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Sample records for glycol hydrogel microstructures

  1. Protein diffusion in photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engberg, Kristin; Frank, Curtis W

    2011-01-01

    In this study, protein diffusion through swollen hydrogel networks prepared from end-linked poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEG-DA) was investigated. Hydrogels were prepared via photopolymerization from PEG-DA macromonomer solutions of two molecular weights, 4600 Da and 8000 Da, with three initial solid contents: 20, 33 and 50 wt/wt% PEG. Diffusion coefficients for myoglobin traveling across the hydrogel membrane were determined for all PEG network compositions. The diffusion coefficient depended on PEG molecular weight and initial solid content, with the slowest diffusion occurring through lower molecular weight, high-solid-content networks (D gel = 0.16 ± 0.02 x 10 -8 cm 2 s -1 ) and the fastest diffusion occurring through higher molecular weight, low-solid-content networks (D gel = 11.05 ± 0.43 x 10 -8 cm 2 s -1 ). Myoglobin diffusion coefficients increased linearly with the increase of water content within the hydrogels. The permeability of three larger model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G) through PEG(8000) hydrogel membranes was also examined, with the observation that globular molecules as large as 10.7 nm in hydrodynamic diameter can diffuse through the PEG network. Protein diffusion coefficients within the PEG hydrogels ranged from one to two orders of magnitude lower than the diffusion coefficients in free water. Network defects were determined to be a significant contributing factor to the observed protein diffusion.

  2. Micropatterning of a nanoporous alumina membrane with poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel to create cellular micropatterns on nanotopographic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jong; Kim, Dae Nyun; Park, Saemi; Lee, Yeol; Koh, Won-Gun

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a simple method for fabricating micropatterned nanoporous substrates that are capable of controlling the spatial positioning of mammalian cells. Micropatterned substrates were prepared by fabricating poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microstructures on alumina membranes with 200 nm nanopores using photolithography. Because hydrogel precursor solution could infiltrate and become crosslinked within the nanopores, the resultant hydrogel micropatterns were firmly anchored on the substrate without the use of adhesion-promoting monolayers, thereby allow tailoring of the surface properties of unpatterned nanoporous areas. For mammalian cell patterning, arrays of microwells of different dimensions were fabricated. These microwells were composed of hydrophilic PEG hydrogel walls surrounding nanoporous bottoms that were modified with cell-adhesive Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides. Because the PEG hydrogel was non-adhesive towards proteins and cells, cells adhered selectively and remained viable within the RGD-modified nanoporous regions, thereby creating cellular micropatterns. Although the morphology of cell clusters and the number of cells inside one microwell were dependent on the lateral dimension of the microwells, adhered cells that were in direct contact with nanopores were able to penetrate into the nanopores by small extensions (filopodia) for all the different sizes of microwells evaluated. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of hydrogel microstructure using laser tweezers particle tracking and confocal reflection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlarchyk, M A; Botvinick, E L; Putnam, A J

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogels are commonly used as extracellular matrix mimetics for applications in tissue engineering and increasingly as cell culture platforms with which to study the influence of biophysical and biochemical cues on cell function in 3D. In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanical properties to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk mechanical properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Here we have utilized a laser tracking system, based on passive optical microrheology instrumentation, to characterize the microstructure of viscoelastic fibrin clots. Trajectories and mean square displacements were observed as bioinert PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) microspheres (1, 2 or 4.7 μm in diameter) diffused within confined pores created by the protein phase of fibrin hydrogels. Complementary confocal reflection imaging revealed microstructures comprised of a highly heterogeneous fibrin network with a wide range of pore sizes. As the protein concentration of fibrin gels was increased, our quantitative laser tracking measurements showed a corresponding decrease in particle mean square displacements with greater resolution and sensitivity than conventional imaging techniques. This platform-independent method will enable a more complete understanding of how changes in substrate mechanical properties simultaneously influence other microenvironmental parameters in 3D cultures.

  4. Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogel surfaces for antifouling applications in marine and freshwater environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekblad, T.; Bergström, G.; Ederth, T.; Conlan, S.L.; Mutton, R.; Clare, A.S.; Wang, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Q.; D'Souza, F.; Donnelly, G.T.; Willemsen, P.R.; Pettitt, M.E.; Callow, M.E.; Callow, J.A.; Liedberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and biological evaluation of a thin protein-resistant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel coating for antifouling applications. The coating was fabricated by free-radical polymerization on silanized glass and silicon and on

  5. Injectable dual redox responsive diselenide-containing poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chu; Shan, Meng; Li, Bingqiang; Wu, Guolin

    2017-09-01

    An injectable dual redox responsive diselenide-containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel was successfully developed by combining the conceptions of injectable hydrogels and dual redox responsive diselenides. In the first step, four-armed PEG was modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated esters and thereafter, crosslinked by selenocystamine crosslinkers to form injectable hydrogels via the rapid reaction between NHS-activated esters and amino groups. The cross-sectional morphology, mechanical properties, and crosslinking modes of hydrogels were well characterized via scanning electron microscope (SEM), rheological measurements, and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. In addition, the oxidation- and reduction-responsive degradation behaviors of hydrogels were observed and analyzed. The model drug, rhodamine B, was encapsulated in the hydrogel. The drug-loaded hydrogel exhibited a dual redox responsive release profile, which was consistent with the degradation experiments. The results of all experiments indicated that the formulated injectable dual redox responsive diselenide-containing PEG hydrogel can have potential applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and stimuli-responsive drug release. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2451-2460, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Keratocyte behavior in three-dimensional photopolymerizable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Richard; Ambrose, Winnette McIntosh; Schein, Oliver D.; Chakravarti, Shukti; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3-D) poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels as a culture system for studying corneal keratocytes. Bovine keratocytes were subcultured in DMEM/F-12 containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) through passage 5. Primary keratocytes (P0) and corneal fibroblasts from passages 1 (P1) and 3 (P3) were photoencapsulated at various cell concentrations in PEG hydrogels via brief exposure to light. Additional hydrogels contained adhesive YRGDS and nonadhesive YRDGS peptides. Hydrogel constructs were cultured in DMEM/F-12 with 10% FBS for 2 and 4 weeks. Cell viability was assessed by DNA quantification and vital staining. Biglycan, type I collagen, type III collagen, keratocan and lumican expression were determined by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Deposition of type I collagen, type III collagen and keratan sulfate (KS)-containing matrix components was visualized using confocal microscopy. Keratocytes in a monolayer lost their stellate morphology and keratocan expression, displayed elongated cell bodies, and up-regulated biglycan, type I collagen and type III collagen characteristic of corneal fibroblasts. Encapsulated keratocytes remained viable for 4 weeks with spherical morphologies. Hydrogels supported production of KS, type I collagen and type III collagen matrix components. PEG-based hydrogels can support keratocyte viability and matrix production. 3-D hydrogel culture can stabilize but not restore the keratocyte phenotype. This novel application of PEG hydrogels has potential use in the study of corneal keratocytes in a 3-D environment. PMID:18567550

  7. Fabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio 3D Hydrogel Microstructures Using Optically Induced Electrokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a rapid hydrogel polymerization and prototyping microfabrication technique using an optically induced electrokinetics (OEK chip, which is based on a non-UV hydrogel curing principle. Using this technique, micro-scale high-aspect-ratio three-dimensional polymer features with different geometric sizes can be fabricated within 1–10 min by projecting pre-defined visible light image patterns onto the OEK chip. This method eliminates the need for traditional photolithography masks used for patterning and fabricating polymer microstructures and simplifies the fabrication processes. This technique uses cross-link hydrogels, such as poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-diacrylate (PEGDA, as fabrication materials. We demonstrated that hydrogel micropillar arrays rapidly fabricated using this technique can be used as molds to create micron-scale cavities in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane substrates. Furthermore, hollow, circular tubes with controllable wall thicknesses and high-aspect ratios can also be fabricated. These results show the potential of this technique to become a rapid prototyping technology for producing microfluidic devices. In addition, we show that rapid prototyping of three-dimensional suspended polymer structures is possible without any sacrificial etching process.

  8. Drying and storage effects on poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, P T; Browning, M B; Bixler, R S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, E

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their ability to control cell-material interactions by tuning hydrogel physical and biological properties. Evaluation of stability after drying and storage are critical in creating an off-the-shelf biomaterial that functions in vivo according to original specifications. However, there has not been a study that systematically investigates the effects of different drying conditions on hydrogel compositional variables. In the first part of this study, PEG-diacrylate hydrogels underwent common processing procedures (vacuum-drying, lyophilizing, hydrating then vacuum-drying), and the effect of this processing on the mechanical properties and swelling ratios was measured. Significant changes in compressive modulus, tensile modulus, and swelling ratio only occurred for select processed hydrogels. No consistent trends were observed after processing for any of the formulations tested. The effect of storage conditions on cell adhesion and spreading on collagen- and streptococcal collagen-like protein (Scl2-2)-PEG-diacrylamide hydrogels was then evaluated to characterize bioactivity retention after storage. Dry storage conditions preserved bioactivity after 6 weeks of storage; whereas, storage in PBS significantly reduced bioactivity. This loss of bioactivity was attributed to ester hydrolysis of the protein linker, acrylate-PEG-N-hydroxysuccinimide. These studies demonstrate that these processing methods and dry storage conditions may be used to prepare bioactive PEG hydrogel scaffolds with recoverable functionality after storage. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Skin-inspired hydrogel-elastomer hybrids with robust interfaces and functional microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Hyunwoo; Zhang, Teng; Parada, German Alberto; Liu, Xinyue; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by mammalian skins, soft hybrids integrating the merits of elastomers and hydrogels have potential applications in diverse areas including stretchable and bio-integrated electronics, microfluidics, tissue engineering, soft robotics and biomedical devices. However, existing hydrogel-elastomer hybrids have limitations such as weak interfacial bonding, low robustness and difficulties in patterning microstructures. Here, we report a simple yet versatile method to assemble hydrogels and elastomers into hybrids with extremely robust interfaces (interfacial toughness over 1,000 Jm-2) and functional microstructures such as microfluidic channels and electrical circuits. The proposed method is generally applicable to various types of tough hydrogels and diverse commonly used elastomers including polydimethylsiloxane Sylgard 184, polyurethane, latex, VHB and Ecoflex. We further demonstrate applications enabled by the robust and microstructured hydrogel-elastomer hybrids including anti-dehydration hydrogel-elastomer hybrids, stretchable and reactive hydrogel-elastomer microfluidics, and stretchable hydrogel circuit boards patterned on elastomer.

  10. Poly(ethylene glycol)-based thiol-ene hydrogel coatings: curing chemistry, aqueous stability, and potential marine antifouling applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundberg, P.; Bruin, A.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Nyström, A.M.; Johansson, M.; Malkoch, M.; Hult, A.

    2010-01-01

    Photocured thiol-ene hydrogel coatings based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were investigated for marine antifouling purposes. By varying the PEG length, vinylic end-group, and thiol cross-linker, a library of hydrogel coatings with different structural composition was efficiently accomplished, with

  11. Direct laser writing of synthetic poly(amino acid) hydrogels and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates by two-photon polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Käpylä, Elli; Sedlačík, Tomáš; Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Viitanen, Jouko; Rypáček, František; Kellomäki, Minna

    2014-01-01

    The additive manufacturing technique of direct laser writing by two-photon polymerization (2PP-DLW) enables the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures with superior accuracy and flexibility. When combined with biomimetic hydrogel materials, 2PP-DLW can be used to recreate the microarchitectures of the extracellular matrix. However, there are currently only a limited number of hydrogels applicable for 2PP-DLW. In order to widen the selection of synthetic biodegradable hydrogels, in this work we studied the 2PP-DLW of methacryloylated and acryloylated poly(α-amino acid)s (poly(AA)s). The performance of these materials was compared to widely used poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates (PEGdas) in terms of polymerization and damage thresholds, voxel size, line width, post-polymerization swelling and deformation. We found that both methacryloylated and acryloylated poly(AA) hydrogels are suitable to 2PP-DLW with a wider processing window than PEGdas. The poly(AA) with the highest degree of acryloylation showed the greatest potential for 3D microfabrication. - Highlights: • Methacryloylated and acryloylated poly(α-amino acid)s (poly(AA)s) were synthesized. • Direct laser writing by two-photon polymerization (2PP-DLW) of poly(AA)s is shown. • Poly(AA)s have wider processing windows than poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates. • 3D poly(AA) structures with 80% water content were fabricated

  12. Direct laser writing of synthetic poly(amino acid) hydrogels and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates by two-photon polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Käpylä, Elli, E-mail: elli.kapyla@tut.fi [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, 33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Sedlačík, Tomáš [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovského nám. 2, 162 06 Praha 6, Břevnov, Prague (Czech Republic); Aydogan, Dogu Baran [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, 33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Viitanen, Jouko [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Rypáček, František [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovského nám. 2, 162 06 Praha 6, Břevnov, Prague (Czech Republic); Kellomäki, Minna [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, 33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-10-01

    The additive manufacturing technique of direct laser writing by two-photon polymerization (2PP-DLW) enables the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures with superior accuracy and flexibility. When combined with biomimetic hydrogel materials, 2PP-DLW can be used to recreate the microarchitectures of the extracellular matrix. However, there are currently only a limited number of hydrogels applicable for 2PP-DLW. In order to widen the selection of synthetic biodegradable hydrogels, in this work we studied the 2PP-DLW of methacryloylated and acryloylated poly(α-amino acid)s (poly(AA)s). The performance of these materials was compared to widely used poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates (PEGdas) in terms of polymerization and damage thresholds, voxel size, line width, post-polymerization swelling and deformation. We found that both methacryloylated and acryloylated poly(AA) hydrogels are suitable to 2PP-DLW with a wider processing window than PEGdas. The poly(AA) with the highest degree of acryloylation showed the greatest potential for 3D microfabrication. - Highlights: • Methacryloylated and acryloylated poly(α-amino acid)s (poly(AA)s) were synthesized. • Direct laser writing by two-photon polymerization (2PP-DLW) of poly(AA)s is shown. • Poly(AA)s have wider processing windows than poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates. • 3D poly(AA) structures with 80% water content were fabricated.

  13. Thermo-sensitive injectable glycol chitosan-based hydrogel for treatment of degenerative disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengzheng; Shim, Hyeeun; Cho, Myeong Ok; Cho, Ik Sung; Lee, Jin Hyun; Kang, Sun-Woong; Kwon, Bosun; Huh, Kang Moo

    2018-03-15

    The use of injectable hydrogel formulations have been suggested as a promising strategy for the treatment of degenerative disc disease to both restore the biomechanical function and reduce low back pain. In this work, a new thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogels with tunable thermo-sensitivity and enhanced stability were developed with N-hexanoylation of glycol chitosan (GC) for treatment of degenerative disc disease, and their physico-chemical and biological properties were evaluated. The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was controlled in a range of 23-56 °С, depending on the degree of hexanoylation and the polymer concentration. In vitro and in vivo tests showed no cytotoxicity and no adverse effects in a rat model. The hydrogel filling of the defective IVD site in an ex vivo porcine model maintained its stability for longer than 28 days. These results suggest that the hydrogel can be used as an alternative material for treatment of disc herniation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biocompatible and bioadhesive hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, monofunctional poly(alkylene glycols and itaconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićić Maja M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available New types of hydrogels were prepared by the radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, itaconic acid and four different poly(alkylene glycol (methacrylate components (Bisomers in a water/ethanol mixture as solvent. The polymers swell in water at 25°C to yield homogeneous transparent hydrogels. All the hydrogels displayed pH sensitive behavior in buffers of the pH range from 2.20 to 7.40, under conditions similar to those of biological fluids. The presence of these two comonomers, which were added to HEMA, increased the swelling degree of the hydrogels and gave gels with better elasticity. The hydrogels were thermally stable in the vicinity of the physiological temperature (37°C. The copolymer containing pure poly(ethylene glycol acrylate units generally had the best properties. The tests performed on the hydrogels confirmed that they were neither hemolytic nor cytotoxic. The copolymer samples showed better cell viability and less hemolytic activity than the PHEMA sample, confirming the assumption that poly(alkylene glycols improve the biocompatibility of hydrogels. Due to their swelling and mechanical characteristics, as well as the very good biocompatibility and bioadhesive properties, poly(Bisomer/HEMA/IA hydrogels are promising for utilization in the field of biomedicals, especially for the controlled release of drugs.

  15. Transdermal thiol-acrylate polyethylene glycol hydrogel synthesis using near infrared light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Solchan; Lee, Hwangjae; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Min-Gon; Lee, Luke P.; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-07-01

    Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation via a mixed-mode reaction with a small increase in temperature (~5 °C) under the optimized conditions. We also achieved successful transdermal gelation via the NIR-assisted photothermal thiol-acryl reactions. This new type of NIR-assisted thiol-acrylate polymerization provides new opportunities for in situ hydrogel formation for injectable hydrogels and delivery of drugs/cells for various biomedical applications.Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation

  16. Angiogenic competency of biodegradable hydrogels fabricated from polyethylene glycol-crosslinked tyrosine-derived polycarbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HJ Sung

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biomaterials can be used as instructive biological milieus to guide cellular behaviour and function. To further realize this application, we synthesized a series of structurally similar hydrogels and tested their ability to modulate angiogenesis. Hydrogels were synthesized from poly(DTE-co-x% DT carbonate crosslinked by y% poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. Hydrogel desaminotyrosyl tyrosine (DT contents (x% ranged from 10-100%, and crosslink densities (y% PEG-crosslinker ranged from 5-80%. The hydrogels were fashioned into porous scaffolds with highly interconnected macro- and micro-pore (>100 and <10 mm in diameter, respectively architecture using poly(DTE-co-10%DT carbonate crosslinked with 8% PEG. Under physiological conditions (in vitro, the hydrogels degraded into three major products: desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE, desaminotyrosyl tyrosine (DT, and poly(ethylene glycol-di-DT-hydrazide (PEG-di-DT hydrazide. Increasing either DT content or crosslink density brought quickened degradation. Because DT and DTE, two of the three major degradation products, have not demonstrated any noticeable cytotoxicity or angiogenic effect in previous studies, we measured the cytotoxicity of PEG-di-DT hydrazide, the third major degradation product. We found that PEG-di-DT hydrazide only displayed significant cytotoxicity at the high concentration of 100 mg/mL. Interestingly, PEG-di-DT hydrazide and its further degradation product PEG-dihydrazide stimulated in vitro endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis, which is comparable to results found with FGF-beta treatment. Subcutaneous implantation of the PEG-crosslinked poly(DTE-co-10%DT carbonate scaffolds into the backs of rats elicited greater tissue growth over time and superior vascularization than poly(DTE carbonate implantation. These results show that this new class of biomaterials has a strong potential to modulate angiogenesis.

  17. Stereocomplexed 8-armed poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) star block copolymer hydrogels: Gelation mechanism, mechanical properties and degradation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, S.J.; Calucci, L.; Forte, C.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Mixing aqueous poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d-lactide) and poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lactide) star block copolymer solutions resulted in the formation of stereocomplexed hydrogels within 1 min. A study towards the mechanism of the temperature dependent formation of stereocomplexes in the hydrogels

  18. Cartilage-like mechanical properties of poly (ethylene glycol)-diacrylate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynhhoa T; Hwang, Yongsung; Chen, Albert C; Varghese, Shyni; Sah, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Hydrogels prepared from poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) have been used in a variety of studies of cartilage tissue engineering. Such hydrogels may also be useful as a tunable mechanical material for cartilage repair. Previous studies have characterized the chemical and mechanical properties of PEG-based hydrogels, as modulated by precursor molecular weight and concentration. Cartilage mechanical properties vary substantially, with maturation, with depth from the articular surface, in health and disease, and in compression and tension. We hypothesized that PEG hydrogels could mimic a broad range of the compressive and tensile mechanical properties of articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties of PEG hydrogels over a broad range and with reference to articular cartilage. In particular, we assessed the effects of PEG precursor molecular weight (508 Da, 3.4 kDa, 6 kDa, and 10 kDa) and concentration (10-40%) on swelling property, equilibrium confined compressive modulus (H(A0)), compressive dynamic stiffness, and hydraulic permeability (k(p0)) of PEG hydrogels in static/dynamic confined compression tests, and equilibrium tensile modulus (E(ten)) in tension tests. As molecular weight of PEG decreased and concentration increased, hydrogels exhibited a decrease in swelling ratio (31.5-2.2), an increase in H(A0) (0.01-2.46 MPa) and E(ten) (0.02-3.5 MPa), an increase in dynamic compressive stiffness (0.055-42.9 MPa), and a decrease in k(p0) (1.2 × 10(-15) to 8.5 × 10(-15) m(2)/(Pa s)). The frequency-dependence of dynamic compressive stiffness amplitude and phase, as well as the strain-dependence of permeability, were typical of the time- and strain-dependent mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. H(A0) and E(ten) were positively correlated with the final PEG concentration, accounting for swelling. These results indicate that PEG hydrogels can be prepared to mimic many of the static and dynamic mechanical

  19. Preparation of various hydrogels based on poly (Vinyl pyrrolidone) and poly ethylene glycol using gamma and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajji, Z.

    2006-11-01

    Different hydrogels have been prepared using gamma and electron irradiation; the hydrogels are composed of poly(vinyl pyrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The influence of some process parameters on the properties of the hydrogels has been investigated as: the gel fraction, maximum swelling, swelling kinetics, and mechanical properties. In the first part of this study, hydrogel dressings have been prepared using electron irradiation, and the dressings are composed of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and agar. The gel fraction increases with increasing PVP concentration due to increased crosslink density, and decreases with increasing the PEG concentration. PEG seems to act not only as plasticizer but also to modify the gel properties as gelation% and maximum swelling. The prepared hydrogels dressings could be considered as a good barrier against microbes. In the second part, different hydrogels have been prepared based on different concentrations of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and using gamma irradiation. The gel fraction and maximum swelling of the hydrogels has been determined. In the third part of the study, different hydrogels have been prepared based on different concentrations of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with various molecular weights, and using gamma irradiation. The gel fraction and maximum swelling of the hydrogels has been determined. The data show that PEG with low molecular weight needs a high dose for the gelation, and the presence of PVP lowers the needed gelation dose. The maximum swelling decreases with increasing irradiation dose and the PVP concentration, which is due to higher crosslinks between the polymer chains. (author)

  20. Surface chemistry and size influence the release of model therapeutic nanoparticles from poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, Stephanie L.; Jeerage, Kavita M.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles have emerged as promising therapeutic and diagnostic tools, due to their unique physicochemical properties. The specific core and surface chemistries, as well as nanoparticle size, play critical roles in particle transport and interaction with biological tissue. Localized delivery of therapeutics from hydrogels is well established, but these systems generally release molecules with hydrodynamic radii less than ∼5 nm. Here, model nanoparticles with biologically relevant surface chemistries and diameters between 10 and 35 nm are analyzed for their release from well-characterized hydrogels. Functionalized gold nanoparticles or quantum dots were encapsulated in three-dimensional poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels with varying mesh size. Nanoparticle size, surface chemistry, and hydrogel mesh size all influenced the release of particles from the hydrogel matrix. Size influenced nanoparticle release as expected, with larger particles releasing at a slower rate. However, citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles were not released from hydrogels. Negatively charged carboxyl or positively charged amine-functionalized quantum dots were released from hydrogels at slower rates than neutrally charged PEGylated nanoparticles of similar size. Transmission electron microscopy images of gold nanoparticles embedded within hydrogel sections demonstrated uniform particle distribution and negligible aggregation, independent of surface chemistry. The nanoparticle-hydrogel interactions observed in this work will aid in the development of localized nanoparticle delivery systems.

  1. Hyaluronic Acid (HA)-Polyethylene glycol (PEG) as injectable hydrogel for intervertebral disc degeneration patients therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri Kwarta, Cityta; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Siswanto

    2017-05-01

    Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is one health problem that is often encountered in a community. Inject-able hydrogels are the newest way to restore the disc thickness and hydration caused by disc degeneration by means of minimally invasive surgery. Thus, polymers can be combined to improve the characteristic properties of inject-able hydrogels, leading to use of Hyaluronic Acid (a natural polymer) and Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with Horse Radish Peroxide (HRP) cross linker enzymes. The swelling test results, which approaches were the ideal disc values, were sampled with variation of enzyme concentrations of 0.25 µmol/min/mL. The enzyme concentrations were 33.95%. The degradation test proved that the sample degradation increased along with the decrease of the HRP enzyme concentration. The results of the cytotoxicity assay with MTT assay method showed that all samples resulted in the 90% of living cells are not toxic. In vitro injection, models demonstrated that higher concentration of the enzymes was less state of gel which would rupture when released from the agarose gel. The functional group characterization shows the cross linking bonding in sample with enzyme adding. The conclusion of this study is PEG-HA-HRP enzyme are safe polymer composites which have a potential to be applied as an injectable hydrogel for intervertebral disc degeneration.

  2. Influence of Ethylene Glycol Methacrylate to the Hydration and Transition Behaviors of Thermo-Responsive Interpenetrating Polymeric Network Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ethylene glycol methacrylate (EGMA to the hydration and transition behaviors of thermo-responsive interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN hydrogels containing sodium alginate, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm, and EGMA were investigated. The molar ratios of NIPAAm and EGMA were varied from 20:0 to 19.5:0.5 and 18.5:1.5 in the thermo-responsive alginate-Ca2+/P(NIPAAm-co-EGMA IPN hydrogels. Due to the more hydrophilicity and high flexibility of EGMA, the IPN hydrogels exhibited higher lower critical solution temperature (LCST and lower glass transition temperature (Tg when the ratio of EGMA increases. The swelling/deswelling kinetics of the IPN hydrogels could be controlled by adjusting the NIPAAm/EGMA molar ratio. A faster water uptake rate and a slower water loss rate could be realized by increase the amount of EGMA in the IPN hydrogel (the shrinking rate constant was decreased from 0.01207 to 0.01195 and 0.01055 with the changing of NIPAAm/EGMA ratio from 20:0, 19.5:0.5 to 18.5:1.5. By using 2-Isopropylthioxanthone (ITX as a photo initiator, the obtained alginate-Ca2+/P(NIPAAm-co-EGMA360 IPN hydrogels were successfully immobilized on cotton fabrics. The surface and cross section of the hydrogel were probed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. They all exhibited a porous structure, and the pore size was increased with the amount of EGMA. Moreover, the LCST values of the fabric-grafted hydrogels were close to those of the pure IPN hydrogels. Their thermal sensitivity remained unchanged. The cotton fabrics grafted with hydrogel turned out to be much softer with the continuous increase of EGMA amount. Therefore, compared with alginate-Ca2+/PNIPAAm hydrogel, alginate-Ca2+/P(NIPAAm-co-EGMA360 hydrogel is a more promising candidate for wound dressing in the field of biomedical textile.

  3. Drug loading optimization and extended drug delivery of corticoids from pHEMA based soft contact lenses hydrogels via chemical and microstructural modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Millán, Eva; Koprivnik, Sandra; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier

    2015-06-20

    This paper proposes an approach to improve drug loading capacity and release properties of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA)) soft contact lenses based on the optimization of the hydrogel composition and microstructural modifications using water during the polymerization process. P(HEMA) based soft contact lenses were prepared by thermal or photopolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) solutions containing ethylene glycol di-methacrylate as crosslinker and different proportions of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) or methacrylic acid (MA) as co-monomers. Transmittance, water uptake, swelling, microstructure, drug absorption isotherms and in vitro release were characterized using triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as model drug. Best drug loading ratios were obtained with lenses containing the highest amount (200 mM) of MA. Incorporation of 40% V/V of water during the polymerization increases the hydrogel porosity giving a better drug loading capacity. In vitro TA release kinetics shows that MA hydrogels released the drug significantly faster than NVP-hydrogels. Drug release was found to be diffusion controlled and kinetics was shown to be reproducible after consecutive drug loading/release processes. Results of p(HEMA) based soft contact lenses copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and different co-monomers could be a good alternative to optimize the loading and ocular drug delivery of this corticosteroid drug. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Foamed oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate) hydrogels as versatile prefabricated scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Matthias; Baumer, Julia; Blunk, Torsten; Tessmar, Joerg

    2014-03-01

    Radically cross-linked hydrogels are frequently used as cell carriers due to their excellent biocompatibility and their tissue-like mechanical properties. Through frequent investigation, PEG-based polymers such as oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate [OPF] have proven to be especially suitable as cell carriers by encapsulating cells during hydrogel formation. In some cases, NaCl or biodegradable gelatin microparticles were added prior to cross-linking in order to provide space for the proliferating cells, which would otherwise stay embedded in the hydrogel matrix. However, all of these immediate cross-linking procedures involve time consuming sample preparation and sterilization directly before cell culture and often show notable swelling after their preparation. In this study, ready to use OPF-hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by gas foaming, freeze drying, individual packing into bags and subsequent γ-sterilization. The scaffolds could be stored and used "off-the-shelf" without any need for further processing prior to cell culture. Thus the handling was simplified and the sterility of the cell carrier was assured. Further improvement of the gel system was achieved using a two component injectable system, which may be used for homogenous injection molding in order to create individually shaped three dimensional scaffolds. In order to evaluate the suitability of the scaffolds for tissue engineering, constructs were seeded with juvenile bovine chondrocytes and cultured for 28 days. Cross-sections of the respective constructs showed an intense and homogenous red staining of GAG with safranin O, indicating a homogenous cell distribution within the scaffolds and the production of substantial amounts of GAG-rich matrix. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Osteochondral repair in the rabbit model utilizing bilayered, degradable oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogel scaffolds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, T.A.; Bodde, E.W.H.; Baggett, L.S.; Tabata, Y.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, hydrogel scaffolds, based on the polymer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF), were implanted into osteochondral defects in the rabbit model. Scaffolds consisted of two layers-a bottom, bone forming layer and a top, cartilage forming layer. Three scaffold formulations were

  6. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable poly (ethylene glycol) and poly (caprolactone diol) end capped poly (propylene fumarate) cross linked amphiphilic hydrogel as tissue engineering scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Lekshmi; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2009-12-01

    Biodegradable poly (caprolactone diol-co-propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) amphiphilic polymer with poly (ethylene glycol) and poly (caprolactone diol) chain ends (PCL-PPF-PEG) was prepared. PCL-PPF-PEG undergoes fast setting with acrylamide (aqueous solution) by free radical polymerization and produces a crosslinked hydrogel. The cross linked and freeze-dried amphiphilic material has porous and interconnected network. It undergoes higher degree of swelling and water absorption to form hydrogel with hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains at the surface and appreciable tensile strength. The present hydrogel is compatible with L929 fibroblast cells. PCL-PPF-PEG/acrylamide hydrogel is a candidate scaffold material for tissue engineering applications.

  7. Preparation of poly(polyethylene glycol methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels by radiation and their physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.-E.; Nho, Y.-C.; Kim, H.-I.

    2004-01-01

    The pH-responsive copolymer hydrogels were prepared with the monomers of polyethylene glycol methacrylate and acrylic acid based on γ-ray irradiation technique. The gel content of these copolymer hydrogels varied depending on both the composition of monomers and the radiation dose. Maximum gel percent and degree of crosslinking were obtained at the composition of equal amount of comonomers. These copolymer hydrogels did not show any noticeable change in swelling at lower pH range. However they showed an abrupt increase in swelling at higher pH range due to the ionization of carboxyl groups. This pH-responsive swelling behavior was applied for the insulin carrier via oral delivery. Insulin-loaded copolymer hydrogels released most of their insulin in the simulated intestinal fluid which had a pH of 6.8 but not in the simulated gastric fluid which had a pH of 1.2

  8. Synthesis of Highly Effective Novel Graphene Oxide-Polyethylene Glycol-Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Hydrogel For Copper Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Serag

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel Graphene oxide-polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol (GO-PEG-PVA triple network hydrogel were prepared to remove Copper(II ion from its aqueous solution. The structures, morphologies, and properties of graphene oxide (GO, the composite GO-PEG-PVA and PEG-PVA were characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electronic Microscope and Thermal Gravimetric analysis. A series of systematic batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the adsorption property of GO, GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel and PEG-PVA hydrogel under different conditions (e.g. pH, contact time and Cu2+ ions concentration. The high adsorption capacity, easy regeneration, and effective adsorption–desorption results proved that the prepared GO-PEG-PVA composite hydrogel could be an effective adsorbent in removing Cu2+ ion from its aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities were found to be 917, 900 and 423 mg g–1 for GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel, GO and PEG-PVA hydrogel, respectively at pH 5, 25 °C and Cu2+ ions’ concentration 500 mg l–1. The removal efficiency of the recycled GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel were 83, 81, 80 and 79% for the first four times, which proved efficient reusability.

  9. Integrating valve-inspired design features into poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel scaffolds for heart valve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Xu, Bin; Puperi, Daniel S; Yonezawa, Aline L; Wu, Yan; Tseng, Hubert; Cuchiara, Maude L; West, Jennifer L; Grande-Allen, K Jane

    2015-03-01

    The development of advanced scaffolds that recapitulate the anisotropic mechanical behavior and biological functions of the extracellular matrix in leaflets would be transformative for heart valve tissue engineering. In this study, anisotropic mechanical properties were established in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels by crosslinking stripes of 3.4 kDa PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) within 20 kDa PEGDA base hydrogels using a photolithographic patterning method. Varying the stripe width and spacing resulted in a tensile elastic modulus parallel to the stripes that was 4.1-6.8 times greater than that in the perpendicular direction, comparable to the degree of anisotropy between the circumferential and radial orientations in native valve leaflets. Biomimetic PEG-peptide hydrogels were prepared by tethering the cell-adhesive peptide RGDS and incorporating the collagenase-degradable peptide PQ (GGGPQG↓IWGQGK) into the polymer network. The specific amounts of RGDS and PEG-PQ within the resulting hydrogels influenced the elongation, de novo extracellular matrix deposition and hydrogel degradation behavior of encapsulated valvular interstitial cells (VICs). In addition, the morphology and activation of VICs grown atop PEG hydrogels could be modulated by controlling the concentration or micro-patterning profile of PEG-RGDS. These results are promising for the fabrication of PEG-based hydrogels using anatomically and biologically inspired scaffold design features for heart valve tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lactic acid nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels for restoring the vaginal microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sujata Sundara; Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Singh, Yashveer; Chikindas, Michael L.; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) display reduced vaginal acidity, which make them susceptible to associated infections such as HIV. In the current study, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels were developed for the controlled release of lactic acid in the vagina of BV-infected women. PEG-lactic acid (PEG-LA) nanocarriers were prepared by covalently attaching lactic acid to 8-arm PEG-SH via cleavable thioester bonds. PEG-LA nanocarriers with 4 copies of lactic acid per molecule provided controlled release of lactic acid with a maximum release of 23% and 47% bound lactic acid in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) and acetate buffer (AB, pH 4.3), respectively. The PEG nanocarrier-based hydrogels were formed by cross-linking the PEG-LA nanocarriers with 4-arm PEG-NHS via degradable thioester bonds. The nanocarrier-based hydrogels formed within 20 min under ambient conditions and exhibited an elastic modulus that was 100-fold higher than the viscous modulus. The nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels provided controlled release of lactic acid for several hours; however, a maximum release of only 10%–14% bound lactic acid was observed possibly due to steric hindrance of the polymer chains in the cross-linked hydrogel. In contrast, hydrogels with passively entrapped lactic acid showed burst release with complete release within 30 min. Lactic acid showed antimicrobial activity against the primary BV pathogen Gardnerella vaginalis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.6 mg/ml. In addition, the hydrogels with passively entrapped lactic acid showed retained antimicrobial activity with complete inhibition G. vaginalis growth within 48 h. The results of the current study collectively demonstrate the potential of PEG nanocarrier-based hydrogels for vaginal administration of lactic acid for preventing and treating BV. PMID:25223229

  11. Assessment of reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) chitosan hydrogels as dressings in a mouse skin wound defect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Szu-Hsien [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Ching-Ting [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Epithelial Biology Laboratory/Transgenic Mice Core-Laboratory, Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chih-Hao [Department of Orthopedics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei City 10018, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yi-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Fung [Animal Medicine Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei City 10018, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Ching-Nan [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hung-Chia [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Kuang, E-mail: ckwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Kuo-Haung, E-mail: khhsieh@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    Wound dressings of chitosan are biocompatible, biodegradable, antibacterial and hemostatic biomaterials. However, applications for chitosan are limited due to its poor mechanical properties. Here, we conducted an in vivo mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-chitosan (RPC) hydrogels. RPC hydrogels were formed by cross-linking chitosan with PEGs of different molecular weights at various PEG to chitosan ratios in our previous paper. These dressings can keep the wound moist, had good gas exchange capacity, and was capable of absorbing or removing the wound exudate. We examined the ability of these RPC hydrogels and neat chitosan to heal small cuts and full-thickness skin defects on the backs of male Balb/c mice. Histological examination revealed that chitosan suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation, while PEG enhanced epithelial migration. The RPC hydrogels promoted wound healing in the small cuts and full layer wounds. The optimal RPC hydrogel had a swelling ratio of 100% and a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of about 2000 g/m{sup 2}/day. In addition, they possess good mechanical property and appropriate degradation rates. Thus, the optimal RPC hydrogel formulation functioned effectively as a wound dressing and promoted wound healing. Highlights: ► Mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan (RPC) ► Water vapor transmission rate of about 2000 g/m{sup 2}/day is characteristic of RPC. ► RPC suppressed inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation. ► RPC composed of 1000-RP10C90 can be used as a biomaterial for wound dressing.

  12. Assessment of reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) chitosan hydrogels as dressings in a mouse skin wound defect model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Szu-Hsien; Tsao, Ching-Ting; Chang, Chih-Hao; Lai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ming-Fung; Chuang, Ching-Nan; Chou, Hung-Chia; Wang, Chih-Kuang; Hsieh, Kuo-Haung

    2013-01-01

    Wound dressings of chitosan are biocompatible, biodegradable, antibacterial and hemostatic biomaterials. However, applications for chitosan are limited due to its poor mechanical properties. Here, we conducted an in vivo mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-chitosan (RPC) hydrogels. RPC hydrogels were formed by cross-linking chitosan with PEGs of different molecular weights at various PEG to chitosan ratios in our previous paper. These dressings can keep the wound moist, had good gas exchange capacity, and was capable of absorbing or removing the wound exudate. We examined the ability of these RPC hydrogels and neat chitosan to heal small cuts and full-thickness skin defects on the backs of male Balb/c mice. Histological examination revealed that chitosan suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation, while PEG enhanced epithelial migration. The RPC hydrogels promoted wound healing in the small cuts and full layer wounds. The optimal RPC hydrogel had a swelling ratio of 100% and a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of about 2000 g/m 2 /day. In addition, they possess good mechanical property and appropriate degradation rates. Thus, the optimal RPC hydrogel formulation functioned effectively as a wound dressing and promoted wound healing. Highlights: ► Mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan (RPC) ► Water vapor transmission rate of about 2000 g/m 2 /day is characteristic of RPC. ► RPC suppressed inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation. ► RPC composed of 1000-RP10C90 can be used as a biomaterial for wound dressing

  13. Effect of silane coupling agents on the chemical and physical properties of photocrosslinked poly(dimethylsiloxane) dimethacrylate/poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K. W.; Hamid, Z. A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic-organic hydrogels based on dimethacrylated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMSMA) and diacrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDA) macromers were prepared via photocrosslinking method. Silane coupling agent was incorporated into the hydrogel formulations to overcome the phase incompatibility. Pure PEGDA (0:100) hydrogels showed the highest value of ESR %, while pure PDMSMA (100:0) hydrogels showed no swelling as we expected. Inclusion of more hydrophobic domains resulted in a lower value of ESR %, i.e. in 75:25 hybrid hydrogels. Beside, we had noticed 50:50 and 75:25 hybrid hydrogels disintegrate during swelling period. However, their integrity was improved and sustained after the coupling agent was added. Similarly, the value of E* for the hybrid hydrogels showed an increment after the coupling agent was incorporated, and this is in a good agreement with the SEM micrograph which display an improved interfacial adhesion.

  14. Studies on chemically crosslinkable carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol)-acrylamide hydrogel as an injectable biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallukalam, B C; Jayabalan, M; Sankar, V

    2009-01-01

    Carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate)-co-ethylene glycol) (CT-PPF-co-PEG) was prepared and set into crosslinked hydrogel material with acrylamide. The setting studies reveal that this copolymer system can be used as an injectable material. The hydrogel material exhibits a higher degree of swelling, good mechanical strength and flexibility. The hydrogel favours adhesion of L929 fibroblast cells without proliferation on the surface. However, cardiac fibroblast cells (isolated from new born rat (Wistar) hearts) adhere and proliferate on the hydrogel due to the formation of synergistic hydrophilic-hydrophobic surface-by-surface reorganization.

  15. Studies on chemically crosslinkable carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol)-acrylamide hydrogel as an injectable biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallukalam, B C; Jayabalan, M [Polymer Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India); Sankar, V, E-mail: muthujayabalan@rediffmail.co [Division of Cellular and Molecular Cardiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate)-co-ethylene glycol) (CT-PPF-co-PEG) was prepared and set into crosslinked hydrogel material with acrylamide. The setting studies reveal that this copolymer system can be used as an injectable material. The hydrogel material exhibits a higher degree of swelling, good mechanical strength and flexibility. The hydrogel favours adhesion of L929 fibroblast cells without proliferation on the surface. However, cardiac fibroblast cells (isolated from new born rat (Wistar) hearts) adhere and proliferate on the hydrogel due to the formation of synergistic hydrophilic-hydrophobic surface-by-surface reorganization.

  16. Noninvasive Quantitative Imaging of Collagen Microstructure in Three-Dimensional Hydrogels Using High-Frequency Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Karla P; Helguera, María; Hocking, Denise C; Dalecki, Diane

    2015-07-01

    Collagen I is widely used as a natural component of biomaterials for both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The physical and biological properties of fibrillar collagens are strongly tied to variations in collagen fiber microstructure. The goal of this study was to develop the use of high-frequency quantitative ultrasound to assess collagen microstructure within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels noninvasively and nondestructively. The integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) was employed as a quantitative ultrasound parameter to detect, image, and quantify spatial variations in collagen fiber density and diameter. Collagen fiber microstructure was varied by fabricating hydrogels with different collagen concentrations or polymerization temperatures. IBC values were computed from measurements of the backscattered radio-frequency ultrasound signals collected using a single-element transducer (38-MHz center frequency, 13-47 MHz bandwidth). The IBC increased linearly with increasing collagen concentration and decreasing polymerization temperature. Parametric 3D images of the IBC were generated to visualize and quantify regional variations in collagen microstructure throughout the volume of hydrogels fabricated in standard tissue culture plates. IBC parametric images of corresponding cell-embedded collagen gels showed cell accumulation within regions having elevated collagen IBC values. The capability of this ultrasound technique to noninvasively detect and quantify spatial differences in collagen microstructure offers a valuable tool to monitor the structural properties of collagen scaffolds during fabrication, to detect functional differences in collagen microstructure, and to guide fundamental research on the interactions of cells and collagen matrices.

  17. Poly(ethylene glycol) dicarboxylate/poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogel film co-crosslinked by electron beam irradiation as an anti-adhesion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto,; Singh, Deepti; Han, Sung Soo; Son, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Seong Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) dicarboxylate (PEGDC)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA)/(PEO) hydrogels were developed for possible biomedical applications such as an anti-adhesion barrier. Various contents of PEGDC/PEO film were irradiated using an electron beam with various beam intensities in order to obtain various degrees of crosslinked hydrogels. The optimum dose (300 kGy) and total crosslinker content of 10% were used to prepare crosslinked hydrogel films with three different compositions (10% PEGDC, 10% PEGDMA, 5% PEGDC–5% PEGDMA). Among them, 10% PEGDC hydrogel film exhibited the highest elongation at break (69.33 ± 6.87%) with high mechanical strength. 10% PEGDC hydrogel film showed the lowest hemolysis activity (6.03 ± 0.01%) and the highest tissue adherence (75.67 ± 1.15 cN). The result also indicated that the carboxyl groups in PEGDC affect the tissue adherence of hydrogel films via H-bonding interactions. In animal studies, 10% PEGDC anti-adhesion hydrogel film degraded within 3 weeks and demonstrated better anti-adhesive effect compared to Guardix-SG®. - Highlights: • The crosslinked PEGDC/PEO hydrogel was developed by e-beam irradiation. • 10% PEGDC hydrogel film showed the highest elongation at break and tissue adhesion. • The COOH group enhanced the tissue adherence of hydrogel films on the intestine. • 10% PEGDC hydrogel film demonstrated a good anti-adhesive effect in animal study. • All of the hydrogel films with 10% PEGDC degraded in vivo within three weeks

  18. Bioactive poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels to recapitulate the HSC niche and facilitate HSC expansion in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchiara, Maude L; Coşkun, Süleyman; Banda, Omar A; Horter, Kelsey L; Hirschi, Karen K; West, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been used therapeutically for decades, yet their widespread clinical use is hampered by the inability to expand HSCs successfully in vitro. In culture, HSCs rapidly differentiate and lose their ability to self-renew. We hypothesize that by mimicking aspects of the bone marrow microenvironment in vitro we can better control the expansion and differentiation of these cells. In this work, derivatives of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels were used as a culture substrate for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) populations. Key HSC cytokines, stem cell factor (SCF) and interferon-γ (IFNγ), as well as the cell adhesion ligands RGDS and connecting segment 1 were covalently immobilized onto the surface of the hydrogels. With the use of SCF and IFNγ, we observed significant expansion of HSPCs, ∼97 and ∼104 fold respectively, while maintaining c-kit(+) lin(-) and c-kit(+) Sca1(+) lin(-) (KSL) populations and the ability to form multilineage colonies after 14 days. HSPCs were also encapsulated within degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for three-dimensional culture. After expansion in hydrogels, ∼60% of cells were c-kit(+), demonstrating no loss in the proportion of these cells over the 14 day culture period, and ∼50% of colonies formed were multilineage, indicating that the cells retained their differentiation potential. The ability to tailor and use this system to support HSC growth could have implications on the future use of HSCs and other blood cell types in a clinical setting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Multiscale approach for the construction of equilibrated all-atom models of a poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianfeng; Murthy, N. Sanjeeva; Becker, Matthew L.; Latour, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A multiscale modeling approach is presented for the efficient construction of an equilibrated all-atom model of a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel using the all-atom polymer consistent force field (PCFF). The final equilibrated all-atom model was built with a systematic simulation toolset consisting of three consecutive parts: (1) building a global cross-linked PEG-chain network at experimentally determined cross-link density using an on-lattice Monte Carlo method based on the bond fluctuation model, (2) recovering the local molecular structure of the network by transitioning from the lattice model to an off-lattice coarse-grained (CG) model parameterized from PCFF, followed by equilibration using high performance molecular dynamics methods, and (3) recovering the atomistic structure of the network by reverse mapping from the equilibrated CG structure, hydrating the structure with explicitly represented water, followed by final equilibration using PCFF parameterization. The developed three-stage modeling approach has application to a wide range of other complex macromolecular hydrogel systems, including the integration of peptide, protein, and/or drug molecules as side-chains within the hydrogel network for the incorporation of bioactivity for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery applications. PMID:27013229

  20. Transparent Low Molecular Weight Poly(Ethylene Glycol Diacrylate-Based Hydrogels as Film Media for Photoswitchable Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Pelras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have shown a great potential as materials for drug delivery systems thanks to their usually excellent bio-compatibility and their ability to trap water-soluble organic molecules in a porous network. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol-based hydrogels containing a model dye were synthesized by ultraviolet (UV-A photopolymerization of low-molecular weight macro-monomers and the material properties (dye release ability, transparency, morphology, and polymerization kinetics were studied. Real-time infrared measurements revealed that the photopolymerization of the materials was strongly limited when the dye was added to the uncured formulation. Consequently, the procedure was adapted to allow for the formation of sufficiently cured gels that are able to capture and later on to release dye molecules in phosphate-buffered saline solution within a few hours. Due to the transparency of the materials in the 400–800 nm range, the hydrogels are suitable for the loading and excitation of photoactive molecules. These can be uptaken by and released from the polymer matrix. Therefore, such materials may find applications as cheap and tailored materials in photodynamic therapy (i.e., light-induced treatment of skin infections by bacteria, fungi, and viruses using photoactive drugs.

  1. Investigation on Au-nano incorporated pH-sensitive (itaconic acid/acrylic acid/triethylene glycol) based polymeric biocompatible hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthivel, M., E-mail: msakthi81986@gmail.com [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Chemistry, Ganadipathy Tulsi' s Jain Engineering College, Kaniyambadi, Vellore 632 102, Tamilnadu (India); Franklin, D.S., E-mail: loyolafrank@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, C. Abdul Hakeem College of Engineering and Technology, Melvisharam 632509, Tamilnadu (India); Sudarsan, S., E-mail: srsudarsan29@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamilnadu (India); Chitra, G., E-mail: chitramuralikrishnan@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamilnadu (India); Guhanathan, S., E-mail: sai_gugan@yahoo.com [PG & Research Department of Chemistry, Muthurangam Government Arts College, Vellore 632 002, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-06-01

    The pH-sensitive gold nano hydrogel based on itaconic acid, acrylic acid and triethylene glycol (GIAT) has been prepared by free radical polymerization viz. organic solventless approach with different monomer ratios. The nature of bonding and structural identification of GIAT hydrogels were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The surface morphology of gold gel was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the size of gold nano particles. The in vitro biocompatibility of GIAT hydrogel has been evaluated in 3T3 fibroblast cell lines. The obtained results show that gold nano particle incorporated hydrogel possess ~ 99% of cell proliferation. Followed by, the impact of gold nano particles on swelling, surface morphology was studied. The consecutive preparation of hydrogel, effect of different pH conditions, and stoichiometry of monomeric units have also been discussed. The degree of swelling was measured in carbonate buffer solutions for 24 h period with varying pH such as 1.2, 6.0, 7.4 and 10.0. The obtained results showed that the stoichiometry of itaconic acid and gold nano particles plays an essential role in modifying the nature of GIAT polymeric hydrogels. In conclusion, promising Au-nano incorporated pH-sensitive bio polymeric hydrogels were prepared and characterized. The unique properties of these Au-nano hydrogel make them attractive use in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Itaconic acid based hydrogels were developed viz. greener organic solvent less approach. • The enhanced equilibrium swelling at acidic and basic medium was observed for nano-Au-incorporated nano composite hydrogels. • The prepared GIAT hydrogel showed ~ 99% of cell proliferation. • This kind of pH-sensitive polymeric hydrogels may be useful for controlled drug delivery system.

  2. Investigation on Au-nano incorporated pH-sensitive (itaconic acid/acrylic acid/triethylene glycol) based polymeric biocompatible hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakthivel, M.; Franklin, D.S.; Sudarsan, S.; Chitra, G.; Guhanathan, S.

    2017-01-01

    The pH-sensitive gold nano hydrogel based on itaconic acid, acrylic acid and triethylene glycol (GIAT) has been prepared by free radical polymerization viz. organic solventless approach with different monomer ratios. The nature of bonding and structural identification of GIAT hydrogels were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The surface morphology of gold gel was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the size of gold nano particles. The in vitro biocompatibility of GIAT hydrogel has been evaluated in 3T3 fibroblast cell lines. The obtained results show that gold nano particle incorporated hydrogel possess ~ 99% of cell proliferation. Followed by, the impact of gold nano particles on swelling, surface morphology was studied. The consecutive preparation of hydrogel, effect of different pH conditions, and stoichiometry of monomeric units have also been discussed. The degree of swelling was measured in carbonate buffer solutions for 24 h period with varying pH such as 1.2, 6.0, 7.4 and 10.0. The obtained results showed that the stoichiometry of itaconic acid and gold nano particles plays an essential role in modifying the nature of GIAT polymeric hydrogels. In conclusion, promising Au-nano incorporated pH-sensitive bio polymeric hydrogels were prepared and characterized. The unique properties of these Au-nano hydrogel make them attractive use in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Itaconic acid based hydrogels were developed viz. greener organic solvent less approach. • The enhanced equilibrium swelling at acidic and basic medium was observed for nano-Au-incorporated nano composite hydrogels. • The prepared GIAT hydrogel showed ~ 99% of cell proliferation. • This kind of pH-sensitive polymeric hydrogels may be useful for controlled drug delivery system.

  3. In situ forming poly(ethylene glycol)- Poly(L -lactide) hydrogels via michael addition: Mechanical properties, degradation, and protein release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, S.J.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Chemically crosslinked hydrogels are prepared at remarkably low macromonomer concentrations from 8-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) star block copolymers bearing acrylate end groups (PEG-(PLLAn)8-AC, n = 4 or 12) and multifunctional PEG thiols (PEG-(SH)n, n = 2, 4, or 8) through a

  4. Swelling of whey and egg white protein hydrogels with stranded and particulate microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben

    2016-02-01

    Swelling of protein hydrogels in alkaline conditions strongly depends on the gel microstructure. Stranded transparent gels swell as predicted using a modified Flory-Rehner model with the net protein charge. Particulate opaque gels swell very differently, with a sudden increase at a narrow pH range. Its swelling is not controlled by the protein charge, but by the destruction of the non-covalent interactions. Comparable dissolution thresholds, one with pH and another with the degree of swelling, are observed in both types of microstructures. These conclusions are valid for both whey protein isolate (WPI) gels and egg white gels, suggesting that they are universal for all globular proteins that can form such microscructures. Differences are observed, however, from the prevalent chemical crosslinks in each protein system. Non-covalent interactions dominate WPI gels; when such interactions are destroyed at pH≥11.5 the gels swell extensively and eventually dissolve. In egg white gels, the higher degree of disulphide crosslinking allows extensive swelling when non-covalent interactions are destroyed, but dissolution only occurs at pH≥13 when covalent crosslinks are cleaved. The current study highlights that the microstructure of protein hydrogels, a unique particularity of protein systems compared to other synthetic hydrogels, defines swelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced Mechanical Properties in Cellulose Nanocrystal-Poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) Injectable Nanocomposite Hydrogels through Control of Physical and Chemical Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De France, Kevin J; Chan, Katelyn J W; Cranston, Emily D; Hoare, Todd

    2016-02-08

    While injectable hydrogels have several advantages in the context of biomedical use, their generally weak mechanical properties often limit their applications. Herein, we describe in situ-gelling nanocomposite hydrogels based on poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) (POEGMA) and rigid rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) that can overcome this challenge. By physically incorporating CNCs into hydrazone cross-linked POEGMA hydrogels, macroscopic properties including gelation rate, swelling kinetics, mechanical properties, and hydrogel stability can be readily tailored. Strong adsorption of aldehyde- and hydrazide-modified POEGMA precursor polymers onto the surface of CNCs promotes uniform dispersion of CNCs within the hydrogel, imparts physical cross-links throughout the network, and significantly improves mechanical strength overall, as demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance gravimetry and rheometry. When POEGMA hydrogels containing mixtures of long and short ethylene oxide side chain precursor polymers were prepared, transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase segregation occurs with CNCs hypothesized to preferentially locate within the stronger adsorbing short side chain polymer domains. Incorporating as little as 5 wt % CNCs results in dramatic enhancements in mechanical properties (up to 35-fold increases in storage modulus) coupled with faster gelation rates, decreased swelling ratios, and increased stability versus hydrolysis. Furthermore, cell viability can be maintained within 3D culture using these hydrogels independent of the CNC content. These properties collectively make POEGMA-CNC nanocomposite hydrogels of potential interest for various biomedical applications including tissue engineering scaffolds for stiffer tissues or platforms for cell growth.

  6. Biodegradable and thermosensitive monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) hydrogel as a barrier for prevention of post-operative abdominal adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shao Zhi; Li, Zhi; Fan, Jun Ming; Meng, Xiao Hang; Shi, Kun; Qu, Ying; Yang, Ling Lin; Wu, Jing Bo; Fan, Juan; Luot, Feng; Qian, Zhi Yong

    2014-03-01

    Post-operative peritoneal adhesions are serious consequences of abdominal or pelvic surgery and cause severe bowel obstruction, chronic pelvic pain and infertility. In this study, a novel nano-hydrogel system based on a monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (MPEG-PLA) di-block copolymer was studied for its ability to prevent abdominal adhesion in rats. The MPEG-PLA hydrogel at a concentration of 40% (w/v) was injected and was able to adhere to defect sites at body temperature. The ability of the hydrogel to inhibit adhesion of post-operative tissues was evaluated by utilizing a rat model of abdominal sidewall-cecum abrasion. It was possible to heal wounded tissue through regeneration of neo-peritoneal tissues ten days after surgery. Our data showed that this hydrogel system is equally as effective as current commercialized anti-adhesive products.

  7. Poly (Ethylene Glycol)-Based Hydrogels as Self-Inflating Tissue Expanders with Tunable Mechanical and Swelling Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamadi, Mahsa; Shokrollahi, Parvin; Houshmand, Behzad; Joupari, Mortaza Daliri; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh; Khademhosseini, Ali; Annabi, Nasim

    2017-08-01

    Tissue expansion is used by plastic/reconstructive surgeons to grow additional skin/tissue for replacing or repairing lost or damaged soft tissues. Recently, hydrogels have been widely used for tissue expansion applications. Herein, a self-inflating tissue expander blend composition from three different molecular weights (2, 6, and 10 kDa) of poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel with tunable mechanical and swelling properties is presented. The in vitro results demonstrate that, of the eight studied compositions, P6 (PEGDA 6 kDa:10 kDa (50:50)) and P8 (PEGDA 6 kDa:10 kDa (35:65)) formulations provide a balance of mechanical property and swelling capability suitable for tissue expansion. Furthermore, these expanders can be compressed up to 60% of their original height and can be loaded and unloaded cyclically at least ten times with no permanent deformation. The in vivo results indicate that these two engineered blend compositions are capable to generate a swelling pressure sufficient to dilate the surrounding tissue while retaining their original shape. The histological analyses reveal the formation of fibrous capsule at the interface between the implant and the subcutaneous tissue with no signs of inflammation. Ultimately, controlling the PEGDA chain length shows potential for the development of self-inflating tissue expanders with tunable mechanical and swelling properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Biodegradable and biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel films for the regeneration of corneal endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Berkay; Brown, Karl D; Blencowe, Anton; Ladewig, Katharina; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre Y; Abberton, Keren; Daniell, Mark; Qiao, Greg G

    2014-09-01

    Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are responsible for maintaining the transparency of the human cornea. Loss of CECs results in blindness, requiring corneal transplantation. In this study, fabrication of biocompatible and biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel films (PHFs) for the regeneration and transplantation of CECs is described. The 50-μm thin hydrogel films have similar or greater tensile strengths to human corneal tissue. Light transmission studies reveal that the films are >98% optically transparent, while in vitro degradation studies demonstrate their biodegradation characteristics. Cell culture studies demonstrate the regeneration of sheep corneal endothelium on the PHFs. Although sheep CECs do not regenerate in vivo, these cells proliferate on the films with natural morphology and become 100% confluent within 7 d. Implantation of the PHFs into live sheep corneas demonstrates the robustness of the films for surgical purposes. Regular slit lamp examinations and histology of the cornea after 28 d following surgery reveal minimal inflammatory responses and no toxicity, indicating that the films are benign. The results of this study suggest that PHFs are excellent candidates as platforms for the regeneration and transplantation of CECs as a result of their favorable biocompatibility, degradability, mechanical, and optical properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Neurite extension and neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neural stem cells on polyethylene glycol hydrogels containing a continuous Young's Modulus gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Matthew C; Lim, Hyun Ju; Chen, Jing; Yang, Yueh-Hsun; Li, Shenglan; Liu, Ying; Smith Callahan, Laura A

    2017-03-01

    Mechanotransduction in neural cells involves multiple signaling pathways that are not fully understood. Differences in lineage and maturation state are suggested causes for conflicting reports on neural cell mechanosensitivity. To optimize matrices for use in stem cell therapy treatments transplanting human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neural stem cells (hNSC) into lesions after spinal cord injury, the effects of Young's Modulus changes on hNSC behavior must be understood. The present study utilizes polyethylene glycol hydrogels containing a continuous gradient in Young's modulus to examine changes in the Young's Modulus of the culture substrate on hNSC neurite extension and neural differentiation. Changes in the Young's Modulus of the polyethylene glycol hydrogels was found to affect neurite extension and cellular organization on the matrices. hNSC cultured on 907 Pa hydrogels were found to extend longer neurites than hNSC cultured on other tested Young's Moduli hydrogels. The gene expression of β tubulin III and microtubule-associated protein 2 in hNSC was affected by changes in the Young's Modulus of the hydrogel. The combinatory method approach used in the present study demonstrates that hNSC are mechanosensitive and the matrix Young's Modulus should be a design consideration for hNSC transplant applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 824-833, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Radiation-induced synthesis and swelling properties of p(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-itaconic acid-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylate) copolymeric hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, M.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Since it is presumed that by incorporation of pH-responsive (IA) and temperature-responsive (OEGA) co-monomers it is possible to prepare P(HEMA-co-IA-co-OEGA) hydrogels with duel (pH and thermo) responsiveness, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of different mole fractions of IA and especially OEGA on the diversity of the swelling properties of obtained hydrogels. For that reason, a series of copolymeric hydrogels with different mole ratios of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), itaconic acid (IA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylates (OEGA) was synthesized by gamma radiation. The obtained hydrogels were characterized by swelling studies in the wide pH (2.2-9.0) and temperature range (25-70 deg C), confirming dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness and a large variation in swelling capability. It was observed that the equilibrium swelling of P(HEMA-co-IA-co-OEGA) hydrogels, for a constant amount of IA, increases progressively with increasing in OEGA share. On the other hand, the dissociation of carboxyl (-COOH) groups from IA occurs at pH > 4; therefore, small mole fractions of IA render good pH sensitivity and a large increase in the swelling capacity of these hydrogels at higher pH values. Additional characterization of structure and properties was conducted by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical measurements, confirming that the inherent properties of the P(HEMA-co-IA-co-OEGA) hydrogels can be significantly tuned by variation in their composition. According to all presented, it seems that the obtained copolymeric hydrogels can be a beneficial synergetic combination for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules such as drugs, nucleic acids, peptides, and proteins.

