continues to be a problem despite the advent of autologously derived induced pluripotent stem cells. This dissertation will explore biomaterials approaches to addressing these two obstacles. Tissue engineering scaffolds may improve cell engraftment by providing bioactive factors, preventing cell anoikis, and reducing cell washout by blood flow. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is often used as a coating to reduce implant rejection because it is highly resistant to protein adsorption. Because fibrosis of a material in contact with the myocardium could cause arrhythmias, PEG materials are highly relevant for cardiac tissue engineering applications. In Chapter 2, we describe a novel method for crosslinking PEG microspheres around cells to form a scaffold for tissue engineering. We then demonstrate that HL-1 cardiomyocyte viability and phenotype are retained throughout the fabrication process and during the first 7 weeks of culture. In the third chapter of the

  7. Toxicokinetics of diethylene glycol (DEG) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmair, R; Lenk, W; Löhr, D

    1993-01-01

    Oral doses of 1 and 5 ml/kg 14C-diethylene glycol (DEG) given to rats were rapidly and almost completely absorbed, the invasion constants being 2.95 h-1 and 4.24 h-1. The kinetics of invasion were determined with the method of residuals (Rowland and Tozer 1989) and by reconstruction of the invasion curves according to Kübler (1970). 14C-DEG was rapidly distributed from the blood into the organs and tissues in the order kidneys > brain > spleen > liver > muscle > fat, i.e. the same order as the blood flow. The relative volume of distribution, app. VD, was determined at 298 ml, indicating distribution over the whole body. After oral doses of 1, 5, and 10 ml 14C-DEG/kg 64, 87, and 91% of 14C activity in rat blood disappeared in 12-16 h with a half-life of 3.4 h and the remaining 9, 5, and 4% with half-lives of 39 h, 45 h, and 49 h. A total of 73-96% of 14C activity in blood was excreted with the urine and 0.7-2.2% with the faeces. From the cumulative urinary excretion kinetics half-lives of 6 h were determined for doses of 1 and 5 ml/kg and 10 h for the dose of 10 ml/kg. After doses of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg 14C-DEG semi-logarithmic plots of elimination rate versus time were constant for 5 and 9 h, respectively, indicating that DEG accelerated its renal elimination by inducing osmotic diuresis. Thereafter urinary excretion followed first order kinetics with elimination half-lives of 3.6 h. After oral doses of 5 ml/kg 14C-DEG given to rats of 336 g body weight with an app. VD of 297 ml, the total clearance of 14C activity was determined at 63 ml/h, and the renal clearance of unmetabolized DEG was 66 ml/h. The ratio of ClDEG to Cl(inulin) = 0.64 indicated that DEG and its metabolite 2-hydroxyethoxyacetate (2-HEAA) were reabsorbed from the tubuli into the blood capillaries. DEG produced metabolic acidosis, which was completely balanced after doses of 1 and 5 ml/kg, but doses greater than 10 ml/kg produced non-compensated metabolic acidosis, hydropic degeneration of the

  8. Comparison of Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution vs Polyethylene Glycol-3350 for the Treatment of Fecal Impaction in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Erin E; Gaines, Cameryn L; Tillman, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution vs polyethylene glycol-3350 for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients. A retrospective, observational, institutional review board-approved study was conducted over a 1-year time period. Patients were included in the study if they were admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of fecal impaction or constipation and were treated with either polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) or polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG-3350). Patients were excluded if they were discharged prior to resolution of treatment and/or did not receive PEG-ES or PEG-3350. Fifty-one patients (ranging in age from 1 month to 15 years) were evaluated: 23 patients received PEG-ES and 28 patients received PEG-3350. Sex, race, age, and weight were not statistically different between the 2 groups. Resolution of fecal impaction was not significantly different between PEG-ES vs PEG-3350 (87% and 86%, respectively; p = 0.87). There was only 1 reported side effect with PEG-3350, vs 11 reported side effects with PEG-ES (p PEG-3350 is as effective as PEG-ES for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients and is associated with fewer side effects.

  9. Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation of glycol ethers for forward osmotic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Daichi; Mok, Yeongbong; Noh, Minwoo; Park, Jeongseon; Kang, Sunyoung; Lee, Yan

    2014-03-21

    Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition of glycol ether (GE)-water mixtures induces an abrupt change in osmotic pressure driven by a mild temperature change. The temperature-controlled osmotic change was applied for the forward osmosis (FO) desalination. Among three GEs evaluated, di(ethylene glycol) n-hexyl ether (DEH) was selected as a potential FO draw solute. A DEH-water mixture with a high osmotic pressure could draw fresh water from a high-salt feed solution such as seawater through a semipermeable membrane at around 10 °C. The water-drawn DEH-water mixture was phase-separated into a water-rich phase and a DEH-rich phase at around 30 °C. The water-rich phase with a much reduced osmotic pressure released water into a low-salt solution, and the DEH-rich phase was recovered into the initial DEH-water mixture. The phase separation behaviour, the residual GE concentration in the water-rich phase, the osmotic pressure of the DEH-water mixture, and the osmotic flux between the DEH-water mixture and salt solutions were carefully analysed for FO desalination. The liquid-liquid phase separation of the GE-water mixture driven by the mild temperature change between 10 °C and 30 °C is very attractive for the development of an ideal draw solute for future practical FO desalination.

  10. Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Assay for Determining Fe3+ Based on Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated with Glycol Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungmin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and simple colorimetric assay for the detection of Fe3+ ions was developed using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs conjugated with glycol chitosan (GC. The Fe3+ ion coordinates with the oxygen atoms of GC in a hexadentate manner (O-Fe3+-O, decreasing the interparticle distance and inducing aggregation. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that the bound Fe3+ was coordinated to the oxygen atoms of the ethylene glycol in GC, which resulted in a significant color change from light red to dark midnight blue due to aggregation. Using this GC-AuNP probe, the quantitative determination of Fe3+ in biological, environmental, and pharmaceutical samples could be achieved by the naked eye and spectrophotometric methods. Sensitive response and pronounced color change of the GC-AuNPs in the presence of Fe3+ were optimized at pH 6, 70°C, and 300 mM NaCl concentration. The absorption intensity ratio (A700/A510 linearly correlated to the Fe3+ concentration in the linear range of 0–180 μM. The limits of detection were 11.3, 29.2, and 46.0 nM for tap water, pond water, and iron supplement tablets, respectively. Owing to its facile and sensitive nature, this assay method for Fe3+ ions can be applied to the analysis of drinking water and pharmaceutical samples.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a new photo-crosslinkable glycol chitosan thermogel for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ik Sung; Cho, Myeong Ok; Li, Zhengzheng; Nurunnabi, Md; Park, Sung Young; Kang, Sun-Woong; Huh, Kang Moo

    2016-06-25

    The major limitations of typical thermogelling polymers for practical applications are low gel stability and weak mechanical properties under physiological conditions. In this study, we have synthesized a new polysaccharide-based thermogelling polymer that can be photo-crosslinked by UV irradiation to form a mechanically resilient and elastic hydrogel. Methacrylated hexanoyl glycol chitosan (M-HGC), was synthesized by a series of chemical modifications, N-hexanoylation and N-methacrylation, of glycol chitosan (GC). Various M-HGC polymers with different methacryl group contents were synthesized and their thermogelling and photo-crosslinkable properties were evaluated. The M-HGCs demonstrated a thermo-reversible sol-gel transition behavior in aqueous solutions. The thermally-induced hydrogels could be chemically crosslinked by UV-triggered photo-crosslinking. From the cytotoxicity studies using MTT and the live/dead assay, the M-HGC hydrogels showed non-cytotoxicity. These photo-crosslinkable thermogelling M-HGC polymers may hold great promises for various biomedical applications, such as an injectable delivery system and 3D cell culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Liver-targeting Resibufogenin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticles for liver cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu QC

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Qiuchen Chu,1,* Hong Xu,2,* Meng Gao,1 Xin Guan,1 Hongyan Liu,1 Sa Deng,1 Xiaokui Huo,1 Kexin Liu,1 Yan Tian,1 Xiaochi Ma1 1College of Pharmacy, 2College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Liver cancer remains a major problem around the world. Resibufogenin (RBG is a major bioactive compound that was isolated from Chansu (also called toad venom or toad poison, which is a popular traditional Chinese medicine that is obtained from the skin secretions of giant toads. RBG has strong antitumor effects, but its poor aqueous solubility and its cardiotoxicity have limited its clinical use. The aim of this study was to formulate RBG-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticle (RPTN to enhance the treatment of liver cancer. RPTN, RBG-loaded PLGA nanoparticle (RPN, and RBG/coumarin-6-loaded PLGA-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticle (RCPTN were prepared. The cellular uptake of RCPTN by HepG2 and HCa-F cells was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in HepG2 cells by RPTN, RBG solution (RS, and 5-fluorouracil solution (used as the negative controls, as assayed using flow cytometry. LD50 (median lethal dose values were determined for RS and RPTN, and the liver-targeting properties were determined for RCPTN in intravenously injected mice. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats, and the in vivo therapeutic effects of RPTN, RPN, and RS were examined in a mouse tumor model. The results showed that RCPTN simultaneously delivered both coumarin-6 and RBG into HepG2 and HCa-F cells. The ratio of apoptotic cells was increased in the RPTN group. The LD50 for RPTN was 2.02-fold higher than the value for RS. Compared to RS, RPTN and RPN both showed a significant difference in vivo not only in the pharmacodynamic study but also in

  13. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  14. Impact of Glycolate Anion on Aqueous Corrosion in DWPF and Downstream Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-12

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The SRS liquid waste contractor requested an assessment of the impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system since this impact had not been previously evaluated. A literature review revealed that corrosion data were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion. For the proprietary coating systems applied to the DWPF concrete, glycolic acid was deemed compatible since the coatings were resistant to more aggressive chemistries than glycolic acid. Additionally similar coating resins showed acceptable resistance to glycolic acid.

  15. Impact of Glycolate Anion on Aqueous Corrosion in DWPF and Downstream Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-20

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The SRS liquid waste contractor requested an assessment of the impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system since this impact had not been previously evaluated. A literature review revealed that corrosion data were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion. For the proprietary coating systems applied to the DWPF concrete, glycolic acid was deemed compatible since the coatings were resistant to more aggressive chemistries than glycolic acid. Additionally, similar coating resins showed acceptable resistance to glycolic acid.

  16. Material Compatibility Evaluation for DWPF Nitric-Glycolic Acid - Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction.

  17. Polyethylene glycol promotes autoxidation of cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Uchida, Takeshi; Saio, Tomohide; Ishimori, Koichiro

    2018-06-01

    Cytochrome c (Cyt c) was rapidly oxidized by molecular oxygen in the presence, but not absence of PEG. The redox potential of heme c was determined by the potentiometric titration to be +236 ± 3 mV in the absence of PEG, which was negatively shifted to +200 ± 4 mV in the presence of PEG. The underlying the rapid oxidation was explored by examining the structural changes in Cyt c in the presence of PEG using UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman, and fluorescence spectroscopies. These spectroscopic analyses suggested that heme oxidation was induced by a modest tertiary structural change accompanied by a slight shift in the heme position (c, which triggered heme displacement. The primary dehydration site was estimated to be around surface-exposed hydrophobic residues near the heme center: Ile81 and Val83. These findings and our previous studies, which showed that hydrated water molecules around Ile81 and Val83 are expelled when Cyt c forms a complex with CcO, proposed that dehydration of these residues is functionally significant to electron transfer from Cyt c to CcO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Poly Lactic/Glycolic Acid (PLGA Microspheres for Controlled Release of Rho-Associated Kinase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Koda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of poly lactic/glycolic acid (PLGA as a drug delivery carrier of Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor for the treatment of corneal endothelial disease. Method. ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 and PLGA were dissolved in water with or without gelatin (W1, and a double emulsion [(W1/O/W2] was formed with dichloromethane (O and polyvinyl alcohol (W2. Drug release curve was obtained by evaluating the released Y-27632 by using high performance liquid chromatography. PLGA was injected into the anterior chamber or subconjunctiva in rabbit eyes, and ocular complication was evaluated by slitlamp microscope and histological analysis. Results. Y-27632 incorporated PLGA microspheres with different molecular weights, and different composition ratios of lactic acid and glycolic acid were fabricated. A high molecular weight and low content of glycolic acid produced a slower and longer release. The Y-27632 released from PLGA microspheres significantly promoted the cell proliferation of cultured corneal endothelial cells. The injection of PLGA did not induce any evident eye complication. Conclusions. ROCK inhibitor-incorporated PLGA microspheres were fabricated, and the microspheres achieved the sustained release of ROCK inhibitor over 7–10 days in vitro. Our data should encourage researchers to use PLGA microspheres for treating corneal endothelial diseases.

  19. A polyethylene glycol radioimmunoprecipitation assay for human immunoglobulin G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, S.J.; Taylor, R.P.; Andrews, B.S.

    1979-01-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) radioimmunoprecipitation assay for human IgG is described that is sufficiently sensitive to detect 0.5 ng of IgG. This model antibody-antigen system was also used to study the stoichiometries of PEG-precipitation complexes. The results suggest that the presence of PEG may affect the stoichiometry of the complexes which precipitate from solution. (Auth.)

  20. The extraction of plutonium with triethylene glycol dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, A.M.; Moss, M.; Bruce, T.

    1951-03-01

    The extraction of plutonium by triethylene glycol dichloride (trigly) has been investigated briefly. The effect of (1) the valence state of the plutonium, (2) the concentration of nitric acid, (3) the concentration of ammonium nitrate and (4) the conditioning of the trigly was measured. The solubility of plutonium IV in trigly was found to be 70 mgms/ml. Solutions of plutonium in trigly and in concentrated nitric acid solutions have been examined spectrophotometrically. (author)

  1. Multimeric, Multifunctional Derivatives of Poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Bonora

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of multifunctional polymers founded on high-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. The design of new PEG derivatives assembled in a dendrimer-like multimeric fashion or bearing different functionalities on the same molecule is described. Their use as new drug delivery systems based on the conjugation of multiple copies or diversely active drugs on the same biocompatible support is illustrated.

  2. Retrospective Study: Glycolic Acid Peel in Photoaging Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmantyo, Brama; Indramaya, Diah Mira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Photoaging is premature skin aging that is caused by sun exposure in long periode. Glycolic acid peel is one of photoaging treatment that improve skin at epidermal layer. Improper patient selection and irregular follow-up may become factors of unsuccessful treatment. Purpose: To evaluate gycolic acid peel treatment for photoaging for improvement of medical service in the future. Methods: A retrospective study to photoaging patiens that were managed with glicolyc acid peel in Medic...

  3. The extraction of plutonium with triethylene glycol dichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikin, A M; Moss, M; Bruce, T

    1951-03-15

    The extraction of plutonium by triethylene glycol dichloride (trigly) has been investigated briefly. The effect of (1) the valence state of the plutonium, (2) the concentration of nitric acid, (3) the concentration of ammonium nitrate and (4) the conditioning of the trigly was measured. The solubility of plutonium IV in trigly was found to be 70 mgms/ml. Solutions of plutonium in trigly and in concentrated nitric acid solutions have been examined spectrophotometrically. (author)

  4. Moessbauer investigation of maghemite-based glycolic acid nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J. G.; Silveira, L. B.; Oliveira, A. C.; Garg, V. K.; Lacava, B. M.; Tedesco, A. C.; Morais, P. C.

    2007-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used in the characterization of a nanocomposite containing magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a glycolic acid-based template. Maghemite nanoparticles were identified as the iron oxide phase dispersed in the polymeric template. From the low-temperature Moessbauer data the amount of the iron-based, non-magnetic material at the nanoparticle surface was estimated as roughly one monolayer in thickness.

  5. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkali, Noor L H; Hoekman, Daniël R; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E J; van Wijk, Michiel P; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G P; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A

    2018-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of PEG3350 + E or PEG4000. Primary outcomes were change in total sum score (TSS) at week 52 compared to baseline, and dose range determination. TSS was the sum of the severity of 5 constipation symptoms rated on a 4-point scale (0-3). Noninferiority margin was a difference in TSS of ≤1.5 based on a 95%-confidence interval [CI]. Treatment success was defined as a defecation frequency of ≥3 per week with PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Noninferiority criteria were not met (maximum difference between groups: -1.81 to 1.68). Daily sachet use was: 0 to 2 years: 0.4 to 2.3 and 0.9 to 2.1; 2 to 4 years: 0.1 to 3.5 and 1.2 to 3.2; 4 to 8 years: 1.1 to 2.8 and 0.7 to 3.8; 8 to 16 years 0.6 to 3.7 and 1.0 to 3.7, in PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Treatment success after 52 weeks was achieved in 50% and 45% of children, respectively (P = 0.69). Rates of adverse events were similar between groups, and no drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Noninferiority regarding long-term constipation-related symptoms of PEG3350 + E compared to PEG4000 was not demonstrated. However, analysis of secondary outcomes suggests similar efficacy and safety of these agents.

  6. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Szabó, Gábor; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m −3 for benzene, 3 mg m −3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m −3 for benzene and 6 g m −3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature. (paper)

  7. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  8. Femtosecond laser irradiation of the fluorescent molecules-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Taiga; Shibata, Akimichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2017-09-01

    Molecular release from scaffolds is desired for tailoring cell-compatible tissue engineering. Several methods have been proposed to control molecular release, such as annealing, plasma treatment, and laser processing. In this study, we describe the alteration of Rhodamine B (RhB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) after femtosecond laser irradiation, which was evaluated on the basis of the water absorption and mass remaining. Fluorescence measurement of released RhB molecules revealed the acceleration of the molecular release upon 400-nm laser irradiation, whereas 800-nm laser irradiation did not induce a comparable degree of change compared with non-irradiated samples. The result of the water absorption measurement indicates that the large amount of water absorption of 400-nm laser-irradiated PLGA sample may accelerate the diffusion of the loaded molecules through absorbing water, which resulted in the faster molecular release.

  9. Molecular dynamics study of the structure and interparticle interactions of polyethylene glycol-conjugated PAMAM dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwankyu; Larson, Ronald G

    2009-10-08

    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of one or two copies of polyethylene glycol of molecular weight 550 (PEG550) and 5000 (PEG5000) daltons, conjugated to generation 3 (G3) to 5 (G5) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with explicit water using a coarse-grained model. We found the radii of gyration of these dendrimer-PEG molecules to be close to those measured in experiments by Hedden and Bauer (Hedden , R. C. ; Bauer , B. J. Macromolecules 2003 , 36 , 1829.). Densely grafted PEG ligands (>50% of the dendrimer surface) extend like brushes, with layer thickness in agreement with theory for starlike polymers. Two dendrimer-PEG complexes in the box drift away from each other, indicating that no aggregation is induced by either short or long PEG chains, conflicting with a recent view that the cytotoxicity of some PEGylated particles might be due to particle aggregation for long PEG lengths.

  10. Spectral Reflectance of Duckweed (Lemna Gibba L.) Fronds Exposed to Ethylene Glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weijin; Carter, Gregory A.; Barber, John T.

    2001-01-01

    When duckweed (Lemna Gibba L.) fronds are exposed to ethylene glycol (EG) anatomy is altered, allowing an increase in water uptake that causes a darkening of frond appearance. Spectroradiometry was used to quantify changes in frond reflectance that occurred throughout the 400-850 nm spectrum under various EG concentrations and exposure times. The threshold concentration of EG at which a reflectance change could be detected was between 35 and 40 mM, approximately the same as by visual observation. EG-induced changes in frond reflectance were maximum at concentrations of 50 mM or greater. Reflectance changes were detectable within 24h of exposure to 100 mM EG,2-3 days prior to changes in frond appearance. The spectroradiometry of duckweed may serve as a rapid and sensitive technique for detection of ecosystem exposure to EG and perhaps other stress agents.

  11. Propylene glycol energy supplementation during peripartal period in dairy cows and reproduction efficiency parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2012-01-01

    cumulative percentage of conception after the first and second insemination was 60%, 81% and 25% in groups O1, O2 and O3, respectively (p<0.05, chi-square test. The insemination index was lowest in group O2 and statistically significant differences were found between groups O2 and O3 (1.69±0.79 : 3.38±1.36, respectively, p<0,05. The length of the service period was significantly (p<0.05, LSD test shorter in the O2 group (100±35 days compared to groups O1 and O3 (168±59 and 157±52 days, respectively, that was confirmed by the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of days open periods. The use of propylene glycol supplement in dairy cows diet during peripartal period induced higher percentage of pregnancy rates after the first and second insemination, significantly shortened the length of the service period and reduced the insemination index.

  12. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aggarwal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as “gokhru” which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  13. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A; Tandon, S; Singla, S K; Tandon, C

    2010-01-01

    Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as "gokhru" which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  14. Strain induced anomalous red shift in mesoscopic iron oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano magnetic oxides; red shift; magnetic storage. ... size and strain induced modifications of various physical properties viz. optical, magnetic and structural. ... ∼2, are synthesized by employing starch and ethylene glycol and starch and ...

  15. Phase Equilibria Measurement of Binary Mixture for the Propoxylated Neopentyl Glycol Diacrylate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data are reported on the phase equilibrium of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide. Phase equilibria data were measured in static method at a temperature of (313.2, 333.2, 353.2, 373.2 and 393.2) K and at pressures up to 27.82 MPa. At a constant pressure, the solubility of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system increases as temperature increases. The (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system exhibits type-I phase behavior. The experimental result for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system is correlated with Peng- Robinson equation of state using mixing rule. The critical property of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate is predicted with Joback and Lyderson method

  16. Phase Equilibria Measurement of Binary Mixture for the Propoxylated Neopentyl Glycol Diacrylate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hun-Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Experimental data are reported on the phase equilibrium of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide. Phase equilibria data were measured in static method at a temperature of (313.2, 333.2, 353.2, 373.2 and 393.2) K and at pressures up to 27.82 MPa. At a constant pressure, the solubility of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system increases as temperature increases. The (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system exhibits type-I phase behavior. The experimental result for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system is correlated with Peng- Robinson equation of state using mixing rule. The critical property of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate is predicted with Joback and Lyderson method.

  17. Management of obstructive urolithiasis in dairy calves with intact bladder and urethra by Fazili’s minimally invasive tube cystotomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb ur Rehman Fazili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was planned to evaluate minimally invasive tube cystotomy technique in calves suffering from obstructive urolithiasis having intact urinary bladder and urethra. Fifteen male non-castrated calves with age ranging from 1-10 months (mean 4.05 months, presented for treatment within one to three days (mean 2.2 days of complete urinary tract obstruction due to urethral calculi with intact bladder and urethra, were included in this study. Under light sedation and local infiltration anaesthesia, all the animals were subjected through left paralumbar fossa, to a minimally invasive surgical tube cystotomy in which catheter was placed in the bladder lumen through a metallic cannula and fixed to the skin with a stay suture (Fazili’s technique. All the animals were discharged the same day. Time taken for the procedure varied from 8 to 17 minutes (mean 11.0 minutes. Normal urination resumed in twelve (80.0% calves. Mean time taken for normal urination was 10.50 days. In two of the remaining calves, urine flow stopped through the catheter prematurely and they were then subjected to standard surgical tube cystotomy. One more calf did not urinate normally for 30 postoperative days and was lost to the follow up thereafter. Recurrence of the obstruction was not detected in ten and nine animals observed up to six and 12 months respectively. In conclusion, the outcome of this minimally invasive technique is similar to the standard tube cystectomy. Additionally, the procedure is cost effective, quick, simple and field applicable. It also minimizes exposure of abdominal cavity of metabolically compromised animals. However, the technique needs to be tried in larger number of such calves wherein better quality catheter of larger diameter be used before recommending its extensive use.

  18. Fasting urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis and breed-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, E; Patterson, E E; Armstrong, P J; Osborne, C A; Lulich, J P

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, but breed-specific reports of urinary metabolites and their relationship with stone status are lacking. To compare urinary metabolites (calcium and oxalate) and blood ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations between CaOx stone formers and breed-matched stone-free controls for the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. Forty-seven Miniature Schnauzers (23 cases and 24 controls), 27 Bichons Frise (14 cases and 13 controls), and 15 Shih Tzus (7 cases and 8 controls). Prospective study. Fasting spot urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr and UOx/Cr, respectively) and blood iCa concentrations were measured and compared between cases and controls within and across breeds. Regression models were used to test the effect of patient and environmental factors on these variables. UCa/Cr was higher in cases than controls for each of the 3 breeds. In addition to stone status, being on a therapeutic food designed to prevent CaOx stone recurrence was associated with higher UCa/Cr. UOx/Cr did not differ between cases and controls for any of the breeds. Blood iCa was higher in cases than controls in the Miniature Schnauzer and Bichon Frise breeds and had a moderate correlation with UCa/Cr. Hypercalciuria is associated with CaOx stone status in the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. UOx/Cr did not correlate with stone status in these 3 breeds. These findings may influence breed-specific stone prevention recommendations. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Density and vapour pressure of mixed-solvent desiccant systems (propylene glycol or dipropylene glycol or tripropylene glycol + magnesium chloride + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Yi; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, Meng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapour pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {40 wt% glycol (propylene or dipropylene or tripropylene) + (4 or 9 or 16 wt%) magnesium chloride salt + water} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The density and vapour pressure data obtained are presented as a function of temperature and composition. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the density values. A model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the vapour pressure as a function of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapour pressure calculations

  20. Outcome of patients in acute poisoning with ethylene glycol - factors which may have influence on evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Tanasescu, A; Macovei, RA; Tudosie, MS

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Intoxication with ethylene glycol occurs as a result of intentional ingestion in suicide attempts or accidentally. Clinical ethylene glycol poisoning is not specific and occurs in many poisoning cases therefore the diagnosis is difficult. Early diagnostic and establishment of therapy are very important for a favorable evolution. The mortality rate of ethylene glycol intoxication ranges between 1 and 22% depending on the amount of alcohol ingestion and the time period between alc...

  1. Investigations into the use of water glycol as the hydraulic fluid in a servo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.V.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of water glycol on the performance of a hydraulic system and on the life of the system components have been investigated and a guide to the design of systems using water glycol is given. The dynamic performance of the system using water-glycol was compared with that using mineral oil, then the system was endurance tested to determine its service life. (author)

  2. Reduction of Inflammatory Responses and Enhancement of Extracellular Matrix Formation by Vanillin-Incorporated Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yujung; Kwon, Jeongil; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Dongwon

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major components of vanilla, a commonly used flavoring agent and preservative and is known to exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this work, vanillin-incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films and scaffolds were fabricated to evaluate the effects of vanillin on the inflammatory responses and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in vitro and in vivo. The incorporation of vanillin to PLGA films induced hydrophilic nature, resulting i...

  3. Ureteral in situ biocompatibility of L-lactide-glycolic acid copolymer 80:20 stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yuchuan; Wang Chunxi; Zhang Baogang; Chen Xuesi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in situ biocompatibility of a new biodegradable ureteral stent made of L-lactide-glycolic acid copolymer 80:20 (PLGA 80:20). Methods: 16 dogs served as experimental animals. Ureteral stents of PLGA 80:20 were inserted in situ into the left ureter after transection at the mid level, then the ureters were routinely anastomosed. Ureters surrounding the stent were taken out 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The ureters were dissected to find changes of stents and local ureters. Histological analysis was performed to investigate tissue reactions to the stent and evaluate the biocompatibility. Rods of UROVISION stent served as controls. Results: The PLGA stent was degraded completely within 12 weeks post implantation. In the early stage (2-4 weeks), both stents induced epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell reaction at local ureter (P>0.05). In the later stage (8-12 weeks), the tissue reaction nearly subsided in PLGA stented ureters after degradation of the device. Whereas, the tissue reaction induced by UROVISION stent had lasted throughout the observation period, even deteriorated with time going (P<0.05). Conclusion: The tissue reaction induced by PLGA stent is retrievable. PLGA is regarded highly compatible and can serve as an ideal material for biodegradable ureteral stent. (authors)

  4. Effects of Zinc Deuteroporphyrin Bis Glycol on Newborn Mice After Heme-Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cynthia X.; Campbell, Claire M.; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora S.; Schulz, Stephanie; Vreman, Hendrik J.; Wong, Ronald J.; Stevenson, David K.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with hemolytic diseases frequently develop hyperbilirubinemia, but standard phototherapy only eliminates bilirubin after its production. A better strategy might be to directly inhibit heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in bilirubin production. Metalloporphyrins (Mps) are heme analogs that competitively inhibit HO activity in vitro and in vivo and suppress plasma bilirubin levels in vivo. A promising Mp, zinc deuteroporphyrin bis glycol (ZnBG), is orally absorbed and effectively inhibits HO activity at relatively low doses. We determined the I50 (the dose needed to inhibit HO activity by 50%) of orally administered ZnBG in vivo and then evaluated ZnBG’s effects on in vivo bilirubin production, HO activity, HO protein levels, and HO-1 gene expression in newborn mice following heme-loading, a model analogous to a hemolytic infant. The I50 of ZnBG was found to be 4.0 μmol/kg body weight (BW). At a dose of 15-μmol/kg BW, ZnBG reduced in vivo bilirubin production, inhibited heme-induced liver HO activity and spleen HO activity to and below baseline, respectively, transiently induced liver and spleen HO-1 gene transcription, and induced liver and spleen HO-1 protein levels. We conclude that ZnBG may be an attractive compound for treating severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia caused by hemolytic disease. PMID:21785387

  5. Dipropylene glycol allergy: A hidden cause of perfume contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Ernst Jemec, Gregor Borut

    1994-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by a hand lotion is presented. A positive patch test reaction to the perfume formulation from the lotion was found, establishing a case of perfume allergy. However, when all 16 ingredients of the perfume were tested, the patient reacted not only...... to a fragrance material but also to the solvent used in the perfume, dipropylene glycol. The diagnosis of perfume allergy is common. However, the substances in the responsible perfume are rarely obtained for testing, and significant allergies to the solvent of the perfume may be overlooked....

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  7. The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%, melasma (36.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12% and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%. A final evaluation done at 16 weeks revealed that this modality is useful especially in superficial scarring and melasma, moderately successful in acne patients with no response in dermal pigmentation. No significant untoward effects were seen.

  8. Transdermal thiol-acrylate polyethylene glycol hydrogel synthesis using near infrared light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Solchan; Lee, Hwangjae; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Min-Gon; Lee, Luke P.; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-07-01

    Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation via a mixed-mode reaction with a small increase in temperature (~5 °C) under the optimized conditions. We also achieved successful transdermal gelation via the NIR-assisted photothermal thiol-acryl reactions. This new type of NIR-assisted thiol-acrylate polymerization provides new opportunities for in situ hydrogel formation for injectable hydrogels and delivery of drugs/cells for various biomedical applications.Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation

  9. Exposure to glycols and their renal effects in motor servicing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, J; Liesivuori, J; Savolainen, H

    1995-10-01

    Ten car mechanics frequently exposed to glycol-based cooling liquids were followed during a workshift. Airborne ethylene and propylene glycol concentrations in the car mechanics' environment were measured. The car mechanics gave urine samples after the workshift and their excretion of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, oxalic acid, calcium and ammonia was analysed and compared to that of unexposed office workers. Urinary succinate dehydrogenase activity and glycosaminoglycans were also measured in both groups. Airborne ethylene and propylene glycol concentrations in the car mechanics' environment were negligible. Urinary ethylene glycol excretion in exposed workers was significantly higher than that in unexposed workers, but propylene glycol excretion was at the same levels as in controls. In the exposed group, the excretion of the end metabolite of ethylene glycol, oxalic acid (47 +/- 11 mmol/mol creatinine, mean +/- SD, n = 10) differed slightly from that of controls (36 +/- 14 mmol/mol creatinine, mean +/- SD, n = 10). Urinary excretion of ammonia was higher among exposed workers than office workers. The excretion of calcium did not differ from that of controls. A marginally decreased urinary succinate dehydrogenase activity was found in the exposed men. The excretion of glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower in exposed workers. Therefore, it seems that ethylene glycol is absorbed by skin contact. The internal body burden is associated with oxaluria and increased ammoniagenesis typical of chronic acidosis.

  10. UV stabilization of wood by nano metal oxides dispersed in propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sreeja; Nagarajappa, Giridhar B; Pandey, Krishna K

    2018-06-01

    Nanoparticles of some of the metal oxides are known to have high UV protective efficiency. The UV filtering efficiency of nanoparticles invariably depends on their size and stability in the dispersion. In the present work, a stable dispersion of nanoparticles of three metal oxides, zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), was prepared in propylene glycol (PG) using ultrasonication. The method is easy and useful as no additional surfactant or dispersant is needed. The particle size and its distribution was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. The stability of dispersion was assessed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The UV stability of wood surfaces of Wrightia tinctoria coated with nanodispersions of ZnO, CeO 2 and TiO 2 was evaluated under laboratory conditions in an accelerated weathering tester. Changes in the colour and FTIR spectra of exposed specimens were measured periodically. Rapid colour darkening (yellowing) was observed in uncoated and PG coated specimens. In contrast, nanodispersion coated specimens prevented photo-yellowing considerably with significant reduction in colour changes examined by CIE L*, a*, b* and ΔE*. Increase in concentration of nanoparticles in the dispersion imparted higher resistance to UV induced degradation. However, increased concentration of nanoparticles reduced the transparency of the coating. FTIR analysis indicated rapid degradation of lignin in uncoated and PG coated specimens due to UV exposure. Coating of wood surfaces with nanodispersions restricted lignin degradation. The study also demonstrates the potential of propylene glycol as a dispersant for developing stable and efficient UV protective nanodispersions for wood coating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Formation of Underbrushes on thiolated Poly (ethylene glycol) PEG monolayers by Oligoethylene glycol (OEG) terminated Alkane Thiols on Gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2011-01-01

    Adding underbrushes of oligoethylene glycol (OEG) to monolayers of long chain PEG molecules on a surface is one of the strategies [1] in designing a suitable platform for antifouling purpose, where it is possible to have high graft density and molecular conformational freedom[4] simultaneously......, there by maximal retention of activity of covalently immobilised antifouling enzyme [2] on PEG surfaces along with resistance to protein adsorption[3]. Here we present some our studies on the addition of OEG thiol molecules over a self assembled monolayer of PEG thiol on gold. The kinetics of addition of OEG thiol...

  12. Alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate-emulsified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for reversal of multidrug resistance in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Lu Yu; Ding Liying; Liu Yaqing; Yu Shuqin; Guo Miao; Ron Wenting; Song Feifei

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the factors in the failure of anticancer chemotherapy. In order to enhance the anticancer effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates, inhibition of the P-gp efflux pump on MDR cells is a good tactic. We designed novel multifunctional drug-loaded alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs; SN-38 is 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin), with TPGS-emulsified PLGA NPs as the carrier and modulator of the P-gp efflux pump and SN-38 as the model drug. TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs were prepared using a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method. Physicochemical characterizations of TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs were in conformity with the principle of nano-drug delivery systems (nDDSs), including a diameter of about 200 nm, excellent spherical particles with a smooth surface, narrow size distribution, appropriate surface charge, and successful drug-loading into the NPs. The cytotoxicity of TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs to MDR cells was increased by 3.56 times compared with that of free SN-38. Based on an intracellular accumulation study relative to the time-dependent uptake and efflux inhibition, we suggest novel mechanisms of MDR reversal of TPGS/PLGA NPs. Firstly, TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs improved the uptake of the loaded drug by clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the form of unbroken NPs. Simultaneously, intracellular NPs escaped the recognition of P-gp by MDR cells. After SN-38 was released from TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs in MDR cells, TPGS or/and PLGA may modulate the efflux microenvironment of the P-gp pump, such as mitochondria and the P-gp domain with an ATP-binding site. Finally, the controlled-release drug entered the nucleus of the MDR cell to induce cytotoxicity. The present study showed that TPGS-emulsified PLGA NPs could be functional carriers in nDDS for anticancer drugs that are also P-gp substrates. More importantly, to enhance the therapeutic effect of P-gp substrates, this work

  13. Structure and thermal performance of poly(ethylene glycol) alkyl ether (Brij)/porous silica (MCM-41) composites as shape-stabilized phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingjian; Shi, Haifeng, E-mail: haifeng.shi@gmail.com; Li, Weiwei; Han, Xu; Zhang, Xingxiang, E-mail: zhangpolyu@gmail.com

    2013-10-20

    Graphical abstract: The maximum 50 wt% Brij58 is loaded into the porous MCM-41 networks, and a new peak at 18.8° in XRD patterns confirmed the changes of crystallization behavior of Brij58 against the bulk one. - Highlights: • Poly(ethylene glycol) hexadecyl ether and poly(ethylene glycol) octadecyl ether have the good thermal storage ability. • New peak at 18.8° proved the coexisted confined crystallization and nucleation-induced crystallization. • Poly(ethylene glycol) alkyl ether/MCM-41 PCMs exhibits the good thermal stability. - Abstract: A series of shape-stabilized phase change materials (PCMs), composed of poly(ethylene glycol) hexadecyl ether (Brij58) or poly(ethylene glycol) octadecyl ether (Brij76) and porous silica (MCM-41), were prepared by the physical mixing method. The structure, thermal stability, energy storage ability and crystallization behavior of these composites are deeply investigated and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Obvious phase transition behavior and energy storage capability are observed for these Brij/MCM-41 composites, and the heat storage efficiency increased with the weight of Brij component. New peak at 18.8° demonstrated that the pore size and the surface adsorption ability of MCM-41 affect the crystallization behavior of Brij molecule. The crystalline structure and energy storage ability of these Brij/MCM-41 composites are discussed based on the crystallization process.

  14. Crystal structure and thermal property of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jie-yun; Tang, Xiao-fen; Li, Wei; Shi, Hai-feng; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. ► Polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether crystallizes perfectly. ► The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. ► The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat unit. - Abstract: The crystal structure, phase change property and thermal stable temperature (T d ) of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether [HO(CH 2 CH 2 O) n C 18 H 37 , C18En] with various numbers of repeat units (n = 2, 10, 20 and 100) as phase change materials (PCMs) were investigated using temperature variable Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). C18En crystallizes perfectly at 0 °C; and the crystal structure for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. The number of repeat units has great effect on the phase change properties of C18En. The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. They approach to that of PEG-2000 as the number of repeat units is more than 10. T d increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. C18En are a series of promising polymeric PCMs

  15. Temperature dependent viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Prashant B.; Somvanshi, Sandeep B.; Kounsalye, Jitendra S.; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Khirade, Pankaj P.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluid is prepared in 0 to 1 (in the step of 0.2) volume fraction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single phase spinel structure. The Raman spectra have been deconvoluted into individual Lorentzian peaks. Cobalt ferrite has cubic spinel structure with Fd3m space group. FT-IR spectra consist of two major absorption bands, first at about 586 cm-1 (υ1) and second at about 392 cm-1 (υ2). These absorption bands confirm the formation of spinel-structured cobalt ferrite. Brookfield DV-III viscometer and programmable temperature-controlled bath was used to study the relationship between viscosity and temperature. Viscosity behavior with respect to temperature has been studied and it is revealed that the viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids increases with an increase in volume fraction of cobalt ferrite. The viscosity of the present ferrofluid was found to decrease with increase in temperature.

  16. Magnetic fluid poly(ethylene glycol) with moderate anticancer activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavisova, Vlasta, E-mail: zavisova@saske.s [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Koneracka, Martina [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Muckova, Marta; Lazova, Jana [Hameln, rds a.s., Horna 36, Modra (Slovakia); Jurikova, Alena; Lancz, Gabor; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Kovac, Jozef [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Vavra, Ivo [IEE SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Fabian, Martin [IGT SAS, Watsonova 45, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Feoktystov, Artem V. [FLNP JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna Moscow Reg. 141980 (Russian Federation); KNU, Academician Glushkov Ave. 2/1, 03187 Kyiv (Ukraine); Garamus, Vasil M. [GKSS research center, Max-Planck-Str.1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [FLNP JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna Moscow Reg. 141980 (Russian Federation); Kopcansky, Peter [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing magnetic fluids - magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) stabilized by sodium oleate - were prepared. Magnetic measurements confirmed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The structure of that kind of magnetic fluid was characterized using different techniques, including electron microscopy, photon cross correlation spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering, while the adsorption of PEG on magnetic particles was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the in vitro toxicity tests it was found that a magnetic fluid containing PEG (MFPEG) partially inhibited the growth of cancerous B16 cells at the highest tested dose (2.1 mg/ml of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in MFPEG). - Research Highlights: A new type of biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF) with poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared. Structuralization effects of magnetite particles depend on PEG concentration. Large fractals of magnetite nanoparticles in MF were observed (SANS indication). MF partially inhibited (approximately 50%) the growth of cancerous B16 cells.

  17. Magnetic fluid poly(ethylene glycol) with moderate anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavisova, Vlasta; Koneracka, Martina; Muckova, Marta; Lazova, Jana; Jurikova, Alena; Lancz, Gabor; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Kovac, Jozef; Vavra, Ivo; Fabian, Martin; Feoktystov, Artem V.; Garamus, Vasil M.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Kopcansky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing magnetic fluids - magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) stabilized by sodium oleate - were prepared. Magnetic measurements confirmed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The structure of that kind of magnetic fluid was characterized using different techniques, including electron microscopy, photon cross correlation spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering, while the adsorption of PEG on magnetic particles was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the in vitro toxicity tests it was found that a magnetic fluid containing PEG (MFPEG) partially inhibited the growth of cancerous B16 cells at the highest tested dose (2.1 mg/ml of Fe 3 O 4 in MFPEG). - Research Highlights: → A new type of biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF) with poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared. → Structuralization effects of magnetite particles depend on PEG concentration. → Large fractals of magnetite nanoparticles in MF were observed (SANS indication). → MF partially inhibited (approximately 50%) the growth of cancerous B16 cells.

  18. Polyethylene glycol versus dual sugar assay for gastrointestinal permeability analysis: is it time to choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijck K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kim van Wijck,1,2 Babs AFM Bessems,2 Hans MH van Eijk,2 Wim A Buurman,2 Cornelis HC Dejong,1,2 Kaatje Lenaerts1,21Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 2Department of Surgery, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, NetherlandsBackground: Increased intestinal permeability is an important measure of disease activity and prognosis. Currently, many permeability tests are available and no consensus has been reached as to which test is most suitable. The aim of this study was to compare urinary probe excretion and accuracy of a polyethylene glycol (PEG assay and dual sugar assay in a double-blinded crossover study to evaluate probe excretion and the accuracy of both tests.Methods: Gastrointestinal permeability was measured in nine volunteers using PEG 400, PEG 1500, and PEG 3350 or lactulose-rhamnose. On 4 separate days, permeability was analyzed after oral intake of placebo or indomethacin, a drug known to increase intestinal permeability. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein and calprotectin levels were determined to verify compromised intestinal integrity after indomethacin consumption. Urinary samples were collected at baseline, hourly up to 5 hours after probe intake, and between 5 and 24 hours. Urinary excretion of PEG and sugars was determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively.Results: Intake of indomethacin increased plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and calprotectin levels, reflecting loss of intestinal integrity and inflammation. In this state of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal compromise, urinary excretion of the three PEG probes and lactulose increased compared with placebo. Urinary PEG 400 excretion, the PEG 3350/PEG 400 ratio, and the lactulose/rhamnose ratio could accurately detect indomethacin-induced increases in

  19. End-group characterisation of poly(propylene glycol)s by means of electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anthony T; Slade, Susan E; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Scrivens, James H

    2008-10-01

    The end-group functionalisation of a series of poly(propylene glycol)s has been characterised by means of electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). A series of peaks with mass-to-charge ratios that are close to that of the precursor ion were used to generate information on the end-group functionalities of the poly(propylene glycol)s. Fragment ions resulting from losses of both of the end groups were noted from some of the samples. An example is presented of how software can be used to significantly reduce the length of time involved in data interpretation (which is typically the most time-consuming part of the analysis).

  20. Noncovalent pegylation by dansyl-poly(ethylene glycol)s as a new means against aggregation of salmon calcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Capelle, Martinus A H; Arvinte, Tudor; Seyrek, Emek; Borchard, Gerrit

    2011-05-01

    During all stages of protein drug development, aggregation is one of the most often encountered problems. Covalent conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), also called PEGylation, to proteins has been shown to reduce aggregation of proteins. In this paper, new excipients based on PEG are presented that are able to reduce aggregation of salmon calcitonin (sCT). Several PEG polymers consisting of a hydrophobic dansyl-headgroup attached to PEGs of different molecular weights have been synthesized and characterized physicochemically. After addition of dansyl-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) 2 kDa to a 40 times molar excess of sCT resulted in an increase in dansyl-fluorescence and a decrease in 90° light scatter suggesting possible interactions. The aggregation of sCT in different buffer systems in presence or absence of the different dansyl-PEGs was measured by changes in Nile red fluorescence and turbidity. Dansyl-mPEG 2 kDa in a 1:1 molar ratio to sCT strongly reduced aggregation. Reduction of sCT aggregation was also measured for the bivalent dansyl-PEG 3 kDa in a 1:1 molar ratio. Dansyl-mPEG 5 kDa deteriorated sCT aggregation. Potential cytotoxicity and hemolysis were investigated. This paper shows that dansyl-PEGs are efficacious in reducing aggregation of sCT. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol from gas–liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams-Wynn, Mark D.; Letcher, Trevor M.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • γ 13 ∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the solvents DEG and TEG. • Measurements undertaken using the glc technique at T = (333.2, 348.2, and 363.2) K. • Measurements at elevated temperature possible by pre-saturation of carrier gas. • Comparison of DEG and TEG performance with a number of solvents. -- Abstract: The infinite dilution activity coefficients for 25 hydrocarbon solutes in diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG) were measured using the gas–liquid chromatography technique with pre-saturation of the carrier gas. The hydrocarbon solutes included n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes and alkanols. At the temperatures at which measurements were conducted, the solvents were volatile, and pre-saturation was considered necessary. The measurements were made at T = (333.2, 348.2 and 363.2) K. Values of the selectivity and capacity relating to DEG and TEG, for two sets of mixtures, which are usually difficult to separate by distillation or solvent extraction, were calculated from the experimental results. The two sets of mixtures were: cyclohexane and benzene; and benzene and methanol. The results obtained in this work were then compared to values for other solvents, at similar temperatures, which were obtained or calculated from literature data

  2. A subchronic dermal exposure study of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the male guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, D W; D'Addario, A P; Bruner, R H; Uddin, D E

    1986-02-01

    Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME) has been selected as a replacement anti-icing additive for ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) in Navy jet aircraft fuel. This experiment was performed to determine whether DEGME produced similar toxicity to EGME following dermal exposure. Male guinea pigs were dermally exposed to 1.00, 0.20, 0.04, or 0 (control) g/kg/day DEGME for 13 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day. Another group of animals was similarly exposed to 1.00 g/kg/day EGME. Body weights as well as testicular and splenic weights were reduced as a result of exposure to EGME, DEGME-exposed animals exhibited decreased splenic weight in the high- and medium-dose (1.00 and 0.20 g/kg/day) exposure groups only. Hematologic changes in EGME-exposed animals included mild anemia with increased erythrocytic mean corpuscular volumes and a lymphopenia with increased neutrophils. Similar hematological changes were not observed in any animals exposed to DEGME. Serum creatine kinase activity was increased in animals exposed to EGME, and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in EGME and 1.00 g/kg/day DEGME-exposed animals. In general, DEGME produced minimal toxicological changes following dermal exposure, whereas the toxicological changes observed following similar exposure to EGME were much more profound.