  11. Preparation and Property Evaluation of Conductive Hydrogel Using Poly (Vinyl Alcohol/Polyethylene Glycol/Graphene Oxide for Human Electrocardiogram Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Xiao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conductive hydrogel combined with Ag/AgCl electrode is widely used in the acquisition of bio-signals. However, the high adhesiveness of current commercial hydrogel causes human skin allergies and pruritus easily after wearing hydrogel for electrodes for a long time. In this paper, a novel conductive hydrogel with good mechanical and conductive performance was prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and graphene oxide (GO nanoparticles. A cyclic freezing–thawing method was employed under processing conditions of −40 °C (8 h and 20 °C (4 h separately for three cycles in sequence until a strong conductive hydrogel, namely, PVA/PEG/GO gel, was obtained. Characterization (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the assembled hydrogel was successfully prepared with a three-dimensional network structure and, thereafter, the high strength and elasticity due to the complete polymeric net formed by dense hydrogen bonds in the freezing process. The as-made PVA/PEG/GO hydrogel was then composited with nonwoven fabric for electrocardiogram (ECG electrodes. The ECG acquisition data indicated that the prepared hydrogel has good electro-conductivity and can obtain stable ECG signals for humans in a static state and in motion (with a small amount of drift. A comparison of results indicated that the prepared PVA/PEG/GO gel obtained the same quality of ECG signals with commercial conductive gel with fewer cases of allergies and pruritus in volunteer after six hours of wear.

  12. Fabrication of poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel micropatterns with osteoinductive growth factors and evaluation of the effects on osteoblast activity and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramani, K [Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INSAT), University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7AR (United Kingdom); Birch, M A [Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INSAT), University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7AR (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The aims of this study were to fabricate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel micropatterns on a biomaterial surface to guide osteoblast behaviour and to study how incorporating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) within the adhered hydrogel influenced cell morphology. Standard photolithographic procedures or photopolymerization through a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) mould were used to fabricate patterned PEG hydrogels on the surface of silanized silicon wafers. Hydrogel patterns were evaluated by light microscopy and surface profilometry. Rat osteoblasts were cultured on these surfaces and cell morphology investigated by fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Release of protein trapped in the polymerized PEG was evaluated and VEGF-PEG surfaces were characterized for their ability to support cell growth. These studies show that photopolymerized PEG can be used to create anti-adhesive structures on the surface of silicon that completely control where cell interaction with the substrate takes place. Using conventional lithography, structures down to 50 {mu}m were routinely fabricated with the boundaries exhibiting sloping sides. Using the PDMS mould approach, structures were fabricated as small as 10 {mu}m and boundaries were very sharp and vertical. Osteoblasts exhibiting typical morphology only grew on the silicon wafer surface that was not coated with PEG. Adding BSA to the monomer solution showed that protein could be released from the hydrogel for up to 7 days in vitro. Incorporating VEGF in the hydrogel produced micropatterns that dramatically altered osteoblast behaviour. At boundaries with the VEGF-PEG hydrogel, there was striking formation of cellular processes and membrane ruffling indicative of a change in cell morphology. This study has explored the morphogenetic properties of VEGF and the applications of nano/microfabrication techniques for guided tissue (bone) regeneration in dental and

  13. How Do Polyethylene Glycol and Poly(sulfobetaine) Hydrogel Layers on Ultrafiltration Membranes Minimize Fouling and Stay Stable in Cleaning Chemicals?

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-05-18

    We compare the efficiency of grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(sulfobetaine) hydrogel layer on poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane surfaces in terms of filtration performance, fouling minimization and stability in cleaning solutions. Two previously established different methods toward the two different chemistries (and both had already proven to be suited to reduce fouling significantly) are applied to the same PEI membranes. The hydrophilicity of PEI membranes is improved by the modification, as indicated by the change of contact angle value from 89° to 68° for both methods, due to the hydration layer formed in the hydrogel layers. Their pure water flux declines because of the additional permeation barrier from the hydrogel layers. However, these barriers increase protein rejection. In the exposure at a static condition, grafting PEG or poly(sulfobetaine) reduces protein adsorption to 23% or 11%, respectively. In the dynamic filtration, the hydrogel layers minimizes the flux reduction and increases the reversibility of fouling. Compared to the pristine PEI membrane that can recover its flux to 42% after hydraulic cleaning, the PEG and poly(sulfobetaine) grafted membranes can recover their flux up to 63% and 94%, respectively. Stability tests show that the poly(sulfobetaine) hydrogel layer is stable in acid, base and chlorine solutions, whereas the PEG hydrogel layer suffers alkaline hydrolysis in base and oxidation in chlorine conditions. With its chemical stability and pronounced capability of minimizing fouling, especially irreversible fouling, protective poly(sulfobetaine) hydrogel layers have great potential for various membrane-based applications.

  14. Biomimetic sulfated polyethylene glycol hydrogel inhibits proteoglycan loss and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression pattern in an osteoarthritis in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati-Sadeghi, Shabnam; Dey, Pradip; Ringe, Jochen; Haag, Rainer; Sittinger, Michael; Dehne, Tilo

    2018-04-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of an anti-inflammatory polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel for osteoarthritis (OA) management in an OA in vitro model. Freshly isolated porcine chondrocytes were maintained in high-density cultures to form cartilage-like three-dimensional micromasses. Recombinant porcine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was used to induce OA-like changes. Normal and OA-like micromasses were treated with dendritic polyglycerol sulfate-based PEG hydrogel. Live/dead staining showed that all micromasses remained vital and presented similar morphological characteristics. Safranin-O staining demonstrated a typical depletion of glycosaminoglycans in TNF-α-treated micromasses but not in the presence of the hydrogel. There was no distinct difference in immunohistochemical detection of type II collagen. Microarray data showed that rheumatoid arthritis and TNF signaling pathways were down regulated in hydrogel-treated OA-like micromasses compared to nontreated OA-like micromasses. The hydrogel alone did not affect genes related to OA such as ANPEP, COMP, CXCL12, PTGS2, and TNFSF10, but it prevented their regulation caused by TNF-α. This study provides valuable insights toward a fully synthetic hydrogel for the intra-articular treatment of OA. The findings proved the potential of this hydrogel to prevent the development of TNF-α-induced OA with regard to proteoglycan loss and TNF-α-induced expression pattern without additional signs of differentiation and inflammation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Radiation-induced synthesis and swelling properties of p(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/itaconic acid/oligo (ethylene glycol) acrylate) terpolymeric hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, M.; Stamenic, D.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2012-01-01

    Since it is presumed that by incorporation of pH-responsive (IA) and temperature-responsive (OEGA) co-monomers, it is possible to prepare P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels with dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness, the main purpose of our study is to investigate the influence of different mole fractions of IA and especially OEGA on the diversity of the swelling properties of the obtained hydrogels. For that reason, a series of terpolymeric hydrogels with different mole ratios of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), itaconic acid (IA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylates (OEGA) was synthesised by gamma radiation. The obtained hydrogels were characterised by swelling studies in the wide pH (2.2–9.0) and temperature range (20–70 °C), confirming dual (pH and thermo) responsiveness and a large variation in the swelling capability. It was observed that the equilibrium swelling of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels, for a constant amount of IA, increased progressively with an increase in OEGA share. On the other hand, the dissociation of carboxyl groups from IA occurs at pH>4; therefore, small mole fractions of IA render good pH sensitivity and a large increase in the swelling capacity of these hydrogels at higher pH values. Additional characterisation of structure and properties was conducted by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical measurements, confirming that the inherent properties of P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels can be significantly tuned by variation in their composition. According to all presented, it seems that the obtained hydrogels can be a beneficial synergetic combination for controlled delivery of bioactive molecules such as drugs, peptides, proteins, etc. - Highlights: ► pH- and thermo-sensitive P(HEMA/IA/OEGA) hydrogels were synthesised by γ radiation. ► OEGA units have a large hydrophilic potential. ► Swelling capacity increases with the OEGA content. ► Variation in composition of hydrogels can give

  16. The in vitro effects of macrophages on the osteogenic capabilities of MC3T3-E1 cells encapsulated in a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Leila S; Carles-Carner, Maria; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2018-04-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) PEG-based hydrogels are promising for cell encapsulation and tissue engineering, but are known to elicit a foreign body response (FBR) in vivo. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the FBR, and specifically the presence of inflammatory macrophages, on encapsulated cells and their ability to synthesize new extracellular matrix. This study employed an in vitro co-culture system with murine macrophages and MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts encapsulated in a bone-mimetic hydrogel, which were cultured in transwell inserts, and exposed to an inflammatory stimulant, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The co-culture was compared to mono-cultures of the cell-laden hydrogels alone and with LPS over 28 days. Two macrophage cell sources, RAW 264.7 and primary derived, were investigated. The presence of LPS-stimulated primary macrophages led to significant changes in the cell-laden hydrogel by a 5.3-fold increase in percent apoptotic osteoblasts at day 28, 4.2-fold decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity at day 10, and 7-fold decrease in collagen deposition. The presence of LPS-stimulated RAW macrophages led to significant changes in the cell-laden hydrogel by 5-fold decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity at day 10 and 4-fold decrease in collagen deposition. Mineralization, as measured by von Kossa stain or quantified by calcium content, was not sensitive to macrophages or LPS. Elevated interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion were detected in mono-cultures with LPS and co-cultures. Overall, primary macrophages had a more severe inhibitory effect on osteoblast differentiation than the macrophage cell line, with greater apoptosis and collagen I reduction. In summary, this study highlights the detrimental effects of macrophages on encapsulated cells for bone tissue engineering. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels are promising for cell encapsulation and tissue engineering, but are known to elicit a foreign body response (FBR) in

  17. Fabrication of 3D cell-laden hydrogel microstructures through photo-mold patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhetta, P; Piraino, F; Redaelli, A; Rasponi, M; Sadr, N; Moretti, M

    2013-01-01

    Native tissues are characterized by spatially organized three-dimensional (3D) microscaled units which functionally define cells–cells and cells–extracellular matrix interactions. The ability to engineer biomimetic constructs mimicking these 3D microarchitectures is subject to the control over cell distribution and organization. In the present study we introduce a novel protocol to generate 3D cell laden hydrogel micropatterns with defined size and shape. The method, named photo-mold patterning (PMP), combines hydrogel micromolding within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps and photopolymerization through a recently introduced biocompatible ultraviolet (UVA) activated photoinitiator (VA-086). Exploiting PDMS micromolds as geometrical constraints for two methacrylated prepolymers (polyethylene glycol diacrylate and gelatin methacrylate), micrometrically resolved structures were obtained within a 3 min exposure to a low cost and commercially available UVA LED. The PMP was validated both on a continuous cell line (human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressing green fluorescent protein, HUVEC GFP) and on primary human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). HUVEC GFP and BMSCs were exposed to 1.5% w/v VA-086 and UVA light (1 W, 385 nm, distance from sample = 5 cm). Photocrosslinking conditions applied during the PMP did not negatively affect cells viability or specific metabolic activity. Quantitative analyses demonstrated the potentiality of PMP to uniformly embed viable cells within 3D microgels, creating biocompatible and favorable environments for cell proliferation and spreading during a seven days' culture. PMP can thus be considered as a promising and cost effective tool for designing spatially accurate in vitro models and, in perspective, functional constructs. (paper)

  18. Tuning mechanical performance of poly(ethylene glycol) and agarose interpenetrating network hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennerfeldt, Deena A; Renth, Amanda N; Talata, Zsolt; Gehrke, Stevin H; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogels are attractive for tissue engineering applications due to their incredible versatility, but they can be limited in cartilage tissue engineering applications due to inadequate mechanical performance. In an effort to address this limitation, our team previously reported the drastic improvement in the mechanical performance of interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) and agarose relative to pure PEG-DA and agarose networks. The goal of the current study was specifically to determine the relative importance of PEG-DA concentration, agarose concentration, and PEG-DA molecular weight in controlling mechanical performance, swelling characteristics, and network parameters. IPNs consistently had compressive and shear moduli greater than the additive sum of either single network when compared to pure PEG-DA gels with a similar PEG-DA content. IPNs withstood a maximum stress of up to 4.0 MPa in unconfined compression, with increased PEG-DA molecular weight being the greatest contributing factor to improved failure properties. However, aside from failure properties, PEG-DA concentration was the most influential factor for the large majority of properties. Increasing the agarose and PEG-DA concentrations as well as the PEG-DA molecular weight of agarose/PEG-DA IPNs and pure PEG-DA gels improved moduli and maximum stresses by as much as an order of magnitude or greater compared to pure PEG-DA gels in our previous studies. Although the viability of encapsulated chondrocytes was not significantly affected by IPN formulation, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content was significantly influenced, with a 12-fold increase over a three-week period in gels with a lower PEG-DA concentration. These results suggest that mechanical performance of IPNs may be tuned with partial but not complete independence from biological performance of encapsulated cells. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HLC/pullulan and pullulan hydrogels: their microstructure, engineering process and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xian [College of chemistry & materials science, Northwest University, Taibai North Road 229, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Taibai North Road 229, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Xue, Wenjiao [Shannxi provincial institute of microbiology, Xi’ an 710043 (China); Liu, Yannan; Li, Weina [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Taibai North Road 229, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Fan, Daidi, E-mail: fandaidi@nwu.edu.cn [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Taibai North Road 229, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Zhu, Chenhui [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Taibai North Road 229, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Wang, Yaoyu, E-mail: wyaoyu@nwu.edu.cn [College of chemistry & materials science, Northwest University, Taibai North Road 229, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China)

    2016-01-01

    New locally injectable biomaterials that are suitable for use as soft tissue fillers are needed to address a significant unmet medical need. In this study, we used pullulan and human-like collagen (HLC) based hydrogels with various molecular weights (MWs) in combination therapy against tissue defects. Briefly, pullulan was crosslinked with NaIO{sub 4} to form a pullulan hydrogel and then may coupled with HLC using the reaction between the –NH{sub 2} end-group of HLC and the –CHO group present on the aldehyde pullulan to form the HLC/pullulan hydrogel, wherein the NaIO{sub 4} acted as the crosslinking and oxidizing agent. The good miscibility of pullulan and HLC in the hydrogels was confirmed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, compression testing, enzyme degradation testing, cell adhesions, live/dead staining and subcutaneous filling assays. Here, pullulan hydrogels with various MWs were fabricated and physicochemically characterized. Limitations of the pullulan hydrogels included inflammation, poor mechanical strength, and degradation. By contrast, the properties of the HLC/pullulan hydrogels strongly enhanced. The efficacy of these hydrogels was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that HLC/pullulan hydrogels may have therapeutic value as efficient soft tissue fillers, with reduced inflammation, improved cell adhesion and delayed hydrogel degradation. - Graphical abstract: The HLC/pullulan hydrogels were prepared by dialysis, wet granulation and UV radiation after various MWs of pullulan and HLC were crosslinked with NaIO{sub 4}, and injected subcutaneously into Kunming mouse. The formation of HLC/pullulan hydrogels is due to the amide bond linkage with the amino group of HLC and the aldehyde groups in pullulan aqueous media after crosslinking by NaIO{sub 4}. HLC/pullulan hydrogels may have therapeutic value as efficient soft tissue fillers, with reduced inflammation, improved cell adhesion and

  20. Photocrosslinked nanocomposite hydrogels from PEG and silica nanospheres: Structural, mechanical and cell adhesion characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Rivera, Christian; Wu, Chia-Jung; Chan, Burke K.; Schmidt, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    Photopolymerized hydrogels are extensively investigated for various tissue engineering applications, primarily due to their ability to form hydrogels in a minimally invasive manner. Although photocrosslinkable hydrogels provide necessary biological and chemical characteristics to mimic cellular microenvironments, they often lack sufficient mechanical properties. Recently, nanocomposite approaches have demonstrated potential to overcome these deficits by reinforcing the hydrogel network with. In this study, we investigate some physical, chemical, and biological properties of photocrosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-silica hydrogels. The addition of silica nanospheres significantly suppresses the hydration degree of the PEG hydrogels, indicating surface interactions between the silica nanospheres and the polymer chains. No significant change in hydrogel microstructure or average pore size due to the addition of silica nanospheres was observed. However, addition of silica nanospheres significantly increases both the mechanical strength and the toughness of the hydrogel networks. The biological properties of these nanocomposite hydrogels were evaluated by seeding fibroblast cells on the hydrogel surface. While the PEG hydrogels showed minimum cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation, the addition of silica nanospheres enhanced initial cell adhesion, promoted cell spreading and increased the metabolic activity of the cells. Overall, results indicate that the addition of silica nanospheres improves the mechanical stiffness and cell adhesion properties of PEG hydrogels and can be used for biomedical applications that required controlled cell adhesion. - Graphical abstract: Structural, mechanical and biological properties of photocrosslinked nanocomposite hydrogels from silica and poly(ethylene oxide) are investigated. Silica reinforce the hydrogel network and improved mechanical strength. Addition of induces cell adhesion characteristic properties for various

  1. Synthesis and characterization of injectable, thermosensitive, and biocompatible acellular bone matrix/poly(ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Pei-Yan; Fan, Min; Qian, Zhi-Yong; Luo, Jing-Cong; Gong, Chang-Yang; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Shi, Shuai; Luo, Feng; Yang, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    In orthopedic tissue engineering, the extensively applied acellular bone matrix (ABM) can seldom be prefabricated just right to mold the cavity of the diverse defects, might induce severe inflammation on account of the migration of small granules and usually bring the patients great pain in the treatment. In this study, a new injectable thermosensitive ABM/PECE composite with good biocompatibility was designed and prepared by adding the ABM granules into the triblock copolymer poly(ethylene eglycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene eglycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE). The PECE was synthesized by ring-opening copolymerization and characterized by ¹H NMR. The ABM was prepared by acellular treatment of natural bone and ground to fine granules. The obtained ABM/PECE composite showed the most important absorption bands of ABM and PECE copolymer in FT-IR spectroscopy and underwent sol-gel phage transition from solution to nonflowing hydrogel at 37°C. SEM results indicated that the ABM/PECE composite with different ABM contents all presented similar porous 3D structure. ABM/PECE composite presented mild cytotoxicity to rat MSCs in vitro and good biocompatibility in the BALB/c mice subcutis up to 4 weeks. In conclusion, all the results confirmed that the injectable thermosensitive ABM/PECE composite was a promising candidate for orthopedic tissue engineering in a minimally-invasive way. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Polyethylene glycol hydrogel rectal spacer implantation in patients with prostate cancer undergoing combination high-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jekwon; Lehrich, Brandon; Tran, Carolyn; Mesa, Albert; Baghdassarian, Ruben; Yoshida, Jeffrey; Torrey, Robert; Gazzaniga, Michael; Weinberg, Alan; Chalfin, Stuart; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    To present rectal toxicity rates in patients administered a polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel rectal spacer in conjunction with combination high-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. Between February 2010 and April 2015, 326 prostate carcinoma patients underwent combination high-dose-rate brachytherapy of 16 Gy (average dose 15.5 Gy; standard deviation [SD] = 1.6 Gy) and external beam radiotherapy of 59.4 Gy (average dose 60.2 Gy; SD = 2.9 Gy). In conjunction with the radiation therapy regimen, each patient was injected with 10 mL of a PEG hydrogel in the anterior perirectal fat space. The injectable spacer (rectal spacer) creates a gap between the prostate and the rectum. The rectum is displaced from the radiation field, and rectal dose is substantially reduced. The goal is a reduction in rectal radiation toxicity. Clinical efficacy was determined by measuring acute and chronic rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Center Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0 grading scheme. Median followup was 16 months. The mean anterior-posterior separation achieved was 1.6 cm (SD = 0.4 cm). Rates of acute Grade 1 and 2 rectal toxicity were 37.4% and 2.8%, respectively. There were no acute Grade 3/4 toxicities. Rates of late Grade 1, 2, and 3 rectal toxicity were 12.7%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. There were no late Grade 4 toxicities. PEG rectal spacer implantation is safe and well tolerated. Acute and chronic rectal toxicities are low despite aggressive dose escalation. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Functionalization of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate) hydrogels with finely dispersed calcium phosphate nanocrystals for bone-substituting purposes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers that can be processed into injectable hydrogel matrices are promising candidates for bone-substituting purposes. Furthermore, by incorporating degradable calcium phosphate (CaP) particles and growth factors into these hydrogel matrices, a bone construct can be designed which

  4. How Do Polyethylene Glycol and Poly(sulfobetaine) Hydrogel Layers on Ultrafiltration Membranes Minimize Fouling and Stay Stable in Cleaning Chemicals?

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Ulbricht, Mathias; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    is improved by the modification, as indicated by the change of contact angle value from 89° to 68° for both methods, due to the hydration layer formed in the hydrogel layers. Their pure water flux declines because of the additional permeation barrier from

  5. Sustained Local Release of Methylprednisolone From a Thiol-Acrylate Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogel for Treating Chronic Compressive Radicular Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Jonathan R; Ness, Jennifer K; Snyder, Kristin M; Skiles, Amanda A; Woodard, Eric J; OʼShea, Timothy; Layer, Rick T; Aimetti, Alex A; Toms, Steven A; Langer, Robert; Tapinos, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    A preclinical animal model of chronic ligation of the sciatic nerve was used to compare the effectiveness of a slow-release hydrogel carrying methylprednisolone to methylprednisolone injection alone, which simulates the current standard of care for chronic compressive radiculopathy (CR). To extend the short-term benefits of steroid injections by using a nonswelling, biodegradable hydrogel as carrier to locally release methylprednisolone in a regulated and sustained way at the site of nerve compression. CR affects millions worldwide annually, and is a cause of costly disability with significant societal impact. Currently, a leading nonsurgical therapy involves epidural injection of steroids to temporarily alleviate the pain associated with CR. However, an effective way to extend the short-term effect of steroid treatment to address the chronic component of CR does not exist. We induced chronic compression injury of the sciatic nerves of rats by permanent ligation. Forty-eight hours later we injected our methylprednisolone infused hydrogel and assessed the effectiveness of our treatment for 4 weeks. We quantified mechanical hyperalgesia using a Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer (Ugo Basile, Stoelting Co., IL, USA), whereas gait analysis was conducted using the Catwalk automated gait analysis platform (Noldus, Leesburg, VA, USA). Macrophage staining was performed with immunohistochemistry and quantification of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in sciatic nerve lysates was performed with multiplex immunoassay using a SECTOR Imager 2400A (Meso Scale Discovery, Rockville, MA, USA). We demonstrate that using the hydrogel to deliver methylprednisolone results in significant (P pain in an animal model of chronic CR. Our steroid-infused hydrogel could be an effective extender of the short-term benefits of epidural steroid injections for patients with chronic compression-induced radicular pain. N/A.

  6. Influence of the Ti microstructure on anodic self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers produced in ethylene glycol electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macak, J.M., E-mail: jan.macak@upce.cz [Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, 53002 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Jarosova, M. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics of the CAS, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Jäger, A. [Department of Structure analysis, Institute of Physics of the CAS, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, 16200 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sopha, H. [Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, 53002 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Klementová, M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the CAS, v.v.i., Husinec-Rez 1001, Rez 25068 (Czech Republic)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The microstructure of Ti substrates investigated by EBSD. • Comparison of polished vs. unpolished substrates was carried out. • Grain orientation influences the uniformity of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • Tubes with different average diameter grow on grains with different orientation. • Grain size and boundaries influence the number of flaws in the tube layers. - Abstract: The relationship between the microstructure of Ti substrates and the anodic growth of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers obtained upon their anodization in the ethylene glycol based electrolytes on these substrates is reported for the first time. Polished Ti sheets with mirror-like surface as well as unpolished Ti foils were considered in this work. Grains with a wide range of crystallographic orientations and sizes were revealed by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and correlated with nanotube growth on both types of substrates. A preferred grain orientation with [0 0 0 1] axis perpendicular to the surface was observed on all substrates. Surfaces of all substrates were anodized for 18 h in ethylene glycol electrolytes containing 88 mM NH{sub 4}F and 1.5% water and thoroughly inspected by SEM. By a precise comparison of Ti substrates before and after anodization, the uniformity of produced self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers was evaluated in regard to the specific orientation of individual grains. Grains with [0 0 0 1] axis perpendicular to the surface turned out to be the most growth-promoting orientation on polished substrates. No orientation was found to be strictly growth-retarding, but sufficient anodization time (24 h) was needed to obtain uniform nanotube layers on all grains without remnant porous initial oxide. In contrast with polished Ti sheets, no specific orientation was found to significantly promote or retard the nanotube growth in the case of unpolished Ti foils. Finally, the difference between the average nanotube diameters of

  7. Hybrid dendrimer hydrogel/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle platform: an advanced vehicle for topical delivery of antiglaucoma drugs and a likely solution to improving compliance and adherence in glaucoma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hu; Leffler, Christopher T

    2013-03-01

    Glaucoma therapy typically begins with topical medications, of which there are 4 major classes in common use in the United States: beta-adrenergic antagonists, alpha-agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and prostaglandin analogs. Unfortunately, all 4 classes require at least daily dosing, and 3 of the 4 classes are approved to be administered 2 or 3 times daily. This need for frequent dosing with multiple medications makes compliance difficult. Longer-acting formulations and combinations that require less frequent administration might improve compliance and therefore medication effectiveness. Recently, we developed an ocular drug delivery system, a hybrid dendrimer hydrogel/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle platform for delivering glaucoma therapeutics topically. This platform is designed to deliver glaucoma drugs to the eye efficiently and release the drug in a slow fashion. Furthermore, this delivery platform is designed to be compatible with many of the glaucoma drugs that are currently approved for use. In this article, we review this new delivery system with in-depth discussion of its structural features, properties, and preclinical application in glaucoma treatment. In addition, future directions and translational efforts for marketing this technology are elaborated.

  8. A Self-Folding Hydrogel In Vitro Model for Ductal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Hye Rin; Serbo, Janna V; Korangath, Preethi; Sukumar, Saraswati; Romer, Lewis H; Gracias, David H

    2016-04-01

    A significant challenge in oncology is the need to develop in vitro models that accurately mimic the complex microenvironment within and around normal and diseased tissues. Here, we describe a self-folding approach to create curved hydrogel microstructures that more accurately mimic the geometry of ducts and acini within the mammary glands, as compared to existing three-dimensional block-like models or flat dishes. The microstructures are composed of photopatterned bilayers of poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), a hydrogel widely used in tissue engineering. The PEGDA bilayers of dissimilar molecular weights spontaneously curve when released from the underlying substrate due to differential swelling ratios. The photopatterns can be altered via AutoCAD-designed photomasks so that a variety of ductal and acinar mimetic structures can be mass-produced. In addition, by co-polymerizing methacrylated gelatin (methagel) with PEGDA, microstructures with increased cell adherence are synthesized. Biocompatibility and versatility of our approach is highlighted by culturing either SUM159 cells, which were seeded postfabrication, or MDA-MB-231 cells, which were encapsulated in hydrogels; cell viability is verified over 9 and 15 days, respectively. We believe that self-folding processes and associated tubular, curved, and folded constructs like the ones demonstrated here can facilitate the design of more accurate in vitro models for investigating ductal carcinoma.

  9. Ionic Conductivity of Polyelectrolyte Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Jung; Wu, Haiyan; Hu, Yang; Young, Megan; Wang, Huifeng; Lynch, Dylan; Xu, Fujian; Cong, Hongbo; Cheng, Gang

    2018-02-14

    Polyelectrolytes have many important functions in both living organisms and man-made applications. One key property of polyelectrolytes is the ionic conductivity due to their porous networks that allow the transport of water and small molecular solutes. Among polyelectrolytes, zwitterionic polymers have attracted huge attention for applications that involve ion transport in a polyelectrolyte matrix; however, it is still unclear how the functional groups of zwitterionic polymer side chains affect their ion transport and swelling properties. In this study, zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine), and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) hydrogels were synthesized and their ionic conductivity was studied and compared to cationic, anionic, and nonionic hydrogels. The change of the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic and nonionic hydrogels in different saline solutions was investigated in detail. Zwitterionic hydrogels showed much higher ionic conductivity than that of the widely used nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate hydrogel in all tested solutions. For both cationic and anionic hydrogels, the presence of mobile counterions led to high ionic conductivity in low salt solutions; however, the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic hydrogels surpassed that of cationic and ionic hydrogels in high salt solutions. Cationic and anionic hydrogels showed much higher water content than that of zwitterionic hydrogels in deionized water; however, the cationic hydrogels shrank significantly with increasing saline concentration. This work provides insight into the effects of polyelectrolyte side chains on ion transport. This can guide us in choosing better polyelectrolytes for a broad spectrum of applications, including bioelectronics, neural implants, battery, and so on.

  10. Characterization and improvement of PVAl/PVP/PEG hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Almeida, Monise F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    The use of hydrogels matrices for particular drug release applications has been investigated with the synthesis of modified polymeric hydrogel of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVAl), poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly (ethylene glycol). They were processed using gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at 25 kGy dose. In this study it was compared the hydrogels reticulation for irradiation gamma O 2 and N 2 atmosphere. The characterization of the hydrogels was conducted and the toxicity was evaluated. The dried hydrogel was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TGA), swelling and gel determinations. The membranes have no toxicity and gel content revealed the crosslinking degree. (author)

  11. Biodegradable nanocomposite hydrogel structures with enhanced mechanical properties prepared by photo-crosslinking solutions of poly(trimethylene carbonate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(trimethylene carbonate) macromonomers and nanoclay particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Blanquer, Sebastien; van Kooten, T.G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2012-01-01

    Soft hydrogels with elasticity modulus values lower than 100 kPa that are tough and biodegradable are of great interest in medicine and in tissue engineering applications. We have developed a series of soft hydrogel structures from different methacrylate-functionalized triblock copolymers of

  12. Hydrogels Prepared from Cross-Linked Nanofibrillated Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep S. Nair; J.Y. Zhu; Yulin Deng; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels were developed by cross-linking nanofibrillated cellulose with poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) and polyethylene glycol. The cross-linked hydrogels showed enhanced water absorption and gel content with the addition of nanocellulose. In addition, the thermal stability, mechanical strength, and modulus increased with an increase in the...

  13. Water-soluble photopolymerizable chitosan hydrogels for biofabrication via two-photon polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufelt, Olga; El-Tamer, Ayman; Sehring, Camilla; Meißner, Marita; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Chichkov, Boris N

    2015-05-01

    Fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel microenvironments with predefined geometry and porosity can facilitate important requirements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Chitosan (CH) is well known as a biocompatible hydrogel with prospective biological properties for biomedical aims. So far, microstructuring of this soft material presents a great limitation for its application as functional supporting material for guided tissue formation. Enabling photopolymerization, chemically modified CH can be applied for the biofabrication of reproducible 3D scaffolds using rapid prototyping techniques like two-photon polymerization (2PP) or others. The application of this technique allows precise serial fabrication of computer-designed microstructure geometries by scanning a femtosecond laser beam within a photosensitive material. This work explores a new synthesis of water-soluble photosensitive chitosan and the fabrication of well-defined microstructures from the generated materials. To modulate the mechanical and biochemical properties of the material, CH was combined and cross-linked with synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate. For a biological adaption to the in vivo situation, CH was covalently crosslinked with a photosensitive modified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Performed in vitro studies reveal that modified CH is biocompatible. VEGF enhances CH bioactivity. Furthermore, a 3D CH scaffold can be successfully seeded with cells. Therefore, the established CH holds great promise for future applications in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycol chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Thomas; Danielsen, E Michael

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan is a polycationic polysaccharide consisting of β-(1-4)-linked glucosamine units and due to its mucoadhesive properties, chemical derivatives of chitosan are potential candidates as enhancers for transmucosal drug delivery. Recently, glycol chitosan (GC), a soluble derivative of chitosan...

  15. Microstructured poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) interpenetrating network hydrogels: UV-scattering induced accelerated formation and tensile behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sadakbayeva, Zhansaya; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Šturcová, Adriana; Pfleger, Jiří; Dušek, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 101, April (2018), s. 304-313 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08531S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hydrogels * interpenetrating polymer networks * kinetics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  16. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  17. Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles ...

  18. Formulation and release of alaptide from cellulose-based hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Sklenář

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern drug alaptide, synthetic dipeptide, shows regenerative effects and effects on the epitelisation process. A commercial product consisting of 1% alaptide hydrophilic cream is authorised for use in veterinary practice. This study focuses on the formulation of alaptide into semi-synthetic polymer-based hydrogels. The aim of the present study is to prepare hydrogels and to evaluate the liberation of alaptide from hydrogels. The hydrogels were prepared on the basis of three gel-producing substances: methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropylcellulose. To enhance the drug release from hydrogel humectants, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol in various concentrations were evaluated. The permeation of the alaptide from gels into the acceptor solution was evaluated with the use of the permeable membrane neprophane. The amount of drug released from prepared hydrogels was determined spectrophotometrically. Hydrogels with optimal alaptide liberation properties were subjected to the study of rheological properties in the next phase. The optimal composition of hydrogel as established in this study was 1% alaptide + 3% hydroxyethylcellulose with the addition of 10% glycerol as humectant. Due to the advantageous properties of hydrogels in wounds, alaptide could be incorporated into a hydrogel base for use in veterinary medicine.

  19. Hydrogel based occlusion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L.; Krylov, V.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a

  20. Preparation of Chitosan-based Injectable Hydrogels and Its Application in 3D Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongsan; Zhang, Yaling; Wei, Yen; Tao, Lei

    2017-09-29

    The protocol presents a facile, efficient, and versatile method to prepare chitosan-based hydrogels using dynamic imine chemistry. The hydrogel is prepared by mixing solutions of glycol chitosan with a synthesized benzaldehyde terminated polymer gelator, and hydrogels are efficiently obtained in several minutes at room temperature. By varying ratios between glycol chitosan, polymer gelator, and water contents, versatile hydrogels with different gelation times and stiffness are obtained. When damaged, the hydrogel can recover its appearances and modulus, due to the reversibility of the dynamic imine bonds as crosslinkages. This self-healable property enables the hydrogel to be injectable since it can be self-healed from squeezed pieces to an integral bulk hydrogel after the injection process. The hydrogel is also multi-responsive to many bio-active stimuli due to different equilibration statuses of the dynamic imine bonds. This hydrogel was confirmed as bio-compatible, and L929 mouse fibroblast cells were embedded following standard procedures and the cell proliferation was easily assessed by a 3D cell cultivation process. The hydrogel can offer an adjustable platform for different research where a physiological mimic of a 3D environment for cells is profited. Along with its multi-responsive, self-healable, and injectable properties, the hydrogels can potentially be applied as multiple carriers for drugs and cells in future bio-medical applications.

  1. Smart hydrogel functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.

  2. Glucose-Sensitive Hydrogel Optical Fibers Functionalized with Phenylboronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Jiang, Nan; Fallahi, Afsoon; Montelongo, Yunuen; Ruiz-Esparza, Guillermo U; Tamayol, Ali; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Mahmood, Iram; Yang, Su-A; Kim, Ki Su; Butt, Haider; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogel optical fibers are utilized for continuous glucose sensing in real time. The hydrogel fibers consist of poly(acrylamide-co-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) cores functionalized with phenylboronic acid. The complexation of the phenylboronic acid and cis-diol groups of glucose enables reversible changes of the hydrogel fiber diameter. The analyses of light propagation loss allow for quantitative glucose measurements within the physiological range. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Development of sago starch hydrogel for wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman HJ. Mohd Dahlan; Kamarudin Bahari [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Sago starch is utilized in Malaysia mainly for food production. The purpose of the research is to diversify the use of sago starch for medical application particularly in development of hydrogel burn wound dressing. The sago starch is blending with mixture of PVP and PVA to improve the degree of crosslink, mechanical properties, swelling ability and tackiness of the blend hydrogel (sago/PVA and sago PVP). Additives have been introduced into the system such as, polypropylene glycol or carboxymethyl cellulose to improved further the swelling ability and tackiness properties of the blend hydrogel as well as other properties. Effect of irradiation dose on the blend hydrogel has also been studied to optimize the effective dose for blend hydrogel and simultaneously for sterilization purpose. (author)

  4. Construction of Injectable Double-Network Hydrogels for Cell Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Mengnan; Yang, Di; Wang, Qian; Liang, Fuxin; Qu, Xiaozhong; Qiu, Dong; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2017-07-10

    Herein we present a unique method of using dynamic cross-links, which are dynamic covalent bonding and ionic interaction, for the construction of injectable double-network (DN) hydrogels, with the objective of cell delivery for cartilage repair. Glycol chitosan and dibenzaldhyde capped poly(ethylene oxide) formed the first network, while calcium alginate formed the second one, and in the resultant DN hydrogel, either of the networks could be selectively removed. The moduli of the DN hydrogel were significantly improved compared to that of the parent single-network hydrogels and were tunable by changing the chemical components. In situ 3D cell encapsulation could be easily performed by mixing cell suspension to the polymer solutions and transferred through a syringe needle before sol-gel transition. Cell proliferation and mediated differentiation of mouse chondrogenic cells were achieved in the DN hydrogel extracellular matrix.

  5. Development of sago starch hydrogel for wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman HJ Mohd Dahlan; Kamarudin Bahari; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2001-01-01

    Sago starch is utilized in Malaysia mainly for food production. The purpose of the research is to diversify the use of sago starch for medical application particularly in development of hydrogel burn wound dressing. The sago starch is blending with mixture of PVP and PVA to improve the degree of crosslink, mechanical properties, swelling ability and tackiness of the blend hydrogel (sago/PVA and sago PVP). Additives have been introduced into the system such as, polypropylene glycol or carboxymethyl cellulose to improved further the swelling ability and tackiness properties of the blend hydrogel as well as other properties. Effect of irradiation dose on the blend hydrogel has also been studied to optimize the effective dose for blend hydrogel and simultaneously for sterilization purpose. (author)

  6. Storage stability of biodegradable polyethylene glycol microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Era; Sheth, Saahil; Polito, Kristen; Sell, Scott A.; Zustiak, Silviya P.

    2017-10-01

    Degradable hydrogel microspheres are popular choices for multiple biomedical applications, including drug, protein, or cell carriers for minimally invasive delivery. Clinical transitioning of such new, sensitive pharmaceutical preparations requires investigation of storage methods that retain key properties for extended time. In this study, we sought to determine the influence of seven common storage conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of degradable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel microspheres: 25 °C, 4 °C, -80 °C, lyophilization/-20 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/-80 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/lyophilization/-20 °C, vacuum/-20 °C. We have outlined the storage conditions in detail and explained their effect on swelling ratio, stiffness and degradation rate post-storage. Additionally, we have implemented protein-loaded hydrogels to evaluate the effect of storage conditions on diffusivity as well as protein stability post-storage. We found that hydrogels could be stored short-term (1-4 d) under moist conditions (i.e. storage without drying) without a substantial loss of properties. For extended storage (7-28 d), they could be stored either at  -80 °C (moist condition) or vacuum drying (dry condition).

  7. HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE BASED NANOCOMPOSITE HYDROGELS WITH TUNABLE PORE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Bat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA based hydrogels have found increasing number of applications in areas such as chromatographic separations, controlled drug release, biosensing, and membrane separations. In all these applications, the pore size and pore interconnectivity are crucial for successful application of these materials as they determine the rate of diffusion through the matrix. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate is a water soluble monomer but its polymer, polyHEMA, is not soluble in water. Therefore, during polymerization of HEMA in aqueous media, a porous structure is obtained as a result of phase separation. Pore size and interconnectivity in these hydrogels is a function of several variables such as monomer concentration, cross-linker concentration, temperature etc. In this study, we investigated the effect of monomer concentration, graphene oxide addition or clay addition on hydrogel pore size, pore interconnectivity, water uptake, and thermal properties. PolyHEMA hydrogels have been prepared by redox initiated free radical polymerization of the monomer using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. As a nanofiller, a synthetic hectorite Laponite® XLG and graphene oxide were used. Graphene oxide was prepared by the Tour Method. Pore morphology of the pristine HEMA based hydrogels and nanocomposite hydrogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The formed hydrogels were found to be highly elastic and flexible. A dramatic change in the pore structure and size was observed in the range between 22 to 24 wt/vol monomer at 0.5 % of cross-linker. In this range, the hydrogel morphology changes from typical cauliflower architecture to continuous hydrogel with dispersed water droplets forming the pores where the pores are submicron in size and show an interconnected structure. Such controlled pore structure is highly important when these hydrogels are used for solute diffusion or when there’s flow through monolithic hydrogels

  8. Novel Osteoinductive Photo-cross-linkable Chitosan-lactide-fibrinogen Hydrogels Enhance Bone Regeneration in Critical Size Segmental Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    2.3.2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) The internal microstructures of the CL and CLF hydrogels were investigated by SEM. The effect of...hydrogels. All hydrogels showed homogeneous and microporous structures throughout the cross-section. The CL hydrogel (Fig. 3a and 3c) exhibited...regardless of wettability. Furthermore, amide or ester linkages for the branched PLA chains can function as plasticizers internally in the rigid main

  9. Structure- Property Behavior of Poly (acrylic acid) Hydrogels Synthesized by Radiation Induced Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizam El-Din, H.M.M.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogel containing hydroxyl group based on glycerol, ethylene glycol and acrylic monomer, have been prepared by using gamma radiation. The application of the prepared hydrogel for recovery of CU 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Pb 2+ was also studied. The hydrogel for complexes with metals have been isolated and characterized by using different spectroscopic techniques IR and thermal analysis. TGA thermo grams were used to determine the kinetic parameters such as activation energy and order of reaction. The complexometric titration showed that the hydrogels have a great affinity to recover the metal ions in the following order Pb 2+ > Ni 2+ > Cu 2+ > Co 2+ . However the hydrogel containing glycerol has a great tendency towards metals recovery than than the one containing ethylene glycol

  10. Development of an in situ polymeric hydrogel implant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize in situ gel-forming implants of methylprednisolone for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. Methods: In situ hydrogels of methylprednisolone were prepared by dispersing polylactide glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer and methylprednisolone in N-methyl-pyrrolidone solvent, and subsequent ...

  11. Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Seonghoon; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Polymer hydrogels are widely used as cell scaffolds for biomedical applications. Although the biochemical and biophysical properties of hydrogels have been investigated extensively, little attention has been paid to their potential photonic functionalities. Here, we report cell-integrated polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels for in vivo optical-sensing and therapy applications. Hydrogel patches containing cells were implanted in awake, freely moving mice for several days and shown to offer long-term transparency, biocompatibility, cell viability and light-guiding properties (loss of nanotoxicity of cadmium-based bare and shelled quantum dots (CdTe; CdSe/ZnS) in vivo.

  12. PVA hydrogel properties for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Liu, Sha; Feng, Wenhao

    2011-10-01

    PVA has been proposed as a promising biomaterial suitable for tissue mimicking, vascular cell culturing and vascular implanting. In this research, a kind of transparent PVA hydrogel has been investigated in order to mimic the creatural soft tissue deformation during mini-invasive surgery with needle intervention, such as brachytherapy. Three kinds of samples with the same composition of 3 g PVA, 17 g de-ionized water, 80 g dimethyl-sulfoxide but different freeze/thaw cycles have been prepared. In order to investigate the structure and properties of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel, micro-structure, mechanical property and deformation measurement have been conducted. As the SEM image comparison results show, with the increase of freeze/thaw cycles, PVA hydrogel revealed the similar micro-structure to porcine liver tissue. With uniaxial tensile strength test, the above composition with a five freeze/thaw cycle sample resulted in Young's modulus similar to that of porcine liver's property. Through the comparison of needle insertion deformation experiment and the clinical experiment during brachytherapy, results show that the PVA hydrogel had the same deformation property as prostate tissue. These transparent hydrogel phantom materials can be suitable soft tissue substitutes in needle intervention precision or pre-operation planning studies, particularly in the cases of mimicking creatural tissue deformation and analysing video camera images. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Photodegradable, Photoadaptable Hydrogels via Radical-Mediated Disulfide Fragmentation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Benjamin D; Singh, Samir P; Bowman, Christopher N; Anseth, Kristi S

    2011-04-26

    Various techniques have been adopted to impart a biological responsiveness to synthetic hydrogels for the delivery of therapeutic agents as well as the study and manipulation of biological processes and tissue development. Such techniques and materials include polyelectrolyte gels that swell and deswell with changes in pH, thermosensitive gels that contract at physiological temperatures, and peptide cross-linked hydrogels that degrade upon peptidolysis by cell-secreted enzymes. Herein we report a unique approach to photochemically deform and degrade disulfide cross-linked hydrogels, mitigating the challenges of light attenuation and low quantum yield, permitting the degradation of hydrogels up to 2 mm thick within 120 s at low light intensities (10 mW/cm(2) at 365 nm). Hydrogels were formed by the oxidation of thiol-functionalized 4-armed poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecules. These disulfide cross-linked hydrogels were then swollen in a lithium acylphosphinate photoinitiator solution. Upon exposure to light, photogenerated radicals initiate multiple fragmentation and disulfide exchange reactions, permitting and promoting photodeformation, photowelding, and photodegradation. This novel, but simple, approach to generate photoadaptable hydrogels portends the study of cellular response to mechanically and topographically dynamic substrates as well as novel encapsulations by the welding of solid substrates. The principles and techniques described herein hold implications for more than hydrogel materials but also for photoadaptable polymers more generally.

  14. Hydrogels for in situ encapsulation of biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibragimova, Sania; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    to chemically initiated hydrogels; however, for all hydrogels the permeability was several-fold higher than the water permeability of conventional reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Lifetimes of freestanding BLM arrays in gel precursor solutions were short compared to arrays formed in buffer. However, polymerizing......Hydrogels are hydrophilic, porous polymer networks that can absorb up to thousands of times their own weight in water. They have many potential applications, one of which is the encapsulation of freestanding black lipid membranes (BLMs) for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications....... We investigated gels for in situ encapsulation of multiple BLMs formed across apertures in a hydrophobic ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) support. The encapsulation gels consisted of networks of poly(ethylene glycol)-dimethacrylate or poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate polymerized using either...

  15. Digital Drug Dosing: Dosing in Drug Assays by Light-Defined Volumes of Hydrogels with Embedded Drug-Loaded Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogels are widely used for biomedical applications, including matrices for controlled drug release. We present a method for defining drug dosing in screening assays by light-activated cross-linking of PEG-diacrylate hydrogels with embedded drug-loaded liposome...

  16. Development of injectable hydrogels for nucleus pulposus replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan D.

    Intervertebral disc degeneration has been reported as the underlying cause for 75% of cases of lower back pain and is marked by dehydration of the nucleus pulposus within the intervertebral disc. There have been many implant designs to replace the nucleus pulposus. Some researchers have proposed the replacement of the nucleus pulposus with hydrogel materials. The insertion of devices made from these materials further compromises the annulus of the disc. An ideal nucleus replacement could be injected into the disc space and form a solid in vivo. However, injectable replacements using curing elastomers and thermoplastic materials are not ideal because of the potentially harmful exothermic heat evolved from their reactions and the toxicity of the reactants used. We propose a hydrogel system that can be injected as a liquid at 25°C and solidified to yield a hydrogel within the intervertebral disc at 37°C. In aqueous solutions, these polymers have Lower Critical Solution Temperatures (LCST) between 25-37°C, making them unique candidate materials for this application. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) is the most widely studied LCST polymer due to its drastic transition near body temperature. However, by itself, pure PNIPAAm forms a hydrogel that has low water content and can readily undergo plastic deformation. To increase the water content and impart elasticity to PNIPAAm hydrogels, grafted and branched hydrogel systems were created that incorporated the thermogelling PNIPAAm and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). In this research, the effects of polymer composition and monomer to initiator ratio, which controls polymer MW, on the in vitro swelling properties (mass, chemical, and compressive mechanical stability) of hydrogels formed from aqueous solutions of these polymers were evaluated. Immersion studies were also conducted in solutions to simulate the osmotic environment of the nucleus pulposus. The effects of repeated compression and unloading cycles

  17. The synthesis of hydrogels with controlled distribution of polymer brushes in hydrogel network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, YuWei; Zhou, Chao; Zhang, AoKai; Xu, LiQun; Yao, Fang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangning District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 211189 (China); Cen, Lian, E-mail: cenlian@hotmail.com [National Tissue Engineering Center of China, No.68, East Jiang Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200241 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, No.130, Mei Long Road, Shanghai, 200237 (China); Fu, Guo-Dong, E-mail: fu7352@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangning District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 211189 (China)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Many biological tissues are 3-dimensionally asymmetric in structure and properties, it would be desirable if hydrogels could bear such structural similarity with specialized surface and bulk properties. Moreover, gradual but continuous variation in spatial structural and property is also a common phenomenon in biological tissues, such as interfaces between bone and tendon, or between bone and cartilage. Hence, the development of a method to introduce well-defined functional polymer brushes on PEG hydrogels, especially with precisely controlled spatial structure in 3-dimensions, would impart the hydrogels with special functionalities and wider applications. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels with 3-dimensionally controlled well-defined poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm)) brushes were prepared by combined copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (“Click Chemistry”) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The resulting hydrogels were presented as representatives with their detailed synthesis routes and characterization. H{sub PEG}-S-poly(NIPAAm) is a hydrogel with poly(NIPAAm) brushes mainly grafted on surface, whereas H{sub PEG}-G-poly(NIPAAm) has a gradiently decreased poly(NIPAAm) brushes in their chain length from surface to inside. On the other hand, poly(NIPAAm) brushes in H{sub PEG}-U-poly(NIPAAm) are uniformly dispersed throughout the whole hydrogel network. Successful preparation of H{sub PEG}-S-poly(NIPAAm), H{sub PEG}-G-poly(NIPAAm) and H{sub PEG}-U-poly(NIPAAm) were ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement. Hence, the flexibility and controllability of the synthetic strategy in varying the distribution of polymer brushes and hydrogel surface properties was demonstrated. Hydrogels with tunable and well-defined 3-dimensional poly(NIPAAm) polymer brushes could be tailor-designed to find potential applications in smart devices or skin dressing, such as for diabetics

  18. Combination therapy of surgical tumor resection with implantation of a hydrogel containing camptothecin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres in a C6 rat glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Daiki; Hashizawa, Kosuke; Imai, Yoshihiro; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a drug-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere-containing thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) (drug/PLGA/TGP) formulation as a novel device for implantation after surgical glioma resection. TGP is a thermosensitive polymer that is a gel at body temperature and a sol at room temperature. When a drug/PLGA/TGP formulation is injected into a target site, PLGA microspheres in TGP gel localize at the injection site and do not diffuse across the entire brain tissue, and thus, sustained drug release from the PLGA microspheres at the target site is expected. Using in vivo imaging, we confirmed that the implantation of indocyanine green (ICG)/PLGA/TGP formulation exhibited a stronger localization of ICG at the injection site 28 d after injection compared with that of ICG/PLGA formulation. The therapeutic effect (mean survival) was evaluated in a C6 rat glioma model. Surgical tumor resection alone showed almost no effect on survival (controls, 18 d; surgical resection; 18.5 d). Survival was prolonged after the treatment with a camptothecin (CPT; 10 µg)/PLGA/TGP formulation (24 d). The combination treatment of surgical tumor resection and CPT/PLGA/TGP showed almost the same therapeutic effect (24 d) compared with CPT/PLGA/TGP alone, while the combination treatment produced long term survivors (>60 d). Therefore, the CPT/PLGA/TGP formulation can be an effective candidate for localized and sustained long-term glioma therapy.

  19. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-bin Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compelling findings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1 polyethylene glycol as an adjustable biomolecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2 Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3 Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting substrates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury

  20. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-bin Kong; Qiu-yan Tang; Xu-yi Chen; Yue Tu; Shi-zhong Sun; Zhong-lei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compellingfindings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1) polyethylene glycol as an adjustable bio-molecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2) Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3) Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting sub-strates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury.

  1. Hydrogel formulation determines cell fate of fetal and adult neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R. Aurand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels provide a unique tool for neural tissue engineering. These materials can be customized for certain functions, i.e. to provide cell/drug delivery or act as a physical scaffold. Unfortunately, hydrogel complexities can negatively impact their biocompatibility, resulting in unintended consequences. These adverse effects may be combated with a better understanding of hydrogel chemical, physical, and mechanical properties, and how these properties affect encapsulated neural cells. We defined the polymerization and degradation rates and compressive moduli of 25 hydrogels formulated from different concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. Changes in compressive modulus were driven primarily by the HA concentration. The in vitro biocompatibility of fetal-derived (fNPC and adult-derived (aNPC neural progenitor cells was dependent on hydrogel formulation. Acute survival of fNPC benefited from hydrogel encapsulation. NPC differentiation was divergent: fNPC differentiated into mostly glial cells, compared with neuronal differentiation of aNPC. Differentiation was influenced in part by the hydrogel mechanical properties. This study indicates that there can be a wide range of HA and PEG hydrogels compatible with NPC. Additionally, this is the first study comparing hydrogel encapsulation of NPC derived from different aged sources, with data suggesting that fNPC and aNPC respond dissimilarly within the same hydrogel formulation.

  2. Modulation of cultured neural networks using neurotrophin release from hydrogel-coated microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sang Beom; Hynd, Matthew R.; Dowell-Mesfin, Natalie M.; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Roysam, Badrinath; Shain, William; Kim, Sung June

    2008-06-01

    Polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels were synthesized and characterized for use as drug release and substrates for neuron cell culture. Protein release kinetics was determined by incorporating bovine serum albumin (BSA) into hydrogels during polymerization. To determine if hydrogel incorporation and release affect bioactivity, alkaline phosphatase was incorporated into hydrogels and a released enzyme activity determined using the fluorescence-based ELF-97 assay. Hydrogels were then used to deliver a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from hydrogels polymerized over planar microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Primary hippocampal neurons were cultured on both control and neurotrophin-containing hydrogel-coated MEAs. The effect of released BDNF on neurite length and process arborization was investigated using automated image analysis. An increased spontaneous activity as a response to the released BDNF was recorded from the neurons cultured on the top of hydrogel layers. These results demonstrate that proteins of biological interest can be incorporated into hydrogels to modulate development and function of cultured neural networks. These results also set the stage for development of hydrogel-coated neural prosthetic devices for local delivery of various biologically active molecules.

  3. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: jorgegabriel@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  4. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  5. A microfluidic chip with a U-shaped microstructure array for multicellular spheroid formation, culturing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Chien-Yu; Chang, Hwan-You; Tseng, Sheng-Yang; Yang, Shih-Mo; Hsu, Long; Liu, Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular spheroids (MCS), formed by self-assembly of single cells, are commonly used as a three-dimensional cell culture model to bridge the gap between in vitro monolayer culture and in vivo tissues. However, current methods for MCS generation and analysis still suffer drawbacks such as being labor-intensive and of poor controllability, and are not suitable for high-throughput applications. This study demonstrates a novel microfluidic chip to facilitate MCS formation, culturing and analysis. The chip contains an array of U-shaped microstructures fabricated by photopolymerizing the poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogel through defining the ultraviolet light exposure pattern with a photomask. The geometry of the U-shaped microstructures allowed trapping cells into the pocket through the actions of fluid flow and the force of gravity. The hydrogel is non-adherent for cells, promoting the formation of MCS. Its permselective property also facilitates exchange of nutrients and waste for MCS, while providing protection of MCS from shearing stress during the medium perfusion. Heterotypic MCS can be formed easily by manipulating the cell trapping steps. Subsequent drug susceptibility analysis and long-term culture could also be achieved within the same chip. This MCS formation and culture platform can be used as a micro-scale bioreactor and applied in many cell biology and drug testing studies. (paper)

  6. Thermo-responsive hydrogels for intravitreal injection and biomolecule release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapala, Pawel

    In this dissertation, we develop an injectable polymer system to enable localized and prolonged release of therapeutic biomolecules for improved treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Thermo-responsive hydrogels derived from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) poly(L-Lactic acid) (PLLA) copolymer were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. These materials were investigated for (a) phase change behavior, (b) in-vitro degradation, (c) capacity for controlled drug delivery, and (d) biocompatibility. The volume-phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the PNIPAAm- co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels was adjusted using hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties so that it is ca. 33°C. These hydrogels did not initially show evidence of degradation at 37°C due to physical cross-links of collapsed PNIPAAm. Only after addition of glutathione chain transfer agents (CTA)s to the precursor did the collapsed hydrogels become fully soluble at 37°C. CTAs significantly affected the release kinetics of biomolecules; addition of 1.0 mg/mL glutathione to 3 mM cross-linker accelerated hydrogel degradation, resulting in 100% release in less than 2 days. This work also explored the effect of PEGylation in order to tether biomolecules to the polymer matrix. It was demonstrated that non-site-specific PEGylation can postpone the burst release of solutes (up to 10 days in hydrogels with 0.5 mg/mL glutathione). Cell viability assays showed that at least two 20-minute buffer extraction steps were needed to remove cytotoxic elements from the hydrogels. Clinically-used therapeutic biomolecules LucentisRTM and AvastinRTM were demonstrated to be both stable and bioactive after release form PNIPAAm-co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels. The thermo-responsive hydrogels presented here offer a promising platform for the localized delivery of proteins such as recombinant antibodies.