  3. Immune cell impact of three differently coated lipid nanocapsules: pluronic, chitosan and polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Cristiano; Sánchez-Moreno, Paola; Orecchioni, Marco; Manetti, Roberto; Sgarrella, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Peula-García, José M; Marchal, Juan A; Madeddu, Roberto; Delogu, Lucia G

    2016-01-05

    Lipid nanocapsules (NCs) represent promising tools in clinical practice for diagnosis and therapy applications. However, the NC appropriate functionalization is essential to guarantee high biocompatibility and molecule loading ability. In any medical application, the immune system-impact of differently functionalized NCs still remains to be fully understood. A comprehensive study on the action exerted on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and major immune subpopulations by three different NC coatings: pluronic, chitosan and polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid (PEG) is reported. After a deep particle characterization, the uptake was assessed by flow-cytometry and confocal microscopy, focusing then on apoptosis, necrosis and proliferation impact in T cells and monocytes. Cell functionality by cell diameter variations, different activation marker analysis and cytokine assays were performed. We demonstrated that the NCs impact on the immune cell response is strongly correlated to their coating. Pluronic-NCs were able to induce immunomodulation of innate immunity inducing monocyte activations. Immunomodulation was observed in monocytes and T lymphocytes treated with Chitosan-NCs. Conversely, PEG-NCs were completely inert. These findings are of particular value towards a pre-selection of specific NC coatings depending on biomedical purposes for pre-clinical investigations; i.e. the immune-specific action of particular NC coating can be excellent for immunotherapy applications.

  4. SELEKSI IN VITRO UNTUK TOLERANSI TERHADAP KEKERINGAN PADA JAGUNG (Zea mays L. DENGAN POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (PEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaswan Badami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is a prerequisite for many breeding program that one of which can be generated through somaclon variation.  The objective of this research was to investigate effective media to induce embryo callii and to do in vitro callii regeneration for maize, and  in vitro selection was conducted by growing embryogenic callii on mediun containing polyethylene glycol (PEG.  Plant material used in this study was  5 madura cultivars i.e elos, tambin, guluk-guluk, talango and manding.   The results showed that (1 increasing addition 2,4-D on MS medium was significantly affected callii weight, however supplying 8 ppm 2,4-D was best for callii diameter, (2 The best medium to induce embryogenic callii formation was MS + 2 ppm 2,4-D + 3% manitol, (3 Increasing addition PEG  on MS medium can return the mays ES growth, and (4 A tambin and guluk-guluk cultivars was tolerance cultivars whereas manding cultivar was drought sensitive cultivar.

  5. Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Rana, Rohini R

    2010-01-01

    proteins remain difficult to study owing to a lack of suitable detergents. We introduce a class of amphiphiles, each built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from neopentyl glycol, with hydrophilic groups derived from maltose. Representatives of this maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphile...

  6. DISINTEGRATION EFFICIENCY OF SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATES, PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT NATIVE STARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, GK; ARENDSCHOLTE, AW; STUUT, GJ; DEVRIES, JA

    1994-01-01

    In a comparative evaluation, the disintegration efficiency of sodium starch glycolates prepared from seven different native starches (potato, maize, waxy maize, wheat, rice, sago and tapioca) were compared. All the sodium starch glycolates tested had a high swelling capacity, but the rate of water

  7. Glycolate adsorption at gold and platinum electrodes: A theoretical and in situ spectroelectrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Jose Manuel; Blanco, Raquel; Orts, Jose Manuel; Perez, Juan Manuel; Rodes, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of glycolate anions at sputtered gold thin-film electrodes was studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry experiments combined with in situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS). Theoretical harmonic vibrational frequencies and band intensities obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ,6-31+G(d) calculations for glycolate species adsorbed on Au clusters with (1 1 1) orientation were used to interpret the experimental spectra. Vibrational data confirm the bidentate bonding of glycolate anions through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, in a bridge configuration with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. The DFT calculations show no significant effect of the total charge of the metal cluster-adsorbate adduct on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed glycolate species. The infrared experimental study is extended to platinum films electrochemically deposited onto sputtered gold thin-film electrodes showing the potential-dependent formation of adsorbed CO upon dissociative adsorption of glycolate anions. As in the case of gold, the reversible adsorption of glycolate anions takes place in a bidentate configuration as predicted by DFT calculations for glycolate adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1) clusters. At low glycolic acid concentration, the in situ ATR-SEIRA spectra evidence the formation of adsorbed oxalate as reaction intermediate.

  8. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and...

  9. Polyalkylene glycols, base fluids for special lubricants and hydraulic fluids; Polyalkylenglykole, Basisoele fuer Spezialschmierstoffe und Hydraulikfluessigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellmann, K. [Clariant GmbH (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    For many years polyalkylene glycols have been used as base fluids for special lubricants. In this matter they compete with polyol esters and polyalphaolefines. Synthesis of polyalkylen glycols is founded upon the anionic polymerisation of ethyleneoxid, propyleneoxid and if necessary of other oxigen-containing monomeres. The flexibility of this synthesis is the reason that polyalkylene glycole is a collective term, including a broad group of base fluids with partly extreme different properties. Typical for polyalkylene glycols is a high viscosity-index, watersolubility and adsorbing power for water, low friction numbers, but also the incompatibility with current mineral-oil-soluble additive systems. Because of this quality profile there has been developped specific niche-applications in the lubricant-area for polyalkylene glycols in the last 30 years, where each of the specific benefits has been used. Among them are watercontaining HFC hydraulicfluids, refrigerator oils, and oils for ethylene-compressors. HFC fluids are formulated with high-viscous, water-soluble polyalkylene glycols. For refrigerator oils in motor-car conditioning the R 134A compatibility of water-insoluble polyalkylene glycols is essential. For the use in ethylene-compressors the crucial point is the insolubility of polyalkylene glycol in ethylene. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis of Monodispersed Tantalum(V) oxide Nanospheres by an Ethylene Glycol Mediated Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantalum(V) oxide (Ta2O5) nanospheres have been synthesized by a very simple ethylene glycol mediated route. The two-step process involves the formation of glycolate nanoparticles and their subsequent hydrolysis and calcination to generate the final Ta2O5 nanospheres. The synthes...

  11. Sludge batch 9 follow-on actual-waste testing for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-23

    An actual-waste Sludge Batch 9 qualification run with the nitric-glycolic flowsheet (SC-18) was performed in FY16. In order to supplement the knowledge base for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, additional testing was performed on the product slurries, condensates, and intermediate samples from run SC-18.

  12. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the system (propylene glycol + water + tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphthoate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Shazad, Maryam; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is an important low toxic glycol, widely used in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and the chemical industries. The recovery of PG from aqueous streams using conventional unit operations such as evaporation is highly energy demanding because of the large amounts of water that

  13. Status Epilepticus due to Intraperitoneal Injection of Vehicle Containing Propylene Glycol in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evon S. Ereifej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Published reports of status epilepticus due to intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol in rats are sparse. In fact, there are no reports specifying a maximum safe dose of propylene glycol through intraperitoneal administration. We report here a case of unexpected seizures in Sprague Dawley rats after receiving an intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol. Nine-week-old, 225–250 gram male rats were reported to experience tremor progressing to seizures within minutes after given injections of resveratrol (30 mg/kg dissolved in a 40 : 60 propylene glycol/corn oil vehicle solution by direct intraperitoneal (IP slow bolus injection or via a preplaced intraperitoneal catheter. The World Health Organization suggests a maximum dose of 25 mg/kg/day of propylene glycol taken orally and no more than 25 mg/dL in blood serum, whereas the animals used in our study got a calculated maximum 0.52 g/kg (25 times lower dose. Blood tests from the seizing rat support a diagnosis of hemolysis and lactic acidosis which may have led to the seizures, all of which appeared to be a consequence of the propylene glycol administration. These findings are consistent with oral and intravenous administration of propylene glycol toxicity as previously reported in other species, including humans. To our knowledge, this report represents the first published case of status epilepticus due to an IP injection containing propylene glycol.

  14. [Quantitative analysis of urinary ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Hori, H; Tanaka, I; Akiyama, T; Inoue, N

    1985-03-01

    A gas chromatographic method was used for determining ethylene glycol in urine. The analytical procedure is based on an azeotropic distillation and on esterification with n-butyl boronic acid. The linear calibration curve was obtained up to 500 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. The detection limit was estimated to be 10 micrograms/ml and relative standard deviation was 3.5% for 100 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. This method was applied to determine the urinary excretion of ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide at various concentrations (from 50 to 500 ppm). The excretion amounts of ethylene glycol were observed to be dependent on the concentration of ethylene oxide exposed.

  15. Quasielastic neutron scattering and microscopic dynamics of liquid ethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, O. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, BP 53, Maison des Geosciences - Domaine Universitaire, 38041 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: Oleg.Sobolev@ujf-grenoble.fr; Novikov, A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Sq. 1, Obninsk, Kaluga Reg. 249033 (Russian Federation); Pieper, J. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17, Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-04-20

    Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) by liquid ethylene glycol was analyzed using different model approaches. It was found that approximation of the QENS spectra by a set of Lorentzian functions corresponding to the translational and rotational motions produce physically unrealistic results. At the same time, the Fourier transform of the stretched-exponential function exp(-(t/{tau}){sup {beta}}) fits the experimental data well, and results of the fit are in good agreement with those obtained earlier for other systems. The stretching parameter {beta} was found Q independent and shows weak temperature dependence. The mean relaxation time as a function of Q departs strongly from the simple diffusion low and can be approximated by a power law <{tau}{sub w}> = {tau}{sub 0}Q{sup -{gamma}} with the exponent parameter {gamma} = 2.4.

  16. A compact 100 kV high voltage glycol capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Langning; Liu, Jinliang; Feng, Jiahuai

    2015-01-01

    A high voltage capacitor is described in this paper. The capacitor uses glycerol as energy storage medium, has a large capacitance close to 1 nF, can hold off voltages of up to 100 kV for μs charging time. Allowing for low inductance, the capacitor electrode is designed as coaxial structure, which is different from the common structure of the ceramic capacitor. With a steady capacitance at different frequencies and a high hold-off voltage of up to 100 kV, the glycol capacitor design provides a potential substitute for the ceramic capacitors in pulse-forming network modulator to generate high voltage pulses with a width longer than 100 ns.

  17. Phase Diagram of the Ethylene Glycol-Dimethylsulfoxide System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonina, I. A.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Kiselev, M. R.; Khoroshilov, A. V.; Shirokova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The phase diagram of ethylene glycol (EG)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) system is studied in the temperature range of +25 to -140°C via differential scanning calorimetry. It is established that the EG-DMSO system is characterized by strong overcooling of the liquid phase, a glass transition at -125°C, and the formation of a compound with the composition of DMSO · 2EG. This composition has a melting temperature of -60°C, which is close to those of neighboring eutectics (-75 and -70°C). A drop in the baseline was observed in the temperature range of 8 to -5°C at DMSO concentrations of 5-50 mol %, indicating the existence of a phase separation area in the investigated system. The obtained data is compared to the literature data on the H2O-DMSO phase diagram.

  18. Definitive characterization of human thymine glycol N-glycosylase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, S.A.; Frenkel, K.; Cummings, A.; Teebor, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    An N-glycosylase activity that released cis-[ 3 H]-5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (thymine glycol, TG) from chemically oxidized poly(dA-[ 3 H]dT) was unambiguously characterized both in extracts of HeLa cells and in purified Escherichia coli endonuclease III. This was accomplished by use of a microderivatization procedure that quantitatively converted cis-TG to 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantoin (HMH). The reaction products were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography before and after derivation by using cis-[ 14 C]TG and [ 14 C]HMH, which had been independently synthesized, as reference compounds. This technique facilitated construction of a v/[E]/sub t/ plot for the enzyme activity in HeLa cells, permitting estimation of its specific activity. The results obtained prove the existence of both human and bacterial N-glycosylase activities that effect removal of TG from DNA

  19. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  20. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat, E-mail: atiyeabednejad@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amoabediny, Ghasem [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 63894-14179, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaee, Azadeh [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma graft polymerization of PEG on polypropylene membrane was carried out. • Changes in surface properties were investigated by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and AFM. • Surface wettability enhanced as a result of poly ethylene glycol grafting. • PEG grafting degree increase causes reduction of fouling and adhesion.

  1. 40 CFR 63.63 - Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl... Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.63 Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE,2-Butoxyethanol...

  2. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. I: TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions tests data at two triethylene glycol units to provide data for comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. (NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas indu...

  3. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. II: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions test data st two triethylene glycol units to provide data for the comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. [NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas i...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky...

  5. Literature Review On Impact Of Glycolate On The 2H Evaporator And The Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-01-01

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations (le) 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  6. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  7. Analysis of Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid/Poly(Isoprene Polymeric Blend for application as biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of renewable raw materials encourages research in the biopolymers area. The Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid/Poly(Isoprene (PLGA/IR blend combines biocompatibility for application in the health field with excellent mechanical properties. The blend was obtained by solubilization of polymers in organic solvents. To investigate the polymer thermochemical properties, FTIR and DSC were applied. To investigate the composition's influence over polymer mechanical properties, tensile and hardness test were applied. To analyze the blends response in the cell environment, a stent was produced by injection molding process, and Cell Viability Test and Previous Implantability were used. The Infrared spectra show that chemical composition is related only with polymers proportion in the blend. The calorimetry shows a partial miscibility in the blend. The tensile test shows that adding Poly(Isoprene to Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid induced a relevant reduction in the Young modulus, tensile stress and tenacity of the material, which was altered from the fragile raw PLGA to a ductile material. The composition did not affect the blend hardness. The cell viability test shows that the blend has potential application as biomaterial, while the first results of implantability indicate that the polymeric stent kept its original position and caused low fibrosis.

  8. Influence of polyethylene glycol coating on biodistribution and toxicity of nanoscale graphene oxide in mice after intravenous injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bo Li,1,2 Xiao-Yong Zhang,1 Jian-Zhong Yang,1 Yu-Jie Zhang,1 Wen-Xin Li,1 Chun-Hai Fan,1 Qing Huang1 1Laboratory of Physical Biology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 2Department of Human Anatomy, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, we assessed the in vivo behavior and toxicology of nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO in mice after intravenous injection. The influence of a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating on the distribution and toxicity of the NGO was also investigated. The results show that NGO is mainly retained in the liver, lung, and spleen. Retention in the lung is partially due to NGO aggregation. The PEG coating reduces the retention of NGO in the liver, lung, and spleen and promotes the clearance of NGO from these organs, but NGO and NGO-PEG are still present after 3 months. The PEG coating effectively reduces the early weight loss caused by NGO and alleviates NGO-induced acute tissue injuries, which can include damage to the liver, lung, and kidney, and chronic hepatic and lung fibrosis. Keywords: graphene oxide, biodistribution, toxicity, polyethylene glycol

  9. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynor, Matthew J.; Wilkinson, Simon C.; Williams, Faith M.

    2007-01-01

    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents

  10. Molybdenum/alkali metal/ethylene glycol complexes useful as epoxidation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, E.T.; Sanderson, J.R.; Keating, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a clear, storage stable solution of a molybdenum/alkali metal/ethylene glycol complex in ethylene glycol made by the process comprising: reacting at an elevated temperature between about 25 0 and 150 0 C a solid ammonium molybdate or a hydrate thereof and a solid alkali metal molybdate or a hydrate thereof with ethylene glycol, such that the ratio of moles of ethylene glycol to total gram atoms of molybdenum in the molybdates ranges from about 7:10 to 10:1, and the ratio of gram atoms of molybdenum in the ammonium molybdate or hydrate thereof to gram atoms of molybdenum in the alkali metal molybdate is from about 1:1 to about 20:1 to thereby provide a reaction product composed of a solution of an alkali metal-containing complex of molybdenum, alkali metal and ethylene glycol and by-products, including water, in the ethylene glycol and subsequently stripping the solution at a reduced pressure to remove from about 5 to about 25% of the reaction product, as distillate, to thereby provide a storage stable solution of the complex in the ethylene glycol having a molybdenum content of about 6 wt. % to about 20 wt. %, a water concentration of about 0.1 wt. % to about 6 wt. % and an acid number of more than about 60

  11. Polyethylene glycol versus dual sugar assay for gastrointestinal permeability analysis: is it time to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijck, Kim; Bessems, Babs Afm; van Eijk, Hans Mh; Buurman, Wim A; Dejong, Cornelis Hc; Lenaerts, Kaatje

    2012-01-01

    Increased intestinal permeability is an important measure of disease activity and prognosis. Currently, many permeability tests are available and no consensus has been reached as to which test is most suitable. The aim of this study was to compare urinary probe excretion and accuracy of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) assay and dual sugar assay in a double-blinded crossover study to evaluate probe excretion and the accuracy of both tests. Gastrointestinal permeability was measured in nine volunteers using PEG 400, PEG 1500, and PEG 3350 or lactulose-rhamnose. On 4 separate days, permeability was analyzed after oral intake of placebo or indomethacin, a drug known to increase intestinal permeability. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein and calprotectin levels were determined to verify compromised intestinal integrity after indomethacin consumption. Urinary samples were collected at baseline, hourly up to 5 hours after probe intake, and between 5 and 24 hours. Urinary excretion of PEG and sugars was determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Intake of indomethacin increased plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and calprotectin levels, reflecting loss of intestinal integrity and inflammation. In this state of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal compromise, urinary excretion of the three PEG probes and lactulose increased compared with placebo. Urinary PEG 400 excretion, the PEG 3350/PEG 400 ratio, and the lactulose/rhamnose ratio could accurately detect indomethacin-induced increases in gastrointestinal permeability, especially within 2 hours of probe intake. Hourly urinary excretion and diagnostic accuracy of PEG and sugar probes show high concordance for detection of indomethacin-induced increases in gastrointestinal permeability. This comparative study improves our knowledge of permeability analysis in man by providing a clear overview of both

  12. Molecular structure impacts on secondary organic aerosol formation from glycol ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Cocker, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Glycol ethers, a class of widely used solvents in consumer products, are often considered exempt as volatile organic compounds based on their vapor pressure or boiling points by regulatory agencies. However, recent studies found that glycol ethers volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents indicating the potential of glycol ethers to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This is the first work on SOA formation from glycol ethers. The impact of molecular structure, specifically -OH, on SOA formation from glycol ethers and related ethers are investigated in the work. Ethers with and without -OH, with methyl group hindrance on -OH and with -OH at different location are studied in the presence of NOX and under "NOX free" conditions. Photooxidation experiments under different oxidation conditions confirm that the processing of ethers is a combination of carbonyl formation, cyclization and fragmentation. Bulk SOA chemical composition analysis and oxidation products identified in both gas and particle phase suggests that the presence and location of -OH in the carbon bond of ethers determine the occurrence of cyclization mechanism during ether oxidation. The cyclization is proposed as a critical SOA formation mechanism to prevent the formation of volatile compounds from fragmentation during the oxidation of ethers. Glycol ethers with -CH2-O-CH2CH2OH structure is found to readily form cyclization products, especially with the presence of NOx, which is more relevant to urban atmospheric conditions than without NOx. Glycol ethers are evaluated as dominating SOA precursors among all ethers studied. It is estimated that the contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources. The contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources and will play a more important role in future anthropogenic SOA

  13. A litotripsia extracorpórea no tratamento de cálculos urinários em crianças Extracorporeal lithotripsy for the treatment of urolithiasis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Duarte

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: cálculos urinários atingem de 5 a 10% da população em alguma fase da vida. Destes casos, somente 2 a 3% são crianças. O tratamento da litíase urinária na faixa pediátrica, com o uso de métodos minimamente invasivos, representa uma alternativa cada vez mais atraente. O presente trabalho objetiva apresentar resultados de litotripsia extracorpórea como tratamento minimamente invasivo de litíase urinária na infância. Métodos: no período de setembro de 1991 a setembro de 2000, foram tratadas e acompanhadas 87 crianças, sendo que seis delas tinham dois cálculos; portanto foram tratados 93 cálculos urinários. Foi utilizado o equipamento de litotripsia extracorpórea por ondas de choque, da Dornier-Philips. Resultados: os cálculos piélicos, caliciais superiores e médios foram fragmentados e eliminados na porcentagem de 87,7% e 77,8%, respectivamente. Os cálculos localizados no cálice inferior foram eliminados em 64,7%. Dos três casos de cálculo coraliforme, somente um ficou livre do cálculo (33,3%. Os dez pacientes com cálculo ureteral ficaram livres de litíase (100%. Os cálculos vesicais foram tratados e eliminados em 60% dos casos. Conclusão: a litotripsia extracorpórea demonstrou ser uma forma eficiente de tratamento de cálculos piélicos, caliciais, ureterais e vesicais em crianças. Cálculos coraliformes não tiveram bons resultados quando tratados por meio de litotripsia extracorpórea. Os resultados deste método foram influenciados pela localização e tamanho dos cálculos.Objective: urolithiasis affects between five and 10% of the human population during their lifetime, only 2-3% of whom are children. Therapy of urolithiasis in the pediatric age group with minimally invasive methodology represents an attractive alternative. This study presents results of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, a minimally invasive methodology, for the treatment of urolithiasis in children. Methods: in the period

  14. Ineffectiveness of a fluorometric method for identifying irradiated food base on thymine glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, D.D.; Stepanik, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    At dosages used for food irradiation, some of the thymine present in the DNA of irradiated food may be converted to thymine glycol. A fluorometric assay for thymine glycol was investigated as a possible method of detecting irradiated foods based on this effect. Experiments were performed on homogenates of irradiated chicken breast meat and on DNA isolated from irradiated chicken breast meat. In both cases the assay was subject to interference from one of the reagents, o-aminobenzaldehyde, and lacked the necessary sensitivity to detect the thymine glycol produced by radiolysis of the DNA at relevant dosages

  15. [1-14C]Glycolate metabolism and serine biosynthesis in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmes, J.; Viala, G.; Latche, J.C.; Cavalie, G.