  7. Electrical properties of a novel lead alkoxide precursor: Lead glycolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangboriboon, Nuchnapa; Pakdeewanishsukho, Kittikhun; Jamieson, Alexander; Sirivat, Anuvat; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of lead acetate trihydrate Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 .3H 2 O and ethylene glycol, using triethylenetetramine (TETA) as a catalyst, provides in one step access to a polymer-like precursor of lead glycolate [-PbOCH 2 CH 2 O-]. On the basis of high-resolution mass spectroscopy, chemical analysis composition, FTIR, 13 C-solid state NMR and TGA, the lead glycolate precursor can be identified as a trimer structure. The FTIR spectrum demonstrates the characteristics of lead glycolate; the peaks at 1086 and 1042 cm -1 can be assigned to the C-O-Pb stretchings. The 13 C-solid state NMR spectrum gives notably only one peak at 68.639 ppm belonging to the ethylene glycol ligand. The phase transformations of lead glycolate and lead acetate trihydrate to lead oxide, their microstructures, and electrical properties were found to vary with increasing temperature. The lead glycolate precursor has superior electrical properties relative to those of lead acetate trihydrate, suggesting that the lead glycolate precursor can possibly be used as a starting material for producing electrical and semiconducting ceramics, viz. ferroelectric, anti-ferroelectric, and piezoelectric materials

  8. Fabrication of drug-loaded hydrogels with stereolithographic 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pamela Robles; Goyanes, Alvaro; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2017-10-30

    3D printing (3DP) technologies have been attracting much recent interest as new methods of fabricating medicines and medical devices. Of the many types of 3DP available, stereolithographic (SLA) printing offers the unique advantage of being able to fabricate objects by cross-linking resins to form networked polymer matrices. Because water can be entrapped in these matrices, it is possible in principle to fabricate pre-wetted, drug-loaded hydrogels and devices. Here, SLA printing was used to prepare ibuprofen-loaded hydrogels of cross-linked polyethylene glycol diacrylate. Hydrogels containing up to 30% w/w water, and 10% w/w ibuprofen, were successfully printed. Dissolution profiles showed that drug release rates were dependent on water content, with higher water content hydrogels releasing drug faster. The conclusion is that SLA 3DP offers a new manufacturing route to pharmaceutical hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3350 is in a class of medications called osmotic laxatives. It works by causing water to be ... experience either of them, call your doctor immediately: diarrhea hives Polyethylene glycol 3350 may cause other side ...

  10. Biomimetic hydrogel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mukkamala, Ravindranath; Chen, Qing; Hu, Hopin; Baude, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  11. Keratin sponge/hydrogel part 1. fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogel products formed by either the oxidation or reduction of U.S. domestic fine- or coarse-grade wool exhibited distinctively different topologies and molecular weights of 6- 8 kDa and 40-60 kDa, each with unique macro-porous structure and microstructural behaviors. The sponge/ ...

  12. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Ahmed, Nafees

    2011-01-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris. (topical review)

  13. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Murosaki, Nafees Ahmed and Jian Ping Gong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris.

  14. Release mechanisms of acetaminophen from polyethylene oxide/polyethylene glycol matrix tablets utilizing magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Tomokazu; Morita, Shigeaki; Sakamoto, Ryosaku; Suzuki, Masazumi; Yamanashi, Shigeyuki; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Kitamura, Satoshi

    2010-08-16

    Release mechanism of acetaminophen (AAP) from extended-release tablets of hydrogel polymer matrices containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were achieved using flow-through cell with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hydrogel forming abilities are observed characteristically and the layer thickness which is corresponding to the diffusion length of AAP has a good correlation with the drug release profiles. In addition, polymeric erosion contribution to AAP releasing from hydrogel matrix tablets was directly quantified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The matrix erosion profile indicates that the PEG erosion kinetic depends primarily on the composition ratio of PEG to PEO. The present study has confirmed that the combination of in situ MRI and SEC should be well suited to investigate the drug release mechanisms of hydrogel matrix such as PEO/PEG. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-Dimensional Calcium Alginate Hydrogel Assembly via TiOPc-Based Light-Induced Controllable Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D hydrogel microstructures would greatly contribute to tissue assembly in vitro, and has been widely applied in tissue engineering and drug screening. Recent technological advances in the assembly of functional hydrogel microstructures such as microfluidic, 3D bioprinting, and micromold-based 3D hydrogel fabrication methods have enabled the formation of 3D tissue constructs. However, they still lack flexibility and high efficiency, which restrict their application in 3D tissue constructs. Alternatively, we report a feasible method for the fabrication and reconstruction of customized 3D hydrogel blocks. Arbitrary hydrogel microstructures were fabricated in situ via flexible and rapid light-addressable electrodeposition. To demonstrate the versatility of this method, the higher-order assembly of 3D hydrogel blocks was investigated using a constant direct current (DC voltage (6 V applied between two electrodes for 20–120 s. In addition to the plane-based two-dimensional (2D assembly, hierarchical structures—including multi-layer 3D hydrogel structures and vessel-shaped structures—could be assembled using the proposed method. Overall, we developed a platform that enables researchers to construct complex 3D hydrogel microstructures efficiently and simply, which has the potential to facilitate research on drug screening and 3D tissue constructs.

  16. IPN hydrogel nanocomposites based on agarose and ZnO with antifouling and bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingjing, E-mail: jjwang1@hotmail.com; Hu, Hongkai; Yang, Zhonglin; Wei, Jun; Li, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate modified ZnO (ZnO-PEGMA) and 4-azidobenzoic agarose (AG-N{sub 3}) were prepared by a one-pot strategy under UV irradiation. The hydrogels exhibited a highly macroporous spongelike structure, and the pore size decreased with the increase of the ZnO-PEGMA content. Due to the entanglement and favorable interactions between the two crosslinked networks, the IPN hydrogels exhibited excellent mechanical strength and light transmittance. The maximum compressive and tensile strengths of the IPN hydrogels reached 24.8 and 1.98 MPa respectively. The transparent IPN hydrogels transmitted more than 85% of visible light at all wavelengths (400–800 nm). The IPN hydrogels exhibited anti-adhesive property towards Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and the bactericidal activity increased with the ZnO-PEGMA content. The incorporation of ZnO-PEGMA did not reduce the biocompatibility of the IPN hydrogels and all the IPN nanocomposites showed negligible cytotoxicity. The present study not only provided a facile method for preparing hydrogel nanocomposites with IPN structure but also developed a new hydrogel material which might be an excellent candidate for wound dressings. - Highlights: • IPN hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared by a one-pot strategy. • The maximum compressive and tensile strengths reached 24.8 and 1.98 MPa. • IPN hydrogels displayed excellent antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility. • This study provided a facile method for preparing IPN hydrogel nanocomposites.

  17. On the Interaction between Superabsorbent Hydrogels and Cementitious Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzanian, Khashayar

    Autogenous shrinkage induced cracking is a major concern in high performance concretes (HPC), which are produced with low water to cement ratios. Internal curing to maintain high relative humidity in HPC with the use of an internal water reservoir has proven effective in mitigating autogenous shrinkage in HPC. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) or hydrogels have received increasing attention as an internal curing agent in recent years. A key advantage of SAP is its versatility in size distribution and absorption/desorption characteristics, which allow it to be adapted to specific mix designs. Understanding the behavior of superabsorbent hydrogels in cementitious materials is critical for accurate design of internal curing. The primary goal of this study is to fundamentally understand the interaction between superabsorbent hydrogels and cementitious materials. In the first step, the effect of chemical and mechanical conditions on the absorption of hydrogels is investigated. In the second step, the desorption of hydrogels in contact with porous cementitious materials is examined to aid in understanding the mechanisms of water release from superabsorbent hydrogels (SAP) into cementitious materials. The dependence of hydrogel desorption on the microstructure of cementitious materials and relative humidity is studied. It is shown that the capillary forces developed at the interface between the hydrogel and cementitious materials increased the desorption of the hydrogels. The size of hydrogels is shown to influence desorption, beyond the known size dependence of bulk diffusion, through debonding from the cementitious matrix, thereby decreasing the effect of the Laplace pressure on desorption. In the third step, the desorption of hydrogels synthesized with varied chemical compositions in cementitious materials are investigated. The absorption, chemical structure and mechanical response of hydrogels swollen in a cement mixture are studied. The effect of the capillary forces on

  18. Dual growth factor delivery from bilayered, biodegradable hydrogel composites for spatially-guided osteochondral tissue repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Lam, J.; Trachtenberg, J.E.; Lee, E.J.; Seyednejad, H.; van den Beucken, J.J.; Tabata, Y.; Wong, M.E.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.; Kasper, F.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the use of biodegradable hydrogel composite scaffolds, based on the macromer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF), to deliver growth factors for the repair of osteochondral tissue in a rabbit model. In particular, bilayered OPF composites were used to mimic the

  19. Microfabrication of biocompatible hydrogels by proton beam writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kimura, Atsushi; Idesaki, Akira; Yamada, Naoto; Koka, Masashi; Satoh, Takahiro; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2017-10-01

    Functionalization of biocompatible materials is expected to be widely applied in biomedical engineering and regenerative medicine fields. Hydrogel has been expected as a biocompatible scaffold which support to keep an organ shape during cell multiplying in regenerative medicine. Therefore, it is important to understanding a surface microstructure (minute shape, depth of flute) and a chemical characteristic of the hydrogel affecting the cell culture. Here, we investigate the microfabrication of biocompatible polymeric materials, such as the water-soluble polysaccharide derivatives hydroxypropyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose, by use of proton beam writing (PBW). These polymeric materials were dissolved thoroughly in pure water using a planetary centrifugal mixer, and a sample sheet (1 mm thick) was formed on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Crosslinking to form hydrogels was induced using a 3.0 MeV focused proton beam from the single-ended accelerator at Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application. The aqueous samples were horizontally irradiated with the proton beam through the PET cover film, and then rinsed with deionized water. Microstructured hydrogels were obtained on the PET film using the PBW technique without toxic crosslinking reagents. Cell adhesion and proliferation on the microfabricated biocompatible hydrogels were investigated. Microfabrication of HPC and CMC by the use of PBW is expected to produce new biocompatible materials that can be applied in biological and medical applications.

  20. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel and nanosilver composite as antimicrobial agents for UTI pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Saad M; Aldalbahi, Ali; Al-Hajji, Abdullah Baker; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad; Panhuis, Marc In Het; Alhokbany, Norah; Ahamad, Tansir

    2016-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) containing hydrogel composite were first synthesized by preparing a new hydrogel from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and the cross-linker ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE), followed by the incorporation of AgNPs by microwave radiation. The resulting neat hydrogels and AgNPs-hydrogel composites were characterized using spectral, thermal, microscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The SEM and TEM results demonstrated that the synthesized AgNPs were spherical with diameters ranging from 8 to 14nm. In addition, the XRD analysis confirmed the nanocrystalline phase of silver with face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the AgNPs confirmed the presence of an elemental silver signal, and no peaks of any other impurities were detected. Additionally, the antibacterial activities of the neat hydrogel and AgNPs-hydrogel composites were measured by Kirby-Bauer method against urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens. The rheology measurement revealed that the values of storage modulus (G') were higher than that of loss modulus (G″). The AgNPs-hydrogel composites exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis compared to the corresponding neat hydrogel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Minocycline enhances the mesenchymal stromal/stem cell pro-healing phenotype in triple antimicrobial-loaded hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alberto Daniel; Rose, Warren E; Hematti, Peiman; Kao, W John

    2017-03-15

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated pro-healing properties including an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile and the promotion of angiogenesis via expression of growth factors in pre-clinical models. MSCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGdA) and thiolated gelatin poly(ethylene glycol) (Gel-PEG-Cys) crosslinked hydrogels have led to controlled cellular presentation at wound sites with favorable wound healing outcomes. However, the therapeutic potential of MSC-loaded hydrogels may be limited by non-specific protein adsorption on the delivery matrix that could facilitate the initial adhesion of microorganisms and subsequent virulent biofilm formation. Antimicrobials loaded concurrently in the hydrogels with MSCs could reduce microbial bioburden and promote healing, but the antimicrobial effect on the MSC wound healing capacity and the antibacterial efficacy of the hydrogels is unknown. We demonstrate that minocycline specifically induces a favorable change in MSC migration capacity, proliferation, gene expression, extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment, and adhesion molecule and growth factor release with subsequent increased angiogenesis. We then demonstrate that hydrogels loaded with MSCs, minocycline, vancomycin, and linezolid can significantly decrease bacterial bioburden. Our study suggests that minocycline can serve as a dual mechanism for the regenerative capacity of MSCs and the reduction of bioburden in triple antimicrobial-loaded hydrogels. Wound healing is a complex biological process that can be hindered by bacterial infection, excessive inflammation, and inadequate microvasculature. In this study, we develop a new formulation of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and thiolated gelatin poly(ethylene glycol) crosslinked hydrogels loaded with minocycline, vancomycin, linezolid, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells that induces a favorable wound healing phenotype in mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and prevents bacterial

  2. Hydrogels for efficient light delivery in optogenetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsmeier, S.; Torres, M. L.; Ripken, T.; Heinemann, D.; Heisterkamp, A.

    2018-02-01

    Light-based therapies have been established for various indications, such as skin conditions, cancer or neonatal jaundice. Advances in the field of optogenetics open up new horizons for light-tissue interactions with an organism-wide impact. Excitable tissues, such as nerve and muscle tissues, can be controlled by light after the introduction of light-sensitive ion channels. Since these organs are generally not easily accessible to illumination in vivo, there is an increasing need for effective biocompatible waveguides for light delivery. These devices not only have to guide and distribute the light as desired with minimal losses, they should also mimic the mechanical properties of the surrounding tissue to ensure compatibility. In this project, we are tuning the properties of hydrogels from poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives to achieve compatibility with muscle tissue as well as optimal light guiding and distribution for optogenetic applications at the heart. The excitation light is coupled into the hydrogel with a biocompatible fiber. Properties of the hydrogel are mainly tuned by monomer length and concentration. Total reflection can be achieved by embedding a fiber-like hydrogel with a high refractive index into a second, low refractive index gel. Different geometries and scattering microparticles are used for light distribution in a flat gel patch. Targeted cell attachment can be achieved by introducing a protein layer to the otherwise bioinert gel. After optimization, the hydrogel may be used to deliver light for the excitation of genetically altered cardiomyocytes for controlled contraction.

  3. Recent Developments in Thiolated Polymeric Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendiran, Mani; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Kyobum

    2018-02-01

    This review focuses on the recent strategy in the preparation of thiolated polymers and fabrication of their hydrogel matrices. The mechanism involved in the synthesis of thiolated polymers and fabrication of thiolated polymer hydrogels is exemplified with suitable schematic representations reported in the recent literature. The 2-iminothiolane namely "Traut's reagent" has been widely used for effectively thiolating the natural polymers such as collagen and gelatin, which contain free amino group in their backbone. The free carboxylic acid group containing polymers such as hyaluronic acid and heparin have been thiolated by using the bifunctional molecules such as cysteamine and L-cysteine via N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling reaction. The degree of thiolation in the polymer chain has been widely determined by using Ellman's assay method. The thiolated polymer hydrogels are prepared by disulfide bond formation (or) thiol-ene reaction (or) Michael-type addition reaction. The thiolated polymers such as thiolated gelatin are reacted with polyethylene glycol diacrylate for obtaining interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel scaffolds. Several in vitro cell culture experiments indicate that the developed thiolated polymer hydrogels exhibited biocompatibility and cellular mimicking properties. The developed hydrogel scaffolds efficiently support proliferation and differentiation of various cell types. In the present review article, the thiol-functionalized protein-based biopolymers, carbohydrate-based polymers, and some synthetic polymers have been covered with recently published research articles. In addition, the usage of new thiolated nanomaterials as a crosslinking agent for the preparation of three-dimensional tissue-engineered hydrogels is highlighted.

  4. Fabrication of Hyaluronan-Poly(vinylphosphonic acid-Chitosan Hydrogel for Wound Healing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Hoang Phuc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hydrogel made of hyaluronan, poly(vinylphosphonic acid, and chitosan (HA/PVPA/CS hydrogel was fabricated and characterized to be used for skin wound healing application. Firstly, the component ratio of hydrogel was studied to optimize the reaction effectiveness. Next, its microstructure was observed by light microscope. The chemical interaction in hydrogel was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Then, a study on its degradation rate was performed. After that, antibacterial activity of the hydrogel was examined by agar diffusion method. Finally, in vivo study was performed to evaluate hydrogel’s biocompatibility. The results showed that the optimized hydrogel had a three-dimensional highly porous structure with the pore size ranging from about 25 µm to less than 125 µm. Besides, with a degradation time of two weeks, it could give enough time for the formation of extracellular matrix framework during remodeling stages. Furthermore, the antibacterial test showed that hydrogel has antimicrobial activity against E. coli. Finally, in vivo study indicated that the hydrogel was not rejected by the immune system and could enhance wound healing process. Overall, HA/PVPA/CS hydrogel was successfully fabricated and results implied its potential for wound healing applications.

  5. Polypeptide based hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Hanay, Saltuk

    2018-01-01

    There is a need for biocompatible, biodegradable, 3-D printable and stable hydrogels especially in the areas of tissue engineering, drug delivery, bio-sensing technologies and antimicrobial coatings. The main aim of this Ph.D. work was to fabricate polypeptide based hydrogel which may find a potential application in those fields. Focusing on tyrosine or tryptophan-containing copolypeptides prepared by NCarboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerizations, three different crosslinking strategies have been t...

  6. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  7. Engineering Hydrogel Microenvironments to Recapitulate the Stem Cell Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Christopher M; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2018-06-04

    Stem cells are a powerful resource for many applications including regenerative medicine, patient-specific disease modeling, and toxicology screening. However, eliciting the desired behavior from stem cells, such as expansion in a naïve state or differentiation into a particular mature lineage, remains challenging. Drawing inspiration from the native stem cell niche, hydrogel platforms have been developed to regulate stem cell fate by controlling microenvironmental parameters including matrix mechanics, degradability, cell-adhesive ligand presentation, local microstructure, and cell-cell interactions. We survey techniques for modulating hydrogel properties and review the effects of microenvironmental parameters on maintaining stemness and controlling differentiation for a variety of stem cell types. Looking forward, we envision future hydrogel designs spanning a spectrum of complexity, ranging from simple, fully defined materials for industrial expansion of stem cells to complex, biomimetic systems for organotypic cell culture models.

  8. A Thixotropic Polyglycerol Sebacate-Based Supramolecular Hydrogel as an Injectable Drug Delivery Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongye Ye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a “self-healing” polyglycerol sebacate—polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PGS-PEGMEMA/α-Cyclodextrin (αCD hydrogel which could be sheared into a liquid during injection and has the potential to quickly “heal” itself back into gel post-injection. This hydrogel was shown to be biocompatible and biodegradable and therefore appropriate for use in vivo. Furthermore, the storage and loss moduli of the hydrogels could be tuned (by varying the concentration of αCD between a fraction of a kPa to a few 100 kPa, a range that coincides with the moduli of cells and human soft tissues. This property would allow for this hydrogel to be used in vivo with maximal mechanical compatibility with human soft tissues. In vitro experiments showed that the hydrogel demonstrated a linear mass erosion profile and a biphasic drug (doxorubicin release profile: Phase I was primarily driven by diffusion and Phase II was driven by hydrogel erosion. The diffusion mechanism was modeled with the First Order equation and the erosion mechanism with the Hopfenberg equation. This established fitting model could be used to predict releases with other drugs and estimate the composition of the hydrogel required to achieve a desired release rate.

  9. A genetically modified protein-based hydrogel for 3D culture of AD293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Du

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have strong application prospects for drug delivery, tissue engineering and cell therapy because of their excellent biocompatibility and abundant availability as scaffolds for drugs and cells. In this study, we created hybrid hydrogels based on a genetically modified tax interactive protein-1 (TIP1 by introducing two or four cysteine residues in the primary structure of TIP1. The introduced cysteine residues were crosslinked with a four-armed poly (ethylene glycol having their arm ends capped with maleimide residues (4-armed-PEG-Mal to form hydrogels. In one form of the genetically modification, we incorporated a peptide sequence 'GRGDSP' to introduce bioactivity to the protein, and the resultant hydrogel could provide an excellent environment for a three dimensional cell culture of AD293 cells. The AD293 cells continued to divide and displayed a polyhedron or spindle-shape during the 3-day culture period. Besides, AD293 cells could be easily separated from the cell-gel constructs for future large-scale culture after being cultured for 3 days and treating hydrogel with trypsinase. This work significantly expands the toolbox of recombinant proteins for hydrogel formation, and we believe that our hydrogel will be of considerable interest to those working in cell therapy and controlled drug delivery.

  10. Development and Characterisation of the Imiquimod Poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxyethyl Methacrylate Hydrogel Dressing for Keloid Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The imiquimod-poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxyethyl methacrylate hydrogel (poly(MEO2MA hydrogel dressing was developed for the keloid therapy application. Four groups of the hydrogels, including the imiquimod-poly(MEO2MA hydrogel, crosslinked with 0.2 mol %, 0.4 mol %, 0.6 mol %, and 0.8 mol % of di(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate cross-linker (DEGDMA, were synthesised and characterised for fabricating the imiquimod-poly(MEO2MA hydrogel pad. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST of the poly(MEO2MA hydrogel was measured at approximately 28 °C and was used as a trigger to control the imiquimod loading and release. The loaded amounts of the imiquimod in the poly(MEO2MA hydrogel, crosslinked with 0.2 mol % and 0.8 mol % of DEGDMA, were about 27.4 μg and 14.1 μg per 1 mm3 of the hydrogel, respectively. The imiquimod-release profiles of two samples were characterised in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS solution at 37 °C and the released imiquimod amount were about 45% and 46% of the total loaded imiquimod. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay was utilised to analyse the cell viability of keloid fibroblasts cultured on the samples of imiquimod-poly(MEO2MA hydrogel, crosslinked with 0.2 mol % and 0.8 mol % of DEGDMA. There was around a 34% decrease of the cell viabilities after 2 days, compared with the pure-poly(MEO2MA hydrogel samples. Therefore, the developed imiquimod-poly(MEO2MA hydrogel dressing can affect the proliferation of keloid fibroblasts. It should be possible to utilise the hydrogel dressing for the keloid therapy application.

  11. Hydrogel-Electrospun Fiber Mat Composite Coatings for Neural Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eHan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving stable, long-term performance of implanted neural prosthetic devices has been challenging because of implantation related neuron loss and a foreign body response that results in encapsulating glial scar formation. To improve neuron-prosthesis integration and form chronic, stable interfaces, we investigated the potential of neurotrophin-eluting hydrogel-electrospun fiber mat (EFM composite coatings. In particular, poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (PEGPCL hydrogel- poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL EFM composites were applied as coatings for multielectrode arrays (MEAs. Coatings were stable and persisted on electrode surfaces for over 1 month under an agarose gel tissue phantom and over 9 months in a PBS immersion bath. To demonstrate drug release, a neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF, was loaded in the PEGPCL hydrogel layer, and coating cytotoxicity and sustained NGF release were evaluated using a PC12 cell culture model. Quantitative MTT assays showed that these coatings had no significant toxicity toward PC12 cells, and neurite extension at day 7 and 14 confirmed sustained release of NGF at biologically significant concentrations for at least 2 weeks. Our results demonstrate that hydrogel-EFM composite materials can be applied to neural prostheses as a means to improve neuron-electrode proximity and enhance long-term device performance and function.

  12. pH-responsive self-healing injectable hydrogel based on N-carboxyethyl chitosan for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; Zhao, Xin; Ma, Peter X; Guo, Baolin

    2017-08-01

    Injectable hydrogels with pH-responsiveness and self-healing ability have great potential for anti-cancer drug delivery. Herein, we developed a series of polysaccharide-based self-healing hydrogels with pH-sensitivity as drug delivery vehicles for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. The hydrogels were prepared by using N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) synthesized via Michael reaction in aqueous solution and dibenzaldehyde-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDA). Doxorubicin (Dox), as a model of water-soluble small molecule anti-cancer drug was encapsulated into the hydrogel in situ. Self-healing behavior of the hydrogels was investigated at microscopic and macroscopic levels, and the hydrogels showed rapid self-healing performance without any external stimulus owing to the dynamic covalent Schiff-base linkage between amine groups from CEC and benzaldehyde groups from PEGDA. The chemical structures, rheological property, in vitro gel degradation, morphology, gelation time and in vitro Dox release behavior from the hydrogels were characterized. Injectability was verified by in vitro injection and in vivo subcutaneous injection in a rat. pH-responsive behavior was verified by in vitro Dox release from hydrogels in PBS solutions with different pH values. Furthermore, the activity of Dox released from hydrogel matrix was evaluated by employing human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2). Cytotoxicity test of the hydrogels using L929 cells confirmed their good cytocompatibility. Together, these pH-responsive self-healing injectable hydrogels are excellent candidates as drug delivery vehicles for liver cancer treatment. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: pH-responsive drug delivery system could release drug efficiently in targeted acid environment and minimalize the amount of drug release in normal physiological environment. pH-sensitive injectable hydrogels as smart anti-cancer drug delivery carriers show great potential application for cancer therapy. The hydrogels with self

  13. Thermal Stabilization of Biologics with Photoresponsive Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Balaji V; Janczy, John R; Hatlevik, Øyvind; Wolfson, Gabriel; Anseth, Kristi S; Tibbitt, Mark W

    2018-03-12

    Modern medicine, biological research, and clinical diagnostics depend on the reliable supply and storage of complex biomolecules. However, biomolecules are inherently susceptible to thermal stress and the global distribution of value-added biologics, including vaccines, biotherapeutics, and Research Use Only (RUO) proteins, requires an integrated cold chain from point of manufacture to point of use. To mitigate reliance on the cold chain, formulations have been engineered to protect biologics from thermal stress, including materials-based strategies that impart thermal stability via direct encapsulation of the molecule. While direct encapsulation has demonstrated pronounced stabilization of proteins and complex biological fluids, no solution offers thermal stability while enabling facile and on-demand release from the encapsulating material, a critical feature for broad use. Here we show that direct encapsulation within synthetic, photoresponsive hydrogels protected biologics from thermal stress and afforded user-defined release at the point of use. The poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel was formed via a bioorthogonal, click reaction in the presence of biologics without impact on biologic activity. Cleavage of the installed photolabile moiety enabled subsequent dissolution of the network with light and release of the encapsulated biologic. Hydrogel encapsulation improved stability for encapsulated enzymes commonly used in molecular biology (β-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, and T4 DNA ligase) following thermal stress. β-galactosidase and alkaline phosphatase were stabilized for 4 weeks at temperatures up to 60 °C, and for 60 min at 85 °C for alkaline phosphatase. T4 DNA ligase, which loses activity rapidly at moderately elevated temperatures, was protected during thermal stress of 40 °C for 24 h and 60 °C for 30 min. These data demonstrate a general method to employ reversible polymer networks as robust excipients for thermal stability of complex

  14. Biomedical hydrogels biochemistry, manufacture and medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogels are very important for biomedical applications because they can be chemically manipulated to alter and control the hydrogel's interaction with cells and tissues. Their flexibility and high water content is similar to that of natural tissue, making them extremely suitable for biomaterials applications. Biomedical hydrogels explores the diverse range and use of hydrogels, focusing on processing methods and novel applications in the field of implants and prostheses. Part one of this book concentrates on the processing of hydrogels, covering hydrogel swelling behaviour, superabsorbent cellulose-based hydrogels and regulation of novel hydrogel products, as well as chapters focusing on the structure and properties of hydrogels and different fabrication technologies. Part two covers existing and novel applications of hydrogels, including chapters on spinal disc and cartilage replacement implants, hydrogels for ophthalmic prostheses and hydrogels for wound healing applications. The role of hydrogels in imag...

  15. A thermo-responsive and photo-polymerizable chondroitin sulfate-based hydrogel for 3D printing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbadessa, A.; Blokzijl, M. M.; Mouser, V. H. M.; Marica, P.; Malda, J.; Hennink, W. E.; Vermonden, T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim ofthis study was to design a hydrogel system based on methacrylated chondroitin sulfate (CSMA) and a thermo-sensitive poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-mono/dilactate)-polyethylene glycol triblock copolymer (M15P10) as a suitable material for additive manufacturing of scaffolds. CSMA

  16. A thermo-responsive and photo-polymerizable chondroitin sulfate-based hydrogel for 3D printing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbadessa, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369480376; Blokzijl, M M; Mouser, V H M; Marica, P; Malda, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412461099; Hennink, W E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070880409; Vermonden, T|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/275124517

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a hydrogel system based on methacrylated chondroitin sulfate (CSMA) and a thermo-sensitive poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-mono/dilactate)-polyethylene glycol triblock copolymer (M15P10) as a suitable material for additive manufacturing of scaffolds. CSMA

  17. Stereolithographic hydrogel printing of 3D microfluidic cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Rujing

    that support the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically...... and material flexibility by embedding a highly compliant cell-laden gelatin hydrogel within the confines of a 3D printed resilient PEGDA hydrogel chip of intermediate compliance. Overall, our proposed strategy represents an automated, cost-effective and high resolution technique to manufacture complex 3D...... epoxy component as structural supports interfacing the external world as well as compliant PEGDA component as microfluidic channels have been manufactured and perfused. Although still in the preliminary stage, this dual-material printing approach shows the potential for constructing complex 3D...

  18. Morphing hydrogel patterns by thermo-reversible fluorescence switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat, Erhan; Lin, En-Wei; Saxer, Sina; Maynard, Heather D

    2014-07-01

    Stimuli responsive surfaces that show reversible fluorescence switching behavior in response to temperature changes were fabricated. Oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate thermoresponsive polymers with amine end-groups were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The polymers were patterned on silicon surfaces by electron beam (e-beam) lithography, followed by conjugation of self-quenching fluorophores. Fluorophore conjugated hydrogel thin films were bright when the gels were swollen; upon temperature-induced collapse of the gels, self-quenching of the fluorophores led to significant attenuation of fluorescence. Importantly, the fluorescence was regained when the temperature was cooled. The fluorescence switching behavior of the hydrogels for up to ten cycles was investigated and the swelling-collapse was verified by atomic force microscopy. Morphing surfaces that change shape several times upon increase in temperature were obtained by patterning multiple stimuli responsive polymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Properties and toughening mechanisms of PVA/PAM double-network hydrogels prepared by freeze-thawing and anneal-swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Kangkang; Dong, Xia; Qin, Chengling; Ji, Xinan; He, Jinxin

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that preparation method of hydrogels has a significant effect on their properties. In this paper, freeze-thawing and anneal-swelling were applied to prepare poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide (PVA/PAM) double-network hydrogels with covalently and physically cross-linked networks. The properties of these hydrogels were investigated and compared to control hydrogels. Results indicated that hydrogels fabricated by freeze-thawing show larger pores size and higher swelling capacity than those made by anneal-swelling and control hydrogels. Hydrogels prepared by anneal-swelling exhibit higher mechanical strength, energy dissipation, fracture energy, gel fraction and crystallinity than those made by freeze-thawing and control hydrogels. Physical cross-linking plays a key role in formation of physical-chemical double-network. The toughening mechanism of double-network hydrogel is related to their chain-fracture behavior and elasticity. The results also indicated that appropriate methods can endow hydrogels with specific microstructures and properties which would broaden current hydrogels research and applications in biomedical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation chemical technology for production of polymeric hydrogels for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, G.A.; Nurkeeva, Z.S.; Akhmetkalieva, G.; Sergaziev, A.D.; Petukhov, V.K.; Lyssukhin, S.N.; Chakrov, P.V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Polymeric hydrogels are water-swelling cross-linked hydrophilic polymers with ability to store reversibly great amount of water (more than 1000 g of water per 1 g of dry polymer). At present they found a lot of different applications in highly developed countries in science and industry. The set of unique physicochemical and biomedical properties (regulated sorption ability in respect to water and biological liquids, biocompatibility, soft tissue state, permeability in respect to small and big molecules, non-toxicity, etc.) allows their application in medicine. According to the clinical data there are no materials that can compete with hydrogels in development of endo-prostheses of soft-tissues in surgery, contact lenses for eyesight correction, hemo-compatible materials, novel for treatment of wounds and burns, targeted drug delivery systems. Polymeric hydrogels today practically substitute the traditional hydrophobic bases (Vaseline, lanolin) in technology of drug forms for development of ointments and dressings, containing natural and synthetic physiologically active substances. The advantages of hydrogels in comparison with hydrophobic analogues are obvious due to the drainage effect, homogenous distribution of drugs, better contact with wound, painless removing by water washing. The polymeric hydrogels are not produced in Kazakhstan in spite of the big source of raw materials. The aim of the present work is the development of radiation-chemical technology and development of polymeric biomedical hydrogels production based on raw materials of Kazakhstan. The novel types of polymeric hydrogel materials are developed by the authors of the report based on vinyl ethers of glycols, which produced in 'Alash Ltd.' (Temirtau). The great fundamental information content has been obtained about these monomers and polymers including direct quantitative data of their structure formation mechanism and physicochemical properties. These data served as a basis for

  1. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and hydroxylapatite (HA) hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F; Ma, M; Lu, L; Pan, Z; Zhou, W; Cai, J; Luo, S; Zeng, W; Yin, F

    2017-05-20

    A novel bioactive hydrogel for cartilage tissue based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and hydroxylapatite (HA) were prepared, the effects of its component contents on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the hydrogel were investigated. The important properties of the scaffold composites, such as density, porosity, compressive modulus and microstructure were studied and analyzed through various measurements and methods. The biodegradability of hydrogel was evaluated by soaking the samples into artificial degradation solution at body temperature (36 - 37 oC) in vitro. Experimental results showed that the PVA/HA hydrogels had a density of 0.572 - 0.683 g/cm3, a porosity of 63.25 - 96.14% and a compressive modulus of 5.62 - 8.24 MP. The HA compound in the hydrogels enhanced the biodegradation significantly and linearly increased the rate of biodegradation by 2.3 - 8.5 %. The compressive modulus of PVA/HA exhibited a linear reduce to 0.86 - 1.53 MP with the time of degradation. The scaffold composites PVA/HA possess a high porosity, decent compressive modulus and good biodegradability. After further optimizing the structure and properties, this composite might be considered as novel hydrogel biomaterials to be applied in the field of cartilage tissue engineering.

  2. Novel thermosensitive hydrogel for preventing formation of abdominal adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao X

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Gao,1,2 Xiaohui Deng,3 Xiawei Wei,2 Huashan Shi,2 Fengtian Wang,2 Tinghong Ye,2 Bin Shao,2 Wen Nie,2 Yuli Li,2 Min Luo,2 Changyang Gong,2 Ning Huang1 1Department of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 3Department of Human Anatomy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Adhesions can form after almost any type of abdominal surgery. Postoperative adhesions can be prevented by improved surgical techniques, such as reducing surgical trauma, preventing ischemia, and avoiding exposure of the peritoneal cavity to foreign materials. Although improved surgical techniques can potentially reduce formation of adhesions, they cannot be eliminated completely. Therefore, finding more effective methods to prevent postoperative adhesions is imperative. Recently, we found that a novel thermosensitive hydrogel, ie, poly(ε-caprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (PCEC had the potential to prevent postoperative adhesions. Using the ring-opening polymerization method, we prepared a PCEC copolymer which could be dissolved and assembled at 55°C into PCEC micelles with mean size of 25 nm. At body temperature, a solution containing PCEC micelles could convert into a hydrogel. The PCEC copolymer was biodegradable and had low toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We found that most animals in a hydrogel-treated group (n = 10 did not develop adhesions. In contrast, 10 untreated animals developed adhesions that could only be separated by sharp dissection (P < 0.001. The hydrogel could adhere to peritoneal wounds and degraded gradually over 7–9 days, transforming into a viscous fluid that was completely absorbed within 12 days. The injured parietal and visceral peritoneum remesothelialized over about seven and nine days

  3. Reproductive toxicity of the glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, B D

    1983-06-01

    The glycol ethers are an important and widely used class of solvents. Recent studies have demonstrated that ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdiME), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) are teratogenic. Other studies have demonstrated that testicular atrophy or infertility follow treatment of males with EGME, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA), EGEE, EGEEA, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diEGdiME), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE). Experimental data are reviewed and structure-activity relationships are speculated upon.

  4. The characterization of wound dressing poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) hydrogels using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Talita C.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G., E-mail: talitacolombi@yahoo.com, E-mail: christrieste@yahoo.it [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCA/UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Paula, Heberth D., E-mail: hdpaula@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Alegre (UFES), ES (Brazil). Departamento de Farmácia; Morais, Pedro A.B., E-mail: pedmora2005@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Química

    2017-07-01

    The first hydrogel for wound dressing processed by radiation was developed in Poland in 1986 by the inventor Janusz M. Rosiak and reached the local market in 1992. Laboratories of developing countries, which face all kinds of restrictions, were seduced by the simplicity of the process and low cost of its raw materials. It was a technological breakthrough due to its painless product characteristics and having improved healing properties such as absorbing a high water capacity, attached to healthy skin, and being easy to remove, plus its intelligent production process combining sterilization and crosslinking in a simultaneous operation. The use of hydrogels as biomaterials has increased recently. Hydrogel wound dressings were prepared using the gamma ray irradiation technique. Radiation was applied as a tool for crosslinking and sterilization of these materials. The hydrogels are composed of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and agar at radiation doses of 15, 20, 25, 30 kGy. The influence of some process parameters on their properties was investigated by: sterilization, gel fraction, swelling measures and mechanical properties. Hydrogels with less than 20 kGy of radiation were not properly sterilized. The gel fraction and swelling increased with increasing radiation dose due to increased crosslinking density, and at 25kGy, obtained optimum swelling. No significant differences were found for the test of mechanical properties but hydrogel matrices of different doses of gamma radiation. (author)

  5. Hydrogel/bioactive glass composites for bone regeneration applications: Synthesis and characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killion, John A.; Kehoe, Sharon; Geever, Luke M.; Devine, Declan M.; Sheehan, Eoin; Boyd, Daniel; Higginbotham, Clement L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the deficiencies of current commercially available biological bone grafts, alternative bone graft substitutes have come to the forefront of tissue engineering in recent times. The main challenge for scientists in manufacturing bone graft substitutes is to obtain a scaffold that has sufficient mechanical strength and bioactive properties to promote formation of new tissue. The ability to synthesise hydrogel based composite scaffolds using photopolymerisation has been demonstrated in this study. The prepared hydrogel based composites were characterised using techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), rheological studies and compression testing. In addition, gel fraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), porosity and swelling studies of the composites were carried out. It was found that these novel hydrogel bioglass composite formulations did not display the inherent brittleness that is typically associated with bioactive glass based bone graft materials and exhibited enhanced biomechanical properties compared to the polyethylene glycol hydrogel scaffolds along. Together, the combination of enhanced mechanical properties and the deposition of apatite on the surface of these hydrogel based composites make them an ideal candidate as bone graft substitutes in cancellous bone defects or low load bearing applications. Highlights: • Young's modulus increases with the addition of bioactive glasses. • Hydrogel based composites formed an apatite layer in simulated body fluid. • Storage modulus increases with addition of bioactive glasses. • Compressive strength is dependent on molecular weight and bioactive glass loading

  6. Design and development of guar gum based novel, superabsorbent and moisture retaining hydrogels for agricultural applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombare, Nandkishore; Mishra, Sumit; Siddiqui, M Z; Jha, Usha; Singh, Deodhari; Mahajan, Gopal R

    2018-04-01

    The novel hydrogels were synthesized by grafting guar gum with acrylic acid and cross-linking with ethylene glycol di methacrylic acid (EGDMA). The synthesis of hydrogel was confirmed by characterization through 13 C NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM micrography, thermo-gravimetric analysis and water absorption studies under different solutions. Synthesized hydrogel (GG-AA-EGDMA) was confirmed to be biodegradable with half-life period of 77 days through soil burial biodegradation studies. The effects of hydrogel treatment on soil were evaluated by studying various physico-chemical properties of soil like bulk density, porosity, water absorption and retention capacity etc. The hydrogel which could absorb up to 800 ml water per gram, after addition to soil, improved its porosity, moisture absorption and retention capacity significantly. Water holding capacity of water increased up to 54% of its original and porosity also increased up to 9% of its original. The synthesized hydrogel revealed tremendous potential as soil conditioning material for agricultural applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluorescent probe encapsulated hydrogel microsphere for selective and reversible detection of Hg{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Zhenhu; Wang, Fang; Qiang, Jian; Zhang, Zhijie; Chen, Yahui; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaoqiang

    2017-03-15

    We developed a simple and sensitive hydrogel sensor in the form of microspheres by using fluorescence probe encapsulated within a hydrogel matrix for the detection of Hg{sup 2+}. The traditional fluorescence probes suspended in solution are not transportable and recoverable. To overcome these disadvantages, we devised poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate-based hydrogel microspheres in which fluorescence probe (R19S) was embedded at high density. The functionalized hydrogel microspheres were prepared by combining a microfluidic device with UV light. The hydrogel microspheres-based sensor exhibited good selectivity to Hg{sup 2+} among various metal ions and high sensitivity with a detection limit of 90 nM. Furthermore, after binding with Hg{sup 2+}, the R19S encapsulated hydrogel microspheres can be separated from testing samples easily and treated with the solution containing KI to remove Hg{sup 2+} and realize reusable detection. The current work may offer a new method for Hg{sup 2+} recognition with a more efficient manner.

  8. Injectable Anisotropic Nanocomposite Hydrogels Direct in Situ Growth and Alignment of Myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De France, Kevin J.; Yager, Kevin G.; Chan, Katelyn J. W.; Corbett, Brandon; Cranston, Emily D.; Hoare, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Here, while injectable in situ cross-linking hydrogels have attracted increasing attention as minimally invasive tissue scaffolds and controlled delivery systems, their inherently disorganized and isotropic network structure limits their utility in engineering oriented biological tissues. Traditional methods to prepare anisotropic hydrogels are not easily translatable to injectable systems given the need for external equipment to direct anisotropic gel fabrication and/or the required use of temperatures or solvents incompatible with biological systems. Herein, we report a new class of injectable nanocomposite hydrogels based on hydrazone cross-linked poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) and magnetically aligned cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) capable of encapsulating skeletal muscle myoblasts and promoting their differentiation into highly oriented myotubes in situ. CNC alignment occurs on the same time scale as network gelation and remains fixed after the removal of the magnetic field, enabling concurrent CNC orientation and hydrogel injection. The aligned hydrogels show mechanical and swelling profiles that can be rationally modulated by the degree of CNC alignment and can direct myotube alignment both in two- and three-dimensions following coinjection of the myoblasts with the gel precursor components. As such, these hydrogels represent a critical advancement in anisotropic biomimetic scaffolds that can be generated noninvasively in vivo following simple injection.

  9. The characterization of wound dressing poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) hydrogels using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, Talita C.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G.; Paula, Heberth D.; Morais, Pedro A.B.

    2017-01-01

    The first hydrogel for wound dressing processed by radiation was developed in Poland in 1986 by the inventor Janusz M. Rosiak and reached the local market in 1992. Laboratories of developing countries, which face all kinds of restrictions, were seduced by the simplicity of the process and low cost of its raw materials. It was a technological breakthrough due to its painless product characteristics and having improved healing properties such as absorbing a high water capacity, attached to healthy skin, and being easy to remove, plus its intelligent production process combining sterilization and crosslinking in a simultaneous operation. The use of hydrogels as biomaterials has increased recently. Hydrogel wound dressings were prepared using the gamma ray irradiation technique. Radiation was applied as a tool for crosslinking and sterilization of these materials. The hydrogels are composed of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and agar at radiation doses of 15, 20, 25, 30 kGy. The influence of some process parameters on their properties was investigated by: sterilization, gel fraction, swelling measures and mechanical properties. Hydrogels with less than 20 kGy of radiation were not properly sterilized. The gel fraction and swelling increased with increasing radiation dose due to increased crosslinking density, and at 25kGy, obtained optimum swelling. No significant differences were found for the test of mechanical properties but hydrogel matrices of different doses of gamma radiation. (author)

  10. UV-radiation curing of simultaneous interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels for enhanced heavy metal ion removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Liu, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous IPN hydrogels were prepared by hybrid photopolymerization of AM and DVE-3. ► The synergistic complexation was found in the adsorption studies. ► The simultaneous IPN hydrogels could be used as fast-responsive and renewable sorbent materials. - Abstract: Simultaneous interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels have been prepared by UV-initiated polymerization of a mixture of acrylamide (AM) and triethylene glycol divinyl ether (DVE-3). The consumption of each monomer upon UV-irradiation was monitored in situ by real-time infrared (RTIR) spectroscopy. The acrylamide monomer AM was shown to polymerize faster and more extensively than the vinyl ether monomer DVE-3, which was further consumed upon storage of the sample in the dark, due to the living character of the cationic polymerization. The IPN hydrogels were used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solution under the non-competitive condition. The effects of pH values of the feed solution and the DVE-3 content in the formulation on the adsorption capacity were investigated. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of the IPN hydrogels increased with the pH values and DVE-3 content in the formulation. Furthermore, the synergistic complexation of metal ions with two polymer networks in the IPN was found in the adsorption studies. Adsorption kinetics and regeneration studies suggested that the IPN hydrogels could be used as fast-responsive and renewable sorbent materials in heavy metal removing processes.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Based on MPEG, Poly(ε-caprolactone, and Itaconic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of chemically cross-linked pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol-poly(caprolactone-acryloyl chloride (MPEG-PCL-AC, PECA, poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA, MEG, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS, and itaconic acid (IA were prepared without using any organic solvent by heat-initiated free radical method. The obtained macromonomers and hydrogels were characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR, respectively. Morphology study of hydrogels was also investigated in this paper, and it showed that the hydrogels had good pH-sensitivity. The acute toxicity test and histopathological study were conducted in BALB/c mice. The results indicated that the maximum tolerance dose of the hydrogel was higher than 10000 mg/kg body weight. No morality or signs of toxicity were observed during the whole 7-day observation period. Compared to the control groups, there were no important adverse effects in the variables of hematology routine test and serum chemistry analysis both in male or female treatment group. Histopathological study also did not show any significant lesions, including heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, stomach, intestine, and testis. All the results demonstrated that this hydrogel was nontoxic after gavage. Thus, the hydrogel might be the biocompatible potential candidate for oral drug delivery system.

  12. Elastin Based Cell-laden Injectable Hydrogels with Tunable Gelation, Mechanical and Biodegradation Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Ali; Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Wei, Hua; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Valtchev, Peter; Weiss, Anthony S.; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels made from extracellular matrix proteins such as elastin show great promise for various biomedical applications. Use of cytotoxic reagents, fixed gelling behavior, and lack of mechanical strength in these hydrogels are the main associated drawbacks. The aim of this study was to develop highly cytocompatible and injectable elastin-based hydrogels with alterable gelation characteristics, favorable mechanical properties and structural stability for load bearing applications. A thermoresponsive copolymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-polylactide-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol)monomethyl ether methacrylate, was functionalized with succinimide ester groups by incorporating N-acryloxysuccinimide monomer. These ester groups were exploited to covalently bond this polymer, denoted as PNPHO, to different proteins with primary amine groups such as α-elastin in aqueous media. The incorporation of elastin through covalent bond formation with PNPHO promotes the structural stability, mechanical properties and live cell proliferation within the structure of hydrogels. Our results demonstrated that elastin-co-PNPHO solutions were injectable through fine gauge needles and converted to hydrogels in situ at 37 °C in the absence of any crosslinking reagent. By altering PNPHO content, the gelling time of these hydrogels can be finely tuned within the range of 2 to 15 min to ensure compatibility with surgical requirements. In addition, these hydrogels exhibited compression moduli in the range of 40 to 145 kPa, which are substantially higher than those of previously developed elastin-based hydrogels. These hydrogels were highly stable in the physiological environment with the evidence of 10 wt% mass loss in 30 days of incubation in a simulated environment. This class of hydrogels is in vivo bioabsorbable due to the gradual increase of the lower critical solution temperature of the copolymer to above 37 °C due to the cleavage of polylactide from

  13. A Self-Assembling Protein Hydrogel Technology for Enzyme Incorporation onto Electrodes in Biofuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    an ordered 3-dimentional space. In the first stage, we constructed protein building blocks able to self-assemble into 3D protein hydrogel upon...Chem 23, 1891-1901 (2012). 26. Jung, S. & Yi, H. Facile Strategy for Protein Conjugation with Chitosan -Poly(ethylene glycol) Hybrid Microparticle...multiple enzymes in an ordered 3-dimentional space. In the first stage, we constructed protein building blocks able to self-assemble into 3D protein

  14. Stereolithographic hydrogel printing of 3D culture chips with biofunctionalized complex 3D perfusion networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Rujing; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2017-01-01

    the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically stable hydrogel...... and material flexibility by embedding a highly compliant cell-laden gelatin hydrogel within the confines of a 3D printed resilient PEGDA hydrogel chip of intermediate compliance. Overall, our proposed strategy represents an automated, cost-effective and high resolution technique to manufacture complex 3D......Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models capturing both the structural and dynamic complexity of the in vivo situation are in great demand as an alternative to animal models. Despite tremendous progress in engineering complex tissue/organ models in the past decade, approaches that support...

  15. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogels study for ophthalmologic area utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Renata Hage; Rogero, Sizue Ota; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo; Cruz, Aurea S.; Sacramento, Rogerio S.; Lima Filho, Acacio A. Souza; Schor, Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogels produced by radiation-induced crosslinking were studied to compose drug delivery system to be used in the eye surface and to manufacture ophthalmic plugs. Some formulations with PVP and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) with different molar mass (300 and 600) were prepared utilizing 0.85% sodium chloride aimed to control the swelling capacity. The obtained hydrogels were characterized by gel fraction and swelling assays. The gel fraction and swelling results indicated no difference in the formulation containing or not NaCl. The gel fraction results varied from 62 to 81% and the swelling degree from 130 to 420%. In vitro assay of cytotoxicity by neutral red uptake method was the first biocompatibility test performed. The results showed no evidence of toxicity in the studied hydrogels. (author)

  16. Development of a P((MAA-co-NVP)-g-EG) Hydrogel Platform for Oral Protein Delivery: Effects of Hydrogel Composition on Environmental Response and Protein Partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Stephanie; O'Connor, Colleen; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels based upon terpolymers of methacrylic acid, N-vinyl pyrrolidone, and poly(ethylene glycol) are developed and characterized for their ability to respond to changes in environmental pH and to partition protein therapeutics of varying molecular weights and isoelectric points. P((MAA-co-NVP)-g-EG) hydrogels are synthesized with PEG-based cross-linking agents of varying length and incorporation densities. The composition is confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy and shows peak shifts indicating hydrogen bonding. Scanning electron microscopy reveals microparticles with an irregular, planar morphology. The pH-responsive behavior of the hydrogels is confirmed under equilibrium and dynamic conditions, with the hydrogel collapsed at acidic pH and swollen at neutral pH. The ability of the hydrogels to partition model protein therapeutics at varying pH and ionic strength is evaluated using three model proteins: insulin, porcine growth hormone, and ovalbumin. Finally, the microparticles are evaluated for adverse interactions with two model intestinal cell lines and show minimal cytotoxicity at concentrations below 5 mg mL -1 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Self-Supporting Nanoclay as Internal Scaffold Material for Direct Printing of Soft Hydrogel Composite Structures in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yifei; Liu, Chengcheng; Chai, Wenxuan; Compaan, Ashley; Huang, Yong

    2017-05-24

    Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology enables the freeform fabrication of complex constructs from various hydrogels and is receiving increasing attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study is to develop a novel self-supporting direct hydrogel printing approach to extrude complex 3D hydrogel composite structures in air without the help of a support bath. Laponite, a member of the smectite mineral family, is investigated to serve as an internal scaffold material for the direct printing of hydrogel composite structures in air. In the proposed printing approach, due to its yield-stress property, Laponite nanoclay can be easily extruded through a nozzle as a liquid and self-supported after extrusion as a solid. Its unique crystal structure with positive and negative charges enables it to be mixed with many chemically and physically cross-linked hydrogels, which makes it an ideal internal scaffold material for the fabrication of various hydrogel structures. By mixing Laponite nanoclay with various hydrogel precursors, the hydrogel composites retain their self-supporting capacity and can be printed into 3D structures directly in air and retain their shapes before cross-linking. Then, the whole structures are solidified in situ by applying suitable cross-linking stimuli. The addition of Laponite nanoclay can effectively improve the mechanical and biological properties of hydrogel composites. Specifically, the addition of Laponite nanoclay results in a significant increase in the Young's modulus of each hydrogel-Laponite composite: 1.9-fold increase for the poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-Laponite composite, 7.4-fold increase for the alginate-Laponite composite, and 3.3-fold increase for the gelatin-Laponite composite.

  18. Synthesis and preparation of biodegradable hybrid dextran hydrogel incorporated with biodegradable curcumin nanomicelles for full thickness wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibolandi, Mona; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-10-30

    There is a clinical need for a novel, more efficient therapy for full thickness wound healing. In the current study, curcumin encapsulated PEG-PLA [poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)] nanomicelles were incorporated into dextran hydrogel for a full thickness dermal wound healing application. To assess the application of the hydrogel as a therapeutic wound dressing, its morphology, swelling pattern, kinetics of degradation, and capacity to control curcumin release were evaluated. It was found that the prepared hybrid hydrogel had acceptable biocompatibility, incorporation capacity of curcumin nanomicelles, and mechanical properties. An in vitro release experiment also demonstrated the sustained release of curcumin from dextran hydrogel, which was first controlled by the diffusion of curcumin from hydrogel and continued through hydrogel matrix erosion at the terminal phase. An in vivo wound healing experiment was carried out using dressing hydrogels on full thickness wounds in BALB/c mice. An histological study demonstrated that the application of curcumin nanomicelles incorporated hydrogel could significantly augment the re-epithelialization of epidermis and collagen deposition in the wound area. Expression of CD31 and vimentin in wound tissue was investigated using immunohistochemistry tests on the eighth day post wounding. The results obtained demonstrated that curcumin nanomicelles incorporated hydrogel could significantly accelerate angiogenesis, fibroblast accumulation, and the process of wound healing. Together, the data indicate that the prepared hybrid curcumin PEG-PLA nanomicelles incorporated dextran hydrogel is a promising candidate for full thickness wound treatment that increases re-epithelialization, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and tissue granulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PVA-PEG physically cross-linked hydrogel film as a wound dressing: experimental design and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afnan Sh; Mandal, Uttam Kumar; Taher, Muhammad; Susanti, Deny; Jaffri, Juliana Md

    2017-04-05

    The development of hydrogel films as wound healing dressings is of a great interest owing to their biological tissue-like nature. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene glycol (PVA/PEG) hydrogels loaded with asiaticoside, a standardized rich fraction of Centella asiatica, were successfully developed using the freeze-thaw method. Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the hydrogels. The hydrogels were characterized and optimized by gel fraction, swelling behavior, water vapor transmission rate and mechanical strength. The formulation with 8% PVA, 5% PEG 400 and five consecutive freeze-thaw cycles was selected as the optimized formulation and was further characterized by its drug release, rheological study, morphology, cytotoxicity and microbial studies. The optimized formulation showed more than 90% drug release at 12 hours. The rheological properties exhibited that the formulation has viscoelastic behavior and remains stable upon storage. Cell culture studies confirmed the biocompatible nature of the optimized hydrogel formulation. In the microbial limit tests, the optimized hydrogel showed no microbial growth. The developed optimized PVA/PEG hydrogel using freeze-thaw method was swellable, elastic, safe, and it can be considered as a promising new wound dressing formulation.

  20. Preparation of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone-Based Hydrogels by Radiation Induced Crosslinking with Potential Application as Wound Dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EI-Mohdy, H.L.; Hegazy, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinyl pyrrolidone l polyethylene glycol hydrogels (PVP/ PEG) and PVP/ PEG/ Starch were prepared by irradiating the mixtures of aqueous solutions of PVP, PEG and starch with electron beam at different doses. Its properties were evaluated to identify their usability in wound dressing applications. Hydrogel dressing can protect injured skin and keep it appropriately moist to speed the healing process. The physical properties of the prepared hydrogels, such as gel content, swelling, water content and degree of water evaporation with varying composition and irradiation dose were examined to evaluate the usefulness of the hydrogels for wound dressing. The gel content increases with increasing PVP concentration due to increased crosslink density, and decreases with increasing the PEG concentration. PEG seems to act not only as plasticizer but also to modify the gel properties as gelation% and maximum swelling. Mechanical experiments were conducted for both of PVP/PEG and PVP/PEG/ Starch. The adding of PEG and starch to PVP significantly improve elongation and tensile strength of prepared hydrogels. The crystallinity of prepared hydrogels was investigated with varying their components. XRD studies indicated that the crystallinity in the gel was mainly due to PVP and decreased with enhanced starch content. The prepared hydrogels had sufficient strength to be used as wound dressing and could be considered as a good barrier against microbes

  1. In situ spray deposition of cell-loaded, thermally and chemically gelling hydrogel coatings for tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivaner Kara, Meryem O; Ekenseair, Adam K

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the efficacy of creating cellular hydrogel coatings on warm tissue surfaces through the minimally invasive, sprayable delivery of thermoresponsive liquid solutions was investigated. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based (pNiPAAm) thermogelling macromers with or without addition of crosslinking polyamidoamine (PAMAM) macromers were synthesized and used to produce in situ forming thermally and chemically gelling hydrogel systems. The effect of solution and process parameters on hydrogel physical properties and morphology was evaluated and compared to poly(ethylene glycol) and injection controls. Smooth, fast, and conformal hydrogel coatings were obtained when pNiPAAm thermogelling macromers were sprayed with high PAMAM concentration at low pressure. Cellular hydrogel coatings were further fabricated by different spraying techniques: single-stream, layer-by-layer, and dual stream methods. The impact of spray technique, solution formulation, pressure, and spray solution viscosity on the viability of fibroblast and osteoblast cells encapsulated in hydrogels was elucidated. In particular, the early formation of chemically crosslinked micronetworks during bulk liquid flow was shown to significantly affect cell viability under turbulent conditions compared to injectable controls. The results demonstrated that sprayable, in situ forming hydrogels capable of delivering cell populations in a homogeneous therapeutic coating on diseased tissue surfaces offer promise as novel therapies for applications in regenerative medicine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2383-2393, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Immobilization of yeast cells with ionic hydrogel carriers by adhesion-multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoxin, L; Fujimura, T

    2000-12-01

    The mixture of an ionic monomer, 2-acrylamido 2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (TBAS), and a series of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (nG) monomers were copolymerized with 60Co gamma-rays, and the produced ionic hydrogel polymers were used for immobilization of yeast cells. The cells were adhered onto the surface of the hydrogel polymers and intruded into the interior of the polymers with growing. The immobilized yeast cells with these hydrogel polymers had higher ethanol productivity than that of free cells. The yield of ethanol with poly(TBAS-14G) carrier was the highest and increased by 3.5 times compared to the free cells. It was found that the ethanol yield increased with the increase of glycol number in poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate. The state of the immobilized cells was observed with microscope, and it was also found that the difference in the ethanol productivity is mainly due to the difference in the internal structure and properties of polymer carrier, such as surface charge, hydrophilicity, and swelling ability of polymer carrier.