    1977-01-01

    [1- 14 C]Glycolate metabolism was examined in leafy shoots of soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr., var. Adepta). Only small amounts of 14 C were incorporated into evolved carbon dioxide and glucidic compounds. Free and protein glycine was labelled but higher levels of radioactivity were found in free serine. Changes in the distribution of 14 C with time showed that metabolic conversion glycollate → glycine → serine occurred very early and serine biosynthesis was more important in the shoot than in the leaves. Carbon dioxide labelling was always slight compared to serine labelling. These data suggest strong relations between glycollate and nitrogen metabolism

  16. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-05-01

    Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  17. Determination of the impact of glycolate on ARP and MCU operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-17

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal, phase separation, or coalescer performance at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU).

  18. A Case of Chronic Ethylene Glycol Intoxication Presenting without Classic Metabolic Derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Toth-Manikowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ethylene glycol ingestion classically presents with high anion gap acidosis, elevated osmolar gap, altered mental status, and acute renal failure. However, chronic ingestion of ethylene glycol is a challenging diagnosis that can present as acute kidney injury with subtle physical findings and without the classic metabolic derangements. We present a case of chronic ethylene glycol ingestion in a patient who presented with acute kidney injury and repeated denials of an exposure history. Kidney biopsy was critical to the elucidation of the cause of his worsening renal function.

  19. Anaphylaxis to Polyethylene Glycol (Colyte®) in a Patient with Diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Hee; Hwang, Sun Hyuk; Park, Jin Soo; Park, Hae Sim; Shin, Yoo Seob

    2016-10-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are believed to be chemically inert agents, but larger PEG polymers could have immunogenicity. A 39-year-old man was referred to emergency room for loss of consciousness and dyspnea after taking of PEG-3350 (Colyte®). In laboratory findings, the initial serum tryptase level was increased to 91.9 mg/L (normal range: 0.00-11.40 mg/L) without any other laboratory abnormalities. The intradermal test with 10 mg/mL Colyte® showed a 5 × 5 mm wheal, but basophil activation and histamine releasability tests were negative. PEG-3350 is widely used as an osmotic laxative due to its lack of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. However, the loss of mucosal integrity at gastrointestinal membrane such as diverticulitis may be a predisposing factor for anaphylaxis to Colyte®. We report a case of anaphylaxis induced by the ingestion of PEG-3350 in a patient with diverticulitis which might be a risk factor of anaphylaxis.

  20. Subunit Stabilization and Polyethylene Glycolation of Cocaine Esterase Improves In Vivo Residence Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Collins, Gregory T.; Nance, Mark R.; Nichols, Joseph; Edwald, Elin; Chan, Jimmy; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Woods, James H.; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K. (Michigan)

    2012-03-15

    No small-molecule therapeutic is available to treat cocaine addiction, but enzyme-based therapy to accelerate cocaine hydrolysis in serum has gained momentum. Bacterial cocaine esterase (CocE) is the fastest known native enzyme that hydrolyzes cocaine. However, its lability at 37 C has limited its therapeutic potential. Cross-linking subunits through disulfide bridging is commonly used to stabilize multimeric enzymes. Herein we use structural methods to guide the introduction of two cysteine residues within dimer interface of CocE to facilitate intermolecular disulfide bond formation. The disulfide-crosslinked enzyme displays improved thermostability, particularly when combined with previously described mutations that enhance stability (T172R-G173Q). The newly modified enzyme yielded an extremely stable form of CocE (CCRQ-CocE) that retained greater than 90% of its activity after 41 days at 37 C, representing an improvement of more than 4700-fold over the wild-type enzyme. CCRQ-CocE could also be modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, which improved its in vivo residence time from 24 to 72 h, as measured by a cocaine lethality assay, by self-administration in rodents, and by measurement of inhibition of cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects in rhesus monkeys. PEG-CCRQ elicited negligible immune response in rodents. Subunit stabilization and PEGylation has thus produced a potential protein therapeutic with markedly higher stability both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. k-Carrageenan/poly vinyl pyrollidone/polyethylene glycol/silver nanoparticles film for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Moustafa M G; El-Aassar, M R; El Fawal, G F; Hafez, Elsayed E; Masry, Saad Hamdy Daif; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Biopolymer composite film containing k-carrageenan (KC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was formulated by dissolving KC and PVP in water containing PEG. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), was produced by Honeybee and added to solution. Finally, all solutions were poured onto dishes and dried overnight at 40°C to form the final films. Tensile strength (TS) and elongation (E %) is evaluated. The water contact angle is inspected. Thermal properties (TGA) and swelling behavior for water were considered. Fungal activity is also examined. Morphology of all films was also explored using scanning electron microscope. AgNPs induced significant hydrophilicity to KC-PVP-PEG film with contact angle of 41.6 and 34.7 for KC-PVP-PEG-AgNPs. Films with AgNPs exhibited higher thermal stability and strength properties than other films without. Films with AgNPs explore lower swelling behavior than other films without. Both SEM and EDX proved the deposition of AgNPs on the surface of films. Films with AgNPs showed higher activity against pathogenic fungi compared with the chemical fungicide; fluconazole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic Reprogramming of Macrophages Exposed to Silk, Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), and Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborano, Raquel; Wongpinyochit, Thidarat; Totten, John D; Johnston, Blair F; Seib, F Philipp; Duarte, Iola F

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring macrophage metabolism in response to nanoparticle exposure provides new insights into biological outcomes, such as inflammation or toxicity, and supports the design of tailored nanomedicines. This paper describes the metabolic signature of macrophages exposed to nanoparticles ranging in diameter from 100 to 125 nm and made from silk, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or silica. Nanoparticles of this size and type are currently at various stages of preclinical and clinical development for drug delivery applications. 1 H NMR analysis of cell extracts and culture media is used to quantify the changes in the intracellular and extracellular metabolomes of macrophages in response to nanoparticle exposure. Increased glycolytic activity, an altered tricarboxylic acid cycle, and reduced ATP generation are consistent with a proinflammatory phenotype. Furthermore, amino acids possibly arising from autophagy, the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system, and a few osmolytes and antioxidants emerge as important players in the metabolic reprogramming of macrophages exposed to nanoparticles. This metabolic signature is a common response to all nanoparticles tested; however, the direction and magnitude of some variations are clearly nanoparticle specific, indicating material-induced biological specificity. Overall, metabolic reprogramming of macrophages can be achieved with nanoparticle treatments, modulated through the choice of the material, and monitored using 1 H NMR metabolomics. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Patterned Array of Poly(ethylene glycol Silane Monolayer for Label-Free Detection of Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Zida Rosly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the construction of arrays on silicon for naked-eye detection of DNA dengue was demonstrated. The array was created by exposing a polyethylene glycol (PEG silane monolayer to 254 nm ultraviolet (UV light through a photomask. Formation of the PEG silane monolayer and photomodifed surface properties was thoroughly characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and contact angle measurements. The results of XPS confirmed that irradiation of ultraviolet (UV light generates an aldehyde functional group that offers conjugation sites of amino DNA probe for detection of a specific dengue virus target DNA. Employing a gold enhancement process after inducing the electrostatic interaction between positively charged gold nanoparticles and the negatively charged target DNA hybridized to the DNA capture probe allowed to visualize the array with naked eye. The developed arrays demonstrated excellent performance in diagnosis of dengue with a detection limit as low as 10 pM. The selectivity of DNA arrays was also examined using a single base mismatch and noncomplementary target DNA.

  4. Keterkaitan Panhisterektomi dan Suplemen 1,25- Dihidroksivitamin D3 dengan Risiko Urolitiasis pada Tikus (CORRELATION BETWEEN PANHISTERCTOMY AND 1.25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 SUPPLEMENTATION ON RATS UROLITHIASIS RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiningsih .

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the correlation of panhisterectomy and supplement 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on urolithiasis risk in Wistar rats. Twenty female Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age, weredivided into four groups (control fed standard diet, control fed standard diet+1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplement, panhisterectomy fed standard diet and panhisterectomy fed standard diet +1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplement. Eleven weeks after treatment, each of rats was placed into individualmetabolic cage for balance study for a week. From day 4 to 11 of the balance study, every morning theremaining food, feces, and urine were collected and recorded for calcium (Ca analysis. At the end ofbalance study, blood samples were taken from canthus retroorbitalis medialis for estrogen analysis. Theresults showed urinary and fecal Ca excretions were not significantly different compared to the controlgroup. Calcium consumption was significantly higher (P<0.05 in panhisterectomized rats compared withthose in control rats. While, estrogen in panhisterectomized group was not significantly different to thosein control rats. Calcium urinary and Ca consumption in rats consuming 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplement were significantly higher (P<0.05 compared with those in without 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplementation, but Ca excretion in feses was not significantly different. Estrogen in rats consuming1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplement was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared with the rats that without1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplemention. It can be concluded that panhisterectomy does not seem to affecturolithiasis risk, while 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplement may affect urolithiasis risk. There is likelyno association between panhisterectomy and 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplementation on urolithiasisrisk in Wistar rats.

  5. Determination of the Impact of Glycolate on ARP and MCU Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Peters, T.; Shehee, T.

    2012-01-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU). Sorption testing was performed using both MST and modified MST (mMST) in the presence of 5,000 and 10,000 ppm (mass basis) glycolate. 10,000 ppm is the estimated bounding concentration expected in the DWPF recycle stream based on DWPF melter flammable gas model results. The presence of glycolate was found to slow the removal of Sr and Pu by MST, while increasing the removal rate of Np. Results indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. There was no measurable effect on U removal at either glycolate concentration. The slower removal rates for Sr and Pu at 5,000 and 10,000 ppm glycolate could result in lower DF values for these sorbates in ARP based on the current (12 hours) and proposed (8 hours) contact times. For the highest glycolate concentration used in this study, the percentage of Sr removed at 6 hours of contact decreased by 1% and the percentage of Pu removed decreased by nearly 7%. The impact may prove insignificant if the concentration of glycolate that is returned to the tank farm is well below the concentrations tested in this study. The presence of glycolate also decreased the removal rates for all three sorbates (Sr, Pu, and Np) by mMST. Similarly to MST, the results for mMST indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. The presence of glycolate did not change the lack

  6. Star-shaped poly(oligoethylene glycol) copolymer-based gels: Thermo-responsive behaviour and bioapplicability for risedronate intranasal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Mahmoud E; Elmowafy, Enas; Casettari, Luca; Alexander, Cameron

    2018-05-30

    The aim of this work was to obtain an intranasal delivery system with improved mechanical and mucoadhesive properties that could provide prolonged retention time for the delivery of risedronate (RS). For this, novel in situ forming gels comprising thermo-responsive star-shaped polymers, utilizing either polyethylene glycol methyl ether (PEGMA-ME 188, Mn 188) or polyethylene glycol ethyl ether (PEGMA-EE 246, Mn 246), with polyethylene glycol methyl ether (PEGMA-ME 475, Mn 475), were synthesized and characterized. RS was trapped in the selected gel-forming solutions at a concentration of 0.2% w/v. The pH, rheological properties, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation as well as mucoadhesion were also examined. MTT assays were conducted to verify nasal tolerability of the developed formulations. Initial in vivo studies were carried out to evaluate anti-osteoporotic activity in a glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis model in rats. The results showed successful development of thermo-sensitive formulations with favorable mechanical properties at 37 °C, which formed non-irritant, mucoadhesive porous networks, facilitating nasal RS delivery. Moreover, sustained release of RS, augmented permeability and marked anti-osteoporotic efficacy as compared to intranasal (IN) and intravenous (IV) RS solutions were realized. The combined results show that the in situ gels should have promising application as nasal drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pediatric constipation therapy using guidelines and polyethylene glycol 3350.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward A; Wall, Geoffrey C

    2004-04-01

    To review current guidelines on the treatment of functional constipation in pediatric patients, with an emphasis on the role of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350). Primary medical literature published in English was identified by MEDLINE search (1980-May 2003). Recently published treatment guidelines relating to pediatric functional constipation and its pharmacotherapy are assessed and compared. Published trials evaluating PEG 3350 in pediatric subjects are discussed and their results applied to the clinical role and use of this new agent. Constipation is a common disorder among children. A number of factors may play a role. A variety of medications are commonly used for this disorder, although few treatments have undergone evaluation by controlled clinical trials. Consensus guidelines recommend either osmotic laxatives, mineral oil, or their combination for maintenance treatment in concert with patient and parental education and behavioral training. PEG 3350 solution (MiraLax) has been shown in recent clinical studies to be an effective maintenance treatment for pediatric constipation. PEG 3350 is an effective and well-tolerated treatment choice for pediatric constipation, especially as an adjunct to education and behavioral training. PEG 3350 is an option for children with constipation who have failed or are intolerant of other pharmacotherapies.

  8. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfuss, K S; Bode, J C; Stange, E F; Parlesak, A

    2006-02-01

    Whole gut lavage with a polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG) is a common bowel cleansing method for diagnostic and therapeutic colon interventions. Absorption of orally administered PEG from the gastrointestinal tract in healthy human beings is generally considered to be poor. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal permeability and PEG absorption were previously reported to be higher than in normal subjects. In the current study, we investigated the absorption of PEG 3350 in patients undergoing routine gut lavage. Urine specimens were collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG excretion in patients with impaired mucosa such as inflammation or ulceration of the intestine (0.24 % +/- 0.19, n = 11) was not significantly higher (p = 0.173) compared to that in subjects with macroscopically normal intestinal mucosa (0.13 % +/- 0.13, n = 13). The results indicate that intestinal absorption of PEG 3350 is higher than previously assumed and underlies a strong inter-individual variation. Inflammatory changes of the intestine do not necessarily lead to a significantly higher permeability of PEG.

  9. Differences in taste between two polyethylene glycol preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szojda, Maria M; Mulder, Chris J J; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F

    2007-12-01

    Polyethylene glycol preparations (PEG) are increasingly used for chronic constipation in both adults and children. There are some suggestions that PEG 4000 with orange flavour (Forlax) tastes better than PEG 3350 which contains salt (Movicolon). Poor taste is an important factor for non-compliance and is one of the leading causes of therapy failure. The aim of the study was to compare the taste of two commonly used PEG preparations, PEG 4000 and PEG 3350. A double-blind, cross over randomised trial. A hundred people were recruited by advertisement. All tasted both preparations without swallowing and after tasting each of the preparations, they rinsed their mouths. Then a score, on a 5-point scale, was given for both preparations. 100 volunteers were included (27 males and 73 females, mean age 36). The taste score for PEG 4000 (mean 3.9, SD 0.7) was significantly better than for PEG 3350 (mean 2.7, SD 0.7) (pPEG 3350 liked it more, when they tasted it first rather than when they tasted it after PEG 4000 (pPEG 4000 had no influence on the taste results. PEG 4000 tastes better than PEG 3350. This may have implications for patient compliance and effectiveness of treatment in patients with chronic constipation.

  10. OTC polyethylene glycol 3350 and pharmacists' role in managing constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, John R; Mantione, Maria Marzella; Johanson, John F

    2012-01-01

    To define constipation, assess the pharmacist's role in identifying and treating constipation, and review clinical evidence for the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLAX-Merck Consumer Care), an osmotic laxative now available over the counter (OTC), across a variety of patient populations routinely encountered in pharmacy settings. Systematic PubMed search of the primary literature for constipation treatment guidelines and clinical trial results for PEG 3350. Pharmacists have a unique role in assisting patients with identifying and managing constipation. Multiple controlled clinical trials have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PEG 3350 at its recommended dose of 17 g once daily. On the basis of this evidence, various professional groups have recommended PEG 3350 for use in improving stool frequency and consistency in patients with constipation. PEG 3350 is approved for short-term use, including treatment of constipation caused by medications. Pharmacists can play an important role in managing constipation with OTC agents. Compared with other available OTC agents, PEG 3350 can be recommended to patients suffering from constipation on the basis of a large body of clinical evidence supporting its efficacy and safety, as well as the high patient acceptance shown for its palatability and once-daily dosing.

  11. Protein diffusion in photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engberg, Kristin; Frank, Curtis W

    2011-01-01

    In this study, protein diffusion through swollen hydrogel networks prepared from end-linked poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEG-DA) was investigated. Hydrogels were prepared via photopolymerization from PEG-DA macromonomer solutions of two molecular weights, 4600 Da and 8000 Da, with three initial solid contents: 20, 33 and 50 wt/wt% PEG. Diffusion coefficients for myoglobin traveling across the hydrogel membrane were determined for all PEG network compositions. The diffusion coefficient depended on PEG molecular weight and initial solid content, with the slowest diffusion occurring through lower molecular weight, high-solid-content networks (D gel = 0.16 ± 0.02 x 10 -8 cm 2 s -1 ) and the fastest diffusion occurring through higher molecular weight, low-solid-content networks (D gel = 11.05 ± 0.43 x 10 -8 cm 2 s -1 ). Myoglobin diffusion coefficients increased linearly with the increase of water content within the hydrogels. The permeability of three larger model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G) through PEG(8000) hydrogel membranes was also examined, with the observation that globular molecules as large as 10.7 nm in hydrodynamic diameter can diffuse through the PEG network. Protein diffusion coefficients within the PEG hydrogels ranged from one to two orders of magnitude lower than the diffusion coefficients in free water. Network defects were determined to be a significant contributing factor to the observed protein diffusion.

  12. Detecting Sonolysis of Polyethylene Glycol Upon Functionalizing Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruhung; Murali, Vasanth S; Draper, Rockford

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and related polymers are often used in the solubilization and noncovalent functionalization of carbon nanomaterials by sonication. For example, carbon nanotubes are frequently sonicated with PEG-containing surfactants of the Pluronic ® series or phospholipid-PEG polymers to noncovalently functionalize the nanotubes. However, PEG is very sensitive to degradation upon sonication and the degradation products can be toxic to mammalian cells and to organisms such as zebrafish embryos. It is therefore useful to have a simple and inexpensive method to determine the extent of potential PEG sonolysis, as described in this chapter. Intact PEG polymers and degraded fragments are resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels by electrophoresis and visualized by staining with barium iodine (BaI 2 ). Digitized images of gels are acquired using a flatbed photo scanner and the intensities of BaI 2 -stained PEG bands are quantified using ImageJ software. Degradation of PEG polymers after sonication is readily detected by the reduction of band intensities in gels compared to those of non-sonicated, intact PEG polymers. In addition, the approach can be used to rapidly screen various sonication conditions to identify those that might minimize PEG degradation to acceptable levels.

  13. Glycol stabilized magnetic nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of xylenol orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ikram; Ali, Farman; Ali, Zarshad; Humayun, Muhammad; wahab, Zain Ul

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have successfully prepared ZnFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles as photocatalysts via co-precipitation method using triethylene glycol as a stabilizing agent. The resultant nanoparticles were annealed at 400 °C and then acid etched and surface functionalized with 3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl amine (APTES). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used to characterize these magnetic photocatalysts. XRD patterns revealed that the size of annealed and functionalized ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles falls in the range of 23.3 and 13.9 nm, respectively. The optical band gaps of the magnetic photocatalysts were calculated from UV–Visible absorption spectra using Tauc plots. The band gap of the ZnFe2O4 photocatalyst in acidic and basic medium was 2.47 and 2.7 eV, respectively. The performance of the magnetic photocatalysts was evaluated for xylenol orange (XO) degradation. The degradation rates of XO dye for the blank, annealed and functionalized photocatalysts at pH = 4 were 76%, 85%, and 90%, respectively. In addition, the influence of important parameters such as contact time, pH, catalyst, and dye dose were also investigated for all the three photocatalysts. The applied kinetics models demonstrated that the degradation followed pseudo 1st order.

  14. MODIFICATION OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE PROTEINS WITH POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 1500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Zemlianskykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the effect of polyethylene glycol PEG-1500 on the Ca2+-ATPase activity and changes in CD44 surface marker expression in human erythrocyte membranes. Determination of the Ca2+-ATPase activity was carried out in sealed erythrocyte ghosts by the level of accumulation of inorganic phosphorus. Changes in the expression of CD44 and amount of CD44+-erythrocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. The inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity and a reduction in the level of CD44 expression and also the decrease in the amount CD44+-cells were found, reflecting a fairly complex restructuring in the membrane-cytoskeleton complex of erythrocytes under the influence of PEG-1500. Effect of PEG-1500 on the surface CD44 marker could be mediated by modification of proteins of membrane-cytoskeleton complex, as indicated by accelerated loss of CD44 in erythrocyte membranes after application of protein cross-linking reagent diamide. Reduced activity of Ca2+-ATPase activity may contribute to the increase in intracellular Ca2+ level and thus leads to a modification of interactions of integral proteins with cytoskeletal components that eventually could result in membrane vesiculation and decreasing in expression of the CD44 marker, which is dynamically linked to the cytoskeleton.

  15. IR Spectroscopy of Ethylene Glycol Solutions of Dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, E. G.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Solonina, I. A.; Sirotkin, D. A.

    2018-07-01

    Features of ethylene glycol (EG) solutions of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with low and moderate concentrations (from 2 to 50 mol % of DMSO) are studied by IR spectroscopy on a Bruker Tensor 37 FT-IR spectrometer in the wavenumber range of 400 to 4000 cm-1. The main monitored bands are the S=O stretching vibration band of DMSO (1057 cm-1) and the C-O (1086 and 1041 cm-1) and O-H (3350 cm-1) stretching vibration bands of EG. The obtained data show complex DMSO · 2EG to be present in all solutions with the studied concentrations due to formation of H-bonds between the S=O group of DMSO and the OH group of EG. In the concentration range of 6 to 25 mol % DMSO, the OH stretching vibration of EG is found to be broadened (by up to 70 cm-1), suggesting the strengthening of hydrogen bonds in the spatial network of the system due to the solvophobic effect of DMSO molecules and the formation of DMSO · 2EG. Starting from 25 mol % DMSO, narrowing of the OH stretching vibration is noted, and the bands of free DMSO appear along with the DMSO · 2EG complex, suggesting microseparation in the investigated system. At 50 mol % DMSO, the amounts of free and bound species in the system became comparable.

  16. Prediction of scale potential in ethylene glycol containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandengen, Kristian; Oestvold, Terje

    2006-03-15

    This work presents a method for scale prediction in MEG (Mono Ethylene Glycol / 1,2-ethane-diol) containing solutions. It is based on an existing PVT scale model using a Pitzer ion interaction model for the aqueous phase. The model is well suited for scale prediction in saline solutions, where the PVT part is necessary for calculating CO{sub 2} phase equilibria being critical for carbonate scale. MEG influences the equilibria contained in the model, and its effect has been added empirically. Thus the accuracy of the model is limited by the amount of available experimental data. The model is applicable in the range 0-99wt% MEG and includes a wide variety of salts. In addition to the aspects of scale modelling in MEG+water solutions, this work presents new experimental data on CaSO4 solubility (0-95wt% MEG and 22-80 deg.C). CaSO4 solubility is greatly reduced by MEG to an extent that ''Salting-out'' is possible. (author) (tk)

  17. On the Structure of Holographic Polymer-dispersed Polyethylene Glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnkrant, M.; McWilliams, H.; Li, C.; Natarajan, L.; Tondiglia, V.; Sutherland, R.; Lloyd, P.; Bunning, T.

    2006-01-01

    Holographic polymerization (H-P) has been used to fabricate polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and pattern inert nanoparticles. In this article, one-dimensional grating structures of Norland resin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were achieved using the H-P technique. Both reflection and transmission grating structures were fabricated. The optical properties of the reflection grating structures (also known as Bragg reflectors, BRs) are thermosensitive, which is attributed to the formation and crystallization of PEG crystals. The thermal switching temperature of the BR can be tuned by using different molecular weight PEG samples. The hierarchical structure and morphology of the BR were studied using synchrotron X-ray, polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. PEG crystals were found to be confined in ∼60 nm thick layers in the BR. Upon crystallization, the PEG lamellae were parallel to the BR surfaces and PEG chains were parallel to the BR normal, resembling the confined crystallization behavior of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in PEO-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) block copolymers. This observation suggests that the tethering effect in the block copolymer systems does not play a major role in PEG chain orientation in the confined nanoenvironment

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Soda Lignin with Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangda Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soda lignin does not have thermal flowing characteristics and it is impossible for it to be further thermally molded. To achieve the fusibility of soda lignin for fiber preparation by melt-spinning, an effective method for soda lignin modification was conducted by cooking it with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 at various ratios. The higher the ratio of PEG that was used, the more PEG molecular chains were grafted at the alpha carbon of the soda lignin through ether bonds, resulting in lower thermal transition temperatures and more excellent fusibility. The modified soda lignin with a weight ratio of lignin to PEG of 1:4 exhibited a relative thermal stability of molten viscosity at selected temperatures. Thereafter, the resultant fusible soda lignin was successfully melt-spun into filaments with an average diameter of 33 ± 5 μm, which is smaller than that of some industrial lignins. Accordingly, it is possible to utilize soda lignin to produce fibrous carbonaceous materials.

  19. A research on polyether glycol replaced APCP rocket propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tianyou; Bao, Chun Jia; Wang, Yiyang

    2017-08-01

    Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid rocket propellant used in rocket vehicles. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants by the nature of how it is processed. APCP is cast into shape, as opposed to powder pressing it with black powder. This provides manufacturing regularity and repeatability, which are necessary requirements for use in the aerospace industry. For traditional APCP, ingredients normally used are ammonium peroxide, aluminum, Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene(HTPB), curing agency and other additives, the greatest disadvantage is that the fuel is too expensive. According to the price we collected in our country, a single kilogram of this fuel will cost 200 Yuan, which is about 35 dollars, for a fan who may use tons of the fuel in a single year, it definitely is a great deal of money. For this reason, we invented a new kind of APCP fuel. Changing adhesive agency from cross-linked htpb to cross linked polyether glycol gives a similar specific thrust, density and mechanical property while costs a lower price.

  20. Electrodeposition of amine-terminatedpoly(ethylene glycol) to titanium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuta; Doi, Hisashi; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Hiromoto, Sachiko; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Asami, Katsuhiko; Imai, Hachiro; Hanawa, Takao

    2007-01-01

    The immobilization of poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, to a solid surface is useful to functionalize the surface, e.g., to prevent the adsorption of proteins. No successful one-stage technique for the immobilization of PEG to base metals has ever been developed. In this study, PEG in which both terminals or one terminal had been modified with amine bases was immobilized onto a titanium surface using electrodeposition. PEG was dissolved in a NaCl solution, and electrodeposition was carried out at 310 K with - 5 V for 300 min. The thickness of the deposited PEG layer was evaluated using ellipsometry, and the bonding manner of PEG to the titanium surface was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after electrodeposition. The results indicated that a certain amount of PEG was adsorbed on titanium through both electrodeposition and immersion when PEG was terminated by amine. However, terminated amines existed at the surface of titanium and were combined with titanium oxide as N-HO by electrodeposition, while amines randomly existed in the molecule and showed an ionic bond with titanium oxide by immersion. The electrodeposition of PEG was effective for the inhibition of albumin adsorption. This process is useful for materials that have electroconductivity and a complex morphology

  1. Frederik Ruysch's Fascination With Urolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Frederik Ruysch was born on March 23, 1638, in The Hague, and studied at the University of Leiden, where he graduated in 1664. He married a daughter of a famous architect and became a praelector of the Amsterdam surgeon's guild in 1665. In 1666, his rise continued, as he became elected as the Professor of the Anthenaeum Illustre. In 1668, Ruysch became the chief instructor to the midwives and by 1679 was the forensics advisor to Amsterdam's courts. His anatomical knowledge was second to none, and he gained worldwide notoriety for his discovery of the valves in lymphatics and the vomeronasal organ. Ruysch was keenly interested in dissection and anatomy, and developed his own methods for preservation of specimens. His secret was called liquor balsamicum. Over 300 years ago, Ruysch developed all of his talents to the point of creating a menagerie, of sorts, out of his specimens. The popularity of his rather morbid exhibits attracted such dignitaries as Peter The Great in 1697. Ruysch had several children from his marriage, and his daughter Rachel helped him illustrate many of his collections. Frederik Ruysch became an intriguing historical figure, worthy of some attention at kidney stone meetings, precisely because he chose these concretions to serve as one of the "finishing elements" in several of his collections. The purpose of this presentation is to present to a knowledgeable stone group, the artistic license of one of the first entrepreneurial surgeons and anatomists of the 17th century. Ruysch was a skilled surgeon, obstetrician, and anatomist, keenly interested in the science of anatomy, especially infant and fetal anatomy. In addition, he exhibited his fine collection of urinary stones in a rather unique way, in his "anatomical pieces."

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  3. Biomedical Applications of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized Using Hetero-Bifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol) Spacer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Wei; Shenoy, Dinesh; Li, Jane; Crasto, Curtis; Jones, Graham; Dimarzio, Charles; Sridhar, Srinivas; Amiji, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    To increase the targeting potential, circulation time, and the flexibility of surface-attached biomedically-relevant ligands on gold nanoparticles, hetero-bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, MW 1,500...

  4. Synthesis of glycolic acid-1-14C of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, T.V.; Viswanathan, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    A simple procedure is described which efficiently converts traces of 14 C labelled cyanide present as a dilute solution into glycolic acid-1- 14 C with more than 85% radiochemical recovery and of high specific activity. (author)

  5. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu; Zhang, Jizhe; Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids

  6. Direct conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid with a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in a water medium

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe; Liu, Xin; Sun, Miao; Ma, Xiaohua; Han, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Direct conversion of cellulose to fine chemicals has rarely been achieved. We describe here an eco-benign route for directly converting various cellulose-based biomasses to glycolic acid in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere in which

  7. Material compatibility evaluataion for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.I; Skidmore, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction: For C276 alloy, the primary material of construction for the CPC vessels, corrosion rates of either 2 or 20 mpy were reported up to a temperature of 93 deg C; For the austenitic stainless steels, 304L and 316L, variable rates were reported over a range of temperatures, varying from 2 mpy up to 200 mpy (at 100 deg C); For 690, G30, Allcorr, Ultimet and Stellite alloys no data were available; and, For relevant polymers where data are available, the data suggests that exposure to glycolic acid is not detrimental. The literature data had limited application to the DWPF process since only the storage and feed vessels, pumps and piping used to handle the glycolic acid are directly covered by the available data. These components are either 304L or 316L alloys for which the literature data is inconsistent (See Bullet 2 above). Corrosion rates in pure glycolic acid solutions also are not representative of the DWPF process streams. This stream is complex and contains aggressive species, i.e. chlorides, sulfates, mercury, as well as antifoaming agents which cumulatively have an unknown effect on the corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Therefore, testing is recommended to investigate any synergistic effects of the aggressive

  8. Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

    1991-07-01

    This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Formation of network during radiation three-dimentional copolymerization of α, ω-dibutyl-bis-maleatetriethylene glycol with styrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'bit, N.M.; Bol'shakova, T.A.; Fajzi, N.Kh.; Chikin, Yu.A.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation-induced copolymerization of α,ω-dibutyl-bis-maleatetriethylene glycol (dimaleate) with styrene in bulk has been studied for the ratio of initial molar concentrations of styrene to dimaleate being equal to 1.9. Initiation has been carried out using 60 Co gamma radiation with intensity 650 rad/s. Radiation doses are 3.5-16 Mrad. Up to approximately 18% conversion only soluble copolymer is formed. Per approximately 3.5 units of styrene in this copolymer 1 unit of dimaleate with one unreacted double bond is detected. Then in the narrow range of conversion the transformation of the main part soluble copolymer into macrogel proceeds. This fact is apparently the result of the change of physical state of the system alike the microphase separation resulting in essential increase of the probability of reaction between propagating radicals of neigh-- boring molecules and maleate bonds

  10. A Comprehensive Study of Photorefractive Properties in Poly(ethylene glycol Dimethacrylate— Ionic Liquid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Ellabban

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the recording, as well as the readout of transmission gratings in composites of poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA and ionic liquids is presented. Gratings with a period of about 5.8 micrometers were recorded using a two-wave mixing technique with a coherent laser beam of a 355-nm wavelength. A series of samples with grating thicknesses d 0 = 10 … 150 micrometers, each for two different exposure times, was prepared. The recording kinetics, as well as the post-exposure properties of the gratings were monitored by diffracting a low intensity probe beam at a wavelength of 633 nm for Bragg incidence. To obtain a complete characterization, two-beam coupling experiments were conducted to clarify the type and the strength of the recorded gratings. Finally, the diffraction efficiency was measured as a function of the readout angle at different post-exposure times. We found that, depending on the parameters, different grating types (pure phase and/or mixed are generated, and at elevated thicknesses, strong light-induced scattering develops. The measured angular dependence of the diffraction efficiency can be fitted using a five-wave coupling theory assuming an attenuation of the gratings along the thickness. For grating thicknesses larger than 85 microns, light-induced scattering becomes increasingly important. The latter is an obstacle for recording thicker holograms, as it destroys the recording interference pattern with increasing sample depth. The obtained results are valuable in particular when considering PEGDMA-ionic liquid composites in the synthesis of advanced polymer composites for applications, such as biomaterials, conductive polymers and holographic storage materials.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and properties of a glycol-coordinated ε-Keggin-type Al13 chloride

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Bin; Sun, Chenglin; Fettinger, James C.; Casey, William H.; Dikhtiarenko, Alla; Gascon, Jorge; Koichumanova, Kamila; Babu Sai Sankar Gupta, Karthick; Jan Heeres, Hero; He, Songbo

    2018-01-01

    Herein we present the first example of a glycol-coordinated ε-Keggin Al13 chloride (gl-ε-Al13), which is the first chelated version since discovery of Al13 in 1960. The molecular structure consists of [AlO4Al12(OH)12(OC2H4OH)12]Cl7·H2O units with chelating mono-anionic ethylene glycol units replacing one bridging and one terminal oxygen site.

  12. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, I. D.; García, L. C.; Rodríguez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFr...

  13. Solvent effect on the extraction and transport of lithium ions by polyethylene glycols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D; Sharma, U

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of lithium picrate, 2,4-dinitrophenolate and 2-nitrophenolate and their transport through membranes by di-, tri- and tetraethylene glycols as carriers are studied. Organic solvents considered as extractants and liquid membranes in terms of lithium ions extraction and transfer are arranged in the following series: methylene chloride ≥ dichloroethane ≥ chloroform ≥ carbon tetrachloride. Diethylene glycol proved the most effective solvent for lithium ions extraction and transport [ru

  14. Synthesis, characterization and properties of a glycol-coordinated ε-Keggin-type Al13 chloride

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Bin

    2018-03-29

    Herein we present the first example of a glycol-coordinated ε-Keggin Al13 chloride (gl-ε-Al13), which is the first chelated version since discovery of Al13 in 1960. The molecular structure consists of [AlO4Al12(OH)12(OC2H4OH)12]Cl7·H2O units with chelating mono-anionic ethylene glycol units replacing one bridging and one terminal oxygen site.

  15. Unwell after drinking homemade alcohol – A case of ethylene glycol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Laher, A.E.; Goldstein, L.N.; Wells, M.D.; Dufourq, N.; Moodley, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning can have catastrophic consequences that may result in death. Case report: Three young men presented to the Emergency Centre (EC) with a main complaint of feeling unwell after consuming “homemade alcohol”. A fourth person had died at home an hour earlier. Blood analysis revealed a raised anion gap metabolic acidosis as well as a raised osmolar gap in all three patients. Discussion: The clinical presentation of ethylene glycol a...

  16. Runinal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2007-01-01

    Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG).......Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG)....

  17. Diglycolic acid, the toxic metabolite of diethylene glycol, chelates calcium and produces renal mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Taylor; Landry, Greg M; Aw, Tak Yee; Nichols, Royce; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2016-07-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) has caused many cases of acute kidney injury and deaths worldwide. Diglycolic acid (DGA) is the metabolite responsible for the renal toxicity, but its toxic mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the mitochondrial dysfunction produced from DGA by examining several mitochondrial processes potentially contributing to renal cell toxicity. The effect of DGA on mitochondrial membrane potential was examined in normal human proximal tubule (HPT) cells. Isolated rat kidney mitochondria were used to assess the effects of DGA on mitochondrial function, including respiratory parameters (States 3 and 4), electron transport chain complex activities and calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. DGA was compared with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) to determine calcium chelating ability. DGA cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase leakage from cultured proximal tubule cells. DGA decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in HPT cells. In rat kidney mitochondria, DGA decreased State 3 respiration, but did not affect State 4 respiration or the ADP/O ratio. DGA reduced glutamate/malate respiration at lower DGA concentrations (0.5 mmol/L) than succinate respiration (100 mmol/L). DGA inhibited Complex II activity without altering Complex I, III or IV activities. DGA blocked calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling, indicating inhibition of the calcium-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition. DGA and EGTA reduced the free calcium concentration in solution in an equimolar manner. DGA toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction occurred as similar concentrations. DGA inhibited mitochondrial respiration, but without uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. The more potent effect of DGA on glutamate/malate respiration and the inhibition of mitochondrial swelling was likely due to its chelation of calcium. These results indicate that DGA produces mitochondrial dysfunction by chelating calcium to

  18. Identification of Poly(ethylene glycol) and Poly(ethylene glycol)-Based Detergents Using Peptide Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Shiva; Winter, Dominic

    2018-06-05

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is one of the most common polymer contaminations in mass spectrometry (MS) samples. At present, the detection of PEG and other polymers relies largely on manual inspection of raw data, which is laborious and frequently difficult due to sample complexity and retention characteristics of polymer species in reversed-phase chromatography. We developed a new strategy for the automated identification of PEG molecules from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data using protein identification algorithms in combination with a database containing "PEG-proteins". Through definition of variable modifications, we extend the approach for the identification of commonly used PEG-based detergents. We exemplify the identification of different types of polymers by static nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS/MS) analysis of pure detergent solutions and data analysis using Mascot. Analysis of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) runs of a PEG-contaminated sample by Mascot identified 806 PEG spectra originating from four PEG species using a defined set of modifications covering PEG and common PEG-based detergents. Further characterization of the sample for unidentified PEG species using error-tolerant and mass-tolerant searches resulted in identification of 3409 and 3187 PEG-related MS/MS spectra, respectively. We further demonstrate the applicability of the strategy for Protein Pilot and MaxQuant.

  19. Separation of polyethylene glycols and amino-terminated polyethylene glycols by high-performance liquid chromatography under near critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y-Z; Zhuo, R-X; Jiang, X-L

    2016-05-20

    The separation and characterization of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and amino-substituted derivatives on common silica-based reversed-phase packing columns using isocratic elution is described. This separation is achieved by liquid chromatography under the near critical conditions (LCCC), based on the number of amino functional end groups without obvious effect of molar mass for PEGs. The mobile phase is acetonitrile in water with an optimal ammonium acetate buffer. The separation mechanism of PEG and amino-substituted PEG under the near LCCC on silica-based packing columns is confirmed to be ion-exchange interaction. Under the LCCC of PEG backbone, with fine tune of buffer concentration, the retention factor ratios for benzylamine and phenol in buffered mobile phases, α(benzylamine/phenol)-values, were used to assess the ion-exchange capacity on silica-based reversed-phase packing columns. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on separation of amino-functional PEGs independent of the molar mass by isocratic elution using common C18 or phenyl reversed-phase packing columns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cryopreservation of mouse embryos by ethylene glycol-based vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Keiji; Hasegawa, Ayumi; Taguma, Kyuichi; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2011-11-18

    Cryopreservation of mouse embryos is a technological basis that supports biomedical sciences, because many strains of mice have been produced by genetic modifications and the number is consistently increasing year by year. Its technical development started with slow freezing methods in the 1970s(1), then followed by vitrification methods developed in the late 1980s(2). Generally, the latter technique is advantageous in its quickness, simplicity, and high survivability of recovered embryos. However, the cryoprotectants contained are highly toxic and may affect subsequent embryo development. Therefore, the technique was not applicable to certain strains of mice, even when the solutions are cooled to 4°C to mitigate the toxic effect during embryo handling. At the RIKEN BioResource Center, more than 5000 mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds and phenotypes are maintained(3), and therefore we have optimized a vitrification technique with which we can cryopreserve embryos from many different strains of mice, with the benefits of high embryo survival after vitrifying and thawing (or liquefying, more precisely) at the ambient temperature(4). Here, we present a vitrification method for mouse embryos that has been successfully used at our center. The cryopreservation solution contains ethylene glycol instead of DMSO to minimize the toxicity to embryos(5). It also contains Ficoll and sucrose for prevention of devitrification and osmotic adjustment, respectively. Embryos can be handled at room temperature and transferred into liquid nitrogen within 5 min. Because the original method was optimized for plastic straws as containers, we have slightly modified the protocol for cryotubes, which are more easily accessible in laboratories and more resistant to physical damages. We also describe the procedure of thawing vitrified embryos in detail because it is a critical step for efficient recovery of live mice. These methodologies would be helpful to researchers and

  1. Hydroxynortriptyline of Empty Fruit Bunches Fibre using Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreen, F.M.Z.; Sarani Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches fibre (EFBF) via chemical modification and hydroxynortriptyline method using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The first stage was the modification of EFB fibre using NaOH and isopropanol. The next stage was the preparation of hydroxypropylated-empty fruit bunches fibre (HP-EFBF), using different molecular weight of PEG (6,000, 8,000 and 10,000). The characterisation involved in this study were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), determination of kinetic activation energy (E a ), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) and weight increment of the HP-EFB fibre. SEM results showed the surface of HP-EFBF swelled and craters formed along the surface of the fibre. IR spectrum also showed OH stretching band in EFB without treatment is 3402 cm -1 , but after hydroxynortriptyline process, the OH stretching band in HP-EFBF (10000, 8000 and 6000) slightly shifted to 3392, 3384 and 3370 cm -1 , respectively. TGA showed the thermal stability of HP-EFBF 6,000 was lower than HP-EFBF 8,000 and 10,000. After chemical modification, the activation energy, E a increased from 32.4 to 51.9 kJ/ mol more than EFB without treatment, 12.5 kJ/ mol. XRD showed that diffraction peak (002) shifted to the smaller 2θ angle and the peaks (101, 10I) disappeared after hydroxynortriptyline process. Crystallinity index, of EFB without treatment decreased from 27 % to 25 % after chemical modification. The higher the molecular weight of the PEG, the greater the weight increment of the HP-EFBF. (author)

  2. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  3. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Boyer, Richard B; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA) were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR) and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups ( P < 0.01, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  4. Chemical and enzymatic stability of amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the chemical and enzymatic stabilities of prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers in order to find a suitable linker for prodrugs of carboxylic acids with amino acids. l-Valine and l-phenylalanine prodrugs of model compounds (benzoic acid and phenyl acetic acid) containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers were synthesized. The hydrolysis rate profile of each compound was studied at physiologically relevant pHs (1.2, 4, 6 and 7.4). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing compounds was studied using Caco-2 homogenate as well as purified enzyme valacyclovirase. It was observed that the stability of the prodrugs increases with the linker length (propyl > ethyl > methyl). The model prodrugs were stable at acidic pH as compared to basic pH. It was observed that the prodrug with the aliphatic amino acid promoiety was more stable compared to its aromatic counterpart. The comparison between benzyl and the phenyl model compounds revealed that the amino acid side chain is significant in determining the stability of the prodrug whereas the benzyl or phenyl carboxylic acid had little or no effect on the stability. The enzymatic activation studies of propylene glycol linker prodrug in the presence of valacyclovirase and cell homogenate showed faster generation of the parent drug at pH 7.4. The half-life of prodrugs at pH 7.4 was more than 12 h, whereas in the presence of cell homogenate the half-lives were less than 1 h. Hydrolysis by Caco-2 homogenate generated the parent compound in two steps, where the prodrug was first converted to the intermediate, propylene glycol benzoate, which was then converted to the parent compound (benzoic acid). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing prodrugs by valacyclovirase showed hydrolysis of the amino acid ester part to generate the propylene glycol ester of model compound (propylene glycol benzoate) as the major product. The amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy

  5. Colonoscopy preparation: polyethylene glycol with Gatorade is as safe and efficacious as four liters of polyethylene glycol with balanced electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Thomas; Macgill, Alice; Porat, Gail; Friedenberg, Frank K

    2012-12-01

    Four liters of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG) with balanced electrolytes for colonoscopy preparation has had poor acceptance. Another approach is the use of electrolyte-free PEG combined with 1.9 L of Gatorade. Despite its widespread use, there are no data on metabolic safety and minimal data on efficacy. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and electrolyte safety of these two PEG-based preparations. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomized to 238 g PEG + 1.9 L Gatorade or 4 L of PEG-ELS containing 236 g PEG. Split dosing was not performed. On procedure day blood was drawn for basic chemistries. The primary outcome was preparation quality from procedure photos using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. We randomized 136 patients (66 PEG + Gatorade, 70 PEG-ELS). There were no differences in preparation scores between the two agents in the ITT analysis (7.2 ± 1.9 for PEG-ELS and 7.0 ± 2.1 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.45). BBPS scores were identical for those who completed the preparation and dietary instructions as directed (7.4 ± 1.7 for PEG-ELS, and 7.4 ± 1.8 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.98). There were no statistical differences in serum electrolytes between the two preparations. Patients who received PEG + Gatorade gave higher overall satisfaction scores for the preparation experience (p = 0.001), and had fewer adverse effects. Use of 238 g PEG + 1.9 L Gatorade appears to be safe, better tolerated, and non-inferior to 4 L PEG-ELS. This preparation may be especially useful for patients who previously tolerated PEG-ELS poorly.