  3. Cellularized cylindrical fiber/hydrogel composites for ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Patrick S; Dimling, Anna F; Plessl, Daniel S; Hahn, Mariah R; Guelcher, Scott A; Dahlgren, Linda A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2014-01-13

    Electrospun meshes suffer from poor cell infiltration and limited thickness, which restrict their use to thin tissue applications. Herein, we demonstrate two complementary processes to overcome these limitations and achieve elastomeric composites that may be suitable for ligament repair. First, C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells were incorporated into electrospun meshes using a hybrid electrospinning/electrospraying process. Second, electrospun meshes were rolled and formed into composites with an interpenetrating polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel network. Stiffer composites were formed from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) meshes, while softer and more elastic composites were formed from poly(ester-urethane urea) (PEUUR) meshes. As-spun PLGA and PEUUR rolled meshes had tensile moduli of 19.2 ± 1.9 and 0.86 ± 0.34 MPa, respectively, which changed to 11.6 ± 4.8 and 1.05 ± 0.39 MPa with the incorporation of a PEG hydrogel phase. In addition, cyclic tensile testing indicated that PEUUR-based composites deformed elastically to at least 10%. Finally, C3H10T1/2 cells incorporated into electrospun meshes survived the addition of the PEG phase and remained viable for up to 5 days. These results indicate that the fabricated cellularized composites are support cyclic mechanical conditioning, and have potential application in ligament repair.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a new photo-crosslinkable glycol chitosan thermogel for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ik Sung; Cho, Myeong Ok; Li, Zhengzheng; Nurunnabi, Md; Park, Sung Young; Kang, Sun-Woong; Huh, Kang Moo

    2016-06-25

    The major limitations of typical thermogelling polymers for practical applications are low gel stability and weak mechanical properties under physiological conditions. In this study, we have synthesized a new polysaccharide-based thermogelling polymer that can be photo-crosslinked by UV irradiation to form a mechanically resilient and elastic hydrogel. Methacrylated hexanoyl glycol chitosan (M-HGC), was synthesized by a series of chemical modifications, N-hexanoylation and N-methacrylation, of glycol chitosan (GC). Various M-HGC polymers with different methacryl group contents were synthesized and their thermogelling and photo-crosslinkable properties were evaluated. The M-HGCs demonstrated a thermo-reversible sol-gel transition behavior in aqueous solutions. The thermally-induced hydrogels could be chemically crosslinked by UV-triggered photo-crosslinking. From the cytotoxicity studies using MTT and the live/dead assay, the M-HGC hydrogels showed non-cytotoxicity. These photo-crosslinkable thermogelling M-HGC polymers may hold great promises for various biomedical applications, such as an injectable delivery system and 3D cell culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on temperature and near-infrared driving characteristics of hydrogel actuator fabricated via molding and 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Liang, Yunhong; Ren, Lei; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan

    2018-02-01

    A hydrogel material system which was fit for molding and 3D printing was developed to fabricate bilayer hydrogel actuators with controllable temperature and near infrared laser responses. Polymerization on interface boundary of layered structure enhanced the bonding strength of hydrogel actuators. By utilizing anisotropic of microstructure along with thickness direction, bilayer hydrogel actuators fabricated via molding realized intelligent bending/shrinking responses, which guided the preparation of hydrogel ink for 3D printing. In-situ free radical polymerization under vacuum realized the solidification of printed hydrogel actuators with graphene oxide. Based on anisotropic swelling/deswelling behaviors of precise structure fabricated via 3D printing, the printed bilayer hydrogel actuators achieved temperature and near infrared laser responsive deformation. Changes of programmable printing path effectively resulted in corresponding deformation patterns. Combination of advantages of molding and 3D printing can promote the design and fabrication of hydrogel actuators with high mechanical strength, response speed and deformation ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polymer Brush-Functionalized Chitosan Hydrogels as Antifouling Implant Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzacchera, Irene; Vorobii, Mariia; Kostina, Nina Yu; de Los Santos Pereira, Andres; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, Michael; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Möller, Martin; Wilson, Christopher J; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2017-06-12

    Implantable sensor devices require coatings that efficiently interface with the tissue environment to mediate biochemical analysis. In this regard, bioinspired polymer hydrogels offer an attractive and abundant source of coating materials. However, upon implantation these materials generally elicit inflammation and the foreign body reaction as a consequence of protein fouling on their surface and concomitant poor hemocompatibility. In this report we investigate a strategy to endow chitosan hydrogel coatings with antifouling properties by the grafting of polymer brushes in a "grafting-from" approach. Chitosan coatings were functionalized with polymer brushes of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate using photoinduced single electron transfer living radical polymerization and the surfaces were thoroughly characterized by XPS, AFM, water contact angle goniometry, and in situ ellipsometry. The antifouling properties of these new bioinspired hydrogel-brush coatings were investigated by surface plasmon resonance. The influence of the modifications to the chitosan on hemocompatibility was assessed by contacting the surfaces with platelets and leukocytes. The coatings were hydrophilic and reached a thickness of up to 180 nm within 30 min of polymerization. The functionalization of the surface with polymer brushes significantly reduced the protein fouling and eliminated platelet activation and leukocyte adhesion. This methodology offers a facile route to functionalizing implantable sensor systems with antifouling coatings that improve hemocompatibility and pave the way for enhanced device integration in tissue.

  7. The Formation Mechanism of Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liyan; Yuan, Shiliang; Wang, Jing; Shen, Yun; Deng, Shuwen; Xie, Luyang; Yang, Qixiang

    2017-06-12

    Hydrogels are degradable polymeric networks, in which cross-links play a vital role in structure formation and degradation. Cross-linking is a stabilization process in polymer chemistry that leads to the multi-dimensional extension of polymeric chains, resulting in network structures. By cross-linking, hydrogels are formed into stable structures that differ from their raw materials. Generally, hydrogels can be prepared from either synthetic or natural polymers. Based on the types of cross-link junctions, hydrogels can be categorized into two groups: the chemically cross-linked and the physically cross-linked. Chemically cross-linked gels have permanent junctions, in which covalent bonds are present between different polymer chains, thus leading to excellent mechanical strength. Although chemical cross-linking is a highly resourceful method for the formation of hydrogels, the cross-linkers used in hydrogel preparation should be extracted from the hydrogels before use, due to their reported toxicity, while, in physically cross-linked gels, dissolution is prevented by physical interactions, such as ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic interactions. Physically cross-linked methods for the preparation of hydrogels are the alternate solution for cross-linker toxicity. Both methods will be discussed in this essay. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Mehrdad; Azadi, Amir; Rafiei, Pedram

    2008-12-14

    Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained considerable attention in recent years as one of the most promising nanoparticulate drug delivery systems owing to their unique potentials via combining the characteristics of a hydrogel system (e.g., hydrophilicity and extremely high water content) with a nanoparticle (e.g., very small size). Several polymeric hydrogel nanoparticulate systems have been prepared and characterized in recent years, based on both natural and synthetic polymers, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Among the natural polymers, chitosan and alginate have been studied extensively for preparation of hydrogel nanoparticles and from synthetic group, hydrogel nanoparticles based on poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (ethylene oxide), poly (ethyleneimine), poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide have been reported with different characteristics and features with respect to drug delivery. Regardless of the type of polymer used, the release mechanism of the loaded agent from hydrogel nanoparticles is complex, while resulting from three main vectors, i.e., drug diffusion, hydrogel matrix swelling, and chemical reactivity of the drug/matrix. Several crosslinking methods have been used in the way to form the hydrogel matix structures, which can be classified in two major groups of chemically- and physically-induced crosslinking.

  9. Extremely stretchable thermosensitive hydrogels by introducing slide-ring polyrotaxane cross-linkers and ionic groups into the polymer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Imran, Abu; Esaki, Kenta; Gotoh, Hiroaki; Seki, Takahiro; Ito, Kohzo; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Takeoka, Yukikazu

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels changing their volumes and shapes in response to various stimulations have potential applications in multiple fields. However, these hydrogels have not yet been commercialized due to some problems that need to be overcome. One of the most significant problems is that conventional stimuli-sensitive hydrogels are usually brittle. Here we prepare extremely stretchable thermosensitive hydrogels with good toughness by using polyrotaxane derivatives composed of α-cyclodextrin and polyethylene glycol as cross-linkers and introducing ionic groups into the polymer network. The ionic groups help the polyrotaxane cross-linkers to become well extended in the polymer network. The resulting hydrogels are surprisingly stretchable and tough because the cross-linked α-cyclodextrin molecules can move along the polyethylene glycol chains. In addition, the polyrotaxane cross-linkers can be used with a variety of vinyl monomers; the mechanical properties of the wide variety of polymer gels can be improved by using these cross-linkers. PMID:25296246

  10. Poroelastic Mechanical Effects of Hemicelluloses on Cellulosic Hydrogels under Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Cersosimo, Julie; Wang, Dongjie; Flanagan, Bernadine; Stokes, Jason R.; Gidley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Hemicelluloses exhibit a range of interactions with cellulose, the mechanical consequences of which in plant cell walls are incompletely understood. We report the mechanical properties of cell wall analogues based on cellulose hydrogels to elucidate the contribution of xyloglucan or arabinoxylan as examples of two hemicelluloses displaying different interactions with cellulose. We subjected the hydrogels to mechanical pressures to emulate the compressive stresses experienced by cell walls in planta. Our results revealed that the presence of either hemicellulose increased the resistance to compression at fast strain rates. However, at slow strain rates, only xyloglucan increased composite strength. This behaviour could be explained considering the microstructure and the flow of water through the composites confirming their poroelastic nature. In contrast, small deformation oscillatory rheology showed that only xyloglucan decreased the elastic moduli. These results provide evidence for contrasting roles of different hemicelluloses in plant cell wall mechanics and man-made cellulose-based composite materials. PMID:25794048

  11. Hydrogel microfabrication technology toward three dimensional tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiki Yanagawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D tissue constructs is essential for the alternative methods of organ transplantation in regenerative medicine, as well as the development of improved drug discovery assays. Recent technological advances in hydrogel microfabrication, such as micromolding, 3D bioprinting, photolithography, and stereolithography, have led to the production of 3D tissue constructs that exhibit biological functions with precise 3D microstructures. Furthermore, microfluidics technology has enabled the development of the perfusion culture of 3D tissue constructs with vascular networks. In this review, we present these hydrogel microfabrication technologies for the in vitro reconstruction and cultivation of 3D tissues. Additionally, we discuss current challenges and future perspectives of 3D tissue engineering.

  12. Subcutaneous tissue response and osteogenic performance of calcium phosphate nanoparticle-enriched hydrogels in the tibial medullary cavity of guinea pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongio, M; van den Beucken, J; Nejadnik, M.R.; Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; Habibovic, Pamela; Kinard, L.A.; Kasper, F.K.; Mikos, A.G.; Leeuwenburg, S.C.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF)-based hydrogels were tested for the first time as injectable bone substitute materials. The primary feature of the material design was the incorporation of calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix in order to

  13. pH and Glucose Dual-Responsive Injectable Hydrogels with Insulin and Fibroblasts as Bioactive Dressings for Diabetic Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingling; Niu, Lijing; Liang, Hongze; Tan, Hui; Liu, Chaozong; Zhu, Feiyan

    2017-11-01

    pH and glucose dual-responsive injectable hydrogels were prepared through the cross-linking of Schiff's base and phenylboronate ester using phenylboronic-modified chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol) and benzaldehyde-capped poly(ethylene glycol). Protein drugs and live cells could be incorporated into the hydrogels during the in situ cross-linking, displaying sustained and pH/glucose-triggered drug release from the hydrogels and cell viability and proliferation in the three-dimensional hydrogel matrix as well. Hence, the hydrogels with insulin and fibroblasts were considered as bioactive dressings for diabetic wound healing. A streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model was used to evaluate the efficacy of hydrogel dressings in wound repair. The results revealed that the incorporation of insulin and L929 in the hydrogels could promote neovascularization and collagen deposition and enhance the wound-healing process of diabetic wounds. Thus, the drug- and cell-loaded hydrogels have promising potential in wound healing as a medicated system for various therapeutic proteins and live cells.

  14. Water-Hydrogel Binding Affinity Modulates Freeze-Drying-Induced Micropore Architecture and Skeletal Myotube Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Max H; Lee, Min Kyung; Marshall, Nicholas; Clay, Nicholas; Chen, Jinrong; Mahmassani, Ziad; Boppart, Marni; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-08-10

    Freeze-dried hydrogels are increasingly used to create 3D interconnected micropores that facilitate biomolecular and cellular transports. However, freeze-drying is often plagued by variance in micropore architecture based on polymer choice. We hypothesized that water-polymer binding affinity plays a significant role in sizes and numbers of micropores formed through freeze-drying, influencing cell-derived tissue quality. Poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels with alginate methacrylate (AM) were used due to AM's higher binding affinity for water than PEGDA. PEGDA-AM hydrogels with larger AM concentrations resulted in larger sizes and numbers of micropores than pure PEGDA hydrogels, attributed to the increased mass of water binding to the PEGDA-AM gel. Skeletal myoblasts loaded in microporous PEGDA-AM hydrogels were active to produce 3D muscle-like tissue, while those loaded in pure PEGDA gels were localized on the gel surface. We propose that this study will be broadly useful in designing and improving the performance of various microporous gels.

  15. Mechanical loading regulates human MSC differentiation in a multi-layer hydrogel for osteochondral tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Neven J; Aisenbrey, Elizabeth A; Westbrook, Kristofer K; Qi, H Jerry; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2015-07-01

    A bioinspired multi-layer hydrogel was developed for the encapsulation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a platform for osteochondral tissue engineering. The spatial presentation of biochemical cues, via incorporation of extracellular matrix analogs, and mechanical cues, via both hydrogel crosslink density and externally applied mechanical loads, were characterized in each layer. A simple sequential photopolymerization method was employed to form stable poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels with a soft cartilage-like layer of chondroitin sulfate and low RGD concentrations, a stiff bone-like layer with high RGD concentrations, and an intermediate interfacial layer. Under a compressive load, the variation in hydrogel stiffness within each layer produced high strains in the soft cartilage-like layer, low strains in the stiff bone-like layer, and moderate strains in the interfacial layer. When hMSC-laden hydrogels were cultured statically in osteochondral differentiation media, the local biochemical and matrix stiffness cues were not sufficient to spatially guide hMSC differentiation after 21 days. However dynamic mechanical stimulation led to differentially high expression of collagens with collagen II in the cartilage-like layer, collagen X in the interfacial layer and collagen I in the bone-like layer and mineral deposits localized to the bone layer. Overall, these findings point to external mechanical stimulation as a potent regulator of hMSC differentiation toward osteochondral cellular phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Injectable Pentablock Copolymer Based Thermoresponsive Hydrogels for Sustained Release Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbala, Sharan; Tamboli, Viral; McDowell, Arlene; Mitra, Ashim K; Hook, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The need for multiple vaccinations to enhance the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines may be reduced by delivering the vaccine over an extended period of time. Here, we report two novel injectable pentablock copolymer based thermoresponsive hydrogels made of polyethyleneglycol-polycaprolactone-polylactide-polycaprolactone-polyethyleneglycol (PEG-PCL-PLA-PCL-PEG) with varying ratios of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactide (PLA), as single shot sustained release vaccines. Pentablock copolymer hydrogels were loaded with vaccine-encapsulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NP) or with the soluble vaccine components. Incorporation of PLGA-NP into the thermoresponsive hydrogels increased the complex viscosity of the gels, lowered the gelation temperature, and minimized the burst release of antigen and adjuvants. The two pentablock hydrogels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The addition of PLGA-NP to the hydrogels sustained immune responses for up to 49 days. The polymer with a higher ratio of PCL to PLA formed a more rigid gel, induced stronger immune responses, and stimulated effective anti-tumor responses in a prophylactic melanoma tumor model.

  17. Biomimetic hydrogels for biosensor implant biocompatibility: electrochemical characterization using micro-disc electrode arrays (MDEAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, Gusphyl; Finley, Stephen; Abdur Rahman, Abdur Rub; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    Our interest is in the development of engineered microdevices for continuous remote monitoring of intramuscular lactate, glucose, pH and temperature during post-traumatic hemorrhaging. Two important design considerations in the development of such devices for in vivo diagnostics are discussed; the utility of micro-disc electrode arrays (MDEAs) for electrochemical biosensing and the application of biomimetic, bioactive poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel composites for implant biocompatibility. A poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel membrane containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) was UV cross-linked with tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate following application to MDEAs (50 mum discs) and to 250 mum diameter gold electrodes within 8-well culture ware. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the MDEAs revealed a reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient of ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid (FcCO(2)H), from 6.68 x 10(-5) to 6.74 x 10(-6) cm(2)/s for the uncoated and 6 mum thick hydrogel coated devices, respectively. Single frequency (4 kHz) temporal impedance measurements of the hydrogels in the 8-well culture ware showed a reversible 5% change in the absolute impedance of the hydrogels when exposed to a pH change between 6.1 to 7.2 and a 20% drop between pH 6.1 and 8.8.

  18. Balancing Cell Migration with Matrix Degradation Enhances Gene Delivery to Cells Cultured Three-Dimensionally Within Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Huang, Alyssa; Shikanova, Ariella; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2010-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, hydrogels are employed to fill defects and support the infiltration of cells that can ultimately regenerate tissue. Gene delivery within hydrogels targeting infiltrating cells has the potential to promote tissue formation, but the delivery efficiency of nonviral vectors within hydrogels is low hindering their applicability in tissue regeneration. To improve their functionality, we have conducted a mechanistic study to investigate the contribution of cell migration and matrix degradation on gene delivery. In this report, lipoplexes were entrapped within hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) crosslinked with peptides containing matrix metalloproteinase degradable sequences. The mesh size of these hydrogels is substantially less than the size of the entrapped lipoplexes, which can function to retain vectors. Cell migration and transfection were simultaneously measured within hydrogels with varying density of cell adhesion sites (Arg-Gly-Asp peptides) and solids content. Increasing RGD density increased expression levels up to 100-fold, while greater solids content sustained expression levels for 16 days. Increasing RGD density and decreasing solids content increased cell migration, which indicates expression levels increase with increased cell migration. Initially exposing cells to vector resulted in transient expression that declined after 2 days, verifying the requirement of migration to sustain expression. Transfected cells were predominantly located within the population of migrating cells for hydrogels that supported cell migration. Although the small mesh size retained at least 70% of the lipoplexes in the absence of cells after 32 days, the presence of cells decreased retention to 10% after 16 days. These results indicate that vectors retained within hydrogels contact migrating cells, and that persistent cell migration can maintain elevated expression levels. Thus matrix degradation and cell migration are fundamental design

  19. Thermal behavior and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked PVA/Gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yurong; Geever, Luke M; Kennedy, James E; Higginbotham, Clement L; Cahill, Paul A; McGuinness, Garrett B

    2010-02-01

    Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Gelatin hydrogels are under active investigation as potential vascular cell culture biomaterials, tissue models and vascular implants. The PVA/Gelatin hydrogels are physically crosslinked by the freeze-thaw technique, which is followed by a coagulation bath treatment. In this study, the thermal behavior of the gels was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Rheological measurement and uniaxial tensile tests revealed key mechanical properties. The role of polymer fraction in relation to these mechanical properties is explored. Gelatin has no significant effect on the thermal behavior of PVA, which indicates that no substantial change occurs in the PVA crystallite due to the presence of gelatin. The glass transition temperature, melting temperature, degree of crystallinity, polymer fraction, storage modulus (G') and ultimate strength of one freeze-thaw cycle (1FT) hydrogels are inferior to those of 3FT hydrogels. With coagulation, both 1FT and 3FT hydrogels shifted to a lower value of T(g), melting temperature and polymer fraction are further increased and the degree of crystallinity is depressed. The mechanical properties of 1FT, but not 3FT, were strengthened with coagulation treatment. This study gives a detailed investigation of the microstructure formation of PVA/Gelatin hydrogel in each stage of physical treatments which helps us to explain the role of physical treatments in tuning their physical properties for biomechanical applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical properties and in vitro characterization of polyvinyl alcohol-nano-silver hydrogel wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R N; Rouzé, R; Quilty, B; Alves, G G; Soares, G D A; Thiré, R M S M; McGuinness, G B

    2014-02-06

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels are materials for potential use in burn healing. Silver nanoparticles can be synthesized within PVA hydrogels giving antimicrobial hydrogels. Hydrogels have to be swollen prior to their application, and the common medium available for that in hospitals is saline solution, but the hydrogel could also take up some of the wound's fluid. This work developed gamma-irradiated PVA/nano-Ag hydrogels for potential use in burn dressing applications. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as nano-Ag precursor agent. Saline solution, phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) pH 7.4 and solution pH 4.0 were used as swelling media. Microstructural evaluation revealed an effect of the nanoparticles on PVA crystallization. The swelling of the PVA-Ag samples in solution pH 4.0 was low, as was their silver delivery, compared with the equivalent samples swollen in the other media. The highest swelling and silver delivery were related to samples prepared with 0.50% AgNO3, and they also presented lower strength in PBS pH 7.4 and solution pH 4.0. Both PVA-Ag samples were also non-toxic and presented antimicrobial activity, confirming that 0.25% AgNO3 concentration is sufficient to establish an antimicrobial effect. Both PVA-Ag samples presented suitable mechanical and swelling properties in all media, representative of potential burn site conditions.

  1. Development of biocompatible glycodynameric hydrogels joining two natural motifs by dynamic constitutional chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Luminita; Ailincai, Daniela; Morariu, Simona; Tartau-Mititelu, Liliana

    2017-08-15

    The paper focusses on the synthesis of novel hydrogels by joining natural biodegradable compounds with the aim to achieve biocompatible materials for bio related applications. The hydrogels were prepared from chitosan and citral by constitutional dynamic chemistry, incorporating both molecular and supramolecular dynamic features. The hydrophobic flexible citral has been reversible immobilized onto the hydrophilic chitosan backbone via imine bonds to form amphiphilic glycodynamers, which further self-ordered through supramolecular interactions into a 3D-network of biodynameric hydrogel. The synthetic pathway has been demonstrated by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and polarized light microscopy. Studies of the hydrogel morphology revealed a 3D porous microstructure, whose pores size correlated with the crosslinking degree. Rheological investigations evidenced high elasticity, thermo-responsiveness and thixotropic behavior. As a proof of the concept, the hydrogels proved in vivo biocompatibility on laboratory mice. The paper successfully implements the constitutional dynamic chemistry in generation of chitosan high performance hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal gelation and tissue adhesion of biomimetic hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Sean A; Ritter-Jones, Marsha; Lee, Bruce P; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2007-01-01

    Marine and freshwater mussels are notorious foulers of natural and manmade surfaces, secreting specialized protein adhesives for rapid and durable attachment to wet substrates. Given the strong and water-resistant nature of mussel adhesive proteins, significant potential exists for mimicking their adhesive characteristics in bioinspired synthetic polymer materials. An important component of these proteins is L-3,4-dihydroxylphenylalanine (DOPA), an amino acid believed to contribute to mussel glue solidification through oxidation and crosslinking reactions. Synthetic polymers containing DOPA residues have previously been shown to crosslink into hydrogels upon the introduction of oxidizing reagents. Here we introduce a strategy for stimuli responsive gel formation of mussel adhesive protein mimetic polymers. Lipid vesicles with a bilayer melting transition of 37 0 C were designed from a mixture of dipalmitoyl and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholines and exploited for the release of a sequestered oxidizing reagent upon heating from ambient to physiologic temperature. Colorimetric studies indicated that sodium-periodate-loaded liposomes released their cargo at the phase transition temperature, and when used in conjunction with a DOPA-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) polymer gave rise to rapid solidification of a crosslinked polymer hydrogel. The tissue adhesive properties of this biomimetic system were determined by in situ thermal gelation of liposome/polymer hydrogel between two porcine dermal tissue surfaces. Bond strength measurements showed that the bond formed by the adhesive hydrogel (mean = 35.1 kPa, SD = 12.5 kPa, n = 11) was several times stronger than a fibrin glue control tested under the same conditions. The results suggest a possible use of this biomimetic strategy for repair of soft tissues

  3. On the role of hydrogel structure and degradation in controlling the transport of cell-secreted matrix molecules for engineered cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Valentin; Skaalure, Stacey; Akalp, Umut; Roberts, Justine; Bryant, Stephanie J; Vernerey, Franck J

    2013-03-01

    Damage to cartilage caused by injury or disease can lead to pain and loss of mobility, diminishing one's quality of life. Because cartilage has a limited capacity for self-repair, tissue engineering strategies, such as cells encapsulated in synthetic hydrogels, are being investigated as a means to restore the damaged cartilage. However, strategies to date are suboptimal in part because designing degradable hydrogels is complicated by structural and temporal complexities of the gel and evolving tissue along multiple length scales. To address this problem, this study proposes a multi-scale mechanical model using a triphasic formulation (solid, fluid, unbound matrix molecules) based on a single chondrocyte releasing extracellular matrix molecules within a degrading hydrogel. This model describes the key players (cells, proteoglycans, collagen) of the biological system within the hydrogel encompassing different length scales. Two mechanisms are included: temporal changes of bulk properties due to hydrogel degradation, and matrix transport. Numerical results demonstrate that the temporal change of bulk properties is a decisive factor in the diffusion of unbound matrix molecules through the hydrogel. Transport of matrix molecules in the hydrogel contributes both to the development of the pericellular matrix and the extracellular matrix and is dependent on the relative size of matrix molecules and the hydrogel mesh. The numerical results also demonstrate that osmotic pressure, which leads to changes in mesh size, is a key parameter for achieving a larger diffusivity for matrix molecules in the hydrogel. The numerical model is confirmed with experimental results of matrix synthesis by chondrocytes in biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels. This model may ultimately be used to predict key hydrogel design parameters towards achieving optimal cartilage growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Sergio; Conversano, Francesco; Musio, Stefano; Casciaro, Ernesto; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Tissue mimicking phantoms have been widely reported to be an important tool for development, optimisation and performance testing of ultrasound-based diagnostic techniques. In particular, modern applications of tissue mimicking phantoms often include characterisation of the nonlinear behaviour of experimental ultrasound contrast agents. In such cases, the tissue-mimicking materials should be chosen not only based on the values of their density, speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, but also considering their effect on the appearance of "native harmonics" due to nonlinear distortion of ultrasound signal during propagation. In a previous paper it was demonstrated that a cellulose-based hydrogel is suitable to simulate nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue for thicknesses up to 8 cm. In this paper we present the experimental characterisation of the nonlinear acoustical behaviour of a different polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)-based hydrogel, in order to assess whether and how it can improve the performances and overcome some limitations of the cellulose-based hydrogel as liver tissue-mimicking material. Samples of pig liver tissue, cellulose-based hydrogel and PEGDA-based hydrogel were insonified in a through-transmission set-up, employing 2.25-MHz pulses with different mechanical index (MI) values. Second harmonic and first harmonic amplitudes were extracted from the spectra of received signals and their difference was then used to compare sample behaviours. Obtained results show how a new more accurate and combined experimental model of linear and nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue is feasible. In fact, a further confirmation of the cellulose-based hydrogel effectiveness to precisely simulate the liver tissue for penetration depths up to 8 cm was provided, and it was also shown that the employment of the PEGDA-based hydrogel can extend the range of useful tissue-mimicking material thicknesses up to 11 cm, moreover allowing a

  5. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry: a new approach to study the release properties of hydrogel cylinders and microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhl-Bruhn, S; Heim, E; Schwoerer, A; Bertz, A; Harling, S; Menzel, H; Schilling, M; Ludwig, F; Bunjes, H

    2012-10-15

    Hydrogels are under investigation as long term delivery systems for biomacromolecules as active pharmaceutical ingredients. The release behavior of hydrogels can be tailored during the fabrication process. This study investigates the applicability of fluxgate magnetorelaxometry (MRX) as a tool to characterize the release properties of such long term drug delivery depots. MRX is based on the use of superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles as model substances. The feasibility of using superparamagnetic nanoparticles to study the degradation of and the associated release from hydrogel cylinders and hydrogel microspheres was a major point of interest. Gels prepared from two types of photo crosslinkable polymers based on modified hydroxyethylstarch, specifically hydroxyethyl starch-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HES-HEMA) and hydroxyethyl starch-polyethylene glycol methacrylate (HES-P(EG)(6)MA), were analyzed. MRX analysis of the incorporated nanoparticles allowed to evaluate the influence of different crosslinking conditions during hydrogel production as well as to follow the increase in nanoparticle mobility as a result of hydrogel degradation during release studies. Conventional release studies with fluorescent markers (half-change method) were performed for comparison. MRX with superparamagnetic nanoparticles as model substances is a promising method to analyze pharmaceutically relevant processes such as the degradation of hydrogel drug carrier systems. In contrast to conventional release experiments MRX allows measurements in closed vials (reducing loss of sample and sampling errors), in opaque media and at low magnetic nanoparticle concentrations. Magnetic markers possess a better long-term stability than fluorescent ones and are thus also promising for the use in in vivo studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microsphere erosion in outer hydrogel membranes creating macroscopic porosity to counter biofouling-induced sensor degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddiraju, S; Wang, Y; Qiang, L; Burgess, D J; Papadimitrakopoulos, F

    2012-10-16

    Biofouling and tissue inflammation present major challenges toward the realization of long-term implantable glucose sensors. Following sensor implantation, proteins and cells adsorb on sensor surfaces to not only inhibit glucose flux but also signal a cascade of inflammatory events that eventually lead to permeability-reducing fibrotic encapsulation. The use of drug-eluting hydrogels as outer sensor coatings has shown considerable promise to mitigate these problems via the localized delivery of tissue response modifiers to suppress inflammation and fibrosis, along with reducing protein and cell absorption. Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres, encapsulated within a poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel matrix, present a model coating where the localized delivery of the potent anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone has been shown to suppress inflammation over a period of 1-3 months. Here, it is shown that the degradation of the PLGA microspheres provides an auxiliary venue to offset the negative effects of protein adsorption. This was realized by: (1) the creation of fresh porosity within the PVA hydrogel following microsphere degradation (which is sustained until the complete microsphere degradation) and (2) rigidification of the PVA hydrogel to prevent its complete collapse onto the newly created void space. Incubation of the coated sensors in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) led to a monotonic increase in glucose permeability (50%), with a corresponding enhancement in sensor sensitivity over a 1 month period. Incubation in serum resulted in biofouling and consequent clogging of the hydrogel microporosity. This, however, was partially offset by the generated macroscopic porosity following microsphere degradation. As a result of this, a 2-fold recovery in sensor sensitivity for devices with microsphere/hydrogel composite coatings was observed as opposed to similar devices with blank hydrogel coatings. These findings suggest that the use of

  7. HYDROGELS AND THEIR APLICATION AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AÇIKEL Safiye Meriç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, being polymeric material,are named “Hydrophilic Polymer” because of their capable of holding large amounts of water in their three-dimensional networks. Hydrogels is not solved in water; however they have been swollen to their balace volume. Because of this swell behavior, they can adsorb big quantity of water in this structure. So they can term of “three sized polymers” due to protect their existing shape. Their cross linked bound structures are able to covalent or ionic and also one polymer which can for use of hydrogel polymer, must have hydrophilic groups such as carboxyl, carbonyl, amine and amide in main chains or side chains, and because of these groups water bound the polymer and polymer start to swell with rising volume and mass. Swell behavior of hydrogel is interested in quantity of hydrophilic groups. Hydrogels can use in different industrial and environmental areas with this high amount water holding capacity. They are used in food industry, biomedical, bioengineering, biotechnology, veterinary, pharmacist, agriculture, telecommunication, etc. Especially in current life, baby nappy has been including inside hydrogel beads. Also they used in contact lens, artificial cornea, synthetic cartilage and gullet, controlled medicine release, surgery yarns. This article general inform about usage area of hydrogels.

  8. Evaluation of Gentamicin and Lidocaine Release Profile from Gum Acacia-crosslinked-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol Based Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    No doubt, the prevention of infection is an indispensable aspect of the wound management, but, simultaneous wound pain relief is also required. Therefore, herein this article, incorporation of antibiotic agent 'gentamicin' and pain relieving agent 'lidocaine' into hydrogel wound dressings, prepared by using acacia gum, carbopol and poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) polymers, has been carried out. The hydrogels were evaluated as a drug carrier for model drugs gentamicin and lidocaine. Synthesis of hydrogel wound dressing was carried out by free radical polymerization technique. The drug loading was carried out by swelling equilibrium method and gel strength of hydrogels was measured by a texture analyzer. Porous microstructure of the hydrogel was observed in cryo-SEM images. The hydrogel showed mesh size 37.29 nm, cross-link density 2.19× 10-5 mol/cm3, molecular weight between two cross-links 60.25× 10-3 g/mol and gel strength 0.625±0.112 N in simulated wound fluid. It is concluded that the pH of swelling medium has influenced the network structure of hydrogel i.e., molecular weight of the polymer chain between two neighboring cross links, crosslink density and the corresponding mesh size. A good correlation was established between gel strength and network parameters. Cryo-SEM images showed porous morphology of hydrogels. These hydrogels were found to be biodegradable and antimicrobial in nature. Drug release occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile was best fitted in first order model. Overall it is concluded that modification in GA has led to formation of a porous hydrogels for wound dressing applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Mechanically Robust 3D Nanostructure Chitosan-Based Hydrogels with Autonomic Self-Healing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali Reza; Khodadadi, Azam

    2016-10-12

    Fabrication of hydrogels based on chitosan (CS) with superb self-healing behavior and high mechanical and electrical properties has become a challenging and fascinating topic. Most of the conventional hydrogels lack these properties at the same time. Our objectives in this research were to synthesize, characterize, and evaluate the general properties of chitosan covalently cross-linked with zinc phthalocyanine tetra-aldehyde (ZnPcTa) framework. Our hope was to access an unprecedented self-healable three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure that would harvest the superior mechanical and electrical properties associated with chitosan. The properties of cross-linker such as the structure, steric effect, and rigidity of the molecule played important roles in determining the microstructure and properties of the resulting hydrogels. The tetra-functionalized phthalocyanines favor a dynamic Schiff-base linkage with chitosan to form a 3D porous nanostructure. Based on this strategy, the self-healing ability, as demonstrated by rheological recovery and macroscopic and microscopic observations, is introduced through dynamic covalent Schiff-base linkage between NH 2 groups in CS and benzaldehyde groups at cross-linker ends. The hydrogel was characterized using FT-IR, NMR, UV/vis, and rheological measurements. In addition, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was employed as a technique to visualize the internal morphology of the hydrogels. Study of the surface morphology of the hydrogel showed a 3D porous nanostructure with uniform morphology. Furthermore, incorporating the conductive nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), into the structure can modulate the mechanical and electrical properties of the obtained hydrogels. Interestingly, these hydrogel nanocomposites proved to have very good film-forming properties, high modulus and strength, acceptable electrical conductivity, and excellent self-healing properties at neutral pH. Such properties can be finely tuned

  10. Characterization of hydrogel printer for direct cell-laden scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whulanza, Yudan; Arsyan, Rendria; Saragih, Agung Shamsuddin

    2018-02-01

    The additive manufacturing technology has been massively developed since the last decade. The technology was previously known as rapid prototyping techniques that aimed to produce a prototyping product in fast and economical way. Currently, this technique is also applied to fabricate microstructure utilized in tissue engineering technology. Here, we introduce a 3D printer which using hydrogel gelatin to realize cell laden scaffold with dimension around 50-100 µm. However, in order to fabricate such a precise dimension, an optimum working parameters are required to control the physical properties of gelatin. At the end of our study, we formulated the best parameters to perform the product as we desired.

  11. Evaluating a simple blending approach to prepare magnetic and stimuli-responsive composite hydrogel particles for application in biomedical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of super paramagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles in stimuli-responsive hydrogel is expected to enhance the application potential for cellular therapy in cell labeling, separation and purification, protein immobilization, contrasting enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, localized therapeutic hyperthermia, biosensors etc. in biomedical field. In this investigation two different magnetic and stimuli-responsive composite hydrogel particles with variable surface property were prepared by simply blending Fe3O4/SiO2 nanocomposite particles with stimuli-responsive hydrogel particles. Of the hydrogel particles prepared by free-radical precipitation polymerization poly(styrene-N-isopropylacrylamide-methyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol methacrylate or P(S-NIPAM-MMA-PEGMA was temperature-sensitive and poly(S-NIPAM-methacrylic acid-PEGMA or P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA was both temperature- and pH-responsive. The morphological structure, size distributions and volume phase transitions of magnetic and stimuli-responsive composite hydrogel particles were analyzed. Temperature-responsive absorptions of biomolecules were observed on both magnetic and stimuli-responsive Fe3O4/SiO2/P(S-NIPAM-MMA-PEGMA and Fe3O4/SiO2/P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA composite hydrogel particles and separation of particles from the dispersion media could be achieved by applying magnetic field without time consuming centrifugation or decantation method.

  12. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels with IKVAV peptides for tissue repair and axonal regeneration in an injured rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y T; Tian, W M; Yu, X; Cui, F Z; Hou, S P; Xu, Q Y; Lee, In-Seop

    2007-01-01

    A biocompatible hydrogel of hyaluronic acid with the neurite-promoting peptide sequence of IKVAV was synthesized. The characterization of the hydrogel shows an open porous structure and a large surface area available for cell interaction. Its ability to promote tissue repair and axonal regeneration in the lesioned rat cerebrum is also evaluated. After implantation, the polymer hydrogel repaired the tissue defect and formed a permissive interface with the host tissue. Axonal growth occurred within the microstructure of the network. Within 6 weeks the polymer implant was invaded by host-derived tissue, glial cells, blood vessels and axons. Such a hydrogel matrix showed the properties of neuron conduction. It has the potential to repair tissue defects in the central nervous system by promoting the formation of a tissue matrix and axonal growth by replacing the lost tissue

  13. Effects of polymerization degree on recovery behavior of PVA/PVP hydrogels as potential articular cartilage prosthesis after fatigue test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl alcohol/poly (vinyl pyrrolidone (PVA/PVP hydrogels with various polymerization degrees of PVA were synthesized by a repeated freezing-thawing method. The influence of polymerization degree on microstructure, water content, friction coefficient, compressive fatigue and recovery properties of PVA/PVP hydrogels were investigated. The results showed that higher polymerization degree resulted in larger compressive modulus and lower friction coefficient. The fatigue behaviors of PVA/PVP hydrogels were evaluated under sinusoidal compressive loading from 200 to 800 N at 5 Hz for up to 50 000 cycles. The unconfined uniaxial compressive tests of PVA/PVP hydrogels were performed before and after fatigue test. During the fatigue test, the height of the hydrogel rapidly decreased at first and gradually became stable with loading cycles. The compressive tangent modulus measured 0 h after fatigue was significantly larger than the values obtained before test, and then the modulus recovered to its original level for 48 h after test. However, the geometry of hydrogels could not return to the original level due to the creep effects. PVA/PVP hydrogels prepared with lower polymerization degree showed better recovery capability than that prepared with high polymerization degree.

  14. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm"2 and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  15. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi, E-mail: takaomi@nagaoakut.ac.jp

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm{sup 2} and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  16. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  17. pH-responsive and enzymatically-responsive hydrogel microparticles for the oral delivery of therapeutic proteins: Effects of protein size, crosslinking density, and hydrogel degradation on protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetting, Michael Clinton; Guido, Joseph Frank; Gupta, Malvika; Zhang, Annie; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2016-01-10

    Two potential platform technologies for the oral delivery of protein therapeutics were synthesized and tested. pH-responsive poly(itaconic acid-co-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (P(IA-co-NVP)) hydrogel microparticles were tested in vitro with model proteins salmon calcitonin, urokinase, and rituximab to determine the effects of particle size, protein size, and crosslinking density on oral delivery capability. Particle size showed no significant effect on overall delivery potential but did improve percent release of encapsulated protein over the micro-scale particle size range studied. Protein size was shown to have a significant impact on the delivery capability of the P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogel. We show that when using P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogel microparticles with 3 mol% tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate crosslinker, a small polypeptide (salmon calcitonin) loads and releases up to 45 μg/mg hydrogel while the mid-sized protein urokinase and large monoclonal antibody rituximab load and release only 19 and 24 μg/mg hydrogel, respectively. We further demonstrate that crosslinking density offers a simple method for tuning hydrogel properties to variously sized proteins. Using 5 mol% TEGDMA crosslinker offers optimal performance for the small peptide, salmon calcitonin, whereas lower crosslinking density of 1 mol% offers optimal performance for the much larger protein rituximab. Finally, an enzymatically-degradable hydrogels of P(MAA-co-NVP) crosslinked with the peptide sequence MMRRRKK were synthesized and tested in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. These hydrogels offer ideal loading and release behavior, showing no degradative release of encapsulated salmon calcitonin in gastric conditions while yielding rapid and complete release of encapsulated protein within 1h in intestinal conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Steric Interference of Adhesion Supports In-Vitro Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Hydrogels for Cartilage Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Goldshmid, Revital; Cohen, Shlomit; Shachaf, Yonatan; Kupershmit, Ilana; Sarig-Nadir, Offra; Seliktar, Dror; Wechsler, Roni

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest the presence of cell adhesion motifs found in structural proteins can inhibit chondrogenesis. In this context, the current study aims to determine if a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified fibrinogen matrix could support better chondrogenesis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) based on steric interference of adhesion, when compared to a natural fibrin matrix. Hydrogels used as substrates for two-dimensional (2D) BM-MSC cultures under chondrogenic conditi...

  19. Structure and properties of semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel based on starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baodong; Ma, Dongzhuo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-11-20

    Starch-g-P(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/PVA semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogels were prepared by aqueous solution polymerization method. Starch grafting copolymerization reaction, semi-IPN structure and crystal morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The PVA in the form of partial crystallization distributing in the gel matrix uniformly were observed by Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The space network structure, finer microstructure and pore size in the interior of hydrogel were presented by biomicroscope. The results demonstrated that absorption ratio of water and salt generated different degree changes with the effect of PVA. In addition, the mechanical strength of hydrogel was improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of a vascularized synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) macroencapsulation device for islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jessica D; Headen, Devon M; Hunckler, Michael D; Coronel, Maria M; Stabler, Cherie L; García, Andrés J

    2018-07-01

    The use of immunoisolating macrodevices in islet transplantation confers the benefit of safety and translatability by containing transplanted cells within a single retrievable device. To date, there has been limited development and characterization of synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel macrodevices for islet encapsulation and transplantation. Herein, we describe a two-component synthetic PEG hydrogel macrodevice system, designed for islet delivery to an extrahepatic islet transplant site, consisting of a hydrogel core cross-linked with a non-degradable PEG dithiol and a vasculogenic outer layer cross-linked with a proteolytically sensitive peptide to promote degradation and enhance localized vascularization. Synthetic PEG macrodevices exhibited equivalent passive molecular transport to traditional microencapsulation materials (e.g., alginate) and long-term stability in the presence of proteases in vitro and in vivo, out to 14 weeks in rats. Encapsulated islets demonstrated high viability within the device in vitro and the incorporation of RGD adhesive peptides within the islet encapsulating PEG hydrogel improved insulin responsiveness to a glucose challenge. In vivo, the implementation of a vasculogenic, degradable hydrogel layer at the outer interface of the macrodevice enhanced vascular density within the rat omentum transplant site, resulting in improved encapsulated islet viability in a syngeneic diabetic rat model. These results highlight the benefits of the facile PEG platform to provide controlled presentation of islet-supportive ligands, as well as degradable interfaces for the promotion of engraftment and overall graft efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogels in Miniemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfester, Katharina; Musyanovych, Anna

    In the last decade, the synthesis of polymeric materials that respond to specific environment stimuli by changing their size has attracted widespread interest in both fundamental and applied areas of research. Hydrogels in dispersions are composed of randomly oriented, physically or chemically crosslinked hydrophilic or amphiphilic polymer chains. The synthesis of these gels at the nanoscale (nanogels or microgels) is especially of great importance for their application in drug delivery and controlled release systems, and in biomimetics, biosensing, tissue regeneration, heterogeneous catalysis, etc. The focus of this review is to present the versatility of the miniemulsion process for the formation of monodisperse nanogels from synthetic and natural polymers. Several applications of the obtained microgels are briefly described.

  2. Evaluation of a novel biodegradable thermosensitive keto-hydrogel for improving postoperative pain in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Huang; Shih, Ming-Hung; Hsu, Wei-Bin; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Lee, Wen-Fu; Lin, Tsai-Yu; Hsieh, Meng-Yow; Chen, Chin-Fu; Peng, Kuo-Ti; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Guo, Ren-Shyang; Cai, Chang-Jhih; Chung, Chiu-Yen; Wong, Chung-Hang

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the sustained analgesic effect of ketorolac-eluting thermosensitive biodegradable hydrogel in the plantar incisional pain model of the rat hind-paw. A ketorolac-embedded 2, 2'-Bis (2-oxazolin) (BOX) linking methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) diblock copolymer (BOX copolymer) was synthesized as keto-hydrogel based on optimal sol-gel phase transition and in vitro drug release profile. The effect of keto-hydrogel on postoperative pain (POP) was assessed using the established plantar incisional pain model in hind-paw of rats and compared to that of ketorolac solution. Pain and sensory threshold, as well as pain scoring, were evaluated with behavioral tests by means of anesthesiometer and incapacitance apparatus, respectively. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6, VEGF, and IL-1β) around incisional wounds were measured by ELISA. Tissue histology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. Ten mg/mL (25 wt%) keto-hydrogel showed a sol-gel transition at 26.4°C with a 10-day sustained drug release profile in vitro. Compared to ketorolac solution group, the concentration of ketorolac in tissue fluid was higher in the keto-hydrogel group during the first 18 h of application. Keto-hydrogel elevated pain and sensory threshold, increased weight-bearing capacity, and significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β while enhanced VEGF in tissue fluid. Histologic analysis reveals greater epithelialization and collagen deposition around wound treated with keto-hydrogel. In conclusion, our study suggests that keto-hydrogel is an ideal compound to treat POP with a secondary gain of improved incisional wound healing.

  3. Evaluation of a novel biodegradable thermosensitive keto-hydrogel for improving postoperative pain in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Huang Wu

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the sustained analgesic effect of ketorolac-eluting thermosensitive biodegradable hydrogel in the plantar incisional pain model of the rat hind-paw. A ketorolac-embedded 2, 2'-Bis (2-oxazolin (BOX linking methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol and poly(lactide-co-glycolide (mPEG-PLGA diblock copolymer (BOX copolymer was synthesized as keto-hydrogel based on optimal sol-gel phase transition and in vitro drug release profile. The effect of keto-hydrogel on postoperative pain (POP was assessed using the established plantar incisional pain model in hind-paw of rats and compared to that of ketorolac solution. Pain and sensory threshold, as well as pain scoring, were evaluated with behavioral tests by means of anesthesiometer and incapacitance apparatus, respectively. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6, VEGF, and IL-1β around incisional wounds were measured by ELISA. Tissue histology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. Ten mg/mL (25 wt% keto-hydrogel showed a sol-gel transition at 26.4°C with a 10-day sustained drug release profile in vitro. Compared to ketorolac solution group, the concentration of ketorolac in tissue fluid was higher in the keto-hydrogel group during the first 18 h of application. Keto-hydrogel elevated pain and sensory threshold, increased weight-bearing capacity, and significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β while enhanced VEGF in tissue fluid. Histologic analysis reveals greater epithelialization and collagen deposition around wound treated with keto-hydrogel. In conclusion, our study suggests that keto-hydrogel is an ideal compound to treat POP with a secondary gain of improved incisional wound healing.

  4. Self-assembling Fmoc dipeptide hydrogel for in situ 3D cell culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpe Victor

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional cell culture studies have been performed on 2D surfaces, resulting in flat, extended cell growth. More relevant studies are desired to better mimic 3D in vivo tissue growth. Such realistic environments should be the aim of any cell growth study, requiring new methods for culturing cells in vitro. Cell biology is also tending toward miniaturization for increased efficiency and specificity. This paper discusses the application of a self-assembling peptide-derived hydrogel for use as a 3D cell culture scaffold at the microscale. Results Phenylalanine derivative hydrogel formation was seen to occur in multiple dispersion media. Cells were immobilized in situ within microchambers designed for cell analysis. Use of the highly biocompatible hydrogel components and simplistic procedures significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects seen with alternate 3D culture materials and microstructure loading methods. Cells were easily immobilized, sustained and removed from microchambers. Differences in growth morphology were seen in the cultured cells, owing to the 3-dimentional character of the gel structure. Degradation improved the removal of hydrogel from the microstructures, permitting reuse of the analysis platforms. Conclusion Self-assembling diphenylalanine derivative hydrogel provided a method to dramatically reduce the typical difficulties of microculture formation. Effective generation of patterned 3D cultures will lead to improved cell study results by better modeling in vivo growth environments and increasing efficiency and specificity of cell studies. Use of simplified growth scaffolds such as peptide-derived hydrogel should be seen as highly advantageous and will likely become more commonplace in cell culture methodology.

  5. Self-Healing and Thermo-Responsive Dual-Crosslinked Alginate Hydrogels based on Supramolecular Inclusion Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Tianxin; Fenn, Spencer L.; Charron, Patrick N.; Oldinski, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), with a lipophilic inner cavity and hydrophilic outer surface, interacts with a large variety of non-polar guest molecules to form non-covalent inclusion complexes. Conjugation of β-CD onto biomacromolecules can form physically-crosslinked hydrogel networks upon mixing with a guest molecule. Herein describes the development and characterization of self-healing, thermo-responsive hydrogels, based on host-guest inclusion complexes between alginate-graft-β-CD and Pluronic® F108 (poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)). The mechanics, flow characteristics, and thermal response were contingent on the polymer concentrations, and the host-guest molar ratio. Transient and reversible physical crosslinking between host and guest polymers governed self-assembly, allowing flow under shear stress, and facilitating complete recovery of the material properties within a few seconds of unloading. The mechanical properties of the dual-crosslinked, multi-stimuli responsive hydrogels were tuned as high as 30 kPa at body temperature, and are advantageous for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and cell transplantation. PMID:26509214

  6. Alginate-Collagen Fibril Composite Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Baniasadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and the mechanical characterization of an alginate-collagen fibril composite hydrogel. Native type I collagen fibrils were used to synthesize the fibrous composite hydrogel. We characterized the mechanical properties of the fabricated fibrous hydrogel using tensile testing; rheometry and atomic force microscope (AFM-based nanoindentation experiments. The results show that addition of type I collagen fibrils improves the rheological and indentation properties of the hydrogel.

  7. Pharmacokinetic properties and antitumor efficacy of the 5-fluorouracil loaded PEG-hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Bokyung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have studied the in vitro and in vivo utility of polyethylene glycol (PEG-hydrogels for the development of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU delivery system. Methods A 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel was implanted subcutaneously to evaluate the drug retention time and the anticancer effect. For the pharmacokinetic study, two groups of male rats were administered either an aqueous solution of 5-FU (control group/or a 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel (treated group at a dose of 100 mg/kg. For the pharmacodynamic study, a human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma (NSCLC cell line, A549 was inoculated to male nude mice with a cell density of 3 × 106. Once tumors start growing, the mice were injected with 5-FU/or 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel once a week for 4 weeks. The growth of the tumors was monitored by measuring the tumor volume and calculating the tumor inhibition rate (IR over the duration of the study. Results In the pharmacokinetic study, the 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogel gave a mean residence time (MRT of 8.0 h and the elimination half-life of 0.9 h; these values were 14- and 6-fold, respectively, longer than those for the free solution of 5-FU (p Conclusion We suggest that 5-FU-loaded PEG-hydrogels could provide a useful tool for the development of an anticancer drug delivery system.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of functional alginate hydrogels based on click chemistry for drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Astrain, Clara; Avérous, Luc

    2018-06-15

    Environment-sensitive alginate-based hydrogels for drug delivery applications are receiving increasing attention. However, most work in this field involves traditional cross-linking strategies which led to hydrogels with poor long-term stability. Herein, a series of chemically cross-linked alginate hydrogels was synthesized via click chemistry using Diels-Alder reaction by reacting furan-modified alginate and bifunctional cross-linkers. Alginate was successfully functionalized with furfurylamine. Then, 3D architectures were synthesized with water-soluble bismaleimides. Different substitution degrees were achieved in order to study the effect of alginate modification and the cross-linking extent over the behaviour of the hydrogels. The ensuing hydrogels were analysed in terms of microstructure, swelling, structure modification and rheological behaviour. The materials response to external stimuli such as pH was also investigated, revealing a pulsatile behaviour in a large pH range (1-13) and a clear pH-dependent swelling. Finally, vanillin release studies were conducted to demonstrate the potential of these biobased materials for drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel Hydrogels from Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Muzafer Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    The cell wall of most plant biomass from forest and agricultural resources consists of three major polymers, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Of these, hemicelluloses have gained increasing attention as sustainable raw materials. In the first part of this study, novel pH-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels based on hemicelluloses and chitosan were prepared using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. The hemicellulose isolated from aspen was analyzed for sugar content by HPLC, and its molecular weight distribution was determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography. Results revealed that hemicellulose had a broad molecular weight distribution with a fair amount of polymeric units, together with xylose, arabinose and glucose. The effect of hemicellulose content on mechanical properties and swelling behavior of hydrogels were investigated. The semi-IPNs hydrogel structure was confirmed by FT-IR, X-ray study and ninhydrin assay method. X-ray analysis showed that higher hemicellulose contents yielded higher crystallinity. Mechanical properties were mainly dependent on the crosslink density and average molecular weight between crosslinks. Swelling ratios increased with increasing hemicellulose content and were high at low pH values due to repulsion between similarly charged groups. In vitro release study of a model drug showed that these semi-IPN hydrogels could be used for controlled drug delivery into gastric fluid. The aim of the second part of this study was to control the crosslink density and the mechanical properties of hemicellulose/chitosan semi-IPN hydrogels by changing the crosslinking sequence. It has been hypothesized that by performing the crosslinking step before introducing hemicellulose, covalent crosslinking of chitosan would not be hindered and therefore more and/or shorter crosslinks could be formed. Furthermore, additional secondary interactions and crystalline domains introduced through hemicellulose could be favorable in terms of

  10. Anisotropic dehydration of hydrogel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Cheneler, David; Grover, Liam M; Adams, Michael J; Anastasiadis, Spiros H; Bowen, James

    2017-12-01

    Efforts to develop tissue-engineered skin for regenerative medicine have explored natural, synthetic, and hybrid hydrogels. The creation of a bilayer material, with the stratification exhibited by native skin, is a complex problem. The mechanically robust, waterproof epidermis presents the stratum corneum at the tissue/air interface, which confers many of these protective properties. In this work, we explore the effect of high temperatures on alginate hydrogels, which are widely employed for tissue engineering due to their excellent mechanical properties and cellular compatibility. In particular, we investigate the rapid dehydration of the hydrogel surface which occurs following local exposure to heated surfaces with temperatures in the range 100-200 °C. We report the creation of a mechanically strengthened hydrogel surface, with improved puncture resistance and increased coefficient of friction, compared to an unheated surface. The use of a mechanical restraint during heating promoted differences in the rate of mass loss; the rate of temperature increase within the hydrogel, in the presence and absence of restraint, is simulated and discussed. It is hoped that the results will be of use in the development of processes suitable for preparing skin-like analogues; application areas could include wound healing and skin restoration.

  11. PEGDA hydrogels as a replacement for animal tissues in mucoadhesion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel-Green, Tal; Eliyahu, Shaked; Avidan-Shlomovich, Shlomit; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2016-06-15

    Utilization of animal parts in ex-vivo mucoadhesion assays is a common approach that presents many difficulties due to animal rights issues and large variance between animals. This study examines the suitability of two PEGDA (poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) based hydrogels to serve as tissue mimetics for mucoadhesion evaluation. One hydrogel, termed PEGDA-QT, was composed of pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) and PEG and contained free thiol groups mimicking those found in natural mucosa. The other hydrogel was formed by UV (ultraviolet) curing of PEGDA and mimicked the mechanical property of mucosa but not its chemical constitute. When ranking different first generation mucoadhesive polymers using a tensile assay, both hydrogels showed good agreement with the ranking achieved for porcine small intestine. However, only PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine shared a similar displacement curve. The same ranking for PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine was also observed when comparing a second-generation mucoadhesive polymer, thiolated alginate, to native alginate. Our findings suggest that PEGDA-QT could serve as a replacement for porcine small intestine in both mucoadhesion evaluations using a tensile machine and the flow-through method for first and second-generation mucoadhesive polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thiol functionalized polymethacrylic acid-based hydrogel microparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Vauthier, C; Gueutin, C; Ponchel, G; Sharma, Chandra P

    2010-08-01

    In the present study thiol functionalized polymethacrylic acid-polyethylene glycol-chitosan (PCP)-based hydrogel microparticles were utilized to develop an oral insulin delivery system. Thiol modification was achieved by grafting cysteine to the activated surface carboxyl groups of PCP hydrogels (Cys-PCP). Swelling and insulin loading/release experiments were conducted on these particles. The ability of these particles to inhibit protease enzymes was evaluated under in vitro experimental conditions. Insulin transport experiments were performed on Caco-2 cell monolayers and excised intestinal tissue with an Ussing chamber set-up. Finally, the efficacy of insulin-loaded particles in reducing the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Thiolated hydrogel microparticles showed less swelling and had a lower insulin encapsulation efficiency as compared with unmodified PCP particles. PCP and Cys-PCP microparticles were able to inhibit protease enzymes under in vitro conditions. Thiolation was an effective strategy to improve insulin absorption across Caco-2 cell monolayers, however, the effect was reduced in the experiments using excised rat intestinal tissue. Nevertheless, functionalized microparticles were more effective in eliciting a pharmacological response in diabetic animal, as compared with unmodified PCP microparticles. From these studies thiolation of hydrogel microparticles seems to be a promising approach to improve oral delivery of proteins/peptides. Copyright 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and properties of radiation-induced Starch/(EG-co-MAA hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Abd El-Mohdy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Association of poly(carboxylic acids and non-ionic polymers in solutions via hydrogen bonding results in formation of novel polymeric materials–interpolymer complexes. Starch/(EG-co-MAA polymeric hydrogels were obtained by γ-initiated radiation copolymerization of ethylene glycol (EG with methacrylic acid (MAA which grafted on starch. The gel content of prepared hydrogels was varied with changes in starch content, EG:MAA composition and irradiation dose as well as crosslinking density. The swelling was studied as a function of starch content, EG:MAA composition, irradiation dose, type of soaked liquid, pH and temperature of matrix-surrounding medium. The degree of swelling greatly increased with enhanced MAA content, pH and temperature whereas, it decreased with reduced starch content and irradiation dose. The swelling was varied with the polarity of soaked liquid. The results showed that Starch/(EG-co-MAA hydrogels reached the equilibrium swelling state in water after 72 h. The structure and surface morphology of prepared polymer were confirmed with FTIR and SEM, respectively. The thermal properties of hydrogels were studied by using DSC and TGA, they cleared that there is miscibility between EG and MAA in copolymer and adding them improve the thermal stability of starch. The results indicate that Starch/(EG-co-MAA materials may be used in various applications.