  6. Colonoscopy Preparation: Polyethylene Glycol with Gatorade is as Safe and Efficacious as 4 Liters of Polyethylene Glycol with Balanced Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Thomas; Macgill, Alice; Porat, Gail; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Four liters of polyethylene glycol 3350 with balanced electrolytes for colonoscopy preparation has had poor acceptance. Another approach is the use of electrolyte-free PEG combined with 1.9L of Gatorade. Despite its widespread use, there are no data on metabolic safety and minimal data on efficacy. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and electrolyte safety of these two PEG-based preparations. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomized to 238g PEG + 1.9L Gatorade or 4L of PEG-ELS containing 236g PEG. Split dosing was not performed. On procedure day blood was drawn for basic chemistries. The primary outcome was preparation quality from procedure photos using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. Results We randomized 136 patients (66 PEG + Gatorade, 70 PEG-ELS). There were no differences in preparation scores between the two agents in the ITT analysis (7.2 ± 1.9 for PEG-ELS and 7.0 ± 2.1 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.45). BBPS scores were identical for those who completed the preparation and dietary instructions as directed (7.4 ± 1.7 for PEG-ELS, and 7.4 ± 1.8 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.98). There were no statistical differences in serum electrolytes between the two preparations. Patients who received PEG + Gatorade gave higher overall satisfaction scores for the preparation experience (p = 0.001), and had fewer adverse effects. Conclusions Use of 238g PEG + 1.9L Gatorade appears to be safe, better tolerated, and non-inferior to 4L PEG-ELS. This preparation may be especially useful for patients who previously tolerated PEG-ELS poorly. PMID:22711499

  7. Oxidative decarboxylation of glycolic and phenylacetic acids with cerium(4) catalyzed by silver ions in the sulfuric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesvar Rao, G.; Nagardzhun Rao, Ch.; Sajprakash, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Oxidative decarboxylation of glycolic and phenylacetic acids by cerium (4) in the presence of Ag + ions is studied. The Ce(4) order equals 1, glycolic acid order in the absence of a catalyst also equals 1 and is fractional (0.5) for a catalytic reaction. The phenylacetic acid order is fractional (0.75). The Ag + ion reaction order is fractional and constitutes 0.32 for glycolic and 0.36 for phenylacetic acids. The reaction mechanism is proposed [ru

  8. Effect of polyethylene glycol conjugation on conformational and colloidal stability of a monoclonal antibody antigen-binding fragment (Fab').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Cristopher; Sheung, Anthony; Rahman, Nausheen; Ausar, S Fernando

    2015-02-02

    We have investigated the effects of site specific "hinge" polyethylene glycol conjugation (PEGylation) on thermal, pH, and colloidal stability of a monoclonal antibody antigen-binding fragment (Fab') using a variety of biophysical techniques. The results obtained by circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet (UV) absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that the physical stability of the Fab' is maximized at pH 6-7 with no apparent differences due to PEGylation. Temperature-induced aggregation experiments revealed that PEGylation was able to increase the transition temperature, as well as prevent the formation of visible and subvisible aggregates. Statistical comparison of the three-index empirical phase diagram (EPD) revealed significant differences in thermal and pH stability signatures between Fab' and PEG-Fab'. Upon mechanical stress, micro-flow imaging (MFI) and measurement of the optical density at 360 nm showed that the PEG-Fab' had significantly higher resistance to surface-induced aggregation compared to the Fab'. Analysis of the interaction parameter, kD, indicated repulsive intermolecular forces for PEG-Fab' and attractive forces for Fab'. In conclusion, PEGylation appears to protect Fab' against thermal and mechanical stress-induced aggregation, likely due to a steric hindrance mechanism.

  9. Feasibility of MR imaging in evaluating breast cancer lymphangiogenesis using Polyethylene glycol-GoldMag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.; Zou, L.G.; Zhang, S.; Gong, M.F.; Zhang, D.; Qi, Y.Y.; Zhou, S.W.; Diao, X.W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the feasibility of evaluating tumour lymphangiogenesis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. Materials and methods: Water-soluble polyethylene glycol (PEG)-GoldMag nanoparticles were obtained by combining GoldMag with PEG. The PEG-GoldMag nanoparticles were bound to anti-podoplanin antibody (PodAb) to construct PEG-GoldMag-pod molecular probes targeting lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). The characteristics of the PEG-GoldMag-pod nanoparticles were tested. Using these nanoparticles, tumour lymphangiogenesis was evaluated using MRI in vitro and in vivo. Results: The average size of PEG-GoldMag nanoparticles was about 66.8 nm, and the nanoparticles were stably dispersed in the liquid phase for at least 15 days. After incubation for 24 h at different iron concentrations ranging from 5–45 μg/ml, the LECs were labelled with PEG-GoldMag-pod nanoparticles, in particular the breast cancer LECs. Dose-dependence was observed in the labelling efficiencies and MRI images of the labelled cells. In vitro, the labelling efficiencies and MRI images showed that the nanoparticles could detect podoplanin expression in LECs. In induced rat models of breast cancer, PEG-GoldMag-pod nanoparticles combined with lymphatic vessels were significantly detectable at MRI 60 min after nanoparticle administration, the signal intensity was negatively correlated with the lymphatic vessel density of breast cancer (r = −0.864, P = 0.000). Conclusions: The present study proves the feasibility of evaluating tumour lymphangiogenesis with MRI in vivo

  10. Entrapping quercetin in silica/polyethylene glycol hybrid materials: Chemical characterization and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona; Pacifico, Severina [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Sol-gel synthesis was exploited to entrap quercetin, a natural occurring antioxidant polyphenol, in silica-based hybrid materials, which differed in their polyethylene glycol (PEG) content (6, 12, 24 and 50 wt%). The materials obtained, whose nano-composite nature was ascertained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The results prove that a reaction between the polymer and the drug occurred. Bioactivity tests showed their ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation on the sample surfaces. The direct contact method was applied to screen the cytotoxicity of the synthetized materials towards fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, commonly used for in vitro biocompatibility studies, and three nervous system cell lines (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, glioma U251, and pheochromocytoma PC12 cell lines), adopted as models in oxidative stress related studies. Using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay NIH 3T3 proliferation was assessed and the morphology was not compromised by direct exposure to the materials. Analogously, PC-12, and U-251 cell lines were not affected by new materials. SH-SY5Y appeared to be the most sensitive cell line with cytotoxic effects of 20–35%. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG quercetin organic-inorganic hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel. • The formation of apatite on materials surface after SBF proved their bioactivity. • Viability of NIH-3T3 cells was significantly increased by exposure to the hybrids. • Viability of PC-12 and U-251 cell lines was not affected by new materials. • SH-SY5Y cell proliferation was inhibited and their morphology was changed by hybrids.

  11. Prediction and validation of the duration of hemodialysis sessions for the treatment of acute ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliuta, Ioan-Andrei; Lachance, Philippe; Ghannoum, Marc; Bégin, Yannick; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; De Serres, Sacha A; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Douville, Pierre; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The duration of hemodialysis (HD) sessions for the treatment of acute ethylene glycol poisoning is dependent on concentration, the operational parameters used during HD, and the presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. Ethylene glycol assays are not readily available, potentially leading to undue extension or premature termination of HD. We report a prediction model for the duration of high-efficiency HD sessions based retrospectively on a cohort study of 26 cases of acute ethylene glycol poisoning in 24 individuals treated by alcohol dehydrogenase competitive inhibitors, cofactors and HD. Two patients required HD for more than 14 days, and two died. In 19 cases, the mean ethylene glycol elimination half-life during high-efficiency HD was 165 minutes (95% confidence interval of 151-180 minutes). In a training set of 12 patients with acute ethylene glycol poisoning, using the 90th percentile half-life (195 minutes) and a target ethylene glycol concentration of 2 mmol/l (12.4 mg/dl) allowed all cases to reach a safe ethylene glycol under 3 mmol/l (18.6 mg/dl). The prediction model was then validated in a set of seven acute ethylene glycol poisonings. Thus, the HD session time in hours can be estimated using 4.7 x (Ln [the initial ethylene glycol concentration (mmol/l)/2]), provided that metabolic acidosis is corrected. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyperosmolar metabolic acidosis in burn patients exposed to glycol based topical antimicrobials-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibson, Tom; Davies, Paige; Nickel, Cheri; Koren, Gideon

    2018-06-01

    The well documented susceptibility of burn patients to acquired infections via damaged skin mandates application of antimicrobial agents. These agents are dissolved in various vehicles that augment skin absorption thus allowing greater efficacy. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Propylene glycol (PropG) are among the most commonly used vehicles, and both have been used in numerous medications and cosmetic products over the past few decades. Rarely, burn patients treated with agents containing these glycols present with a life threatening systemic toxidrome of hyperosmolar metabolic acidosis. We present a systematic review of outcomes in burn patients treated with similar agents. Relevant studies were identified through systematic searches conducted in MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CENTRAL (Ovid), and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), from database inception to August 4th, 2016. All publications of clinical burn patient studies included at least one arm receiving a glycol based topical therapy. A total of 61 studies involving 10,282 patients and 4 different antimicrobial medications fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine burn patients (0.09%) were documented to present with hyperosmolar metabolic acidosis during topical silver sulfadiazine treatment. Propylene glycol isolated from their blood accounted for the high osmole gap. This first systematic review found very few cases of documented hyperosmolar metabolic acidosis, all within one study that had set to specifically explore this toxidrome. High index of suspicion with frequent osmolar gap monitoring may help identify future toxicities in a timely manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy in ethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)], E-mail: hham4@hotmail.com; Fatayerji, M.Z. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2009-11-01

    The effect of concentration on the corrosion behavior of Mg-based alloy AZ91D was investigated in ethylene glycol-water solutions using electrochemical techniques i.e. potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS) and surface examination via scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. This can provide a basis for developing new coolants for magnesium alloy engine blocks. Corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy by coolant is important in the automotive industry. It was found that the corrosion rate of AZ91D alloy decreased with increasing concentration of ethylene glycol. For AZ91D alloy in chloride >0.05 M or fluoride <0.05 M containing 30% ethylene glycol solution, they are more corrosive than the blank (30% ethylene glycol-70% water). However, at concentrations <0.05 for chloride or >0.05 M for fluoride containing ethylene glycol solution, some inhibition effect has been observed. The corrosion of AZ91D alloy in the blank can be effectively inhibited by addition of 0.05 mM paracetamol that reacts with AZ91D alloy and forms a protective film on the surface at this concentration as confirmed by surface examination.

  14. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFrac module for distillation columns, to investigate the effect on the separation of the ethylene glycol-glycerol mixture composition, the separating agent feed stages, the separating agent split stream feed, and the azeotropic feed temperature. The NRTL model was used to calculate the phase equilibrium of these strongly polar mixtures. A rigorous simulation of the extractive distillation column finally established was also performed, including a secondary recovery column for the mixture of solvents and a recycle loop, to simulate an industrially relevant situation. This simulation allowed establishing the complete parameters to dehydrate ethanol: the optimal stage for separating agent feed is stage 4; the most adequate composition for the glycols mixture is 60 mol% ethylene glycol and 40 mol% glycerol. Finally, energetically efficient operating conditions for each one of the columns were established through a preliminary pinch analysis.

  15. First report of suspected ethylene glycol poisoning in 2 dogs in South Africa : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Keller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (anti-freeze toxicity is a serious emergency in both veterinary and human medicine. Ethylene glycol (E/G is the active anti-freeze principle in radiator water additives. It is odourless, colourless and has a sweet taste. As little as 5 mℓ or 20 mℓ is sufficient to kill a cat or a dog, respectively. Ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed and metabolised in the liver to oxalate, which is deposited as calcium oxalate in the kidneys causing irreversible damage. This report describes 2 dogs that were suspected to have ingested ethylene glycol. The report contains a description of the 3 stages of ethylene glycol toxicity as well as a short discussion of the treatment. Public awareness about the dangers of anti-freeze will help in limiting exposure of pets and humans to this potentially fatal toxin. Veterinarians need to be aware of anti-freeze toxicity as delayed recognition and treatment will lead to the death of the patient.

  16. Efficacy of combination of glycolic acid peeling with topical regimen in treatment of melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Savita; Dayal, Surabhi

    2013-10-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for management of melasma, ranging from topical and oral to chemical peeling, but none is promising alone. Very few studies are available regarding efficacy of combination of topical treatment with chemical peeling. Combination of chemical peeling and topical regimen can be a good treatment modality in the management of this recalcitrant disorder. To assess the efficacy of combination of topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of melasma in Indian patients. Forty Indian patients of moderate to severe epidermal variety melasma were divided into two groups of 20 each. One Group i.e. peel group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling and other group i.e. control group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone, 0.05% tretinoin). There was an overall decrease in MASI from baseline in 24 weeks of therapy in both the groups (P value peel with topical regimen showed early and greater improvement than the group which was receiving topical regimen only. This study concluded that combining topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of glycolic acid peeling. The combination of glycolic acid peeling with the topical regimen is a highly effective, safe and promising therapeutic option in treatment of melasma.

  17. Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (μ = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584

  18. Assessment of Palmitoyl and Sulphate Conjugated Glycol Chitosan for Development of Polymeric Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Ullah Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amphiphilic copolymers are capable of forming core shell-like structures at the critical micellar concentration (CMC; hence, they can serve as drug carriers. Thus, in the present work, polymeric micelles based on novel chitosan derivative were synthesized. Methods: Block copolymer of palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulfate (PGCS was prepared by grafting palmitoyl and sulfate groups serving as hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively. Then, fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR and spectral changes in iodine/iodide mixture were carried out. Results: FTIR studies confirmed the formation of palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulfate (PGCS and spectral changes in iodine/iodide mixture indicated CMC which lies in the range of 0.003-0.2 mg/ml. Conclusion: Therefore, our study indicated that polymeric micelles based on palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulphate could be used as a prospective carrier for water insoluble drugs.

  19. Determination of thymine glycol residues in irradiated or oxidized DNA by formation of methylglyceric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberg, K.A.; Shaeffer, J.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of DNA solutions with X-irradiation various oxidants including hydrogen peroxide plus ferrous ion, hydrogen peroxide plus copper ion and ascorbate, permanganate, or sonication in the presence of dissolved oxygen all produced varying amounts of thymine glycol residues. After denaturing the DNA with heat, the glycol residues were reduced and labeled at the 6 position with tritium- labeled sodium borohydride. Subsequent reaction with anhydrous methanolic HCl gave a quantitative yield of the methyl ester of methylglyceric acid, which was determined by thin layer chromatography. The method, developed using thymidine as a model, was used to ascertain the requirements for glycol formation in DNA. It was shown that hydroxyl radical generating systems, permanganate, X-irradiation, or sonication in presence of oxygen were required, but hydrogen peroxide in the absence of iron or copper and ascorbate was inactive. Application to determination of DNA damage in vivo is being explored

  20. Synthesis of Silver Particle onto Bamboo Charcoal by Tripropylene Glycol and the Composites Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Hsuan Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tripropylene glycol was used as a reducting agent in the polyol process to reduce silver nitrate to the form of silver particles deposited onto the surface of bamboo charcoal (BC. The reduction temperature and time were critical parameters as they control the size of the silver particles formed as well as their distribution onto the surface of the BC. The reduction of silver nitrate by the tripropylene glycol occurred at a temperature of 120 °C for 3 h, and the silver particles, which had a face-centered cubic lattice structure, were distributed onto the surface of the BC. These synthesis conditions should work well with tripropylene glycol as reducing agent that can be helpful in the convenient preparation of Ag/BC particles. When Ag/BC powders were manufactured using 3 g of silver nitrate content, the prepared composites had the largest thermal conductivity at 0.2490 W/(m·K.

  1. Direct conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid with a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in a water medium

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2012-08-03

    Direct conversion of cellulose to fine chemicals has rarely been achieved. We describe here an eco-benign route for directly converting various cellulose-based biomasses to glycolic acid in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere in which heteromolybdic acids act as multifunctional catalysts to catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the fragmentation of monosaccharides, and the selective oxidation of fragmentation products. With commercial α-cellulose powder as the substrate, the yield of glycolic acid reaches 49.3%. This catalytic system is also effective with raw cellulosic biomass, such as bagasse or hay, as the starting materials, giving rise to remarkable glycolic acid yields of ∼30%. Our heteropoly acid-based catalyst can be recovered in solid form after reaction by distilling out the products and solvent for reuse, and it exhibits consistently high performance in multiple reaction runs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  3. The comparison of in vivo antigenotoxic and antioxidative capacity of two propylene glycol extracts of Calendula officinalis (marigold) and vitamin E in young growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankic, T; Salobir, K; Salobir, J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of Calendula officinalis propylene glycol extracts against oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in young growing pigs. Forty young growing pigs were assigned to five treatment groups: control; oil (linseed oil supplementation); C. officinalis 1 and 2 groups (linseed oil plus 3 ml/day of C. officinalis propylene glycol extracts); and vitamin E group (linseed oil plus 100 mg/kg of vitamin E). Lymphocyte DNA fragmentation and 24-h urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion were measured to determine DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was studied by analysing plasma and urine malondialdehyde (MDA), and urine isoprostane concentrations (iPF2α-VI), total antioxidant status of plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) assays. C. officinalis 1 (extract from petals) effectively protected DNA from oxidative damage. It indicated a numerical trend towards the reduction of plasma MDA and urinary iPF2α-VI excretion. Its effect was comparable with that of vitamin E. C. officinalis 2 (extract from flower tops) showed less antioxidant potential than the extract from petals. We can conclude that the amount of C. officinalis extracts proposed for internal use by traditional medicine protects the organism against DNA damage induced by high PUFA intake.

  4. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  5. Potentiation of Sodium Metabisulfite Toxicity by Propylene Glycol in Both in Vitro and in Vivo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Yoo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many consumer products used in our daily lives result in inhalation exposure to a variety of chemicals, although the toxicities of the active ingredients are not well known; furthermore, simultaneous exposure to chemical mixtures occurs. Sodium metabisulfite (SM and propylene glycol (PG are used in a variety of products. Both the cytotoxicity and the sub-acute inhalation toxicity of each chemical and their mixtures were evaluated. Assays for cell viability, membrane damage, and lysosome damage demonstrated that SM over 100 μg/ml induced significant cytotoxicity; moreover, when PG, which was not cytotoxic, was mixed with SM, the cytotoxicity of the mixture was enhanced. Solutions of 1, 5, and 20% SM, each with 1% PG solution, were prepared, and the whole body of rats was exposed to aerosols of the mixture for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 1 (exposure group or 7 days (recovery group after termination of the exposure. The actual concentration of SM in the low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups was 3.91 ± 1.26, 35.73 ± 6.01, and 80.98 ± 5.47 mg/m3, respectively, and the actual concentration of PG in each group was 6.47 ± 1.25, 8.68 ± 0.6, and 8.84 ± 1.77 mg/m3. The repeated exposure to SM and PG caused specific clinical signs including nasal sound, sneeze, and eye irritation which were not found in SM single exposure. In addition, the body weight of treatment group rats decreased compared to that of the control group rats in a time-dependent manner. The total protein concentration and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF increased. Histopathological analysis of the lungs, liver, and nasal cavity was performed. Adverse effects were observed in the nasal cavity, with squamous cell metaplasia identified in the front of the nasal cavity in all high-exposure groups, which completely recovered 7 days after exposure was terminated. Whereas inhalation of SM for 2 weeks only reduced

  6. Self-assembled nanoparticles of glycol chitosan – Ergocalciferol succinate conjugate, for controlled release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinones, Javier Perez; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager; Kjems, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Glycol chitosan was linked to vitamin D2 hemisuccinate (ergocalciferol hemisuccinate) for controlled release through water-soluble carbodiimide activation. The resulting conjugate formed self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous solution with particle size of 279 nm and ergocalciferol hemisuccinate...... content of 8.4% (w/w). Almost spherical 50–90 nm nanoparticles were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy upon drying. Drug linking to glycol chitosan was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and proton NMR. Particles were also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and wide...

  7. Unwell after drinking homemade alcohol – A case of ethylene glycol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Laher

    2013-06-01

    Discussion: The clinical presentation of ethylene glycol and methanol poisoning is non-specific and can be difficult to differentiate from ethanol intoxication. Homemade alcohol preparations are commonly adulterated with ethylene glycol and methanol to improve their taste and sting. Toxic alcohol analysis is not routinely carried out by most laboratory services in South Africa, and when carried out, results are only made available a few days later. A high index of suspicion coupled with early blood gas analysis and a need for prompt and effective treatment whilst awaiting toxicology analysis may limit the associated high morbidity and mortality.

  8. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  9. Poly(ethylene glycol)s as grinding additives in the mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascitti, Andrea; Lupacchini, Massimiliano; Guerra, Ruben; Taydakov, Ilya; Tonucci, Lucia; d'Alessandro, Nicola; Lamaty, Frederic; Martinez, Jean; Colacino, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    The mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins was investigated in the presence of various poly(ethylene) glycols (PEGs), as safe grinding assisting agents (liquid-assisted grinding, LAG). A comparative study under dry-grinding conditions was also performed. The results showed that the cyclization reaction was influenced by the amount of the PEG grinding agents. In general, cleaner reaction profiles were observed in the presence of PEGs, compared to dry-grinding procedures.

  10. Analytical precision of the Urolizer for the determination of the BONN-Risk-Index (BRI) for calcium oxalate urolithiasis and evaluation of the influence of 24-h urine storage at moderate temperatures on BRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Wolfgang; Bechler, Robin; Laube, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Since its first publication in 2000, the BONN-Risk-Index (BRI) has been successfully used to determine the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization risk from urine samples. To date, a BRI-measuring device, the "Urolizer", has been developed, operating automatically and requiring only a minimum of preparation. Two major objectives were pursued: determination of Urolizer precision, and determination of the influence of 24-h urine storage at moderate temperatures on BRI. 24-h urine samples from 52 CaOx stone-formers were collected. A total of 37 urine samples were used for the investigation of Urolizer precision by performing six independent BRI determinations in series. In total, 30 samples were taken for additional investigation of urine storability. Each sample was measured thrice: directly after collection, after 24-h storage at T=21 degrees C, and after 24-h cooling at T=4 degrees C. Outcomes were statistically tested for identity with regard to the immediately obtained results. Repeat measurements for evaluation of Urolizer precision revealed statistical identity of data (p-0.05). 24-h storage of urine at both tested temperatures did not significantly affect BRI (p-0.05). The pilot-run Urolizer shows high analytical reliability. The innovative analysis device may be especially suited for urologists specializing in urolithiasis treatment. The possibility for urine storage at moderate temperatures without loss of analysis quality further demonstrates the applicability of the BRI method.

  11. Intra-patient comparison of reduced-dose model-based iterative reconstruction with standard-dose adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction in the CT diagnosis and follow-up of urolithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenant, Sean; Pang, Chun Lap; Dissanayake, Prageeth [Peninsula Radiology Academy, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Vardhanabhuti, Varut [Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth (United Kingdom); University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Pokfulam (China); Stuckey, Colin; Gutteridge, Catherine [Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Hyde, Christopher [University of Exeter Medical School, St Luke' s Campus, Exeter (United Kingdom); Roobottom, Carl [Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of reduced-dose CT scans reconstructed using a new generation of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in the imaging of urinary tract stone disease, compared with a standard-dose CT using 30% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction. This single-institution prospective study recruited 125 patients presenting either with acute renal colic or for follow-up of known urinary tract stones. They underwent two immediately consecutive scans, one at standard dose settings and one at the lowest dose (highest noise index) the scanner would allow. The reduced-dose scans were reconstructed using both ASIR 30% and MBIR algorithms and reviewed independently by two radiologists. Objective and subjective image quality measures as well as diagnostic data were obtained. The reduced-dose MBIR scan was 100% concordant with the reference standard for the assessment of ureteric stones. It was extremely accurate at identifying calculi of 3 mm and above. The algorithm allowed a dose reduction of 58% without any loss of scan quality. A reduced-dose CT scan using MBIR is accurate in acute imaging for renal colic symptoms and for urolithiasis follow-up and allows a significant reduction in dose. (orig.)