  14. Microscale Bioadhesive Hydrogel Arrays for Cell Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATEL, RAVI GHANSHYAM; PURWADA, ALBERTO; CERCHIETTI, LEANDRO; INGHIRAMI, GIORGIO; MELNICK, ARI; GAHARWAR, AKHILESH K.; SINGH, ANKUR

    2014-01-01

    Bioengineered hydrogels have been explored in cell and tissue engineering applications to support cell growth and modulate its behavior. A rationally designed scaffold should allow for encapsulated cells to survive, adhere, proliferate, remodel the niche, and can be used for controlled delivery of biomolecules. Here we report a microarray of composite bioadhesive microgels with modular dimensions, tunable mechanical properties and bulk modified adhesive biomolecule composition. Composite bioadhesive microgels of maleimide functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG-MAL) with interpenetrating network (IPN) of gelatin ionically cross-linked with silicate nanoparticles were engineered by integrating microfabrication with Michael-type addition chemistry and ionic gelation. By encapsulating clinically relevant anchorage-dependent cervical cancer cells and suspension leukemia cells as cell culture models in these composite microgels, we demonstrate enhanced cell spreading, survival, and metabolic activity compared to control gels. The composite bioadhesive hydrogels represent a platform that could be used to study independent effect of stiffness and adhesive ligand density on cell survival and function. We envision that such microarrays of cell adhesive microenvironments, which do not require harsh chemical and UV crosslinking conditions, will provide a more efficacious cell culture platform that can be used to study cell behavior and survival, function as building blocks to fabricate 3D tissue structures, cell delivery systems, and high throughput drug screening devices. PMID:25328548

  15. Initial evaluation of vascular ingrowth into superporous hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskar, Vandana; Gandhi, Milind; Gemeinhart, Ernest J; Gemeinhart, Richard A

    2009-08-01

    There is a need for new materials and architectures for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Based upon our recent results developing novel scaffold architecture, we hypothesized that this new architecture would foster vascularization, a particular need for tissue engineering. We report on the potential of superporous hydrogel (SPH) scaffolds for in vivo cellular infiltration and vascularization. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) SPH scaffolds were implanted in the dorsum of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and harvested after 4 weeks of in vivo implantation. The SPHs were visibly red and vascularized, as apparent when compared to the non-porous hydrogel controls, which were macroscopically avascular. Host cell infiltration was observed throughout the SPHs. Blood cells and vascular structures, confirmed through staining for CD34 and smooth muscle alpha-actin, were observed throughout the scaffolds. This novel soft material may be utilized for cell transplantation, tissue engineering and in combination with cell therapies. The neovasularization and limited fibrotic response suggest that the architecture may be conducive to cell survival and rapid vessel development.

  16. Nondestructive evaluation of a new hydrolytically degradable and photo-clickable PEG hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Alexander J; Quinn, Timothy; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2016-07-15

    Photopolymerizable and hydrolytically labile poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels formed from photo-clickable reactions were investigated as cell delivery platforms for cartilage tissue engineering (TE). PEG hydrogels were formed from thiol-norbornene PEG macromers whereby the crosslinks contained caprolactone segments with hydrolytically labile ester linkages. Juvenile bovine chondrocytes encapsulated in the hydrogels were cultured for up to four weeks and assessed biochemically and histologically, using standard destructive assays, and for mechanical and ultrasound properties, as nondestructive assays. Bulk degradation of acellular hydrogels was confirmed by a decrease in compressive modulus and an increase in mass swelling ratio over time. Chondrocytes deposited increasing amounts of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and collagens in the hydrogels with time. Spatially, collagen type II and aggrecan were present in the neotissue with formation of a territorial matrix beginning at day 21. Nondestructive measurements revealed an 8-fold increase in compressive modulus from days 7 to 28, which correlated with total collagen content. Ultrasound measurements revealed changes in the constructs over time, which differed from the mechanical properties, and appeared to correlate with ECM structure and organization shown by immunohistochemical analysis. Overall, non-destructive and destructive measurements show that this new hydrolytically degradable PEG hydrogel is promising for cartilage TE. Designing synthetic hydrogels whose degradation matches tissue growth is critical to maintaining mechanical integrity as the hydrogel degrades and new tissue forms, but is challenging due to the nature of the hydrogel crosslinks that inhibit diffusion of tissue matrix molecules. This study details a promising, new, photo-clickable and synthetic hydrogel whose degradation supports cartilaginous tissue matrix growth leading to the formation of a territorial matrix, concomitant with an

  17. Poly(2-oxazoline) hydrogels as next generation three-dimensional cell supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaville, Tim R; Hollier, Brett G; Shokoohmand, Ali; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic hydrogels selectively decorated with cell adhesion motifs are rapidly emerging as promising substrates for 3D cell culture. When cells are grown in 3D they experience potentially more physiologically relevant cell–cell interactions and physical cues compared with traditional 2D cell culture on stiff surfaces. A newly developed polymer based on poly(2-oxazoline)s has been used for the first time to control attachment of fibroblast cells and is discussed here for its potential use in 3D cell culture with particular focus on cancer cells toward the ultimate aim of high-throughput screening of anticancer therapies. Advantages and limitations of using poly(2-oxazoline) hydrogels are discussed and compared with more established polymers, especially polyethylene glycol (PEG). PMID:24714592

  18. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pickenheim, B. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); BIBLER, N. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.

  19. Electrochemical characterization of hydrogels for biomimetic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peláez, L.; Romero, V.; Escalera, S.

    2011-01-01

    ) or a photoinitiator (P) to encapsulate and stabilize biomimetic membranes for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications. In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of the hydrogels used for membrane encapsulation. Specifically, we studied the crosslinked hydrogels by using...... electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and we demonstrated that chemically crosslinked hydrogels had lower values for the effective electrical resistance and higher values for the electrical capacitance compared with hydrogels with photoinitiated crosslinking. Transport numbers were obtained using......〉 and 〈Pw〉 values than PEG‐1000‐DMA‐P and PEG‐400‐DA‐P hydrogels. In conclusion, our results show that hydrogel electrochemical properties can be controlled by the choice of polymer and type of crosslinking used and that their water and salt permeability properties are congruent with the use of hydrogels...

  20. [Thromboresistance of glucose-containing hydrogels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuev, I L; Valuev, L I; Vanchugova, L V; Obydennova, I V; Valueva, T A

    2013-01-01

    The thromboresistance of glucose-sensitive polymer hydrogels, modeling one of the functions of the pancreas, namely, the ability to secrete insulin in response to the introduction of glucose into the environment, has been studied. Hydrogels were synthesized by the copolymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate with N-acryloyl glucosamine in the presence of a cross-linking agent and subsequently treated with concanavalin A. Introduction of glucose residues into the hydrogel did not result in significant changes in either the number of trombocytes adhered to the hydrogel or the degree of denaturation of blood plasma proteins interacting with the hydrogel. Consequently, the biological activity of insulin did not change after release from the hydrogel. The use of glucose-sensitive hydrogels is supposed to contribute to the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes.

  1. Transient rheology of stimuli responsive hydrogels: Integrating microrheology and microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have diverse potential applications in the field of drug delivery, tissue engineering, agriculture, cosmetics, gene therapy, and as sensors and actuators due to their unique responsiveness to external signals, such as pH, temperature, and ionic strength. Understanding the responsiveness of hydrogel structure and rheology to these stimuli is essential for designing materials with desirable performance. However, no instrumentation and well-defined methodology are available to characterize the structural and rheological responses to rapid solvent changes. In this thesis, a new microrheology set-up is described, which allows us to quantitatively measure the transient rheological properties and microstructure of a variety of solvent-responsive complex fluids. The device was constructed by integrating particle tracking microrheology and microfluidics and offers unique experimental capabilities for performing solvent-reponse measurements on soft fragile materials without applying external shear forces. Transient analysis methods to quantitatively obtain rheological properties were also constructed, and guidelines for the trade-off between statistical validity and temporal resolution were developed to accurately capture physical transitions. Employing the new device and methodology, we successfully quantified the transient rheological and microstructural responses during gel formation and break-up, and viscosity changes of solvent-responsive complex fluids. The analysis method was expanded for heterogeneous samples, incorporating methods to quantify the microrheology of samples with broad distributions of individual particle dynamics. Transient microrheology measurements of fragile, heterogeneous, self-assembled block copolypeptide hydrogels revealed that solvent exchange via convective mixing and dialysis can lead to significantly different gel properties and that commonly applied sample preparation protocols for the characterization of soft

  2. Hydrogels and their medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Yoshii, Fumio

    1999-05-01

    Biomaterials play a key role in most approaches for engineering tissues as substitutes for functional replacement, for components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis, for drug delivery systems and supportive scaffolds for guided tissue growth. Modern biomaterials could be composed of various components, e.g. metals, ceramics, natural tissues, polymers. In this last group, the hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric gels with requested biocompatibility and designed interaction with living surrounding seem to be one of the most promising group of biomaterials. Especially, if they are formed by means of ionizing radiation. In early 1950s, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking of hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of the phenomenon associated with radiation synthesis, with topology of network and relation between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by A. Charlesby (Atomic Radition and polymers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1960) and A. Chapiro (Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems, Interscience, New York, 1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in the application of radiation techniques to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents invented by Japanese and American scientists, headed by Kaetsu in Japan and Hoffman in USA. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as the modification of material surfaces to improve biocompatibility and their ability to bond antigens and antibodies had been the main subjects of these investigations. In this article a brief summary of investigations on mechanism and kinetics of radiation formation of hydrogels as well as some examples of commercialized hydrogel biomaterials have been

  3. Hydrogels and their medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Yoshii, Fumio

    1999-01-01

    Biomaterials play a key role in most approaches for engineering tissues as substitutes for functional replacement, for components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis, for drug delivery systems and supportive scaffolds for guided tissue growth. Modern biomaterials could be composed of various components, e.g. metals, ceramics, natural tissues, polymers. In this last group, the hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric gels with requested biocompatibility and designed interaction with living surrounding seem to be one of the most promising group of biomaterials. Especially, if they are formed by means of ionizing radiation. In early 1950s, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking of hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of the phenomenon associated with radiation synthesis, with topology of network and relation between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by A. Charlesby (Atomic Radition and polymers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1960) and A. Chapiro (Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems, Interscience, New York, 1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in the application of radiation techniques to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents invented by Japanese and American scientists, headed by Kaetsu in Japan and Hoffman in USA. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as the modification of material surfaces to improve biocompatibility and their ability to bond antigens and antibodies had been the main subjects of these investigations. In this article a brief summary of investigations on mechanism and kinetics of radiation formation of hydrogels as well as some examples of commercialized hydrogel biomaterials have been

  4. Shape-Memory Hydrogels: Evolution of Structural Principles To Enable Shape Switching of Hydrophilic Polymer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenberg, Candy; Balk, Maria; Wischke, Christian; Behl, Marc; Lendlein, Andreas

    2017-04-18

    The ability of hydrophilic chain segments in polymer networks to strongly interact with water allows the volumetric expansion of the material and formation of a hydrogel. When polymer chain segments undergo reversible hydration depending on environmental conditions, smart hydrogels can be realized, which are able to shrink/swell and thus alter their volume on demand. In contrast, implementing the capacity of hydrogels to switch their shape rather than volume demands more sophisticated chemical approaches and structural concepts. In this Account, the principles of hydrogel network design, incorporation of molecular switches, and hydrogel microstructures are summarized that enable a spatially directed actuation of hydrogels by a shape-memory effect (SME) without major volume alteration. The SME involves an elastic deformation (programming) of samples, which are temporarily fixed by reversible covalent or physical cross-links resulting in a temporary shape. The material can reverse to the original shape when these molecular switches are affected by application of a suitable stimulus. Hydrophobic shape-memory polymers (SMPs), which are established with complex functions including multiple or reversible shape-switching, may provide inspiration for the molecular architecture of shape-memory hydrogels (SMHs), but cannot be identically copied in the world of hydrophilic soft materials. For instance, fixation of the temporary shape requires cross-links to be formed also in an aqueous environment, which may not be realized, for example, by crystalline domains from the hydrophilic main chains as these may dissolve in presence of water. Accordingly, dual-shape hydrogels have evolved, where, for example, hydrophobic crystallizable side chains have been linked into hydrophilic polymer networks to act as temperature-sensitive temporary cross-links. By incorporating a second type of such side chains, triple-shape hydrogels can be realized. Considering the typically given light

  5. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Wei, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from SS surfaces for marine antifouling. • All brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of biofouling. • The antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density of hydrogels. - Abstract: Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  6. A novel vehicle for local protein delivery to the inner ear: injectable and biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Long, Wei; Liang, Zhongping; Wen, Lu; Yang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Delivery of biomacromolecular drugs into the inner ear is challenging, mainly because of their inherent instability as well as physiological and anatomical barriers. Therefore, protein-friendly, hydrogel-based delivery systems following local administration are being developed for inner ear therapy. Herein, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) containing interferon α-2 b (IFN α-2 b) were loaded in chitosan/glycerophosphate (CS/GP)-based thermosensitive hydrogel for IFN delivery by intratympanic injection. The injectable hydrogel possessed a physiological pH and formed semi-solid gel at 37 °C, with good swelling and deswelling properties. The CS/GP hydrogel could slowly degrade as visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of NPs in CS/GP gel largely influenced in vitro drug release. In the guinea pig cochlea, a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in the drug exposure time of NPs-CS/GP was found than those of the solution, NPs and IFN-loaded hydrogel. Most importantly, a prolonged residence time was attained without obvious histological changes in the inner ear. This biodegradable, injectable, and thermosensitive NPs-CS/GP system may allow longer delivery of protein drugs to the inner ear, thus may be a potential novel vehicle for inner ear therapy.

  7. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingjing, E-mail: jjwang1@hotmail.com; Wei, Jun

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from SS surfaces for marine antifouling. • All brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of biofouling. • The antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density of hydrogels. - Abstract: Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  8. An interpenetrating HA/G/CS biomimic hydrogel via Diels-Alder click chemistry for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feng; Cao, Xiaodong; Zeng, Lei; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2013-08-14

    In order to mimic the natural cartilage extracellular matrix, a novel biological degradable interpenetrating network hydrogel was synthesized from the gelatin (G), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) by Diels-Alder "click" chemistry. HA was modified with furylamine and G was modified with furancarboxylic acid respectively. (1)H NMR spectra and elemental analysis showed that the substitution degrees of HA-furan and G-furan were 71.5% and 44.5%. Then the hydrogels were finally synthesized by cross-linking furan-modified HA and G derivatives with dimaleimide poly(ethylene glycol) (MAL-PEG-MAL). The mechanical and degradation properties of the hydrogels could be tuned simply through varying the molar ratio between furan and maleimide. Rheological, mechanical and degradation studies demonstrated that the Diels-Alder "click" chemistry is an efficient method for preparing high performance biological interpenetrating hydrogels. This biomimic hydrogel with improved mechanical properties could have great potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  10. Biosynthetic mechanism of glycolate in Chromatium, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Sumio; Takabe, Tetsuo; Akazawa, Takashi

    1977-01-01

    The metabolic transformation of glycolate to glycine occurring in photosynthesizing cells of Chromatium was investigated by the radioisotopic technique and by amino acid analysis. By analyzing the distribution of radiocarbon upon feeding (1- 14 C) glycolate, (2- 14 C) glyoxylate and (1- 14 C) glycine to bacterial cells, it was demonstrated that glycolate is converted to glycine via glyoxylate, and both glycolate and glycine are excreted extracellularly. Although the formation of serine was barely detected by the above two techniques in both N 2 and O 2 atmospheres, it was found that 14 CO 2 is evolved quite markedly from both (1- 14 C) glycolate and (1- 14 C) glycine fed to the Chromatium cells. Analytical results of transient changes in amino acid compositions under atmospheric changes of N 2 →O 2 and by the addition of exogenous glycolate in N 2 confirm the notion that glycolate is converted to glycine. Acidic amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid) appear to take part in glycine formation as amino donors. The formation of glycine from glycolate in a N 2 atmosphere suggests that an unknown glycolate dehydrogenation reaction may operate in the overall process. (auth.)

  11. Ethylene Glycol, Hazardous Substance in the Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Patočka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment.

  12. Geometric effect of the hydrogel grid structure on in vitro formation of homogeneous MIN6 cell clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chae Yun; Min, Mun-kyeong; Kim, Hail; Park, Je-Kyun

    2014-07-07

    A microstructure-based hydrogel was employed to study the relationship between spatial specificity and cellular behavior, including cell fate, proliferation, morphology, and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. To effectively form homogeneous cell clusters in vitro, we made cell-containing hydrogel membrane constructs with an adapted grid structure based on a hexagonal micropattern. Homogeneous cell clusters (average diameter: 83.6 ± 14.2 μm) of pancreatic insulinoma (MIN6) cells were spontaneously generated in the floating hydrogel membrane constructs, including a hexagonal grid structure (size of cavity: 100 μm, interval between cavities: 30 μm). Interestingly, 3D clustering of MIN6 cells mimicking the structure of pancreatic islets was coalesced into a merged aggregate attaching to each hexagonal cavity of the hydrogel grid structure. The fate and insulin secretion of homogeneous cell clusters in the hydrogel grid structure were also assessed. The results of these designable hydrogel-cell membrane constructs suggest that facultative in vitro β-cell proliferation and maintenance can be applied to biofunctional assessments.

  13. Supramolecular hydrogel formation between chitosan and hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin via Diels-Alder reaction and its drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengke; Wang, Jinpeng; Jin, Zhengyu

    2018-07-15

    Chitosan-cyclodextrin hydrogel (CFCD) was prepared via Diels-Alder reaction between furfural functionalized chitosan (CF) and N-maleoyl alanine functionalized hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPCD-AMI) in aqueous media without any catalyst or initiator. The CF and HPCD-AMI were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The resultant CFCD hydrogel was characterized in terms of thermal peripteries, microstructure, rheology behavior, and swelling capacity. The rheology analysis found that the storage modulus G' ranged from 1pa to 1200pa as the degree of furfural substitute on chitosan increased from 2.6% to 28.3%, indicating the hydrogel strength can be tuned readily by reaction stoichiometry. The swelling behaviors proved that CFCD hydrogel was pH-responsive with low swelling capacity, which would be preferable for drug delivery. Drug adsorption analysis showed the introduction of cyclodextrin into CFCD hydrogels promoted drug adsorption capacity. In addition, methyl orange cumulative release in PBS buffer was only 48.85% after 24h, suggesting CFCD hydrogel had good sustained release capacity on the loaded drug. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of semi- and grafted interpenetrating polymer networks based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaghiele, Marta; Marotta, Francesco; Demitri, Christian; Montagna, Francesco; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Sannino, Alessandro

    2014-12-30

    The objective of this work was to develop composite hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and collagen (Coll), potentially useful for biomedical applications. Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) were obtained by photo-stabilizing aqueous solutions of PEGDA and acrylic acid (AA), in the presence of collagen. Further grafting of the collagen macromolecules to the PEGDA/poly(AA) network was achieved by means of a carbodiimide-mediated crosslinking reaction. The resulting hydrogels were characterized in terms of swelling capability, collagen content and mechanical properties. The grafting procedure was found to significantly improve the mechanical stability of the IPN hydrogels, due to the establishment of covalent bonding between the PEGDA/poly(AA) and the collagen networks. The suitability of the composite hydrogels to be processed by means of stereolithography (SLA) was also investigated, toward creating biomimetic constructs with complex shapes, which might be useful either as platforms for tissue engineering applications or as tissue mimicking phantoms.

  15. Poly(acrylic acid)/polyethylene glycol hygrogel prepared by using gamma-ray irradiation for mucosa adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Park, Jong-Seok; Shin, Jung-Woong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Gwon, Hui-Jeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Khil, Myung-Seob [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Deok-Won [Maxillofacial Surgery Dental Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung-Jun [JADAM Co., LTD., Seogwipo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    A buccal delivery system provides a much milder environment for drug delivery compared to an oral delivery which presents a hostile environment for drugs, especially proteins and polypeptides, owing to acid hydrolysis. Local delivery in an oral cavity has particular applications in the treatment of toothaches, periodontal disease, and bacterial infections. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-based hydrogels prepared using a chemical initiator have been attempted for a mucoadhesive system owing to their flexibility and excellent bioadhesion. In this experiment, PAA and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were selected to prepare using a radiation process a bioadhesive hydrogel for adhesion to mucosal surfaces. PAA and PEG were dissolved in purified water to prepare a homogeneous PAA/PEG solution, and the solution was then irradiated using an electron beam at dose up to 70 kGy to make the hydrogels. Their physical properties, such as gel percent, swelling percent, and adhesive strength to mucosal surfaces, were investigated. In this experiment, various amounts of PEG were incorporated into the PAA to enhance the mucoadhesive property of the hydrogels. The effect of the molecular weight of PEG on the mucoadhesion was also examined.

  16. Modulation of Huh7.5 spheroid formation and functionality using modified PEG-based hydrogels of different stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available Physical cues, such as cell microenvironment stiffness, are known to be important factors in modulating cellular behaviors such as differentiation, viability, and proliferation. Apart from being able to trigger these effects, mechanical stiffness tuning is a very convenient approach that could be implemented readily into smart scaffold designs. In this study, fibrinogen-modified poly(ethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA based hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties were synthesized and applied to control the spheroid formation and liver-like function of encapsulated Huh7.5 cells in an engineered, three-dimensional liver tissue model. By controlling hydrogel stiffness (0.1-6 kPa as a cue for mechanotransduction representing different stiffness of a normal liver and a diseased cirrhotic liver, spheroids ranging from 50 to 200 μm were formed over a three week time-span. Hydrogels with better compliance (i.e. lower stiffness promoted formation of larger spheroids. The highest rates of cell proliferation, albumin secretion, and CYP450 expression were all observed for spheroids in less stiff hydrogels like a normal liver in a healthy state. We also identified that the hydrogel modification by incorporation of PEGylated-fibrinogen within the hydrogel matrix enhanced cell survival and functionality possibly owing to more binding of autocrine fibronectin. Taken together, our findings establish guidelines to control the formation of Huh7.5 cell spheroids in modified PEGDA based hydrogels. These spheroids may serve as models for applications such as screening of pharmacological drug candidates.

  17. Development of polymer-polysaccharide hydrogels for controlling drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Aaron David

    The use of polymers as biomaterials has evolved over the past several decades, encompassing an expanding synthetic toolbox and many bio-mimetic approaches. Both synthetic and natural polymers have been used as components for biomaterials as their unique chemical structures can provide specific functions for desired applications. Of these materials, heparin, a highly sulfated naturally occurring polysaccharide, has been investigated extensively as a core component in drug delivery platforms and tissue engineering. The goal of this work was to further explore the use of heparin via conjugation with synthetic polymers for applications in drug delivery. We begin by investigating low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), a depolymerized heparin that is used medicinally in the prevention of thrombosis by subcutaneous injection or intravenous drip. Certain disease states or disorders require frequent administration with invasive delivery modalities leading to compliance issues for individuals on prolonged therapeutic courses. To address these issues, a long-term delivery method was developed for LMWH via subcutaneous injection of in situ hydrogelators. This therapy was accomplished by chemical modification of LMWH with maleimide functionality so that it may be crosslinked into continuous hydrogel networks with four-arm thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH). These hydrogels degrade via hydrolysis over a period of weeks and release bioactive LMWH with first-order kinetics as determined by in vitro and in vivo models, thus indicating the possibility of an alternative means of heparin delivery over current accepted methodologies. Evaluation of the maleimide-thiol chemistries applied in the LMWH hydrogels revealed reversibility for some conjugates under reducing conditions. Addition chemistries, such as maleimide-thiol reactions, are widely employed in biological conjugates and are generally accepted as stable. Here we show that the resulting succinimide thioether formed by the

  18. Laminin Peptide-Immobilized Hydrogels Modulate Valve Endothelial Cell Hemostatic Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezl Rae Balaoing

    Full Text Available Valve endothelial cells (VEC have unique phenotypic responses relative to other types of vascular endothelial cells and have highly sensitive hemostatic functions affected by changes in valve tissues. Furthermore, effects of environmental factors on VEC hemostatic function has not been characterized. This work used a poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA hydrogel platform to evaluate the effects of substrate stiffness and cell adhesive ligands on VEC phenotype and expression of hemostatic genes. Hydrogels of molecular weights (MWs 3.4, 8, and 20 kDa were polymerized into platforms of different rigidities and thiol-modified cell adhesive peptides were covalently bound to acrylate groups on the hydrogel surfaces. The peptide RKRLQVQLSIRT (RKR is a syndecan-1 binding ligand derived from laminin, a trimeric protein and a basement membrane matrix component. Conversely, RGDS is an integrin binding peptide found in many extracellular matrix (ECM proteins including fibronectin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor (VWF. VECs adhered to and formed a stable monolayer on all RKR-coated hydrogel-MW combinations. RGDS-coated platforms supported VEC adhesion and growth on RGDS-3.4 kDa and RGDS-8 kDa hydrogels. VECs cultured on the softer RKR-8 kDa and RKR-20 kDa hydrogel platforms had significantly higher gene expression for all anti-thrombotic (ADAMTS-13, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and tissue plasminogen activator and thrombotic (VWF, tissue factor, and P-selectin proteins than VECs cultured on RGDS-coated hydrogels and tissue culture polystyrene controls. Stimulated VECs promoted greater platelet adhesion than non-stimulated VECs on their respective culture condition; yet stimulated VECs on RGDS-3.4 kDa gels were not as responsive to stimulation relative to the RKR-gel groups. Thus, the syndecan binding, laminin-derived peptide promoted stable VEC adhesion on the softer hydrogels and maintained VEC phenotype and natural hemostatic function. In

  19. Fabrication of micropatterned hydrogels for neural culture systems using dynamic mask projection photolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, J Lowry; Jennings, Scott R; Moore, Michael J

    2011-02-11

    Increasingly, patterned cell culture environments are becoming a relevant technique to study cellular characteristics, and many researchers believe in the need for 3D environments to represent in vitro experiments which better mimic in vivo qualities. Studies in fields such as cancer research, neural engineering, cardiac physiology, and cell-matrix interaction have shown cell behavior differs substantially between traditional monolayer cultures and 3D constructs. Hydrogels are used as 3D environments because of their variety, versatility and ability to tailor molecular composition through functionalization. Numerous techniques exist for creation of constructs as cell-supportive matrices, including electrospinning, elastomer stamps, inkjet printing, additive photopatterning, static photomask projection-lithography, and dynamic mask microstereolithography. Unfortunately, these methods involve multiple production steps and/or equipment not readily adaptable to conventional cell and tissue culture methods. The technique employed in this protocol adapts the latter two methods, using a digital micromirror device (DMD) to create dynamic photomasks for crosslinking geometrically specific poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels, induced through UV initiated free radical polymerization. The resulting "2.5D" structures provide a constrained 3D environment for neural growth. We employ a dual-hydrogel approach, where PEG serves as a cell-restrictive region supplying structure to an otherwise shapeless but cell-permissive self-assembling gel made from either Puramatrix or agarose. The process is a quick simple one step fabrication which is highly reproducible and easily adapted for use with conventional cell culture methods and substrates. Whole tissue explants, such as embryonic dorsal root ganglia (DRG), can be incorporated into the dual hydrogel constructs for experimental assays such as neurite outgrowth. Additionally, dissociated cells can be encapsulated in the

  20. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickenheim, B. R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bibler, N. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hay, M. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-08

    This document has been revised due to recent information that the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments contains both formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in earlier revisions. Additional data concerning the properties of glycolic acid have also been added to this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in Technical Grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.033 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process. It has been cited that glycolic acid

  1. Fabrication of keratin-silica hydrogel for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Madhan, Balaraman, E-mail: bmadhan76@yahoo.co.in

    2016-09-01

    In the recent past, keratin has been fabricated into different forms of biomaterials like scaffold, gel, sponge, film etc. In lieu of the myriad advantages of the hydrogels for biomedical applications, a keratin-silica hydrogel was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Textural analysis shed light on the physical properties of the fabricated hydrogel, inturn enabling the optimization of the hydrogel. The optimized keratin-silica hydrogel was found to exhibit instant springiness, optimum hardness, with ease of spreadability. Moreover, the hydrogel showed excellent swelling with highly porous microarchitecture. MTT assay and DAPI staining revealed that keratin-silica hydrogel was biocompatible with fibroblast cells. Collectively, these properties make the fabricated keratin-silica hydrogel, a suitable dressing material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Keratin-silica hydrogel has been fabricated using sol–gel technique. • The hydrogel shows appropriate textural properties. • The hydrogel promotes fibroblast cells proliferation. • The hydrogel has potential soft tissue engineering applications like wound healing.

  2. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels for iontohporesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Prasanta; Alam, Asif Ali; Arora, Neha; Tibarewala, Dewaki Nandan; Basak, Piyali

    2013-06-01

    Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. The iontophoresis deal with the systemic delivery of the bioactive agents (drug) by applying an electric current. It is basically an injection without the needle. The iontophoretic system requires a gel-based matrix to accommodate the bioactive agent. Hydrogels have been used by many investigators in controlled-release drug delivery systems because of their good tissue compatibility and easy manipulation of swelling level and, thereby, solute permeability. In this work we have prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We have cross linked polyvinyl alcohol chemically with Glutaraldehyde with different wt%. FTIR study reveals the chemical changes during cross linking. Swelling in water, is done to have an idea about drug loading and drug release from the membrane. After drug loading to the hydrogels, we have studied the drug release property of the hydrogels using salicylic acid as a model drug.

  3. Engineering the bone-ligament interface using polyethylene glycol diacrylate incorporated with hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Jennifer Z; Donnelly, Kenneth; Keatch, Robert P; Baar, Keith

    2009-06-01

    Ligaments and tendons have previously been tissue engineered. However, without the bone attachment, implantation of a tissue-engineered ligament would require it to be sutured to the remnant of the injured native tissue. Due to slow repair and remodeling, this would result in a chronically weak tissue that may never return to preinjury function. In contrast, orthopaedic autograft reconstruction of the ligament often uses a bone-to-bone technique for optimal repair. Since bone-to-bone repairs heal better than other methods, implantation of an artificial ligament should also occur from bone-to-bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel incorporated with hydroxyapatite (HA) and the cell-adhesion peptide RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) as a material for creating an in vitro tissue interface to engineer intact ligaments (i.e., bone-ligament-bone). Incorporation of HA into PEG hydrogels reduced the swelling ratio but increased mechanical strength and stiffness of the hydrogels. Further, HA addition increased the capacity for cell growth and interface formation. RGD incorporation increased the swelling ratio but decreased mechanical strength and stiffness of the material. Optimum levels of cell attachment were met using a combination of both HA and RGD, but this material had no better mechanical properties than PEG alone. Although adherence of the hydrogels containing HA was achieved, failure occurs at about 4 days with 5% HA. Increasing the proportion of HA improved interface formation; however, with high levels of HA, the PEG HA composite became brittle. This data suggests that HA, by itself or with other materials, might be well suited for engineering the ligament-bone interface.

  4. The effect of glutathione as chain transfer agent in PNIPAAm-based thermo-responsive hydrogels for controlled release of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapala, Pawel W; Jiang, Bin; Chiu, Yu-Chieh; Mieler, William F; Brey, Eric M; Kang-Mieler, Jennifer J; Pérez-Luna, Victor H

    2014-03-01

    To control degradation and protein release using thermo-responsive hydrogels for localized delivery of anti-angiogenic proteins. Thermo-responsive hydrogels derived from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol)-co-(L-lactic acid) diacrylate (Acry-PLLA-b-PEG-b-PLLA-Acry) were synthesized via free radical polymerization in the presence of glutathione, a chain transfer agent (CTA) added to modulate their degradation and release properties. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the recombinant proteins Avastin® and Lucentis® were encapsulated in these hydrogels and their release was studied. The encapsulation efficiency of IgG was high (75-87%) and decreased with CTA concentration. The transition temperature of these hydrogels was below physiological temperature, which is important for minimally invasive therapies involving these materials. The toxicity from unreacted monomers and free radical initiators was eliminated with a minimum of three buffer extractions. Addition of CTA accelerated degradation and resulted in complete protein release. Glutathione caused the degradation products to become solubilized even at 37°C. Hydrogels prepared without glutathione did not disintegrate nor released protein completely after 3 weeks at 37°C. PEGylation of IgG postponed the burst release effect. Avastin® and Lucentis® released from degraded hydrogels retained their biological activity. These systems offer a promising platform for the localized delivery of proteins.

  5. A novel platelet lysate hydrogel for endothelial cell and mesenchymal stem cell-directed neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Scott T; Douglas, Alison M; Chadid, Tatiana; Kuo, Katie; Rajabalan, Ajai; Li, Haiyan; Copland, Ian B; Barker, Thomas H; Galipeau, Jacques; Brewster, Luke P

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) hold promise in promoting vascular regeneration of ischemic tissue in conditions like critical limb ischemia of the leg. However, this approach has been limited in part by poor cell retention and survival after delivery. New biomaterials offer an opportunity to localize cells to the desired tissue after delivery, but also to improve cell survival after delivery. Here we characterize the mechanical and microstructural properties of a novel hydrogel composed of pooled human platelet lysate (PL) and test its ability to promote MSC angiogenic activity using clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo models. This PL hydrogel had comparable storage and loss modulus and behaved as a viscoelastic solid similar to fibrin hydrogels despite having 1/4-1/10th the fibrin content of standard fibrin gels. Additionally, PL hydrogels enabled sustained release of endogenous PDGF-BB for up to 20days and were resistant to protease degradation. PL hydrogel stimulated pro-angiogenic activity by promoting human MSC growth and invasion in a 3D environment, and enhancing endothelial cell sprouting alone and in co-culture with MSCs. When delivered in vivo, the combination of PL and human MSCs improved local tissue perfusion after 8days compared to controls when assessed with laser Doppler perfusion imaging in a murine model of hind limb ischemia. These results support the use of a PL hydrogel as a scaffold for MSC delivery to promote vascular regeneration. Innovative strategies for improved retention and viability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are needed for cellular therapies. Human platelet lysate is a potent serum supplement that improves the expansion of MSCs. Here we characterize our novel PL hydrogel's desirable structural and biologic properties for human MSCs and endothelial cells. PL hydrogel can localize cells for retention in the desired tissue, improves cell viability, and augments MSCs' angiogenic activity. As a result of these unique traits, PL

  6. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar epithelium and local fibroblasts has been implicated in the progression of several pulmonary diseases. However, given the complexity of alveolar tissue architecture and the multitude of signaling pathways involved, designing appropriate experimental platforms for this biological system has been difficult. In order to isolate key factors regulating cellular behavior, the researcher ideally should have control over biophysical properties of the ECM, as well as the ability to organize multiple cell types within the scaffold. This thesis aimed to develop a 3D synthetic hydrogel platform to control alveolar epithelial cyst formation, which could then be used to explore how extracellular cues influence cell behavior in a tissue-relevant cellular arrangement. To accomplish this, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network containing enzymatically-degradable crosslinks and bioadhesive pendant peptides was employed as a base material for encapsulating primary alveolar epithelial cells. First, an array of microwells of various cross-sectional shapes was photopatterned into a PEG gel containing photo-labile crosslinks, and primary ATII cells were seeded into the wells to examine the role of geometric confinement on differentiation and multicellular arrangement

  7. Bio-inspired layered chitosan/graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogels with high strength and pH-driven shape memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqian; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Haoyang; Shi, Jinli; Li, Feibo; Xia, Yanhong; Zhang, Gongzheng; Li, Huanjun

    2017-12-01

    The layered nanocomposite hydrogel films containing chitosan (CS) and graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by water evaporation induced self-assembly and subsequent physical cross-linking in alkaline solution. The layered CS/GO hydrogel films obtained have a nacre-like brick-and-mortar microstructure, which contributes to their excellent mechanical properties. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the hydrogel films with 5wt% GO are 5.35MPa and 193.5%, respectively, which are comparable to natural costal cartilage. Furthermore, the CS/GO hydrogel films exhibited pH-driven shape memory effect, and this unique phenomenon is mainly attributed to the reversible transition of partial physically cross-linking corresponding to hydrogen bondings and hydrophobic interactions between CS polymer chains due to pH changing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  9. The release behavior and kinetic evaluation of tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked Ter polymeric hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malana, Muhammad A; Zohra, Rubab

    2013-01-18

    Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels. Ter-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol% EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n) derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n > 0.5 > 1) showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled release capability of the systems indicate that these co-polymeric hydrogels have a great potential to

  10. An Optimized Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold Supports Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Viability and Spreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HyStem-C™ is a commercially available injectable hydrogel composed of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA, hyaluronan (HA, and gelatin (Gn. These components can be mechanically tuned to enhance cell viability and spreading. Methods. The concentration of PEGDA with an added disulfide bond (PEGSSDA was varied from 0.5 to 8.0% (w/v to determine the optimal concentration for injectable clinical application. We evaluated the cell viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs embedded in 2% (w/v PEGSSDA-HA-Gn hydrogels. Volume ratios of HA : Gn from 100 : 0 to 25 : 75 were varied to encourage hDPSC spreading. Fibronectin (Fn was added to our model to determine the effect of extracellular matrix protein concentration on hDPSC behavior. Results. Our preliminary data suggests that the hydrogel gelation time decreased as the PEGSSDA cross-linker concentration increased. The PEGSSDA-HA-Gn was biocompatible with hDPSCs, and increased ratios of HA : Gn enhanced cell viability for 14 days. Additionally, cell proliferation with added fibronectin increased significantly over time at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μg/mL in PEGDA-HA-Gn hydrogels, while cell spreading significantly increased at Fn concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that PEG-based injectable hydrogels maintain hDPSC viability and facilitate cell spreading, mainly in the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins.

  11. Radiologic Findings in Hydrated Hydrogel Buckles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Bok; Lee, Nam Ho; Jo, Young Joon; Kim, Jung Yeul; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Song Soo

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogel buckles, which are used in scleral buckling surgery for retinal detachment, have been associated with late complications after successful retinal reattachment surgery, including strabismus, extraocular motility restriction, extrusion through the eyelid or conjunctiva, intraocular erosion, and scleral erosion. Hydrogel buckles sometimes appear as well-marginated, circumferential, lobulating, contoured cystic masses mimicking orbital cysts on orbital CT or MRI. We report the radiologic findings in 5 patients whose hydrogel buckles needed to be differentiated from orbital cysts

  12. Radiologic Findings in Hydrated Hydrogel Buckles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Bok; Lee, Nam Ho; Jo, Young Joon; Kim, Jung Yeul; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Song Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Hydrogel buckles, which are used in scleral buckling surgery for retinal detachment, have been associated with late complications after successful retinal reattachment surgery, including strabismus, extraocular motility restriction, extrusion through the eyelid or conjunctiva, intraocular erosion, and scleral erosion. Hydrogel buckles sometimes appear as well-marginated, circumferential, lobulating, contoured cystic masses mimicking orbital cysts on orbital CT or MRI. We report the radiologic findings in 5 patients whose hydrogel buckles needed to be differentiated from orbital cysts.

  13. Polysaccharides as Hydrogel and Bioplastics. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Sarada Idris; Norzita Yacob; Maznah Mahmud

    2017-01-01

    The use of radiation technology in producing hydrogel is increasingly popular nowadays. The hydrogel which produce through the radiation method has it own advantages. For example, easy to operate, reduce the cost production and also decrease the harmful chemical usage such as monomer. The cross-linking bonds which has been produced this hydrogel during the irradiation process can be controlled by the radiation dosage even though using the same material and composition.

  14. Self-assembled high-strength hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide/chitosan composite hydrogel for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Bao, Rui-Ying; Shi, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Wei; Yang, Ming-Bo

    2017-01-02

    Graphene hydrogel has shown greatly potentials in bone tissue engineering recently, but it is relatively weak in the practical use. Here we report a facile method to synthesize high strength composite graphene hydrogel. Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) and chitosan (CS) self-assemble into a 3-dimensional hydrogel with the assistance of crosslinking agent genipin (GNP) for CS and reducing agent sodium ascorbate (NaVC) for GO simultaneously. The dense and oriented microstructure of the resulted composite gel endows it with high mechanical strength, high fixing capacity of HA and high porosity. These properties together with the good biocompatibility make the ternary composite gel a promising material for bone tissue engineering. Such a simultaneous crosslinking and reduction strategy can also be applied to produce a variety of 3D graphene-polymer based nanocomposites for biomaterials, energy storage materials and adsorbent materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-membrane chitosan hydrogels as chondrocytic cell bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladet, S G; Tahiri, K; Montembault, A S; Domard, A J; Corvol, M-T M

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the bioactivity of new chitosan-based multi-membrane hydrogel (MMH) architectures towards chondrocyte-like cells. The microstructure of the hydrogels constituting the membranes precludes any living cell penetration, whereas their lower scale architecture allows the protein diffusion. The biological behavior of chondrocytes implanted within the MMH inter-membrane spaces was studied for 45 days in culture. Chondrocytes formed cell aggregates and proliferated without loosing their chondrogenic phenotype as illustrated by collagen II and aggrecan expressions at the mRNA and protein levels. Cells produced neo-formed alcyan blue matrix proteins filling MMH interspaces. The HiF-2α/SOX9 pattern of expression suggested that the elevated chondrocytic phenotype in MMH could be related to a better hypoxic local environment than in classical culture conditions. Pro-inflammatory markers were not expressed during the period of culture. The low level of nitric oxide accumulation within the inter-membrane spaces and in the incubation medium implied that chitosan consumed nitrites produced by entrapped chondrocytes, in relation with the decrease of its molecular weight of 50%. Our data suggest that MMH structures may be considered as complex chondrocytic cell bioreactors; "active decoys of biological media", potentially promising for various biomedical applications like the inter-vertebral disk replacement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Symbiosis of zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks (rho-ZMOF) and hydrogels: Composites for controlled drug release

    KAUST Repository

    Ananthoji, Ramakanth

    2011-01-01

    The design and synthesis of new finely tunable porous materials has spurred interest in developing novel uses in a variety of systems. Zeolites, inorganic materials with high thermal and mechanical stability, in particular, have been widely examined for use in applications such as catalysis, ion exchange and separation. A relatively new class of inorganic-organic hybrid materials known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently surfaced, and many have exhibited their efficiency in potential applications such as ion exchange and drug delivery. A more recent development is the design and synthesis of a subclass of MOFs based on zeolite topologies (i.e. ZMOFs), which often exhibit traits of both zeolites and MOFs. Bio-compatible hydrogels already play an important role in drug delivery systems, but are often limited by stability issues. Thus, the addition of ZMOFs to hydrogel formulations is expected to enhance the hydrogel mechanical properties, and the ZMOF-hydrogel composites should present improved, symbiotic drug storage and release for delivery applications. Herein we present the novel composites of a hydrogel with a zeolite-like metal-organic framework, rho-ZMOF, using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate (DHPMA), N-vinyl-2-pyrolidinone (VP) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and the corresponding drug release. An ultraviolet (UV) polymerization method is employed to synthesize the hydrogels, VP 0, VP 15, VP 30, VP 45 and the ZMOF-VP 30 composite, by varying the VP content (mol%). The rho-ZMOF, VP 30, and ZMOF-VP 30 composite are all tested for the controlled release of procainamide (protonated, PH), an anti-arrhythmic drug, in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) using UV spectroscopy. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Stress relaxing hyaluronic acid-collagen hydrogels promote cell spreading, fiber remodeling, and focal adhesion formation in 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Junzhe; Stowers, Ryan; Nam, Sungmin; Xia, Yan; Chaudhuri, Ovijit

    2018-02-01

    The physical and architectural cues of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a critical role in regulating important cellular functions such as spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Natural ECM is a complex viscoelastic scaffold composed of various distinct components that are often organized into a fibrillar microstructure. Hydrogels are frequently used as synthetic ECMs for 3D cell culture, but are typically elastic, due to covalent crosslinking, and non-fibrillar. Recent work has revealed the importance of stress relaxation in viscoelastic hydrogels in regulating biological processes such as spreading and differentiation, but these studies all utilize synthetic ECM hydrogels that are non-fibrillar. Key mechanotransduction events, such as focal adhesion formation, have only been observed in fibrillar networks in 3D culture to date. Here we present an interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel system based on HA crosslinked with dynamic covalent bonds and collagen I that captures the viscoelasticity and fibrillarity of ECM in tissues. The IPN hydrogels exhibit two distinct processes in stress relaxation, one from collagen and the other from HA crosslinking dynamics. Stress relaxation in the IPN hydrogels can be tuned by modulating HA crosslinker affinity, molecular weight of the HA, or HA concentration. Faster relaxation in the IPN hydrogels promotes cell spreading, fiber remodeling, and focal adhesion (FA) formation - behaviors often inhibited in other hydrogel-based materials in 3D culture. This study presents a new, broadly adaptable materials platform for mimicking key ECM features of viscoelasticity and fibrillarity in hydrogels for 3D cell culture and sheds light on how these mechanical and structural cues regulate cell behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mussel-inspired histidine-based transient network metal coordination hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullenkamp, Dominic E.; He, Lihong; Barrett, Devin G.; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2013-01-01

    Transient network hydrogels cross-linked through histidine-divalent cation coordination bonds were studied by conventional rheologic methods using histidine-modified star poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers. These materials were inspired by the mussel, which is thought to use histidine-metal coordination bonds to impart self-healing properties in the mussel byssal thread. Hydrogel viscoelastic mechanical properties were studied as a function of metal, pH, concentration, and ionic strength. The equilibrium metal-binding constants were determined by dilute solution potentiometric titration of monofunctional histidine-modified methoxy-PEG and were found to be consistent with binding constants of small molecule analogs previously studied. pH-dependent speciation curves were then calculated using the equilibrium constants determined by potentiometric titration, providing insight into the pH dependence of histidine-metal ion coordination and guiding the design of metal coordination hydrogels. Gel relaxation dynamics were found to be uncorrelated with the equilibrium constants measured, but were correlated to the expected coordination bond dissociation rate constants. PMID:23441102

  19. Evaluation of Photocrosslinked Lutrol Hydrogel for Tissue Printing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovich, Natalja E.; Swennen, Ives; Girones, Jordi; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Schacht, Etienne; Alblas, Jacqueline; Dhert, Wouter J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Application of hydrogels in tissue engineering and innovative strategies such as organ printing, which is based on layered 3D deposition of cell-laden hydrogels, requires design of novel hydrogel matrices. Hydrogel demands for 3D printing include: 1) preservation of the printed shape after the

  20. Osmotic effects of polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, L R; Emmett, M; Santa Ana, C A; Fordtran, J S

    1988-04-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used to increase the osmotic pressure of fluids used to cleanse the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about its osmotic activity. To investigate this activity systematically, solutions of PEG of differing molecular weights were made and subjected to measurement of osmolality by both freezing point depression and vapor pressure osmometry. Measured osmolality was increasingly greater than predicted from average molecular weight as PEG concentration increased. Measurement of sodium activity in NaCl/PEG solutions by means of an ion-selective electrode suggested that the higher than expected osmolality could be due in part to interactions that, in effect, sequestered water from the solution. Osmolality was consistently greater by freezing point osmometry than by vapor pressure osmometry. To determine which osmometry method reflected biologically relevant osmolality, normal subjects underwent steady-state total gut perfusion with an electrolyte solution containing 105 g/L of PEG 3350. This produced rectal effluent that was hypertonic by freezing point osmometry but isotonic by vapor pressure osmometry. Assuming that luminal fluid reaches osmotic equilibrium with plasma during total gut perfusion, this result suggests that the vapor pressure osmometer accurately reflects the biologically relevant osmolality of intestinal contents. We conclude that PEG exerts more of an osmotic effect than would be predicted from its molecular weight. This phenomenon may reflect interactions between PEG and water molecules that alter the physical chemistry of the solution and sequester water from the solution.

  1. Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol versus normal saline. ... In children, (is this standard of care?: this method is mostly followed) this is usually ... Patients and Methods: Thirty patients, admitted in the Department of ...

  2. Inert Reassessment Document for Ethylene Glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene Glycol has many uses and are also used as antifreeze and deicers, as solvents, humectants, as chemical intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, and as components of many products such as brake fluids, lubricants, inks,and lacquers.

  3. Intensification of ethylene glycol production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisutwattanaa, Apiwit; Frauzem, Rebecca; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to generate an alternative design for ethylene glycol production process focusing on a reduction of operating cost and emissions. To achieve this, the phenomena-based method for process intensification was applied. 3 stages of process intensification were performed. First, the base......-case design was obtained, resulting in the production of ethylene glycol via two steps: ethylene oxidation synthesis followed by ethylene oxide hydration to produce ethylene glycol. Feasibility of the design was verified and the process was rigorously designed using a computer process simulation program...... solutions. As the result of intensification method, membrane separation was suggested and applied to the design. With the operation of the new equipment, the ethylene glycol production process was improved for 54.51 percent in terms of energy consumption....

  4. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness...

  5. Investigating hydrogel dosimeter decomposition by chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The chemical oxidative decomposition of leucocrystal violet micelle hydrogel dosimeters was investigated using the reaction of ferrous ions with hydrogen peroxide or sodium bicarbonate with hydrogen peroxide. The second reaction is more effective at dye decomposition in gelatin hydrogels. Additional chemical analysis is required to determine the decomposition products

  6. Thermal Transport in Soft PAAm Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the interface between human and machine becomes blurred, hydrogel incorporated electronics and devices have emerged to be a new class of flexible/stretchable electronic and ionic devices due to their extraordinary properties, such as softness, mechanically robustness, and biocompatibility. However, heat dissipation in these devices could be a critical issue and remains unexplored. Here, we report the experimental measurements and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conduction in polyacrylamide (PAAm hydrogels. The thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogels can be modulated by both the effective crosslinking density and water content in hydrogels. The effective crosslinking density dependent thermal conductivity in hydrogels varies from 0.33 to 0.51 Wm−1K−1, giving a 54% enhancement. We attribute the crosslinking effect to the competition between the increased conduction pathways and the enhanced phonon scattering effect. Moreover, water content can act as filler in polymers which leads to nearly 40% enhancement in thermal conductivity in PAAm hydrogels with water content vary from 23 to 88 wt %. Furthermore, we find the thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogel is insensitive to temperature in the range of 25–40 °C. Our study offers fundamental understanding of thermal transport in soft materials and provides design guidance for hydrogel-based devices.

  7. Highly Stretchable, Strain Sensing Hydrogel Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing; Liu, Xinyue; Jiang, Nan; Yetisen, Ali K; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Yang, Changxi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhao, Xuanhe; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    A core-clad fiber made of elastic, tough hydrogels is highly stretchable while guiding light. Fluorescent dyes are easily doped into the hydrogel fiber by diffusion. When stretched, the transmission spectrum of the fiber is altered, enabling the strain to be measured and also its location. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Biomolecule-Responsive Hydrogels in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Ghorbanali; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances and applications of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, namely, glucose-responsive hydrogels, protein-responsive hydrogels, and nucleic-acid-responsive hydrogels are highlighted. However, achieving the ultimate purpose of using biomolecule-responsive hydrogels in preclinical and clinical areas is still at the very early stage and calls for more novel designing concepts and advance ideas. On the way toward the real/clinical application of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, plenty of factors should be extensively studied and examined under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. For example, biocompatibility, biointegration, and toxicity of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels should be carefully evaluated. From the living body's point of view, biocompatibility is seriously depended on the interactions at the tissue/polymer interface. These interactions are influenced by physical nature, chemical structure, surface properties, and degradation of the materials. In addition, the developments of advanced hydrogels with tunable biological and mechanical properties which cause no/low side effects are of great importance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of superabsorbent hydrogel based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrogels structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of grafting variables, that is, AA/AN weight ratio and concentration of MBA and APS, was systematically optimized to achieve a hydrogel with ...

  10. Cross-Linked Hydrogel for Pharmaceutical Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinarayan parhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are promising biomaterials because of their important qualities such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, hydrophilicity and non-toxicity. These qualities make hydrogels suitable for application in medical and pharmaceutical field. Recently, a tremendous growth of hydrogel application is seen, especially as gel and patch form, in transdermal drug delivery. This review mainly focuses on the types of hydrogels based on cross-linking and; secondly to describe the possible synthesis methods to design hydrogels for different pharmaceutical applications. The synthesis and chemistry of these hydrogels are discussed using specific pharmaceutical examples. The structure and water content in a typical hydrogel have also been discussed.

  11. Effect of different plasticizers on poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) hydrogels cross-linked by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Mara Tania S.; Giannini, Danielle R.; Brant, Antonio J.C.; Riella, Humberto G.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    The use of hydrogel membranes usually demands polymers capable of forming films with high elastic and flexible properties besides having high water absorption. In terms of improvements of polymer plasticity, addition of special plasticizers to polymers can do it with promising results, although within limits of concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the different effects of poly(enthylene glycol) (PEG) and glycerol as plasticizers on hydrogel membranes synthesized from poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) as the main polymer in aqueous polymeric solutions. For that, hydrogels of PVP/agar/PEG, PVP/agar/glycerol and without agar or plasticizer were simultaneously synthesized and sterilized by irradiation of mixtures of such products in aqueous solutions, using gamma-rays from 60 Co source at a dose of 25 kGy. The results based on gel fraction, swelling in water, and some mechanical tests suggest that the degree of PVP cross-linking prevailed over the greater hydrophilicity of glycerol compared to that of PEG with regard to the degree of swelling of the hydrogels. (author)

  12. Combined effects of PEG hydrogel elasticity and cell-adhesive coating on fibroblast adhesion and persistent migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missirlis, Dimitris; Spatz, Joachim P

    2014-01-13

    The development and use of synthetic, cross-linked, macromolecular substrates with tunable elasticity has been instrumental in revealing the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to their mechanical microenvironment. We here describe a hydrogel based on radical-free, cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) to study the effects of both substrate elasticity and type of adhesive coating on fibroblast adhesion and migration. Hydrogel elasticity was controlled through the structure and concentration of branched precursors, which efficiently react via Michael-type addition to produce the polymer network. We found that cell spreading and focal adhesion characteristics are dependent on elasticity for all types of coatings (RGD peptide, fibronectin, vitronectin), albeit with significant differences in magnitude. Importantly, fibroblasts migrated slower but more persistently on stiffer hydrogels, with the effects being more pronounced on fibronectin-coated substrates. Therefore, our results validate the hydrogels presented in this study as suitable for future mechanosensing studies and indicate that cell adhesion, polarity, and associated migration persistence are tuned by substrate elasticity and biochemical properties.

  13. A phytomodulatory hydrogel with enhanced healing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mirele S; Souza, Tamiris F G; Figueiredo, Ingrid S; Sousa, Emília T; Sousa, Felipe D; Moreira, Renato A; Alencar, Nylane M N; Lima-Filho, José V; Ramos, Márcio V

    2018-04-01

    The healing performance of a hydrogel composed of hemicelluloses extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Fabaceae) and mixed with phytomodulatory proteins obtained from the latex of Calotropis procera was characterized on excisional wounds. The hydrogel did not induce dermal irritability. When topically used on excisional wounds, the hydrogel enhanced healing by wound contraction. Histology and the measurement of inflammatory mediators (myeloperoxidase, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6) suggested that the inflammatory phase of the healing process was intensified, stimulating fibroplasia and neovascularization (proliferative phase) and tissue remodeling by increasing new collagen fiber deposition. In addition, reduction on levels of malondialdehyde in the groups that the hydrogel was applied suggested that the oxidative stress was reduced. The hydrogel performed better than the reference drug used, as revealed by the extended thickness of the remodeled epithelium. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Arct'Alg release from hydrogel membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Renata H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogel properties make them attractive for a variety of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, primarily in drug delivery system. Synthetic hydrogels have been studied to develop new devices for drugs or cosmetic active agents release. Arct'Alg R is an extract derived from red algae biomass which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and tissue regeneration stimulant properties. This extract was incorporated to poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel membranes obtained by gamma rays crosslinking technique. The ionizing radiation presents the advantage to occur polymerization and sterilization simultaneously in the same process. The aim of this work was the in vitro release kinetic study of Arct'Alg R from hydrogel membranes during 24 hours to verify the possibility of use in cosmetic and dermatological treatments. Results showed that about 50% and 30% of incorporated Arct'Alg R was released from PVP and PVA hydrogel membrane devices respectively. (author)

  15. Hybrid hydrogels produced by ionizing radiation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M. J. A.; Amato, V. S.; Lugão, A. B.; Parra, D. F.

    2012-09-01

    The interest in biocompatible hydrogels with particular properties has increased considerably in recent years due to their versatile applications in biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmacy, agriculture and controlled release of drugs. The use of hydrogels matrices for particular drug-release applications has been investigated with the synthesis of modified polymeric hydrogel of PVAl and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% nano-clay. They were processed using gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at 25 kGy dose. The characterization of the hydrogels was conducted and toxicity was evaluated. The dried hydrogel was analyzed for thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling in solutions of different pH. The membranes have no toxicity. The nano-clay influences directly the equilibrium swelling.

  16. Variations in polyethylene glycol brands and their influence on the preparation process of hydrogel microspheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhl-Bruhn, Stefanie; Bertz, Andreas; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    differences in the salt composition and molecular weight distribution of the polymers which can explain the results from the production process. The results illustrate that the range of product specifications may not always be tight enough to avoid variability in pharmaceutical processes like the preparation...

  17. Mussel-Inspired Dopamine and Carbon Nanotube Leading to a Biocompatible Self-Rolling Conductive Hydrogel Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junzi; Huang, Yong; Wang, Yitian; Xu, Hui; Xing, Malcolm; Zhong, Wen

    2017-08-18

    We report a novel self-rolling, conductive, and biocompatible multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-dopamine-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel film. The gel can self-fold into a thin tube when it is transferred from a glass slide to an aqueous environment, regardless of the concentrations of the MWCNT. The film presents a highly organized pattern, which results from the self-assembly of hydrophilic dopamine and hydrophobic carbon nanotubes. By exploring the biomedical potential, we found that MWCNT-included rolled film is nontoxic and can promote cell growth. For further functional verification by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction), bone marrow derived mesenchymal cells present higher levels of osteogenic differentiations in response to a higher concentration of CNTs. The results suggest that the self-rolling, conductive CNT-dopamine-PEG hydrogel could have multiple potentials, including biomedical usage and as a conductive biosensor.

  18. Synthesis of PVA Hydrogel for Prosthetic Discus Nucleus Pulposus: Formation of Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) PVA Hydrogel by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwis, Darmawan; Erizal; Lely Hardiningsih; Razzak, Mirzan T.

    2004-01-01

    Research on synthesis of IPN PVA hydrogel for using as prosthetic discus nucleus has been carried out. Base hydrogel network (network I) was made by reacting the solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 10 - 15 % w/w with formaldehyde at 80 o C for several hours. Hydrogel network II (as IPN network) was then made by immersion of base hydrogel into polymer solution (PVP or PVA) until hydrogel swell to equilibrium volume. The hydrogel then irradiated using gamma rays at various doses. The results show that IPN PVA-PVP and IPN PVA-PVP hydrogels have higher compression strength compared to base hydrogel. IPN PVA-PVA hydrogel made by irradiating base hydrogel (immersed into polymer solution) with 25, 50 and 100 kGy have compression strength at 5 mm displacement 2.72; 2.83; and 3.25 kg/cm 2 respectively, While base hydrogel has compression strength of 1.75 kg/cm 2 . IPN PVA-PVP and PVA-PVA hydrogels made by irradiating base hydrogel with 100 kGy still retain high water content i.e. 72 and 74 % respectively. Beside that they show good re-absorption property after compression treatment that is hydrogel can return to the original shape after compressed to 12 mm displacement (80% of initial height on hydrogel) at relatively short time, less than 15 minutes. (author)

  19. The evaluation of temperature and pH influences on equilibrium swelling of poly(n-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandar S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are synthesized by the method of radical polymerization of monomers: N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM and acrylic acid (AA. Characterization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- co-acrylic acid hydrogels, p(NIPAM/AA, has been performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and by determination of the swelling behaviour in aqueous solutions at different temperatures (25, 31 and 37°C and pH values (2.2, 4.5, 6 and 6.8. After lyophilisation in the solution at pH 6 and temperature of 25°C, p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels have rapidly reached equilibrium degree of swelling, αe, in comparison to non-lyophilized samples. The mechanism of solvent transport within matrix in lyophilized samples corresponds to less Fickian diffusion, whereas Super case II diffusion is characteristic for non-lyophilized samples. p(NIPAM/AA hydrogel with 1.5 mol% of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM at the temperature of 25°C and pH 6.8, has reached the highest swelling equilibrium degree, αe = 259.8. The results of swelling studies have shown that p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels can be classified as superabsorbent polymers (SAPs. For the evaluation of pH and temperature influences on synthesized hydrogels swelling, a full three-level experimental design has been used. Two-factor interaction model (2FI is the most optimal model of a full three-level experimental design for representing the swelling equilibrium degree of p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels as a function of investigated parameters, i.e., temperature and pH. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-34012

  20. Bioinspired Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Highly Ordered Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziguang; Fang, Ruochen; Rong, Qinfeng; Liu, Mingjie

    2017-12-01

    In the human body, many soft tissues with hierarchically ordered composite structures, such as cartilage, skeletal muscle, the corneas, and blood vessels, exhibit highly anisotropic mechanical strength and functionality to adapt to complex environments. In artificial soft materials, hydrogels are analogous to these biological soft tissues due to their "soft and wet" properties, their biocompatibility, and their elastic performance. However, conventional hydrogel materials with unordered homogeneous structures inevitably lack high mechanical properties and anisotropic functional performances; thus, their further application is limited. Inspired by biological soft tissues with well-ordered structures, researchers have increasingly investigated highly ordered nanocomposite hydrogels as functional biological engineering soft materials with unique mechanical, optical, and biological properties. These hydrogels incorporate long-range ordered nanocomposite structures within hydrogel network matrixes. Here, the critical design criteria and the state-of-the-art fabrication strategies of nanocomposite hydrogels with highly ordered structures are systemically reviewed. Then, recent progress in applications in the fields of soft actuators, tissue engineering, and sensors is highlighted. The future development and prospective application of highly ordered nanocomposite hydrogels are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Enzymatically crosslinked silk-hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Nicole R; Partlow, Benjamin P; McGill, Meghan; Kimmerling, Erica Palma; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Kaplan, David L

    2017-07-01

    In this study, silk fibroin and hyaluronic acid (HA) were enzymatically crosslinked to form biocompatible composite hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties similar to that of native tissues. The formation of di-tyrosine crosslinks between silk fibroin proteins via horseradish peroxidase has resulted in a highly elastic hydrogel but exhibits time-dependent stiffening related to silk self-assembly and crystallization. Utilizing the same method of crosslinking, tyramine-substituted HA forms hydrophilic and bioactive hydrogels that tend to have limited mechanics and degrade rapidly. To address the limitations of these singular component scaffolds, HA was covalently crosslinked with silk, forming a composite hydrogel that exhibited both mechanical integrity and hydrophilicity. The composite hydrogels were assessed using unconfined compression and infrared spectroscopy to reveal of the physical properties over time in relation to polymer concentration. In addition, the hydrogels were characterized by enzymatic degradation and for cytotoxicity. Results showed that increasing HA concentration, decreased gelation time, increased degradation rate, and reduced changes that were observed over time in mechanics, water retention, and crystallization. These hydrogel composites provide a biologically relevant system with controllable temporal stiffening and elasticity, thus offering enhanced tunable scaffolds for short or long term applications in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hybrid hydrogels produced by ionizing radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.J.A.; Amato, V.S.; Lugão, A.B.; Parra, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The interest in biocompatible hydrogels with particular properties has increased considerably in recent years due to their versatile applications in biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmacy, agriculture and controlled release of drugs. The use of hydrogels matrices for particular drug-release applications has been investigated with the synthesis of modified polymeric hydrogel of PVAl and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% nano-clay. They were processed using gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at 25 kGy dose. The characterization of the hydrogels was conducted and toxicity was evaluated. The dried hydrogel was analyzed for thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling in solutions of different pH. The membranes have no toxicity. The nano-clay influences directly the equilibrium swelling. - Highlights: ► Chemical interaction is observed when nanoclay is irradiated in PVAl hybrid hydrogels. ► Osmotic pressure within network promotes the rehydration capacity of the membranes. ► This effect is an important characteristic for hydrogels drug delivery systems.

  3. Peptide based hydrogels for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranny, H.R.; Schneider, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Peptide hydrogels are potentially ideal scaffolds for tissue repair and regeneration due to their ability to mimic natural extra cellular matrix. The 20 amino acid peptide HPL8 (H2N- VKVKVKVKVDPP TKVKVKVKV-CONH2), has been shown to fold and self-assemble into a rigid hydrogel based on Environmental cues such as pH, salt, and temperature. Due to its environmental responsiveness, hydrogel assembly can be induced by cell culture media, allowing for 3D encapsulation of osteogenic cells. Initially, 20 cultures of MC3T3 cells proved that the hydrogel is nontoxic and sustains cellular attachment in the absence of serum proteins without altering the physical properties of the hydrogel. The cell-material structure relationship in normal and pathological conditions was further investigated by 3D encapsulation. Cell were viable for 3 weeks and grew in clonogenic spheroids. Characterization of the proliferation, differentiation and constitutive expression of various osteoblastic markers was performed using spectrophotometric methods. The well-defined, fibrillar nanostructure of the hydrogel directs the attachment and attachment and growth of osteoblast cells and dictates the mineralization of hydroxyapatite in a manner similar to bone. This study will enable control over the interaction of cellular systems with the peptide hydrogel with designs for biomedical applications of bone repair. (author)

  4. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Bagasse Biomass into Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Amiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the main objective of developing new hydrogel systems has been to convert biomass into environmentally-friendly hydrogels. Hybrid hydrogels are usually prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers onto natural polymers or biomass. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was used to prepare semi-synthetic hybrid hydrogels without delignification, which is a costly and timeconsuming process. Sugarcane bagasse as a source of polysaccharide was modified using polymer microgels based on acrylic monomers such as acrylic acid, acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid which were prepared through inverse emulsion polymerization. By this process, biomass as a low-value by-product was converted into a valuable semi-synthetic hydrogel. In the following, the effect of latex type¸ the aqueous-to-organic phase ratio in the polymer latex, time and temperature of modification reaction on the swelling capacity of the hybrid hydrogel were evaluated. The chemical reaction between sugarcane bagasse and acrylic latex was carried out during heating of the modified bagasse which led to obtain a semisynthetic hydrogel with 60% natural components and 40% synthetic components. Among the latexes with different structures, poly(AA-NaAA-AM-AMPS was the most suitable polymer latex for the conversion of biomass into hydrogel. The bagasse modified with this latex had a water absorption capacity up to 112 g/g, while the water absorption capacity of primary sugarcane bagasse was only equal to 3.6 g/g. The prepared polymer hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and determination of the amount of swelling capacity.

  5. Biosynthetic mechanism of glycolate in Chromatium, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Sumio; Akazawa, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of α-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonate (α-HPMS), 2,3-epoxypropionate(glycidate), and cyanide on the photosynthetic activity of Chromatium were investigated. The α-HPMS stimulated the photosynthetic CO 2 fixation in the bacterial cells in both N 2 and O 2 environments. The formation and subsequent excretion of both glycolate and glycine in the O 2 atmosphere were markedly enhanced by the HPMS. In contrast to the recent report that glycidate especially inhibits the glycolate formation in tabacco leaf disks, the authors found that it had no influence on the CO 2 fixation by Chromatium in either N 2 or O 2 atmosphere, and that the synthesis and extracellular excretion of glycolate were markedly stimulated by glycidate treatment. The cyanide (0.01 - 1mM) exerted some marked inhibitory effect on the photosynthetic CO 2 fixation in N 2 . In O 2 atmosphere, the photosynthesis was stimulated by the 0.01 mM cyanide, and inhibited by it above this level. Both the incorporation of 14 CO 2 into glycolate and the total synthesis of glycolate in light were also enhanced by the 0.01 mM cyanide, and strongly inhibited above that concentration. (J.P.N.)

  6. A review on polymeric hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: PVA-based hydrogel dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbadawy A. Kamoun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the past and current efforts with a brief description on the featured properties of hydrogel membranes fabricated from biopolymers and synthetic ones for wound dressing applications. Many endeavors have been exerted during past ten years for developing new artificial polymeric membranes, which fulfill the demanded conditions for the treatment of skin wounds. This review mainly focuses on representing specifications of ideal polymeric wound dressing membranes, such as crosslinked hydrogels compatible with wound dressing purposes. But as the hydrogels with single component have low mechanical strength, recent trends have offered composite or hybrid hydrogel membranes to achieve the typical wound dressing requirements.

  7. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  8. Biomaterial characteristics and application of silicone rubber and PVA hydrogels mimicked in organ groups for prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Jiang, Shan; Yu, Yan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    It is definite that transparent material with similar structural characteristics and mechanical properties to human tissue is favorable for experimental study of prostate brachytherapy. In this paper, a kind of transparent polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel and silicone rubber are developed as suitable substitutions for human soft tissue. Segmentation and 3D reconstruction of medical image are performed to manufacture the mould of organ groups through rapid prototyping technology. Micro-structure observation, force test and CCD deformation test have been conducted to investigate the structure and mechanical properties of PVA hydrogel used in organ group mockup. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image comparison results show that PVA hydrogel consisting of 3 g PVA, 17 g de-ionized water, 80 g dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO), 4 g NaCl, 1.5 g NaOH, 3 g epichlorohydrin (ECH) and 7 freeze/thaw cycles reveals similar micro-structure to human prostate tissue. Through the insertion force comparison between organ group mockup and clinical prostate brachytherapy, PVA hydrogel and silicone rubber are found to have the same mechanical properties as prostate tissue and muscle. CCD deformation test results show that insertion force suffers a sharp decrease and a relaxation of tissue deformation appears when needle punctures the capsule of prostate model. The results exhibit that organ group mockup consisting of PVA hydrogel, silicone rubber, membrane and agarose satisfies the needs of prostate brachytherapy simulation in general and can be used to mimic the soft tissues in pelvic structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  10. [Carcinogenic activity of ethylene oxide and its reaction products 2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. III. Research on ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol for carcinogenic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberg, H

    1987-03-01

    Ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol were each administered once weekly subcutaneously to groups of 100 female NMRI mice at 3 dosages (30; 10 und 3 mg single dose per mouse). Tricaprylin was used as solvent. The mean total dosage per mouse was 2110.5; 707.0 and 196.2 mg for ethylene glycol and 2029.8; 671.7 and 213.3 mg for diethylene glycol. Neither ethylene glycol nor diethylene glycol induced tumors at the injection site or away from the point of administration.

  11. Resilin-like polypeptide-poly(ethylene gylcol) hybrid hydrogels for mechanically-demanding tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Christopher Leland

    Technological progress in the life sciences and engineering has combined with important insights in the fields of biology and material science to make possible the development of biological substitutes which aim to restore function to damaged tissue. Numerous biomimetic hydrogels have been developed with the purpose of harnessing the regenerative capacity of cells and tissue through the rational deployment of biological signals. Aided by recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering methods, a new class of hydrogel precursor, the biosynthetic protein polymer, has demonstrated great promise towards the development of highly functional tissue engineering materials. In particular, protein polymers based upon resilin, a natural protein elastomer, have demonstrated outstanding mechanical properties that would have great value in soft tissue applications. This dissertation introduces hybrid hydrogels composed of recombinant resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) cross-linked with multi-arm PEG macromers. Two different chemical strategies were employed to form RLP-PEG hydrogels: one utilized a Michael-type addition reaction between the thiols of cysteine residues present within the RLP and vinyl sulfone moieties functionalized on a multi-arm PEG macromer; the second system cross-links a norbornene-functionalized RLP with a thiol-functionalized multi-arm PEG macromer via a photoinitiated thiol-ene step polymerization. Oscillatory rheology and tensile testing confirmed the formation of elastic, resilient hydrogels in the RLP-PEG system cross-linked via Michael-type addition. These hydrogels supported the encapsulation and culture of both human aortic adventitial fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells. Additionally, these RLP-PEG hydrogels exhibited phase separation behavior during cross-linking that led to the formation of a heterogeneous microstructure. Degradation could be triggered through incubation with matrix metalloproteinase. Photocross-linking was conferred to

  12. Quantitative optimization of solid freeform deposition of aqueous hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K H; Hockaday, L A; Butcher, J T

    2013-01-01

    Many soft tissues exhibit complex anatomical geometry that is challenging to replicate for regenerative medicine applications. Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) has emerged as an attractive approach for creating 3D tissues, but a detailed understanding of how specific fabrication parameters affect accuracy and viability has not been established to date. In this study, we evaluate the effects of printing parameters of the Fab-Home 3D printing system on accuracy using alginate, photocrosslinkable polyethylene-glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA) and gelatin as commonly used model hydrogel materials. Print accuracy and resolution along the length, width and height were determined based on quantitative image analysis. The effects of extrusion parameters on cell viability were assessed using porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVIC) as a model cell type. We observed that pressure, pathheight and pathspace all significantly affected print accuracy and resolution. Printing conditions did not affect PAVIC viability within the ranges applied. We predicted that optimal pressure, pathheight and pathspace values would be increased linearly with increasing nozzle diameter, and we confirmed that the predicted values generate accurate 3D geometries while poorly chosen parameters yield inaccurate, unpredictable geometries. This systematic optimization strategy therefore improves the accuracy of 3D printing platforms for biofabrication and tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  13. Monoclonal antibody to DNA containing thymine glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leadon, S A; Hanawalt, P C [Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1983-08-01

    Exposure of DNA to ionizing or near ultraviolet radiation modifies thymine to form ring-saturated products. One of the major products formed is 5,6-dihydroxy-5.6-dihydrothymine (thymine glycol). Thymine glycol can also be selectively formed by oxidizing DNA with OsO/sub 4/. We have isolated hybrids that produce monoclonal antibodies against thymine glycol by fusing mouse myeloma cells (P3X63-Ag8-6.5.3) with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with OsO/sub 4/-oxidized poly(dT) complexed with methylated bovine serum albumin. This report describes the characterization of the antibody from one hybridoma using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibody reacted with both single- and double-stranded DNA treated with OsO/sub 4/, and with OsO/sub 4/-treated poly(dA-dT) and poly(dT); it did not crossreact with unmodified or apurinic DNA. It also reacted with DNA treated with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or with ..gamma..-rays at doses as low as 250 rad. We were able to detect 2 fmoles of thymine glycol in OsO/sub 4/-treated DNA and could quantitate 1 thymine glycol per 220000 thymines. Using the antibody and the ELISA, the formation and removal of thymine glycol was examined in cultures of African green monkey cells irradiated with 25 krad of ..gamma..-rays. The antibody reactive sites produced by irradiation (8.5 per 10/sup 6/ thymines) were efficiently removed from the cellular DNA.

  14. The proton dynamics of ethylene glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, A G; Sobolev, O V

    2002-01-01

    The results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments on ethylene glycol at T=300 K, T=348 K and T=393 K by using the 'direct-geometry' double time-of-flight neutron-scattering spectrometer DIN-2PI (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna) are presented. The quasi-elastic and inelastic components of the neutron scattering have been considered. The diffusion characteristics and generalized frequency distributions for protons of ethylene glycol molecules were obtained from the neutron-scattering spectra. (orig.)

  15. Biomimetic modification of synthetic hydrogels by incorporation of adhesive peptides and calcium phosphate nanoparticles: in vitro evaluation of cell behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bongio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of this work was to develop a biocompatible and biomimetic in situ crosslinkable hydrogel scaffold with an instructive capacity for bone regenerative treatment. To this end, synthetic hydrogels were functionalized with two key components of the extracellular matrix of native bone tissue, i.e. the three-amino acid peptide sequence RGD (which is the principal integrin-binding domain responsible for cell adhesion and survival of anchorage-dependent cells and calcium phosphate (CaP nanoparticles in the form of hydroxyapatite (which are similar to the inorganic phase of bone tissue. Rat bone marrow osteoblast-like cells (OBLCs were encapsulated in four different biomaterials (plain oligo(poly(ethylene glycol fumarate (OPF, RGD-modified OPF, OPF enriched with CaP nanoparticles and RGD-modified OPF enriched with CaP nanoparticles and cell survival, cell spreading, proliferation and mineralized matrix formation were determined via cell viability assay, histology and biochemical analysis for alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium. This study showed that RGD peptide sequences promoted cell spreading in OPF hydrogels and hence play a crucial role in cell survival during the early stage of culture, whereas CaP nanoparticles significantly enhanced cell-mediated hydrogel mineralization. Although cell spreading and proliferation activity were inhibited, the combined effect of RGD peptide sequences and CaP nanoparticles within OPF hydrogel systems elicited a better biological response than that of the individual components. Specifically, both a sustained cell viability and mineralized matrix production mediated by encapsulated OBLCs were observed within these novel biomimetic composite systems.

  16. A 3D-printed microbial cell culture platform with in situ PEGDA hydrogel barriers for differential substrate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadilak, Andrea L; Rehaag, Jessica C; Harrington, Cameron A; Shor, Leslie M

    2017-09-01

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D-printing techniques have recently begun to enable simpler, faster, and cheaper production of millifluidic devices at resolutions approaching 100-200  μ m. At this resolution, cell culture devices can be constructed that more accurately replicate natural environments compared with conventional culturing techniques. A number of microfluidics researchers have begun incorporating additive manufacturing into their work, using 3D-printed devices in a wide array of chemical, fluidic, and even some biological applications. Here, we describe a 3D-printed cell culture platform and demonstrate its use in culturing Pseudomonas putida KT2440 bacteria for 44 h under a differential substrate gradient. Polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel barriers are patterned in situ within a 3D-printed channel. Transport of the toluidine blue tracer dye through the hydrogel barriers is characterized. Nutrients and oxygen were delivered to cells in the culture region by diffusion through the PEGDA hydrogel barriers from adjacent media or saline perfusion channels. Expression of green fluorescent protein by P. putida KT2440 enabled real time visualization of cell density within the 3D-printed channel, and demonstrated cells were actively expressing protein over the course of the experiment. Cells were observed clustering near hydrogel barrier boundaries where fresh substrate and oxygen were being delivered via diffusive transport, but cells were unable to penetrate the barrier. The device described here provides a versatile and easy to implement platform for cell culture in readily controlled gradient microenvironments. By adjusting device geometry and hydrogel properties, this platform could be further customized for a wide variety of biological applications.

  17. Biomimetic Membrane Arrays on Cast Hydrogel Supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roerdink-Lander, Monique; Ibragimova, Sania; Rein Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    , provides mechanical support but at the cost of small molecule transport through the membrane−support sandwich. To stabilize biomimetic membranes while allowing transport through a membrane−support sandwich, we have investigated the feasibility of using an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE......)/hydrogel sandwich as the support. The sandwich is realized as a perforated surface-treated ETFE film onto which a hydrogel composite support structure is cast. We report a simple method to prepare arrays of lipid bilayer membranes with low intrinsic electrical conductance on the highly permeable, self......-supporting ETFE/hydrogel sandwiches. We demonstrate how the ETFE/hydrogel sandwich support promotes rapid self-thinning of lipid bilayers suitable for hosting membrane-spanning proteins....

  18. Responsive polyelectrolyte hydrogels and soft matter micromanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes experimental studies on the mechanisms underlying the dynamic response of polyelectrolyte hydrogels when submitted to an external electric potential. In addition, we explore the possibilities of miniaturization and manipulation of responsive gels and other soft matter

  19. Hydrogels: Lets Thicken the Prebiotic Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, A. V.; Georgelin, T.; Kee, T. P.; Brack, A.; Westall, F.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a new class of material that could be interesting in prebiotic chemistry: The silica hydrogel. Inorganic cells could have provided an alternative mode of compatmentalisation on early earth.

  20. Enzymatic Inverse Opal Hydrogel Particles for Biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Gu, Hongcheng; Chen, Zhuoyue; Shang, Luoran; Zhao, Ze; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2017-04-19

    Enzymatic carriers have a demonstrated value for chemical reactions and industrial applications. Here, we present a novel kind of inverse opal hydrogel particles as the enzymatic carriers. The particles were negatively replicated from spherical colloidal crystal templates by using magnetic nanoparticles tagged acrylamide hydrogel. Thus, they were endowed with the features of monodispersity, small volume, complete penetrating structure, and controllable motion, which are all beneficial for improving the efficiency of biocatalysis. In addition, due to the ordered porous nanostructure, the inverse opal hydrogel particles were imparted with unique photonic band gaps (PBGs) and vivid structural colors for encoding varieties of immobilized enzymes and for constructing a multienzymes biocatalysis system. These features of the inverse opal hydrogel particles indicate that they are ideal enzymatic carriers for biocatalysis.

  1. Stabilization of Polyethylene Glycol in Archaeological Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig

    Projektet har fokuseret på polythylen glycol (PEG) stabilitet og nedbrydning i træ fra konserverede skibsvrag som Vasa (Stockholm) og Skuldelev skibene. En række avancerede analyseteknikker er anvendt til at undersøge indtrængningsdybden for forskellige molekylstørrelser PEG i ikke-nedbrudt træ f...

  2. Polyethylene glycols (PEG) and related structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, Emily; Kroigaard, Mogens; Mosbech, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We describe hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols (PEGs), with cross-reactivity to a structural analog, polysorbate 80, in a 69-year-old patient with perioperative anaphylaxis and subsequent, severe anaphylactic reactions to unrelated medical products. PEGs and PEG analogs are prevalent in the...

  3. Stereolithographic printing of ionically-crosslinked alginate hydrogels for degradable biomaterials and microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Thomas M; Leggett, Susan E; Chen, Po-Yen; Sodhi, Jaskiranjeet K; Stephens, Lauren H; McClintock, Hayley D; Sim, Jea Yun; Wong, Ian Y

    2017-10-11

    3D printed biomaterials with spatial and temporal functionality could enable interfacial manipulation of fluid flows and motile cells. However, such dynamic biomaterials are challenging to implement since they must be responsive to multiple, biocompatible stimuli. Here, we show stereolithographic printing of hydrogels using noncovalent (ionic) crosslinking, which enables reversible patterning with controlled degradation. We demonstrate this approach using sodium alginate, photoacid generators and various combinations of divalent cation salts, which can be used to tune the hydrogel degradation kinetics, pattern fidelity, and mechanical properties. This approach is first utilized to template perfusable microfluidic channels within a second encapsulating hydrogel for T-junction and gradient devices. The presence and degradation of printed alginate microstructures were further verified to have minimal toxicity on epithelial cells. Degradable alginate barriers were used to direct collective cell migration from different initial geometries, revealing differences in front speed and leader cell formation. Overall, this demonstration of light-based 3D printing using non-covalent crosslinking may enable adaptive and stimuli-responsive biomaterials, which could be utilized for bio-inspired sensing, actuation, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  4. Microstructure of Pharmaceutical Semicrystalline Dispersions: The Significance of Polymer Conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duong, Tu; Goderis, Bart; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2018-02-05

    The microstructure of pharmaceutical semicrystalline solid dispersions has attracted extensive attention due to its complexity that might result in the diversity in physical stability, dissolution behavior, and pharmaceutical performance of the systems. Numerous factors have been reported that dictate the microstructure of semicrystalline dispersions. Nevertheless, the importance of the complicated conformation of the polymer has never been elucidated. In this study, we investigate the microstructure of dispersions of polyethylene glycol and active pharmaceutical ingredients by small-angle X-ray scattering and high performance differential scanning calorimetry. Polyethylene glycol with molecular weight of 2000 g/mol (PEG2000) and 6000 g/mol (PEG6000) exhibited remarkable discrepancy in the lamellar periodicity in dispersions with APIs which was attributed to the differences in their folding behavior. The long period of PEG2000 always decreased upon aging-induced exclusion of APIs from the interlamellar region of extended chain crystals whereas the periodicity of PEG6000 may decrease or increase during storage as a consequence of the competition between the drug segregation and the lamellar thickening from nonintegral-folded into integral-folded chain crystals. These processes were in turn significantly influenced by the crystallization tendency of the pharmaceutical compounds, drug-polymer interactions, as well as the dispersion composition and crystallization temperature. This study highlights the significance of the polymer conformation on the microstructure of semicrystalline systems that is critical for the preparation of solid dispersions with consistent and reproducible quality.

  5. Studies on radiation synthesis of polyethyleneimine/acrylamide hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Sanju [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India); Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: lalitv@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Tirumalesh, K. [Isotope Application Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2006-07-15

    Polyethyleneimine(PEI)/acrylamide(AAM) hydrogels were synthesized by {gamma}-radiation-induced polymerization/crosslinking of aqueous mixtures containing different ratios of PEI and AAM. The gel percentage and equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the synthesized hydrogels were investigated. The compositions of the hydrogels produced were found to be different from the feed composition. Ion-chromatography technique was used to determine the amount of Pb (II) and Cd (II) absorbed by the hydrogel. The maximum binding capacity of the PEI/AAM hydrogels, for Pb and Cd was found to be 19 and 12.6 mg/g, respectively (at 100 ppm). PEI/AAM hydrogels had better metal uptake efficiency than the pure AAM hydrogel at concentrations less than 50 ppm. Pure PEI was observed to be highly degrading type polymer on exposure to gamma radiation. TGA and FT-IR techniques were used to characterize the prepared hydrogels.

  6. Enthalpy of phase transition and prediction of phase Equilibria in systems of glycols and glycol ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Esina, Zoya; Miroshnikov, Aleksandr; Korchuganova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The PCEAS model was used to study the liquid-solid and liquid-vapor phase transitions at constant pressure in systems containing glycols and glycol ethers. This method is based on minimizing the excess Gibbs energy over the solvation parameter, which takes into account the processes of association of molecules in various phases. To compute the diagrams, the data on enthalpy and phase transition temperatures of pure components are required, while the information about the interactions in the b...

  7. The type and composition of alginate and hyaluronic-based hydrogels influence the viability of stem cells of the apical papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambricht, Laure; De Berdt, Pauline; Vanacker, Julie; Leprince, Julian; Diogenes, Anibal; Goldansaz, Hadi; Bouzin, Caroline; Préat, Véronique; Dupont-Gillain, Christine; des Rieux, Anne

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the present work was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the influence of various types and compositions of natural hydrogels on the viability and metabolic activity of SCAPs. Two alginate, three hyaluronic-based (Corgel™) hydrogel formulations and Matrigel were characterized for their mechanical, surface and microstructure properties using rheology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A characterized SCAP cell line (RP89 cells) was encapsulated in the different experimental hydrogel formulations. Cells were cultured in vitro, or implanted in cyclosporine treated mice. In vitro cell viability was evaluated using a Live/Dead assay and in vitro cellular metabolic activity was evaluated with a MTS assay. In vivo cell apoptosis was evaluated by a TUNEL test and RP89 cells were identified by human mitochondria immunostaining. Hydrogel composition influenced their mechanical and surface properties, and their microstructure. In vitro cell viability was above 80% after 2 days but decreased significantly after 7 days (60-40%). Viability at day 7 was the highest in Matrigel (70%) and then in Corgel 1.5 (60%). Metabolic activity increased over time in all the hydrogels, excepted in alginate SLM. SCAPs survived after 1 week in vivo with low apoptosis (<1%). The highest number of RP89 cells was found in Corgel 5.5 (140cells/mm(2)). Collectively, these data demonstrate that SCAP viability was directly modulated by hydrogel composition and suggest that a commercially available hyaluronic acid-based formulation might be a suitable delivery vehicle for SCAP-based dental pulp regeneration strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel synthesis strategy for composite hydrogel of collagen/hydroxyapatite-microsphere originating from conversion of CaCO3 templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingrong; Lu, Jian; Wang, Qiaoying; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-20

    Inspired by coralline-derived hydroxyapatite, we designed a methodological route to synthesize carbonated-hydroxyapatite microspheres from the conversion of CaCO3 spherulite templates within a collagen matrix under mild conditions and thus constructed the composite hydrogel of collagen/hydroxyapatite-microspheres. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to confirm the successful generation of the carbonated hydroxyapatite phase originating from CaCO3, and the ratios of calcium to phosphate were tracked over time. Variations in the weight portion of the components in the hybrid gels before and after the phase transformation of the CaCO3 templates were identified via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows these composite hydrogels have a unique multiscale microstructure consisting of a collagen nanofibril network and hydroxyapatite microspheres. The relationship between the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and the collagen fibrils was revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in detail, and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern further confirmed the results of the XRD analyses which show the typical low crystallinity of the generated hydroxyapatite. This smart synthesis strategy achieved the simultaneous construction of microscale hydroxyapatite particles and collagen fibrillar hydrogel, and appears to provide a novel route to explore an advanced functional hydrogel materials with promising potentials for applications in bone tissue engineering and reconstruction medicine.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a biocompatible chitosan-based hydrogel cross-linked via 'click' chemistry for controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaresti, O; García-Astrain, C; Palomares, T; Alonso-Varona, A; Eceiza, A; Gabilondo, N

    2017-09-01

    A chemically cross-linked chitosan-based hydrogel was successfully synthesized through Diels-Alder (DA) reaction and characterized. The final product was obtained after different steps; on the one hand, furan-modified chitosan (Cs-Fu) was synthesized by the reaction of furfural with the free amino groups of chitosan. On the other hand, highlighting the novelty of the present research, maleimide-functionalized chitosan (Cs-AMI) was prepared by the reaction of a maleimide-modified aminoacid with the amino groups of chitosan through amide coupling. The two complementary chitosan derivatives were cross-linked to the final hydrogel network. Both modification reactions were confirmed by FTIR and 1 H NMR, obtaining a degree of substitution (DS) of 31% and 26% for Cs-Fu and Cs-AMI, respectively. The as-designed hydrogel was analyzed in terms of microstructure, swelling capacity and rheological behaviour. The hydrogel showed pH-sensitivity, biocompatibility and inhibitory bacterial activity, promising features for biomedical applications, particularly for targeted-drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Injectable glycosaminoglycan-protein nano-complex in semi-interpenetrating networks: A biphasic hydrogel for hyaline cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Janani; Subramanian, Anuradha; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2017-11-01

    Articular hyaline cartilage regeneration remains challenging due to its less intrinsic reparability. The study develops injectable biphasic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN) hydrogel impregnated with chondroitin sulfate (ChS) nanoparticles for functional cartilage restoration. ChS loaded zein nanoparticles (∼150nm) prepared by polyelectrolyte-protein complexation were interspersed into injectable SIPNs developed by blending alginate with poly(vinyl alcohol) and calcium crosslinking. The hydrogel exhibited interconnected porous microstructure (39.9±5.8μm pore diameter, 57.7±5.9% porosity), 92% swellability and >350Pa elastic modulus. Primary chondrocytes compatibility, chondrocyte-matrix interaction with cell-cell clustering and spheroidal morphology was demonstrated in ChS loaded hydrogel and long-term (42days) proliferation was also determined. Higher fold expression of cartilage-specific genes sox9, aggrecan and collagen-II was observed in ChS loaded hydrogel while exhibiting poor expression of collagen-I. Immunoblotting of aggregan and collagen II demonstrate favorable positive influence of ChS on chondrocytes. Thus, the injectable biphasic SIPNs could be promising composition-mimetic substitute for cartilage restoration at irregular defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyto- and genotoxicological assessment and functional characterization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid-based copolymeric hydrogels with potential for future use in wound healing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirf, Dominik; Devery, Sinead M; Higginbotham, Clement L; Rowan, Neil J

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid copolymer hydrogels crosslinked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate or poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate. There is a pressing need to establish the toxicity status of these new copolymers because they may find applications in future wound healing processes. Investigations revealed that the capacity of these hydrogels for swelling permitted the retention of high amounts of water yet still maintaining structural integrity. Reverse phase HPLC analysis suggested that unreacted monomeric base material was efficiently removed post-polymerization by applying an additional purification process. Subsequently, in vitro toxicity testing was performed utilizing direct and indirect contact exposure of the polymers to human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. No indication of significant cell death was observed using the established MTT, neutral red (NR) and fluorescence-based toxicity endpoint indicators. In addition, the alkaline Comet assay showed no genotoxic effects following cell exposure to hydrogel extracts. Investigations at the nucleotide level using the Ames mutagenicity assay demonstrated no evidence of mutagenic activity associated with the polymers. Findings from this study demonstrated that these hydrogels are non-cytotoxic and further work can be carried out to investigate their potential as a wound-healing device that will impact positively on patient health and well-being.

  12. Cyto- and genotoxicological assessment and functional characterization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid-based copolymeric hydrogels with potential for future use in wound healing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirf, Dominik; Devery, Sinead M [Department of Life and Physical Science, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland); Higginbotham, Clement L [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland); Rowan, Neil J, E-mail: sdevery@ait.i, E-mail: dkirf@ait.i, E-mail: chigginbotham@ait.i, E-mail: nrowan@ait.i [Department of Nursing and Health Science, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland)

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid copolymer hydrogels crosslinked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate or poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate. There is a pressing need to establish the toxicity status of these new copolymers because they may find applications in future wound healing processes. Investigations revealed that the capacity of these hydrogels for swelling permitted the retention of high amounts of water yet still maintaining structural integrity. Reverse phase HPLC analysis suggested that unreacted monomeric base material was efficiently removed post-polymerization by applying an additional purification process. Subsequently, in vitro toxicity testing was performed utilizing direct and indirect contact exposure of the polymers to human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. No indication of significant cell death was observed using the established MTT, neutral red (NR) and fluorescence-based toxicity endpoint indicators. In addition, the alkaline Comet assay showed no genotoxic effects following cell exposure to hydrogel extracts. Investigations at the nucleotide level using the Ames mutagenicity assay demonstrated no evidence of mutagenic activity associated with the polymers. Findings from this study demonstrated that these hydrogels are non-cytotoxic and further work can be carried out to investigate their potential as a wound-healing device that will impact positively on patient health and well-being.

  13. Co-micellized Pluronic mixture with thermo-sensitivity and residence stability as an injectable tissue adhesion barrier hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kang, Jun Goo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2018-01-01

    Although the tissue adhesion which leads to various complications frequently occurs after surgery, the development of an ideal tissue adhesion barrier is still a challenge. In this study, a thermo-sensitive hydrogel, which can fulfill the essential requirements of tissue adhesion barrier (that is, ease of handling for surgeon, flowing down prevention after application, stable residence on the injury during wound healing, and no use of toxic additives), was developed using biocompatible polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol copolymers (Pluronic F127/F68/P123 mixture). From the in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal study, it was observed that the Pluronic mixtures showed sol-gel transition at approximately body temperature (for easy injection or coating on the injury site and flowing down prevention after application) and prolonged residence stability in aqueous environment (> ∼7 days for stable protection of injury tissues/organs during wound healing), and thus was highly effective for the prevention of tissue adhesion without adverse tissue responses. Based on these results, the Pluronic F127/F68/P123 mixture itself (without any additives) can be a good candidate as an injectable or coatable tissue adhesion barrier hydrogel applicable to various injury tissues in terms of ease of use, effectiveness, and safety. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 172-182, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Use of hydrogels in the planting of industrial wood plantations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides an overview of the concepts of post-plant water stress, a review of trials that tested application of hydrogels to forest tree species, and discussion on probable reasons for failure or success in the use of hydrogels. Hydrogels applied in pot trials, under controlled conditions, tended to have a higher ...

  15. Natural fibers for hydrogels production and their applications in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna Cock

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on hydrogels applied to agriculture emphasizing on the use of natural fibers. The objectives were to examine, trends in research addressed to identify natural fibers used in hydrogels development and methods for modifying natural fibers, understand factors which determine the water retention capacity of a hydrogel. Consequently, this paper shows some methodologies used to evaluate the hydrogels efficiency and to collect in tables, relevant information in relation to methods of natural fibers modification and hydrogel synthesis. It was found that previous research focused on hydrogels development processed with biodegradable polymers such as starch, chitosan and modified natural fibers, cross-linked with potassium acrylate and acrylamide, respectively. In addition, current researches aimed to obtaining hydrogels with improved properties, which have allowed a resistance to climatic variations and soil physicochemical changes, such as pH, presence of salts, temperature and composition. In fact, natural fibers such as sugarcane, agave fiber and kapok fiber, modified with maleic anhydride, are an alternative to obtain hydrogels due to an increasing of mechanical properties and chemically active sites. However, the use of natural nanofibers in hydrogels, has been a successful proposal to improve hydrogels mechanical and swelling properties, since they give to material an elasticity and rigidity properties. A hydrogel efficiency applied to soil, is measured throughout properties as swellability, mechanical strength, and soil water retention. It was concluded that hydrogels, are an alternative to the current needs for the agricultural sector.

  16. Co-assembly of chitosan and phospholipids into hybrid hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Engwer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid hydrogels were formed by adding chitosan (Ch) to phospholipids (P) self-assembled particles in lactic acid. The effect of the phospholipid concentration on the hydrogel properties was investigated and was observed to affect the rate of hydrogel formation and viscoelastic properties...

  17. One pot synthesis of new poly(vinyl alcohol) blended natural polymer based magnetic hydrogel beads: Controlled natural anticancer alkaloid delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Mookkandi Palsamy; Ayyanaar, Srinivasan; Lenin, Nayagam; Sankarganesh, Murugesan; Dhaveethu Raja, Jeyaraj; Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban

    2018-02-01

    Facile one-pot synthesis has been demonstrated for new biocompatible and dual responsive magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended natural polymer chitosan (CS) based hydrogel beads (mCS-PVA) as a controlled natural anticancer alkaloid Luotonin A (LuA) delivery system. The prepared magnetic hydrogel beads were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction measurement, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic hydrogel beads are exhibited significant water retention and follow the second order kinetic model in swelling study. The swelling ratio of the magnetic gel beads increased by the addition of PVA and showed a maximum swelling ratio of 40.83 ± 1.01 g/g and follows non-Fickian water transport mechanism. Stimuli responsive mCS and mCS-PVA hydrogel beads functionalized with LuA is demonstrated for controlled release at physiological pH and under magnetic field. The magnetic hydrogel beads show highest LuA releasing efficacy at acidic medium (pH = 5.0) with maximum efficiency of 73.33 ± 1.44%. This efficacy may also be tuned by altering the external magnetic field as well as the weight percentage (wt %) of polyethylene glycol. It is clearly that the newly produced magnetic hydrogel beads can be served as an effective intestinal LuA delivery system. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 543-551, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Production of bioinspired and rationally designed polymer hydrogels for controlled delivery of therapeutic proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hye

    Hydrogel systems for controlled delivery therapeutic growth factors have been developed in a wide spectrum of strategies: these systems aim for the release of growth factors via a passive diffusion, electrostatic interaction, degradation of hydrogels, and responsiveness to external stimuli. Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), was employed for a targeted delivery system of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to endothelial cells overexpressing a relevant receptor VEGFR-2. Addition of dimeric VEGF to 4-arm star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) immobilized with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) afforded a non-covalently assembled hydrogel via interaction between heparin and VEGF, with storage modulus 10 Pa. The release of VEGF and hydrogel erosion reached maximum 100 % at day 4 in the presence of VEGFR-2 overexpressing pocine aortic endothelial cell (PAE/KDR), while those of 80% were achieved via passive release at day 5 in the presence of PAE cell lacking VEGFR-2 or in the absence of cell, indicating that the release of VEGF was in targeted manner toward cell receptor. The proliferation of PAE/KDR in the presence of [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel was greater by ca. 30% at day 4 compared to that of PAE, confirming that the release of VEGF was in response to the cellular demand. The phosphorylation fraction of VEGFR-2 on PAE/KDR was greater in the presence of [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel, increasing from 0.568 at day 1 to 0.790 at day 4, whereas it was maintained at 0.230 at day 4 in the presence of [PEG-LMWH] hydrogel. This study has proven that this hydrogel, assembled via bio-inspired non-covalent interaction, liberating VEGFon celluar demand to target cell, eroding upon VEGF release, and triggering endothelial cell proliferation, could be used in multiple applications including targeted delivery and angiogenesis. Heparin has been widely exploited in growth factor delivery systems owing to its ability to bind many growth factors through the flexible

  19. Excimer laser micropatterning of freestanding thermo-responsive hydrogel layers for cells-on-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina; Martello, Federico; Tocchio, Alessandro; Gassa, Federico; Webb, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel reliable and repeatable technologic manufacturing protocol for the realization of micro-patterned freestanding hydrogel layers based on thermo-responsive poly-(N-isopropyl)acrylamide (PNIPAAm), which have potential to be employed as temperature-triggered smart surfaces for cells-on-chip applications. PNIPAAm-based films with controlled mechanical properties and different thicknesses (100–300 µm thickness) were prepared by injection compression moulding at room temperature. A 9 × 9 array of 20 µm diameter through-holes is machined by means of the KrF excimer laser on dry PNIPAAm films which are physically attached to flat polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrates. Machining parameters, such as fluence and number of shots, are optimized in order to achieve highly resolved features. Micro-structured freestanding films are then easily obtained after hydrogels are detached from PVC by gradually promoting the film swelling in ethanol. In the PNIPAAm water-swollen state, the machined holes’ diameter approaches a slight larger value (30 µm) according to the measured hydrogel swelling ratio. Thermo-responsive behaviour and through-hole tapering characterization are carried out by metrology measurements using an optical inverted and confocal microscope setup, respectively. After the temperature of freestanding films is raised above 32 °C, we observe that the shrinkage of the whole through-hole array occurs, thus reducing the holes’ diameter to less than a half its original size (about 15 µm) as a consequence of the film dehydration. Different holes’ diameters (10 and 30 µm) are also obtained on dry hydrogel employing suitable projection masks, showing similar shrinking behaviour when hydrated and undergone thermo-response tests. Thermo-responsive PNIPAAm-based freestanding layers could then be integrated with other suitable micro-fabricated thermoplastic components in order to preliminary test their feasibility in operating as temperature

  20. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Wei, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  1. Biocompatible Porous Polyester-Ether Hydrogel Scaffolds with Cross-Linker Mediated Biodegradation and Mechanical Properties for Tissue Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkay Ozcelik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Porous polyester-ether hydrogel scaffolds (PEHs were fabricated using acid chloride/alcohol chemistry and a salt templating approach. The PEHs were produced from readily available and cheap commercial reagents via the reaction of hydroxyl terminated poly(ethylene glycol (PEG derivatives with sebacoyl, succinyl, or trimesoyl chloride to afford ester cross-links between the PEG chains. Through variation of the acid chloride cross-linkers used in the synthesis and the incorporation of a hydrophobic modifier (poly(caprolactone (PCL, it was possible to tune the degradation rates and mechanical properties of the resulting hydrogels. Several of the hydrogel formulations displayed exceptional mechanical properties, remaining elastic without fracture at compressive strains of up to 80%, whilst still displaying degradation over a period of weeks to months. A subcutaneous rat model was used to study the scaffolds in vivo and revealed that the PEHs were infiltrated with well vascularised tissue within two weeks and had undergone significant degradation in 16 weeks without any signs of toxicity. Histological evaluation for immune responses revealed that the PEHs incite only a minor inflammatory response that is reduced over 16 weeks with no evidence of adverse effects.

  2. A thermo-responsive and photo-polymerizable chondroitin sulfate-based hydrogel for 3D printing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbadessa, A; Blokzijl, M M; Mouser, V H M; Marica, P; Malda, J; Hennink, W E; Vermonden, T

    2016-09-20

    The aim of this study was to design a hydrogel system based on methacrylated chondroitin sulfate (CSMA) and a thermo-sensitive poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-mono/dilactate)-polyethylene glycol triblock copolymer (M15P10) as a suitable material for additive manufacturing of scaffolds. CSMA was synthesized by reaction of chondroitin sulfate with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) in dimethylsulfoxide at 50°C and its degree of methacrylation was tunable up to 48.5%, by changing reaction time and GMA feed. Unlike polymer solutions composed of CSMA alone (20% w/w), mixtures based on 2% w/w of CSMA and 18% of M15P10 showed strain-softening, thermo-sensitive and shear-thinning properties more pronounced than those found for polymer solutions based on M15P10 alone. Additionally, they displayed a yield stress of 19.2±7.0Pa. The 3D printing of this hydrogel resulted in the generation of constructs with tailorable porosity and good handling properties. Finally, embedded chondrogenic cells remained viable and proliferating over a culture period of 6days. The hydrogel described herein represents a promising biomaterial for cartilage 3D printing applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In Situ Forming, Cytocompatible, and Self-Recoverable Tough Hydrogels Based on Dual Ionic and Click Cross-Linked Alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanian, Mohammad Hossein; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein

    2018-05-14

    A dual cross-linking strategy was developed to answer the urgent need for fatigue-resistant, cytocompatible, and in situ forming tough hydrogels. Clickable, yet calcium-binding derivatives of alginate were synthesized by partial substitution of its carboxyl functionalities with furan, which could come into Diels-Alder click reaction with maleimide end groups of a four arm poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linker. Tuning the cooperative viscoelastic action of transient ionic and permanent click cross-links within the single network of alginate provided a soft tough hydrogel with a set of interesting features: (i) immediate self-recovery under cyclic loading, (ii) highly efficient and autonomous self-healing upon fracture, (iii) in situ forming ability for molding and minimally invasive injection, (iv) capability for viable cell encapsulation, and (v) reactivity for on-demand biomolecule conjugation. The facile strategy is applicable to a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers by introducing the calcium binding and click reacting functional groups and can broaden the use of tough hydrogels in load-bearing, cell-laden applications such as soft tissue engineering and bioactuators.

  4. Sync-measurement experimental study of (fluoroethane + dimethylether tetraethylene glycol), (fluoroethane + dimethylether triethylene glycol) and (fluoroethane + dimethylether diethylene glycol) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lejun; Zheng, Danxing; Huang, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three new working pairs are proposed for absorption power cycle. • Sync-measured the solubility and absorption enthalpy data at 303.15 K. • Thermokinetic experiment is consistent with the previous thermodynamics study. - Abstract: In this work, three new working pairs, {fluoroethane (HFC161) + dimethylether tetraethylene glycol (DMETEG)}, {HFC161 + dimethylether triethylene glycol (DMETrEG)} and {HFC161 + dimethylether diethylene glycol (DMEDEG)}, are proposed for absorption power cycle. The working pairs are assessed from both thermodynamics and thermokinetic perspective. By combining the microcalorimetry and isothermal synthesis methods, an experimental apparatus was developed to simultaneously obtain the microcalorimetry and vapour–liquid equilibrium data. Then, the solubility and absorption enthalpy data of the three new working pairs were sync-measured at 303.15 K by this sync-measurement experimental apparatus. The thermodynamics data indicated that the affinities of the three working pairs increased from strong to weak in the following order: HFC161 + DMETEG > HFC161 + DMETrEG > HFC161 + DMEDEG. Then the thermokinetic parameters of the absorption rate constant and activation energy were analysed based on the thermokinetic experiment at (303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. As a result, the affinities of the three working pairs are consistent with the previous thermodynamics study. In addition, the intermolecular interactions within the three systems were analysed according to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds; overall, the (HFC161 + DMETEG) system is considered to be the potential option for applications.

  5. Changes in myopia with low-Dk hydrogel and high-Dk silicone hydrogel extended wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Isabelle; Stretton, Serina; Naduvilath, Thomas; Holden, Brien; Keay, Lisa; Sweeney, Deborah

    2004-08-01

    This study compared changes in myopia between wearers of high-oxygen permeability (Dk) silicone hydrogel lenses and low-Dk hydrogel lenses after 1 year of extended wear (EW). Ninety-two adult subjects were randomly assigned to a lens type. Subjective refraction and autokeratometry were performed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. After 6 months of EW, myopia (spherical equivalent) regressed by 0.18 +/- 0.33 D (p Dk silicone hydrogel group and progressed by -0.23 +/- 0.36 D (p Dk hydrogel group. There were no further changes after 12 months. Previous lens wear history, baseline refractive error, and age and gender did not have an impact on the change in myopia, and only 35% of the variation could be accounted for by changes in corneal curvature and lens type. Soft contact lens type significantly affects the direction of change in myopia during EW. We hypothesize that these changes are driven by pressure-related redistribution of corneal tissue in high-Dk silicone hydrogel lens wearers and by hypoxia-associated corneal thinning in low-Dk hydrogel wearers. More long-term studies are required to confirm whether the effects of high-Dk silicone hydrogel lens wear on myopia are permanent.

  6. Benchtop fabrication of PDMS microstructures by an unconventional photolithographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Chang Mo; Sim, Woo Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Foudeh, Amir M; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microstructures have been widely used in bio-microelectromechanical systems (bio-MEMS) for various types of analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, PDMS-based soft lithographic techniques still use conventional microfabrication processes to generate a master mold, which requires access to clean room facilities and costly equipment. With the increasing use of these systems in various fields, the development of benchtop systems for fabricating microdevices is emerging as an important challenge in their widespread use. Here we demonstrate a simple, low-cost and rapid method to fabricate PDMS microstructures by using micropatterned poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) master molds. In this method, PEGDA microstructures were patterned on a glass substrate by photolithography under ambient conditions and by using simple tools. The resulting PEGDA structures were subsequently used to generate PDMS microstructures by standard molding in a reproducible and repeatable manner. The thickness of the PEGDA microstructures was controllable from 15 to 300 μm by using commonly available spacer materials. We also demonstrate the use of this method to fabricate microfluidic channels capable of generating concentration gradients. In addition, we fabricated PEGDA microstructures by photolithography from the light generated from commonly available laminar cell culture hood. These data suggest that this approach could be beneficial for fabricating low-cost PDMS-based microdevices in resource limited settings.

  7. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  8. Surface Friction of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Nicholas; Burton, Justin

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel particles have recently become a popular system for modeling low-friction, granular materials near the jamming transition. Because a gel consists of a polymer network filled with solvent, its frictional behavior is often explained using a combination of hydrodynamic lubrication and polymer-surface interactions. As a result, the frictional coefficient can vary between 0.001 and 0.03 depending on several factors such as contact area, sliding velocity, normal force, and the gel surface chemistry. Most tribological measurements of hydrogels utilize two flat surfaces, where the contact area is not well-defined. We have built a custom, low-force tribometer to measure the single-contact frictional properties of spherical hydrogel particles on flat hydrogel surfaces under a variety of measurement conditions. At high velocities (> 1 cm/s), the friction coefficient depends linearly on velocity, but does not tend to zero at zero velocity. We also compare our measurements to solid particles (steel, glass, etc.) on hydrogel surfaces, which exhibit larger frictional forces, and show less dependence on velocity. A physical model for the friction which includes the lubrication layer between the deformed surfaces will be discussed. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1506446.

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on polyvinylpyrrolidone hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.J.A.; Vásquez, P.A.S.; Alcântara, M.T.S.; Munhoz, M.M.L.; Lugão, A.B., E-mail: mariajhho@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br, E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hydrogels have been investigated as drug delivery matrices for the treatment of wounds, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis, and matrices with silver nanoparticles for chronic wounds and burns. The preparation of such hydrogels can occur by various cross-linking methods, such as gamma, chemical, physical, among others. The most feasible for wound dressings is gamma irradiation from cobalt-60, because gamma irradiation simultaneously promotes crosslinking and sterilization, leaving the wound dressing ready for use. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect on physico- chemical properties of gamma radiation on PVP hydrogel according to the radiation absorbed dose variation. The PVP hydrogels were irradiated with doses of 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 and 95kGy at dose rate of 5 kGy/h and characterized by swelling, thermogravimetric and mechanical analysis. Results shown a favorable dose range window for processing of these hydrogels related to the application. The results showed that mechanical strength was affected at doses starting at 25 kGy. (author)

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on polyvinylpyrrolidone hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.J.A.; Vásquez, P.A.S.; Alcântara, M.T.S.; Munhoz, M.M.L.; Lugão, A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hydrogels have been investigated as drug delivery matrices for the treatment of wounds, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis, and matrices with silver nanoparticles for chronic wounds and burns. The preparation of such hydrogels can occur by various cross-linking methods, such as gamma, chemical, physical, among others. The most feasible for wound dressings is gamma irradiation from cobalt-60, because gamma irradiation simultaneously promotes crosslinking and sterilization, leaving the wound dressing ready for use. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect on physico- chemical properties of gamma radiation on PVP hydrogel according to the radiation absorbed dose variation. The PVP hydrogels were irradiated with doses of 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 and 95kGy at dose rate of 5 kGy/h and characterized by swelling, thermogravimetric and mechanical analysis. Results shown a favorable dose range window for processing of these hydrogels related to the application. The results showed that mechanical strength was affected at doses starting at 25 kGy. (author)

  11. Controlled release studies of calcium alginate hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendevski, S.; Andonovski, A.; Mahmudi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Controlled release of substances in many cases may be achieved from calcium alginate hydrogels. In this research, the time dependence of the mass of released model substance bovine serum albumin (BSA) from calcium alginate spherical hydrogels of three different types (G/M ratio) have been investigated. The hydrogels were prepared with the drop-wise method of sodium alginate aqueous solutions with concentration of 0.02 g/cm 3 with 0.01 g/cm 3 BSA and a gelling water bath of chitosan in 0.2 M CH 3 COOH/0.4 M CH 3 COONa with added 0.2 M CaCl 2 .The hydrogel structures were characterized by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The controlled release studies were conducted by UV-Vis spectrophotometry of the released medium with p H=7 at 37 °C. The results showed that the model of osmotic pumping is the dominant mechanism of the release. Also, large dependences of the release profile on the homogeneity of the hydrogels were found. (Author)

  12. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka

    2015-01-01

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection

  13. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y., E-mail: Ildiko.Toth@chem.u-szeged.hu; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2015-04-15

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection.

  14. Therapeutic application of injectable thermosensitive hydrogel in preventing local breast cancer recurrence and improving incision wound healing in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Na; Gong, Changyang; Qian, Zhiyong; Luo, Feng; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Helan; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-08-01

    Many drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been investigated for local targeting of malignant disease with the intention of increasing anti-tumor activity and minimizing systemic toxicity. An injectable thermosensitive hydrogel was applied to prevent locoregional recurrence of 4T1 breast cancer in a mouse model. The presented hydrogel, which is based on poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE), flows freely at normal temperature, forms a gel within seconds in situ at body temperature, and eventually releases the drug in a consistent and sustained fashion as it gradually biodegrades. Locoregional recurrence after primary tumor removal was significantly inhibited in mice treated with the paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PECE hydrogel subcutaneously (9.1%) administered, compared with the blank hydrogel (80.0%), systemic (77.8%) and locally (75.0%) administered PTX, and the control group (100%) (P 0.05), in agreement with histopathological examinations. This novel DDSs represents a promising approach for local adjuvant therapy in malignant disease.

  15. Penetration enhancer: monoethylether of diethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.; Kassai, Z.; Bohacik, L.; Bezek, S.; Hadcrafft, J.; Falson-Rieg, F.

    1999-01-01

    The monoethylether of diethylene glycol (Transcutol), an excellent solubilising agent, has been suggested as a penetration enhancer compatible with trans-dermal drug delivery systems. Using the abdominal skin of 5 day old rats and Franz-type diffusion cells the following topics were studied in this contribution: (1) Flux of Transcutol, labelled with [Ethyl- 14 C]-ether, across an intact skin model, (2) Changes in properties of the skin barrier after stripping with adhesive tape, and (3) Changes in flux of Transcutol when mixed with different co-solvents. The flux from pure solvent in donor compartment reached around 50 μg cm -2 hr -1 across the intact skin horny layer, whilst after 12 strips the flux increased about 200 times. In the presence of propylene glycol dipelargonate, the flux over 2 mg cm -2 hr -1 across non stripped skin was achieved. (authors)

  16. Aptamer-based hydrogel barcodes for the capture and detection of multiple types of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueshuang; Wang, Huan; Luan, Chengxin; Liu, Yuxiao; Chen, Baoan; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2018-02-15

    Rapid and sensitive diagnosing hematological infections based on the separation and detection of pathogenic bacteria in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. To address this, we herein present a new barcodes technology that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of pathogenic bacteria from a complex sample. The barcodes are poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel inverse opal particles with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during bacteria capture on their surfaces. As the spherical surface of the particles has ordered porous nanostructure, the barcodes can provide not only more surface area for probe immobilization and reaction, but also a nanopatterned platform for highly efficient bioreactions. In addition, the PEG hydrogel scaffold could decrease the non-specificity adsorption by its anti-adhesive effect, and the decorated aptamer probes in the scaffolds could increase the sensitivity, reliability, and specificity of the bacteria capture and detection. Moreover, the tagged magnetic nanoparticles in the PEG scaffold could impart the barcodes with controllable movement under magnetic fields, which can be used to significantly increase the reaction speed and simplify the processing of the bioassays. Based on the describe barcodes, it was demonstrated that the bacteria could be captured and identified even at low bacterial concentrations (100 CFU mL -1 ) within 2.5h, which is effectively shortened in comparison with the "gold standard" in clinic. These features make the barcodes ideal for capturing and detecting multiple bacteria from clinical samples for hematological infection diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Carboxylic Terminated Thermo-Responsive Copolymer Hydrogel and Improvement in Peptide Release Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Kun Rao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the release profile of peptide drugs, thermos-responsive triblock copolymer poly (ε-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone-b-poly (ethylene glycol-b-poly (ε-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone (PECP was prepared and end capped by succinic anhydride to give its carboxylic terminated derivative. Both PCEP block copolymer and its end group modified derivative showed temperature-dependent reversible sol-gel transition in water. The carboxylic end group could significantly decrease the sol-gel transition temperature by nearly 10 °C and strengthen the gel due to enhanced intermolecular force among triblock copolymer chains. Furthermore, compared with the original PECP triblock copolymer, HOOC–PECP–COOH copolymer displayed a retarded and sustained release profile for leuprorelin acetate over one month while effectively avoiding the initial burst. The controlled release was believed to be related to the formation of conjugated copolymer-peptide pair by ionic interaction and enhanced solubility of drug molecules into the hydrophobic domains of the hydrogel. Therefore, carboxyl terminated HOOC–PECP–COOH hydrogel was a promising and well-exhibited sustained release carrier for peptide drugs with the advantage of being able to develop injectable formulation by simple mixing.

  18. Accelerated in vitro release testing of implantable PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J

    2012-01-17

    Dexamethasone loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites have been investigated as an outer drug-eluting coating for implantable devices such as glucose sensors to counter negative tissue responses to implants. The objective of this study was to develop a discriminatory, accelerated in vitro release testing method for this drug-eluting coating using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 4. Polymer degradation and drug release kinetics were investigated under "real-time" and accelerated conditions (i.e. extreme pH, hydro-alcoholic solutions and elevated temperatures). Compared to "real-time" conditions, the initial burst and lag phases were similar using hydro-alcoholic solutions and extreme pH conditions, while the secondary apparent zero-order release phase was slightly accelerated. Elevated temperatures resulted in a significant acceleration of dexamethasone release. The accelerated release data were able to predict "real-time" release when applying the Arrhenius equation. Microsphere batches with faster and slower release profiles were investigated under "real-time" and elevated temperature (60°C) conditions to determine the discriminatory ability of the method. The results demonstrated both the feasibility and the discriminatory ability of this USP apparatus 4 method for in vitro release testing of drug loaded PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites. This method may be appropriate for similar drug/device combination products and drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Poly(n-isopropylacrylamide)-based hydrogel coatings on magnetite nanoparticles via atom transfer radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frimpong, Reynolds A; Hilt, J Zach [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)], E-mail: hilt@engr.uky.edu

    2008-04-30

    Core magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles have been functionalized with a model intelligent hydrogel system based on the temperature responsive polymer poly(n-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) to obtain magnetically responsive core-shell nanocomposites. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were obtained from a one-pot co-precipitation method which provided either oleic acid (hydrophobic) or citric acid (hydrophilic) coated nanoparticles. Subsequent ligand exchange of these coatings with various bromine alkyl halides and a bromo silane provided initiating sites for functionalization with NIPAAm using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The bromine alkyl halides that were used were 2-bromo-2-methyl propionic acid (BMPA) and 2-bromopropionyl bromide (BPB). The bromo silane that was used was 3-bromopropyl trimethoxysilane (BPTS). The intelligent polymeric shell consists of NIPAAm crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol) 400 dimethacrylate (PEG400DMA). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to confirm the presence of the polymeric shell. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to characterize the nanocomposites for particle size changes with temperature. Their magnetic and temperature responsiveness show great promise for further biomedical applications. This platform for functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles with intelligent hydrogels promises to impact a wide range of medical and biological applications of magnetic nanoparticles.