  12. Self-Assembly, Surface Activity and Structure of n-Octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside in Ethylene Glycol-Water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Carnero Ruiz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of ethylene glycol (EG on the interfacial adsorption and micellar properties of the alkylglucoside surfactant n-octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside (OTG has been investigated. Critical micelle concentrations (cmc upon EG addition were obtained by both surface tension measurements and the pyrene 1:3 ratio method. A systematic increase in the cmc induced by the presence of the co-solvent was observed. This behavior was attributed to a reduction in the cohesive energy of the mixed solvent with respect to pure water, which favors an increase in the solubility of the surfactant with EG content. Static light scattering measurements revealed a decrease in the mean aggregation number of the OTG micelles with EG addition. Moreover, dynamic light scattering data showed that the effect of the surfactant concentration on micellar size is also controlled by the content of the co-solvent in the system. Finally, the effect of EG addition on the microstructure of OTG micelles was investigated using the hydrophobic probe Coumarin 153 (C153. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay curves of the probe solubilized in micelles were analyzed using the two-step model. The results indicate a slight reduction of the average reorientation time of the probe molecule with increasing EG in the mixed solvent system, thereby suggesting a lesser compactness induced by the presence of the co-solvent.

  13. Cyanobacterial lactate oxidases serve as essential partners in N2-fixation and evolved into photorespiratory glycolate oxidases in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackenberg, C.; Kern, R.; Hüge, J; Stal, L.J.; Tsuji, Y.; Kopka, J.; Shiraiwa, Y.; Bauwe, H.; Hagemann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is an essential enzyme involved in photorespiratory metabolism in plants. In cyanobacteria and green algae, the corresponding reaction is catalyzed by glycolate dehydrogenases (GlcD). The genomes of N2-fixing cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc PCC 7120 and green algae, appear to

  14. Cyanobacterial lactate oxidases serve as essential partners of N2-fixation and evolved to photorespiratory glycolate oxidases in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackenberg, C.; Kern, R.; Hüge, J.; Stal, L.J.; Tsuji, Y.; Kopka, J.; Shiraiwa, Y.; Bauwe, H.; Hagemann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is an essential enzyme involved in photorespiratory metabolism in plants. In cyanobacteria and green algae, the corresponding reaction is catalyzed by glycolate dehydrogenases (GlcD). The genomes of N2-fixing cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc PCC 7120 and green algae, appear to

  15. The Determination of Polyethylene Glycol in Untreated Urine Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Intestinal Permeability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Philipsen, E.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol in urine samples has been investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weights ranged from 634 to 1338. The urine samples were applied to the chromatographic system without any pre-treatment. For samples with a concentration of 0.2% polyethylene glycol...

  16. Hemodiafiltration efficacy in treatment of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning in a 2-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Szymanik-Grzelak, Hanna; Kuźma-Mroczkowska, Elżbieta; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Every year about 2.4 million people in USA are exposed to toxic substances. Many of them are children below 6 years of age. Majority of poisonings in children are incidental and related to household products including for example drugs, cleaning products or antifreeze products. Antifreeze solutions contain ethylene glycol and methanol. Treatment of these toxic substances involves ethanol administration, fomepizole, hemodialysis and correction of metabolic acidosis. The aim of the study was to check the efficacy of continuous venovenous hemodiagiltration in intoxication with ethylene glycol and methanol. One year and 7 months old girl after intoxication with ethylene glycol and methanol was treated with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration instead of hemodialysis because of technical problems (circulatory instability). Intravenous ethanol infusion with hemodialtration resulted in rapid elimination of methanol from the body and significantly reduced blood ethylene glycol level. Continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration can be helpful in treatment of ethylene glycol and methanol intoxication.

  17. Thermodynamic activity of saturated solutions of CsClO4 in ethylene glycol and its analogs of the HOCH2(CH2CH2O)nCH2OH series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoperova, A.P.; Ivanova, E.F.; Kijko, S.M.; Yukhno, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Solubility of CsClO 4 in ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, polyethylene glycols with molar mass 300 and 400 in the temperature range of 273.15-318.15 K has been ascertained by the method of radioactive indicators. Dependence of saturated solutions activity on temperature, dielectric permittivity and the number of (CH 2 CH 2 O) ether groups in glycols is discussed

  18. Efficacy of Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic acid)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid) Thermogel As a Barrier to Prevent Spinal Epidural Fibrosis in a Postlaminectomy Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Lin; Lin, Hong; Cao, Luping; Cheng, Ji'an; Dong, Jian; Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2017-04-01

    Experimental animal study. The authors conducted a study to determine the efficacy and safety of the poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) thermogel to prevent peridural fibrosis in an adult rat laminectomy model. Peridural fibrosis often occurs after spinal laminectomy. It might cause persistent back and/or leg pain postoperatively and make a reoperation more difficult and dangerous. Various materials have been used to prevent epidural fibrosis, but only limited success has been achieved. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was synthesized by us. Total L3 laminectomies were performed on 24 rats. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or chitosan (CHS) gel (a positive control group) was applied to the operative sites in a blinded manner. In the control group, the L3 laminectomy was performed and the defect was irrigated with the NS solution 3 times. All the rats were killed 4 weeks after the surgery. The cytotoxicity of this thermogel was evaluated in vitro and the result demonstrated that no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. The extent of epidural fibrosis, the area of epidural fibrosis, and the density of the fibroblasts and blood vessel were evaluated histologically. There were statistical differences among the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or CHS gel group compared with the control group. Although there was no difference between the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel and CHS gel, the efficiency of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was shown to be slightly improved compared with the CHS gel. The biocompatibility of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was proven well. The application of this thermogel effectively reduced epidural scarring and prevented the subsequent adhesion to the dura mater. No side effects were noted in the rats.

  19. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) analogues for membrane protein study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Husri, Mohd; Amin, Anowarul

    2015-01-01

    characteristics is necessary to advance MP research. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) has contributed to >10 crystal structures including G-protein coupled receptors. Here, we prepared MNG-3 analogues and characterised their properties using selected MPs. Most MNGs were superior to a conventional detergent, n...

  20. Modelling of phase equilibria of glycol ethers mixtures using an association model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Nuno M.; Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of glycol ethers (surfactant) mixtures with hydrocarbons, polar compounds and water are calculated using an association model, the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State. Parameters are estimated for several non-ionic surfactants of the polyoxyethylene ...

  1. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in...

  2. New association schemes for mono-ethylene glycol: Cubic-Plus-Association parameterization and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Francois; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; von Solms, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Accurate thermodynamic predictions for systems containing glycols are essential for the design and commissioning of novel subsea natural gas dehydration units. Previously it has been shown that the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state can be used to model VLE, SLE and LLE for mixtures...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8079 - Isophorone diisocyanate neopentyl glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer. 721.8079 Section 721.8079 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... adipate polyurethane prepolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... polyurethane prepolymer (PMN P-94-1743) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  4. Design, Synthesis and Hydrolytic Behavior of Mutual Prodrugs of NSAIDs with Gabapentin Using Glycol Spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najeh Alsaad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88% in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation.

  5. Ethylene Glycol Adsorption and Reaction over CeOX(111) Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Chen; D Mullins

    2011-12-31

    This study reports the interaction of ethylene glycol with well-ordered CeO{sub x}(111) thin film surfaces. Ethylene glycol initially adsorbs on fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) and reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111) through the formation of one C-O-Ce bond and then forms a second alkoxy bond after annealing. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) both recombination of ethylene glycol and water desorption occur at low temperature leaving stable -OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O- (ethylenedioxy) intermediates and oxygen vacancies on the surface. This ethylenedioxy intermediate goes through C-C bond scission to produce formate species which then react to produce CO and CO{sub 2}. The formation of water results in the reduction of the ceria. On a reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111) surface the reaction selectivity shifts toward a dehydration process. The ethylenedioxy intermediate decomposes by breaking a C-O bond and converts into an enolate species. Similar to the reaction of acetaldehyde on reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111), the enolate reacts to produce acetaldehyde, acetylene, and ethylene. The loss of O from ethylene glycol leads to a small amount of oxidation of the reduced ceria.

  6. Force-field dependence of the conformational properties of ,-dimethoxypolyethylene glycol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winger, Moritz; de Vries, Alex H.; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

    2009-01-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) study of ,-dimethoxypolyethylene glycol has been carried out under various conditions with respect to solvent composition, ionic strength, chain length, force field and temperature. A previous MD study on a 15-mer of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) suggested a helical equilibrium

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  8. The Effect of Ethylene Glycol, Glycine Betaine, and Urea on Lysozyme Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Nordstrom, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    The four-week student project described in this article is an extension of protein thermal denaturation experiments to include effects of added cosolutes ethylene glycol, glycine betaine, and urea on the unfolding of lysozyme. The transition temperatures and van't Hoff enthalpies for unfolding are evaluated for six concentrations of each cosolute,…

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from ot...

  10. Designer solvents for the extraction of glycols and alcohols from aqueous streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The separation of polar compounds from aqueous streams is one of the most energy intensive operations within the chemical industry, because of the formation of hydrogen bonds that should be broken and the high heat of vaporization of water. Important bulk chemicals like glycols and alcohols produced

  11. Comparison of conventional freezing and vitrification with dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varago, F C; Moutacas, V S; Carvalho, B C; Serapião, R V; Vieira, F; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Brandão, F Z; Camargo, L S; Henry, M; Lagares, M A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the cryoprotectants dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos using vitrification and conventional freezing. The recovered embryos were distributed randomly in three treatment groups: Gr. 1: conventional freezing (n = 44), Gr. 2: vitrification with ethylene glycol (n = 39) and Gr. 3: vitrification with dimethylformamide (n = 38). Quality of fresh embryos in control group as well as of frozen and vitrified embryos was examined by three methodologies: staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and evaluation under fluorescent microscopy, evaluation of re-expansion and hatching rates after culture, and determination of apoptotic index with TUNEL technique. It was established that re-expansion rate in all treatment groups was similar. In the same time, hatching rates were higher in Gr. 1 (40.5%) and Gr. 2 (35.3%) in comparison with Gr. 3 (15.5%, p conventional freezing, 10.1 ± 8.5, p conventional freezing) and fresh embryos. In conclusion, the dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol used as cryoprotectant to vitrify ovine embryos, in the concentrations and exposition time tested in this work, were not as efficient as the conventional freezing for cryopreservation of ovine embryos Thus, the conventional freezing with ethylene glycol was the most efficient method to cryopreserve ovine embryos in comparison with vitrification. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Zero-order release of lysozyme from (poly)ethylene glycol)/poly(butylene terephthalate) matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.M.; Radersma, R.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2000-01-01

    Protein release from a series of biodegradable poly(ether ester) multiblock copolymers, based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) was investigated. Lysozyme-containing PEG/PBT films and microspheres were prepared using an emulsion technique. Proteins were

  13. LC determination of propylene glycol in human plasma after pre-column derivatization with benzoyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinjewel, A.; Swart, E.L.; Lingeman, H.; Wilhelm, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method, using photodiode array detection was developed for the determination of propylene glycol in human plasma and in the fluid retreived after continuous veno-venous hemofiltration. The method entailed alkaline derivatization with benzoyl chloride

  14. Effects of a single glucocorticoid injection on propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, Saskia G A; Houweling, Martin; Bouman, Marina; Koets, Ad P; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when administered to propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis was defined by depressed feed intake and milk production, and a maximal score for acetoacetate in urine. All cows received 250 mL oral propylene

  15. Hydrodynamic radii of polyethylene glycols in different solvents determined from viscosity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen-Speelmans, M.P.J.; Pereira, A.M.; Timmer, J.M.K.; Benes, N.E.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrodynamic radius, rh, of low molar mass polyethylene glycol, MPEG = (200 to 1000) g·mol-1, in a homologous series of primary alcohols, acetone, and toluene has been determined from viscosity measurements. The viscosity data have been collected using a fast one-point method as well as a more

  16. A polyether glycol derived from cashew nutshell as a kinetic inhibitor for methane hydrate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Jorge Cesar; Esteves, Pierre M., E-mail: pesteves@iq.ufrj.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Teixeira, Adriana [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello, PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The polyether glycol derived from cashew nutshell liquid inhibited the formation of methane hydrate. The polymer proved to be more efficient than the polyvinyl pyrrolidone-poly(N-vinyl) caprolactam (PVP-PVCap) co-polymer under tested conditions (CH{sub 4}, 1470 psi and 4 degree C), being the latter one of the best commercially available hydrate inhibitors. (author)

  17. Aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol - Role of intermediates in catalyst performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vlieger, Dennis; Mojet, Barbara; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2012-01-01

    Liquid product formation during the aqueous catalytic reforming of ethylene glycol (EG) was studied up to 450 °C and 250 bar pressure. Methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid were the main liquid by-products during EG reforming in the presence of alumina-supported Pt and Pt–Ni catalysts. The effect of

  18. Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogel surfaces for antifouling applications in marine and freshwater environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekblad, T.; Bergström, G.; Ederth, T.; Conlan, S.L.; Mutton, R.; Clare, A.S.; Wang, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Q.; D'Souza, F.; Donnelly, G.T.; Willemsen, P.R.; Pettitt, M.E.; Callow, M.E.; Callow, J.A.; Liedberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and biological evaluation of a thin protein-resistant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel coating for antifouling applications. The coating was fabricated by free-radical polymerization on silanized glass and silicon and on

  19. Ethylene glycol or methanol intoxication : Which antidote should be used, fomepizole or ethanol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S. J.; de Lange, D. W.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol poisoning can cause life-threatening complications. Toxicity of EG and methanol is related to the production of toxic metabolites by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which can lead to metabolic acidosis, renal failure (in EG poisoning), blindness (in methanol

  20. Macrogol (polyethylene glycol) laxatives in children with functional constipation and faecal impaction: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Candy, D; Belsey, J

    2008-01-01

    As the evidence base supporting the use of laxatives in children is very limited, we undertook an updated systematic review to clarify the issue. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify randomised controlled trials of polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus either placebo or active comparator, in patients aged

  1. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400: An efficient medium for the synthesis of 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sekhar Mekala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400 was found to be an inexpensive, non-toxic, and effective medium for the one-pot synthesis of 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles in excellent yields. Eco-friendliness, low cost, high yields, and recyclability of the PEG-400 are the important features of this protocol.

  2. Biodegradable Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Based Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... drug encapsulation efficiency and release profile of PLGA mico/nanoparticles. The current knowledge of protein instability during preparation, storage and release from PLGA micro/nanoparticles and protein stabilization approaches has also been discussed in this review. Keywords: Poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), ...

  3. Development of Cy5.5-Labeled Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Protein Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Amanda

    Therapeutic proteins are often highly susceptible to enzymatic degradation, thus restricting their in vivo stability. To overcome this limitation, delivery systems designed to promote uptake and reduce degradation kinetics have undergone a rapid shift from macro-scale systems to nanomaterial based carriers. Many of these nanomaterials, however, elicit immune responses and may have cytotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo. The naturally derived polysaccharide chitosan has emerged as a promising biodegradable material and has been utilized for many biomedical applications; nevertheless, its function is often constrained by poor solubility. Glycol chitosan, a derivative of chitosan, can be hydrophobically modified to impart amphiphilic properties that enable the self-assembly into nanoparticles in aqueous media at neutral pH. This nanoparticle system has shown initial success as a therapeutic agent in several model cell culture systems, but little is known about its stability against enzymatic degradation. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate the resistance of hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan against enzyme-catalyzed degradation using an in vivo simulated system containing lysozyme. To synthesize the nanoparticles, hydrophobic cholanic acid was first covalently conjugated to glycol chitosan using of N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Conjugates were purified by dialysis, lyophilized, and ultra-sonicated to form nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the binding of 5beta-cholanic acid to the glycol chitosan. Particle size and stability over time were determined with dynamic light scattering (DLS), and particle morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter of the nanoparticles was approximately 200 nm, which remained stable at 4°C for up to 10 days. Additionally, a near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye

  4. Reaction mechanism of ethylene glycol decomposition on Pt model catalysts: A density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Cun-Qin; Yang, Bo; Pang, Xian-Yong; Wang, Gui-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DFT calculations were performed to study the ethylene glycol decomposition on Pt. • The final products are CO and H_2 on Pt(111), (100) and (211). • Ethylene glycol decomposition on Pt(111) undergoes via initial O−H bond scission and followed by C−H bond cleavage. • Ethylene glycol decomposition proceeds via initial O−H bond scission and followed by O−H bond cleavage on Pt(100)/(211). - Abstract: Understanding and controlling bond beak sequence is important in catalytic processes. The DFT-GGA method combined with slab model was performed to study the ethylene glycol decomposition on various Pt model catalysts such as close-packed Pt(111), stepped Pt(211) and a more open one, Pt(100). Calculation results show that the adsorption energies of ethylene glycol and other decomposition species depend on the coordination number of surface atom, that is, low coordination number correspond to high adsorption energy. Moreover, it was found that final products of ethylene glycol decomposition are CO and H_2 on all model catalysts, but the reaction mechanism varies: On Pt(111), the first step is O−H bond scission, followed by C−H bond cleavage, namely C_2H_6O_2 → HOCH_2CH_2O + H → HOCH_2CHO + 2H→ HOCH_2CO +3H → OCH_2CO + 4H → OCHCO + 5H → CO + HCO + 5H → 2CO + 6H→ 2CO + 3H_2; On Pt(211) and Pt(100), however, it is a second O−H bond cleavage that follows the initial O−H bond scission, that is, C_2H_6O_2 → HOCH_2CH_2O + H → OCH_2CH_2O + 2H → OCHCH_2O + 3H → OCHCHO + 4H → 2HCO + 4H → 2CO + 6H → 2CO + 3H_2  on Pt(211), and C_2H_6O_2 →HOCH_2CH_2O+ H → OCH_2CH_2O + 2H→OCHCH_2O+3H→OCCH_2O+4H→CO+H_2CO+4H→CO+HCO+5H→2CO+6H→2CO+3H_2 on Pt(100) For the catalytic order of ethylene glycol to form H_2, it may be determined based on the rate-controlling step, and it is Pt(111) > Pt(211) > Pt(100).

  5. Urinary metabonomics elucidate the therapeutic mechanism of Orthosiphon stamineus in mouse crystal-induced kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Songyan; Chen, Wei; Peng, Zhongjiang; Li, Na; Su, Li; Lv, Diya; Li, Ling; Lin, Qishan; Dong, Xin; Guo, Zhiyong; Lou, Ziyang

    2015-05-26

    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS), a traditional Chinese herb, is often used for promoting urination and treating nephrolithiasis. Urolithiasis is a major worldwide public health burden due to its high incidence of recurrence and damage to renal function. However, the etiology for urolithiasis is not well understood. Metabonomics, the systematic study of small molecule metabolites present in biological samples, has become a valid and powerful tool for understanding disease phenotypes. In this study, a urinary metabolic profiling analysis was performed in a mouse model of renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition to identify potential biomarkers for crystal-induced renal damage and the anti-crystal mechanism of OS. Thirty six mice were randomly divided into six groups including Saline, Crystal, Cystone and OS at dosages of 0.5g/kg, 1g/kg, and 2g/kg. A metabonomics approach using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was developed to perform the urinary metabolic profiling analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were utilized to identify differences between the metabolic profiles of mice in the saline control group and crystal group. Using partial least squares-discriminant analysis, 30 metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers of crystal-induced renal damage. Most of them were primarily involved in amino acid metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, purine metabolism, and the citrate cycle (TCA). After the treatment with OS, the levels of 20 biomarkers had returned to the levels of the control samples. Our results suggest that OS has a protective effect for mice with crystal-induced kidney injury via the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways primarily involving amino acid, energy and choline metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Wiedenman, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Papathanassiu, A. E. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, W. K. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  7. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T. L.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Lambert, D. P.; Crump, S. L.; Fondeur, F. F.; Papathanassiu, A. E.; Kot, W. K.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  8. Bioactivity, physical and chemical properties of MTA mixed with propylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Prakash NATU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective To investigate the physical (setting time, hardness, flowability, microstructure and chemical (pH change, calcium release, crystallinity properties and the biological outcomes (cell survival and differentiation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA mixed using different proportions of propylene glycol (PG and water.Material and Methods White MTA was mixed with different water/PG ratios (100/0, 80/20 and 50/50. Composition (XRD, microstructure (SEM, setting time (ASTM C266-13, flowability (ANSI/ADA 57-2000, Knoop hardness (100 g/10 s and chemical characteristics (pH change and Ca2+ release for 7 days were evaluated. Cell proliferation, osteo/odontoblastic gene expression and mineralization induced by MTA mixed with PG were evaluated. MTA discs (5 mm in diameter, 2 mm thick were prepared and soaked in culture medium for 7 days. Next, the discs were removed and the medium used to culture dental pulp stem cells (DPSC for 28 days. Cells survival was evaluated using MTS assay (24, 72 and 120 h and differentiation with RT-PCR (ALP, OCN, Runx2, DSPP and MEPE and alizarin red staining (7 and 14 days. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc analysis (a=0.05.Results The addition of PG significantly increased setting time, flowability and Ca2+ release, but it compromised the hardness of the material. SEM showed that 50/50 group resulted porous material after setting due to the incomplete setting reaction, as shown by XRD analysis. The addition of PG (80/20 and 50/50 was not capable to improve cell proliferation or to enhance gene expression, and mineralized deposition of DPSC after 7 and 14 days as compared to the 100/0.Conclusion Except for flowability, the addition of PG did not promote further improvements on the chemical and physical properties evaluated, and it was not capable of enhancing the bioactivity of the MTA.

  9. Topical glycerol monooleate/propylene glycol formulations enhance 5-aminolevulinic acid in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protophorphyrin IX accumulation in hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steluti, Regilene; De Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Collett, John; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a potential therapy for cancer treatment, utilizes exogenously applied or endogenously formed photosensitizers, further activated by light in an appropriate wavelength and dose to induce cell death through free radical formation. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a pro-drug which can be converted to the effective photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). However, the use of 5-ALA in PDT is limited by the low penetration capacity of this highly hydrophilic molecule into appropriate skin layers. In the present study, we propose to increase 5-ALA penetration by using formulations containing glycerol monooleate (GMO), an interesting and useful component of pharmaceutical formulations. Propylene glycol solutions containing different concentrations of GMO significantly increased the in vitro skin permeation/retention of 5-ALA in comparison to control solutions. In vivo studies also showed increased PpIX accumulation in mouse hairless skin, after the use of topical 5-ALA formulations containing GMO in a concentration-dependent manner. The results show that skin 5-ALA penetration and PpIX accumulation, important factors for the success of topical 5-ALA-PDT in skin cancer, are optimized by GMO/propylene glycol formulations.

  10. Cloud-point measurement for (sulphate salts + polyethylene glycol 15000 + water) systems by the particle counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imani, A.; Modarress, H.; Eliassi, A.; Abdous, M.

    2009-01-01

    The phase separation of (water + salt + polyethylene glycol 15000) systems was studied by cloud-point measurements using the particle counting method. The effect of three kinds of sulphate salt (Na 2 SO 4 , K 2 SO 4 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) concentration, polyethylene glycol 15000 concentration, mass ratio of polymer to salt on the cloud-point temperature of these systems have been investigated. The results obtained indicate that the cloud-point temperatures decrease linearly with increase in polyethylene glycol concentrations for different salts. Also, the cloud points decrease with an increase in mass ratio of salt to polymer.