  20. Mechanically Reinforced Catechol-Containing Hydrogels with Improved Tissue Gluing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Feng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In situ forming hydrogels with catechol groups as tissue reactive functionalities are interesting bioinspired materials for tissue adhesion. Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG–catechol tissue glues have been intensively investigated for this purpose. Different cross-linking mechanisms (oxidative or metal complexation and cross-linking conditions (pH, oxidant concentration, etc. have been studied in order to optimize the curing kinetics and final cross-linking degree of the system. However, reported systems still show limited mechanical stability, as expected from a PEG network, and this fact limits their potential application to load bearing tissues. Here, we describe mechanically reinforced PEG–catechol adhesives showing excellent and tunable cohesive properties and adhesive performance to tissue in the presence of blood. We used collagen/PEG mixtures, eventually filled with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The composite hydrogels show far better mechanical performance than the individual components. It is noteworthy that the adhesion strength measured on skin covered with blood was >40 kPa, largely surpassing (>6 fold the performance of cyanoacrylate, fibrin, and PEG–catechol systems. Moreover, the mechanical and interfacial properties could be easily tuned by slight changes in the composition of the glue to adapt them to the particular properties of the tissue. The reported adhesive compositions can tune and improve cohesive and adhesive properties of PEG–catechol-based tissue glues for load-bearing surgery applications.

  1. Poly(n-isopropylacrylamide)-based hydrogel coatings on magnetite nanoparticles via atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, Reynolds A; Hilt, J Zach

    2008-01-01

    Core magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles have been functionalized with a model intelligent hydrogel system based on the temperature responsive polymer poly(n-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) to obtain magnetically responsive core-shell nanocomposites. Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were obtained from a one-pot co-precipitation method which provided either oleic acid (hydrophobic) or citric acid (hydrophilic) coated nanoparticles. Subsequent ligand exchange of these coatings with various bromine alkyl halides and a bromo silane provided initiating sites for functionalization with NIPAAm using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The bromine alkyl halides that were used were 2-bromo-2-methyl propionic acid (BMPA) and 2-bromopropionyl bromide (BPB). The bromo silane that was used was 3-bromopropyl trimethoxysilane (BPTS). The intelligent polymeric shell consists of NIPAAm crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol) 400 dimethacrylate (PEG400DMA). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to confirm the presence of the polymeric shell. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to characterize the nanocomposites for particle size changes with temperature. Their magnetic and temperature responsiveness show great promise for further biomedical applications. This platform for functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles with intelligent hydrogels promises to impact a wide range of medical and biological applications of magnetic nanoparticles

  2. Rapid 3D printing of anatomically accurate and mechanically heterogeneous aortic valve hydrogel scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, L A; Kang, K H; Colangelo, N W; Cheung, P Y C; Duan, B; Wu, J; Bonassar, L J; Butcher, J T; Malone, E; Lipson, H; Girardi, L N; Chu, C C

    2012-01-01

    The aortic valve exhibits complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and heterogeneity essential for the long-term efficient biomechanical function. These are, however, challenging to mimic in de novo engineered living tissue valve strategies. We present a novel simultaneous 3D printing/photocrosslinking technique for rapidly engineering complex, heterogeneous aortic valve scaffolds. Native anatomic and axisymmetric aortic valve geometries (root wall and tri-leaflets) with 12–22 mm inner diameters (ID) were 3D printed with poly-ethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels (700 or 8000 MW) supplemented with alginate. 3D printing geometric accuracy was quantified and compared using Micro-CT. Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVIC) seeded scaffolds were cultured for up to 21 days. Results showed that blended PEG-DA scaffolds could achieve over tenfold range in elastic modulus (5.3±0.9 to 74.6±1.5 kPa). 3D printing times for valve conduits with mechanically contrasting hydrogels were optimized to 14 to 45 min, increasing linearly with conduit diameter. Larger printed valves had greater shape fidelity (93.3±2.6, 85.1±2.0 and 73.3±5.2% for 22, 17 and 12 mm ID porcine valves; 89.1±4.0, 84.1±5.6 and 66.6±5.2% for simplified valves). PAVIC seeded scaffolds maintained near 100% viability over 21 days. These results demonstrate that 3D hydrogel printing with controlled photocrosslinking can rapidly fabricate anatomical heterogeneous valve conduits that support cell engraftment. (paper)

  3. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: jafeli@iq.unesp.br [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  4. Poly(ethylene glycol) interactions with proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 613-618 ISSN 0044-2968. [European Powder Diffraction Conference /9./. Prague, 02.09.2004-05.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * PEO * protein-polymer interaction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  5. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe 3 O 4 with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g −1 and 131 emu g −1 , respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  6. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for hydrogel characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Erik; Harling, Steffen; Poehlig, Kai; Ludwig, Frank; Menzel, Henning; Schilling, Meinhard

    2007-01-01

    A new characterization method for hydrogels based on the relaxation behavior of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is proposed. MNPs are incorporated in the hydrogel to examine its network properties. By analyzing their relaxation behavior, incorporated and mobile nanoparticles can be studied. In the case of mobile nanoparticles, the microviscosity of the hydrogel can be determined. Thus, this method allows the studying of gelation as well as the degradation process of hydrogels. Furthermore, the hydrogel can have any shape (e.g. microspheres or larger blocks) and no sample preparation is needed, avoiding artefacts

  7. Radiation synthesis and characterization of polyacrylic acid hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingcheng; Song Hongyan; Zhu Chengshen; He Suqin

    2007-01-01

    The pH-sensitive polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogels were synthesized by gamma-ray irradiation at an ambient temperature. The influences of dose, monomer concentration, cross-linking agent content, pH, and ionic strength on the swelling ratio (SR) of the PAA hydrogels were investigated in detail. The results show that the SR of the hydrogel decreases with an increase in the dose, monomer concentration, and cross-linking agent content. In alkaline solution, the SR of the hydrogels is much higher than that in acid solution. Also, the ionic strength can influence the SR of the hydrogels. The more the concentration, the lower the SR. (authors)

  8. Production of hydrogel wound dressing by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Kazuki

    2008-01-01

    It has been thought that making a dry scab helps to cure a wound faster. However, recently a treatment of a wound according to moist healing theory which cure a wound without making a scab is becoming popular. Accordingly, we prepared a highly stable sheet type hydrogel in a short period by radiating electron beam to an aqueous solution of a polymer. The hydrogel is not soluble in water and keeps suitable moist environment for wound healing. Therefore, a hydrogel a wound dressing, Viewgel R in which represents a registered trademark and is referred to Viewgel hereinafter, is developed and released from July of 2004. In this paper we report the process of the development of Viewgel. (author)

  9. Synthesis and characterization of anisotropic magnetic hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.hinrichs@chemie.uni-hamburg.de; Nun, Nils; Fischer, Birgit, E-mail: birgit.fischer@chemie.uni-hamburg.de

    2017-06-01

    Multiresponsive hydrogels are an interesting new class of materials. They offer the advantage, that they respond to different stimuli like temperature, pH and magnetic fields. By this they can change their properties which makes the hydrogels ideal candidates for many applications in the technical as well as medical field. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of hydrogels - micro- as well as macrogels - which consist of an iron oxide core, varying in phase and morphology, embedded in a thermoresponsive polymer, consisting of poly N-isopropylacrylamide. By using dynamic light scattering we investigated the thermoresponsive properties. In addition we were able to follow the formation of the macrogel by monitoring the shear viscosity.

  10. Gradient Material Strategies for Hydrogel Optimization in Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of combinatorial/high-throughput approaches have been developed for biomaterial hydrogel optimization, a gradient sample approach is particularly well suited to identify hydrogel property thresholds that alter cellular behavior in response to interacting with the hydrogel due to reduced variation in material preparation and the ability to screen biological response over a range instead of discrete samples each containing only one condition. This review highlights recent work on cell–hydrogel interactions using a gradient material sample approach. Fabrication strategies for composition, material and mechanical property, and bioactive signaling gradient hydrogels that can be used to examine cell–hydrogel interactions will be discussed. The effects of gradients in hydrogel samples on cellular adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation will then be examined, providing an assessment of the current state of the field and the potential of wider use of the gradient sample approach to accelerate our understanding of matrices on cellular behavior. PMID:29485612

  11. pH-Sensitive Hydrogel for Micro-Fluidic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhi Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The deformation behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel micro-fluidic valve system is investigated using inhomogeneous gel deformation theory, in which the fluid-structure interaction (FSI of the gel solid and fluid flow in the pipe is considered. We use a finite element method with a well adopted hydrogel constitutive equation, which is coded in commercial software, ABAQUS, to simulate the hydrogel valve swelling deformation, while FLUENT is adopted to model the fluid flow in the pipe of the hydrogel valve system. The study demonstrates that FSI significantly affects the gel swelling deformed shapes, fluid flow pressure and velocity patterns. FSI has to be considered in the study on fluid flow regulated by hydrogel microfluidic valve. The study provides a more accurate and adoptable model for future design of new pH-sensitive hydrogel valves, and also gives a useful guideline for further studies on hydrogel fluidic applications.

  12. 3D-Printable Bioactivated Nanocellulose-Alginate Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppiniemi, Jenni; Lahtinen, Panu; Paajanen, Antti; Mahlberg, Riitta; Metsä-Kortelainen, Sini; Pinomaa, Tatu; Pajari, Heikki; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Pursula, Pekka; Hytönen, Vesa P

    2017-07-05

    We describe herein a nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel suitable for 3D printing. The composition of the hydrogel was optimized based on material characterization methods and 3D printing experiments, and its behavior during the printing process was studied using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The hydrogel was biofunctionalized by the covalent coupling of an enhanced avidin protein to the cellulose nanofibrils. Ionic cross-linking of the hydrogel using calcium ions improved the performance of the material. The resulting hydrogel is suitable for 3D printing, its mechanical properties indicate good tissue compatibility, and the hydrogel absorbs water in moist conditions, suggesting potential in applications such as wound dressings. The biofunctionalization potential was shown by attaching a biotinylated fluorescent protein and a biotinylated fluorescent small molecule via avidin and monitoring the material using confocal microscopy. The 3D-printable bioactivated nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel offers a platform for the development of biomedical devices, wearable sensors, and drug-releasing materials.

  13. Thermoresponsive chitosan-agarose hydrogel for skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sónia P; Ribeiro, Maximiano P; Brancal, Hugo; Coutinho, Paula; Correia, Ilídio J

    2014-10-13

    Healing enhancement and pain control are critical issues on wound management. So far, different wound dressings have been developed. Among them, hydrogels are the most applied. Herein, a thermoresponsive hydrogel was produced using chitosan (deacetylation degree 95%) and agarose. Hydrogel bactericidal activity, biocompatibility, morphology, porosity and wettability were characterized by confocal microscopy, MTS assay and SEM. The performance of the hydrogel in the wound healing process was evaluated through in vivo assays, during 21 days. The attained results revealed that hydrogel has a pore size (90-400 μm) compatible with cellular internalization and proliferation. A bactericidal activity was observed for hydrogels containing more than 188 μg/mL of chitosan. The improved healing and the lack of a reactive or a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in skin lesions treated with hydrogel demonstrate its suitability to be used in a near future as a wound dressing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of hydrogels composites for potential use as biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gabriela T. da; Alves, Natali O.; Schulz, Gracelie A.S.; Fajardo, Andre R.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels, three-dimensional polymer networks that can absorb and retain impressive amounts of liquid, have shown a remarkable evolution in the past years. Since their first description, the hydrogels have replaced their inert characteristic by smart properties, which help enlarging the range of applicability of such soft materials in different fields. Hydrogels had been prepared from various polymers (including synthetic or natural or both), which allows obtaining materials with unique and desirable properties. This work deals with the preparation of hydrogels and hydrogel composites based on a synthetic/natural hybrid polymer network filled with bovine bone powder, which is composed mainly by hydroxyapatite (as inorganic phase) and collagen (as organic phase). The resulting materials were characterized by DRX, FTIR and TGA analyses. Additionally, water uptake capacity was estimated for both hydrogels and hydrogels composites samples by swelling assays. (author)

  15. Protein adsorption and cell adhesion on nanoscale bioactive coatings formed from poly(ethylene glycol) and albumin microgels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Evan A.; Nichols, Michael D.; Cordova, Lee H.; George, Brandon J.; Jun, Young-Shin; Elbert, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    Late-term thrombosis on drug-eluting stents is an emerging problem that might be addressed using extremely thin, biologically-active hydrogel coatings. We report a dip-coating strategy to covalently link poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to substrates, producing coatings with crosslinked microgels and deviation from Flory-Stockmayer theory. Before macrogelation, the reacting solutions were diluted and incubated with nucleophile-functionalized surfaces. Using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), we identified a highly hydrated, protein-resistant layer with a thickness of approximately 75 nm. Atomic force microscopy in buffered water revealed the presence of coalesced spheres of various sizes but with diameters less than about 100 nm. Microgel-coated glass or poly(ethylene terephthalate) exhibited reduced protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Cellular interactions with the surface could be controlled by using different proteins to cap unreacted vinylsulfone groups within the coating. PMID:18771802

  16. Development of a radiochromic ferric oligomer hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Kevin; Sekimoto, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Ferrous gelatin hydrogels were prepared by using sulphuric acid concentrations lower than required to maintain radiation induced ferric ions fully hydrated. The ferric hydroxyl species that are produced following irradiation exhibit a radiochromic response that can be probed with blue light. The dose distribution shapes were stable in time, indicating no long term diffusion. An over response to dose gradients was observed both in one centimeter cuvette samples and litre volumes probed with optical cone beam CT. This ferrous hydrogel may represent a model system for studying iron radiochemistry in biological systems.

  17. Hydrogel based QCM aptasensor for detection of avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) aptasensor based on ssDNA crosslinked polymeric hydrogel for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1. A selected aptamer with high affinity and specificity against AIV H5N1 surface protein was used, and hybridization between the aptamer and ssDNA formed the crosslinker in the polymer hydrogel. The aptamer hydrogel was immobilized on the gold surface of QCM sensor using a self-assembled monolayer method. The hydrogel remained in the state of shrink if no H5N1 virus was present in the sample because of the crosslinking between the aptamer and ssDNA in the polymer network. When it exposed to target virus, the binding reaction between the aptamer and H5N1 virus caused the dissolution of the linkage between the aptamer and ssDNA, resulting in the abrupt swelling of the hydrogel. The swollen hydrogel was monitored by the QCM sensor in terms of decreased frequency. Three polymeric hydrogels with different ratio (100:1 hydrogel I, 10:1 hydrogel II, 1:1 hydrogel III) of acrylamide and the aptamer monomer were synthesized, respectively, and then were used as the QCM sensor coating material. The results showed that the developed hydrogel QCM aptasensor was capable of detecting target H5N1 virus, and among the three developed aptamer hydrogels, hydrogel III coated QCM aptasensor achieved the highest sensitivity with the detection limit of 0.0128 HAU (HA unit). The total detection time from sampling to detection was only 30 min. In comparison with the anti-H5 antibody coated QCM immunosensor, the hydrogel QCM aptasensor lowered the detection limit and reduced the detection time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of gamma irradiation dose and concentration of laponite clay on Poly (N-Vinyl-2-Pyrrolidone) hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Vinicius J.; Zafalon, Angélica T.; Lugão, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels are polymeric biomaterials widely used in biomedicine and defined as an insoluble system of one or more crosslinked hydrophilic polymers, capable of absorbing large amounts of fluids without losing their physical integrity. Composed by one three-dimensional network of crosslinked polymer chains they can be synthesized by various physical and chemical methods including radiation. One of these methods is the gamma irradiation process, which forms the crosslinked network and sterilizes the material in a single step. In the biomedical field one of hydrogels applications is the transdermal dressings, these systems have an impact of great value in the treatment of wounds, as they can protect regions injured by burns, cuts and even chronic wounds. The association of clay to hydrogels promotes a modification of properties of these materials, such as swelling and gel fraction. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the swelling properties and gel fraction of hydrogels based on polymer formulation of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), poly (ethylene glycol), agar containing nano-clay laponite RD in Different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20%). The materials were mixed by stirring and heating and then processed by gamma radiation from Co-60 at doses of 10, 25, 50 and 70 kGy. To evaluate the gel fraction, the membranes were immersed in water for 3 weeks. The swelling was evaluated after 48 hours of immersion in distilled water at room temperature. It was observed that as the clay concentration increases regardless of the irradiation dose the amount of gel fraction decreased and the amount of water absorption increased. (author)

  19. Influence of gamma irradiation dose and concentration of laponite clay on Poly (N-Vinyl-2-Pyrrolidone) hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Vinicius J.; Zafalon, Angélica T.; Lugão, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: vinicius.jusan@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogels are polymeric biomaterials widely used in biomedicine and defined as an insoluble system of one or more crosslinked hydrophilic polymers, capable of absorbing large amounts of fluids without losing their physical integrity. Composed by one three-dimensional network of crosslinked polymer chains they can be synthesized by various physical and chemical methods including radiation. One of these methods is the gamma irradiation process, which forms the crosslinked network and sterilizes the material in a single step. In the biomedical field one of hydrogels applications is the transdermal dressings, these systems have an impact of great value in the treatment of wounds, as they can protect regions injured by burns, cuts and even chronic wounds. The association of clay to hydrogels promotes a modification of properties of these materials, such as swelling and gel fraction. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the swelling properties and gel fraction of hydrogels based on polymer formulation of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), poly (ethylene glycol), agar containing nano-clay laponite RD in Different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20%). The materials were mixed by stirring and heating and then processed by gamma radiation from Co-60 at doses of 10, 25, 50 and 70 kGy. To evaluate the gel fraction, the membranes were immersed in water for 3 weeks. The swelling was evaluated after 48 hours of immersion in distilled water at room temperature. It was observed that as the clay concentration increases regardless of the irradiation dose the amount of gel fraction decreased and the amount of water absorption increased. (author)

  20. Development of (acrylic acid/ polyethylene glycol)-zinc oxide mucoadhesive nanocomposites for buccal administration of propranolol HCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ghada A.; Ali, Amr El-Hag; Raafat, Amany I.; Badawy, Nagwa A.; Elshahawy, Mai. F.

    2018-06-01

    A series of mucoadhesive nanocomposites with self disinfection properties composed of acrylic acid, polyethylene glycol and ZnO nanoparticles (AAc/PEG)-ZnO were developed for localized buccal Propranolol HCl delivery. γ-irradiation as a clean tool for graft copolymerization process was used for the preparation of (AAc/PEG) hydrogels. In suite precipitation technique was used for ZnO nanoparticles immobilization within (AAc/PEG) hydrogels. The developed (AAc/PEG)-ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometer, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to confirm the success of ZnO nanoparticles formation within the (AAc/PEG) matrices. The presence of ZnO nanoparticles improves the thermal stability as indicated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mucoadhesion characteristics such as hydration degree, surface pH, and mucoadhesive strength were evaluated in artificial saliva solution. The self disinfection property of the developed (AAc/PEG)-ZnO nanocomposites was investigated by examining their resistance to pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli using disc diffusion method. The release of Propranolol -HCl drug in artificial saliva was found to obey a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The obtained results suggests that (AAc/PEG)-ZnO nanocomposites could be used as mucoadhesive carrier for buccal drug delivery with efficient antibacterial properties.

  1. Radiation-grafting of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate and oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate onto polypropylene films by one step method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, Alejandro [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bucio, Emilio, E-mail: ebucio@nucleares.unam.mx [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    Polypropylene films were modified with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) using the pre-irradiation method with gamma-rays (one step method). The effect of absorbed dose from 10 to 100 kGy, temperature (50, 60, and 70 {sup o}C), monomer concentration between 12.5% and 62.5%, monomers ratio from 10% to 90% and reaction time from 5 to 50 h; on the degree of grafting was determined. The grafted samples were analyzed by FTIR-ATR, TGA, DSC, swelling, and contact angle. Grafts onto polymeric films between 3% and 109% were obtained at doses from 10 to 100 kGy and a dose rate around 7.4 kGy/h. The graft percent increased with the content in HEMA in the HEMA:OEGMA feed mixture, which indicates a lower reactivity of OEGMA compared to HEMA. The hydrogel layer grafted on the polypropylene substrate increases the hydrophilicity of the surface and also provides certain temperature-responsiveness, which may be of interest for biomedical applications. - Highlights: > PP was grafted with a hydrogel layer applying the {gamma}-ray pre-irradiation method. > Effects of radiation dose, time, temperature and monomers concentration were evaluated. > Grafted layer increases the hydrophilicity of PP films. > HEMA and OEGMA grafted onto PP may be of interest for biomedical applications.

  2. Tunable separations based on a molecular size effect for biomolecules by poly(ethylene glycol) gel-based capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takuya; Nishimura, Naoki; Furuta, Hayato; Kubota, Kei; Naito, Toyohiro; Otsuka, Koji

    2017-11-10

    We report novel capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels for the effective separations of biomolecules containing sugars and DNAs based on a molecular size effect. The gel capillaries were prepared in a fused silica capillary modified with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate using a variety of the PEG-based hydrogels. After the fundamental evaluations in CGE regarding the separation based on the molecular size effect depending on the crosslinking density, the optimized capillary provided the efficient separation of glucose ladder (G1 to G20). In addition, another capillary showed the successful separation of DNA ladder in the range of 10-1100 base pair, which is superior to an authentic acrylamide-based gel capillary. For both glucose and DNA ladders, the separation ranges against the molecular size were simply controllable by alteration of the concentration and/or units of ethylene oxide in the PEG-based crosslinker. Finally, we demonstrated the separations of real samples, which included sugars carved out from monoclonal antibodies, mAbs, and then the efficient separations based on the molecular size effect were achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial adhesion to conventional hydrogel and new silicone-hydrogel contact lens materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjikian, Laurent; Casoli-Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Malet, Florence; Janin-Manificat, Hélène; Freney, Jean; Burillon, Carole; Colin, Joseph; Steghens, Jean-Paul

    2008-02-01

    As bacterial adhesion to contact lenses may contribute to the pathogenesis of keratitis, the aim of our study was to investigate in vitro adhesion of clinically relevant bacteria to conventional hydrogel (standard HEMA) and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses using a bioluminescent ATP assay. Four types of unworn contact lenses (Etafilcon A, Galyfilcon A, Balafilcon A, Lotrafilcon B) were incubated with Staphylococcus epidermidis (two different strains) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Lenses were placed with the posterior surface facing up and were incubated in the bacterial suspension for 4 hours at 37 degrees C. Bacterial binding was then measured and studied by bioluminescent ATP assay. Six replicate experiments were performed for each lens and strain. Adhesion of all species of bacteria to standard HEMA contact lenses (Etafilcon A) was found to be significantly lower than that of three types of silicone-hydrogel contact lenses, whereas Lotrafilcon B material showed the highest level of bacterial binding. Differences between species in the overall level of adhesion to the different types of contact lenses were observed. Adhesion of P. aeruginosa was typically at least 20 times greater than that observed with both S. epidermidis strains. Conventional hydrogel contact lenses exhibit significantly lower bacterial adhesion in vitro than silicone-hydrogel ones. This could be due to the greater hydrophobicity but also to the higher oxygen transmissibility of silicone-hydrogel lenses.

  4. Hydrogels in a historical perspective: From simple networks to smart materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, S.J.; Boere, K.W.M.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Vermonden, T.; Hennink, W.E.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made in the field of hydrogels as functional biomaterials. Biomedical application of hydrogels was initially hindered by the toxicity of crosslinking agents and limitations of hydrogel formation under physiological conditions. Emerging knowledge

  5. Hydrogels in a historical perspective : From simple networks to smart materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, Sytze J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339146850; Boere, Kristel W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018093; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Vermonden, Tina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/275124517; Hennink, Wim E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070880409

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made in the field of hydrogels as functional biomaterials. Biomedical application of hydrogels was initially hindered by the toxicity of crosslinking agents and limitations of hydrogel formation under physiological conditions. Emerging knowledge

  6. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for efficient ethylene glycol utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franden, Mary Ann; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Li, Wing-Jin; Wagner, Neil J; Cleveland, Nicholas S; Michener, William E; Hauer, Bernhard; Blank, Lars M; Wierckx, Nick; Klebensberger, Janosch; Beckham, Gregg T

    2018-06-07

    Ethylene glycol is used as a raw material in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, in antifreeze, as a gas hydrate inhibitor in pipelines, and for many other industrial applications. It is metabolized by aerobic microbial processes via the highly toxic intermediates glycolaldehyde and glycolate through C2 metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has been engineered for environmental remediation applications given its high toxicity tolerance and broad substrate specificity, is not able to efficiently metabolize ethylene glycol, despite harboring putative genes for this purpose. To further expand the metabolic portfolio of P. putida, we elucidated the metabolic pathway to enable ethylene glycol via systematic overexpression of glyoxylate carboligase (gcl) in combination with other genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that all of the four genes in genomic proximity to gcl (hyi, glxR, ttuD, and pykF) are transcribed as an operon. Where the expression of only two genes (gcl and glxR) resulted in growth in ethylene glycol, improved growth and ethylene glycol utilization were observed when the entire gcl operon was expressed. Both glycolaldehyde and glyoxal inhibit growth in concentrations of ethylene glycol above 50 mM. To overcome this bottleneck, the additional overexpression of the glycolate oxidase (glcDEF) operon removes the glycolate bottleneck and minimizes the production of these toxic intermediates, permitting growth in up to 2 M (~124 g/L) and complete consumption of 0.5 M (31 g/L) ethylene glycol in shake flask experiments. In addition, the engineered strain enables conversion of ethylene glycol to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). Overall, this study provides a robust P. putida KT2440 strain for ethylene glycol consumption, which will serve as a foundational strain for further biocatalyst development for applications in the remediation of waste polyester plastics and

  7. Mechanical properties, structure, bioadhesion, and biocompatibility of pectin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Pavel A; Krachkovsky, Nikita S; Durnev, Eugene A; Martinson, Ekaterina A; Litvinets, Sergey G; Popov, Sergey V

    2017-09-01

    The surface structure, biocompatibility, textural, and adhesive properties of calcium hydrogels derived from 1, 2, and 4% solutions of apple pectin were examined in this study. An increase in the pectin concentration in hydrogels was shown to improve their stability toward elastic and plastic deformation. The elasticity of pectin hydrogels, measured as Young's modulus, ranged from 6 to 100 kPa. The mechanical properties of the pectin hydrogels were shown to correspond to those of soft tissues. The characterization of surface roughness in terms of the roughness profile (Ra) and the root-mean-square deviation of the roughness profile (Rq) indicated an increased roughness profile for hydrogels depending on their pectin concentration. The adhesion of AU2% and AU4% hydrogels to the serosa abdominal wall, liver, and colon was higher than that of the AU1% hydrogel. The adhesion of macrophages and the non-specific adsorption of blood plasma proteins were found to increase as the pectin concentration in the hydrogels increased. The rate of degradation of all hydrogels was higher in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) than that in DMEM and a fibroblast cell monolayer. The pectin hydrogel was also found to have a low cytotoxicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2572-2581, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Enhancement of Curcumin Bioavailability Using Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thennakoon M. Sampath Udeni Gunathilake

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A unique biodegradable, superporous, swellable and pH sensitive nanocellulose reinforced chitosan hydrogel with dynamic mechanical properties was prepared for oral administration of curcumin. Curcumin, a less water-soluble drug was used due to the fact that the fast swellable, superporous hydrogel could release a water-insoluble drug to a great extent. CO2 gas foaming was used to fabricate hydrogel as it eradicates using organic solvents. Field emission scanning electron microscope images revealed that the pore size significantly increased with the formation of widely interconnected porous structure in gas foamed hydrogels. The maximum compression of pure chitosan hydrogel was 25.9 ± 1 kPa and it increased to 38.4 ± 1 kPa with the introduction of 0.5% cellulose nanocrystals. In vitro degradation of hydrogels was found dependent on the swelling ratio and the amount of CNC of the hydrogel. All the hydrogels showed maximum swelling ratios greater than 300%. The 0.5% CNC-chitosan hydrogel showed the highest swelling ratio of 438% ± 11%. FTIR spectrum indicated that there is no interaction between drug and ingredients present in hydrogels. The drug release occurred in non-Fickian (anomalous manner in simulated gastric medium. The drug release profiles of hydrogels are consistent with the data obtained from the swelling studies. After gas foaming of the hydrogel, the drug loading efficiency increased from 41% ± 2.4% to 50% ± 2.0% and release increased from 0.74 to 1.06 mg/L. The drug release data showed good fitting to Ritger-Peppas model. Moreover, the results revealed that the drug maintained its chemical activity after in vitro release. According to the results of this study, CNC reinforced chitosan hydrogel can be suggested to improve the bioavailability of curcumin for the absorption from stomach and upper intestinal tract.

  9. Methacrylate hydrogels reinforced with bacterial cellulose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobzová, Radka; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Michálek, Jiří; Karpushkin, Evgeny; Gatenholm, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2012), s. 1193-1201 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400500902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : bacterial cellulose * methacrylate hydrogel * composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2012

  10. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Local application of drug delivery system could be very. ∗. Author for ... In this study, chitosan was modified by car- ... C18 (250 × 4·6mm ID, 5 μm pore size) column with auto .... Some amount of drug was lost during washing of hydrogels.

  11. Dual responsive supramolecular hydrogel with electrochemical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Liu, Jianghua; Chen, Guosong; Jiang, Ming

    2011-08-02

    Supramolecular materials with reversible responsiveness to environmental changes are of particular research interest in recent years. Inclusion complexation between cyclodextrin (CD) and ferrocene (Fc) is well-known and extensively studied because of its reversible association-dissociation controlled by the redox state of Fc. Although there are quite a few reported nanoscale materials incorporating this host-guest pair, polymeric hydrogels with electrochemical activity based on this interactive pair are still rare. Taking advantage of our previous reported hybrid inclusion complex (HIC) hydrogel structure, a new Fc-HIC was designed and obtained with β-CD-modified quantum dots as the core and Fc-ended diblock co-polymer p(DMA-b-NIPAM) as the shell, to achieve an electrochemically active hydrogel at elevated temperatures. Considering the two independent cross-linking strategies in the network structure, i.e., the interchain aggregation of pNIPAM and inclusion complexation between CD and Fc on the surface of the quantum dots, the hydrogel was fully thermo-reversible and its gel-sol transition was achieved after the addition of either an oxidizing agent or a competitive guest to Fc.

  12. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Neurologie, Lille (France); Sengler, C. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Laboratoire de Pharmaco-Toxicologie, Guadeloupe (France); Benabdallah, E. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Radiologie, Guadeloupe (France); Colombani, S. [Centre d' Imagerie medicale, Martinique (France)

    2005-02-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  13. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M.; Sengler, C.; Benabdallah, E.; Colombani, S.

    2005-01-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  14. Radioprotection by polyethylene glycol-protein complexes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.H.; Stull, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol of about 5000 D was activated with cyanuric chloride, and the activated compound was complexed to each of three proteins. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase were each radioprotectants when administered prophylactically to female B6CBF1 mice before irradiation. The dose reduction factor for these mice was 1.2 when 5000 units of polyethylene glycol-catalase was administered before 60 Co irradiation. Female B6CBF1 mice administered prophylactic intravenous injections of catalase, polyethylene glycol-albumin, or heat-denatured polyethylene glycol-catalase had survival rates similar to phosphate-buffered saline-injected control mice following 60 Co irradiation. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase have radioprotective activity in B6CBF1 mice, which appears to depend in part on enzymatic activities of the complex. However, no radioprotective effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice injected with each polyethylene glycol-protein complex at either 3 or 24 hr before irradiation. The mechanism for radioprotection by these complexes may depend in part on other factors

  15. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chlorid...

  16. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkali, Noor L. H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E. J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G. P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes

  17. A simple route to synthesize conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole nanocomposite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties and their performance for removal of hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Hasan, E-mail: samarhass@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammad Mostafizar; Ali, Mohammad Azgar [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Minami, Hideto [Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tauer, Klaus [Max Planck Institute of Colloid and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg, 14476 Golm (Germany); Gafur, Mohammad Abdul [Pilot Plant and Process Development Centre, BCSIR, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubor [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2016-08-15

    A combination of maghemite polypyrrole (PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and stimuli-responsive properties in the same hydrogel microspheres is expected to enhance their application potential in various fields such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biosensors, biomedical applications and removal of heavy metals from waste water, catalysis etc. In this investigation a simple two step process is used to prepare conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole (PPy) composite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties. Poly(styrene-methacrylic acid-N-isopropylacrylamide-polyethelene glycol methacrylate) or P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles are first prepared by soap-free precipitation copolymerization. The copolymer hydrogel particles exhibited both temperature- and pH-responsive volume phase transition. Conductive P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite hydrogel particles are then prepared by seeded chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles using FeCl{sub 3} as a oxidant and p-toluene sulfonic acid ( p-TSA) as a dopant. In the reaction system FeCl{sub 3} functioned as a source of Fe(III) for the formation of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This reaction also requires the initial presence of Fe(II) provided by the addition of FeCl{sub 2}. The size and size distribution, surface structure, and morphology of the prepared conductive composite hydrogel particles are confirmed by FTIR, electron micrographs, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–visible spectroscopy. The performance of nanocomposite hydrogel particles has been evaluated for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr) ions from water. - Highlights: • P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel particles were prepared. • P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite hydrogel particles were prepared. • Oxidative polymerization of pyrrole and precipitation of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3

  18. Growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and efficacy of anti-angiogenic agents in a hydroxyethyl chitosan/glycidyl methacrylate hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hejing; Qian, Junmin; Zhang, Yaping; Xu, Weijun; Xiao, Juxiang; Suo, Aili

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer negatively affects women's health worldwide. The tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in tumour initiation, proliferation, and metastasis. Cancer cells are traditionally grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures as monolayers on a flat solid surface lacking cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These experimental conditions deviate from the clinical situation. Improved experimental systems that can mimic the in vivo situation are required to discover new therapies, particularly for anti-angiogenic agents that mainly target intercellular factors and play an essential role in treating some cancers. Chitosan can be modified to construct three-dimensional (3D) tumour models. Here, we report an in vitro 3D tumour model using a hydroxyethyl chitosan/glycidyl methacrylate (HECS-GMA) hydrogel produced by a series of chitosan modifications. Parameters relating to cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and migration were analysed using breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In a xenograft model, secretion of angiogenesis-related growth factors and the anti-angiogenic efficacy of Endostar and Bevacizumab in cells grown in HECS-GMA hydrogels were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Hydroxyethyl chitosan/glycidyl methacrylate hydrogels had a highly porous microstructure, mechanical properties, swelling ratio, and morphology consistent with a 3D tumour model. Compared with a 2D monolayer culture, breast cancer MCF-7 cells residing in the HECS-GMA hydrogels grew as tumour-like clusters in a 3D formation. In a xenograft model, MCF-7 cells cultured in the HECS-GMA hydrogels had increased secretion of angiogenesis-related growth factors. Recombinant human endostatin (Endostar), but not Bevacizumab (Avastin), was an effective anti-angiogenic agent in HECS-GMA hydrogels. The HECS-GMA hydrogel provided a 3D tumour model that mimicked the in vivo cancer microenvironment and supported the growth of MCF7 cells better than traditional tissue culture plates. The HECS

  19. Hyaluronic acid based hydrogel system for soft tissue regeneration and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Amit Kumar

    We have developed hyaluronic acid (HA)-based, biomimetic hydrogel matrices that are hierarchically structured, mechanically robust and biologically active. Specifically, HA-based hydrogel particles (HGPs) with controlled sizes, defined porosity, and improved stability were synthesized using different inverse emulsion systems and crosslinking chemistries. The resultant particles either contained residual functional groups or were rendered reactive by subsequent chemical modifications. HA-based doubly crosslinked networks (DXNs) were synthesized via covalent crosslinking of HA HGPs with soluble HA macromers carrying mutually reactive functional groups. These hybrid matrices are hierarchical in nature, consisting of densely crosslinked HGPs integrated in a loosely connected secondary matrix. Their mechanical properties and degradation kinetics can be readily tuned by varying the particle size, functional group density, intra- and interparticle crosslinking. To improve the biological functions of HA HGPs, perlecan domain I (PlnDI), a basement membrane proteoglycan that has strong affinity for various heparin binding growth factors (HBGFs), was successfully conjugated to the particles through the core protein via a flexible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker. The immobilized PlnDI maintains its ability to bind bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2) and modulates its in vitro release. A similar, sustained release of BMP-2 was achieved by encapsulating BMP-2-loaded HGPs within a photocrosslinked HA matrix. When encapsulated in HA DXNs, primary bovine chondrocytes were able to maintain their phenotype, proliferate readily and produce abundant glycosaminoglycan. Finally, cell-adhesive HA DXNs were fabricated by encapsulating gelatin-decorated HA HGPs in a secondary HA matrix. Human MSCs were shown to adhere to the composite matrix through the focal adhesion sites clustered on particle surface. The cell-adhesive composite matrices supported hMSC proliferation and migration into

  20. Experimental study and phase equilibrium modeling of systems containing acid gas and glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Waheed; Breil, Martin P.; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study phase equilibria of systems containing acid gases and glycols. The acid gases include carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2) while glycols include monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG). A brief lit...

  1. Free radical scavenging injectable hydrogels for regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komeri, Remya; Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2017-01-01

    Pathological free radicals generated from inflamed and infarcted cardiac tissues interferes natural tissue repair mechanisms. Hypoxic microenvironment at the injured zone of non-regenerating cardiac tissues hinders the therapeutic attempts including cell therapy. Here we report an injectable, cytocompatible, free radical scavenging synthetic hydrogel formulation for regenerative therapy. New hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared with D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer (PEAX) and PEGDiacrylate. PEAX-P hydrogel swells 4.9 times the initial weight and retains 100.07 kPa Young modulus at equilibrium swelling, which is suitable for cardiac applications. PEAX-P hydrogel retains elastic nature even at 60% compressive strain, which is favorable to fit with the dynamic and elastic natural tissue counterparts. PEAX-P hydrogel scavenges 51% DPPH radical, 40% hydroxyl radicals 41% nitrate radicals with 31% reducing power. The presence of hydrogel protects 62% cardiomyoblast cells treated with stress inducing media at LD 50 concentration. The free hydroxyl groups in sugar alcohols of the comacromer influence the free radical scavenging. Comparatively, PEAX-P hydrogel based on xylitol evinces slightly lower scavenging characteristics than with previously reported PEAM-P hydrogel containing mannitol having more hydroxyl groups. The possible free radical scavenging mechanism of the present hydrogel relies on the free π electrons associated with uncrosslinked fumarate bonds, hydrogen atoms associated with sugar alcohols/PEG and radical dilution by free water in the matrix. Briefly, the present PEAX-P hydrogel is a potential injectable system for combined antioxidant and regenerative therapy. - Graphical abstract: Injectable hydrogel with inherent free radical scavenging property for regenerative tissue engineering application. - Highlights: • Novel injectable hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared using D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer

  2. Free radical scavenging injectable hydrogels for regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeri, Remya [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Polymer Science Division, BMT Wing, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012, Kerala State (India); Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam [Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha NE68178 (United States); Muthu, Jayabalan, E-mail: mjayabalan52@gmail.com [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Polymer Science Division, BMT Wing, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012, Kerala State (India)

    2017-02-01

    Pathological free radicals generated from inflamed and infarcted cardiac tissues interferes natural tissue repair mechanisms. Hypoxic microenvironment at the injured zone of non-regenerating cardiac tissues hinders the therapeutic attempts including cell therapy. Here we report an injectable, cytocompatible, free radical scavenging synthetic hydrogel formulation for regenerative therapy. New hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared with D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer (PEAX) and PEGDiacrylate. PEAX-P hydrogel swells 4.9 times the initial weight and retains 100.07 kPa Young modulus at equilibrium swelling, which is suitable for cardiac applications. PEAX-P hydrogel retains elastic nature even at 60% compressive strain, which is favorable to fit with the dynamic and elastic natural tissue counterparts. PEAX-P hydrogel scavenges 51% DPPH radical, 40% hydroxyl radicals 41% nitrate radicals with 31% reducing power. The presence of hydrogel protects 62% cardiomyoblast cells treated with stress inducing media at LD 50 concentration. The free hydroxyl groups in sugar alcohols of the comacromer influence the free radical scavenging. Comparatively, PEAX-P hydrogel based on xylitol evinces slightly lower scavenging characteristics than with previously reported PEAM-P hydrogel containing mannitol having more hydroxyl groups. The possible free radical scavenging mechanism of the present hydrogel relies on the free π electrons associated with uncrosslinked fumarate bonds, hydrogen atoms associated with sugar alcohols/PEG and radical dilution by free water in the matrix. Briefly, the present PEAX-P hydrogel is a potential injectable system for combined antioxidant and regenerative therapy. - Graphical abstract: Injectable hydrogel with inherent free radical scavenging property for regenerative tissue engineering application. - Highlights: • Novel injectable hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared using D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer

  3. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, International Center for Applied Mechanics and School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Suo, Zhigang, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kavli Institute of Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  4. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  5. Development and optimization of a new processing approach for manufacturing topical liposomes-in-hydrogel drug formulations by dual asymmetric centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Sveinung G; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Holsæter, Ann Mari

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to utilize dual asymmetric centrifugation (DAC) as a novel processing approach for the production of liposomes-in-hydrogel formulations. Lipid films of phosphatidylcholine, with and without chloramphenicol (CAM), were hydrated and homogenized by DAC to produce liposomes in the form of vesicular phospholipid gels with a diameter in the size range of 200-300 nm suitable for drug delivery to the skin. Different homogenization processing parameters were investigated along with the effect of adding propylene glycol (PG) to the formulations prior to homogenization. The produced liposomes were incorporated into a hydrogel made of 2.5% (v/v) soluble β-1,3/1,6-glucan (SBG) and mixed by DAC to achieve a homogenous liposomes-in-hydrogel-formulation suitable for topical application. CAM-containing liposomes with a vesicle diameter of 282 ± 30 nm and polydispersity index (PI) of 0.13 ± 0.02 were successfully produced by DAC after 50 min centrifugation at 3500 rpm, and homogenously (< 4% content variation) incorporated into the SBG hydrogel. Addition of PG decreased the necessary centrifugation time to 2 min and 55 s, producing liposomes of 230 ± 51 nm and PI of 0.25 ± 0.04. All formulations had an entrapment efficiency of approximately 50%. We managed to develop a relatively fast and reproducible new method for the production of liposomes-in-hydrogel formulations by DAC.

  6. Intradiscal application of a PCLA-PEG-PCLA hydrogel loaded with celecoxib for the treatment of back pain in canines: What's in it for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellegen, Anna R; Willems, Nicole; Beukers, Martijn; Grinwis, Guy C M; Plomp, Saskia G M; Bos, Clemens; van Dijk, Maarten; de Leeuw, Mike; Creemers, Laura B; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Meij, Björn P

    2018-03-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common clinical problem in both the human and canine population. Current pharmaceutical treatment often consists of oral anti-inflammatory drugs to alleviate pain. Novel treatments for degenerative disc disease focus on local application of sustained released drug formulations. The aim of this study was to determine safety and feasibility of intradiscal application of a poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-bpoly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) PCLA-PEG-PCLA hydrogel releasing celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. Biocompatibility was evaluated after subcutaneous injection in mice, and safety of intradiscal injection of the hydrogel was evaluated in experimental dogs with early spontaneous intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. COX-2 expression was increased in IVD samples surgically obtained from canine patients, indicating a role of COX-2 in clinical IVD disease. Ten client-owned dogs with chronic low back pain related to IVD degeneration received an intradiscal injection with the celecoxib-loaded hydrogel. None of the dogs showed adverse reactions after intradiscal injection. The hydrogel did not influence magnetic resonance imaging signal at long-term follow-up. Clinical improvement was achieved by reduction of back pain in 9 of 10 dogs, as was shown by clinical examination and owner questionnaires. In 3 of 10 dogs, back pain recurred after 3 months. This study showed the safety and effectiveness of intradiscal injections in vivo with a thermoresponsive PCLA-PEG-PCLA hydrogel loaded with celecoxib. In this set-up, the dog can be used as a model for the development of novel treatment modalities in both canine and human patients with chronic low back pain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Gelatin- and starch-based hydrogels. Part A: Hydrogel development, characterization and coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Salamon, Achim; Peters, Kirsten; Graulus, Geert-Jan; Martins, José C; Frankel, Daniel; Kersemans, Ken; De Vos, Filip; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-11-05

    The present work aims at constructing the ideal scaffold matrix of which the physico-chemical properties can be altered according to the targeted tissue regeneration application. Ideally, this scaffold should resemble the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as close as possible both in terms of chemical composition and mechanical properties. Therefore, hydrogel films were developed consisting of methacrylamide-modified gelatin and starch-pentenoate building blocks because the ECM can be considered as a crosslinked hydrogel network consisting of both polysaccharides and structural, signaling and cell-adhesive proteins. For the gelatin hydrogels, three different substitution degrees were evaluated including 31%, 72% and 95%. A substitution degree of 32% was applied for the starch-pentenoate building block. Pure gelatin hydrogels films as well as interpenetrating networks with gelatin and starch were developed. Subsequently, these films were characterized using gel fraction and swelling experiments, high resolution-magic angle spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy, rheology, infrared mapping and atomic force microscopy. The results indicate that both the mechanical properties and the swelling extent of the developed hydrogel films can be controlled by varying the chemical composition and the degree of substitution of the methacrylamide-modified gelatin applied. The storage moduli of the developed materials ranged between 14 and 63kPa. Phase separation was observed for the IPNs for which separated starch domains could be distinguished located in the surrounding gelatin matrix. Furthermore, we evaluated the affinity of aggrecan for gelatin by atomic force microscopy and radiolabeling experiments. We found that aggrecan can be applied as a bioactive coating for gelatin hydrogels by a straightforward physisorption procedure. Thus, we achieved distinct fine-tuning of the physico-chemical properties of these hydrogels which render them promising candidates for tissue engineering

  8. SU-E-T-284: Dose Plan Optimization When Using Hydrogel Prostate-Rectum Spacer: A Single Institution Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajecki, M; Thurber, A; Catalfamo, F; Duff, M; Shah, D [Cancer Care of Western New York, Cheektowaga, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe rectal dose reduction achieved and techniques used to take advantage of the increased peri-rectal spacing provided by injected polyethylene-glycol. Methods: Thirty prostate cancer patents were 2:1 randomized during a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of injected poly-ethylene glycol hydrogel (SpaceOAR System) in creating space between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. All patients received a baseline CT/MR scan and baseline IMRT treatment plan. Patients were randomized to receive hydrogel injection (n=20) or Control (n=10), followed by another CT/MR scan and treatment plan (single arc VMAT, 6 MV photons, 79.2 Gy, 44 fractions). Additional optimization structures were employed to constrain the dose to the rectum; specifically an avoidance structure to limit V75 <15%, and a control structure to limit the maximum relative dose <105% in the interface region of the anterior rectal wall and the prostate planning target volume. Dose volumetric data was analyzed for rectal volumes receiving 60 through 80 Gy. Results: Rectal dose reduction was observed in all patients who received the hydrogel. Volumetric analysis indicates a median rectal volume and (reduction from baseline plan) following spacer application of 4.9% (8.9%) at V60Gy, 3.8% (8.1%) at V65Gy, 2.5% (7.2%) at V70Gy, 1.6% (5.8%) at V75Gy, and 0.5% (2.5%) at V80Gy. Conclusion: Relative to planning without spacers, rectal dose constraints of 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1% for V60, V65, V70, V75, and V80, should be obtainable when peri-rectal spacers are used. The combined effect of increased peri-rectal space provided by the hydrogel, with strict optimization objectives, resulted in reduced dose to the rectum. To maximize benefit, strict optimization objectives and reduced rectal dose constraints should be employed when creating plans for patients with perirectal spacers. Clinical Trial for SpaceOAR product conducted by Augmenix,Inc. The research site was paid to be a participating site.

  9. SU-E-T-284: Dose Plan Optimization When Using Hydrogel Prostate-Rectum Spacer: A Single Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajecki, M; Thurber, A; Catalfamo, F; Duff, M; Shah, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe rectal dose reduction achieved and techniques used to take advantage of the increased peri-rectal spacing provided by injected polyethylene-glycol. Methods: Thirty prostate cancer patents were 2:1 randomized during a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of injected poly-ethylene glycol hydrogel (SpaceOAR System) in creating space between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. All patients received a baseline CT/MR scan and baseline IMRT treatment plan. Patients were randomized to receive hydrogel injection (n=20) or Control (n=10), followed by another CT/MR scan and treatment plan (single arc VMAT, 6 MV photons, 79.2 Gy, 44 fractions). Additional optimization structures were employed to constrain the dose to the rectum; specifically an avoidance structure to limit V75 <15%, and a control structure to limit the maximum relative dose <105% in the interface region of the anterior rectal wall and the prostate planning target volume. Dose volumetric data was analyzed for rectal volumes receiving 60 through 80 Gy. Results: Rectal dose reduction was observed in all patients who received the hydrogel. Volumetric analysis indicates a median rectal volume and (reduction from baseline plan) following spacer application of 4.9% (8.9%) at V60Gy, 3.8% (8.1%) at V65Gy, 2.5% (7.2%) at V70Gy, 1.6% (5.8%) at V75Gy, and 0.5% (2.5%) at V80Gy. Conclusion: Relative to planning without spacers, rectal dose constraints of 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1% for V60, V65, V70, V75, and V80, should be obtainable when peri-rectal spacers are used. The combined effect of increased peri-rectal space provided by the hydrogel, with strict optimization objectives, resulted in reduced dose to the rectum. To maximize benefit, strict optimization objectives and reduced rectal dose constraints should be employed when creating plans for patients with perirectal spacers. Clinical Trial for SpaceOAR product conducted by Augmenix,Inc. The research site was paid to be a participating site

  10. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wei; Yao, Chen; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-08-28

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two "legs" for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated "on/off" electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers can move their two "legs" to achieve one-directional walking motion on a rough surface via repeated "on/off" electro-triggering cycles. Moreover, the hydrogel walkers loaded with very heavy cargo also exhibit excellent walking motion for cargo transport. Such hydrogel systems create new opportunities for developing electro-controlled soft systems with simple design/fabrication strategies in the soft robotic field for remote manipulation and transportation.

  11. Transient Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Resilin-based Elastomeric Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqing; Kiick, Kristi

    2014-04-01

    The outstanding high-frequency properties of emerging resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) have motivated their development for vocal fold tissue regeneration and other applications. Recombinant RLP hydrogels show efficient gelation, tunable mechanical properties, and display excellent extensibility, but little has been reported about their transient mechanical properties. In this manuscript, we describe the transient mechanical behavior of new RLP hydrogels investigated via both sinusoidal oscillatory shear deformation and uniaxial tensile testing. Oscillatory stress relaxation and creep experiments confirm that RLP-based hydrogels display significantly reduced stress relaxation and improved strain recovery compared to PEG-based control hydrogels. Uniaxial tensile testing confirms the negligible hysteresis, reversible elasticity and superior resilience (up to 98%) of hydrated RLP hydrogels, with Young’s modulus values that compare favorably with those previously reported for resilin and that mimic the tensile properties of the vocal fold ligament at low strain (engineering applications, of a range of RLP hydrogels.

  12. Comparison of Pectin Hydrogel Collection Methods in Microfluidic Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chaeyeon; Park, Ki-Su; Kang, Sung-Min; Kim, Jongmin; Song, YoungShin; Lee, Chang-Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated the effect of different collection methods on physical properties of pectin hydrogels in microfluidic synthetic approach. The pectin hydrogels were simply produced by the incorporation of calcium ions dissolved in continuous mineral oil. Then, different collection methods, pipetting, tubing, and settling, for harvesting pectin hydrogels were applied. The settling method showed most uniform and monodispersed hydrogels. In the case of settling, a coefficient of variation was 3.46 which was lower than pipetting method (18.60) and tubing method (14.76). Under the settling method, we could control the size of hydrogels, ranging from 30 μm to 180 μm, by simple manipulation of the viscosity of pectin and volumetric flow rate of dispersed and continuous phase. Finally, according to the characteristics of simple encapsulation of biological materials, we envision that the pectin hydrogels can be applied to drug delivery, food, and biocompatible materials.

  13. Optimizing Double-Network Hydrogel for Biomedical Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Hritwick; Ren, Hongliang

    2017-09-01

    Double-network hydrogel with standardized chemical parameters demonstrates a reasonable and viable alternative to silicone in soft robotic fabrication due to its biocompatibility, comparable mechanical properties, and customizability through the alterations of key variables. The most viable hydrogel sample in our article shows tensile strain of 851% and maximum tensile strength of 0.273 MPa. The elasticity and strength range of this hydrogel can be customized according to application requirements by simple alterations in the recipe. Furthermore, we incorporated Agar/PAM hydrogel into our highly constrained soft pneumatic actuator (SPA) design and eventually produced SPAs with escalated capabilities, such as larger range of motion, higher force output, and power efficiency. Incorporating SPAs made of Agar/PAM hydrogel resulted in low viscosity, thermos-reversibility, and ultralow elasticity, which we believe can help to combine with the other functions of hydrogel, tailoring a better solution for fabricating biocompatible soft robots.

  14. Hydrogel-based piezoresistive sensor for the detection of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Erfkamp

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a low-cost sensor for the detection of ethanol in alcoholic beverages, which combines alcohol-sensitive hydrogels based on acrylamide and bisacrylamide and piezoresistive sensors. For reproducible measurements, the reversible swelling and deswelling of the hydrogel were shown via microscopy. The response time of the sensor depends on the swelling kinetics of the hydrogel. The selectivity of the hydrogel was tested in different alcohols. In order to understand the influence of monomer and crosslinker content on the swelling degree and on the sensitivity of the hydrogels, gels with variable concentrations of acrylamide and bisacrylamide were synthesized and characterized in different aqueous solutions with alcohol contents. The first measurements of such hydrogel-based piezoresistive ethanol sensors demonstrated a high sensitivity and a short response time over several measuring cycles.

  15. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Nikhil; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Mehta, Shuchi; Mehta, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are the three-dimensional network structures obtained from a class of synthetic or natural polymers which can absorb and retain a significant amount of water. Hydrogels are one of the most studied classes of polymer-based controlled drug release. These have attracted considerable attention in biochemical and biomedical fields because of their characteristics, such as swelling in aqueous medium, biocompatibility, pH and temperature sensitivity or sensitivity towards other stimuli, which can be utilized for their controlled zero-order release. The hydrogels are expected to explore new generation of self-regulated delivery system having a wide array of desirable properties. This review highlights the exciting opportunities and challenges in the area of hydrogels. Here, we review different literatures on stimuli-sensitive hydrogels, such as role of temperature, electric potential, pH and ionic strength to control the release of drug from hydrogels.

  16. Rationally designed synthetic protein hydrogels with predictable mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhua; Li, Pengfei; Dong, Chenling; Jiang, Heting; Bin Xue; Gao, Xiang; Qin, Meng; Wang, Wei; Bin Chen; Cao, Yi

    2018-02-12

    Designing synthetic protein hydrogels with tailored mechanical properties similar to naturally occurring tissues is an eternal pursuit in tissue engineering and stem cell and cancer research. However, it remains challenging to correlate the mechanical properties of protein hydrogels with the nanomechanics of individual building blocks. Here we use single-molecule force spectroscopy, protein engineering and theoretical modeling to prove that the mechanical properties of protein hydrogels are predictable based on the mechanical hierarchy of the cross-linkers and the load-bearing modules at the molecular level. These findings provide a framework for rationally designing protein hydrogels with independently tunable elasticity, extensibility, toughness and self-healing. Using this principle, we demonstrate the engineering of self-healable muscle-mimicking hydrogels that can significantly dissipate energy through protein unfolding. We expect that this principle can be generalized for the construction of protein hydrogels with customized mechanical properties for biomedical applications.

  17. Controlled release fertilizers using superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M.; Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady [Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City (Egypt). National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRTT)

    2017-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels (PVP/CMC) based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) of different copolymer compositions were prepared by gamma radiation. Factors affecting the gel content (%) and the swelling ratio (g/g) of hydrogel such as irradiation dose as well as copolymer composition were investigated. With increasing the CMC content in PVP/CMC hydrogels, increases the swelling and improves the water retention capability. The high swelling ratio was observed at copolymer composition of PVP/CMC (60/40). Fast swelling of the hydrogels was obtained after 20 min. The effect of different fertilizers and buffers of different pH's on equilibrium swelling of hydrogels was investigated. Fertilizers such as urea, monopotassium-phosphate (MPK), and nitrogen-phosphate-potassium (NPK) were loaded onto the hydrogel to supply nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous nutrients. PVP/CMC hydrogels retained 28-36% after 72 h and slow retention was noticed up to 9 days. The swelling of hydrogel in fertilizer solutions is lower than that in water. The hydrogels showed adsorption desorption of fertilizers which governs by slow release property. The release rate of urea is much higher 10 times than that of phosphate. After 3 days, urea released 60%, while phosphate released 10-12%. The applicability of PVP/CMC hydrogels in the agricultural fields shows greater growth effect on zea maize plants. The growth of zea maize plant in soil mixed with PVP/CMC hydrogels loaded fertilizers is greater than untreated soil. The slow release fertilize, the high swelling and the slow water retention behaviors of PVP/CMC hydrogels encourage their use as safer release systems for fertilizers and as soil conditioner in agricultural applications.