  11. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cuenca, F.; Gómez-Marín, M.; Folgueras-Díaz, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  12. Efficient Donor Impurities in ZnO Nanorods by Polyethylene Glycol for Enhanced Optical and Glutamate Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Elhag

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that the possibility of using polyethylene glycol (EG as a hydrogen source and it is used to assist the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs. EG doping in ZNRs has been found to significantly improve their optical and chemical sensing characteristics toward glutamate. The EG was found to have no role on the structural properties of the ZNRs. However, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS suggests that the EG could induce donor impurities effect in ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL and UV-Vis. spectra demonstrated this doping effect. Mott-Schottky analysis at the ZNRs/electrolyte interface was used to investigate the charge density for the doped ZNRs and showed comparable dependence on the used amount of EG. Moreover, the doped ZNRs were used in potentiometric measurements for glutamate for a range from 10−6 M to 10−3 M and the potential response of the sensor electrode was linear with a slope of 91.15 mV/decade. The wide range and high sensitivity of the modified ZNRs based glutamate biosensor is attributed to the doping effect on the ZNRs that is dictated by the EG along with the high surface area-to-volume ratio. The findings in the present study suggest new avenues to control the growth of n-ZnO nanostructures and enhance the performance of their sensing devices.

  13. Efficient Donor Impurities in ZnO Nanorods by Polyethylene Glycol for Enhanced Optical and Glutamate Sensing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhag, Sami; Khun, Kimleang; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2016-02-06

    In this paper, we show that the possibility of using polyethylene glycol (EG) as a hydrogen source and it is used to assist the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs). EG doping in ZNRs has been found to significantly improve their optical and chemical sensing characteristics toward glutamate. The EG was found to have no role on the structural properties of the ZNRs. However, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests that the EG could induce donor impurities effect in ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-Vis. spectra demonstrated this doping effect. Mott-Schottky analysis at the ZNRs/electrolyte interface was used to investigate the charge density for the doped ZNRs and showed comparable dependence on the used amount of EG. Moreover, the doped ZNRs were used in potentiometric measurements for glutamate for a range from 10(-6) M to 10(-3) M and the potential response of the sensor electrode was linear with a slope of 91.15 mV/decade. The wide range and high sensitivity of the modified ZNRs based glutamate biosensor is attributed to the doping effect on the ZNRs that is dictated by the EG along with the high surface area-to-volume ratio. The findings in the present study suggest new avenues to control the growth of n-ZnO nanostructures and enhance the performance of their sensing devices.

  14. Cellulose Nanocrystal/Poly(ethylene glycol) Composite as an Iridescent Coating on Polymer Substrates: Structure-Color and Interface Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue; Jiang, Chenyu; Liu, Dagang; Prempeh, Nana; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2016-11-30

    The broad utility as an environmentally friendly and colorful coating of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was limited by its instability of coloration, brittleness, and lack of adhesion to a hydrophobic surface. In the present work, a neutral polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was introduced into CNC coatings through evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) on polymer matrices. The structure-color and mechanical properties of the composite coating or coating film were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD), and tensile tests. Results showed that the reflective wavelength of the iridescent CNCs could be finely tuned by incorporation of PEG with varied loadings from 2.5 to 50 wt %, although the high loading content of PEG would produce some side effects because of the severe microphase separation. Second, PEG played an effective plasticizer to improve the ductility or flexibility of the CNC coating or coating film. Furthermore, as a compatibilizer, PEG could effectively and tremendously enhance the adhesion strength between CNCs and neutral polymer matrices without destroying the chiral nematic mesophases of CNCs. Environmentally friendly CNC/PEG composites with tunable iridescence, good flexibility, and high bonding strength to hydrophobic polymer matrices are expected to be promising candidates in the modern green paint industry.

  15. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Treated Hydroponic Culture Reduces Length and Diameter of Root Hairs of Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important cereal crop worldwide that often suffers from moisture deficits at the reproductive stage. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-treated hydroponic conditions create negative osmotic potential which is compared with moisture deficit stress. An experiment was conducted in a growth chamber to study the effects of PEG on root hair morphology and associated traits of wheat varieties. Plants of 13 wheat varieties were grown hydroponically and three different doses of PEG 6000 (w/v: 0% (control, 0.3% and 0.6% (less than −1 bar were imposed on 60 days after sowing for 20 days’ duration. A low PEG concentration was imposed to observe how initial low moisture stress might affect root hair development. PEG-treated hydroponic culture significantly decreased root hair diameter and length. Estimated surface area reduction of root hairs at the main axes of wheat plants was around nine times at the 0.6% PEG level compared to the control plants. Decrease in root hair diameter and length under PEG-induced culture decreased “potential” root surface area per unit length of main root axis. A negative association between panicle traits, length and dry weight and the main axis length of young roots indicated competition for carbon during their development. Data provides insight into how a low PEG level might alter root hair development.

  16. Modification of curcumin with polyethylene glycol enhances the delivery of curcumin in preadipocytes and its antiadipogenic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon Young; Bordenave, Nicolas; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Safavy, Ahmad; Kim, Kee-Hong

    2011-02-09

    Conjugation of curcumin (CCM) by polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been previously developed to improve water solubility of the natural form of CCM and its antiproliferative role in some human cancer cell lines. This study examined the cellular uptake kinetics of the natural form of CCM and CCM-PEG. Their cytotoxic effect in proliferating preadipocytes and antiadipogenic property in differentiating preadipocytes had also been investigated. CCM and CCM-PEG were found to be differently absorbed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes with a limited amount of CCM-PEG absorption in the cell. The improved water solubility of CCM-PEG was correlated with increased cellular retention of CCM in 3T3-L1 cells, particularly in preadipocytes. Consequently, CCM-PEG treatment sensitized proliferating preadipocytes to CCM-induced cell toxicity. Furthermore, incubation of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells with CCM-PEG resulted in improvement of the inhibitory role of CCM in adipocyte differentiation with no toxic effect. These results suggest that pegylation-improved water solubility and cellular retention of CCM may be uniquely useful for improving the delivery of CCM in preadipocytes and its antiadipogenic ability.

  17. Transparent Low Molecular Weight Poly(Ethylene Glycol Diacrylate-Based Hydrogels as Film Media for Photoswitchable Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Pelras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have shown a great potential as materials for drug delivery systems thanks to their usually excellent bio-compatibility and their ability to trap water-soluble organic molecules in a porous network. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol-based hydrogels containing a model dye were synthesized by ultraviolet (UV-A photopolymerization of low-molecular weight macro-monomers and the material properties (dye release ability, transparency, morphology, and polymerization kinetics were studied. Real-time infrared measurements revealed that the photopolymerization of the materials was strongly limited when the dye was added to the uncured formulation. Consequently, the procedure was adapted to allow for the formation of sufficiently cured gels that are able to capture and later on to release dye molecules in phosphate-buffered saline solution within a few hours. Due to the transparency of the materials in the 400–800 nm range, the hydrogels are suitable for the loading and excitation of photoactive molecules. These can be uptaken by and released from the polymer matrix. Therefore, such materials may find applications as cheap and tailored materials in photodynamic therapy (i.e., light-induced treatment of skin infections by bacteria, fungi, and viruses using photoactive drugs.

  18. Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-treated human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, D; Torun, Z Ö; Demirkaya, K; Sarper, M; Elçi, M P; Avcu, F

    2017-11-01

    Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) is an important resin monomer commonly used in the structure of dental restorative materials. Recent studies have shown that unpolymerized resin monomers may be released into the oral environment and cause harmful biological effects. We investigated changes in the gene expression profiles of TEGDMA-treated human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) following short- (1-day) and long-term (7-days) exposure. HDPCs were exposed to a noncytotoxic concentration of TEGDMA, and gene expression profiles were evaluated by microarray analysis. The results were confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT PCR). In total, 1282 and 1319 genes (up- or down-regulated) were differentially expressed compared with control group after the 1- and 7-day incubation periods, respectively. Biological ontology-based analyses revealed that metabolic, cellular, and developmental processes constituted the largest groups of biological functional processes. qRT-PCR analysis on bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), BMP-4, secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich, collagen type I alpha 1, oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1, MMP3, interleukin-6, and heme oxygenase-1 genes confirmed the changes in expression observed in the microarray analysis. Our results suggest that TEGDMA can change the many functions of hDPCs through large changes in gene expression levels and complex interactions with different signaling pathways.

  19. Preparation of polymer microspheres by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cross-liking monomer, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate gives microspheres from organic solution by radiation-induced polymerization. /One of the remarkable result is that the number of the microspheres is not changing during the polymerization. Ethyl methacrylate, maleic anhydride, styrene and acrylamide are used as comonomers. These comonomers give the microspheres in the range of 0 to 0.4 as mol fractions. (author)

  20. Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Rana, Rohini R; Gotfryd, Kamil; Chandra, Richa; Goren, Michael A; Kruse, Andrew C; Nurva, Shailika; Loland, Claus J; Pierre, Yves; Drew, David; Popot, Jean-Luc; Picot, Daniel; Fox, Brian G; Guan, Lan; Gether, Ulrik; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian; Gellman, Samuel H

    2010-12-01

    The understanding of integral membrane protein (IMP) structure and function is hampered by the difficulty of handling these proteins. Aqueous solubilization, necessary for many types of biophysical analysis, generally requires a detergent to shield the large lipophilic surfaces of native IMPs. Many proteins remain difficult to study owing to a lack of suitable detergents. We introduce a class of amphiphiles, each built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from neopentyl glycol, with hydrophilic groups derived from maltose. Representatives of this maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphile family show favorable behavior relative to conventional detergents, as manifested in multiple membrane protein systems, leading to enhanced structural stability and successful crystallization. MNG amphiphiles are promising tools for membrane protein science because of the ease with which they may be prepared and the facility with which their structures may be varied.

  1. Comparison of polyethylene glycol 3350 and lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremse, David A; Hixon, Jamie; Crutchfield, Alysia

    2002-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and lactulose were compared in an unblinded, randomized, crossover design for treatment of constipation in 37 children aged 2 to 16 years. Subjects received lactulose (1.3 g/kg/d divided twice daily up to 20 g) or PEG 3350 (10 g/m2/day) for 2 weeks. PEG 3350 significantly decreased the total colonic transit time compared to lactulose (47.6+/-2.7 vs 55.3+/-2.4 hours, mean +/- SE, PEG 3350 vs lactulose, respectively, p = 0.038). The stool frequency, form, and the ease of passage were similar for each laxative. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is an effective laxative for the treatment of chronic constipation in children.

  2. Characterization of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Obtained by Hydrolysis Reaction of Ethylene Glycol Solution of Alkoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uekawa, N.; Endo, N.; Ishii, K.; Kojima, T.; Kakegawa, K.

    2012-01-01

    Transparent and stable sols of titanium oxide nanoparticles were obtained by heating a mixture of ethylene glycol solution of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TIP) and a NH 3 aqueous solution at 368 K for 24 h. The concentration of NH 3 aqueous solution affected the structure of the obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles. For NH 3 aqueous solution concentrations higher than 0.2 mol/L, a mixture of anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles and layered titanic acid nanoparticles was obtained. The obtained sol was very stable without formation of aggregated precipitates and gels. Coordination of ethylene glycol to Ti4+ ions inhibited the rapid hydrolysis reaction and aggregation of the obtained nanoparticles. The obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles had a large specific surface area: larger than 350 m2/g. The obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles showed an enhanced adsorption towards the cationic dye molecules. The selective adsorption corresponded to presence of layered titanic acid on the obtained anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles.

  3. Studies on polyethylene glycol coating on NiFe2O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadatare, M.R.; Khot, V.M.; Salunkhe, A.B.; Thorat, N.D.; Pawar, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by the combustion method and these nanoparticles were successfully coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the possible biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, tissue repair, magnetic fluid hyperthermia etc. The structural and magnetic characterizations of NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were carried out by x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques, respectively. The morphology of the uncoated and coated nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The existence of PEG layer on NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of nanocrystalline NiFe 2 O 4 by the combustion method. ► Magnetic properties of the NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles at room temperature. ► Coating of NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles by Polyethylene glycol (PEG).

  4. Characterization of Tin/Ethylene Glycol Solar Nanofluids Synthesized by Femtosecond Laser Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mendieta, Rafael; Mondragón, Rosa; Puerto-Belda, Verónica; Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Lancis, Jesús; Juliá, J Enrique; Mínguez-Vega, Gladys

    2017-05-05

    Solar energy is available over wide geographical areas and its harnessing is becoming an essential tool to satisfy the ever-increasing demand for energy with minimal environmental impact. Solar nanofluids are a novel solar receiver concept for efficient harvesting of solar radiation based on volumetric absorption of directly irradiated nanoparticles in a heat transfer fluid. Herein, the fabrication of a solar nanofluid by pulsed laser ablation in liquids was explored. This study was conducted with the ablation of bulk tin immersed in ethylene glycol with a femtosecond laser. Laser irradiation promotes the formation of tin nanoparticles that are collected in the ethylene glycol as colloids, creating the solar nanofluid. The ability to trap incoming electromagnetic radiation, thermal conductivity, and the stability of the solar nanofluid in comparison with conventional synthesis methods is enhanced. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Poly(ethylene glycol) grafted chitosan as new copolymer material for oral delivery of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Thanh Ha; Thanh Le, Thi Nu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Dang, Mau Chien

    2015-01-01

    A new scheme of grafting poly (ethylene glycol) onto chitosan was proposed in this study to give new material for delivery of insulin over oral pathway. First, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) amine (mPEGa MW 2000) were grafted onto chitosan (CS) through multiples steps to synthesize the grafting copolymer PEG-g-CS. After each synthesis step, chitosan and its derivatives were characterized by FTIR, "1H NMR Then, insulin loaded PEG-g-CS nanoparticles were prepared by cross-linking of CS with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Same insulin loaded nanoparticles using unmodified chitosan were also prepared in order to compare with the modified ones. Results showed better protecting capacity of the synthesized copolymer over original CS. CS nanoparticles (10 nm of size) were gel like and high sensible to temperature as well as acidic environment while PEG-g-CS nanoparticles (200 nm of size) were rigid and more thermo and pH stable. (paper)

  6. Delayed autonomic neuropathy in a patient with diethylene glycol poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Hiroki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Saori; Nomura, Ryosuke; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2017-07-01

    A 72-year-old man presented to our hospital after ingesting insecticide containing approximately 2 mL/kg diethylene glycol, which exceeded the lethal dose of 1 mL/kg. The patient recovered from critical symptoms on acute phase until day 3, but received artificial ventilation for muscle weakness secondary to sensorimotor neuropathy on days 11-54. Even after marked improvement from sensorimotor neuropathy, the patient continued to complain of orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic neuropathy was identified by positive result of a head-up tilt test, and reduction in coefficient of variation of R-R intervals and cardiac iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake for the assessment of cardiac sympathetic activity. The patient's symptoms fully recovered 2 years after the exposure to diethylene glycol. This case shows the first report of delayed autonomic neuropathy after recovery from severe sensorimotor neuropathy, and suggests the importance of continuous monitoring for late-onset neurological complications.

  7. Additional of polyethylene glycol on the preparation of LaPO4:Eu3+ phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2013-09-01

    Solution phase method was used to synthesis nanocrystal LaPO4:Eu3+. Polyethylene glycol with vary molecular weight (MW) was added to allow an exothermic reaction to get a high crystalinity of LaPO4:Eu3+. The x-ray pattern of as prepared LaPO4 was obtained by using an X'pert PANalytical diffractometer with CuKα radiation (λ = 1.5406 Å) and the photoluminescent measurement spectra is obtained by using Fluorescence Spectrometer LS55, Perkin Elmer. The additional of various MW of polyethylene glycol into the precursor solution of LaPO4:Eu3+ affected the crystal structure and luminescent properties. Higher MW of PEG depressing the luminescent spectra. The emission origin from 5D0-7F4 transition vanished by additional 500,000 and 2,000,000 MW of PEG.

  8. Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi , Mahendra Kumar; Tallapragada , Rama Mohan; Branton , Alice; Trivedi , Dahryn; Nayak , Gopal; Mishra , Rakesh; Jana , Snehasis

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG ...

  9. Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Dahryn; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Branton, Alice; Nayak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG were characterized by X-...

  10. Maltose Neopentyl Glycol-3 (MNG-3) Analogues for Membrane Protein Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Husri, Mohd; Amin, Anowarul; Gotfryd, Kamil; Lee, Ho Jin; Go, Juyeon; Kim, Jin Woong; Loland, Claus J.; Guan, Lan; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2015-01-01

    Detergents are typically used to both extract membrane proteins (MPs) from the lipid bilayer and maintain them in solution. However, MPs encapsulated in detergent micelles are often prone to denaturation and aggregation. Thus, development of novel agents with enhanced stabilization characteristics is necessary to advance MP research. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) has contributed to >10 crystal structures including G-protein coupled receptors. Here we prepared MNG-3 analogues and characte...

  11. Safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 solution in chronic constipation: randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Thomas McGraw Global Medical Affairs, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of aqueous solution concentrate (ASC) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in patients with functional constipation.Patients and methods: The patients who met Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation were randomized in this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study to receive once daily dose of PEG 3350 (17 g) ASC or ...

  12. Comparison of a low dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution with lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation

    OpenAIRE

    Attar, A; Lemann, M; Ferguson, A; Halphen, M; Boutron, M; Flourie, B; Alix, E; Salmeron, M; Guillemot, F; Chaussade, S; Menard, A; Moreau, J; Naudin, G; Barthet, M

    1999-01-01

    Background—Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 is a non-absorbable, non-metabolised osmotic agent used in lavage solutions for gut cleansing. 
Aims—To compare the efficacy of PEG and lactulose in chronic constipation. 
Methods—A total of 115 patients with chronic constipation entered a multicentre, randomised, comparative trial. They initially received two sachets containing either PEG (13 g/sachet) or lactulose (10 g/sachet) and were given an option to change the dose to one ...

  13. Experimental Study of CO2 Solubility in Ionic Liquids and Polyethylene Glycols

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huang

    2015-01-01

    The parameter of density, viscosity are tested and fitted with the result of solubility measurement. With series of experiments, this chemical blend is considered with a good effect. The mixture of 50% tetrabutylphosphonium glycine with 50% polyethylene glycol (molecular weight: 400) is the suggested blend, and the most suitable temperature is absorption in 120C and desorption in 60C. But the solubility reduced rapidly from the second cycle of experiment, thus recycled use is not recommended.

  14. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid drug delivery systems through transdermal pathway: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Naves, Lucas; Dhand, Chetna; Almeida, Luis; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Soares, Gra?a

    2017-01-01

    In past few decades, scientists have made tremendous advancement in the field of drug delivery systems (DDS), through transdermal pathway, as the skin represents a ready and large surface area for delivering drugs. Efforts are in progress to design efficient transdermal DDS that support sustained drug release at the targeted area for longer duration in the recommended therapeutic window without producing side-effects. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is one of the most promising Food and ...

  15. Novel Routes to Ethylene Glycol Synthesis via Acid-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Formaldehyde and Dimethoxymethane

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Fuat Emin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond forming carbonylation reactions were investigated as candidates to replace ethene epoxidation as the major source of ethylene glycol production. This work was motivated by the potentially lower cost of carbon derived from synthesis gas as compared to ethylene. Synthesis gas can be produced from relatively abundant and cheap natural gas, coal, and biomass resources whereas ethylene is derived from increasingly scarce and expensive crude oil. From synthesis gas, a range of...

  16. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu

    2014-09-30

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids and salts as the molybdenum-containing multi-functional catalysts for biomass conversion. In embodiments of the invention, the reactions employ successive hydrolysis, retro-aldol fragmentation, and selective oxidation in a noble metal-free system.

  17. Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhenjun; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2014-10-09

    The adsorption of 1,3-propylene glycol (1,3-PG) on partially reduced TiO2(110) and its conversion to products have been studied by a combination of molecular beam dosing and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). When the Ti surface sites are saturated by 1,3-PG, ~80% of the molecules undergo further reactions to yield products that are liberated during the TPD ramp. In contrast to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2- propylene glycol (1,2-PG) that yield only alkenes and water at very low coverages (< 0.05 ML), two additional products, HCHO and C2H4, along with propylene (CH3CHCH2) and water are observed for 1,3-PG. Identical TPD line shapes and desorption yields for HCHO and C2H4 suggest that these products result from C-C bond cleavage and are coupled. At higher 1,3-PG coverages (> 0.1 ML), propanal (CH3CH2CHO) and two additional products, 1-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) and acrolein (CH2CHCHO), are observed. The desorption of 1-propanol is found to be coupled with the desorption of acrolein, suggesting that these products are formed by the disproportionation of two 1,3-PG molecules. The coverage dependent TPD results further show that propylene formation dominates at low coverages (< 0.3 ML), while the decomposition and disproportionation channels increase rapidly at higher coverages and reach yields comparable to that of propylene at the 1,3-PG saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. The observed surface chemistry clearly shows how the molecular structure of glycols influences their reaction pathways on oxide surfaces.

  18. Effects of Zinc Deuteroporphyrin Bis Glycol on Newborn Mice After Heme-Loading

    OpenAIRE

    He, Cynthia X.; Campbell, Claire M.; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora S.; Schulz, Stephanie; Vreman, Hendrik J.; Wong, Ronald J.; Stevenson, David K.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with hemolytic diseases frequently develop hyperbilirubinemia, but standard phototherapy only eliminates bilirubin after its production. A better strategy might be to directly inhibit heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in bilirubin production. Metalloporphyrins (Mps) are heme analogs that competitively inhibit HO activity in vitro and in vivo and suppress plasma bilirubin levels in vivo. A promising Mp, zinc deuteroporphyrin bis glycol (ZnBG), is orally absorbed and effecti...

  19. A Comparative Study on Magnetostructural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powders Prepared by Polyethylene Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline particles of barium hexaferrite were synthesized by a sol-gel combustion route using nitrate-citrate gels prepared from metal nitrates and citric acid solutions with Fe/Ba molar ratio 12. The present paper aims to study the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions with different molecular weights (MW: 400, 2000, and 10.000 g/mol) on magnetostructural properties of barium hexaferrite. The formation of the barium hexaferrite was inspected using X-ray diffractio...

  20. Randomized cross-over trial of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and water for colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, Austin; Green, Colin; Phillips, Robin K S

    2004-09-01

    Water for colostomy irrigation is largely absorbed by the colon, which may result in less efficient expulsion of stool. This study compared the outcome of colonic cleansing with water and polyethylene glycol solution. In a cross-over study, 41 colostomy irrigators were randomly assigned to water or polyethylene glycol solution irrigation first and then the other regimen, each for one week. Patients recorded fluid inflow time, total washout time, cramps, leakage episodes, number of stoma pouches used, and satisfaction scores (Visual Analog Scale, 1-10: 1 = poor, and 10 = excellent). The median and interquartile range for each variable was calculated, and the two treatments were compared (Wilcoxon's test). Eight patients failed to complete the study. Thirty-three patients (20 females; mean age, 55 (range, 39-73) years) provided 352 irrigation sessions: water (n = 176), and polyethylene glycol solution (n = 176). Irrigation was performed every 24, 48, and 72 hours by 17, 9, and 7 patients respectively, using 500 ml (n = 1), 750 ml (n = 2), 1,000 ml (n = 16), 1,500 ml (n = 11), 2,000 ml (n = 2), and 3,500 ml (n = 1) of fluid. The median and interquartile range for water vs. polyethylene glycol solution were: fluid inflow time (6 (range, 4.4-10.8) vs. 6.3 (range, 4.1-11) minutes; P = 0.48), total washout time (53 (range, 33-69) vs. 38 (range, 28-55) minutes; P = 0.01), leakage episodes (2.3 (range, 1.7-3.8) vs. 0.7 (range, 0.2-1); P colostomy irrigation.