  18. Supramolecular polyaniline hydrogel as a support for urease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Słoniewska, Anna; Pałys, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Supramolecular hydrogels of conducting polymers are successfully used in bioelectrochemistry because of their mechanical and swelling properties of gels added to the specific electron transport properties of conducting polymers. We have studied polyaniline-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PANI–PSS) hydrogel as a substrate for the urease. The hydrogels were synthesized at pH = 0 and pH = 5. PANI–PSS hydrogel is a supramolecular self-assembly material consisting of positively-charged PANI chains and negatively-charged PSS chains. The hydrogel was studied by cyclic voltammetry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Raman spectra revealed presence of phenazine rings in the hydrogel structure. Phenazine rings form covalent cross-linkers contributing to the hydrogel mechanical stability. The covalent cross-linkers influence the cyclic voltammetry responses of the hydrogel in acidic media. We tested the activity of urease immobilized in the PANI–PSS hydrogel by the physical adsorption or by the covalent bonding with the carbodiimide reaction. The enzyme immobilized in hydrogels prepared at higher pH value reveals significantly higher sensitivity. The method of the enzyme immobilization has smaller impact on the sensitivity. All hydrogel sensors reveal largely higher sensitivity to urea comparing to urease immobilized in the typical electrochemically deposited PANI films. The sensitivity of urease covalently bond to the hydrogel obtained at pH = 5 was as high as 1693 μA/(mol dm 3 ). The sensor response was linear in the urea concentration range from 10 −4 to 7 × 10 −2 mol/dm 3

  19. Controlled release fertilizers using superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M.; Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady

    2017-01-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels (PVP/CMC) based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) of different copolymer compositions were prepared by gamma radiation. Factors affecting the gel content (%) and the swelling ratio (g/g) of hydrogel such as irradiation dose as well as copolymer composition were investigated. With increasing the CMC content in PVP/CMC hydrogels, increases the swelling and improves the water retention capability. The high swelling ratio was observed at copolymer composition of PVP/CMC (60/40). Fast swelling of the hydrogels was obtained after 20 min. The effect of different fertilizers and buffers of different pH's on equilibrium swelling of hydrogels was investigated. Fertilizers such as urea, monopotassium-phosphate (MPK), and nitrogen-phosphate-potassium (NPK) were loaded onto the hydrogel to supply nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous nutrients. PVP/CMC hydrogels retained 28-36% after 72 h and slow retention was noticed up to 9 days. The swelling of hydrogel in fertilizer solutions is lower than that in water. The hydrogels showed adsorption desorption of fertilizers which governs by slow release property. The release rate of urea is much higher 10 times than that of phosphate. After 3 days, urea released 60%, while phosphate released 10-12%. The applicability of PVP/CMC hydrogels in the agricultural fields shows greater growth effect on zea maize plants. The growth of zea maize plant in soil mixed with PVP/CMC hydrogels loaded fertilizers is greater than untreated soil. The slow release fertilize, the high swelling and the slow water retention behaviors of PVP/CMC hydrogels encourage their use as safer release systems for fertilizers and as soil conditioner in agricultural applications.

  20. Viscoelastic response of hydrogel materials at finite strains

    OpenAIRE

    Skovly, Martin Johannessen

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel materials are very soft materials consisting of polymer networks and solvent molecules. The materials may exhibit large volume changes depending on its external chemical and mechanical environment and have viscoelastic properties which is common for many polymeric materials. In order to model the material response with the finite element method, a hydrogel constitutive model have been combined with finite viscoelastic theory and the resulting viscoelastic hydrogel constitutive model ...

  1. Versatile Route to Synthesize Heterobifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol of Variable Functionality for Subsequent Pegylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pegylation using heterotelechelic poly(ethylene glycol (PEG offers many possibilities to create high-performance molecules and materials. A versatile route is proposed to synthesize heterobifunctional PEG containing diverse combinations of azide, amine, thioacetate, thiol, pyridyl disulfide, as well as activated hydroxyl end groups. Asymmetric activation of one hydroxyl end group enables the heterobifunctionalization while applying selective monotosylation of linear, symmetrical PEG as a key step. The azide function is introduced by reacting monotosyl PEG with sodium azide. A thiol end group is obtained by reaction with sodium hydrosulfide. The activation of the hydroxyl end group and subsequent reaction with potassium carbonate/thioacetic acid yields a thioacetate end group. The hydrolysis of the thioester end group by ammonia in presence of 2,2′-dipyridyl disulfide provides PEG pyridyl disulfide. Amine terminated PEG is prepared either by reduction of the azide or by nucleophilic substitution of mesylate terminated PEG using ammonia. In all cases, >95% functionalization of the PEG end groups is achieved. The PEG derivatives particularly support the development of materials for biomedical applications. For example, grafting up to 13% of the Na-alg monomer units with α-amine-ω-thiol PEG maintains the gelling capacity in presence of calcium ions but simultaneous, spontaneous disulfide bond formation reinforces the initial physical hydrogel.

  2. Facile synthesis of degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baolin; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2011-07-11

    Degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels (DECPHs) have been synthesized by functionalizing polysaccharide with conductive aniline oligomers. DECPHs based on chitosan (CS), aniline tetramer (AT), and glutaraldehyde were obtained by a facile one-pot reaction by using the amine group of CS and AT under mild conditions, which avoids the multistep reactions and tedious purification involved in the synthesis of degradable conductive hydrogels in our previous work. Interestingly, these one-pot hydrogels possess good film-forming properties, electrical conductivity, and a pH-sensitive swelling behavior. The chemical structure and morphology before and after swelling of the hydrogels were verified by FT-IR, NMR, and SEM. The conductivity of the hydrogels was tuned by adjusting the content of AT. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels was altered by the content of tetraaniline and cross-linker. The hydrogels underwent slow degradation in a buffer solution. The hydrogels obtained by this facile approach provide new possibilities in biomedical applications, for example, biodegradable conductive hydrogels, films, and scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery.

  3. PVA/atapulgite hydrogels; Hidrogeis de PVA/atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: nunes@metalmat.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Paranhos, C.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil); Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    PVA hydrogels can be used as wound-healing as a consequence of their biocompatibility, flexibility, etc. In order to improve mechanical resistance of wound-healing, polymeric hydrogels reinforced with clay have been studied. Among national clays, attapulgite stands out. Once it is a natural material, acid treatment can be required in order to remove impurities. In the present work, PVA hydrogels reinforced with attapulgite were produced and they were characterized by swelling behavior, XRD, DSC and traction test. Among all properties studied, hydrogels reinforced with activated attapulgite showed better mechanical resistance and Young module than the other samples. (author)

  4. Responsive Hydrogels for Label-Free Signal Transduction within Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Gawel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have found wide application in biosensors due to their versatile nature. This family of materials is applied in biosensing either to increase the loading capacity compared to two-dimensional surfaces, or to support biospecific hydrogel swelling occurring subsequent to specific recognition of an analyte. This review focuses on various principles underpinning the design of biospecific hydrogels acting through various molecular mechanisms in transducing the recognition event of label-free analytes. Towards this end, we describe several promising hydrogel systems that when combined with the appropriate readout platform and quantitative approach could lead to future real-life applications.

  5. Progress in lignin hydrogels and nanocomposites for water purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevicius, Sigitas; Thakur, Sourbh; Govender, Penny P.

    2017-01-01

    -based hydrogels have shown excellent performance for removal of various pollutants from water. The adsorption properties of lignin based hydrogels can further be improved by using a combination of nanomaterials and lignin that results in promising hydrogel nanocomposites. In nature, the most abundant structures...... are formed by the combination of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. In this article, we have attempted to comprehensively review the research work carried out in the direction of usage of lignin-based hydrogel for removal of toxic pollutants including metal ions and dyes....

  6. Fabrication of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microcontainers using solvent evaporation with polydimethylsiloxane stencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Min; Byul Lee, Han; Kim, Jong Uk; Kim, Gyu Man

    2017-12-01

    We present a fabrication method using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils and solvent evaporation to prepare microcontainers with a desired shape made from a biodegradable polymer. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was used for preparing microcontainers, but most polymers are applicable in the proposed method in which solvent evaporation is used to construct microstructures in confined spaces in the stencil. Microcontainers with various shapes were fabricated by controlling the stencil geometry. Furthermore, a porous structure could be prepared in a micromembrane using water porogen. The porous structure was observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope and mass transfer across the porous membrane was examined using a fluorescent dye. The flexibility of the PDMS stencil allowed the fabrication of microcontainers on a curved surface. Finally, it was demonstrated that microcontainers can be used to contain a localized cell culture. The viability and morphology of cultured cells were observed using confocal microscopy over a period of 3 weeks.

  7. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  8. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (CAS...

  9. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg

  10. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2012-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2...

  11. Role of Glycol Chitosan-incorporated Ursolic Acid Nanoparticles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA)-incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles on inhibition of human osteosarcoma. Methods: U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with ursolic acid (UA) incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was used ...

  12. Polyethylene glycol: a game-changer laxative for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Arik; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2013-08-01

    Constipation is a common problem in children worldwide. It can also be a chronic problem persisting for many months to years. Successful treatment of constipation requires long-term use of laxatives. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol. Compared with other laxatives, polyethylene glycol (with and without electrolytes) is a relatively new laxative used during the last decade. Recent studies report excellent efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of excellent patient acceptance, polyethylene glycol has become a preferred choice of laxative for many practitioners. This article reviews the recently published pediatric literature on biochemistry, efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and pharmacoeconomics of polyethylene glycol.

  13. Role of polyethylene glycol in childhood constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Uma Padhye; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2014-09-01

    Constipation is a common and chronic problem in children worldwide. Long-term use of laxatives is necessary for successful treatment of chronic constipation. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recent studies report the efficacy and safety of PEG for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of its excellent patient acceptance, PEG is being used widely in children for constipation. In this commentary, we review the recently published pediatric literature on the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptance of PEG. We also assess the role of PEG in childhood constipation by comparing it with other laxatives in terms of efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and cost. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Millimetre Wave Rotational Spectrum of Glycolic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczolkowski, Lech; Bialkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, was studied in the region 115-318 GHz. For the most stable SSC conformer, transitions in all vibrational states up to 400 cm(exp -1) have been measured and their analysis is reported. The data sets for the ground state, v21 = 1, and v21 = 2 have been considerably extended. Immediately higher in vibrational energy are two triads of interacting vibrational states and their rotational transitions have been assigned and successfully fitted with coupled Hamiltonians accounting for Fermi and Coriolis resonances. The derived energy level spacings establish that the vibrational frequency of the v21 mode is close to 100 cm(exp -1). The existence of the less stable AAT conformer in the near 50 C sample used in our experiment was also confirmed and additional transitions have been measured.

  15. Validation of an analytical methodology for the determination of diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol as impurities in glycerin and propylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosabal Cordovi, Ursula M; Fonseca Gola, Antonio; Cordovi Velazquez, Juan M; Morales Torres, Galina

    2014-01-01

    A methodology for the quantification of diethylene glycol (DEG) and the ethylene glycol (EG) impurities by gas Chromatography with flame ionization detector in glycerol and propylene glycol samples was developed and validated. It was selected dimethyl sulphoxide as internal standard. It was used hydrogen as carrier and auxiliary gas. The temperature program was 100°C holding one minute, then ramp to rate of 7.5°C/ min up to 200 °C. A Restek 624 column was used, with a flow in column of 4.20 ml/ min. Temperatures of the injector and detector were set at 220°C and 250 °C, respectively. The linearity was determined at 25-75 ?μg/ml as interval of concentrations for both impurities with correlation coefficients larger than 0.999. Detection Limits were settled down in 0.0350 μ?g/ml to the diethylene glycol, and 0.0572 μg/ml to ethylene glycol, while the quantitation limits were 0.1160 μ?g/ml to DEG and 0.1897 μg/ml to the EG. The recoveries were 99.98 % and 100.00 %, respectively; with RSD % 1.18 % to DEG, and 0.60 % to the EG. The obtained results demonstrated that the methodology was linear, accurate, robustness, sensitive and selective to be used in the determination of both impurities in the quality control of the glycerol and propylene glycol as raw materials

  16. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described. © IMechE 2015.

  17. Bioinspired Hydrogels to Engineer Cancer Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Lewis, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-06-21

    Recent research has demonstrated that tumor microenvironments play pivotal roles in tumor development and metastasis through various physical, chemical, and biological factors, including extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, matrix remodeling, oxygen tension, pH, cytokines, and matrix stiffness. An emerging trend in cancer research involves the creation of engineered three-dimensional tumor models using bioinspired hydrogels that accurately recapitulate the native tumor microenvironment. With recent advances in materials engineering, many researchers are developing engineered tumor models, which are promising platforms for the study of cancer biology and for screening of therapeutic agents for better clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the development and use of polymeric hydrogel materials to engineer native tumor ECMs for cancer research, focusing on emerging technologies in cancer engineering that aim to accelerate clinical outcomes.

  18. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkali, Noor L.H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E.J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G.P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). Methods: In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of

  19. Hydrolytically and reductively degradable high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene glycol)s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braunová, Alena; Pechar, Michal; Laga, Richard; Ulbrich, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 24 (2007), s. 2642-2653 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable * drug delivery systems * gene delivery vectors * poly(ethylene glycol) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2007

  20. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation and Separation of Telechelic Carborane-Containing Poly(ethylene glycol)s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, P.; Uchman, M.; Lepšík, Martin; Srnec, Martin; Zedník, J.; Kozlík, P.; Kalíková, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 6 (2013), s. 528-535 ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00320901 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP208/12/P236 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : carboranes * click chemistry * poly(ethylene glycol) * quantum chemistry * reaction mechanisms Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.242, year: 2013

  2. Activation of Actuating Hydrogels with WS2 Nanosheets for Biomimetic Cellular Structures and Steerable Prompt Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Lu; Li, Xiankai; Han, Xiangsheng; Lv, Lili; Li, Mingjie; You, Jun; Wu, Xiaochen; Li, Chaoxu

    2017-09-20

    Macroscopic soft actuation is intrinsic to living organisms in nature, including slow deformation (e.g., contraction, bending, twisting, and curling) of plants motivated by microscopic swelling and shrinking of cells, and rapid motion of animals (e.g., deformation of jellyfish) motivated by cooperative nanoscale movement of motor proteins. These actuation behaviors, with an exceptional combination of tunable speed and programmable deformation direction, inspire us to design artificial soft actuators for broad applications in artificial muscles, nanofabrication, chemical valves, microlenses, soft robotics, etc. However, so far artificial soft actuators have been typically produced on the basis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM), whose deformation is motived by volumetric shrinkage and swelling in analogue to plant cells, and exhibits sluggish actuation kinetics. In this study, alginate-exfoliated WS 2 nanosheets were incorporated into ice-template-polymerized PNiPAM hydrogels with the cellular microstructures which mimic plant cells, yet the prompt steerable actuation of animals. Because of the nanosheet-reinforced pore walls formed in situ in freezing polymerization and reasonable hierarchical water channels, this cellular hybrid hydrogel achieves super deformation speed (on the order of magnitude of 10° s), controllable deformation direction, and high near-infrared light responsiveness, offering an unprecedented platform of artificial muscles for various soft robotics and devices (e.g., rotator, microvalve, aquatic swimmer, and water-lifting filter).

  3. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Raquel; Rediguieri, Carolina F; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Vasquez, Pablo A S; Colaço, Rogério; Serro, Ana Paula; Pinto, Terezinha J A

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS) hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation), a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP), with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol). Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  4. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Galante

    Full Text Available In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation, a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP, with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol. Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  5. Controlled Delivery of Vancomycin via Charged Hydrogels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl T Gustafson

    Full Text Available Surgical site infection (SSI remains a significant risk for any clean orthopedic surgical procedure. Complications resulting from an SSI often require a second surgery and lengthen patient recovery time. The efficacy of antimicrobial agents delivered to combat SSI is diminished by systemic toxicity, bacterial resistance, and patient compliance to dosing schedules. We submit that development of localized, controlled release formulations for antimicrobial compounds would improve the effectiveness of prophylactic surgical wound antibiotic treatment while decreasing systemic side effects. Our research group developed and characterized oligo(poly(ethylene glycolfumarate/sodium methacrylate (OPF/SMA charged copolymers as biocompatible hydrogel matrices. Here, we report the engineering of this copolymer for use as an antibiotic delivery vehicle in surgical applications. We demonstrate that these hydrogels can be efficiently loaded with vancomycin (over 500 μg drug per mg hydrogel and this loading mechanism is both time- and charge-dependent. Vancomycin release kinetics are shown to be dependent on copolymer negative charge. In the first 6 hours, we achieved as low as 33.7% release. In the first 24 hours, under 80% of total loaded drug was released. Further, vancomycin release from this system can be extended past four days. Finally, we show that the antimicrobial activity of released vancomycin is equivalent to stock vancomycin in inhibiting the growth of colonies of a clinically derived strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In summary, our work demonstrates that OPF/SMA hydrogels are appropriate candidates to deliver local antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis of surgical site infection.

  6. Biocompatible hydrogels in spinal cord injury repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejčl, Aleš; Lesný, Petr; Přádný, Martin; Michálek, Jiří; Jendelová, Pavla; Štulík, J.; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, Suppl.3 (2008), S121-S132 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/06/1246 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) 1A8697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Spinal cord injury * Hydrogel * Tissue engineering Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  7. Effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Hirai, M; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1990-06-01

    Glycol ethers have been extensively used in industry over the past 40-50 years. Numerous studies on the toxicity of glycol ethers have been performed, however, the effects of glycol ethers on the hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes are still unknown. We studied the changes of the putative metabolic enzymes, that is, the hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system and cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, by the oral administration of diEGME and EGME. Adult male Wistar rats were used. DiEGME was administered orally; 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days and EGME was 100, 300 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days. Decreases in liver weights were produced by highest doses of diEGME (2000 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days) and EGME (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days). DiEGME increased hepatic microsomal protein contents and induced cytochrome P-450, but not cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was not affected by diEGME administration. On the other hand, EGME did not change cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was increased by repeated EGME treatment. Therefore it is suspected that the enzyme which takes part in the metabolism of diEGME is different from that of EGME, although diEGME is a structural homologue of EGME.

  8. Chitosan composite hydrogels reinforced with natural clay nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Liu, Mingxian; Zhou, Changren

    2017-11-01

    Here, chitosan composites hydrogels were prepared by addition of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in the chitosan KOH/LiOH/urea solution. The raw chitosan and chitosan/HNTs composite hydrogels were obtained by heat treatment at 60°C for 8h and then regeneration in ethanol solution. The viscosity of the composite solution is increased with HNTs content. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) shows that the hydrogen bonds interactions exist between the HNTs and the chitosan. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the crystal structure of HNT is not changed in the composite hydrogels. The compressive property test and storage modulus determination show that the mechanical properties and anti-deformation ability of the composite hydrogel significantly increase owing to the reinforcing effect of HNTs. The composites hydrogel with 66.7% HNTs can undergo 7 times compression cycles without breaking with compressive strength of 0.71MPa at 70% deformation, while pure chitosan hydrogel is broken after bearing 5 compression cycles with compressive strength of 0.14MPa and a maximum deformation of 59%. A porous structure with pore size of 100-500μm is found in the composite hydrogels by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore size and the swelling ratio in NaCl solution decrease by the addition of HNTs and the immersing of ethanol. Chitosan/HNTs composite hydrogels show low cytotoxicity towards MC3T3-E1 cells. Also, the composite hydrogels show a maximum drug entrapment efficiency of 45.7% for doxorubicin (DOX) which is much higher than that of pure chitosan hydrogel (27.5%). All the results illustrate that the chitosan/HNTs composite hydrogels show promising applications as biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fibre-reinforced hydrogels for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sarah; Byrne, Helen; Chen, Mike; Dias Castilho, Miguel; Kimpton, Laura; Please, Colin; Whiteley, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Tissue engineers aim to grow replacement tissues in vitro to replace those in the body that have been damaged through age, trauma or disease. One approach is to seed cells within a scaffold consisting of an interconnected 3D-printed lattice of polymer fibres, cast in a hydrogel, and subject the construct (cell-seeded scaffold) to an applied load in a bioreactor. A key question is to understand how this applied load is distributed throughout the construct to the mechanosensitive cells. To address this, we exploit the disparate length scales (small inter-fibre spacing compared with construct dimensions). The fibres are treated as a linear elastic material and the hydrogel as a poroelastic material. We employ homogenisation theory to derive equations governing the material properties of a periodic, elastic-poroelastic composite. To validate the mobel, model solutions are compared to experimental data describing the unconfined compression of the fibre-reinforced hydrogels. The model is used to derive the bulk mechanical properties of a cylindrical construct of the composite material for a range of fibre spacings, and the local mechanical environment experienced by cells embedded within the construct is determined. Funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013).

  10. Water diffusion in phosphate-containing hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.A.; Wentrup-Byrne, E.; Hill, D.J.T.; Whittaker, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the kinetics and diffusion of liquids through polymeric hydrogels is critical for the successful design and application of these materials in biomedical field, particularly as controlled drug delivery systems. In this study, the mechanisms of water transport and parameters that describe the diffusion process in crosslinked poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-methyloxyethylene phosphate), poly(HEMA-co-MOEP) polymers were investigated. The copolymerisation of HEMA with MOEP was initiated by γ radiolysis with full conversion of monomer to polymer. The sorption of water into the polymers with 0 - 30 mol% MOEP was monitored gravimetrically over a period of 2 - 3 weeks. This study provided an insight into the diffusion mechanism and showed that the PHEMA hydrogel displayed concentration-independent Fickian diffusion. As the concentration of MOEP in the network increased, the diffusion rate and the rigidity of the network also increased in a linear fashion. NMR imaging was used in conjunction with the gravimetric study to elucidate the transport mechanisms, diffusion coefficients and proportionality constants governing the water diffusion in the phosphate-containing polymers. The hydrogels with 3 - 20 mol% MOEP exhibited exponential concentration-dependent Fickian diffusion and the transport mechanism in the system with 30 mol% MOEP was shown to be anomalous. The systems with greater concentrations of MOEP displayed a high degree of fracturing during water sorption and resulted in the ultimate destruction of the cylindrical geometry

  11. Connections matter: channeled hydrogels to improve vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin eMuehleder

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of cell-laden hydrogels to engineer soft tissue has been emerging within the past years. Despite several newly developed and sophisticated techniques to encapsulate different cell types the importance of vascularization of the engineered constructs is often underestimated. As a result, cell death within a construct leads to impaired function and inclusion of the implant. Here, we discuss the fabrication of hollow channels within hydrogels as a promising strategy to facilitate vascularization. Furthermore, we present an overview on the feasible use of removable spacers, 3D laser- and planar processing strategies to create channels within hydrogels. The implementation of these structures promotes control over cell distribution and increases oxygen transport and nutrient supply in vitro. However, many studies lack the use of endothelial cells in their approaches leaving out an important factor to enhance vessel ingrowth and anastomosis formation upon implantation. In addition, the adequate endothelial cell type needs to be considered to make these approaches bridge the gap to in vivo applications.

  12. Connections matter: channeled hydrogels to improve vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleder, Severin; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Zipperle, Johannes; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The use of cell-laden hydrogels to engineer soft tissue has been emerging within the past years. Despite, several newly developed and sophisticated techniques to encapsulate different cell types the importance of vascularization of the engineered constructs is often underestimated. As a result, cell death within a construct leads to impaired function and inclusion of the implant. Here, we discuss the fabrication of hollow channels within hydrogels as a promising strategy to facilitate vascularization. Furthermore, we present an overview on the feasible use of removable spacers, 3D laser-, and planar processing strategies to create channels within hydrogels. The implementation of these structures promotes control over cell distribution and increases oxygen transport and nutrient supply in vitro. However, many studies lack the use of endothelial cells in their approaches leaving out an important factor to enhance vessel ingrowth and anastomosis formation upon implantation. In addition, the adequate endothelial cell type needs to be considered to make these approaches bridge the gap to in vivo applications.

  13. Synthesis and application of intelligent hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, I.; Uchida, K.; Sutani, K.; Nakayama, H.; Tamori, A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors have studied synthesis and application of stimule-sensitive and responsive hydrogels. In this report, two kinds of investigations were carried out on the intelligent hydrogels and the applications with radiation techniques. 1. Synthesis of temperature responsive sol-gel transition polymer and the application to drug delivery systems. Polysopropyl acrylamide is a typical temperature responsive polymers and the copolymers show broad variation of LCST (sol-gel transition temperature). The various copolymers of isopropyl acrylamide were synthesized by UV or radiation. 2. Surface curing of pH and electric field responsive hydrogel and the application to drug delivery systems. Electrolyte monomers such as acrylic acid was coated on the surface of polymer membrane (porous or non-porous) including drugs, and cured by UV or radiation various enzymes were immobilized in the coating layer in many cases. The product showed pH, electro-field and substrate responsive releases of model drug under on-off switching of environmental conditions. (J.P.N.)

  14. Synthesis and application of intelligent hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaetsu, I.; Uchida, K.; Sutani, K.; Nakayama, H.; Tamori, A. [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    The authors have studied synthesis and application of stimule-sensitive and responsive hydrogels. In this report, two kinds of investigations were carried out on the intelligent hydrogels and the applications with radiation techniques. 1. Synthesis of temperature responsive sol-gel transition polymer and the application to drug delivery systems. Polysopropyl acrylamide is a typical temperature responsive polymers and the copolymers show broad variation of LCST (sol-gel transition temperature). The various copolymers of isopropyl acrylamide were synthesized by UV or radiation. 2. Surface curing of pH and electric field responsive hydrogel and the application to drug delivery systems. Electrolyte monomers such as acrylic acid was coated on the surface of polymer membrane (porous or non-porous) including drugs, and cured by UV or radiation various enzymes were immobilized in the coating layer in many cases. The product showed pH, electro-field and substrate responsive releases of model drug under on-off switching of environmental conditions. (J.P.N.)

  15. Continuous media with microstructure

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This book discusses the extension of classical continuum models. To the first class addressed belong various thermodynamic models of multicomponent systems, and to the second class belong primarily microstructures created by phase transformations.

  16. Optics of dielectric microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    From the work carried out within the ph.d. project two topics have been selected for this thesis, namely emission of radiation by sources in dielectric microstructures, and planar photonic crystal waveguides. The work done within the first topic, emission of radiation by sources in dielectric...... microstructures, will be presented in the part I of this thesis consisting of the chapters 2-5. An introductions is given in chapter 2. In part I three methods are presented for calculating spontaneous and classical emission from sources in dielectric microstructures. The first method presented in chapter 3...... is based on the Fermi Golden Rule, and spontaneous emission from emitters in a passive dielectric microstructure is calculated by summing over the emission into each electromagnetic mode of the radiation field. This method is applied to investigate spontaneous emission in a two-dimensional photonic crystal...

  17. Zirconium microstructures: uncharted possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samajdar, I.; Kumar, Gulshan; Singh, Jaiveer; Lodh, Arijit; Srivastava, D.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.; Saibaba, N.

    2015-01-01

    The 'conventional' Zirconium microstructures can be significantly extended with information on: (i) microtexture, (ii) residual stresses and (iii) local mechanical properties. Though these involve different tools, but a consolidated microstructure can be crated. This is the theme of this presentation. Examples of this consolidated picture will be made from deformation twinning, recovery-recrystallization, burst ductility and orientation versus solid solution hardening. (author)

  18. Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-01-01

    A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693

  19. Modulation of the mechanical properties of ventricular extracellular matrix hydrogels with a carbodiimide crosslinker and investigation of their cellular compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Fujita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels made from the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM as two-dimensional (2D or 3D cell-culture substrates have beneficial biochemical effects on the differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes. The mechanical properties of the substrates that match those of the host tissues have been identified as critical biophysical cues for coaxing the tissue-specific differentiation of stem cells. The objectives of the present study are (1 to fabricate hydrogels comprising pure ventricular ECM (vECM, (2 to make the gels possess mechanical properties similar to those of the decellularized ventricular tissue, and (3 to evaluate the cellular compatibility of the hydrogels. In order to achieve these aims, (1 a simplified protocol was developed to produce vECM solution easily and rapidly, (2 N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC was chosen to crosslink the hydrogels made from the vECM solution to enhance their mechanical properties and stabilize the microstructure of the gels, (3 rat embryonic fibroblasts or cardiomyocytes were cultured on these gels to determine the cellular compatibility of the gels. In particular, the nonlinearity and viscoelasticity of the gels were characterized quantitatively using a newly proposed nonlinear Kelvin model. The results showed that EDAC treatment allowed modulation of the mechanical properties of the gels to the same level as those of decellularized ventricular tissue in terms of the equilibrium elasticity and relaxation coefficient. Cell culture confirmed the cellular compatibility of the gels. Furthermore, an empirical relationship between the equilibrium elastic modulus of the gels and the vECM and EDAC concentrations was derived, which is important to tailor the mechanical properties of the gels. Finally, the influence of the mechanical properties of the gels on the behavior of cultured fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes was discussed.

  20. Hydrogel-Embedded Model Photocatalytic System Investigated by Raman and IR Spectroscopy Assisted by Density Functional Theory Calculations and Two-Dimensional Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitner, Robert; Götz, Stefan; Stach, Robert; Siegmann, Michael; Krebs, Patrick; Zechel, Stefan; Schreyer, Kristin; Winter, Andreas; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S; Gräfe, Stefanie; Dietzek, Benjamin; Mizaikoff, Boris; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-03-15

    The presented study reports the synthesis and the vibrational spectroscopic characterization of different matrix-embedded model photocatalysts. The goal of the study is to investigate the interaction of a polymer matrix with photosensitizing dyes and metal complexes for potential future photocatalytic applications. The synthesis focuses on a new rhodamine B derivate and a Pt(II) terpyridine complex, which both contain a polymerizable methacrylate moiety and an acid labile acylhydrazone group. The methacrylate moieties are afterward utilized to synthesize functional model hydrogels mainly consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate units. The pH-dependent and temperature-dependent behavior of the hydrogels is investigated by means of Raman and IR spectroscopy assisted by density functional theory calculations and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. The spectroscopic results reveal that the Pt(II) terpyridine complex can be released from the polymer matrix by cleaving the C═N bond in an acid environment. The same behavior could not be observed in the case of the rhodamine B dye although it features a comparable C═N bond. The temperature-dependent study shows that the water evaporation has a significant influence neither on the molecular structure of the hydrogel nor on the model photocatalytic moieties.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Chemically Cross-Linked Acrylic Acid/Gelatin Hydrogels: Effect of pH and Composition on Swelling and Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Majid Hanif Bukhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work was aimed at synthesizing pH-sensitive cross-linked AA/Gelatin hydrogels by free radical polymerization. Ammonium persulfate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were used as initiator and as cross-linking agent, respectively. Different feed ratios of acrylic acid, gelatin, and EGDMA were used to investigate the effect of monomer, polymer, and degree of cross-linking on swelling and release pattern of the model drug. The swelling behavior of the hydrogel samples was studied in 0.05 M USP phosphate buffer solutions of various pH values pH 1.2, pH 5.5, pH 6.5, and pH 7.5. The prepared samples were evaluated for porosity and sol-gel fraction analysis. Pheniramine maleate used for allergy treatment was loaded as model drug in selected samples. The release study of the drug was investigated in 0.05 M USP phosphate buffer of varying pH values (1.2, 5.5, and 7.5 for 12 hrs. The release data was fitted to various kinetic models to study the release mechanism. Hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR spectroscopy which confirmed formation of structure. Surface morphology of unloaded and loaded samples was studied by surface electron microscopy (SEM, which confirmed the distribution of model drug in the gel network.

  2. Imaging brain tumour microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Englund, Elisabet; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Sundgren, Pia C

    2018-05-08

    Imaging is an indispensable tool for brain tumour diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up. Definite diagnosis, however, often demands histopathological analysis of microscopic features of tissue samples, which have to be obtained by invasive means. A non-invasive alternative may be to probe corresponding microscopic tissue characteristics by MRI, or so called 'microstructure imaging'. The promise of microstructure imaging is one of 'virtual biopsy' with the goal to offset the need for invasive procedures in favour of imaging that can guide pre-surgical planning and can be repeated longitudinally to monitor and predict treatment response. The exploration of such methods is motivated by the striking link between parameters from MRI and tumour histology, for example the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient and cellularity. Recent microstructure imaging techniques probe even more subtle and specific features, providing parameters associated to cell shape, size, permeability, and volume distributions. However, the range of scenarios in which these techniques provide reliable imaging biomarkers that can be used to test medical hypotheses or support clinical decisions is yet unknown. Accurate microstructure imaging may moreover require acquisitions that go beyond conventional data acquisition strategies. This review covers a wide range of candidate microstructure imaging methods based on diffusion MRI and relaxometry, and explores advantages, challenges, and potential pitfalls in brain tumour microstructure imaging. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Stochastic Effects in Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicksman M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We are currently studying microstructural responses to diffusion-limited coarsening in two-phase materials. A mathematical solution to late-stage multiparticle diffusion in finite systems is formulated with account taken of particle-particle interactions and their microstructural correlations, or "locales". The transition from finite system behavior to that for an infinite microstructure is established analytically. Large-scale simulations of late-stage phase coarsening dynamics show increased fluctuations with increasing volume fraction, Vv, of the mean flux entering or leaving particles of a given size class. Fluctuations about the mean flux were found to depend on the scaled particle size, R/, where R is the radius of a particle and is the radius of the dispersoid averaged over the population within the microstructure. Specifically, small (shrinking particles tend to display weak fluctuations about their mean flux, whereas particles of average, or above average size, exhibit strong fluctuations. Remarkably, even in cases of microstructures with a relatively small volume fraction (Vv ~ 10-4, the particle size distribution is broader than that for the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov limit predicted at zero volume fraction. The simulation results reported here provide some additional surprising insights into the effect of diffusion interactions and stochastic effects during evolution of a microstructure, as it approaches its thermodynamic end-state.

  4. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels | Oladebeye | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption capacity (WAC) ...

  5. Keratin sponge/hydrogel II, active agent delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogels from oxidation and reduction hydrolysis of fine and coarse wool fibers were formed to behave as cationic hydrogels to swell and release active agents in the specific region of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Their porous, interpenetrating networks (IPN) were effective for...

  6. Artificial Auricular Cartilage Using Silk Fibroin and Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Min; Sultan, Md. Tipu; Kim, Soon Hee; Kumar, Vijay; Yeon, Yeung Kyu; Lee, Ok Joo; Park, Chan Hum

    2017-01-01

    Several methods for auricular cartilage engineering use tissue engineering techniques. However, an ideal method for engineering auricular cartilage has not been reported. To address this issue, we developed a strategy to engineer auricular cartilage using silk fibroin (SF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We constructed different hydrogels with various ratios of SF and PVA by using salt leaching, silicone mold casting, and freeze-thawing methods. We characterized each of the hydrogels in terms of the swelling ratio, tensile strength, pore size, thermal properties, morphologies, and chemical properties. Based on the cell viability results, we found a blended hydrogel composed of 50% PVA and 50% SF (P50/S50) to be the best hydrogel among the fabricated hydrogels. An intact 3D ear-shaped auricular cartilage formed six weeks after the subcutaneous implantation of a chondrocyte-seeded 3D ear-shaped P50/S50 hydrogel in rats. We observed mature cartilage with a typical lacunar structure both in vitro and in vivo via histological analysis. This study may have potential applications in auricular tissue engineering with a human ear-shaped hydrogel. PMID:28777314

  7. Functionalized graphene hydrogel-based high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-10-25

    Functionalized graphene hydrogels are prepared by a one-step low-temperature reduction process and exhibit ultrahigh specific capacitances and excellent cycling stability in the aqueous electrolyte. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on functionalized graphene hydrogels are demonstrated with superior capacitive performances and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphated Konjac Glucomannan Hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gui CHEN; Zhi Lan LIU; Ying Jun CHEN; Ren Xi ZHUO

    2005-01-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) was crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) to synthesize hydrogels. The crosslinking reaction was confirmed by FT-IR. The results of degradation test show that the hydrogels retain the enzymatic degradation character of KGM and can be degraded for 74.45% in 5 days by cellulase E0240.

  9. Lab-on-a-chip devices with patterned hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are considered to be in the class of smart materials that find application in diagnostic, therapeutic,and fundamental science tools for miniaturized total analysis systems. In this thesis, the focus is on three major applications of patterned hydrogels, which are explored as an alternative

  10. initiated small intestinal sub-mucosal wound-healing hydrogel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro cell culture was carried out on the hydrogels, and cell count was obtained on ... a crucial role in stem cell differentiation. ... biodegradable material, especially in tissue engineering [10,11]. .... The test procedures used were based on the method of ..... responsive hydrogels for controlled drug release. Polymer. 2009 ...

  11. Volume changes in hydrogels subjected to finite deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive equations are derived for the elastic response of hydrogels under an arbitrary deformationwith finite strains. An expression is proposed for the free energy density of a hydrogel based on the Floryconcept of a network of flexible chains with constrained junctions whose reference conf...

  12. Hydrogel-based sensor for CO2 measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    A hydrogel-based sensor is presented for CO2 measurements. The sensor consists of a pressure sensor and porous silicon cover. A pH-sensitive hydrogel is confined between the two parts. Furthermore the porous cover contains a bicarbonate solution and a gaspermeable membrane. CO2 reacts with the

  13. Reinforcement of hydrogels using three-dimensionally printed microfibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jetze; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Jeon, June E.; van Bussel, Erik M.; Kimpton, Laura S.; Byrne, Helen M.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Dalton, Paul D.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Malda, J

    Despite intensive research, hydrogels currently available for tissue repair in the musculoskeletal system are unable to meet the mechanical, as well as the biological, requirements for successful outcomes. Here we reinforce soft hydrogels with highly organized, high-porosity microfibre networks that

  14. Two-component thermosensitive hydrogels : Phase separation affecting rheological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbadessa, Anna; Landín, Mariana; Oude Blenke, Erik; Hennink, Wim E.; Vermonden, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular matrices are mainly composed of a mixture of different biopolymers and therefore the use of two or more building blocks for the development of tissue-mimicking hydrogels is nowadays an attractive strategy in tissue-engineering. Multi-component hydrogel systems may undergo phase

  15. Extracellular matrix hydrogels from decellularized tissues: Structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, Lindsey T; Cramer, Madeline C; Velankar, Sachin S; White, Lisa J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue. The present review describes the utility, formation, and physical and biological characterization of ECM hydrogels. Two examples of clinical application are presented to demonstrate in vivo utility of ECM hydrogels in different organ systems. Finally, new research directions and clinical translation of ECM hydrogels are discussed. More than 70 papers have been published on extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels created from source tissue in almost every organ system. The present manuscript represents a review of ECM hydrogels and attempts to identify structure-function relationships that influence the tissue remodeling outcomes and gaps in the understanding thereof. There is a Phase 1 clinical trial now in progress for an ECM hydrogel. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical analyses of lipids deposited on silicone hydrogel lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hatou

    2010-07-01

    Conclusions: The quantity of total lipid and cholesterol deposited on the 3 silicone hydrogel lenses tested did not differ. However, there were significant differences in the amounts of phospholipid deposited among the 3 silicone hydrogel lenses, of which clinical significance should be explored in the future study.

  17. The matrix reloaded: the evolution of regenerative hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbari, E.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Xu, Q.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-laden hydrogels can regenerate lost, damaged or malfunctioning tissues. Clinical success of such hydrogels is strongly dependent on the ability to tune their chemical, physico-mechanical, and biological properties to a specific application. In particular, mimicking the intricate arrangement of

  18. Nanoreinforced biocompatible hydrogels from wood hemicelluloses and cellulose whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffer Ahmet Karaaslan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Daniel J. Yelle; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2011-01-01

    Nanoreinforced hydrogels with a unique network structure were prepared from wood cellulose whiskers coated with chemically modified wood hemicelluloses. The hemicelluloses were modified with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate prior to adsorption onto the cellulose whiskers in aqueous medium. Synthesis of the hydrogels was accomplished by in situ radical polymerization of the...

  19. An ultra melt-resistant hydrogel from food grade carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Benjamin R.; Horozov, Tommy S.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Paunov, Vesselin N.

    2017-01-01

    We report a binary hydrogel system made from two food grade biopolymers, agar and methylcellulose (agar-MC), which does not require addition of salt for gelation to occur and has very unusual rheological and thermal properties. It is found that the storage modulus of the agar-MC hydrogel far

  20. Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Floren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications.

  1. Biocompatibility of hydrogel-based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naahidi, Sheva; Jafari, Mousa; Logan, Megan; Wang, Yujie; Yuan, Yongfang; Bae, Hojae; Dixon, Brian; Chen, P

    2017-09-01

    Recently, understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has expanded rapidly due to the accessibility of cellular and molecular techniques and the growing potential and value for hydrogels in tissue engineering. The fabrication of hydrogel-based cellular scaffolds for the generation of bioengineered tissues has been based on knowledge of the composition and structure of ECM. Attempts at recreating ECM have used either naturally-derived ECM components or synthetic polymers with structural integrity derived from hydrogels. Due to their increasing use, their biocompatibility has been questioned since the use of these biomaterials needs to be effective and safe. It is not surprising then that the evaluation of biocompatibility of these types of biomaterials for regenerative and tissue engineering applications has been expanded from being primarily investigated in a laboratory setting to being applied in the multi-billion dollar medicinal industry. This review will aid in the improvement of design of non-invasive, smart hydrogels that can be utilized for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. In this review, the biocompatibility of hydrogels and design criteria for fabricating effective scaffolds are examined. Examples of natural and synthetic hydrogels, their biocompatibility and use in tissue engineering are discussed. The merits and clinical complications of hydrogel scaffold use are also reviewed. The article concludes with a future outlook of the field of biocompatibility within the context of hydrogel-based scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi-scale Multi-mechanism Toughening of Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuanhe

    Hydrogels are widely used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, vehicles for drug delivery, actuators for optics and fluidics, and model extracellular matrices for biological studies. The scope of hydrogel applications, however, is often severely limited by their mechanical properties. Inspired by the mechanics and hierarchical structures of tough biological tissues, we propose that a general principle for the design of tough hydrogels is to implement two mechanisms for dissipating mechanical energy and maintaining high elasticity in hydrogels. A particularly promising strategy for the design is to integrate multiple pairs of mechanisms across multiple length scales into a hydrogel. We develop a multiscale theoretical framework to quantitatively guide the design of tough hydrogels. On the network level, we have developed micro-physical models to characterize the evolution of polymer networks under deformation. On the continuum level, we have implemented constitutive laws formulated from the network-level models into a coupled cohesive-zone and Mullins-effect model to quantitatively predict crack propagation and fracture toughness of hydrogels. Guided by the design principle and quantitative model, we will demonstrate a set of new hydrogels, based on diverse types of polymers, yet can achieve extremely high toughness superior to their natural counterparts such as cartilages. The work was supported by NSF(No. CMMI- 1253495) and ONR (No. N00014-14-1-0528).

  3. Radiation-chemical preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflot, Anastasia V.; Kitaeva, Natalia K.; Duflot, Vladimir R.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the usage of method of radiation-chemical synthesis to prepare cross-linked hydrogels from poly(vinyl alcohol) modified with glycidyl methacrylate. Synthesis kinetics of modified poly(vinyl alcohol) and properties of hydrogels were studied. The gel fraction, swelling, mechanical properties, and water content of the hydrogels were measured. It was found that gel fraction increases with increasing radiation dose, concentration of modified poly(vinyl alcohol), and reaches 60%. It was established by differential scanning calorimetry that a fraction of the “bound” water in hydrogels is 50–70% and independent of gel fraction content. In addition to “bound” and “free” states, water in hydrogels is also present in the intermediate state. - Highlights: • The synthesis and the properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels were studied. • PVA was modified by glycidyl methacrylate before gamma cross-linking. • The modification results in decreasing of PVA cross-linking dose by 3 orders lower. • The gel fraction and water content of the hydrogels were measured. • A fraction of the “bound” water in hydrogels is independent of gel fraction content

  4. Glycolic Acid Physical Properties, Impurities, And Radiation Effects Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-01-01

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H 2 and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O 2 when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. A

  5. Computational Study of pH-sensitive Hydrogel-based Microfluidic Flow Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Birgersson, Erik; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2011-01-01

    This computational study investigates the sensing and actuating behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel-based microfluidic flow controller. This hydrogel-based flow controller has inherent advantage in its unique stimuli-sensitive properties, removing the need for an external power supply. The predicted swelling behavior the hydrogel is validated with steady-state and transient experiments. We then demonstrate how the model is implemented to study the sensing and actuating behavior of hydrogels for different microfluidic flow channel/hydrogel configurations: e.g., for flow in a T-junction with single and multiple hydrogels. In short, the results suggest that the response of the hydrogel-based flow controller is slow. Therefore, two strategies to improve the response rate of the hydrogels are proposed and demonstrated. Finally, we highlight that the model can be extended to include other stimuli-responsive hydrogels such as thermo-, electric-, and glucose-sensitive hydrogels. PMID:24956303

  6. Classification, processing and application of hydrogels: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Faheem; Othman, Muhammad Bisyrul Hafi; Javed, Fatima; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Md Akil, Hazizan

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to review the literature concerning the choice of selectivity for hydrogels based on classification, application and processing. Super porous hydrogels (SPHs) and superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) represent an innovative category of recent generation highlighted as an ideal mould system for the study of solution-dependent phenomena. Hydrogels, also termed as smart and/or hungry networks, are currently subject of considerable scientific research due to their potential in hi-tech applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, bioseparation, biosensor, agriculture, oil recovery and cosmetics fields. Smart hydrogels display a significant physiochemical change in response to small changes in the surroundings. However, such changes are reversible; therefore, the hydrogels are capable of returning to its initial state after a reaction as soon as the trigger is removed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation and characterization of bioglass/polyvinyl alcohol composite hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong; Wang Yingjun; Zheng Yudong; Chen Xiaofeng; Ren Li; Wu Gang; Huang Xiaoshan

    2007-01-01

    In order to form firm active fixation with the adjacent bone, a new kind of bioactive composite hydrogel was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and bioglass (BG) through ultrasonic dispersion, heat-high-pressure and freeze/thawed technique. A digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) was utilized to characterize the mechanical properties of the series of BG/PVA composites. Results showed that at different load pressures, the composite hydrogel displayed different displacement and deformation in the V field. Results also showed that an increase of PVA percentage (15-30 wt%) or of bioglass percentage (2-10 wt%) in composite hydrogel could lead to an increase in the elastic compression modulus. Scanning electron microscope results indicated that bioglass was uniformly dispersed in the BG/PVA composite hydrogel. The BG/PVA composite hydrogel shows a promising prospect as a new bionic cartilage implantation material

  8. Design properties of hydrogel tissue-engineering scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junmin; Marchant, Roger E

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the recent progress in the design and synthesis of hydrogels as tissue-engineering scaffolds. Hydrogels are attractive scaffolding materials owing to their highly swollen network structure, ability to encapsulate cells and bioactive molecules, and efficient mass transfer. Various polymers, including natural, synthetic and natural/synthetic hybrid polymers, have been used to make hydrogels via chemical or physical crosslinking. Recently, bioactive synthetic hydrogels have emerged as promising scaffolds because they can provide molecularly tailored biofunctions and adjustable mechanical properties, as well as an extracellular matrix-like microenvironment for cell growth and tissue formation. This article addresses various strategies that have been explored to design synthetic hydrogels with extracellular matrix-mimetic bioactive properties, such as cell adhesion, proteolytic degradation and growth factor-binding. PMID:22026626

  9. Engineering three-dimensional cell mechanical microenvironment with hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyou; Wang, Lin; Wang, Shuqi; Han, Yulong; Wu, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiancheng; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian

    2012-12-01

    Cell mechanical microenvironment (CMM) significantly affects cell behaviors such as spreading, migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, most studies on cell response to mechanical stimulation are based on two-dimensional (2D) planar substrates, which cannot mimic native three-dimensional (3D) CMM. Accumulating evidence has shown that there is a significant difference in cell behavior in 2D and 3D microenvironments. Among the materials used for engineering 3D CMM, hydrogels have gained increasing attention due to their tunable properties (e.g. chemical and mechanical properties). In this paper, we provide an overview of recent advances in engineering hydrogel-based 3D CMM. Effects of mechanical cues (e.g. hydrogel stiffness and externally induced stress/strain in hydrogels) on cell behaviors are described. A variety of approaches to load mechanical stimuli in 3D hydrogel-based constructs are also discussed.

  10. Advances in the Fabrication of Antimicrobial Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M. González-Henríquez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review describes, in an organized manner, the recent developments in the elaboration of hydrogels that possess antimicrobial activity. The fabrication of antibacterial hydrogels for biomedical applications that permits cell adhesion and proliferation still remains as an interesting challenge, in particular for tissue engineering applications. In this context, a large number of studies has been carried out in the design of hydrogels that serve as support for antimicrobial agents (nanoparticles, antibiotics, etc.. Another interesting approach is to use polymers with inherent antimicrobial activity provided by functional groups contained in their structures, such as quaternary ammonium salt or hydrogels fabricated from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs or natural polymers, such as chitosan. A summary of the different alternatives employed for this purpose is described in this review, considering their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, more recent methodologies that lead to more sophisticated hydrogels that are able to react to external stimuli are equally depicted in this review.

  11. Engineering three-dimensional cell mechanical microenvironment with hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guoyou; Wang Lin; Han Yulong; Zhang Qiancheng; Xu Feng; Lu Tianjian; Wang Shuqi; Wu Jinhui

    2012-01-01

    Cell mechanical microenvironment (CMM) significantly affects cell behaviors such as spreading, migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, most studies on cell response to mechanical stimulation are based on two-dimensional (2D) planar substrates, which cannot mimic native three-dimensional (3D) CMM. Accumulating evidence has shown that there is a significant difference in cell behavior in 2D and 3D microenvironments. Among the materials used for engineering 3D CMM, hydrogels have gained increasing attention due to their tunable properties (e.g. chemical and mechanical properties). In this paper, we provide an overview of recent advances in engineering hydrogel-based 3D CMM. Effects of mechanical cues (e.g. hydrogel stiffness and externally induced stress/strain in hydrogels) on cell behaviors are described. A variety of approaches to load mechanical stimuli in 3D hydrogel-based constructs are also discussed. (topical review)

  12. Bioprinting 3D cell-laden hydrogel microarray for screening human periodontal ligament stem cell response to extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yufei; Ji, Yuan; Huang, Guoyou; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng; Ling, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease negatively affecting up to 15% of adults worldwide. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) hold great promises for periodontal tissue regeneration, where it is necessary to find proper extracellular matrix (ECM) materials (e.g., composition, concentration). In this study, we proposed a bioprinting-based approach to generate nano-liter sized three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden hydrogel array with gradient of ECM components, through controlling the volume ratio of two hydrogels, such as gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) dimethacrylate. The resulting cell-laden array with a gradient of GelMA/PEG composition was used to screen human PDLSC response to ECM. The behavior (e.g., cell viability, spreading) of human PDLSCs in GelMA/PEG array were found to be depended on the volume ratios of GelMA/PEG, with cell viability and spreading area decreased along with increasing the ratio of PEG. The developed approach would be useful for screening cell-biomaterial interaction in 3D and promoting regeneration of functional tissue. (paper)

  13. Obtaining new composite biomaterials by means of mineralization of methacrylate hydrogels using the reaction–diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Yousof; González-Sánchez, M. Isabel; Hawkins, Karl; Rubio-Retama, Jorge; Valero, Edelmira; Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, Polina; López-Cabarcos, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction–diffusion method. The scaffold of this biomaterial was a hydrogel constituted by biocompatible polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM), which were cross-linked with N-N’-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). The cross-linking content of the hydrogels was varied from 0.25% to 15% (w/w). The gels were used as matrix where two reactants (Na 2 HPO 4 and CaCl 2 ) diffused from both ends of the gel and upon encountering produced calcium phosphate crystals that precipitated within the polymer matrix forming bands. The shape of the crystals was tuned by modifying the matrix porosity in such a way that when the polymer matrix was slightly reticulated the diffusion reaction produced round calcium phosphate microcrystals, whilst when the polymer matrix was highly reticulated the reaction yielded flat calcium phosphate crystals. Selected area electron diffraction performed on the nanocrystals that constitute the microcrystals showed that they were formed by Brushite (CaHPO 4 .2H 2 O). This new composite material could be useful in medical and dentistry applications such as bone regeneration, bone repair or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • New polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction-diffusion method.-Growing of brushite nanocrystals within a polymeric matrix. • Mineralization by reaction diffusion method controls the crystal growth within gels

  14. In vitro evaluation of a basic fibroblast growth factor-containing hydrogel toward vocal fold lamina propria scar treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erndt-Marino, Josh D; Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea C; Diaz-Rodriguez, Patricia; Kulwatno, Jonathan; Diaz-Quiroz, Juan Felipe; Thibeault, Susan; Hahn, Mariah S

    2018-04-01

    Scarring of the vocal fold lamina propria can lead to debilitating voice disorders that can significantly impair quality of life. The reduced pliability of the scar tissue-which diminishes proper vocal fold vibratory efficiency-results in part from abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by vocal fold fibroblasts (VFF) that have taken on a fibrotic phenotype. To address this issue, bioactive materials containing cytokines and/or growth factors may provide a platform to transition fibrotic VFF within the scarred tissue toward an anti-fibrotic phenotype, thereby improving the quality of ECM within the scar tissue. However, for such an approach to be most effective, the acute host response resulting from biomaterial insertion/injection likely also needs to be considered. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory capacity of an injectable hydrogel containing tethered basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the dual context of scar and biomaterial-induced acute inflammation. An in vitro co-culture system was utilized containing both activated, fibrotic VFF and activated, pro-inflammatory macrophages (MΦ) within a 3D poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel containing tethered bFGF. Following 72 h of culture, alterations in VFF and macrophage phenotype were evaluated relative to mono-culture and co-culture controls. In our co-culture system, bFGF reduced the production of fibrotic markers collagen type I, α smooth muscle actin, and biglycan by activated VFF and promoted wound-healing/anti-inflammatory marker expression in activated MΦ. Cumulatively, these data indicate that bFGF-containing hydrogels warrant further investigation for the treatment of vocal fold lamina propria scar. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1258-1267, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hydrogels preserve native phenotypes of valvular fibroblasts through an elasticity-regulated PI3K/AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Tibbitt, Mark W; Langer, Stephen J; Leinwand, Leslie A; Anseth, Kristi S

    2013-11-26

    Matrix elasticity regulates proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of many cell types across various tissues. In particular, stiffened matrix in fibrotic lesions has been shown to promote pathogenic myofibroblast activation. To better understand the underlying pathways by which fibroblasts mechano-sense matrix elasticity, we cultured primary valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from porcine aortic valves on poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels with physiologically relevant and tunable elasticities. We show that soft hydrogels preserve the quiescent fibroblast phenotype of VICs much better than stiff plastic plates. We demonstrate that the PI3K/AKT pathway is significantly up-regulated when VICs are cultured on stiff gels or tissue culture polystyrene compared with freshly isolated VICs. In contrast, myofibroblasts de-activate and pAKT/AKT decreases as early as 2 h after reducing the substrate modulus. When PI3K or AKT is inhibited on stiff substrates, myofibroblast activation is blocked. When constitutively active PI3K is overexpressed, the myofibroblast phenotype is promoted even on soft substrates. These data suggest that valvular fibroblasts are sensing the changes in matrix elasticity through the PI3K/AKT pathway. This mechanism may be used by other mechano-sensitive cells in response to substrate modulus, and this pathway may be a worthwhile target for treating matrix stiffness-associated diseases. Furthermore, hydrogels can be designed to recapitulate important mechanical cues in native tissues to preserve aspects of the native phenotype of primary cells for understanding basic cellular responses to biophysical and biochemical signals, and for tissue-engineering applications.

  16. Free radical scavenging injectable hydrogels for regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeri, Remya; Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2017-02-01

    Pathological free radicals generated from inflamed and infarcted cardiac tissues interferes natural tissue repair mechanisms. Hypoxic microenvironment at the injured zone of non-regenerating cardiac tissues hinders the therapeutic attempts including cell therapy. Here we report an injectable, cytocompatible, free radical scavenging synthetic hydrogel formulation for regenerative therapy. New hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared with D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer (PEAX) and PEGDiacrylate. PEAX-P hydrogel swells 4.9 times the initial weight and retains 100.07kPa Young modulus at equilibrium swelling, which is suitable for cardiac applications. PEAX-P hydrogel retains elastic nature even at 60% compressive strain, which is favorable to fit with the dynamic and elastic natural tissue counterparts. PEAX-P hydrogel scavenges 51% DPPH radical, 40% hydroxyl radicals 41% nitrate radicals with 31% reducing power. The presence of hydrogel protects 62% cardiomyoblast cells treated with stress inducing media at LD 50 concentration. The free hydroxyl groups in sugar alcohols of the comacromer influence the free radical scavenging. Comparatively, PEAX-P hydrogel based on xylitol evinces slightly lower scavenging characteristics than with previously reported PEAM-P hydrogel containing mannitol having more hydroxyl groups. The possible free radical scavenging mechanism of the present hydrogel relies on the free π electrons associated with uncrosslinked fumarate bonds, hydrogen atoms associated with sugar alcohols/PEG and radical dilution by free water in the matrix. Briefly, the present PEAX-P hydrogel is a potential injectable system for combined antioxidant and regenerative therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 2D SnO2 Nanosheets: Synthesis, Characterization, Structures, and Excellent Sensing Performance to Ethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Wan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional (2DSnO2 nanosheets were synthesized by a substrate-free hydrothermal route using sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide in a mixed solvent of absolute ethanol and deionized water at a lower temperature of 130 °C. The characterization results of the morphology, microstructure, and surface properties of the as-prepared products demonstrated that SnO2 nanosheets with a tetragonal rutile structure, were composed of oriented SnO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 6–12 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FETEM results demonstrated that the dominant exposed surface of the SnO2 nanoparticles was (101, but not (110. The growth and formation was supposed to follow the oriented attachment mechanism. The SnO2 nanosheets exhibited an excellent sensing response toward ethylene glycol at a lower optimal operating voltage of 3.4 V. The response to 400 ppm ethylene glycol reaches 395 at 3.4 V. Even under the low concentration of 5, 10, and 20 ppm, the sensor exhibited a high response of 6.9, 7.8, and 12.0 to ethylene glycol, respectively. The response of the SnO2 nanosheets exhibited a linear dependence on the ethylene glycol concentration from 5 to 1000 ppm. The excellent sensing performance was attributed to the present SnO2 nanoparticles with small size close to the Debye length, the larger specific surface, the high-energy exposed facets of the (101 surface, and the synergistic effects of the SnO2 nanoparticles of the nanosheets.

  18. Magnetic fluids stabilized by polypropylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A.V., E-mail: lav@icmm.r [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 1, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation); Lysenko, S.N. [Institute of Technical Chemistry, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 3, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    A series of samples of magnetic fluids stabilized with low-molecular weight polypropylene glycol (PPG) of different molecular masses were synthesized. The use of PPG allowed the maximum extension of the carrier fluid range to include ethyl- and butyl-acetate, ethanol, butanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, kerosene and PPG itself. Magnetic and rheological properties of the samples were investigated. Based on the results of investigation it has been concluded that magnetic nanoparticles are covered by a monolayer of surfactant molecules. At low temperatures the propanol-based sample preserves fluidity up to -115 {sup o}C. Measurement of critical temperatures of other base fluids showed that alcohols are the best carrier medium. Coagulation stability of the ethanol-based ferrocolloid with respect to water and kerosene was explored. It has been found that kerosene, whose fraction by weight exceeds 22.5%, does not mix with the colloid. This effect can be used to produce magneto-controllable extractors of ethyl alcohol. Under the action of water the colloid coagulates, which allows one to substitute the carrier fluid and to separate the colloid into fractions. - Research highlights: PPG stabilizes the magnetic particles in the polar and non-polar media. The minimum operating temperature reaches -115 {sup o}C. Alcohols are the best environment for PPG-stabilized particles. PPG magnetic fluids can be used as magnetic extractors of alcohol. PPG MF can be divided into fractions by partial coagulation with water.

  19. Selected polyethylene glycols as DOP substitutes. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    The recommendation is made that Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators producing a polydisperse distribution for testing the integrity of filters and for testing respirator fit. Further, the recommendation is made that pentaethylene glycol (PTAEG) and possibly hexaethylene glycol be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators thermally producing monodisperse aerosol for quality acceptance tests according tu US federal specifications and standards. The toxicology data base available on the polyethylene glycol family of chemical compounds is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that the probability of approval and acceptance as a non-hazardous substance in the filter and filter media test role is high. Data and analysis supporting PTAEG performance equivalent to DOP in the filter and filter media test role are given or referenced. Cost and availability of the substitute materials is discussed. Conclusions based on the present data and information are given and recommendations for further work are made

  20. The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mahlos

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Key words: Acetone, tannin, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). ... hydrolysable tannins may occur in the same plant. ..... Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 38: 421-464. Cornell. (2000). Tannins: Chemical analysis.